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Final report on an inventory of flowing artesian wells in Florida,leading to the enforcement of sections 373.021-373.061...
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 Material Information
Title: Final report on an inventory of flowing artesian wells in Florida,leading to the enforcement of sections 373.021-373.061 Florida statutes, 1957 ( FGS: Information circular 21 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 21 )
Physical Description: 30 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hendry, Charles W
Lavender, James
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Artesian wells -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles W. Hendry, Jr. and James A. Lavender.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692718
oclc - 01721140
notis - AJA4792
System ID: UF00001081:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
    Poor image
        Page iv
    Chapter 28253, 1953 laws of Florida Senate Bill no. 57, 1953
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Table of Contents
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Final report on an inventory of flowing artesian wells in Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Subsurface water
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 4
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Major water problems
        Page 11
    Misuse of ground water
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Current program
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 17
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Selected bibliiography
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 27
        Page 30
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text







STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21





FINAL REPORT
ON AN INVENTORY OF
FLOWING ARTESIAN WELLS IN FLORIDA





LEADING TO THE ENFORCEMENT OF
SECTIONS 373. 021-373. 061
FLORIDA STATUTES
1957




By
Charles W. Hendry, Jr.
and
James A. Lavender


Tallahassee, Florida
1959


















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee
April 1, 1959


Mr. Ernest Mitts, Director
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mr. Mitts:

I respectfully transmit the final report on an inventory
leading to the enforcement of Sections 373.021-373.061,
Florida Statutes, 1957, prepared by Charles W. Hendry, Jr.
and James A. Lavender of the Water Investigations, Florida
Geological Survey.

This report published as Information Circular No. 21,
together with the interim report published in 1957 as Infor-
mation Circular No. 10, Florida Geological Survey, illus-
trates as completely as possible the situation that now exists
among the freely flowing wells of the State.

Submitted,


Robert O. Vernon, Director








































An abandoned 8-inch well flowing in excess of
800 gallons per minute. This well is located in
section 32, T. 7 S., R. 30 E., St. Johns County,
Florida.















iv






CHAPTER 28253, 1953 LAWS OF FLORIDA
SENATE BILL NO. 57, 1953

AN ACT to protect and control the Artesian Waters of the
State; providing duties of certain State and county officers
in regard thereto; and providing a penalty for the viola-
tion of this Act.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:

Section 1. Everyperson, stockcompany, association or
corporation, county or municipality, owning or controlling
the real estate upon which is located a flowing artesian well
in this state, shall, within ninety (90) days after the passage
of this act, provide each such well with a valve capable of
controlling the discharge from such well, and shall keep such
valve so adjusted that only such supply of water shall be avail-
able as is necessary for ordinary use by the owner, tenant,
occupant or person in control of said land for personal use
and in conducting his business.

Section 2. The owner, tenant, occupant or person in
control of an artesian well who shall allow the same to flow
continuously without a valve, or mechanical device for check-
ing or controlling the flow, or shallpermit the water to flow
unnecessarily, or shall pump a well unnecessarily, or shall
permit the water from such well to go to waste, shall be
guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to the penalties provided
by law.

Section 3. For the purposes of this act, an artesian well
is defined as anartifical hole in the ground fromwhich water
supplies may be obtained and which penetrates any water
bearing rock, the water in which is raised to the surface by
natural flow, or which rises to an elevation above the top of
the water bearing bed. Artesian wells are defined further to
include all holes, drilledas a source of water, that penetrate
any water bearing beds that are a part of the artesian water
system of Florida, as determined by representatives of the
Florida Geological Survey.

Section 4. Waste is defined for the purposes of this act
to be the causing, suffering, or permitting any water flowing







from, or being pumped from an artesian well to run into any
river, creek, or other natural watercourse or channel, or
into anybay or pond (unless used thereafter for the beneficial
purposes of irrigation of land, mining or other industrial
purposes of domestic use), or into any street, road or high-
way, or upon the land of any person, or upon the public lands
of the United States, or of the State of Florida, unless it be
used thereon for the beneficial purposes of the irrigation
thereof, industrial purposes, domestic use, or the propaga-
tion of fish. The use of any water flowing from an artesian
well for the irrigation of land shall be restrictedto a minimum
by the use of proper structural devices in the irrigation
system.

Section 5. The state geologist, assistant geologists, or
any authorized representative of the Florida Geological Sur-
vey, the sheriff or any deputy sheriff, shall have access to
all wells in the state with the consent of the owner.

Should any well be not provided with a valve as required
in section one (1) of this act, or should any well be allowed
to flow in violation of section two (2) of this act, then and in
such event, the state geologist, assistant geologists, or any
authorized representative of the Florida Geological Survey,
or the sheriff or any deputy sheriff shall, upon being informed
of such fact, give notice to the owner to correct such defect,
and if the same be not corrected within ten (10) days there-
after, shall have authority to install the necessary valve or
cap upon such well and control the flow therefrom in accord
with the provisions of section one (1) and two (2) of this act.
The cost of such installation of such valve and the control of
the flow from such wells if made by such officials shall be at
the expense of the owner, and for the payment thereof, the
agency or party incurring the expense shall have a lien upon
the lands upon which such well is located. Said lien may be
duly recorded in the public records in counties wherein such
lands are located and may be enforced by foreclosure in the
circuit courts of the circuit wherein such lands are located.
In such foreclosure proceedings, the court shall allow a
reasonable attorney's fee to the plaintiff for the preparation
and recording of such lien and the legal proceedings incident
to the foreclosure of same. Such liens shall be assignable







both before and after recording, and the assignee thereof
shall have all authority of foreclosure which the assignor
thereof originally had.

Section 6. Nothing in this act shall be construed to apply
to an artesian well feeding a lake already in existence prior
to the passage of this act, which lake is used or intended to
be used for public bathing and/or the propogation of fish,
where the continuous flow of water is necessary to maintain
its purity for bathing and the water level of said lake for fish.

Section 7. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with
this act are hereby repealed.

Section 8. This act shall take effect immediately upon
becoming a law.

Became a law without the Governor's approval.

Filed in Office Secretary of State June 15, 1953.






TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction .................. ...................... 1
Subsurface water ... ............................... 4
Classification.................................. 4
Occurrence........... ............................ 5
Floridan aquifer ........................... 6
Functions of the Floridan aquifer ........ 8
Piezometric surface .......... ................. 8
Recharge and discharge ...................... 9
Major water problems ............................. 11
Misuse of ground water ........................... 12
Declining pressures ........................... 13
Wasteful flow ................................. 13
Contam nation ................................ 14
Current program .................................... 17
Inventory of wells ................. ........... 17
Presentation of data ........................... 19
Conclusions and recommendations................... 24
Selected bibliography............................. 27


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure
1 Ground water classification................... 5
2 Map showing distribution of freshwater aquifers 6
3 Map showing approximate areal extent of Flor-
idan aquifer ................................ 7
4 Map showing piezometric surface of the Flor-
idan aquifer ................................ 10
5 Approximate area of artesian flow ............ 11
b Pictures of two abandoned wells, which illustrate
where no precautionary measures were taken to
stop the flow ................. .............. 15
7 Sequence of three pictures that show a flowing
well and a control structure which are used to
create an artificial water table ............... 16
8 Sequence of three pictures depicting examples
of continuous flow as tabulated in column 4,
table 1................................. 20 and 21
9 Picture of a wellthat is so deteriorated it appears
to be a spring ............................... 23


viii







1 Tabulation of total number of wells, their flow,
chloride content, and well completion data..... 28
2 Tabulation of total number of continuously flow-
ing wells, chloride content and well completion
data ................ .................... 29
3 Principal uses of wells ........................ 30














FINAL REPORT ON AN INVENTORY OF


FLOWING ARTESIAN WELLS IN FLORIDA

By
Charles W. Hendry, Jr.
and
James A. Lavender


INTRODUCTION

An adequate supply of potable water serves as one of the
foremost requirements in our expanding society today. This
vital resource ranks high among the many that make Florida
attractive to the nation's growing industry and population.
Our State, as a whole, isblessedwith anabundance of potable
ground water, and atthe present time over four-fifths of the
water used in Florida is derived from subsurface sources.
In some specific areas of the State there are problems in
maintaining an adequate ground-water supply. The problem
of salt-water intrusion is one which may be found in some
coastal areas where large volumes of water must be withdrawn
frompermeableformations in contact with sea water. Also,
the problems of declining aretesian pressure, water waste
and aquifer contamination are becoming more prominent
because of their widespread occurrence. A major contribu-
ting cause of these problems is the misuse and insufficient
care of artesian wells. Not only has population and industrial
growth in these problem areas been retarded, but there have
been ill effects on valuable property in the State.

Water conservationists have long sought legislative
measures and controls that would helpto conserve the water
resources of Florida. Advocating sound water management
has always been part of the program of the Florida Geological
Survey. The earliest reports of the Survey point out the
importance of adequate water supplies to the growth of Florida





Z FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

andthe necessity for proper conservation practices. Follow-
ing the wet years of 1948 and 1949 Florida experienced a
period of severe drought. During this dry period many mis-
uses of the artesian waters of the State stood out as glaring
examples of water waste. This waste, along with the incon-
venience caused by low streams and dry lakes, and the
increased expenditure to secure adequate water supplies
encouraged water conservationists to seek and gainfrom the
1953 Legislature regulatory measures with which to curtail
the misuse and insufficient care of artesian wells in Florida.

This legislation required that valves be installed (wild
flowing wells to be capped) on all flowing wells and that the
artesian water not be wasted. Since the Florida Geological
Survey is empowered to designate which of the water-bearing
beds in Florida are a part of the artesian system of the State,
the Survey was made the regulating agency of this 1953 statute
pertaining to artesian wells. Acting uponthis mandate of the
Legislature (Chapter 370.051-370.055, Florida Statutes,
1953), the Florida Geological Survey initiated a program
designed to help protect and control the artesian water of
Florida. Not until 1955 (Ch. 29966, F. S. 1955), however,
did the legislature provide an appropriation with which to
fully implement the program.

A management or conservation program would be rela-
tively ineffective if based on the premise that not using the
resource was the best approach to conservation. Fortunately,
Florida's legislation dealing with water conservationis set
up not to deny consumer demands, but to correct wasteful
practices in water consumption. Large sums of money and
much effort have been expended in these endeavors with vary-
ing degrees of success. Chapter 373. 021-373. 061, Florida
Statutes, 1957, provides for the final disposition of all arte-
sian wells coming under the jurisdiction of this law. No final
solution of any problem dealing with the water resources of
the State can be had without first gathering data on the various
aspects concerning the water supply. These pertinent facts
must be observed, recorded and correlated, since these oper-
ations constitute the first step upon which the remainder of
the program depends.

During the planning stages of the current program it was





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


estimated that the time required to complete an inventory of
all artesian wells in the State would far exceed the interim,
1955-57. However, it did seem advisable to undertake an
inventory, primarily, of wildly flowing wells as the first
phase of the program. It was preferredthat a well-inventory
programbe initiated that wouldprovide enough datato deter-
mine the extent of the problem by the time the 1957 Legisla-
ture convened. In outlining a well-inventory programto meet
this requirement, the following conditions were considered:
(1) that the data collected would, very likely, be used in the
enforcement of Chapter 370.051-370.055, Florida Statutes,
1953; (2)that the data collected wouldbe included in the report
to be furnished the Legislature; and (3) that the program
should encompass as much of the State as possible and be
representative, if not comprehensive.

Progress report on the firstphase of the program was
submitted to the 1957 Legislature as Florida Geological Sur-
vey Information Circular No. 10. Included in that report was
a description of the classification and occurrence of subsur-
face water. The supply of Information Circular No. 10 is
exhausted and is no longer available for reissue to the 1959
-Legislature; therefore, the discussion on the occurrence of
subsurface water is repeatedherein. There was also included
in Information Circular No. 10 a table listing detailed infor-
mation on967 inventoried wells. These data and those collected
since the publication of the 1957 interim report are apart of
the permanent files of the Florida Geological Survey. The
inventory program to date has information on over 4,000
wells, covering 45 counties. Since it would be impractical
to prepare a table illustrating detailed information on each
well as was done in the first report, there are included in this
report tables that reveal the information statistically.

It is presumptuous to assume that any single phase of
data collecting could produce a comprehensive evaluation of
the ground-water resources. These basic data that are essen-
tialfor an understanding of our ground-water resources have
been collected by numerous agencies. Some of it has been
collected sporadically, some collected in very limited areas,
and some by special-interest groups who do not make it avail-
able for public use. In that this report deals only with a
single facet of our water-problem investigations, the reader's





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


attention is directed to the conclusions and, specifically, the
recommendations of this report.


SUBSURFACE WATER

Florida's growth has left its mark on our ground water
in lowered well-water levels and increased contamination.
Perhaps such is the cost of expansion, but reports about
declining water levels, recklessness in withdrawal, and con-
tamination of water are to no availunless they stimulate the
creation of control authority, both administrative and tech-
nical, which will carry out the task of sound ground-water
management. The following description of the classification
and occurrence of subsurface water is inserted as an aid to
those who have the responsibility of evaluating our water-
resource investigations and of providing legislation which
would contribute to the proper use and development of our
subsurface supplies.


Classification

Water occurs underground in two zones: the zone of
aeration and the zone of saturation. These two zones are
separated by the water-table whichmaybe defined as plane
above which the voids in the rock contain both water and air
(zone of aeration) and below which all the voids are fully
filled with water (zone of saturation) (fig. 1). The water
table conforms rather generally with the configuration of the
land surface, normally intersecting the surface of ponds,
lakes and streams.

Subsurface water is derived from rainfall, butnot all of
the water that falls on the earth as precipitation becomes
subsurface water. Some of it remains as surface water or
is returned to the atmosphere as evaporation. That which
seeps into the subsurface is partially utilized bythe roots of
shrubs and trees, and the remainder percolates downward to
the zone of saturation. Only the subsurface water that reaches
this zone of saturation is available to supply wells and springs.

All the water belowthe ground surface is called subsur-
face water, but only that which is in the zone of saturation is





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


Figure 1. Ground water classification.


referred to as ground water. A bed of sediment that is per-
meable enough to allow movement of this ground water to
supply wells and springs is called an aquifer.

Ground water may occur as nonartesian (water table)
water or as artesian water. Where water in an aquifer freely
rises andfalls, responding to rainfall, evaporation, transpi-
ration, and withdrawal by supply wells, it is saidtobe under
water-table conditions. Water thathas moved into a perme-
able bed that lies beneath a relatively impervious bed, called
an aquiclude, is confined and its surface is not free to rise
and fall. This water is under artesian conditions.



Occurrence

Ground water in Florida occurs under both water-table
and artesian conditions. The largest portion of that known
as the artesian water occurs in an extensive limestone system,





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


called the Floridan aquifer. Where the Floridan aquifer is
absent (santa Rosa and Escambia counties) or where this
aquifer yields water that is too highly mineralized for most
uses (along the east coast and the peninsula below Lake Okee-
chobee), there are several shallow formations of relatively
small areal extent that provide ground water for use under
water-table or localized artesian conditions (fig. 2).


Floridan Aquifer

The Floridan aquifer serves as our principal source of
ground water and it underlies the southernparts of Georgia,
South Carolina, and Alabama, and all of Florida except for
the westernmost part of the Panhandle (fig. 3). The limestone
strata that comprise this aquifer underlie these states up to
depths of several thousand feet. At some places, the top of
this aquifer is exposed but generally it is covered by several
hundred feet of an impervious cover of sands, sandstones
dense limestones and clays which confine the artesian water.


Figure 2. Map sho-wing distribution of fresh-water aquifers.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


attention is directed to the conclusions and, specifically, the
recommendations of this report.


SUBSURFACE WATER

Florida's growth has left its mark on our ground water
in lowered well-water levels and increased contamination.
Perhaps such is the cost of expansion, but reports about
declining water levels, recklessness in withdrawal, and con-
tamination of water are to no availunless they stimulate the
creation of control authority, both administrative and tech-
nical, which will carry out the task of sound ground-water
management. The following description of the classification
and occurrence of subsurface water is inserted as an aid to
those who have the responsibility of evaluating our water-
resource investigations and of providing legislation which
would contribute to the proper use and development of our
subsurface supplies.


Classification

Water occurs underground in two zones: the zone of
aeration and the zone of saturation. These two zones are
separated by the water-table whichmaybe defined as plane
above which the voids in the rock contain both water and air
(zone of aeration) and below which all the voids are fully
filled with water (zone of saturation) (fig. 1). The water
table conforms rather generally with the configuration of the
land surface, normally intersecting the surface of ponds,
lakes and streams.

Subsurface water is derived from rainfall, butnot all of
the water that falls on the earth as precipitation becomes
subsurface water. Some of it remains as surface water or
is returned to the atmosphere as evaporation. That which
seeps into the subsurface is partially utilized bythe roots of
shrubs and trees, and the remainder percolates downward to
the zone of saturation. Only the subsurface water that reaches
this zone of saturation is available to supply wells and springs.

All the water belowthe ground surface is called subsur-
face water, but only that which is in the zone of saturation is






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


SHADED PORTION REPRESENTS
APPROXIMATE EXTENT OF
FLORIDAN AQUIFER.



25 0 50 IO0 MILES


Figure 3. Map showing approximate areal extent of Floridan
aquifer.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This aquifer serves as the source of most ofthe springs
in Florida, some of the largest of which are Silver Springs,
Rainbow Springs, and Weekiwachee Spring. Also, the Flor-
idan aquifer is the source of supply to many thousands of wells
in the State. Records on part of these wells are filed with
the Florida Geological Survey in Tallahassee, or the Ground
Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, in Tallahassee and
Miami. Current ground-water investigations are increasing
the number of inventoried wells every day.

Even though the Floridan aquifer underlies most of
Florida, it does not yield fresh water throughout its areal
and vertical extents. Numerous deep wells drilled into the
aquifer throughout the State, many in the exploration for oil
and gas, have penetrated salty water at depth. At some
localitites along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and over the
southern portion of the State only brackish water is obtain-
able. In the area that remains, fresh potable ground water,
even though underlain by salty water, is endangered only in
that unwise development may cause the salty water to move
upward in the aquifer and contaminate the fresh water.

Functions of the Floridan Aquifer: This extensive aquifer
serves the water-supply need in a twofold capacity. It acts
as a giant reservoir, a place for storing the excessive rainfall
during the wet season, and therefore fulfilling the need dur-
ing periods of little or no rainfall. Also, because it is a
porous, permeable limestone system, it serves as a system
of pipelines transmitting water from the recharge areas to
areas far removed throughout its extent, supplying water
merely by the drilling of a well.


Piezometric Surface

Water in an artesian aquifer is confinedunder pressure.
This pressure is caused by the weight of water at higher levels
in the same zone of saturation and from the weight of overlying
beds. The movement of ground water is down the hydraulic
gradient. This hydraulic gradient or change in pressure is
normally the result of friction losses withinthe beds through
which the water travels and of the release of pressures in
discharge areas.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


The water level in a well that penetrates the artesian
aquifer is an expression of the pressure head in the aquifer
at that time andplace. Through the measurement of the depth
from the ground surface to the water levels in a number of
wells that penetrate the aquifer, and by the conversion of
these water depths to heights above sea level, a contour map
may be prepared to represent the imaginary pressure sur-
face (piezometric surface)of this artesian water body. This
type ofmapis called apiezometric map(fig. 4), andit serves
as abasic andnecessarytoolinunderstandingthe occurrence
and behavior of water in an artesian aquifer.

By superimposing a mapofthe piezometric surface on a
contour (topographic) map of the land surface, we see that in
more than one-third of Florida the piezometric surface is
higher than the land surface. Wells drilled into the artesian
aquifer in this area will yield flowing water (fig. 5), except
locally where heavy drafts have reduced the piezometric sur-
face below land surface.


Recharge and Discharge

Recharge or replenishment of water to the aquifer occurs
in those areas where the piezometric surface lies below the
ground surface. This would imply that the aquifer is being
recharged (replenished with water) over more than two-thirds
of the State. Even though the aquifer may be recharged
throughout this area, the amount of local recharge as com-
paredto the discharge permits certain areastobe designated
essentially as discharge or recharge areas.

The smooth lines (contours) drawn through the points of
equal pressure onthe piezometric surface graphically illus-
trate the highs and lows in this surface (fig. 4). The highs
represent those areas in which water is being added to the
aquifer in excess ofthe withdrawal by supply wells or dis-
charge through springs. The areas representedbythe valleys
and saddles in this surface are essentially discharge areas;
that is, the sum total of the water removed from the aquifer
in these areas exceeds the total of the water added to the
aquifer. This removal of water results in a release or low-
ering of the pressure head and shows up as lower pressure
areas on the piezometric surface.













OI-



.T IIC SUR AF A C

0 0
p E HEIGHT OF
WATER SURFACES IN CASED WELLS \'
IN FLORIDA a '

Elevation above mean sea level of the water sur- / c
faces in tightly cased wells piercing the Floridan
aquifer.

Data compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey in
cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey
and the Georgia Division of Mines, Mining and
Geology.

Figure 4. Map showing piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


A map of the piezometric surface enables the detection
of the direction of movement of ground water since this move-
ment is normal to the contours. Water in the subsurface
moves from the higher pressure areas to the lower pressure
areas the same as surface water moves fromthe higher ele-
vations (hills) to the lower elevations (basins).



MAJOR WATER PROBLEMS

Public interest in the ground water of Florida has in-
creased greatly in recent years because of the important part


APPROXIMATE AREA OF
ARTESIAN FLOW


FLORIDA -
gu e In Mila of a


Figure 5. Approximate area of artesian flow.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


A map of the piezometric surface enables the detection
of the direction of movement of ground water since this move-
ment is normal to the contours. Water in the subsurface
moves from the higher pressure areas to the lower pressure
areas the same as surface water moves fromthe higher ele-
vations (hills) to the lower elevations (basins).



MAJOR WATER PROBLEMS

Public interest in the ground water of Florida has in-
creased greatly in recent years because of the important part


APPROXIMATE AREA OF
ARTESIAN FLOW


FLORIDA -
gu e In Mila of a


Figure 5. Approximate area of artesian flow.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


water is playing in the nation's expanding industrial growth
and also because of the problems that have results from unwise
ground-water development in our State. The importance of
a water problem is based primarily on its detriment to the
largest number of people. This report on the investigation
of flowing wells in Florida is not intendedto include a compre-
hensive analysis of water problems, but there is a need to
restate what constitutes the major water problems of Florida
and how they affected the thinking and planning that led to the
authorization of this inventory.

In reviewing the problems that plague our ground-water
resource it became obvious thatthe need for the present in-
vestigation stemmed not from a single water problem but
from the several that embrace our artesian water supply.
Two water-problem inventories have been conducted in
Florida since the 1953 Legislature passed an act (Chapter
370.051, Florida Statutes, 1953) with state-wide coverage
adding to the protection and control of artesian waters. The
first of these inventories, requested by the Florida Associa-
tion of Soil Conservation District Supervisors in 1954, was
conducted only in soil conservation districts. The second of
these inventories was conducted in 1956 by the Florida Water
Resources Study Commission and covered the entire State.
The results of both inventories were tabulated by this Study
Commission in their report to the 1957 Legislature. These
inventories provided information which was used to pinpoint
with some degree of accuracy the major problems of Florida.

The above mentioned water -problem inventories readily
substantiate that ground-water problems of one locality are
rarely unprecedented. Although no two ground-water condi-
tions are exactly alike, widely diverse localities have exper-
ienced similar problems and in some cases have solvedthese
problems. Of the three most reported water problems per-
taining to wells that were recorded in the Study Commission's
report, wasteful flow was reported in 29 counties, reduction
of flow in 28, and salt-water intrusion in 20.


MISUSE OF GROUND WATER

A natural resource as readily and economically acces-
sible as Florida's ground water, unfortunately is being waste-
fully exploited. This exploitation has manifested itself in





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


declining artesian pressures, in water waste, and in aquifer
contamination.


Declining Pressures

The water levels in artesian wells fluctuate continuously.
There are many factors causing these changes, but the very
large fluctuations caused by rainfall (recharge) and pumping
(unnatural discharge) are the most important. The drainage
of lowlands and swamps that are suitable for cultivation has
contributed substantially to this problem in that it has removed
much water that was available for recharge to the aquifer.
Heavy withdrawal of water from the aquifer has in specific
areas of our State caused a steady decline inthe piezometric
surface. When a well is pumped or allowedto flow, the water
level (or pressure head in the case of flowing wells) falls in
and around the well an amount proportionally to the rate of
discharge. In most cases this decline in level or pressure
has not been injurious to the aquifer. The immediate problem
in areas of lowered artesian pressure is the increased cost
of lifting the water a greater distance to the surface. In those
areas that have flowing wells a decrease in the pressure head
results in a decrease of yield.

The increase or decrease in the amount of water in the
aquifer determines the extent to which salty water will
encroach or intrude upon fresh water. The density of fresh
water being less than that of salt water enables the fresh
water to displace the salt water and float as a lens or bubble
on the depressed surface of the deeper salty water in the aqui-
fer, much the same way an iceberg floats in the sea. An
excessive draft of fresh water ultimately lessens its weight
(pressure) to the extent that the displaced salty water is
enabled to move into the fresh water domain. In many areas
along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts salt water has encroach-
ed or intruded into the fresh-water domain and rendered an
otherwise adequate aquifer useless for many or all human
needs.


Wasteful Flow

In this report water waste applies onlyto water expended
by wildly flowing wells and negligent irrigation practices.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Wells drilled in the principal artesian aquifer over about one-
third of the State will yield flowing water. Since the time of
the earliest recorded flowing well, in 1885, there have been
thousands of wells drilled inthese areas of flow. The failure
of many citizens to accept the responsibility of proper well use
and maintenance allows much water to be consumed without
benefiting man. Some wells are allowed to flow continuously
with only a very small part of the water gainfully used. Many
wells have been abandoned with little or no precautionary
measures taken to stop their flow (fig. 6).

There also exists in Florida irrigation practices that,
when poorly managed, are undesirable from the standpoint
of conservation. In the southwestern part of the State where
an adequate supply of water of good quality from artesian
wells is available throughout the growing season subirrigation
is practical. This consists of applyingthe water beneath the
ground surface rather than upon it, usually by creating and
maintaining an artificial water table at some predetermined
depth. An artificial water table is built up over the existing
water table to a height that willprovide adequate moisture in
the rcot zone through capillary action. The water is distrib-
uted through a system of main and lateral ditches which are
provided with check structures equipped withflashboards to
control the water level (fig. 7). Also, these ditches are used
for drainage during the rainy season. Poor management is
apparent when the desired water level is obtained and the
excess water is allowed to flow over the dams and drain away,
nonbeneficially used. During the field investigation of this
project, it was observed that some of the supply wells for
the above mentioned irrigation practices were left flowing
even during the nongrowing season.


Contamination

During the geologic past sea level has stood muchhigher
than it is today. One factor controlling the level of the sea is
the size of the polar ice caps. When these ice caps were
smaller than they are today the water released by melting
was sufficient to raise the sea above its present level and
inundate large portions of Florida. During these former
invasions of the sea salty water permeated the limestone





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


6-B


Figure 6. Pictures of two abandoned wells which illustrate
where no precautionary measures were taken to
stop the flow. Well in picture A is in Osceola
County, Florida. Wellinpicture B is inSt. Johns
County, Florida.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Sequence of three pictures that show a flowing
well and a control structure which are used to
create an artificial water table. This property
is owned by the Hudson Pulp and Paper Company,
Putnam County, Florida.


Figure 7.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


formations and saline residues were left inthe water-bearing
formations as the sea retreated fromthe surface of the land.
The fresh water derived from rainfall has entered the aquifer,
diluting and flushing out the salty water. Even though this
process has been going on for approximately 11,000 years,
the process of flushing is still incomplete today, leaving a
large area in which water from the Floridan aquifer is too
salty for most uses. The principal sources of fresh water
in these areas are shallow aquifers of small areal extent.

In these contaminated areas early inhabitants seeking
an adequate supply of fresh water for their domestic and
irrigation needs found only brackish water in the Floridan
aquifer. Because this water was unfit for most uses, many
of these early wells were abandoned and some were leftflow-
ing. The corrosive characteristic of these saline waters has
rotted out some of the casings, permitting leakage beneath
the surface. This leakage results in contamination of the
potable. ground water of the more shallow aquifers, and,
consequently, is a waste of these waters.



CURRENT PROGRAM


Inventory of Wells

Wells are man's chief means of obtaining information
about the aquifer and its fluid content. The water obtained
through wells is derived from either a water-table aquifer
or an artesian aquifer. The hydraulic characteristics of each
should be thoroughly understood by the investigator, as this
knowledge is of inestimable value in his endeavor to collect
these data.

The process of data gathering is termed "well inventory"
and it is designed to include all the information aboutthe geol-
ogy of the area, the well, and the water in the well. This in-
formation includes: landowner, location of well, topography
of area, elevation at the well site, well construction, tem-
perature of the water, the water level, yield and use, water
sample for chemical analysis, and other pertinent remarks.

With one exception (the State Board of Health's rule





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


concerning wells drilled as a public supply) there are no
regulations that require water-well drillers to serve notice
of their intent to drill or to submit the information collected
from wells they drill to any State agency. Many drillers have
never felt the need to supply the Florida Geological Survey
with geologic samples or hydrologic information from their
wells. In the absence of these requirements, the agencies
that are interested can turn only to those water-well drillers
who voluntarily submit this information. Consequently, a
record of only a small percentage of supply wells in Florida
are available in State agency files.

Since Chapter 373. 021-373. 061, Florida Statutes, 1957,
provides for the final disposition of all artesian wells in vio-
lation of this law it was necessary to establish the existence
of any wells not used or maintained in accordance with the
law. This included the recording of their location for future
reference, and establishing who was the owner or person
controlling the real estate upon which the well is located.

A knowledge of the topography (land configuration) in the
vicinity of the welland the elevation at the well site is neces-
sary for a complete and accurate geo-hydrologic interpreta-
tion of the data collected.

It is necessary that complete information on the well
construction be recorded for future use. The field investi-
gator records the type (dug, drilled, etc. ), the total depth,
the amount and size of casing used, and supplies a diagram
of the well on the back of the well schedule. The aquifer
yielding the water flowing from each well is an important
part of the basic data to be considered in a study of the water-
resource problem. For this, the total depth of the well was
measured andused as a datumto locate the source of water.
The diameter of a well is part of the data usedin determining
the yieldandin concludingthe steps necessaryto correct any
violation of the law.

The temperature is an additional aidin determining the
aquifer from which the water is derived, and the level of the
water in the well, or pressure head inflowing wells, is use-
ful in checking the piezometric surface.

The rate of discharge, or yield, is neededfor each well





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


in the consideration of the total amount of water wasted through
inadequately controlled flowing wells. As some freely flow-
ing wells are exempt under the law, it was necessary to know
the use to which the water is assigned.

A sample of water was collected from each well inven-
toried and the chloride content in parts per million was
determined. The hydrologist uses the -chloride content as
an indicator in detecting salt-water intrusion. The quality
of fresh water is important since the State Board of Health
has placed an upper chloride limit of 250 parts per million
on water used for public supply. Also, the farmer must
know the chloride content of his irrigation water to control
the concentration of deleterious salts inhis soils or to use as
a guide in selecting a crop that would not be damaged by the
water.

In addition to the standard basic data collected at each
well the field investigator must record those miscellaneous
conditions and facts that would be pertinent in the final
analysis of the investigation.


Presentation of Data

Since the beginning of the data collecting program in
September, 1955, information on over 4,000 wells in 45
counties has been collected with over 1, 800 of these wells
being classified as wild. (For this discussion a well that is
allowed to flow continuously is considered wild. These data
have been amassedprimarily fromthe area of artesian flow
(fig. 5); however, a few wells not in the area of flow were
inventoried in order that its limits could be determined.

It would not be practical to include herein a well table
similar to the one included in the report to the 1957 Legis-
lature. With this in mind, three tables of a more concise
form have been included for the convenience of presenting
the information. Table 1 is a tabulation of the data pertain-
ing to all the wells inventoried. Column 1 is an alphabetical
listing of counties in which wells were inventoried. Column 2
lists the total number of wells inventoried in each county.
The third column lists the chloride content in parts per





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


8-A


8-B





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


Figure 8. Sequence of three pictures depicting examples of
continuous flow as tabulated in column 4, table 1.
Picture A shows a large diameter well with no
control device for shutting off the water. It is
located in Okeechobee County. Picture B shows
a well with a properly operating valve that is left
on all or most all the time. It is located in
St. Lucie County. Picture C shows a well with
an inoperative control device. It is located in
Manatee County, Florida.



million of the well water in four categories ranging from
Oto 1,000+. Under column4are wells that flow continuously.
These are further subdivided into: 4a) open casing no
control device for shutting off the water; 4b) operative control
device properly operating valves that are left open all or
most all the time. It also includes those wells that have
been equipped with a discharge pipe, usually somewhat
smaller in diameter than the well casing but with no valve
with which to shut off the water; 4c) inoperative control
device broken valves or valves so corroded that they no
longer will close completely. Also included are wells with





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


formations and saline residues were left inthe water-bearing
formations as the sea retreated fromthe surface of the land.
The fresh water derived from rainfall has entered the aquifer,
diluting and flushing out the salty water. Even though this
process has been going on for approximately 11,000 years,
the process of flushing is still incomplete today, leaving a
large area in which water from the Floridan aquifer is too
salty for most uses. The principal sources of fresh water
in these areas are shallow aquifers of small areal extent.

In these contaminated areas early inhabitants seeking
an adequate supply of fresh water for their domestic and
irrigation needs found only brackish water in the Floridan
aquifer. Because this water was unfit for most uses, many
of these early wells were abandoned and some were leftflow-
ing. The corrosive characteristic of these saline waters has
rotted out some of the casings, permitting leakage beneath
the surface. This leakage results in contamination of the
potable. ground water of the more shallow aquifers, and,
consequently, is a waste of these waters.



CURRENT PROGRAM


Inventory of Wells

Wells are man's chief means of obtaining information
about the aquifer and its fluid content. The water obtained
through wells is derived from either a water-table aquifer
or an artesian aquifer. The hydraulic characteristics of each
should be thoroughly understood by the investigator, as this
knowledge is of inestimable value in his endeavor to collect
these data.

The process of data gathering is termed "well inventory"
and it is designed to include all the information aboutthe geol-
ogy of the area, the well, and the water in the well. This in-
formation includes: landowner, location of well, topography
of area, elevation at the well site, well construction, tem-
perature of the water, the water level, yield and use, water
sample for chemical analysis, and other pertinent remarks.

With one exception (the State Board of Health's rule





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


leaking casing, either caused by natural corrosive action or
improper maintenance, suchas rusted out fittings. Figure 8
is a sequence of three pictures depicting examples of wells
classified in column 4, table 1. Column 5 lists those wells
that are kept in good operating order and closed when the
water is not needed. The last column includes the few miscel-
laneous categories that could not be included elsewhere in
the table. The largest group of wells included in this column
are the nonflowing artesian wells.

Table 2 differs from table 1 in that it pertains only to
continuously flowing wells. These are the wells listed in
column 4 of table 1. Table 2 also lists for each county the
composite discharge in gallons per minute. This amounts
to over 107 million gallons per day. While this may not be
as much as the flowfrom any of several large springs inthe
State, it does represent a large quantity of water that is not
being beneficiallyused. It represents wastedpressure which
is needed to reduce the cost of acquiring beneficially used
water.

Table 3 is the tabulation of the total number of wells per
county in each of six categories based on use. These cate-
gories are: 1) domestic privately owned supplies usedfor
household needs; 2) stock includes wells for both range and
farm stock; 3) irrigation includes both citrus and truck
farm wells; 4)ponds includes fishponds, swimming pools,
and scenic pools supplied directly by wells; 5) none wells
at abandoned home sites and farms, abandoned sawmill sites,
etc.; 6)public and industrial wells directly supplying drink-
ing fountains, scenic water displays, public and industrial
water systems. Those wells inventoried as continuously
flowing are listed in red andthose wells inventoriedas prop-
erly controlled are listed in black. At the end of table 3 is
a composite total for each category of use.

The summary at the end of table 3 clearly points out
that stock wells are the most numerous in the continuous
flow category. These wells do not represent the largest
group yield because of their generally smaller diameters.

The second largest number of wild wells are those that





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


are abandoned or have no use. They are usually in very
poor condition and manyhave deteriorated to the point where
they boil like a spring (fig. 9).

Irrigation wells are the third largest offender in number
but this group ranks first in total yield because of the large
draughts needed to irrigate the bit farms. The subirrigation
systems mentioned earlier in the report require little care;
therefore, many of the wells are left unattended for long
periods of time andthe valves end up so corroded they can-
not be completely closed.

The three remaining groups represent very little of the
total yield. They are essentially self-explanatory and need
no elaboration.


Figure 9. Picture of awellthatis so deteriorated it appears
to be a spring. It is located in Lee County, Florida.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This investigation has been conducted as the factfinding
phase of the program leading to the enforcement of the 1957
Florida Statute 373.021-373.061. Ithas produced information
relating to the number of wild wells, their general physical
condition, and the quality and quantity of the water issuing
from these wells. It was not possible to inventory all of the
wild wells. As time and conditions change, new wells are
drilled, maintenance practices are relaxed, and good wells
end up as bad wells. Also, the process of establishing the
existence of a wild well and then locating it are time con-
suming. For these and other reasons it has been found that
to keep this type of investigation current, an inventory has
to be checked and rechecked frequently. However, for the
time the inventory has been in progress it is felt a large
part of the wild wells have been located and investigated.
This, therefore, leads to the conclusion that even though
all of the wild wells were not inventoried, the information
gained thus far is indicative of the general conditions that
do exist in relation to the continuously flowing wells.

The Florida Geological Survey is the principal agency
of the State engaged in geological andhydrological research.
Much of this research is in the form of field investigations,
such as the location and inventory of wild wells. It involves
considerable contact with the general public, and it was
found that the cooperative relation with the public suffers
when an investigation leading to statutory enforcement of a
conservation measure is conductedbythe agency also respon-
sible for the enforcement of that statute. The law concerning
the care and disposition of artesian wells has been found
inadequate in this respect, as it authorizes the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, essentially a research organization, to be
responsible for the enforcement of this statute. It has been
found that the detriment to the water resources of Florida
by continuously flowing wells lies not only in the quantity of
water wasted, but also in the contamination caused by water
of undesirable quality being allowed to flow uncontrolled.
THEREFORE, IT IS RECOMMENDED that the 1959 Session





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


of the Legislature consider the following recommendations
and proposed revisions to sections 373.021 and 373.051,
Florida Statutes, 1957.

NOTE: The Florida Legislature acting in the 1953
Session enacted the authority of this investigation.
This authority appears in the Florida Statutes, 1953,
as Chapter 370. 051-370.055. Legislation pertaining
to Florida's water policy subsequently has been con-
solidated by the Attorney General with the above
mentioned act incorporated as Chapter 373.021-
373.061, Florida Statutes, 1957.


A BILL
TO BE ENTITLED

AN ACT RELATING TO THE STATE BOARD OF
CONSERVATION; AMENDING SUBSECTION (1) OF
SECTION 373.021, AND SUBSECTIONS (1) AND
(2) OF SECTION 373.051, FLORIDA STATUTES,
TO TRANSFER SUPERVISORY POWER OVER AR-
TESIAN WELLS FROM REPRESENTATIVES OF
STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TO WATER RE-
SOURCES DEPARTMENT.

BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE
STATE OF FLORIDA:

Section 1. Subsection (1) of Section 373.021, Florida
Statutes, is amended to read:

373.021 Definitions, 373.031-373.061, artesian wells. --
(1) An artesian well is defined as an artificial hole in
the ground from which water supplies may be obtained and
which penetrates any water bearing rock, the water in which
is raised to the surface by natural flow, or which rises to
an elevation above the top of the water bearing bed. Arte-
sian wells are defined further to include all holes, drilled
as a source of water, that penetrate any water bearing beds
that are a part of the artesian water system of Florida, as





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


determined by representatives of the Florida geological
survey or water resources department.

Section 2. Subsections (1) and (2) of Section 373.051,
Florida Statutes, are amended to read:

373.051 Procedure where artesian wells not capped. --
(1) The water resources department through its duly
authorized agents shall have access to all wells in the state
with the consent of the owner.
(2) Should any well be not provided with a valve as re-
quired in 373. 031, or should any well be allowed to flow in
violation of 373. 041, then and in such event the water re-
sources department through its duly authorized agents shall,
upon being informed of such fact, give notice to the owner
to correct such defect, and if the same be not corrected
within ten (10) days thereafter, shall have authorityto install
the necessary valve or cap upon such well and control the
flow therefrom in accord with the provisions of 373.031
and 373.041.

The beginning of a comprehensive water resources law
was authorized by the 1957 Legislature. This law was set
up to preserve the existing rights of water users andto pro-
vide at state level an organization to administer the water
resources policy of Florida. This organization is called the
Department of Water Resources. IT IS RECOMMENDED
that the well inventory program as presently conducted be
terminated at the end of the 1959 fiscal year and that adequate
funds be made available to the Department of Water Resources
to begin the enforcement of Sections 373.021-373.051, Florida
Statutes.

The factfinding well-inventory program was initiated in
the fall of 1955 with two geologists employed to conduct the
work. To more quickly facilitate this investigation of wild
wells, the 1957 Legislature authorized the expansion of the
well inventory program to include two additional geologists.
IT IS RECOMMENDED that at the conclusion of the 1959
fiscal year three of the four geologists be transferred to the
permanent staff of the Florida Geological Survey to continue
in the regular duties thereof, and to participate in the ex-
panding geo-hydrologic resources studies that are conducted




..i.,.- -. ... a:,.L.; a.,...W ei -~~tr-.- ..-IIiY rilI--.YY~~l a a a n a~fLTIi~


INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


by the Florida Geological Survey, andthat the fourth geologist
be transferred to the Department of Water Resources to as-
sist in the enforcement of Florida Statute 373. 041, 1957.








SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY


Cooper, H.H.
1950 (and Stringfield, V. T. ) Ground water in
ida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 3,
4 figs.


Flor-
6 p.,


Florida Water Resources Study Commission
Florida's Water Resources, Report to the
Governor of Florida and the 1957 Legislature.

Thomas, Harold E.
1951 The conservation of ground water: McGraw
Hill Book Company, Inc.

U. S. Department of Agriculture
Water, the yearbook of agriculture, 1955: U.S.
Government Printing Office.






28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY








Table 1. Tabulation of Total Number of Wells. Their Flow. Chloride Content, and Well Completion Data


(1)




County

Bay
Brevard
Calhoun
Charlotte
Clay
Collier
De Soto

Escambia
Flagler

Franklin
Glades
Gulf
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
IBllsborough
Holmes
Indian River

Lake
Lee
Levy
Liberty
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee

Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pinellas
Polk
Patnam.
S. Johns
St. Luae
Santa Rosa
Sarasota

Seminole
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington


(2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Chloride content
(parts per million) Continuous flow
No.of i No Open Control device
wells 0- 251- 501- infor- Casing Operative Inoperative Properly
inv'd. 250 1500 1000 1000+ nation (a) (b) (c) maintained Other


2 0


0 0


2
38
0
15
12
0
78
0
4
17

2
20
0
30
1
0
18
4
0
3

35
19
1
0
0
0
16
0
0
38

5
23
0
3
0
14
14
33
1
14

4
47
0
3


0 0 I 1 1


S ~ I -


9
7
0
130
6
0
134
3
0
2

3
14
0
12
13
1
39
13
4
0

22
198
I
1
8

52

2
48

0
20
1
8
7
13
2
550
2
149

0
124
2
87
0


0
0
0
8
0
0
106
0
0
3

0
0
0
162
0
0
54
0
0
0

50
14
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
0
0
1
6
0
0
0
0
0

0
25
0
0
0







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21 2








Table 2. Tabulation of Total Number of Continuously Flowing
Wells, Chloride Content and Well Completion Data

(1) (3) (4) (5)
Chloride content
No. of {ppm) Condition of wells
inventoried Total No Open Control device
wells flowing yield 0- 251- 501 infor- casing Operative Inoperative
County continuously (ppm) .50 500 1000 1000+ nation (a) (b) (c)


Bay
Brevard
Calhoun
Charlotte
Clay
Collier
De Soto
Duval
Escarnmbia
Flagler

Franklin
Glades
Gulf
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River

Lake
Lee
Levy
Liberty
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee

Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam.
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota

Seminole
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washinaton


37
0
31
19
8
45

24
166
2
2
50
13
26
28
5
29

18
61
3
3
8
103
60
167
1
98

161
116
5
13
2


116
13,528
59
3.343
1,352
3
3, 221
666
588
1,697

435
1,249
40
804
1,904
0
462
527
58
3, 399

283
7,033
20
12
2.621
61
2.273
564
153
2.893

399
1,406
12+
13
119
3,067
3, 167
14, 548
350
3,031

3,107
920
97
322
17


3
23

14
3
0
51
2
17
7

1
3
1
10
7
0
0
4
1
8

11
16
0
0
3
2
4
7
1
11

0
12
0
1
0
8
23
6
0
23

8
42
0

D


6
74
4
26
21
0
16
20
5
13

17
14
1
9
17
0
17
12
7
15

10
64
1
1
16
11
12
18
3
10

4
41
3
2
6
79
22
89
1
28

39
35
5
11
1


0
58
1
41
16
2
71
8
0
2

1
9
1
7
13
0
14
3
0
22

3
86
1
1
31
0
10
3
1
8

14
8
0
0
2
16
15
72
0
47

114
39
0
0
1


TOTALS 1.883 179.939 152 173 182 103 71 144 397 1 340




..i.,.- -. ... a:,.L.; a.,...W ei -~~tr-.- ..-IIiY rilI--.YY~~l a a a n a~fLTIi~


INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 21


by the Florida Geological Survey, andthat the fourth geologist
be transferred to the Department of Water Resources to as-
sist in the enforcement of Florida Statute 373. 041, 1957.








SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY


Cooper, H.H.
1950 (and Stringfield, V. T. ) Ground water in
ida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 3,
4 figs.


Flor-
6 p.,


Florida Water Resources Study Commission
Florida's Water Resources, Report to the
Governor of Florida and the 1957 Legislature.

Thomas, Harold E.
1951 The conservation of ground water: McGraw
Hill Book Company, Inc.

U. S. Department of Agriculture
Water, the yearbook of agriculture, 1955: U.S.
Government Printing Office.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY









Table 3. Principal Uses of Wells


County Domestic Stock Irrigation Pond None Mun. -Ind.

Ba8 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3- 0 0
Brevard 1. 4 -2 68 3 21 0 10 1 41 0 11
Calhoan 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Charlotte 34 1 21 52 70 11 1 1 10 16 2 0
Clay 4 4 0 29 1 0 0 2 1 4 0 1
Collier 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
DSoto 10 0 24 61 190 69 1 0 11 7 4 1
1 3 0 18 0 0 0 3 1 5 1 1
canmbia 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 7 0 0
Faler 0 0 3 6 0 1 0 3 1 12 1 0
kli 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 1 1
ades 4 3 6 20 2 0 0 0 1 3 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
adee 6 0 18 21 145 2 0 1 4 2 1 0
ndry 0 0 3 19 10 2 0 1 0 15 0 0
ernado 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
ighlands 37 3 10 24 39 0 0 0 4 4 3 0
Elsborough Z 2 3 11 6 Z 1 0 0 4 1 0
Holmes 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0
a- River 0 0 0 19 0 6 0 5 0 14 0 1
Lake 38 3 3 5 4 1 4 1 21 14 2 0
e 4 4 7 72 191 57 0 5 8 27 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0
liberty 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
tee 0 0 0 4 7 31 0 3 1 11 0 1
1 12 0 0 0 0 00 1 1 0 0
0 0 16 13 31 4 1 3 2 6 2 0
assau 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 1 15 0 1
kloosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1
kechobee 2 0 10 15 32 8 2 0 1 5 1 1
nge 0 0 1 10 0 3 0 0 1 3 0 2
scealz 1 2 17 53 2 0 0 0 0 5 0 1
Beach 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2
Pnells 4 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 3 1 0
lk 1 0 7 3 0 0 2 4 0 1 2 0
na 7 9 0 21 0 13 0 13 6 29 0 18
Johns 0 1 1 18 0 6 0 2 1 30 0 3
t. cic 2 3 53 70 448 45 4 20 5 18 2 11
ta Rosa 2 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
saras 10 0 36 48 88 19 1 0 11 31 3 0
inole 0 14 8 22 0 90 0 4 0 31 0 0
olusia 74 22 17 15 25 22 3 12 27 44 3 1
Wakulla 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
alton 73 8 5 2 0 0 1 1 1 2 7 0
Washington 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
otal 334 145 272 728 1333 414 21 105 125 431 42 60

Black columns represent properly controlled wells.
Red columns represent continuously flowing (wild) wels.















30 364-7










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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