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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geography
 Geology
 Ground water
 Quantitative studies of Floridan...
 Summary and conclusions
 References


FGS



Interim report on geology and ground-water resources of Indian River County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 18 )
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 Material Information
Title: Interim report on geology and ground-water resources of Indian River County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 18 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 18 )
Physical Description: v, 74 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bermes, Boris J
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Indian River County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Indian River County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Boris J. Bermes.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 73-74.
General Note: "Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692719
oclc - 01721481
notis - AJA4793
System ID: UF00001078:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Geography
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Geology
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 8
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Ground water
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 18
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Quantitative studies of Floridan aquifer
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 30
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 40
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    References
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text






STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


INTERIM REPORT
ON
GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY, FLORIDA


By
Boris J. Bermes, Geologist
U. S. Geological Survey




Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey
and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District

Tallahassee, Florida
1958










TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Abstract ..................................... 1
Introduction ................................... 2
Purpose and scope of investigation ........... 2
Acknowledgments .......................... 3
Geography .................................... 3
Location and general features of the county.... 3
Climate ... .... ... ........... 6
Agriculture and industry .................... 6
Topography............... ............... 6
Drainage ................. ........ ...... 7
Geology...................................... 8
Eocene series..... ............ .......... 8
Lake City limestone ...................... 8
Avon Park limestone ..................... 12
Ocala group............................ 13
Williston and Inglis formations ......... 13
Crystal River formation ............... 14
Oligocene series ............................. 14
Miocene series. ................ ..... 15
Hawthorn formation...................... 15
Tamiami formation ...................... 16
Pleistocene series...... .................. 16
Anastasia formation ...................... 16
Fort Thompson formation................ 17
Talbot formation.......................... 17
Pamlico sand ........................... 18
Ground water ................................ .18
Nonartesian aquifer........................ 19
Shallow artesian aquifer..................... 19
Floridan aquifer ........................... 20
Water level data ......................... 22
Quality of water ............................ 26
Nonartesian aquifer.................... 26
Shallow artesian aquifer .................. 28
Floridan aquifer ....................... 28
Quantitative studies of Floridan aquifer ....... 30
Theory.. .................................. 30
Discussion of tests .................. .... 36







Page


Electric logs............................... 36
Ground-water use .......................... 38
Summary and conclusions ...................... 40
W ell logs..................................... 41
References................................ 73


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page

1 Map of Florida showing the location of
Indian River County..................... 4
Z Map of Indian River County showing the
locations of wells, pumping-test sites, and
geologic cross sections....................... 5
3 Minimum, normal, and maximum rainfall
at Vero Beach, 1941-49 ................. 7
4 West-east geologic section through
northern Indian River County ............. 9
5 West-east geologic section through
southern Indian River County ............ 10
6 North-south geologic section through
eastern Indian River County ............. 11
7 Map representing, approximately, the
piezometric surface in wells penetrating
the Floridan aquifer inIndianRiver County,
October 1951............................ 25
8 Graph showing the general increase in
chloride concentration with depth in
certain wells penetrating the Floridan
aquifer ................................ 31
9 Logarithmic plot of s against rZ for well
46, well 48 discharging ..... t.......... 33
10 Logarithmic plot of s against r2 for well
108, well 107 discharging ...t........... 34
11 Logarithmic graph of the type curve ...... 35
12 Electric logs of selected flowing wells in
Indian River County, showing correlation
with rock cuttings ...................... 37







TABLES


Table Page

1 Chemical analyses of ground water from
Indian River County ..................... 27
2 Change in chloride content of water in
selected wells from 1940 to 1947......... 31
3 Lateral distribution of chloride content of
water in wells ending in the Floridan
aquifer ................................ 32
4 Records of selected wells in Indian River
County ................. ................ 67
















INTERIM REPORT ON GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER

RESOURCES OF INDIAN RIVER COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
Boris J. Bermes


ABSTRACT

The most important source of ground water in Indian
River County is the Floridan aquifer, which in the county
consists of more than 500 feet of limestone of Eocene to
Miocene age. The Floridan is the principal artesian aquifer
in most of Florida and southeastern Georgia. Rocks of
Eocene and Oligocene age contribute most of the water to
the flowing artesian wells penetrating the aquifer in the
county, but limestone in the lower part of the Hawthorn for-
mation, of Miocene age, supplies a small amount of water
and is included in the Floridan aquifer. Pumping-test data
show that the ground-water yield from the Floridan aquifer
differs from place to place. Generally, where the aquifer
produces less water (notably in the southern part of the bar-
rier beach) it includes an appreciable thickness of Oligocene
strata, which are less permeable than the Eocene strata.

Water levels in wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer
fluctuate principally in response to the starting and stopping
of discharge from the many irrigation wells during periods
of heavy withdrawal. A cone of depression usuallydevelops
southwest of the vicinity of VeroBeach, and there is a general
lowering of the piezometric surface in the northern part of
the barrier beach. The static water levels in wells, in some
areas, suggest an apparent decline in the piezometric sur-
face of about 10 feet since 1934.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


No clear evidence of encroachment of sea water into the
aquifer has been found. The chloride concentration in the
water from some wells has increased substantially, but this
is believed to be the result of amixing of highly mineralized
connate water that has never been flushed from the deep parts
of the aquifer.

The nonartesian aquifer, of Pleistocene age, yields
water of considerably better chemical quality than that from
the Floridan aquifer. The City of Vero Beach obtains its
water supply from a locally artesian zone in this aquifer.
The use of the nonartesian aquifer will increase if the water
from the Floridan aquifer becomes highly mineralized.

Appreciable quantities of water are obtained from the
nonartesian aquifer only in the eastern part of Indian River
County and on the barrier beach. In the southern part of the
barrier beach the chloride content of the nonartesian water
increases and the iron content is relatively high.

A separate artesian aquifer of relatively minor impor-
tance, consisting of beds of limestone in the middle and upper
parts of the Hawthorn formation, underlies the western half
of the county. The water from this aquifer is less highly
mineralized than the water from the Floridan aquifer, but
the yield from it is considerablyless thanthat from the Flor-
idan aquifer.


INTRODUCTION

Purpose and Scope of Investigation

This investigation-is one of a series on the geology and
ground water of Florida being made by the U. S. Geological
Survey in cooperation with the Florida GeologicalSurvey and
the Central and Southern Florida Flood ControlDistrict. The
ultimate purpose of these investigations is to provide informa-
tion on the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground water,
as a basis for a plan for the conservation and development of
theater resources of the State. The information is designed
to give a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of ground-water





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


No clear evidence of encroachment of sea water into the
aquifer has been found. The chloride concentration in the
water from some wells has increased substantially, but this
is believed to be the result of amixing of highly mineralized
connate water that has never been flushed from the deep parts
of the aquifer.

The nonartesian aquifer, of Pleistocene age, yields
water of considerably better chemical quality than that from
the Floridan aquifer. The City of Vero Beach obtains its
water supply from a locally artesian zone in this aquifer.
The use of the nonartesian aquifer will increase if the water
from the Floridan aquifer becomes highly mineralized.

Appreciable quantities of water are obtained from the
nonartesian aquifer only in the eastern part of Indian River
County and on the barrier beach. In the southern part of the
barrier beach the chloride content of the nonartesian water
increases and the iron content is relatively high.

A separate artesian aquifer of relatively minor impor-
tance, consisting of beds of limestone in the middle and upper
parts of the Hawthorn formation, underlies the western half
of the county. The water from this aquifer is less highly
mineralized than the water from the Floridan aquifer, but
the yield from it is considerablyless thanthat from the Flor-
idan aquifer.


INTRODUCTION

Purpose and Scope of Investigation

This investigation-is one of a series on the geology and
ground water of Florida being made by the U. S. Geological
Survey in cooperation with the Florida GeologicalSurvey and
the Central and Southern Florida Flood ControlDistrict. The
ultimate purpose of these investigations is to provide informa-
tion on the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground water,
as a basis for a plan for the conservation and development of
theater resources of the State. The information is designed
to give a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of ground-water





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


recharge, discharge, and storage, especially in areas where
ground-water developments are important economically.

In the area of this investigation a partial inventory was
made of the estimated 2, 000 existing wells to obtain infor-
mation on location, depth, and yield of representative wells.
Also, data were obtained on the quality of water from the
various aquifers, and on the fluctuation of water levels in
certain wells in the Floridan aquifer. The hydraulic char-
acteristics of the Floridan aquifer at several sites were
determined by means of pumping tests.

The investigation was made under the immediate super-
vision of N. D. Hoy, District Geologist of the Ground Water
Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Miami, Florida, and
under the general supervision of A.N. Sayre, Chief of the
Ground Water Branch.

Acknowledgments

The writer is indebted to the residents of the county,
especially Mr. E.-E. Carter, CountyEngineer, whosewhole-
hearted cooperation greatly assisted the field studies. The
Knight and King -Well Drilling Company, the 0. F. Pippin
Well Drilling Company, the Deerfield Groves Company, the
Florida State Board of Health, the Indian River County Health
Department, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority contributed
basic data.

Mr. R. 0. Vernon of the.Florida Geological Surveypro-
vided logs of wells 24 and 107 and four electric logs.


GEOGRAPHY

Location and General Features of the County

Indian River County is in southern Florida, on the
Atlantic Coast. It is bounded by Brevard County on the
north, Osceola County on the west, and Okeechobee and St.
Lucie counties on the south (fig. 1). The county has an area
of 525 square miles and population of 11,850, according to
the 1950 census. Vero Beach, the county seat, is on the Indian
River in the eastern part of the county (fig. 2). It is 200





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


recharge, discharge, and storage, especially in areas where
ground-water developments are important economically.

In the area of this investigation a partial inventory was
made of the estimated 2, 000 existing wells to obtain infor-
mation on location, depth, and yield of representative wells.
Also, data were obtained on the quality of water from the
various aquifers, and on the fluctuation of water levels in
certain wells in the Floridan aquifer. The hydraulic char-
acteristics of the Floridan aquifer at several sites were
determined by means of pumping tests.

The investigation was made under the immediate super-
vision of N. D. Hoy, District Geologist of the Ground Water
Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Miami, Florida, and
under the general supervision of A.N. Sayre, Chief of the
Ground Water Branch.

Acknowledgments

The writer is indebted to the residents of the county,
especially Mr. E.-E. Carter, CountyEngineer, whosewhole-
hearted cooperation greatly assisted the field studies. The
Knight and King -Well Drilling Company, the 0. F. Pippin
Well Drilling Company, the Deerfield Groves Company, the
Florida State Board of Health, the Indian River County Health
Department, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority contributed
basic data.

Mr. R. 0. Vernon of the.Florida Geological Surveypro-
vided logs of wells 24 and 107 and four electric logs.


GEOGRAPHY

Location and General Features of the County

Indian River County is in southern Florida, on the
Atlantic Coast. It is bounded by Brevard County on the
north, Osceola County on the west, and Okeechobee and St.
Lucie counties on the south (fig. 1). The county has an area
of 525 square miles and population of 11,850, according to
the 1950 census. Vero Beach, the county seat, is on the Indian
River in the eastern part of the county (fig. 2). It is 200





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Map of Florida showing the location of Indian
River County.













T 1 1
IS o P' / I I ;', I ...__.3


\EST 1 21 9 6
-" '5-


1 13N 1I .1 4
1 's6 /J- I 4\ 1 I'Ar v 0








INL AKPLEA 21
)* lBs H -

343, *I \ '


TEST AREA 1I 2t'* \I
7 10.4 41-------------------------------------------------------- -00^ "\\-




4 pg r SUPPLY" WELL SCALE IN MILES
3/,NS 'R" WELL WITH RECORDINg SAGE 0 I 2 3 4 6
LOCATION GEOLOOlO SECTION

R 5 E I R 6 R 3 I R 30 E 35 E R 40

Figure 2. Map of Indian River County showing the locations of wells, pumping-test
sites, and geologic cross sections.
sites, and geologic cross sections.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


miles south of Jacksonville and 140 miles north of Miami.


Climate

The climate in Indian River County is mild, the annual
average temperature being 73.4F. Average monthly tem-
peratures rangefrom 63.4 *FinJanuaryto 81.3 F inAugust.
The average annual rainfall for the period 1941-49 was 44.86
inches. The rainfall is greatest in the summer and early fall
(fig. 3). The minimum for the period was 38.88 inches, in
1942, and the maximumwas 62.11 inches, in 1947. Rainfall
during the wet months usuallyoccurs in scattered showers.


Agriculture and Industry

Citrus fruit is the principal source of income, and is
valued in the county at more than $2, 000,000 annually.
About 13, 075 acres were planted in citrus during 1948-49.
Tourists, farming, cattle raising, sugar production, and
commercial fishing are other major sources of income.

A 1945 survey showed 150,687 acres of farmland. A re-
finery processes the sugar from cane grown on approximately
5,000 acres of land. There are 98,300 acres of commercial
forest lands in the county. Commercial fishing is an important
economic factor; a reported 665,847 pounds of food fish,
628,825 pounds of nonfood fish, and 143,000 pounds of crabs,
crayfish, and shrimp were marketed here in 1948.


Topography

Indian River County is in the Coastal Lowlands as desig-
nated by Cooke (1939, p. 14-16). The Coastal Lowlands
consist of four Pleistocene terraces, two of which, the
Pamlico and the Talbot, are present in Indian River County.
The 25-foot contour, which crosses the western part of the
county, represents approximately the shoreline of the
Pamlico sea. West of this shoreline the land rises to the
older Talbot terrace, which has an altitude of about 40 feet.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


To the east it slopes gradually seaward. The plain formed
by the Pamlico sea is modified by ridges which were origin-
ally offshore bars built upon the Pamlico sea floor by wave
action. The present barrier beach, which rises to an alti-
tude of more than 20 feet, probably had its inception during
Pamlico time. At least two ridges parallel the coast in the
eastern part of the county: one, about a mile west of the
Indian River, reaches a maximum altitude of more than 50
feet; the other, a less distinct one about 10 miles west of the
coastline, forms the drainage divide between the St. Johns
River marsh and the Sebastian River.


Drainage

The areabetween the two ridges in the northern part of
the county is drained by the Sebastian River, which is diked
to prevent flooding. A system of canals and laterals drains


Figure 3. Minimum, normal, and maximum rainfall, in
inches, at Vero Beach, 1941-49.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the area east of the dikes in southeast and east-central Indian
River County. The central part of the county, west of the
dikes of the Indian River Farms Drainage District and east
of the Pamlico shoreline, is occupied by the St. Johns River
marsh, which drains to the north. Before the beginning of
artificial drainage, part of the Sebastian River valley drained
eastward through gaps in the coastal ridge.


GEOLOGY

The geologic formations in Indian River County studied
during this investigation aie generally southeastward-dipping
Coastal Plain strata ranging in age from Eocene to Pleisto-
cene. The Tampa formation of early Miocene age and the
Caloosahatchee marl of Pliocene age have not been recog-
nized in cuttings from wells in the county.

Throughout most of the county the strata dip to the
southeast(fig. 4, 5, 6), conformingwiththe general structure
of the Ocala uplift (Vernon, 1951, p. 53-62). Along the
eastern margin of the county, the change in the apparent dip
of the Williston formation (fig. 4) from nearly horizontal to
more than 70 feet per mile, the thickening of the Ocala group,
and the presence of Oligocene rocks, not found elsewhere
in the county, are attributed to vertical faults whose strikes
are roughly parallel to the present coastline. These faults
are shown in figures 4, 5, and 6. Figure 4 shows also the
fault indicated by Vernon (1951, pl. 2) in the western part
of the county.


Eocene Series

Lake City Limestone

The name Lake City limestone was applied by Applin
andApplin (1944, p. 1693) to a dark brown chalkylimestone
of early middle Eocene age; it is the deepest formation pene -
trated by wells in Indian River County. The limestone, in
Indian River County, is made up predominantly of layers of
cream-colored to tan hard to soft, porous, chalky limestone







PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SAND .


_- FORT THOMPSON (?)
S TAMIAMI (P)
-------TA MIAlMI (?)


HAWTHORN



C ~ S r- I
4,A


AVON PARK


FORMATION
FORMA- -
FORMATION

FORMATION

FORMATION


LIMESTONE


Figure 4. West-east geologic section through northern Indian River County.


IL~PK~ioNE











'4


PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SAND-


FORT


THOMPSON (?)


TAMIAMI (?)


FORMATION


--P p.---


HAWTHORN


C Y8 AL RIVER F 0
.... L IST A I
'...


AVON


PARK


LAKE


C IT Y


FORMATION


-- -'BL-lpOCNE
RMAT I N -

D INGLIS FO.

IMESTON E


C f(
'S -


L I M E S T O N E


O1 MSL--------------


I SCALE Ie MILEn


Figure 5. West-east geologic section through southern Indian River County.


NA BTABIA











OLIGOCENE
ROCKS

CRYSTAL
RIVER FM.

WILLISTON
SINGLIS FMS
i


1004


ij


soo..
I, 800.


S400





S600


PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SAND~


FORMATION


---- -------














HAWTHORN
OLIGOCENE ROCKSj
0 GOCENE
WI LLI8TON 'AND YS T A L 0 1
WILLISTON AND' ~LSPQ
IN LS F S


Figure 6. North-south geologic section through eastern Indian River County.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and some hard porous, crystalline limestone. The Lake City,
similar in lithology to the overlying Avon Park limestone,
is identified by the presence of the foraminifer Dictyoconus
americanus (Cushman). Otherfossilsfound in the Lake City
limestone are mollusk fragments, echinoid spines, miliolids,
and numerous other Foranminifera.

The Lake City limestone probably underlies the entire
county. Its thickness has not been determined because no
wells in the county are known to penetrate it completely.


Avon Park Limestone

The name Avon Park lime stone was applied byApplin and
Applin (1944, p. 1686-1687) to the cream-colored highlymi-
crofossiliferous chalky limestone of the upper part of the late
middle Eocene in the subsurface of Florida. Vernon (1951,
p. 95-96) identified the formation at the surface in Citrus and
Levy counties. The Avon Park limestone in Indian River
County consists of layers of cream-colored to tanhard to soft
porous chalky limestone, and cream-colored to tan hard
"miliolid" limestone containing crystals of calcite.

The Avon Park is very fos siliferous ,containing echinoids,
mollusks, and many species of Foraminifera. The follow-
ing species are characteristic of the formation:

Coskinolina floridana
Cribrobulimina cushmani
Dictyoconus cookei
Lituonella floridana
Spirolina coryensis
Textularia coryensis
Valvulina intermedia

The small echinoid Peronella dalli is locally common in the
upper part of the formation.

The Avon Park limestone appears to lie conformably on
the older Lake City limestone and probably underlies the
entire county. Its thickness ranges from 65 feet in well 259
to 190 feet in well 202 (fig. 4, 5).





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the area east of the dikes in southeast and east-central Indian
River County. The central part of the county, west of the
dikes of the Indian River Farms Drainage District and east
of the Pamlico shoreline, is occupied by the St. Johns River
marsh, which drains to the north. Before the beginning of
artificial drainage, part of the Sebastian River valley drained
eastward through gaps in the coastal ridge.


GEOLOGY

The geologic formations in Indian River County studied
during this investigation aie generally southeastward-dipping
Coastal Plain strata ranging in age from Eocene to Pleisto-
cene. The Tampa formation of early Miocene age and the
Caloosahatchee marl of Pliocene age have not been recog-
nized in cuttings from wells in the county.

Throughout most of the county the strata dip to the
southeast(fig. 4, 5, 6), conformingwiththe general structure
of the Ocala uplift (Vernon, 1951, p. 53-62). Along the
eastern margin of the county, the change in the apparent dip
of the Williston formation (fig. 4) from nearly horizontal to
more than 70 feet per mile, the thickening of the Ocala group,
and the presence of Oligocene rocks, not found elsewhere
in the county, are attributed to vertical faults whose strikes
are roughly parallel to the present coastline. These faults
are shown in figures 4, 5, and 6. Figure 4 shows also the
fault indicated by Vernon (1951, pl. 2) in the western part
of the county.


Eocene Series

Lake City Limestone

The name Lake City limestone was applied by Applin
andApplin (1944, p. 1693) to a dark brown chalkylimestone
of early middle Eocene age; it is the deepest formation pene -
trated by wells in Indian River County. The limestone, in
Indian River County, is made up predominantly of layers of
cream-colored to tan hard to soft, porous, chalky limestone





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Ocala Groupl

The Ocala limestonewas defined by Cooke (1915, p. 117;
1945, p. 53). Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1683-1685)
and Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 130) recognized that the
Ocala could be differentiated into two members, an upper
member and a lower member. The lower member is approx-
imately equivalent to the lower part of the Ocala limestone
described and named the Moodys Branch formation by Vernon
(1951, p. 115). Vernon also divided the Moodys Branch
formation into two members, theWilliston and Inglis, which
Puri (1953) raised to formation rank. The two formations
and the remaining upper part of the Ocala limestone, called
the Crystal River formation, were designated the Ocala group
by Puri.

Williston and Inglis Formations: The Williston and Inglis
formations have not been differentiated in Indian River
County. They consist predominantly of cream-colored to
tan hard to soft granular, porous limestone with calcite
crystals. They contain also soft foraminiferal coquina and
hard porous "miliolid" limestone with calcite crystals.

The fossils from the Williston and Inglis consist of
molds, casts, and fragments of mollusks, corals, and
Foraminifera. Miliolidae and Camerinidae are the most
conspicuous foraminifers.

The upper contact of the undifferentiated Williston and
Inglis formations is not clearly defined in many of the sets
of well cuttings examined, so the thickness of the unit is not
accurately known. The contact with the overlying Crystal
River formation appears to be conformable. The thickness
probably ranges from 20 feetin wells 187 and 202 to 100 feet


1The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report
conforms to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It
conforms also to the usage of the U. S. Geological Survey,
except that the Tampa limestone is referred to as the Tampa
formation and the Ocala limestone is referred to as the Ocala
group, with its subdivisions, as described by Puri (1953).





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in well 200, which is near the intersection of State Highway
60 and U. S. Highway 1. The Inglis, Williston, or both
probably underlie the entire county and presumably lie
unconformably upon the Avon Park limestone.

Crystal River Formation: Vernon (1951, p. 156) rede-
fined the Ocala limestone as defined by Cooke (1945, p. 53)
and restricted it to the upper part of the formation, excluding
a lower part which he named the Moodys Branch formation
with its Williston and Inglis members. Puri (1953) renamed
Vernon's Ocala limestone (restricted) as the Crystal River
formation, raised the Williston and Inglis to formational
rank, and thus dropped the Moodys. Branch formation; and
as stated previously, he raised the Ocala to a group.

The Crystal River formation in Indian River County
consists of cream-colored soft porous foraminiferal coquina
and some cream-colored to light gray hard to soft porous
glauconitic limestone. It is very rich in Foraminifera,
especially Orbitoididae. In addition to Foraminifera it con-
tains mollusks, echinoids, ostracods, coral and a species
of small brachiopods.

In the extreme eastern part of Indian River County the
Crystal River formation is overlain by sediments of Oligocene
age. Throughout the remainder of the countyit is unconform-
ably overlain by the Hawthorn formation of Miocene age. The
Crystal River formation ranges in thickness from 20 feet in
well StL 44, in St. Lucie County, to about 380 feet, and
perhaps more, in well 107.


Oligocene Series

According to Cooke (1945, p. 75) the lower division of the
Oligocene series is not known to be represented in Florida.
Cooke recognizes the Byram and Marianna limestone of
Vicksburg age and the Suwannee limestone of late Oligocene
age in Florida. In Indian River County the sedimentary rocks
of Oligocene age are gray to cream-colored soft clayey,
granular limestone with calcite crystals and dark chert.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


The fossils in the rocks of Oligocene age include mollusk
and echinoid fragments, barnacle plates, sponge spicules,
crab claws, ostracods, and foraminifers, of which species
of Nodosaria are very conspicuous.

Rocks of Oligocene age were found only in the extreme
eastern part of the county, where the formations thicken.
They are probably missing in the westernpart of the county.
Rock samples from well 201 indicate that the sediments of
Oligocene age are about 280 feet thick in the northeastern
part of Indian River County. The Oligocene rocks are uncon-
formably overlain by the Hawthorn formation.


Miocene Series

Hawthorn Formation

The Hawthorn formation, originally defined by Dall (1892)
and redefined by Cooke and Mossom (1929) and Vernon (1951,
p. 186-187), consists of a thick section of green to brown
phosphatic, sandy clay and marl, with interbedded lenses of
hard sandy limestone, chert, and phosphorite pebbles. The
limestone lenses are most abundant in the middle and upper
parts of the formation.

The fauna of the Hawthorn consists of mollusks, shark's
teeth, and small, usually well preserved Foraminifera.

The Hawthorn formation underlies the entire county and
ranges in thickness from about 115 feet in well BR 762
(Brevard County) to 225 feet in well 203. The Hawthorn rests
unconformably on formations of Eocene or Oligocene age and
is unconformably(?) overlain by the Miocene Tamiami for-
mation. None of the well cuttings of the material below the
Hawthorn formation or in the lower part of the formation
were similar to the very sandy limestones which are typical
of the Tampa formation, nor did any of them contain the
foraminifer Archaias floridanus, often found in the Tampa.
It is assumed, therefore, that the Tampa formation is not
present in Indian River County.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Tamiami Formation

The Tamiami formation, as described by Parker (1951,
p. 823), includes all deposits of late Miocene age in southern
Florida. The fossiliferous section that overlies the Hawthorn
formation and underlies deposits of Pleistocene age in Indian
River County is tentatively referredto the Tamiami forma-
tion. These deposits consists of gray to olive-drab sandy
very fossiliferous clays.

The fossils of the Tamiami are predominantly mollusks
but include some echinoid spines and small Foraminifera.
Thepelecypods Donax sp. ? and species of Arca are the most
conspicuous.

The Tamiami formation probably underlies the entire
county. It ranges in thickness from 40 feet in well 203 to
135 feet in well 24. It overlies the Hawthorn formation,
probably resting on an erosion surface, and is overlain uncon-
formably by Pleistocene deposits. The boundary between
the Tamiami and Hawthorn in Indian River County is based
primarily upon minor differences in lithology and, therefore,
should be considered subject to modification when more data
are available.


Pleistocene Series

Anastasia Formation

The Anastasia formation was named by Sellards (1912,
p. 18). Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 199, 203) defined the
Anastasia formation as "all the marine deposits of Pleistocene
age that underlie the lowest plain bordering the east coast of
Florida north of the southern part of Palm Beach County. "
This definition takes in the Pamlico sand, which Cooke (1945,
p. 265) excluded from the Anastasia.

In Indian River County the Anastasia formation probably
occurs only onthe barrier beach andalongthe easternmargin
of the mainland. The contacts between the Anastasia forma-
tion and the underlying Tamiami formation and the overlying





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Pamlico sand are presumed to be unconformities.

The Anastasia is composed chiefly of sand and beds of
shelly marl. The fauna consists mainly of mollusks, of which
none are known to be extinct.

Because of the difficulty in differentiating the Pliocene
and Pleistocene, it is possible that the Caloosahatchee marl
(although it has not been recognized) may be present and may
be included with the described Pleistocene formations.


Fort Thompson Formation

The Fort Thompson formation was named by Sellards
(1919) and was described also by Cooke and Mossom (1929,
p. 211, 215). .The Fort Thompson formation in Indian River
County consists of fossiliferous gray to brown quartz sand
and some clay of both marine and fresh-water origin. The
marine mollusks of the formation are dark in color, though
some have faint traces of their original color. A few fresh-
water gastropods represent in the fresh-water beds of the
formation. The alternating deposits of marine andnonmarine
origin indicate sedimentation during one or more glacial and
interglacial stages of the Pleistocene.

The Fort Thompson formation probably underlies all but
the extreme easternpart of the county. It lies unconformably
on the Tamiami formation and is overlain unconformably by
the Talbot formationand the Pamlico sand. The thickness of
the formationranges from 80 feetin well StL 48 toabout 110
feet in well 203.


Talbot Formation

The Talbot formation was named by Shattuck (1901) and
was described also by Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 75). In
Indian River County it consists principally of unconsolidated
quartz sand, and the only exposures are west of the Pamlico
shoreline, at an altitude of about 40 feet.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Pamlico Sand

The name Pamlico sand was applied to sediments in
Florida by Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 74-75). The forma-
tion includes all marine Pleistocene deposits younger than
the Anastasia formation. In Indian River County it consists
of gray to brown medium-grained quartz sand and is exposed
throughout that part of the county that lies below the 25-foot
shoreline, which is considered to be the shoreline of the
Pamlico sea. It ranges from less than one foot in thickness
near its edge to a probable thickness of more than 40 feet
beneath the coastal ridge.


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of
saturation the zone in which allpore spaces are filled with
water under greater than atmospheric pressure. It is re-
plenished by rain that falls on the earth's surface. Only a
part of the rain reaches the zone of saturation, however.
Part of it returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration,
and part drains overland into lakes and streams.

Ground water moves laterally, under the influence of
gravity, toward places of discharge such as wells, springs,
surface streams, and lakes. Where it is not confined and its
surface is free to rise and fall, it is said to be under non-
artesian conditions, and its upper surface is called the water
table. Where the water is confined in a permeable bed by a
relatively impermeable bed, its surface is not free to rise
and fall and it is said to be under artesian conditions. The
term "artesian" is applied to ground water that is confined
under sufficient pressure to rise above the top of the perme-
able bed that contains it, but not necessarily above the land
surface. The height to which water will rise in an artesian
well is called the artesian pressure head.

An aquifer is a formation, group of formations, or part
of a formation, in the zone of saturation, that is permeable
enough to transmit usable quantities of water. Areas in which
aquifers are replenished are called recharge areas. Areas





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


in which water is lost from aquifers are called discharge
areas.


Nonartesian Aquifer

Ground water in Indian River County occurs under both
nonartesian and artesian conditions. The shallow beds of
sand and shells of the Pamlico sand and the Anastasia and
Fort Thompson formations, of Pleistocene age, constitute an
aquifer that contains ground water under nonartesian condi-
tions, except where the beds of sand and shell are overlain
locally by clay or fine sand that confine the water under
artesian pressure. This aquifer is fairly permeable and is
thickest along the crest of the coastal ridge and on the barrier
beach. At the Adrianna Ranch, in the St. Johns marsh, the
aquifer is composed of surface sand not more than three feet
thick.

The nonartesian aquifer is recharged by local rainfall
which infiltrates rapidly to the water table. Discharge from
the aquifer occurs by evapotranspiration, by seepage into
canals, streams, swamps, and lakes, and by pumping.

A few small domestic supplies in populated areas are
obtained from shallow sandpoint wells. On the southern part
of the barrier beach, the aquifer supplies water for irrigation
and for domestic supplies, but wells greater than 50 feet in
depth yield water too salty for either purpose. The Vero
Beach municipal supply is obtained from the aquifer in an
area where a pumping test showed the water to be under
artesian conditions.

Few data are available concerning ground-water levels,
hydraulic properties, or the quality of the water from the
nonartesian aquifer. However, on the barrier beach, the
water at shallow depths is known to be moderately high in
chloride content.

Shallow Artesian Aquifer

In the central and western parts of the county, an aquifer





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of minor importance is interbedded with the impermeable
deposits that constitute the confining bed of the Floridan
aquifer. This aquifer is composed of a bed of limestone in
the Hawthorn formation of Miocene age, and it appears to
have no direct hydrologic connection with either the non-
artesian aquifer above or the Floridan aquifer below.

Well 187, inthewesternpart of the county, well 202 inthe
southwest, and well 203, two miles southwest of Fellsmere,
penetrated a permeable, water bearing shelly limestone rep-
resenting the shallow artesian aquifer. The limestone was 10
to 20 feet thickand was struckat depths of 190 feet, 278 feet,
and 297 feet, respectively, below the surface. When this
limestone was penetrated in well 203 the drilling mud was
thinned by the inflow of water, but there was no flow of water
at the surface. It is reported that some of the older irrigation
wells finished in this aquifer yielded water by natural flow,
but that after a few years the yield decreased, and the wells
were deepened to the Floridan aquifer.

The artesian pressure head in well 176, about 1 miles
east of Fellsmere, was 11 feet above the land surface in
October 1951. This well is reported to tap the limestone
aquifer in the Hawthorn formation. Well 177, which is 330
feet east of well 176, penetrates the Floridan aquifer, and
its artesian pressure head was 22 feet above the land surface
in October 1951. The land surface at both wells is at about
the same altitude. The water from the two wells differs
greatly in chloride content and hardness. Water from well
177 in the Floridan aquifer had a chloride content of 360 ppm
and total hardness of 480 ppm, and water from well 176 in
the nonartesian aquifer had a chloride content of 155 ppm and
total hardness of 230 ppm. These differences in artesian
pressure head and quality of water suggest that the aquifers
are separate hydrologic units.


Floridan Aquifer

The chief source of ground-water supplies in Indian
River County is the thick section of permeable limestones
and dolomites underlying, and including some permeable
material at the bottom of, the Hawthorn formation. These





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


permeable rocks, from the top down, consist of strata of
the Hawthorn formation, rocks of Oligocene age, the Ocala
group, the Avon Park limestone, and the Lake City lime-
stone, and they constitute a part of the principal artesian
aquifer of Florida and southeastern Georgia, as described
by Stringfield (1936, p. 124-130). Parker (1955, p. 188-189)
proposed the name "Floridan aquifer" for these sediments,
defining the aquifer to include "parts or all of the middle
Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City limestones), upper Eocene
(Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwannee limestone), and
Miocene (Tampa limestone and permeable parts of the
Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the
rest of the aquifer). In Indian River County the Hawthorn
probably contributes some water to wells penetrating the
Floridan aquifer, but the largest contributions come from
strata below the Hawthorn. The Suwannee limestone of
Oligocene age and the Tampa limestone of Miocene age
apparently are missing in Indian River County.

The regional dip of the Floridan aquifer, in Indian River
County, is to the southeast. The top of the aquifer is about
245 feet below sea level in well 187 and about 410 feet below
sea level in well StL 48.

Limestone and dolomitic limestone are the chief com-
ponents of the aquifer. Highly permeable strata are inter-
bedded with materials of lower permeability. Few, if any,
of the individual highly permeable or relatively impermeable
beds can be traced laterally for great distances, and hence
the capacity of the aquifer to transmit groundwater may differ
considerably throughout the county. However, the permeable
zones are hydraulically interconnected and the entire section
acts as a hydrologic unit. Because the aquifer is composed
of soluble carbonate rock, it is honeycombed with solution
cavities through which ground water moves freely. In the
eastern part of the county and on the barrier beach, where
hundreds of wells have been drilled through the aquifer, the
artesian water probably flows verticallyfrom one permeable
zone to another through the uncased parts .of the wells.

The section of relatively impermeable clays and marls
of ,the Hawthorn formation and, in the eastern part of the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


county, the Tamiami formation confines the water in the
Floridan aquifer. This section ranges in thickness from 150
feet in the northeastern part of the county to 250 feet in the
southeastern part. The upper part of the section is usually
very sandy and shelly and grades upward into the more per-
meable parts of the Tamiami formation or the lower part of
the formations of Pleistocene age. The base, however, is
well marked by a change from impermeable greenish clay
above to white to cream-colored limestone below.

The Floridan aquifer is recharged by rainfallin central
Florida, where permeable materials overlie the limestones
of the aquifer, and in the lake regions around Polk County,
where water enters the aquifer through sinkholes that pene-
trate the Hawthorn formation (Stringfield, 1936, p. 146-148,
pl. -12). Water that enters the aquifer in the recharge area
moves in the direction of the slope of the piezometric surface
and is discharged by submarine springs, by upward leakage,
and by flowing wells. Local rainfall in Indian River County
does not recharge the Floridan aquifer and neither does the
water in the nonartesian aquifer, as the head in that aquifer
is lower than that in the Floridan.

In the southern part of the barrier beach the rocks of
Oligocene age are relatively thick and constitute anappreci-
able part of the aquifer, but the yield of ground water from
the Oligocene rocks is too small to justify the expense of
drilling wells to them. Large flows may be obtained from
the Eocene rocks below but the water is too salty for most
uses. These facts account for the notable absence of artesian
wells in the southern part of the beach. Nonartesian wells
supply most of the water, but some water is piped in from
wells in more productive areas. Data obtained from discharge
tests show that the permeability of the upper part of the aquifer
decreases to the southeast, where the Oligocene strata are
known to thicken.


Water-Level Data

The Floridan aquifer yields water by artesianflow in all
parts of Indian River County except a belt a few miles wide





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


in the westernpart of the county, where the land rises to an
elevation of more than 55 feet above sea level, and in a few
isolated places along the sand ridge west of Winter Beach
and Wabasso.

Water-levelmeasurements were made in a few wells in
the process of being drilled, in order to determine the change
in artesianpressure heads at different depths in the aquifer.
The artesian pressure heads observed did not represent the
heads at isolated depths because the overlying water-bearing
beds were not cased off. Most of the heads at the greater
depths might have been higher if the well had been cased to
those depths. In well 166, at a depth of 220 feet below the
top of the aquifer, the headwas 13 feet above the land surface,
andat a depth of 306 feet it was 13. 5 feet above the surface.

The most conspicuous fluctuations in the piezometric
surface in Indian River County are those due to the discharge
of the wells. When a well starts to discharge the artesian
pressure head in the well immediately falls and the head in
the vicinity of the well starts to decline. The decline is
greatest at the well and decreases as the distance from the
well increases. The piezometric surface, the imaginary
surface representing the artesian head at wells, assumes
approximately the form of an inverted cone, called a cone of
depression, having its center at the discharging well. If the
well continues to discharge at a constant rate, the piezometric
surface declines at a slowly decreasing rate untilit becomes
essentially stable. While the cone of depression is expanding,
water from progressively greater distances from the dis-
charging well begins to move toward the well. In Indian
River County, especially in the citrus belt, the simultaneous
discharge of scores of wells develops a pattern of intersecting
cones wherein the greatest drawdown is near the center of
the withdrawal area.

When discharge from a well ceases, the piezometric
surface rises, rapidly at first and thenat a slowly decreasing
rate until it recovers essentially to its original level.

The maximum observed fluctuation of artesian pressure
head in wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer during the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


investigation was one of eight feet in well 49, a well 760 feet
deep in the northeastern part of the county, on the barrier
beach. Thepressurehead ina wellnear Wabassois reported
by the owner to have risen 15 feet immediately after dry
periods, but fluctuations in other wells on the mainland are
generally not more than about two feet, and the recovery in
the well near Wabasso must havebeen due in large part to a
reduction in withdrawal in the vicinity.

A comparison of the measurements ofwater levels made
in previous years with those made during the present investi-
gation indicated that the piezometric surface in a well at
Fellsmere was 30 feet above the land surface in 1913. The
piezometric surface in the same area was 23 feet above the
land surface on October 18, 1951, when the draft of water
was at a minimum. Many small domestic supply wells, which
are cased only to shallow depths, but extend to the Floridan
aquifer are scattered throughout the Fellsmere area, and
through these wells water doubtless leaks from the Floridan
aquifer into shallow deposits, thus loweringthe piezometric
surface.

Stringfield (1936, p. 168) reported that the artesian
pressure headat well 10 in Vero Beach was 35 feetabove the
land surface at some unstated time prior to 1936. The head
of well 10 couldn't be measured during the present investi-
gation, but that of well 200, which is nearby and is similar
in altitude and depth, was 25 feetabove the surface in 1951.
The apparent decline of 10 feet is probably due in part to
leakage through wells and in part to an increase in withdrawal
in the citrus groves southwest of Vero Beach.

Figure 7 shows the altitude and configuration of the piezo-
metric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Indian River County.
The measurements of artesian pressure head on which this
mapis based were made over a period of severalweeks during
October 1951. The figure.shows that the slope of the piezo-
metric surface increases along the east edge of the county
probably because of faulting along the coastal area (fig.
5). To the north, the increase in the slope of the piezometric
surface is accentuated by the withdrawal of water from
numerous irrigation wells. In the northern area, artesian








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OAIICHOIE2 COUNl //ERO



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Figure 7. Map representing approximately the piezometric surface in wells
penetrating the Floridan aquifer in IndianRiver County, October 1951.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


pressure heads rose more than eight feet immediately after
a rain. The rise represented a recovery of pressures after
irrigation wells were turned off.

The cone of depression southwest of Vero Beach is not
a permanent feature. Its depth and expanse vary in response
to the withdrawal of water for irrigation. After long periods
of heavy withdrawal, the cone may extend as far north as
Wabasso. Measurements of the artesian pressure heads in
the citrus belt were made over a period of four weeks, during
which time the piezometric surface was relatively stable.
The measurements show that the drawdowns in the southern
part of the citrus belt are greater than those in the northern
part, possibly because of differences in withdrawal. How-
ever, discharge tests suggest that the permeability of the
aquifer in the southern part of the area is relatively low,
whichmayaccount at least inpart for thefact that the draw-
downs are greater there than in the northern part.


Quality of Water

A few chemical analyses were made of water from the
nonartesian aquifer and the Floridan aquifer as a part of the
investigation. The results of these analyses are shown in
table 1. In addition, numerous samples of water fromwells
throughout Indian River County were analyzed for chloride
content only. These analyses are given in table 4.


Nonartesian Aquifer

Ground water from the nonartesian aquifer in Indian
River County is moderately mineralized, much less so than
that from the Floridan aquifer (p. 32). Table 1 shows a com-
parison of the water from the two aquifers. The shallow water
at Vero Beach meets the standards for an acceptable public
water supply but is very hard and contains an objectionable
quantity of iron. Most of the hardness is due to a relatively
high content of calcium. The nonartesian aquifer probably
will supply moderate quantities of water of low chloride con-
tent throughout the county, except in the areas immediately







Table 1. ChemicalAnalysis of Ground Water from Indian River County
(Results in parts per million except color, pH, and specific conductance)


Nonartesian aquifer


Floridan aquifer


Composite
4 wells
Vero Beachl
60 ft.'


Dissolved solids
Total hardness as CaCO3
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Noncarbonate hardness as CaCO3
Silica (SiO2)
Iron (Fe)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Carbonate (C03)
Sulfate (504)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Color
pH
Specific conductance (micrombos)
Temperature (*F)
Date of collection


1.5
110


Well 25 Well 101
19 ft. 660 ft.


.192
109


1,475
450
154
296

.05
82
60


348
0
5.5
26


40
7.7
582

May 8, 1953


Fellsmere
supply1
500 ft.


1,230
468
158
310

8.0
89
60


192

117
440
.9

5


75


Well
730


74
48
153
5
188
0
155
285


5
7
1,460

May 8, 19


202
z




0
ft002
i !






.2







.3

.9


153


1Analysis by Florida State Board of Health.
2Iron in solution at time of analysis.


__





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Pamlico Sand

The name Pamlico sand was applied to sediments in
Florida by Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 74-75). The forma-
tion includes all marine Pleistocene deposits younger than
the Anastasia formation. In Indian River County it consists
of gray to brown medium-grained quartz sand and is exposed
throughout that part of the county that lies below the 25-foot
shoreline, which is considered to be the shoreline of the
Pamlico sea. It ranges from less than one foot in thickness
near its edge to a probable thickness of more than 40 feet
beneath the coastal ridge.


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of
saturation the zone in which allpore spaces are filled with
water under greater than atmospheric pressure. It is re-
plenished by rain that falls on the earth's surface. Only a
part of the rain reaches the zone of saturation, however.
Part of it returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration,
and part drains overland into lakes and streams.

Ground water moves laterally, under the influence of
gravity, toward places of discharge such as wells, springs,
surface streams, and lakes. Where it is not confined and its
surface is free to rise and fall, it is said to be under non-
artesian conditions, and its upper surface is called the water
table. Where the water is confined in a permeable bed by a
relatively impermeable bed, its surface is not free to rise
and fall and it is said to be under artesian conditions. The
term "artesian" is applied to ground water that is confined
under sufficient pressure to rise above the top of the perme-
able bed that contains it, but not necessarily above the land
surface. The height to which water will rise in an artesian
well is called the artesian pressure head.

An aquifer is a formation, group of formations, or part
of a formation, in the zone of saturation, that is permeable
enough to transmit usable quantities of water. Areas in which
aquifers are replenished are called recharge areas. Areas





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


adjacent to bodies of salt water. Table 4 shows that water
from wells 88, 94, and 111, which draw from the nonartesian
aquifer on the barrier beach, had chloride contents of 242,
325, and 205 ppm respectively.

Shallow Artesian Aquifer

The water in the artesian aquifer within the Hawthorn
formation in central and western Indian River County also is
of better quality than that in the Floridan aquifer. Well 176,
east of Fellsmere, is believed to draw water from this aquifer.
The water from this well has a chloride content of 155 ppm and
a total hardness of 230 ppm. The water from well 177, which
is 330 feet east of well 176 and which penetrates the Floridan
aquifer, has a chloride content of 360 ppm. The total hard-
ness of the water from the Floridan aquifer in the Fellsmere
area is about 480 ppm. The concentration of dissolved solids
in the water from the shallow artesian aquifer is considerably
lower than that in water from the Floridan aquifer. Water
from the shallow artesian aquifer is much less hard than
water from the Floridan aquifer.

Many wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer do not have
casings set deep enough to seal off the limestone aquifer
within the Hawthorn formation. Thus, vertical flow through
the wells, as a result of the greater pressure in the deeper
strata, may cause the shallower water to become more
mineralized.

Impermeable clay underlying the shallow artesian aquifer
will act as a barrier against vertical salt-water encroachment
in areas where no leakage occurs through uncased wells.
The probable lenticular nature of the aquifer, plus the sur-
rounding clayey material, will offer protection also from
lateral encroachment of water of high chloride content.

Floridan Aquifer

Chemical analyses of water from three wells penetrating
the Floridan aquifer indicate that the water is hard and rela-
tively high in dissolved solids. The results from these few





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


analyses are no true indication of the overall quality of the
water, but they suggest a coastward increase in mineraliza-
tion.

A progressive change, with time, in the quality of the
water from well 10 (660 feet deep) is shown in the following
table:

1921 1924 1949 1950 1951
Aug. Oct. Oct. Jan. Dec.

Dissolved solids 1,000 1,050 1,475 1,560
Total hardness 335 250 450 442
Chloride 270 291 455 625 550 630
Sulfate 70 83 143 150


Analyses made by the Deerfield Groves Company during
a 7-year period (table 2) show increases in the chloride con-
tent of the water in some of the company's wells. These
increases may be the result of increased withdrawal from
the aquifer in the easternpart of the county in recent years.
Such increased withdrawal and consequent lowering of the
piezometric surface could cause salt-water encroachment
from the deeper zones. The increased chloride content may
be due also to upward movement of salty water through the
uncased wellbores of many deep wells that have been drilled,
as the artesian head in the deep zones is probably higher
than it is in the shallow zones.

Wells penetrating more than about 275 to 300 feet into
the Floridan aquifer probably yield water containing more
than 100 ppm of chloride. Determinations of the chloride
content of water samples taken at intervals of 20 feet during
the drilling of wells show that the content increases gradually
withdepth inmost wells (fig. 8). These analyses, which give
the chloride content of mixtures of water from all producing
zones, show that water in some zones is more highly mineral-
ized than that in others. Table 3 shows that there is not much
lateral change in the chloride content of the water in different
areas in the easternpart of the county. The gradual increase
in the chloride content of the water with depth and its fairly





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


uniform lateral distribution suggest that it does not originate
from recent salt-water encroachment. Recent salt-water
encroachment should bring about a nonuniform lateral dis-
tribution of chloride content.

The occurrence of zones of salty water within the Floridan
aquifer (fig. 8) suggests that the relatively high chloride
content of the water is caused by a residue of sea water.
The sea water either was contained in the sediments when
they were deposited or entered the aquifer later when it was
covered by ancient seas. The movement of artesian water
through the aquifer from areas of recharge to areas of dis-
charge has flushed out most of this salt water.

The available data are insufficient to permit evaluation
of the danger that heavy withdrawals of ground water might
cause with respect to salt-water encroachment into the
Floridan aquifer. More geologic information is needed
concerning the presence or absence of impermeable beds and
more data are needed on the salinity of water in other parts
of the aquifer.


QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER

Theory

The ability of an aquifer to transmit and store water is
expressed in terms of the coefficients of transmissibility and
storage. The coefficient of transmissibility is defined by
Theis (1938, p. 894) as the number of gallons of water, at
the prevailing water temperature, that will move in one day
through a vertical strip of the aquifer, having a width of one
foot and a height equal to the full thickness of the aquifer,
under a unit hydraulic gradient. The coefficient of storage
of an aquifer is defined as the volume of water it releases
from or takes into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer
per unit change in the component of head normal to that sur-
face.

Pumping tests were made on wells tapping the Floridan
aquifer, to determine the coefficients of transmissibility and





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Table 2.. Change in Chloride Content of Water in Selected
Wells from 1940 to 1947. (Analysis made by
Deerfield Groves)


Well
No.
51


Depth
(feet)
800


650


550


600


550


500


Date
2-15-40
9-12-47

2-15-40
9-12-47

2-15-40
9-12-47

2-15-40
9-12-47

2-15-40
9-12-47

2-15-40
9-12-47


..^---I1--~~


BAD- ------- ----- -- --
5 6.00 -- -- -- -- -- ---f- -- -- -- -- -- U -
S7 1000 - --- -- --- --


(I i IoI -
60--- -- ~0- -----Y ----k--A-'- -
ILI 7 '
g~~~~ -/_- _ __-_ _

u i i / /
PT

0 -_ I i I I _


Ttoo nF 4o o TE B Oa L oo BoSU
DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE


Chloride
ppm
255
710


576
724

255
326

213
440

497
553

326
440


900 1.000 1,ro1


Graph showing the general increase in chloride
concentration with depth in certain wells pene-
trating the Floridan aquifer.


Figure 8.







Table 3. Lateral Distribution of Chloride Content of Water in Wells ending in the Floridan Aquifer


Description of area
(see figure 2)


Average
depth of wells
(feet)


Average depth
to top of
aquifer
(feet)


Average
penetration
of aquifer
(feet)


Along Lateral "B" from Florida State
Highway 60 to St. Lucie County line

Along Lateral "A" from Wabasso to
Florida State Highway 60

On mainland along Indian River from
Wabasso to St. Lucie County line

Along road from Wabasso to Florida
State Highway 512

Sebastian

On barrier beach, from Wabasso
south


*Insufficient data on depth


Average
chloride
(ppm)


400


400


400


634


625


627


308


234


225


277


480

480


387


353


303


327

442


554





INFORMATION CIRCULAR- NO. 18


storage. In these tests, the lowering of the artesian pressure
head (caused by well flowing at a known rate) was measured
periodically in observation wells at known distances from the
discharging well. Plots of these water-level data (figs. 9,
10) were used to determine the transmissibility and storage
coefficients by means of equations which express the rela-
tionship between the coefficients and the measured quantities.

The basic formula used is the Theis nonequilibrium
formula (Wenzel, 1942, p. 87):


s = 114.6Q
T


e-u
U du
u


1. 87r2S
Tt


where s is the drawdown, in feet, at any point in the vicinity of




r2/t (ft'/doy)
10 10 IOs 10
_=1.0o,-- --- --







s(ft.)



u = 0.1
W (u) 1.83 __
s = 0.70
Sr/ = 7.8 -106
T = 114 x 0 x W(u)- -
S
T = 114 x 500 x .83 15000 g/d/ft.
= uTt 0.I x 1.5 x 105 x 10-6 _
1.87r2 1.87 x T.
.01


Figure 9. Logarithmic plot of s against r2 for well 46, well
48 discharging
48 discharging...




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


a well discharging at a uniform rate;Q is the rate of discharge,
in gallons per minute; T is the coefficient of transmissibility
of the aquifer, in gallons per day per foot; r is the distance,
in feet, from the pumped well to the point of observation;
S is the coefficient of storage; and t is -the time, in days,
that the well has been discharging. The formula is used to
determine the coefficients of transmissibility and storage
graphically by the superposition of a plot of the observed
data upon a type curve (fig. 11) by the method devised by
Theis and described also by Jacob (1940).

The method is based on several simplifying assumptions,
including the following: (1) The aquifer is of infinite areal
extent and is uniform in thickness, (2) the aquifer is homo-
geneous and isotropic (transmits water with equal ease in all
directions), (3) T andS are constant, and (4) water is released
from storage instantaneously with a decline in artesian head.




rt/t (ft2/doy)
105 10 107 108
10






s (t) ui O .
u 0.1
LO W (u)= -1.83
s 1. 60
r 1.85 x 106 -- __
-- T 114 x 0 x W(u)
T 114 x 280 X 1.83 36, 000 p/d/ft.1
uTt 0.1 x 3.6 X 104 1
S 87rt 1.87 x 1.85 x IO =

.10 l I I III I 1 1 1

Figure 10. Logarithmic plot of s against 2 for well 108,
well 107 discharging. t




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


^ ^ __ -:= --z -s :: : = ::
B_ --


1.0- -v -




,o0 -__ ---.--___

^ ^ ^ iE..... ",, !!


S 114.6 Q W(u)
s- T

, W(u)= J.87r S
Zi Tt
|-=


Curve B scoal


0.11
0.001


Figure 11. Logarithmic graph of the type curve.


10.


10.0


scale H


n, ,,,,,,


- du
.I i i i i i i I II-


I-H ."


. 1





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Discussion of Tests

Several pumping tests were made on wells in the Floridan
aquifer on the barrier beach. (See fig. 2 for locations.) The
results of two tests are given below:

Distance from Coefficient Coefficient
Obser- discharging oftrans- of
ovation 'Depth, well, feet missibility storage
well feet (r) (T) (S)
Test
No. 1 47 700 116 150,000 0.0014
49 760 860 145,000 .0014
46 850 1,230 150,000 .001

Test
No. 3 108 860 730 36,000 .001
104 990 740 56,000 .0005

In test No. 1, well 48 (700 feet deep) discharged at a rate
of 500 gpm for 95 hours. In test No. 3, well 107 (990 feet
deep) discharged at 280 gpm for 67 hours.

Discharge rates were measured with an orifice meter
in all tests. Drawdowns in the most distant observation wells
were measured with a mercury manometer, and those in
other observation wells were measured with pressure gage
calibrated in feet of water. All tests were made during
periods when other wells in the area were not discharging
and the piezometric surface had reached essential equilib-
rium.


Electric Logs

Figure 12 shows the electric logs of four flowing wells
and various geologic contacts based on well cuttings. These
logs were made by the single-point resistance method (Guyod,
1944) and show only the relative changes in apparent resis-
tivity and self-potential with depth. These logs are, there-
fore, most useful for correlation purposes and cannot be used







INFORMATION CIRCUIAR.:NO. 18


ST. L. 48


NOTE:
FORMATION CONTACTS ARE PLACED AT TRE POSITION
INDICATED IN THE WELL LOGS TWE LINES TO THE
LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE WELL. RESPECTIVELY. SHOW
SELF POTENTIAL ESD RESISTANCE EXPRESSED IN
MILLIVOLTS AN OHMS, AS Im.cAEED aT THE BARRsD
1-L~


Figure 12.


Electric logs of selected flowing wells in Indian

River County, showing correlation with rock

cuttings.


201


37


107


300


500





o60o


1.000


900





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


by themselves for a quantitative determination of the fluid
content or water-bearing properties of the rocks.

The only parts of the geologic section that are correla-
tive from well to well, on the basis of the electric logs,
are the horizons where a very sharp shift in negative self-
potential is noted, at a depth of about 340 feet, and where a
characteristic resistance occurs at 360 to 400 feet below the
land surface in wells 201, 107, and StL 48, on the barrier
beach.

The increases in self-potential that occur above the top
of the limestone, at the contact between the Hawthornforma-
tion and the Oligocene rocks and between the Hawthorn and
the Ocala limestone, may mark the top of the Floridan aquifer
at those places. Well cuttings show sandy limestones and
sandy clays at the unconformity that are more permeable
than the overlying clays and are more properly considered
a part of the aquifer than a part of the confining beds.


Ground-Water Use

Most of the water withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer
in the county is used for irrigation of citrus crops, which
are grown in relatively small areas. These areas include
the northern part of the barrier beach opposite Wabasso and
a belt a few miles wide, on the mainland, paralleling the
coast and extending from the headwaters of the Sebastian
River to the St. Lucie County line. The barrier beach is
the onlypart of the county where the well inventory is com-
plete. The withdrawal of water in this area is probably
typical of that in all the citrus-producing areas; therefore,
a discussion of water use in this area is given in the follow-
ing paragraphs.

There are 96 flowing wells on the barrier beach, all of
which are north of Vero Beach. Of these, 91 are north of
the old Winter Beach bridge, in an area of about six square
miles. In these six square miles, half the land is under
cultivation; thus, there is about one well for every 20 acres
of cultivated land.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


The total discharge from 91 wells is more than 23:million
gpd when all wells are in use. Ground water is in greatest
demand when the fruit trees are in bloom and there are no
rains to hold the bloom. The time depends upon the weather,
but, in general, the draft is heaviest in late winter and early
spring. One citrus producer estimates that, on the average,
his wells discharge about two weeks out of the month during
January, February, March, and April and about one week
out of the month during the remainder of the year. If all the
wells were to discharge 16 weeks a year, the annual discharge
would amount to about 2. 5 billion gallons. In exceptionally
dry weather, however, heavy irrigation starts as early as
September; thus, the annual discharge differs greatly from
year to year.

The flow from wells is used also to lift water to drain
lowlands near the Sebastian River, by means of a venturi
tube on the discharge pipe of the well. In some installations
the venturi tube is submerged so that the water to be drained
enters the tube directly. In others the venturi tube is mounted
above the water, and water is drawn into the tube through a
lift pipe. Flowing wells used for drainage are known locally
as siphon wells.

A small quantity of water is taken from the Floridan
aquifer for use in cooling generators in the power plant of
the city of Vero Beach. The temperature of the water in
Vero Beach is not know, but in the Wabasso area the average
temperature is 76, 77*, 78", and 79"F in wells that are
500, 600, 700 and 1,000 feet deep, respectively.

Water from the Floridan aquifer is used for domestic
purposes in rural areas, usually after aeration to remove
hydrogen sulfide gas. A relatively small amount of water
is taken from the Floridan aquifer for the watering of stock,
because ponds of surface water are usually available in the
grazing areas and because there is a belief that hydrogen
sulfide in the water contributes to the severity of the effect
of liver flukes in cattle.

Comparisons of the chloride contents of the raw water
from the nonartesian aquifer and the Floridan aquifer with






40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

that of the treated mixture from the water plant at Vero Beach
indicates that the quantities of the twowaters usedin Decem-
ber 1952 were about equal. According to the water plant oper-
ator's estimate, about 800,000 gallons of water were treated
per day; thus, about 400, 000 gpd were drawn from the non-
artesian aquifer. The yields of individual wells are not known.

A few shallow sandpoint wells obtain water from the
nonartesian aquifer for small domestic supplies inpopulated
areas. Onthe southernpart of barrier beach, the nonartesian
aquifer supplies water for irrigation and domestic supplies
and the deeper wells in the nonartesian aquifer in this area
(approximately 50 feet deep) supply water for swimming
pools. The water from these deeper wells is not very satis-
factory because it is salty and high in iron content.

Few data are available concerning the utilization of water
from the shallow artesian aquifer within the Hawthorn forma-
tion, in the western part of the county. If water from the
Floridan aquifer becomes too highly mineralized to be pota-
ble, the shallow artesian aquifer may become the main source
of supply in that area. More data should be obtained concern-
ing recharge, water levels, and the quality of water from
this aquifer, in order to determine its potentialities.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Most of the ground water in Indian River County is ob-
tained from the Floridan aquifer, which underlies most of
Florida and southeastern Georgia. This aquifer yields water
to more than 2,000 irrigation and domestic wells in the county,
and supplies some water for municipal systems. The Lake
City limestone, Avon Park limestone, and Ocala group, of
Eocene age, and rocks of Oligocene age contribute most of the
water to wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer, although a
small quantity is obtained from the lower part of the Hawthorn
formation. Inthe southern part of the barrier beach, rocks of
Oligocene age of relatively low permeability thicken consider-
ably and the highly permeable Eocene rocks are relatively
deep and yield only salty water. In this area, the yield from
Oligocene and Miocene rocks is too small to warrant the
drilling of wells. Pumping-test data for two areas on the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


uniform lateral distribution suggest that it does not originate
from recent salt-water encroachment. Recent salt-water
encroachment should bring about a nonuniform lateral dis-
tribution of chloride content.

The occurrence of zones of salty water within the Floridan
aquifer (fig. 8) suggests that the relatively high chloride
content of the water is caused by a residue of sea water.
The sea water either was contained in the sediments when
they were deposited or entered the aquifer later when it was
covered by ancient seas. The movement of artesian water
through the aquifer from areas of recharge to areas of dis-
charge has flushed out most of this salt water.

The available data are insufficient to permit evaluation
of the danger that heavy withdrawals of ground water might
cause with respect to salt-water encroachment into the
Floridan aquifer. More geologic information is needed
concerning the presence or absence of impermeable beds and
more data are needed on the salinity of water in other parts
of the aquifer.


QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER

Theory

The ability of an aquifer to transmit and store water is
expressed in terms of the coefficients of transmissibility and
storage. The coefficient of transmissibility is defined by
Theis (1938, p. 894) as the number of gallons of water, at
the prevailing water temperature, that will move in one day
through a vertical strip of the aquifer, having a width of one
foot and a height equal to the full thickness of the aquifer,
under a unit hydraulic gradient. The coefficient of storage
of an aquifer is defined as the volume of water it releases
from or takes into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer
per unit change in the component of head normal to that sur-
face.

Pumping tests were made on wells tapping the Floridan
aquifer, to determine the coefficients of transmissibility and






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


barrier beach indicate that the permeability of the Floridan
aquifer decreases southward.

Measurements of water levels in wells show that the
piezometric surface in the county has declined several feet
during the past two or three decades. The maximum fluctu-
ation of water level observed in any well during the period
April 1951 to July 195Z was eight feet. The declines were
generally greatest in the areas southwest of Vero Beach and
in the northern part of the barrier beach where large amounts
of water were withdrawn for irrigation. The progressive
lowering of the piezometric surface is due partly to irriga-
tion pumping and partly to upward leakage, through wells,
into shallower sediments..

The Floridan aquifer could become contaminated by sea
water, owing to the lowering of the piezometric surface, but
no evidence of this type of contamination has yet been noted.
The only observed increase in chloride content seems to have
been caused by the rise of highly mineralized water from
deep parts of the aquifer, in response to the lowering inhead
caused by irrigation withdrawals.

The nonartesian aquifer is capable of yielding moderate
amounts of water, and the water is of better quality than that
from the Floridan aquifer. Vero Beach obtains its water
supply from an artesian zone in the nonartesian aquifer ata
depth of about 60 feet.

More quantitative and qualitative data are required in
order to evaluate the potential of the Floridan aquifer and
the shallower aquifers and to delineate the areas in which
the quality of water is-or may become poor because of con-
tamination by water of high chloride content.


WELL LOGS

The differentiation of the formations in the following logs
is based upon lithology, lithologic sequences, and foramin-
iferal faunas. As with many wells logs, the exact point of





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


contact between two formations may be interpreted differ-
entlybyvarious workers. Stratigraphic determinations were
most difficult in the post-Oligocene sediments. The Tampa
limestone is apparently missing. The Hawthorn formation
is present, but the boundary between it and the overlying
Tamiami formation cannot be determined exactly. Similarly,
the boundary between the upper Miocene and post-Miocene
sediments cannot be determined exactly. However, the con-
tacts within these post-Oligocene sediments have been placed
at definite points in both the well logs and geologic cross
sections. These tentative stratigraphic determinations may
need some revisions in the future, when more well cuttings
are available from the area. The post-Miocene deposits
have been identifiedas Pleistocene, but part of them may be
of Pliocene age.


Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface

Well BR 762 SE-SW sec. 25, T. 30S., R. 38 E., Brevard
County. Land surface altitude is about 15 feet above mean
sea level.

Fort Thompson(?) formation
No sample........................ 0 105
Sand and shells; sand, gray, fine to
verycoarse, with some phosphorite. 105 121

Tamiami(?) formation
Clay, green, with sand and phosphorite
as above and some white to light
green silt. Shark's teeth......... 121 142
Clay, dark green, finely sandy, hard.
Mollusk fragments ............... 142 163

Hawthorn formation
Sand, olive-drab, quartz, coarse to
very coarse, averaging coarse,
clayey, with phosphorite pebbles.
Mollusk fragments..................... 163 184





INFORMATION CIRCULAR. NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface


Clay, bluish-green to gray, finely
phosphatic, with some white to light
brown sandy, silty, phosphatic
lim estone .......................
Clay, olive-drab, phosphatic. Mollusk
fragments. ......................
Clay, blue-green, phosphatic; green
shale; olive-drab chert............
Clay, brown to light green, with peb-
bles of phosphorite...............

Rocks of Oligocene age
Limestone, cream-colored to tan,
soft, porous, granular, calcitic,
silty, clayey, phosphatic, slightly
glauconitic. Mollusk fragments,
echinoid spines, Foraminifera,
(Nodosaria sp. ?, Lepidocyclina
sp. ?, Operculinoides sp.)........
As above, plus crab claws, fish bones,
and barnacle plates ..............

Crystal River formation
Limestone, white,hard to soft, chalky,
glauconitic. Discocyclina (Asterocy-
clina) georgiana, Operculinoides
ocalanus................... .....
Limestone, white, softer than above,
chalky, Foraminifera coquina in
lower part, contains above forms
plus Lepidocyclina ocalana, some
echinoids and brachiopods ........
Limestone, cream-colored, soft.
Fauna as above plus miliolids .....


184 199

199 219

219 238

238 280










280 341

341 346


346 350





350 361

361 382


Williston and Inglis formations, undifferentiated
Limestone, gray-buff, very hard.
Fauna as above .................. 38
As above, plus some cream-colored
miliolid limestone ............... 40


2 -403

3 408





44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface

Well 24 SE*NE* sec. 3, T. 33 S., R. 39 E., Indian River
County. Land surface altitude is about 22 feet above mean
sea level. (Adapted from a log by R. 0. Vernon)


Pleistocene deposits, undifferentiated
Sand, fine to medium, curvilinear,
quartz in which numerous mollusk
shells retaining much of their orig-
inal lustre are present ...........
Coquina, a broken, loose mass of
mollusk shells as above, containing
loose grains of quartz sand as above.
Coquina as 61-81, shells larger and
more massive structures. Very
little sand ......................
Coquina, a broken, loose mass of
mollusk shells, the majority being
medium gray, eroded, lustreless
and some being phosphatic. A few
pebbles of phosphorite and quartz
sand grains. Elphidium gunteri,
Rotalia beccarii var., Elphidium
incertum.......................
Coquina, as 95-100;light brown sandy,
phosphoritic, dense, soft marl...

Tamiami(?) formation
Coquina, a loose mass of brokenmol-
lusk shells, retaining their original
lustre and set in a light brownish-
gray, sandy, dense, soft marl.
Elphidium gunteri, Amphistegina
lessoni, Rotalia beccarii, Eponides
sp., Elphidium incertum, Sorites
sp., Cythereis exanthemata var.;
Bryozoa; some quartz sand and the
marl of 100-102 .................
Marl, light brownish-gray, sandy,
phosphatic shelly ...............


0- 61


61 81


81 95








95 100

100 102













102 121

121 127






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface


.Limestone, marly, as 121-127;border
of mollusks leached to a calcite dust.
Crystalline calcite indicates a mi-
nutely vuggy porosity. Well pre-
served oyster shells .............
Limestone, marly, light brownish-
green, soft. Textularia agglutinous,
Planulinadepressa, Planularia sp.,
Robulus sp., Robulus sp. cf. R.
floridanus, Elphidium poeyanum,
Nonion pizarrensis, Bulimina
gracilis, Bolivina marginata multi-
costata .........................
Sand, black to gray, medium to coarse,
clear quartz and polished phospho-
rite .............................
No sample. .......................
Clay, light brownish-green, calcar-
eous, soft, massive, granular,
phosphoritic. Fish teeth and scales
fairly common. Foraminifers and
large fragments of an oyster; cal-
careous sandstone; gray phosphatic
lim estone.......................

Hawthorn formation
Sand, clear and gray, coarse to me-
dium, subrounded quartz; black to
gray phosphorite. Fragments of an
oyster; white calcareous sandstone.
Sand as above; light tan marl; coquina
of small foraminifers; quartz and
phosphorite sand grains in a soft,
poorly porous marly matrix.
Textularia articulata, T. mayor,
Planulina depressa, Cibicides
floridana, Dyocibicides biserialis,
Robulus sp. Textulariella sp.,
Cythereis garreti, Hemicythere


127 141








141 160


160 178
178 181







181 237






237 269


45





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface


conradi, Cythereis exanthemata,
and others......................
Limestone, light tan, marly, crystal-
line, fairly hard, sand sized phos-
phorite grains 25 percent of the rock.
Medium gray marly, very hard,
brittle, sandy, clayey limestone;
phosphorite pebbles, black to gray,
30 percent of sample .............
No sample ......................
Clay, light greenish-gray, hard,
dense; brittle, indurated silicified
fuller's earth; phosphorite and quartz
sand .......................
Marl, light tan, phosphoritic, sandy,
granular, soft, dense ............
Phosphorite, tan to brown, radiolarian
casts, sandy, probably held in a
light tan, crystalline marl; tan hard
dense sandy, phosphoritic lime-
stone; oyster fragments; fuller's
earth............................

Rocks of Oligocene age(?)
Limestone, cream-colored, yellow-
ish, fragmental, marine, porous,
soft; Grains of calcite, star fish and
brittle star plates, loosely set in a
calcite paste; brown hard dense
cryptocrystalline, sandy, phospho-
ritic limestone (cavings?). Robulus
sp., Eponides sp. Anomalina cf.
mississippiensis, Cythereis sp.,
Cytheridea sp. ..................

Crystal River formation
Limestone, cream-colored, porous,
soft, fragmental, marine, a coquina
of large foraminifers, mollusks and


269 286







286 305
305 317




317 363

363 -.383






383 394













394 500





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


small foraminifers loosely held in
calcite paste. Lepidocyclina sp.,
Camerina sp., common ..........


500 517


Williston and Inglis formations, undifferentiated
Limestone, cream-colored, fragmen-
tal, porous, friable, marine. Grains
of calcite and microfossils in calcite
paste. First Camerina moody-
branchensis, Operculinoides oca-
lanus, Amphistegina pinarensis
common. First Fabiania cubensis
fragments at 568-580............. 517 580
Limestone, cream-colored, porous,
friable, fragmental, marine, a mil-
iolid-rich, granular rock with few
large foraminifers. Fabiania cuben-
sis, Amphistegina pinarensis ..... 580 671


Well 107 NW-NE1 sec. 35, T. 31 S., R. 39 E., Indian
River County. Land surface altitude is about five feet above
mean sea level. (Adapted from a log by R. 0. Vernon)


Hawthorn formation
No sample.......................
Sand, medium to coarse, subrounded
quartz and phosphorite, containing
fragments of mollusk shells; green-
ish-gray very argillaceous marl ..
Limestone and marl, cream-colored
to green, hard, dense, sandy .....
Marl, tan to light greenish-gray,
sandy, phosphoritic, foraminiferal.
Contains Miocene Foraminifera
from in the Cancellaria and Arca
zones of western Florida, including
Textulariella sp., Textulariaagglu-
tinans, T. gramen?, Cibicides


0 235




235 246

246 267





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


americana, Lenticularia sp., and
Robulus sp ....................
Marl, light greenish-gray, finely
crystalline, pasty; sand grains of
phosphorite, quartz, fish bone and
teeth; many foram'inifers, and scat-
tered radiolarians ...............
Fuller's earth, light greenish, hard,
dense, phosphoritic..............

Rocks of Oligocene age
Limestone, cream-colored, granular,
porous, soft, composed of detrital
grains of calcite, foraminifers,
echinoid plates and broken mollusks,
loosely set in a pasty calcite matrix.
Limestone as above, a few microfos-
sils, abundant fragments of mollusks
andechinoids; dark gray dense chert
fragments. Pterygocythereis (?)
alexander, Cibicides mississippi-
ensis and fossils above...........
Limestone, white to cream-colored,
pasty, porous, soft. Sample contains
abundant fragments of barnacle
plates and scattered mollusk frag-
ments. Operculinoides sp., Lepi-
docyclina sp., and smaller foramin-
ifers from above................
Limestone, cream-colored, finely
granular, soft, fairly porous, fine
calcite grains in pasty matrix.
Coffee-colored chert 10-15 percent
of sample.......................
Sample as above, chert up to 60 per-
cent of sample............ ....
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
porous, microfossiliferous; very


267 287





Z87 308

308 400


400 432






432 474







474 515





515 520

520 557





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


finely granular calcite grains. For-
aminifera and mollusk fragments set
in a pasty matrix. Scattered chert
fragments. A fauna found in the Red
Bluff clay and Marianna limestone
and ranging into the Byram forma-
tion including Liebusella byram-
ensis, (abundant), Textularia sub-
bauerii, T. conica, Lenticulina
rotulata, Nodosaria sp., and com-
mon ostracods.................

Crystal River formation
Limestone as above, but with Eponides
carolinensis, Gyroidina sp., of the
Ocala limestone .................
Coquina, cream-colored, soft, porous,
pasty. Foraminifera:Operculinoides
sp., and Lepidocyclina sp., promin-
ent, includes some of the Foramin-
ifera above, Asterocyclina sp.,
Gypsina sp., Operculinoides mari-
annensis........................
Coquina, cream-colored, soft, porous.
Foraminifera: Asterocyclina com-
mon, Gypsina, Amphistegina pinar-
ensis, Camerina moodybranchensis
(?) .............................
Limestone, cream-colored to gray,
coquinoid, porous, soft, friable
grains of calcite, and Foraminifera
in a pasty matrix. Fossil mixture
of all Eocene above. More granular
than sample from 676-754 ........
Coquina of large Foraminifera,
largely Lepidocyclina ocalana (about
95 percent) and rare smaller Fora-
minifera......... ...... ......


557 618





618 638







638 676





676 754






754 910


910 1010






40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

that of the treated mixture from the water plant at Vero Beach
indicates that the quantities of the twowaters usedin Decem-
ber 1952 were about equal. According to the water plant oper-
ator's estimate, about 800,000 gallons of water were treated
per day; thus, about 400, 000 gpd were drawn from the non-
artesian aquifer. The yields of individual wells are not known.

A few shallow sandpoint wells obtain water from the
nonartesian aquifer for small domestic supplies inpopulated
areas. Onthe southernpart of barrier beach, the nonartesian
aquifer supplies water for irrigation and domestic supplies
and the deeper wells in the nonartesian aquifer in this area
(approximately 50 feet deep) supply water for swimming
pools. The water from these deeper wells is not very satis-
factory because it is salty and high in iron content.

Few data are available concerning the utilization of water
from the shallow artesian aquifer within the Hawthorn forma-
tion, in the western part of the county. If water from the
Floridan aquifer becomes too highly mineralized to be pota-
ble, the shallow artesian aquifer may become the main source
of supply in that area. More data should be obtained concern-
ing recharge, water levels, and the quality of water from
this aquifer, in order to determine its potentialities.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Most of the ground water in Indian River County is ob-
tained from the Floridan aquifer, which underlies most of
Florida and southeastern Georgia. This aquifer yields water
to more than 2,000 irrigation and domestic wells in the county,
and supplies some water for municipal systems. The Lake
City limestone, Avon Park limestone, and Ocala group, of
Eocene age, and rocks of Oligocene age contribute most of the
water to wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer, although a
small quantity is obtained from the lower part of the Hawthorn
formation. Inthe southern part of the barrier beach, rocks of
Oligocene age of relatively low permeability thicken consider-
ably and the highly permeable Eocene rocks are relatively
deep and yield only salty water. In this area, the yield from
Oligocene and Miocene rocks is too small to warrant the
drilling of wells. Pumping-test data for two areas on the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface

Note: Robert O. Vernon (personal communication,
1951) indicates that this well definitely penetrated a section
of limestones of Oligocene age having characteristics of the
Oligocene of western Florida, the Byram formation and
Marianna limestone. The samples from 676-754 feet contain
elements of the basal Ocala group (Williston and Inglis for-
mations), but the samples from 910-1010 feet are typical of
the uppermost Ocala group (Crystal River formation).

The depth measured during electric logging of this well
is about 20 feet short of the reported depth and may be the
result of caving. The location of the possible top of the Ocala
group can be interpreted from the electric log as occurring
at the same depth as that indicated in this lithologic log. The
electric log suggests that the top of the Vicksburg group may
be 20 feet higher than indicated in this log. The thickness
of the lower part of the Ocalaappears excessive in this well.
The occurrence of a Foraminifera fauna typical of the upper
part of the Ocala group below the lower part of the Ocala
group may indicate caving, although E.W. Bishop (personal
communication, 1953) and M.C. Schroeder (personal com-
munication, 1953) have noted similar occurrences in the
cuttings from wells in other parts of southern Florida. There
is an anomaly on the electric log of this well at 895 feet in
depth which may correspond to an anomaly recorded in the
Avon Park limestone on the electric log of well 202.


Well 161 NE*SE* sec. 4, T. 32 S., R. 39 E., Indian River
County. Land surface altitude is about 33 feet above mean
sea level.

Pleistocene deposits, undifferentiated 0 105
Fort Thompson formation
Sand, gray-brown, quartz, fine to
coarse, average medium, with many
light to dark colored mollusk frag-
ments ......................... 105 126
Limestone, light gray to dark gray,





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


hard to soft, sandy; light olive-drab
clay with phosphorite pebbles and
white to dark colored mollusk frag-
ments, Chione cancellata?........

Tamiami(?) formation
Limestone as above; light to dark
olive-drab phosphatic clay, contain-
ing numerous small Foraminifera .
As above, plus much more clay and
some quartz sand.................

Hawthorn formation
Fuller's earth, dark olive-drab, finely
phosphatic; cream-colored very
hard, sandy limestone. The clay
part of the sample contains numerous
wellpreserved, small Foraminifera
No samples. ......................

Rocks of Oligocene age
Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
clayey, slightly glauconitic, with
some crystalline calcite and gray
chert, fossiliferous (mollusk frag-
ments, molds and casts). Lepido-
cyclina sp. ?, and small Foramin-
ifera ........................
Limestone, tan, soft, granular, clayey;
light blue chert. Fauna as above..

Crystal River formation
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
porous, very glauconitic. Echinoids,
Lepidocyclina ocalana, Heteroste-
gina ocalana, Operculinoides oca-
lanus, Discocyclina (Asterocyclina)
mariannensis.....................


126 147





147 189

189 210


210 231
231 378










378 400

400 420


420 482





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface

Williston(?) and Inglis(?) formations, undifferentiated
As above, plus brown very calcitic
limestone ....................... 482 504


Well116 SEXSE sec. 14, T. 33 S., R. 38
County. Land surface altitude is about 20
sea level.

Avon Park limestone
No sample. .......................
Limestone, light gray to cream-
colored, soft to hard, chalky, porous,
calcitic, fossiliferous. Peronella
dalli, Coskinolina floridana, Dictyo-
conus cookei, Lituonella floridana,
several species of Lepidocyclina and
miliolids........................

Lake City limestone
Lithology as above. Mollusk frag-
ments, echinoid spines, Dictyoconus
americanus .....................
Limestone, white to light gray to.
brown, hard, argillaceous, porous.
Fossiliferous, numerous Dictyo-
conus americanus. ................


E., Indian River
feet above mean




0- 610







610 672


672 693




693 746


Well 187 NE-NE* sec. 33, T. 31 S., R. 35 E., Indian
River County. Land surface altitude is about 40 feet above
mean sea level.

Hawthorn formation
No sample ....................... 0 284
Fuller's earth, tan-gray to gray-
green; white to tanhard sandy, phos-
phatic, finely crystalline limestone,
phosphorite pebbles and quartz sand.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO., 18 53


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


mollusk fragments, shark's teeth..


284 287


Crystal River formation
Limestone, foraminiferal coquina,
cream-colored, soft, porous, chalky.
Composed almost entirely of spec-
imens of Lepidocyclina ocalana.... 287 315

Williston and Inglis formations, undifferentiated
Limestone, cream-colored, "milio-
lid", harder than above, porous.
Camerina moodybranchensis? ..... 315 336

Avon Park limestone
Limestone, reddish-brown, "milio-
lid", hard, very crystalline; white
soft chalky porous fossiliferous
limestone. Peronella dalli, numer-
ous Coskinolina floridana, Spirolina
coryensis, Valvulina intermedia,
Bulimina sp. ..................... 336 347
Limestone, cream-colored, "milio-
lid", hard to soft, porous, chalky,
with crystalline calcite. Fauna as
above........................... 347 389
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
porous, chalky, calcitic .......... 389 420
Limestone, cream-colored to light
brown, soft to hard, granular,
porous, very calcitic. Textularia
coryensis....................... 420 -473
Limestone, cream-colored to light
brown, soft, chalky, porous. Avon
Park fauna ..................... 473 493
As above, but harder and calcitic... 493 504


Well 200-- SE-NE- sec. 2, T. 33 S., R. 39 E., Indian River
County. Land surface altitude is about 15 feet above mean
sea level.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface


Rocks of Oligocene age
No sample.......................
Limestone, gray, soft, silty, granu-
lar, calcitic. Echinoid and mollusk
fragments, Ostracoda, Foramin-
ifera Nodosaria praecatesbyi?
and others....... ...... .........
Limestone, cream-colored to gray,
hard, granular, calcitic, with
material as above, very fossilifer-
ous. Coral, mollusk and echinoid
fragments, Foraminifera Lepi-
docyclina? and others............
As above, plus tan glauconitic clay
containing numerous small Fora-
minifera............ .. ........

Crystal River(?) formation
Limestone, light gray to tan, hard to
soft, glauconitic, chalky to gran-
ular. Fossiliferous Operculinoides
floridensis ...................
Limestone, light gray to cream-
colored, hard, chalky to granular,
slightly glauconitic, porous, cal-
citic. Fossiliferous.............
Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
granular, glauconitic, porous,
fossiliferous. Discocyclina (Aster-
ocyclina) mariannensis and others.
As above, but hard to soft...........
Limestone, cream-colored, hard to
medium hard, chalky, dense.
Mollusk fragments, coral, and
Foraminifera ..................


0 410





410 441






441 462


462 482






482 515




515 -525




525 546
546 588




588 591


Williston(?) and Inglis(?) formations, undifferentiated
Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
granular to chalky, slightly, crys-
talline, fossiliferous. Coral and





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


molds of mollusks ..............
As above, plus numerous Foramin-
ifera. Lepidocyclina ocalana .....
No sample............... ........
Coquina, cream-colored, hard,
porous; slightly porous limestone.
Coral, Foraminifera, mostly Heli-
colopidina? paucispira? ..........


591 620

620 641
641 650



650 700


Well 201 -SW-SW sec. 14, T. 31 S., R. 39 E., Indian
River County. Land surface altitude is about seven feet
above mean sea level.


Hawthorn formation
No sample .......................
Clay, dark green, sandy (medium to
very coarse), shelly. Donax vari-
bilis?, Arca (Anadara) sp. ,
Phacoides sp., and others........
Sand, phosphorite and shells; sand is
olive-drab, quartz, medium to very
coarse, average coarse. Marginella
cf. M.. bella hosfordensis and others.
Clay, dark green to gray, sandy, with
phosphorite pebbles. Mollusk frag-
ments, shark's teeth..............
Clay, light green, hard, dense, phos-
phatic; dark translucent chert.....
As above, plus limestone, cream-
colored, chalky, soft, silty.......

Rocks of Oligocene age
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
chalky, silty, with small grains of
calcite. Barnacle plates, mollusk
fragments, echinoid fragments....
Limestone, cream-colored, harder
than above, calcitic, with material


0 200




200 221



221 224


224 286

286 349

349 360






360 438


55





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


as above and brown chert. Numerous
mollusk fragments ...............
Coquina, cream-colored, with some
glauconite. Echinoid fragments,
Operculinoides sp. ?, and Lepido-
cyclina sp. ? .....................
Limestone, cream-colored to light
gray, hard, chalky. Numerous molds
and casts of mollusks ............
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
chalky, silty. Mollusk fragments .
As above, plus brown to olive-drab
chert. Nodosaria sp. ?...........
Limestone, tan, soft, clayey, sandy,
cherty. Molluskfragments, echinoid
spines, ostracods, Foraminifera..
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
clayey, glauconitic, very fossilif-
erous. Mollusk fragments, echinoid
spines, ostracods and numerous
small Foraminifera, Nodosaria sp. ,
Dentalina sp.....................

Crystal River formation
Limestone, tan, soft, very fossilif-
erous, Operculina mariannensis,
several species of Lepidocyclina,
miliolids and others............ .


438 444



444 454


454 465

465 485

485 505


505 600






600 642






642 747


Williston(?) and Inglis(?) formations, undifferentiated
As above, plus Camerina moody-
branchensis? .................... 747 843

Note: The electric log suggests that the top of the rocks
of Vicksburg age and the Ocala group possibly occurs about
15 and 35 feet higher, respectively, than indicated in this
log.


Well 202 SW-NE sec. 18, T. 33 S. R. 36 E. ,Indian





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


River County. Land surface altitude is about 30 feet above
mean sea level.

Fort Thompson(?) formation
No sample......... .... ........ 0 30
Sand, light to dark gray, quartz, fine
to coarse. Mollusk fragments... 30 42
As above, but with numerous dark
colored shells ................... 42 63
Shell marl, gray to green, sandy,
gray-green crystalline limestone.
Marine mollusks, echinoid spines,
fresh-water gastropods .......... 63 125

Tamiami(?) formation
Clay, olive-drab, sandy, very shelly. 125 195


Hawthorn formation
'Sand, gray to olive-drab, quartz, fine
to coarse; phosphorite and shell
fragments.................. .. ..
Clay, light green to white, phosphatic;
quartz sand; gray to white soft sandy
limestone. Mollusks fragments,
coral, small Foraminifera .......
Clay, gray to blue-green, very phos-
phatic. Mollusk fragments .......

Crystal River formation
Coquina, tan to white, foraminiferal,
fairly hard, slightly porous. Lepi-
docyclina ocalana, Heterostegina
ocalana..................... ....


195 200



200 300

300 355






355 418


Williston and Inglis formations, undifferentiated
Limestone, cream-colored, miliolid,
hard, porous. Echinoid spines, mol-
lusk fragments, Camerina moody-
branchensis ?.................... 418 439





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


Avon Park limestone
Limestone as above, plus hard gray
to brown carbonaceous limestone.
Dictyoconus cookei, Valvulina inter-
media, Coskinolina floridana, Text-
ularia coryensis .................
Limestone, gray to tan, soft, carbon-
aceous; brown, hard, porous, dolo-
mitic limestone. Fauna as above..
Limestone, buff to dark gray, soft,
porous...... ....... .......
Limestone, white to brown, soft to
hard, slightly clayey, chalky. Mil-
iolids, Spirolina coryensis, Litu-
onella floridana......... .....
Limestone, tan, hard, porous, dolo-
m itic ........ .... .......... ...

Lake City limestone
Limestone, tan, soft, porous, argil-
laceous, carbonaceous, dolomitic.
Echinoid fragments, Dictyoconus
americanus .....................
Limestone, white totan, soft, porous;
brown hard porous to dense lime-
stone. Fossiliferous.............
Chert, brown, hard, plus material as
above.....................
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
porous; brownhardlimestone. Fos-
siliferous .......................
Limestone, brown, hardto soft, crys-
talline, dolomitic, porous ........


Well 203 SE-NE* sec. 33, T. 31S. R.
County. Land surface altitude is about
sea level.


439 460


460 494

494 499




499 604

604 625






625 645


645 672

672 678


678 683

683 700


37 E., Indian River
33 feet above mean





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Description

Pamlico sand
Sand, brown, quartz, coarse to very
coarse, average coarse ..........

Fort Thompson(?) formation
Sand, brown, quartz, coarse to very
coarse, average coarse; phosphorite
pebbles; a few shell fragments....
Sand, gray, quartz, fine to medium.
Sand, gray, coarse, clayey; white to
dark gray shells .................
Sand, gray, fine to coarse, average
medium, clayey; white to dark gray
shells ..........................
Clay, gray, very sandy, very shelly.

Tamiami(?) formation
Clay, gray-green, very sandy; fine to
coarse sand, average medium; shell
fragments.... ............. ...
Clay, dark blue-green, finely sandy,
numerous shell fragments ........

Hawthorn formation
Fuller's earth, dark olive-drab, finely
sandy, with some hard white clay and
phosphorite pebbles; shells frag-
ments .....................
Marl, green to gray, clayey, sandy;
fine to coarse, phosphatic sand; tan
finely crystalline hard phosphatic
limestone; brown chert; numerous
phosphorite pebbles. Foraminifera.
Marl, gray-brown, clayey; white hard
sandy, phosphatic limestone; very
dark sandy phosphatic limestone;
phosphorite pebbles. Mollusk frag-
ments, shark's teeth, Foraminifera.


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


0- 10





10 41
41 51

51 61


61 82
82 123


123 143

143 163






163 205





205 246


246 266





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


Fuller's earth, gray-brown to white,
very phosphatic. Fauna as above..
Limestone, white, hardto soft, sandy,
phosphatic; medium to coarse sand;
light gray clay. Molluskfragments.
Fuller's earth, olive-drab, finely
sandy, with material as above.....

Crystal River formation
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
porous, glauconitic. Very fossil-
iferous, Lepidocyclina ocalana,
Heterostegina ocalana, Camerina
sp., and other Foraminifera, echi-
noid spines......................
No sample .............. ........


266 287


287 307

307 389








389 447
447 451


Williston and Inglis formations, undifferentiated
Limestone, cream-colored, miliolid,
hard to soft, porous, calcitic..... 451 512


Avon Park limestone
Limestone, light gray, has purplish
tinge, hard to soft, chalky, porous.,
to dense. Echinoid fragments, mol-
lusk fragments, Lituonella flor idana,
Cribrobulimina cushmani .........
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
granular, porous. Fauna as above,
plus numerous specimens of Coskin-
olina floridana and Dictyoconus
cookei..........................
Limestone, lighter than above, soft,
chalky, not as porous as above.
Very fossiliferous ...............
Limestone, light gray, slightly clayey,
soft, porous. Very fossiliferous.
Avon Park fauna .................


512 533





533 553


553 574


574 594






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


Well 248 SWINE) sec. 12, T. 33 S., R. 39 E., Indian
River County. Land surface altitude is about 10 feet above
mean sea level.


Crystal River formation
No sample........................
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
slightly glauconitic, chalky, porous,
with some material from above.
Mollusk fragments, echinoid spines,
brachiopods, and numerous Fora-
minifera Lepidocyclina ocalana,
Camerina sp. ?, and others .......
Limestone, light cream- colored,
harder than above, slightly calcitic.
Coral, ostracods and a few large
Foranrinifera ...................

Williston (?) and Inglis (?) formations,
Coquina, cream-colored hard,
porous, some secondary calcite.
Foraminifera, mostly small circu-
lar Lepidocyclina ................


0 492







492 554



554 635

undifferentiated



635 677


Well 259 SEISE* sec. 5, T. 32 S., R. 39 E., Indian River
County. Land surface altitude is about 22 feet above mean
sea level.


Crystal River formation
No sample ........................
Limestone, cream-colored, hard to
soft, chalky, porous to dense, glau-
conitic. Mollusk fragments, echinoid
fragments, coral, brachiopods,
bryozoa, ostracods, and Foramin-
ifera. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Dis-
cocyclina (Asterocyclina) georgiana,
Operculinoides ocalanus, Hetero-
stegina ocalana ..................


0 377


377 419





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


Williston(?) and Inglis(?) formations, undifferentiated


Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
granular. Fossiliferous, as above.
Limestone, as in 377-419, plus many
specimens of Helicolepidina ? pauci-
spira?.......... ..............
Limestone, as in 419-440, plus some
crystalline calcite ..............
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
chalky, porous, very fossiliferous.
Camerina moodybranchensis ?.....

Avon Park limestone
Limestone, tan, hard, granular,
porous, calcitic; cream-colored
medium hard, fossiliferous miliolid
limestone. Coiled worm tubes,
numerous Peronella dalli ........
Limestone, cream-colored to light
gray, hard, chalky, calcitic, fos-
siliferous as above...............
Coquina, cream to tan, soft, granu-
lar, foraminiferal. Camerina? ...

Lake City limestone
Limestone, cream-colored, tan to
white, hard to soft, chalky, calcitic.
Dictyoconus americanus, Coskino-
lina floridana, Textularia coryensis,
Spirolina coryensis, Lituonella
floridana .......................
Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
chalky, porous; brown, hard, porous,
"miliolid" limestone .............


419 440


440 461

461 483


483 504







504 525


525 546

546 567








567 630


630 651


Well StL 44 SW-NW- sec. 3, T. 34 S., R. 39 E., St.
Lucie County. Land surface altitude is about 20 feet above
mean sea level.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


Fort Thompson(?) formation
No sample ... ...........................
Sand, brown to gray, fine to some
very coarse. Worn fragments of
light to dark colored gastropods and
pelecypods.... ..... ............. .
As above, plus tan to gray very sandy
limestone .......................

Tamiami(?) formation
Clay, gray, to dark olive-drab, finely
sandy; olive-drab hard sandy, cry-
stalline, phosphatic? limestone ...

Hawthorn formation
Clay, dark olive-drab, very coarsely
sandy. Mollusk fragments and
shark's teeth ....................
Sand, olive-drab, quartz, coarse to
very coarse, average coarse; clay,
as above; phosphorite. Mollusk
fragments and shark's teeth.......
As above; plus gray to brown hard
sandy limestone .................
Clay, gray-green to white, coarsely
sandy, phosphatic; dark translucent
chert. Mollusk fragments........
As above, but clay is very hard.....
As above, but with many mollusk
fragments, and some light colored
chert.................. ......

Rocks of Oligocene age
Limestone, cream-colored soft to
medium hard, slightly glauconitic,
clayey, granular (composed of small
grains of calcite and bits of shell
material). Mollusk fragments,
echinoid spines, barnacle plates,


.0 37



37 100

100 121





121 226


226 247



247 268

268 289


289 310
310 332


332 395





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


ostracods, Foraminifera, Bolivina
ariana?, Lepidocyclina sp.?. Oper-
culinoides sp. ? in lower part ......

Crystal River formation
Coquina, cream-colored soft, porous,
foraminiferal. Small echinoids,
Lepidocyclina ocalana and Hetero-
stegina ocalana ..................


395 454






454 475


Williston(?) and Inglis(?) formations, undifferentiated
Limestone, cream-colored, soft to
hard, glauconitic, granular. Numer-
ous Foraminifera, Camerinidae and
miliolidae ..................... 475 49
Coquina, tan, soft. Foraminifera
(mostly small), numerous miliolids. 496 53'
As above, plus cream-colored soft
chalky limestone. More large For-
aminifera than above ............. 539 561
Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
chalky. Foraminifera, Camerina
moodybranchensis? and others .... 560 58


Avon Park limestone
Limestone, tan, hard, chalky. For-
aminifera numerous, Coskinolina
floridana. Dictyoconus cookei,
Lituonella floridana, Valvulammina
minute, several well preserved
charophyte oogonia...............

Lake City limestone
Limestone, cream-colored to white,
argillaceous, hard, porous, fossil-
iferous. Dictyoconus americanus .


6

9


0


1


581 661





661 691


Well StL 48 NEWNW- sec. 5, T. 34 S., R. 40 E., St. Lucie





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


Depth, in feet,
Description below land surface

County. Land surface altitude is about two feet above mean
sea level.

Anastasia(?) formation
No sample........................ 0 3
Limestone, brown to cream-colored,
very sandy, shelly, hard, porous.. 3 4
No sample ....................... 4 21

Fort Thompson(?) formation
Sand, gray to brown, quartz, fine to
coarse. Fragments of gastropods
and pelecypods, numerous Donax
sp. ? .......................... 21 101


Tamiami(?) formation
Clay, dark gray to dark olive-drab,
phosphatic, finely sandy; gray dense
crystalline limestone............

Hawthorn formation
As above, plus coarse sand ........
As above, plus gray hard sandy lime-
stone... ...... ............... ..
Sand, olive-drab, quartz, coarse to
very coarse, average coarse; clay,
as above; phosphorite pebbles. Mol-
lusk fragments and shark's teeth ..
As above, plus dark translucent chert;
white clay .......................
Clay, olive-drab to light green, light
green clay is dense and hard; brown
to white sandy limestone, plus ma-
terial as above ..................
Clay, olive-drab, coarsely sandy,
phosphatic. Mollusk fragments ...
As above, but lighter in color ......

Rocks of Oligocene age
Limestone, cream-colored to light


101 246


246 284

284 302



302 318

318 340



340 360

360 380
380 400





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet,
below land surface


Description


brown, soft to medium hard, granu-
lar; white very sandy limestone;
brown chert; phosphorite and sand;
Ostracods, sponge spicules.......
As above, plus some glauconite, and
secondary calcite. Numerous mol-
lusk fragments, and echinoid spines,
Lepidocyclina sp. ? .................
Limestone and clay, cream-colored
to olive-drab; soft chalky limestone;
darkchert. Fossiliferous, as above.

Crystal River formation
Limestone, cream-colored, soft,
chalky, glauconitic, very fossil-
iferous. Lepidocyclina ocalana.
Operculinoides ocalanus, mollusk
fragments.......................
Limestone, tan-gray, hard, chalky,
very fossiliferous. Mollusk frag-
ments, star fish ossicles, several
varieties of Lepidocyclina ocalana,
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) georg-
iana.......... ................
Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
porous, slightly crystalline. Fauna
as above, plus some coral........


400 442



442 484


484 505







505 521






521 542


542 584


Williston(?) and Inglis(?) formations, undifferentiated
As above, plus cream-colored chert.
Camerina moodybranchensis? ..... 584 605
Limestone, cream-colored, hard,
porous, chalky, slightly crystalline.
Fossiliferous................. ... 605 642
As above, but cream to tan in color. 642 663
As above, but slightly glauconitic... 663 684








Table 4. Records of Selected Wells in Indian River County

Date
Dia- Casing Chlo- Water measured Est.


Owner
City of Vero Beach


.23 1 33 39 E. Soppitt
24 2 33 39 F. Pollock

25 36 32 35 U.S. Geological Survey

26 23 31 39 J. Cates


15 31 39
10 31 39
9 31 39
9 31 39
10 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39
15 31 39

15 31 39
14 31 39
14 31 39

1 32 38
22 31 39
22 31 39


J. Balbora
Parish & Whaley
A. Byrd
A. Byrd
Lier & Michael
J. Balbora
J. Balbora
J. Balbora
J. Balbora
J. Balbora
B. Bailey
B. Bailey
B. Bailey
J. Balbora
B. Bailey

Michael
T. Vincent
T. Vincent

Graves Bros.
Deerfleld Co.
Deerfield Co.


Well Location
No. Sec. T.S. R.E.
10 2 33 39


ride leave
(ppm) (ft)


and flow ture
sampled imtm) Use2 ('F)


Remarks


Depth meter depth
(ft) (in) (ft)
667 8


690 4 132
671 4 126

19 6

600 4

700 5 220
590 6 204
590 6 .
540 4 .
680 6 230
750 5? 220
... 5 ---
750 4 220
850 5 220
960 5 220

850 4 -
700 4 ---
700 6 -
760 4 ---

800 4 -
700+ 5 200
850 4 z00

400? 3
650 3 ---
550 3 ---


620 --- 1- 4-52 550 A. --- Water level 35 ft. in
Water-Supply Paper
773-C
259 --- 4-14-49 440 Irr. 76
320 --- 4-17-49 375 Irr. 78 Log included. See
310 8-20-51 fig. 8
--. --- --- Obs. --- Water-level record-
ing gage
470 14 3-13-51 15 Dom. 76
19 2-15-52
--- 0 3-13-51 165 Irr. 77
492 37 3-14-51 600 Irr. 77
438 38 3-14-51 1,500 Irr. 77
390 37 3-14-51 330 Irr. 76
485 32 3-15-51 500 Irr. 78
548 33 3-15-51 --- Irr. 78
580 21 3-19-51 110 Irr. 77
31 3-19-51 150 Irr. 78
738 24 3-19-51 215 Irr. 78
710 22 3-19-51 170 Irr. 79
620 34 3-19-51 --- Irr. 78
615 24 3-20-51 120 Irr. 79 See fig. 9
660 27 3-20-51 120 Irr. 78
29 3-20-51 400 Irr. 78
--- 24 3-20-51 130 Irr. 78
32 4-11-51
27 3-20-51 150 Irr. 77
495 27 3-20-51 --- Irr. 77
495 27 3-20-51 --- Irr. 77 Connected in mani-
32 4-11-51 fold with well 53
505 ..- 3-21-51 65 A. ---
724 --- 9-12-47 --- Irr. 78
280 --- 3-22-51 120 Irr. 76


Tem-
pera-


___ _r


l1
1












Well Location
No. Sec. T.S. R.E. Owner


Table 4, Records of Selected Wells in Indian River County (continued)

Date Tem.
Dia- Casing Chlo- Water measured Est, pera.
Depth meter depth ride level and flow ture
(ft) lin) (it) (lomi lftlI sampled (sem) Use2 ('FI


22 31 39 Deerfield Co.
23 31 39 Deerfield Co,
23 31 39 Deerfleld Co,

23 31 39 Deerfield Co.
22 31 39 Deerfield Co,
22 31 39 Deerfield Co.
22 31 39 Deerfield Co.
22 31 39 Deerfield Co.
27 31 39 Deerfield Co.
26 31 39 Deerfield Co.
23 31 39 Deerfield Co,
23 31 39 J. Balbora
23 31 39 J. Balbora

23 31 39 J. Balbora
26 31 39 J. Balbora
26 31 39 J. Balbora
26 31 39 W. Stahl
26 31 39 F. Eakin
25 31 39 P. Laird

35 31 39 G. Dales
26 31 39 G. Dales
35 31 39 Deerfield Co.
34 32 39 City of Vero Beach
35 31 39 Deerfield Co.

35 31 39 Deerfield Co.
35 31 39 Deerfield Co.
35 31 39
36 31 39
36 31 39 1. Corrigan


550 6 --
1,050 4
600 4 ...

1,050 5
550 4 --
500 3 --
800 6 -
800 6 -
700 6 -
550 3 -
1,050 5
1,150 5 ---
1,000 5

1,000 4
1,100 5 -
;-- 1I ---
800 3 -
650 3
17 1*

750 31 320
850 4 300
1,000 5 ---
700 4 ---
991 5 ---

860 3 --


1,000 57
1,000 5? ---


3.22-51 500 Irr, 78
3-22-51 ... Irr, 78
9.12-47 10 Irr. 77
3.22-51
3-22-51 220 Irr. 78
9-12-47 25 Irr, 77
9-12-47 10 Irr. 76
3-22-51 450 Irr. -.. Siphon well
3-23-51 900 Irr. 78 Siphon well
3-26-51 720 Irr. 78 Siphon well
9-12-47 100 Irr.
3-26-51 280 Irr. 79 Siphon well
3-26-51 120 Irr. 79
3-27-51 125 A. 79
2- 8-52
3-27-51 80 A. 78
3-28-51 250 Irr, 79
3-28-51 --- Dom. 73 Shallow well
3-28-51 --- Dom. 72?
3-28-51 --- Domr. 78
3-28-51 --- Dom. 76 Nonartesian sand-
point well
3-29-51 --- Dom. 78
3-29-51 --- Dom. 77
3-29-51 200 Irr. 79 Siphon well
4-12-51 120 Irr.
4-26-51 300 Irr. 79 Log included. See
figs. 8, 12
4-27-51 50 Irr. --- See fig. 10
5-16-51 --- Dom. --
5-16-51 --- Do. --
5-16-51 --- Dom.
5-16-51 --- Dom. --
2- 8-52


Remarks


1_ I I_~ _~ _~ __ ~____~~_









Table 4. Records of Selected Wells in Indian River County (continued)


39 J. Corrigan
40 U.S. Coast Guard
39
40 Dr. Bush


1 32 39
1 32 39
6 31 39 P. Stevenson
13 31 38 R. Chesser
12 31 38 C. Smith
27 31 38
26 31 38
26 31 38
25 31 38
25 31 38
31 31 39 A. Pfarr
31 31. 39 A. Pfarr
30 31 39 Carter
31 31 39
31 31 39
30 31 39
4 32 39
36 31 38 R. Stough
14 33 38 Commander Groves
23 31 38 Davis
26 Fleming Widner
Grant
25 31 38 R. Stough
26 31 38 Massey
22 31 38 Davis
21 31 38 Davis
24 31 37 F. Mett
24 31 37 F. Mett


Date
Dia- Casing Chlo- Water measured Est.
meter de.th rideA level and flow


(t) (in) (ft) (opm) ($)1


36 31
29 32
1 32
7 32


--- 590
140 970
260 '260
--- 890


Tem-
pera-
ture


Well Location
No. Src. T.S. R.E.


800 --
640 3
650 4
-- 4


4
- 4
800 4
4
-- 6
-- 4
- 4
4
--- 4
620 4
625 4
625 4
-- 4
-- 4
600 4
580 4
640 4
746 6
500 4
525 4

3
400? 4
540 4
600 4
---
4


Owner


Depth


No Sec T 5 R.


""'


sampled (gpm) Use2 (rF) Remarks
5-16-51 --- Dom. ---
5-16-51 5 A. ---
5-16-51 --- Dom. ---
5-17-51 --- Dom. --
2- 8-52
5-29-51 20 Irr. ---
5-29-51 --- Irr.
8- 2-51 --- Dom. --
8- 2-51 --- Dom. ---
8- 2-51 120 Irr. --
8- 6-51 450 Dom. ---
8- 6-51 250 Dom. --
8- 6-51 --- Irr. --
8- 6-51 --- Dom. ---
8- 7-51 300 Irr.
8-10-51 --- Irr. --
8-10.51 200 Irr.
8-16-51 --- Irr.
8-16-51 180 Irr. ---
8-16-51 250 Irr.
8-16-51 300 Irr. ---
9- 4.51 80 Irr. --- Log included
9- 4-51 --- Irr. ---
... --Irr. --- Log included
10-15-51 350 Irr. ---
10-15-51 130 Irr. ---

10-16-51 90 Irr.
10-16-51 310 Irr.
10-17-51 200 Stock --
10-17.51 240 Stock ---
10-17-51 10 Dom. --
10-17-51 150 Stock ---


dl







of




I















'0









Table 4, Records of Selected Wells in Indian River County (continued)


Well Location
No. Sec. T.S. R.E. Owner
181 3 31 37 C. Platt
183 22 31 37 J. Screws
184 22 31 37 R. Harvey
185 19 31 37 Fellamere Sugar Co.
186 14 31 36 Fellame re Sugar Co.
187 33 31 35 F. Mitchell
188 23 32 35 W. Surrency
189 35 31 35 F. Mitchell
200 2 33 39 City of Vero Beach
201 14 31 39 A. Vincent
202 18 33 36 Maxcey


Dietz

City of Vero Beach
K. Prince
W. Surrency







J. Fink
B. Potter
L. Butzman

Graves Bros.

Sexton
P. Gardner
J. Towns


Date Tem.
Diea Casing Chlo. Water measured Est, par-a
Depth meter depth ride level and flow ture
(ft) (In) (it) (ppm) (ft)1 sampled (gpm) Use2 (F)
600 3 220 ... 24 10.18-51 --- Dom. -
640 3 220 ..- 25 10-18-51 -.. Dom. -
640 3 220 --. 25 10-18-51 --- Irr.
.-... .. .- 320 33 10-18-51 --. Dom.
-- 6 --- 598 32 10-19-51 700 A. ---
505 4 --- 285 -- 11-15-51 60 Stock ---
700 3 --- 1,110 18 11-12.51 --- Dom. --
630 4 .-- 350 16 11-13-51 --- Stock --
700 8 274 1,060 25 1- 8-52 --- Irr. ---
843 6 230 378 22 11- 9-51 360 Irr. --
700 6 209 237 22 12-27-51 440 Irr. -

590 6 162 715 25 12-15-51 360 Irr. -


640 3
--- 6
600 4
775 5
700 5
700 4
650 5
540 4
--- 4
550 21
660 3
635 4
550 4
520 ---
760 5
700 5
750 5
750 5
750 4


240



210
211
---
***


60 A.
12-27-51 300 Irr.
12-27-51 200 Irr.
12-28-51 350 Irr. ...
12-28-51 --. Irr. -
12-28-51 380 Irr.
12-28-51 --- Irr.
12-28-51 330 Irr.
12-28-51 200 Irr.
12-28-51 --- Dom .-
12-28-51 --- Irr. ---
12-28-51 260 Irr.
1- 2-52 --- Stock
1- 2-52 --- Irr.
1- 2-52 360 Irr.
1- 2-52 360 Irr. ---
1- 2-52 500 Irr.
1- 2-52 600 Irr.
1- 3-52 350 Irr. --


Remarks


33 31

35 32
6 33
25 32
6 33
31 32
30 32
19 32
18 32
7 32
33 32
28 32
20 32
5 32
32 31
1 32
11 32
25 32
13 32
3 33


Log included


Log included
See figs. 8, 12
Log included. See
rigs. 8, 12
Log included. See
:ig. 8


0

0






t:

B1 ,
r *'


1









Table 4. Records of Selected Wells in Indian River County (continued)


W.ell Location
No. Sec. T.S. R.E. Owner
228 4 33 39
229 4 33 39
230 27 32 39 Brown
231 24 32 39 D. Hepner
*232 23 32 39
233 14 32 39
234 11 32 39
235 3 32 39 G. Hamilton
237 34 31 39
238 32 31 39
239 35 32 39
240 36 32 39 Royal Palm C
242 6 33 40
243 7 33 40
244 19 33 40 Indian River
245 30 33 40
246 25 33 39
247 26 33 39
248 12 33 39
249 11 33 39
250 10 33 39
251 15 33 39
252 32 33 39
253 29 33 39
254 29 33 39
255 8 33 39 Young
256 17 33 39 A. Lockwood
257 20 33 39
258 17 33 39 A. Lockwood


olf Course


Produce Co.


F. Schroth


Date Tem-
Dia- Casing Chlo- Water measured Est. pera-
Depth meter depth ride level and flow ture
(ft) (in) (ft) (ppm) (ft)1 sampled (gpm) UseZ ('F) Remarks
750 4 220 265 16 1- 3-52 200 Irr.
660 3 --- --- 16 1- 3-52 --- Dom. ---
720 4 270 .188 22 1- 3-52 --- Dom. --
1,165 5 --- 620 39 1- 3-52 330 Dom. --
750 6 --- 388 38 1- 3-52 550 Irr.
635 6 --- 265 36 1- 3-52 800 Irr.
500? 4 110 185 39 1- 3-52 430 Irr.
500 3 100 178 37 1- 3-52 --- Irr.
485 4 --- 230 36 1- 3-52 --- Irr.
400 3 --- 255 35 1- 3-52 --- Irr.
700? 6 --- 165 32 1- 4-52 --- Irr.
500? 3 -- 235 37 1- 4-52 --- Irr.
970 3 --- 498 38 1- 4-52 --- Dom. --
900 6 --- 452 41 1- 4-52 450 Irr. ---
720 --- --- 240 37 1- 4-52 --- Irr.
850 4 --- 232 37 1- 4.52 330 Irr.
600 3 --- 290 18 1- 7-52 90 Dom. --
-- 4 --- 278 16 1- 7-52 --- Irr. -
677 3 392 --- 1- 7-52 --- Dom. --- Log included
600 4 --- 482 18 1- 7-52 --- Irr.
760 4 -- 392 16 1- 7-52 -.. Irr.
700 4 --- 378 16 1- 7-52 200 Stock ---
660 4 ... 425 16 1. 7.52 --- Irr.
800 5 --- 535 14 1- 7-52 240 Irr. --
760 4 -- 445 13 1- 7.52 170 Irr.
575 5 ..- 310 13 1. 9-52 180 Irr.
700 4 -- 352 15 1- 9-52 --- Irr.
... 4 1... 15 1-9-52 --- Irr.
760 4 --- 338 14 1-11-52 400 Irr. --
12 1.16-52
651 4 --- -- -- -- --- Irr. --- Log included
700? 4 --- 328 14 1-21-52 --- Irr.
--- 6 --- 560 19 1-21-52 --- Irr.















Table 4, Records of Selected Wells in Indian River County (continued)


Well Location
No. Sec. T.S. R.E. Owner
262 29 33 39
263 18 33 39 Robertson
264 20 33 39
265 13 33 38 Knight & Parrish
266 14 33 38 Commander Groves
267 14 33 38 -Commander Groves
270 23 33 38
272 18 33 38
273 7 33 38 D. Sawyer
279 35 32 39 City of Vero Beach
353 35 32 39 U.S. Geological Survey

BR 762 23 30 38 Henry Robbins
StL 44 3 34 39 McDonald
StL 48 5 34 40 Dolenick


Date Tem-
Dia- Casing Chlo- Water measured Est. pera-
Depth meter depth ride level and flow ture
(it) (in) (ft) (ppm) (it)l sampled (gpm) Use2 (F) Remarks
... --- ... 482 13 1-21-52 --- Irr.
... -- ... 460 14 1-22-52 --- Irr.
650? --- --- 365 14 1-22-52 --- Irr. ---
.. .. ... -- 245 14 1-22-52 --- Irr ---
-- 4 ... 295 23 1-22-52 --- Irr.
... ... -.. 328 22 1-2-5 --- Irr. ---
6 --- 215 23 1-22-52 --- Irr. ---
S 6 --- 515 20 1-23-52 --- Irr. ---
6 --- 370 21 1-23-52 --- Irr
65 8 55 ..... .. A. --- Screen from 55-65 ft.
67 6 -- ... --- --- Obs. --- Water-level record-
ing gage
408 3 185 --- 26 4-26-51 120 Dom. -- Brevard County
691 5 125 450 15 4- 5-51 350 Irr. --- St. Lucie County
714 6 134 248 42 12-17-51 --- Irr. --- St. Lucie County


1Indicates water level above land surface.
P.S. Public supply; Irr. Irrigation; Obs. Observation; Dom. Domestic; Ind. Industrial; A. Abandoned.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 18


REFERENCES


Applin, E.
1945


Applin, Pa
1944





Cooke, C.
1915

1929


1939

1945

Dall, W.H


R. (see also Applin, Paul L., 1944)
(and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera
from subsurface formations in Florida: Jour.
Paleontology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 129-148.
ul L.
(and Applin, Esther R.) Regional subsurface
stratigraphy and structure of Florida and
southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-
1753.
Wythe (see also Parker, Garald G., 1944)
The age of the Ocala limestone: U.S. Geol.
Survey Prof. Paper 95, p. 107-117.
(and Mossom, Stuart) Geology of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey 20th Ann. Rept., p. 29-
227.
Scenery of Florida as interpreted by a geol-
ogist: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17, 118 p.
Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 29, 339 p.
.


1892 (and Harris, G.D.) Correlation papers-
Miocene: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 84.
Ferguson, G.E. (see Parker, Garald G., 1955)
Guyod, Hubert
1944 The single-point resistance method: Oil


Harris, G.D.
Jacob, C.E.


Weekly, v. 114, no. 12.
(see Dall, W.H., 1892)


1940 The flow of water in an elastic artesian
aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 21,
p. 574-586.
Jordan, Louise (see Applin, E.R., 1945)
Love, S.K. (see Parker, Garald G., 1955)
Mossom, Stuart (see Gooke, C. Wythe)
Parker, Garald, G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. Wythe) Late Cenozoic geology
of southern Florida, with a discussion of the
ground water: Florida Geol. SurveyBull. 27,
119 p.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors inthe peren-
nial yield of the Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water
Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, p. 817-834.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and
others) Water resources of southeastern
Florida, with special reference to the geol-
ogy and ground water of the Miami area: U.
S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.
Puri, H.S.
1953 Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular
Florida: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 23, no. 2,
p. 130.
Sellards, E.H.
1912 Soils and other surface residual material of
Florida; Florida Geol. Survey 4th Ann. Rept.
1919 Review of the geology of Florida, with special
reference to structural conditions: Florida
Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept., p. 105-141.
Shattuck, G.B.
1901 Pleistocene problems of north Atlantic
Coastal Plain: Am. Geologist, v. 28, p. 73-
75.


Stringfield,
1936

Theis, C. V


V. T.
Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C.
*


1938 The significance and nature of the cone of
depression in ground water bodies: Econ.
Geology, v. 33, no. 8, p. 889-902.
Vernon, Robert O.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33, 256 p.


Wenzel, L.K.
1942


Methods for determining permeability of
water-bearing materials: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 887, 192 p.










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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