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Changes in the chloride content of ground water in Pinellas County, Florida, between 1947 and 1956 ( FGS: Information ci...
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 Material Information
Title: Changes in the chloride content of ground water in Pinellas County, Florida, between 1947 and 1956 ( FGS: Information circular 16 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 16 )
Uncontrolled: Chloride content of ground water in Pinellas County, Florida
Physical Description: iii, 11 p. : maps, diagr., tables. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Delbert Wayne, 1922-
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Pinellas County   ( lcsh )
Water -- Composition   ( lcsh )
Chlorides   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and Pinellas County."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692717
oclc - 01721037
notis - AJA4791
lccn - a 58008961
System ID: UF00001076:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Changes in the chloride content of ground water in Pinellas County, Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text





STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16





CHANGES IN THE CHLORIDE CONTENT OF
GROUND WATER IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
BETWEEN 1947 AND 1956






By
D. W. Brown, Geologist
U. S. Geological Survey





Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey
and Pinellas County


Tallahassee, Florida
1958










ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page
1 Map of Pinellas County showing the locations
of wells from which water samples were
taken for determinations of the chloride con-
tent of ground water in 1956. .... ...... 2
2 Map of Pinellas County showing the chloride
content of water from wells in 1947 and 1956. 3
3 Hydrographs of wells 13, 77, and 561 and
monthly rainfall at stations near Tarpon
Springs, Clearwater, and St. Petersburg,
Florida . . . . . .. 5
4 Map of Pinellas County showing the locations
of the wells to be used for obtaining data on
water levels and chloride content of water 6


Table
1 Chloride content of water from the artesian
aquifer in Pinellas County . . 8










CHANGES IN THE CHLORIDE CONTENT OF GROUND

WATER IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA,

BETWEEN 1947 AND 1956

By
D. W. Brown


In December 1956 the U. S. Geological Survey, in coop-
eration with the Florida Geological Survey and the Board of
County Commissioners of Pinellas County, collected water-
level and chloride content of water in 94 wells in Pinellas
County. The locations of these wells are shown in figure 1
and the chloride content of water from these wells is given
in table 1. These wells were measured and sampled by the
U. S. Geological Survey in 1947 and the data were published
in the report entitled "Ground-Water Resources of Pinellas
County, Florida," by R. C. Heath and P. C. Smith. That
report contains also a section on salt-water encroachment
in- Pinellas County.

The reason for resampling and reanalyzing the water
from these wells was to determine the change in the -chloride
content of the ground water from 1947 to 1956. The chloride
content of ground water is generally a reliable indication of
the contamination of ground water by sea.water, as 90 per-
cent of the dissolved solids of sea water are chloride salts.
The chloride content (in parts per million) of the water from
each well, in 1947 and 1956, is shown beside the proper
well symbol in figure 2. A study of this figure shows that
there is no definable pattern to the changes in chloride con-
tent between 1947 and 1956. During this period the chloride
content increased in the water from 48 wells and decreased
in that from 29 wells. The maximum increase and decrease
in chloride content were found in the water from wells 49
and 67, respectively. The chloride content of water from
well 49, near Lake Tarpon, increased by 1,370 ppm and
that from well 67, near Palm Harbor, decreased by 2, 030
ppm.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


.546

549


561


571 PILLA.S
573


EXPLANATION
456
Well listed in table by number shown

Post office or principal intersection


Figure 1. Map of Pinellas County showing the locations of
wells from which water samples were taken for
determinations of the chloride content of ground
water in 1956.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16


LEGEND

201

The upper and lower numbers
indicate the chloride content of
water in 1947 and 1956 respectively


nse M.r~~ *I~pREA RlNt~tSIO, of


Figure 2. Map of Pinellas County showing the chloride con-

tent of water from wells in 1947 and 1956.


2g4
161,


*PINELLAS
190 155
t115





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The irregular changes in chloride content are due partly
to the fact that the wells differed considerably in depth and
partly to the fact that ground-water levels were probably
not the same in 1956 as they were in 1947.

In Pinellas County the chloride content of water from
deep wells is generally higher than that of water from shallow
wells, and the chloride content of the water from any well
in the area generally increases as the well is pumped.

Water-level fluctuations in artesian wells maybe caused
by recharge, natural discharge, pumping, ocean tides,
changing barometric pressure, and earthquakes. Fluctua-
tion caused by tides, barometric pressure, and earthquakes
are usually small and of short duration. Such fluctuations
do not materially affect salt-water encroachment but are an
indication of the elastic properties of the aquifer. The
water-level fluctuations caused by recharge, .natural and
pumping discharge are important because they show changes
in storage within the aquifer. These changes in storage
have an appreciable effect on the encroachment of salt water
into the aquifer. Figure 3 shows the mean daily water levels
in three wells compared with the monthly rainfall at weather
stations near the cities of Tarpon Springs, Clearwater, and
St. Petersburg. This figure shows that ground-water levels
respond to rainfall, thus indicating recharge to the artesian
limestone aquifer. The extreme range of water-level fluc-
tuations is not shown in figure 3, but the water levels have
fluctuated during the period of record through a range of
4.07 feet in well 13, 5.49 feet in well 77, and 4. 00 feet in
well 561. Although the range of fluctuation is not great,
the water levels were probably at different elevations during
the sampling periods in 1947 and 1956.

The future ground-water observation program in
Pinellas County will consist of the operation of automatic
water-level recorders on six wells, the periodic measure-
ment of water levels in four wells, and the periodic deter-
mination of the chloride content of the water from 10 wells.
The locations of these observation wells are shown .in
figure 4. The periodic determinations of the chloride content
and the water-level measurements will be made at 6-week








1947 ,1948 19949 1 0 l 9 1 932 | 1 1953 954 I 95 19S
0 J MMND J FM M A S ON J 1 r MAM J ASON J M l JA3ON AM J PAM J J ASON DJ F MA A JJ 0J NA 0 JIM I FMAMJ J A N A J J MAM J J ABO NDJ1 MAM J I ASON M J' 0 N o





SWIII56,6.l.l. P, n, T o p rk
11: n11 IIIII al




*.. i^. i7..l .hl..t .i.L.. .R .. ... .. ia.. I. t.... \





Figure 3. Hydrographs of wells 13, 77, and 561 and monthly C
rainfall at stations near Tarpon Springs, Clear-
water, and St. Petersburg, Florida.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY"


561


PAnK


o
EXPLANATION
Oservation *ells
* Water level recorder
Pernodic determination ol
level and chloride conte
Periodic Ceterminotuon
of chloride content
Post office or principal
intersection


Figure 4. Map of Pinellas County showing the locations of
the wells to be used for obtaining data on water

levels and chloride content of water.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16 7

intervals. The chloride content of the water from a large
number of wells will be determined during periods of ex-
tremelyhighor low water levels. In addition, water samples
will be collected at different depths in a few wells to deter-
mine the chemical quality of the water in different zones of
the aquifer.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL: SURVEY









Table I. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County


Chloride content in ppm
Year of sampling


1947 1948

131 (1943)

200


5

20

25

10

30

300

1,187

71

400

550

2,100
640
400




20

13

180

32

45

45

10


1951



255























920

340


1956


110

25

30

17

120

490

520

1,440

390

780

70

1,700

45

26

23

430

30

70

250

30


35


Chloride change
Increase Decrease
1947- 1948- 1951-
1956 1956 1956


- 20

+ 105

+ 5

+ 5

+ 7

+ 90

+ 190

- 667

+1,369

- 10

+ 230

-2,030
1,060
+1,300



+ 6

+ 10

+ 250

2

+ 25

+ 205

+ 20

+ 10


+190















+ 20




+ 6




- 7


- 75























-140

-Z70







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16 9









Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued)


Chloride content in ppm


Year of sampling


1947 1948 1951


1956


*1 I. I


Well
No.

140

159

166

168

171

175

180

187

193

194

217

218

225

229

251

260

282

286

293

302

308

312

315

326


Chloride- change
Increase Decrease
1947- 1948- 1951-
1956 1956 1956

+ 10


30

80

40

30

17

45

47

30

58

50

20




185

51

20

272

20

50

30

17

104

30

40


35

100

* 370

120

100

24

*30

40

95

80

60

20

50

180

28

24

385

28

29

24

51

25

15

98


+ 70

+ 290

+ 80

+ 70

+ 7




7

+ 65

+ 22

.+ 10

0




5

S 23

+ 4

+ 113

i 8

21

6

+ 34

79

15

+ 58


50

- 22






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued)


Chloride content in ppm
Year of sampling

1947 1 1948 1 1951 1 1956


Well
No.

338

340

343

346

348

350

351

354

357

367

368

373

377

383

387

420

423

437

447

456

459

465

480

487


45

20

21




43






115




27

37

270

205




32

1,050

42

18




160

400

160

50


728




85









265






25









25


Chloride change
Increase Decrease
1947- 1948- 1951-
19519 5956 1956


40

18

28

34

58

710

195

120

65

31

35

265

210

46

30

550

224

44

29

145

135

19

63

98


- 18


5

2

+ 7




+ 15






+ 5




+ 4

2

- 5

+ 5




- 2

- 500

+ 182

+ 26




15

265

141

+ 13


730

210














200

37











25


+ 4 + 4











+ 73


[


- 20

- 15














,+ 10

+ 9


+ 35









0






+ 5






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16


Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued)


I r


1947


280

25

145


Chloride content in ppm
Year of sampling


Well
No.

491

493

498

518

519

526

528

535

546

549

559

561

571

573

591

592

593

606

608

620

626

634

647


1948 1951 1956


1,365

250








308



675


Chloride change
Increase Decrease
1947- 1948- 1951-
1956 1956 1956


+ 4 4 4


125

107

170

15

20

19

290

295

165

205

140

169

190

115

310

2, 130

290

190

51

46

460

170

825


- 155

+ 82

+ 25








+ 28

+ 278

- 25

+ 5

17

+ 48

11

40

0

+ 735

+ 15

15



4

+ 160

+ 95

+ 100


5

- 5

-636
























- 10


+ 26

+ 21


+765

+ 40


+152


+150


1956 sampling and field determinations of chloride by C. F. Essig and Luther
Mills. Wells sampled December 10-15, 1956.


50

300

75

725










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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