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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geology
 Ground water
 Quality of water
 Summary and conclusions
 References


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Interim report on the ground-water resources of Flagler County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 13 )
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 Material Information
Title: Interim report on the ground-water resources of Flagler County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 13 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 13 )
Physical Description: iv, 32 p. : illus., tables., diagrs., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bermes, Boris J
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Flagler County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Flagler County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Boris J. Bermes.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 31-32.
General Note: "Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692721
oclc - 01721542
notis - AJA4795
System ID: UF00001073:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Geology
        Page 5
        Page 4
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Ground water
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 8
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Quality of water
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 20
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 25
        Page 30
    References
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text

STATE OF FLORIDA
tUL STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
SErnest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13





INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES

SOF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA






By
Boris J. Bermes







Prepared by
U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the
Florida Geological Survey







Tallahassee, Florida
1958




















CULTU
LIBF. Fl'


.4




J.






TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
stract .. . . . . ... 1
production ................... .... 2
Previous investigations . . . . 3
Well-numbering system ................ 3
ography ......................... 4
ology.......................... 4
round water ..................... 8
Nonartesianaquifer ................. 9
Artesian aquifer .................... 10
Piezometric surface of the principal artesian
aquifer in Florida ................ 12
Piezometric surface in St. Johns, Putnam,
and Flagler counties . . . .. 14
Piezometric surface in Flagler County . 14
Area of artesian flow ................ 18
Wells............................ 18
SQualityofwater. .............. .....20
Salt-water contamination . . . .. 22
Summary and conclusions . . . .. 25
References ........................ 31


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure
1 Map of Florida showing the location of Flagler
County ........................ 6
2 Generalized geologic section showing the
deposits penetrated by wells in Flagler County 7
3 Graph showing the relation between rainfall
at Crescent City and the water level in
well 927-115-1 at Bunnell ............ 11
4 Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the
piezometric surface of the principal artesian
aquifer . . .. . .. ... 13
5 Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler
counties showing the piezometric surface . 15
6 Map of Flagler County showing the
piezometric surface .... . . .17
Siii
S424O







Figure


Page


7 Map of Flagler County showing the
approximate areas of artesian flow. . 19
8 Map of Flagler County showing the
locations of wells .................. 21
9 Map of Flagler County showing the approxi-
mate chloride content of water from artesian
wells .. . .. . . . . 24
10 Graph showing the relation between the
chloride content of the water and the water
level in well 920-119-2 near Codys Corner 26
11 Graph showing fluctuations of water level in
well 928-122-1 and the chloride content of
the water in well 928-121-1, west of Bunnell .27


Table
1 Analyses of water from wells in Flagler
County ....................... 23






INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES

OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
Boris J. Bermes


ABSTRACT

Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida
Peninsula. The surface of the countyis underlainby deposits
of sand, marl, shell, and clay to depths ranging from 50 to
150 feet. Beds of coquina and sand in the upper part of these
deposits were mapped by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) as the Anastasia
formation and terrace deposits of Pleistocene age. They
yield small quantities of nonartesian water of generally low
mineral content to shallow screened wells. Beds of marl and
phosphatic sand and clay in the lower part of these deposits
are believed to be of Miocene or Pliocene age.

The deposits of sand, shell, and clay are unconformably
underlain by limestone of Eocene age which yields large
quantities of artesian water in which the mine r alization ranges
widely but is generally higher than that of the nonartesian
water. The water in the limestone will flow at the surface
in the lowlands along the western and eastern edges of the
county. The artesian aquifer is recharged within the county
and also in adjacent Volusia and Putnam counties.

Records of rainfall and fluctuations of artesian pressure
show that in recent years the rainfall was deficient in the
western part of the county, and that the artesian pressure
head underwent a progressive decline of three feet at
Bunnell. Records also show that during this investigation
the seasonal decline of pressure head due to pumping for
irrigation was about 12 feet in awellwest of Bunnell andabout
five feet in a well near Codys Corner.

The chloride content of water from artesian wells ranges
from less than 100 ppm (parts per million) in the recharge
areas near the towns of Espanola and Favorita to more than
2, 000 ppmin areas in the northeastern part of the county and
1





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


southwest of Bunnell. The chloride content of the artesian
water from some wells in certain farm areas increased con-
siderably during periods of heavy pumping.

INTRODUCTION

Much of the economy of Flagler County is based on the
income from winter vegetables which are irrigated with
ground water. The demand for ground water is increasing
in certain areas of Flagler County. Recently the chloride
content of the water from some wells increased, many wells
stopped yielding water by natural flow, and a few new wells
yielded only salty water. Therefore, the contamination of
existing supplies and the availability of new supplies are
matters of importance to the economy of the county. In
recognition of these and other water problems, the State
Legislature appropriated funds for an investigation of the
water resources of the county.

The ground-water phase of the investigation was begun
in December 1955 by the U. S. Geological Surveyin coopera-
tion with the Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of the
investigation is to study the ground-water resources of the
county and publish the results in a form that will be useful
in the solution of ground-water problems.

Studies are being made of the ground-water hydrology
and geology of the countywith special emphasis on problems
associated with salt-water contamination and declining water
levels. Major efforts in these studies include the following:

I. Collecting rock cuttings from and pertinent
information on depth, yield, etc., on existing
wells.

Z. Analyzing water samples from existing wells.

3. Making test borings and using well-surveying
instruments where necessary.

4. Recording seasonal fluctuations andprogressive
trends in water level, water quality, water use,
and rainfall.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


southwest of Bunnell. The chloride content of the artesian
water from some wells in certain farm areas increased con-
siderably during periods of heavy pumping.

INTRODUCTION

Much of the economy of Flagler County is based on the
income from winter vegetables which are irrigated with
ground water. The demand for ground water is increasing
in certain areas of Flagler County. Recently the chloride
content of the water from some wells increased, many wells
stopped yielding water by natural flow, and a few new wells
yielded only salty water. Therefore, the contamination of
existing supplies and the availability of new supplies are
matters of importance to the economy of the county. In
recognition of these and other water problems, the State
Legislature appropriated funds for an investigation of the
water resources of the county.

The ground-water phase of the investigation was begun
in December 1955 by the U. S. Geological Surveyin coopera-
tion with the Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of the
investigation is to study the ground-water resources of the
county and publish the results in a form that will be useful
in the solution of ground-water problems.

Studies are being made of the ground-water hydrology
and geology of the countywith special emphasis on problems
associated with salt-water contamination and declining water
levels. Major efforts in these studies include the following:

I. Collecting rock cuttings from and pertinent
information on depth, yield, etc., on existing
wells.

Z. Analyzing water samples from existing wells.

3. Making test borings and using well-surveying
instruments where necessary.

4. Recording seasonal fluctuations andprogressive
trends in water level, water quality, water use,
and rainfall.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


This report presents a general description of the occurrence
of groundwater in the county, basedon information collected
during the-first nine months of the investigation.

The investigation was made under the general super-
visionofA.N. Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geo-
logical Survey, and under the immediate supervision of
M. I. Rorabaugh, District Engineer for Florida.

Previous Investigations

The geology and ground-water resources of Flagler
County are mentioned in several reports of the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey and the Florida Geological Survey.
Cooke (1945, p. 268, 295, 304) briefly discusses the
occurrence of the Pamlico sand and the Anastasia and Talbot
formations in. Flagler County. A report by Vernon (1951,
fig. 13, 33; pl. 2) includes Flagler County in generalized
maps of central Florida which show generalized geologic
sections andthe structure of the Inglis member of the Moodys
Branch formation.

The ground-water resources of Flagler County are
briefly mentioned by Stringfield (1936, pl. 6, 10, 12), and
chemical analyses of water from wells in Flagler County are
included in reports by Collins and Howard (1928, p. 214)and
-Black and Brown (1951, p. 53).

Well-Numbering System

All wells inventoried during this investigation were
assigned numbers. The well number was assigned.by divid-
ing the county into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and
longitude and numbering, consecutively, the wells in each
1-minute quadrangle. The well number is composed of
the last three digits of the line of latitude south of the well,
followed by the last three digits of the line of longitude east
of the well, followed by the number of the well in the quad-
rangle. Therefore, wells referred to in the text by well
number may be located on figure 8. For example, well
927-115-1 is the well numbered 1 in the quadrangle bounded
on the south-by latitude 29 "27' and on the east by longitude
810151'.-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOGRAPHY

Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida
Peninsula (fig. 1) and has an area of 483 square miles,
nominally 309, 120 acres. The average annual rainfall is
about 48 inches, according to the records of the U. S. Weather
Bureau.

Topographically, Flagler County includes both lowlands
and uplands. The lowlands include the large flat area drained
by Haw Creek and its tributaries, and small areas ranging
from a few hundred feet to several miles wide adjacent to
Crescent Lake, Pellicer Creek, Bulow Creek, the Matanzas
River, and the Atlantic Ocean. They range in altitude from
sealevel, along the Atlantic Ocean, to 25 feet above sealevel
where they merge into the uplands.

The uplands include the remaining areas of the county.
They include a few sand ridges, several lakes, and broad,
relatively level areas. Surface altitudes range from 25 feet
above sea level, where the uplands adjoin the lowlands to
about 50 feet above sea level northwest of Espanola.

The lowlands and some areas of the uplands are drained
by streams and canals that discharge into the Atlantic Ocean
and Crescent Lake. The remainder of the uplands are drained,
through lakes and swamps, into underlying aquifers, in which
the water moves toward streams or toward the ocean.

According to information compiled in 1955 by the U. S.
Dept. Commerce, Census Bureau, Flagler County ranks
fourth among the counties of the State in the growing of
Irish potatoes and cabbage. Thus, although Flagler County
is the fifth smallest county in the State in both population and
area, it ranks high in agricultural production. This is due,
in part, to the availability of adequate supplies of water from
inexpensive wells.

GEOLOGY

Rock cuttings from wells show that Flagler County is
underlain by limestone, clay, shell beds and sand. A gener-
alized geologic cross section, showing the deposits penetrated






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


by water wells in the southwestern part of the county, is
shown in figure 2.

The lowermost deposit penetrated by water wells is a
thick section of limestone of Eocene age, the top of which
is shown schematically by the wavy line in figure 2. The
upper part of this limestone section is generally veryfossil-
iferous and relatively pure. It locally consists of numerous
echinoid and mollusk fragments, miliolids, and large Fora-
ninifera. Similar limestone has been mapped in northern
Florida and'assigned to various formations of Eocene age
by Vernon (1951, p. 115-171)and others. The limestone has
not been studied insufficient detail in Flagler County to per-
mit differentiating of the various formations. It will be
referred to in this report as limestone of Eocene age.

The limestone of Eocene age is several hundred feet
thick, and its top is an undulating surface 35 to 135 feet
below sealevel. It is a consolidated rock containing numer-
ous porous andpermeable zones whichyield large quantities
of water to open-hole wells. Most wells in the county draw
from it exclusively. The upper part of this limestone was
eroded by ancient surface streams and circulating ground
water (Stringfield, 1936, p. 124-125). The undulations of
its surface and much of the porosity in its upper part are
probably the result of the cavities, sinkholes, and stream
channels that were formed when the limestone was the
surface or buried at shallow depth by the overlying deposits
of later ancient seas.

The deposits overlying the limestone consist predomi-
nantly of clay, shell, and sand. They are shown as a single
unit in figure 2 because the available information is not ade-
quate to permit differentiating the individual beds. However,
records from a few wells in Flagler County showthat the lower
part of the deposits of clay, shell, arid sand include beds of
green phosphatic clay, gray phosphatic sand, sandy lime-
stone, and shell marl. Beds similar to these have been mapped
in northern Florida and assigned to various formations
believed to be Miocene and Pliocene in age by Cooke (1945,
pl. land Miocene in age by Vernon(Black and Brown, 1951,
fig. 1). The beds overlying the limestone in Flagler County





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOGRAPHY

Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida
Peninsula (fig. 1) and has an area of 483 square miles,
nominally 309, 120 acres. The average annual rainfall is
about 48 inches, according to the records of the U. S. Weather
Bureau.

Topographically, Flagler County includes both lowlands
and uplands. The lowlands include the large flat area drained
by Haw Creek and its tributaries, and small areas ranging
from a few hundred feet to several miles wide adjacent to
Crescent Lake, Pellicer Creek, Bulow Creek, the Matanzas
River, and the Atlantic Ocean. They range in altitude from
sealevel, along the Atlantic Ocean, to 25 feet above sealevel
where they merge into the uplands.

The uplands include the remaining areas of the county.
They include a few sand ridges, several lakes, and broad,
relatively level areas. Surface altitudes range from 25 feet
above sea level, where the uplands adjoin the lowlands to
about 50 feet above sea level northwest of Espanola.

The lowlands and some areas of the uplands are drained
by streams and canals that discharge into the Atlantic Ocean
and Crescent Lake. The remainder of the uplands are drained,
through lakes and swamps, into underlying aquifers, in which
the water moves toward streams or toward the ocean.

According to information compiled in 1955 by the U. S.
Dept. Commerce, Census Bureau, Flagler County ranks
fourth among the counties of the State in the growing of
Irish potatoes and cabbage. Thus, although Flagler County
is the fifth smallest county in the State in both population and
area, it ranks high in agricultural production. This is due,
in part, to the availability of adequate supplies of water from
inexpensive wells.

GEOLOGY

Rock cuttings from wells show that Flagler County is
underlain by limestone, clay, shell beds and sand. A gener-
alized geologic cross section, showing the deposits penetrated





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLORIDA
Se w Ml


Figure 1. Map of Florida showing the location of Flagler
County.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


50-
a 50

1 100-

o 150-
1--

.200-

S250-

300-

350-
z
S400-

0 450-

500-


Figure 2. Generalized geologic section showing the deposits
penetrated by wells in Flagler County.


*N N --
N o 0 0
( =

N 1 5 o A


LIMESTONE
(Eocene)


0 I 2
Mil.e





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


have not been studied in sufficient detail to justify a determi-
nation of their correct age. They will be referred to collec-
tively in this report as deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age.

The deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age include rela-
tively impermeable beds that retardthe seepage of water into
or out of the underlying limestone of Eocene age. Permeable
zones in the deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age differ widely
in their water-bearing characteristics, and wells drawing
more than small quantities of water from them must be fitted
with screens. Most wells of large yield are cased through
these zones, even in areas where these zones yield water of
low mineral content and the underlying limestone yields
water of high mineral content.

The upper part of the deposits of clay, shell, and sand
include beds of coquina and sand that have been mapped and
assigned to the Anastasia formation of Pleistocene age and
to terrace deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age by Cooke
(1945,pl. 1). The Anastasia formation is at the surface along
the entire east coast in Flagler County and extends inland as
far as three miles.. The terrace deposits are found at the
surface throughout the rest of the county. They are thickest
under the uplands and thinnest under the lowlands. The
deposits of Pleistocene age yield moderate quantities of water
to screened wells.

GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of
saturation, the zone in which all the pore spaces are com-
pletely filled with water under pressure greater than atmos-
pheric. It is derived almost entirely from precipitation.
Part of this precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapo-
transpiration, part drains overland to lakes and streams; the
remainder reaches the zone of saturation to become ground
water. Ground water moves more or less laterally, under
the influence of gravity, to places of discharge such as wells,
springs, lakes, surface streams, or the ocean.

Groundwater may occur under either nonartesian (water -
table) conditions or artesian conditions. Where it is uncon-
fined, its surface is free to rise and fall and it is said to be






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


under nonartesian conditions. The upper surface of uncon-
fined groundwater is calledthe water table. Where the water
is confined in a permeablebed that is overlainby a relatively
impermeable bed so that its surface is not free to rise and
fall, it is said to be under artesian conditions. Technically,
the term "artesian"is appliedto groundwater that is confined
under sufficient pressure to rise above the top of the perme-
able bed that contains it, though not necessarily to or above
the land surface. The imaginary surface coinciding with the
level to which artesian water will rise is called the piezo-
metric surface.

Rocks in the zone of saturationthat are permeable enough
to yield water in usable quantity to wells and springs are
called aquifers. Areas in which an aquifer receives replen-
ishment from infiltration are called recharge areas. Areas
in which an aquifer loses water from springs or wells are
called discharge areas. Nonartesian aquifers are usually at
or near the land surface and receive recharge over most of
their area. Artesian aquifers receive recharge in their areas
of outcrop or, under certain conditions, where their "con-
fining" beds are leaky or discontinuous.

Nonartesian Aquifer

Ground water in Flagler County occurs under both non-
artesian and artesian conditions. The surficial sand and shell
deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age contain ground water
under nonartesian conditions in all parts of the county except
inareas southwest of Bunnellandalong Crescent Lake where
they are overlain by confining beds of clay and the water is
artesian.

Probably less than 100 wells draw water from the non-
artesian aquifer in the county. Their yields differ widely,
depending upon their construction, but are generally less than
200 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from these wells is
used mainly for domestic and public supplies.

The nonartesian aquifer is replenished byinfiltration of
rain that falls on the county and, probablyto a minor degree,
by upward leakage from the artesian aquifer in areas where
the piezometric surface is above the water table. In addition





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


to this natural recharge the nonartesian aquifer probably
receives recharge in the truck-farming areas as a result of
slow downward infiltration of irrigation water. Water is lost
from the aquifer by natural discharge through springs, by
downward percolation into the artesian aquifer in the upland
areas, and by withdrawal from wells.

The chloride content of water from the nonartesian
aquifer ranges fromless than 10 ppm to more than 340 ppm.
It is generallylowest in the uplandareas where the nonarte-
sian aquifer receives no recharge from the artesian aquifer
neither by upward seepage nor by downward seepage of irri-
gation water pumped from the artesian aquifer.

Artesian Aquifer

The principal source of water in Flagler County is an
artesian aquifer which forms a part of the principal artesian
aquifer of the Florida Peninsula and adjacent area. In Flagler
County this aquifer is composed of beds of limestone of Eocene
age and some of the beds of sand and shell in the lower part
of the Miocene or Pliocene deposits. All these deposits will
be referred to, collectively, as the artesian aquifer. Differ-
ences in static heac at different depths indicate that the arte-
sian aquifer consists of severalwater-bearing zones that are
separated by beds of low permeability.

The height to which the water level willrise in an arte-
sian wellis calledthe artesian pressure head. Fluctuations
of the artesian pressure head are caused, inpart, by varia-
tions in the rainfall inthe recharge area. Therefore, measure-
ments of rainfall in recharge areas and measurements of
water levels in wells are needed in a ground-water investi-
gation.

Periodic measurements of the water level in well
927-115-1, at Bunnell, have been made since 1936. The
U. S. Weather Bureau has measured the rainfall at Crescent
City, in Putnam County, since 1912. Water levels in well
927-115-1 and the rainfall at Crescent City, for the years
1936-1956, are plotted in figure 3. The graph of the cumu-
lative departure from long-term mean (fig. 3) shows that the
rainfall was above average during the period 1941-1947 and
was about average during the period 1936-1941 and was below






ANNUAL RAINFALL IN

, g 8 o


N1

II
-n







I
r+ r+



i-
cp-






(P1


4

* (
-


INCHES
0 .
0 Ed.o


CUMULATIVE DEPARTURE
FROM LONG-TERM MEAN
RAINFALL IN INCHES
I o o
000000


WATER LEVEL IN FEET
ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL


1936
1937
1938
1939
1940

1942
1943
1944
1945
'1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

19554 %

1956





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


have not been studied in sufficient detail to justify a determi-
nation of their correct age. They will be referred to collec-
tively in this report as deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age.

The deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age include rela-
tively impermeable beds that retardthe seepage of water into
or out of the underlying limestone of Eocene age. Permeable
zones in the deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age differ widely
in their water-bearing characteristics, and wells drawing
more than small quantities of water from them must be fitted
with screens. Most wells of large yield are cased through
these zones, even in areas where these zones yield water of
low mineral content and the underlying limestone yields
water of high mineral content.

The upper part of the deposits of clay, shell, and sand
include beds of coquina and sand that have been mapped and
assigned to the Anastasia formation of Pleistocene age and
to terrace deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age by Cooke
(1945,pl. 1). The Anastasia formation is at the surface along
the entire east coast in Flagler County and extends inland as
far as three miles.. The terrace deposits are found at the
surface throughout the rest of the county. They are thickest
under the uplands and thinnest under the lowlands. The
deposits of Pleistocene age yield moderate quantities of water
to screened wells.

GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of
saturation, the zone in which all the pore spaces are com-
pletely filled with water under pressure greater than atmos-
pheric. It is derived almost entirely from precipitation.
Part of this precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapo-
transpiration, part drains overland to lakes and streams; the
remainder reaches the zone of saturation to become ground
water. Ground water moves more or less laterally, under
the influence of gravity, to places of discharge such as wells,
springs, lakes, surface streams, or the ocean.

Groundwater may occur under either nonartesian (water -
table) conditions or artesian conditions. Where it is uncon-
fined, its surface is free to rise and fall and it is said to be




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


average during the period 1954-1956. The graph of the water -
level shows that during the period of above-average rainfall
the highest ground-water levels didn't rise above the highest
levels of the preceding period of average rainfall. This sug-
gests that there was rejected recharge during the period of
above-average rainfall.

The water-level graph shows that the water level declined
during the period of near-normal rainfall from 1947 to 1956.
If this is the result of increasedpumping during that period,
it may allow salvage of some otherwise rejected recharge;
however, it may indicate instead that rainfall at Crescent
City is not representative of rainfall throughout the area.

Measurements arebeing made periodically during the
current investigation in approximately 20 other wells, in
order to determine the seasonal fluctuations of water levels
in different parts of the county. No conclusions have been
reached regarding fluctuations of water levels in these wells
because the period of record is too short.

Piezometric Surface of the Principal
Artesian Aquifer in Florida

One of the most important parts of an investigation of
ground water is the construction of maps representing the
altitude of the water levels in wells. Such a map for a non-
artesian aquifer shows the altitude and configuration of the
water table. Foran artesianaquifer it represents thepiezo-
metric surface.

Thepiezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer
in Florida as of 1949 is shown by the contour line s in figure 4.
This aquifer consists of limestone deposits of Eocene, Oligo-
cene, and Miocene age that act more or less as a single
hydrologic unit. Stringfield (1936, pl. 12) first mapped the
piezometric surface and described the aquifer. The shape
of the piezometric surface indicates some areas in whichthe
aquifer is replenished and the lateraldirection of movementt
of the water in the aquifer. Water enters the aquifer in those
areas in which the piezometric surface is high and moves
along a course perpendicular to the contour lines toward
areas in which the piezometric surface is low.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


EXPLANATION
Contour lines represent approximately the height,
in feet above mean sea level, to which water will
rise in tightly 'cased wells that penetrate the
principal ortesian aquifer in 1949



25 0 25 50 75 100 Miles
opproximate scoae


Figure 4. Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the piezo-
metric surface of the principal artesian aquifer.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


One of the notable features of the piezometric surface
in Florida, as shown in figure 4, is a broad saddle extending
across the State between the areas of recharge in Putnam
County, in the northern part of the peninsula, and Polk County,
in the southern part. Throughout most of the State the prin-
cipal artesian aquifer is generally overlain by relatively.
impermeable deposits of Miocene age. However, in the area
occupied bythis saddle, Miocene deposits are thin or absent
(Vernon, 1951, fig. 33), thus affording conditions that permit
recharge of the aquifer in highlands and discharge from the
aquifer in lowlands. Principal areas of recharge and dis-
charge for the artesian aquifer can be determined from
figure 4, but many areas of recharge and discharge cannot
be determined from that figure. Flagler County, which lies
within this saddle, contains localareas of recharge and dis-
charge that will be discussed in the following sections.

Piezometric Surface in St. Johns, Putnam,
and Flagler Counties

G.R. Tarver(1956) and G. W. Leve (1956), whose inves-
tigations were made concurrently with this investigation,
mapped the piezometric surface in St. Johns County and
Putnam County, respectively. A generalized map of the pie zo-
metric surface of the artesian aquifer in all three counties
is shown in figure 5.

Figure 5 shows that some water moves southward from
St. Johns County and eastward from Putnam County into
Flagler County. It does not show the piezometric surface in
Volusia County, but Wyrick (1956, p. 28) has described
recharge areas in Volusia County. Some water, therefore,
probably moves northward and eastward through the artesian
aquifer from the recharge areas inVolusia County into Flagler
County.

Piezometric Surface in Flagler County

A detailed map of the piezometric surface in Flagler
County has not yet been made, because determinations of
altitude are available for only a few wells. The Flagler
County portion of figure 5 shows contours based on the avail-
able data as of April 1956.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


Figure 5. Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties,
showing the piezometric surface.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The piezometric surface in Flagler Countyis relatively
low and flat. In the uplands of the northern and southeastern
parts of the county it is between 15 and 20 feet above sea
level. In the lowlands adjacent to Crescent Lake, the Atlantic
Ocean, and Haw Creek and its tributaries, it is less than 15
but generallymore than 10feet above sea level. The general
slope of the surface and movement of water in the artesian
aquifer are toward the streams, the lakes and the ocean.

The slope of the piezometric surface into Flagler County
from surrounding areas indicates that the county, as whole,
is within an area of discharge. The artesian aquifer receives
some replenishment, however, in the areas around Espanola
and Favorita where the water table is 'considerably higher
than the piezometric surface. The geologic factors control-
ling replenishment have not yet been investigated, but it can
be surmised that most of the recharge occurs by downward
seepage from the nonartesian aquifer through discontinuous
or leakyconfiningbeds of Miocene or Pliocene age, in areas
where the water table is above the pie zometric surface. Study
of well cuttings and well logs reveals nothing indicating that
the confining beds may not transmit water in this way.

In the vicinity of Crescent Lake, Lake Disston, and Haw
Creek and its tributaries, and other areas of artesian flow
the piezometric surface is low, indicating that these are
areas of discharge. Several small springs in Haw Creek and
Sweetwater Branch yield highly mineralized water undoubt-
edly derived in part from the artesian aquifer, which during
low stream stages helps to maintain the flow of the streams.

There are many artesianwells in the farming areas near
Codys Corner and St. Johns Park andwest of Bunnell, and
discharge of these has depressed the piezometric surface
(fig. 5, 6). The piezometric surface changes continuously
in response to changes in the rate of recharge, the rate of
withdrawal, and other factors. Figure 6 was drawn from
water-level measurements made in April 1956, when there
was considerable discharge of water from artesian wells for
irrigation; therefore, it is only an approximate representa-
tion of the piezometric surface at other times.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


Figure 6. Map of Flagler County showing the piezometric
surface.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL- SURVEY


Area of Artesian Flow

Wherever the piezometric surface stands higher than the
land surface, artesian wells will flow. The areas of arte-
sian flow in Flagler County in 1956 are shown in figure 7.

There are two principal areas of artesian flow in the
county. One of these occupies a broad band, two or three
miles wide, along the Atlantic Ocean, and a narrow westward
extension, a few hundred feet wide, along Pellicer Creek
shown on figure 7 and its tributaries. In this area there are
many small areas of no artesian flow (some of which are too
smallto be shown bythis map) along the crests of ridges that
parallel the coastline. Another principal area of artesian
flow occupies an unbroken band along Crescent Lake, up the
valleys of Haw Creek and its tributaries, and around Lake
Disston. In addition to the principal areas of artesian flow,
there is a small area of artesian flowin a stream valley east
of Roy, in the northwestern part of the county.

In the southwestern part of the county the piezometric
surface and the land surface are essentially parallel and at
almost the same altitude. The area of artesian flowis, there-
fore, greatly affected by changes of a few feet in the altitude
of the piezometric surface. The area of flow was doubtless
very much greater in previous years, when water levels were
generally a few feet higher. Water-level measurements made
by Stringfield (1936, p. 167) show that artesian wells flowed
in June 1934 at Codys Corner, four miles from areas where
artesian flow occurred in 1956.

Water-level measurements used to construct figure 7
were made at a time of year (August) when the use of water
was slight. The decline in water level due to pumping during
the winter growing season will result in a narrowing of the
areas of flow shown in figure 7. As the piezometric surface
is continuously changing, figure 7 represents the areas of
artesian flow only approximately.

Wells

The locations of at least 70 percent of all the wells in the
county and 95 percent of the wells used for irrigation are






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


Figure 7. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate
areas of artesian flow.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


plotted on figure 8. Of the 261 wells plotted, 142 are used
for irrigation and draw water from the artesian aquifer. Of
the remaining 119 wells, 105 draw water from the artesian
aquifer and 14 draw water from the nonartesian aquifer.

Figure 8 shows that more than half the wells used for
irrigation are in a small area west of Bunnell, and that most
of the others are distributed around St. Johns Park and Codys
Corner. Most of the ground water used in the county is
pumped from the artesian wells in these three farming areas
during the winter and spring growing season.

The information collected on wells west of Bunnell and
near Codys Corner is considered as being representative of
all wells in these two areas. It shows that wells west of
Bunnell are 6 to 8 inches in diameter, are 235 to 555 feet
deep, andare equippedwith electric-powered deep-well tur-
bine pumps or suction pumps, and that wells near Codys
Corner are 4 to 6 inches in diameter, are 55 to 326 feet deep,
and are pumped by electric and gasoline-powered suction
pumps. The wells west of Bunnell, whichare relativelydeep
and equipped with high- capacity pumps, have somewhat higher
yields than wells in any other area of the county.

Records of measurements showthat ground-water levels
declined, during the spring growing season of 1956, from
about 8 feet to 18 feet below the land surface in observation
well 928-122-1, west of Bunnell, and from about 2 feet to
feet below the land surface in observation well 920-119-1,
near Codys Corner. The greater decline west of Bunnell
undoubtedly is due, in art, to the greater number, closer
spacing, and higher discharge of wells in that area. Whether
it is also due in part to poorer water-bearing characteristics
of the aquifer west of Bunnell has not been determined.

QUALITY OF WATER

The chemical character of ground water is dependent
largely on the type of material with which the water comes
in contact. In recharge areas, where the water first enters
the ground, it is only slightly mineralized. As the water
moves through the ground it dissolves mineral matter from
the rocks through which it flows and mixes with any saline
water that may be present'.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 21












I 1 i '.N

77
J HN








i














Well used for irrig, ion .- -- -.-
Well not used for irriga ion
-44



ooo o ,







wells.;
L 0 F H-.
Ft~jL-'9
Lul


Figure~~;I= 8. Ma fFalrCut hoigtelctoso
wefPNPU) is o





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL :SURVEY


The mineral content of ground water is determined by-
chemical analysis of water fromwells. The results of chem-
ical analyses of water from wells of various depths in Flagler
County are shown in table 1. The table shows that the mineral
content of the groundwater, which is expressed in parts per
millionof dissolved solids, differs widelyfromplace to place
and is lowest in water from the nonartesian aquifer. The
mineral content of the water yielded by some artesian wells,
in discharge areas, is so high as to make the water unsatis-
factory for many uses.

Salt-Water Contamination

Ground water that has been contaminated by sea water
generally has a high chloride content, because about 91 per-
cent of the dissolved solids of sea water are chloride salts.
The chloride content of water from most of the inventoried
wells has been determined by chemical analysis, and the
results show that the chloride content of the water from the
artesian aquifer ranges from 15 ppm near Espanola to more
than 4,400 ppm southwest of Bunnell. The generalized results
of these analyses are shown by the shaded areas in figure 9.

Figure 9 shows that the chloride content of water from
artesian wells in the extreme southern part of the county and
in the uplandareas is generallyless than 100 ppm. The arte-
sian aquifer in these areas is believed to receive recharge
from fresh ground water that moves into the area from Volusia
County and from water that percolates downward from swamps
and ponds in the area. The recharge has diluted and flushed
out much of the mineralized water that flooded the aquifer
during Pleistocene time, when sea level was higher than it
is now. Throughout the remainder of the countythe chloride
content of the artesian water increased with increasing dis-
tance from recharge areas (fig. 9). Water from artesian
wells in areas where the chloride content exceeds 750 ppm
has a salty taste and is undesirable for use as a source of
public supply. Water from artesian wells in areas where
the chloride content exceeds 2, 000 ppmis unsuitable for many
uses, including the irrigation of certain crops (Westgate,
1950, p. 116-123).

Water samples collected from wells of different depths
show that flushing of the salty water is more complete in




Table 1. Analyses of Water from Wells in Flagler County
(Chemical constituents in parts per million)


Well Number
Well Depth
Aquifer
Date of Collection


923-118-5
187
artesian
8-7-56


924-122-2
150?
artesian
8-7-56


933-123-2 927-115-2
150 ? 180?
artesian artesian
8 7-56 8-7-56


Silica (Siqa)
Iron (Fe), dissolved
Iron (Fe), total
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HC03)
Carbonate (CO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (C1)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (N03)
Dissolved solids
Sum
Residue on evaporation
at 180 C
Hardness as. CaCO3
Noncarbonate
Specific conductance
(micromhos at. 25 C)
pH
Color


17 25
.09 .00
.89 .52


328
192
1,500
28
266
0
215
3,020


252
124
485
12
204
0
218
1,270


23
.00
1. 3
184
71
210
7.0
212
1. 0
310
500


14
.05
3.4
288
.175
1,070
20
184
0
150
2,500


.0 .2 .4 .0
.8 .3 .8 1.5

5,430 2,490 1,410 4,310


1,610
1,390

9,600
7.6
6


1,140
972

4,570
7.6
S5


751 1,440
578 1,290


2,230
7.7
13


7,890
7.5
4


166
96
610
19
272
0
140
1,290


I f1 ---
.01 .00
.47 .68 1. 5
108 110
34 7
.130 --
4.0
292 371
0 -
29 .0
295 31
.2 .3 .0
.5 1.2


2,470


809
586

4,580
7.8
7


852
410
170

1,420
7.8
5


396d
304
0


7.0


aIn solution at time of analysis.
bAnalysis by Florida State Board of Health.
CDate of analysis.
dResidue on evaporation at 105 C.


920-119-3
60
artesian
8-10-56


920-119-5
165
artesian
8-13-56


928-114-1
86b
nonartesian
7-16-51c


928-108-6
26b
nonartesian
10-30-52c


0.0
92
8
---

207

trace
160


535d
264
94


7.6


Si1


'1





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2Oes Sn- VOLUSIA COU N TY
rs 3 4*




Figure 9. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate
chloride content of water from artesian wells.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


some zones of the artesian aquifer than in other zones. West
of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawing from
the upper 200 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower
chloride content than artesian water yielded by wells drawing
from deeper zones. Also, southwest of Bunnell, artesian
water yielded by wells drawingfrom the upper 50 feet of the
limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than
water yielded by wells drawing from certain zones of the
younger deposits.

One of the most important water problems facing the
county is the danger that water maymove fromhighly miner-
alized zones and contaminate the producing zones as with-
drawals from wells are increased. Analyses of periodically
collected water samples show that the chloride content of the
artesian water from some wells increased duringthe spring
growing season, when the withdrawal of artesian water for
irrigation was greatest and water levels were lowest.
Figure 10 shows the relation between the chloride content of
the water and the water level in a well near Codys Corner.
-It also shows that a 5-foot drop of the water level was
accompanied by a temporary twofold increase of the chloride
content. Figure 11 shows the relation between the fluctua-
tions of water level in a wellwest of Bunnell and the fluctua-
tions of chloride content in the water of a nearby well. A
water-level decline of about 10 feet resulted in a sevenfold
increase in chloride content, from about 300 to 2, 100 ppm.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

During the first year of the investigation of the ground-
water geology and hydrology of Flagler County the following
things were done:
1. Pertinent information on 261 wells was collected
for use in preparing geologic and hydrologic
maps of the county.

2. Water samples from 163wells and springs were
analyzed for use in describing the chemical
quality of ground water throughout the county.
3. Deep-well sampling equipment was used to col-
lect water samples for determining the chloride
content of water at various depths in a well.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


plotted on figure 8. Of the 261 wells plotted, 142 are used
for irrigation and draw water from the artesian aquifer. Of
the remaining 119 wells, 105 draw water from the artesian
aquifer and 14 draw water from the nonartesian aquifer.

Figure 8 shows that more than half the wells used for
irrigation are in a small area west of Bunnell, and that most
of the others are distributed around St. Johns Park and Codys
Corner. Most of the ground water used in the county is
pumped from the artesian wells in these three farming areas
during the winter and spring growing season.

The information collected on wells west of Bunnell and
near Codys Corner is considered as being representative of
all wells in these two areas. It shows that wells west of
Bunnell are 6 to 8 inches in diameter, are 235 to 555 feet
deep, andare equippedwith electric-powered deep-well tur-
bine pumps or suction pumps, and that wells near Codys
Corner are 4 to 6 inches in diameter, are 55 to 326 feet deep,
and are pumped by electric and gasoline-powered suction
pumps. The wells west of Bunnell, whichare relativelydeep
and equipped with high- capacity pumps, have somewhat higher
yields than wells in any other area of the county.

Records of measurements showthat ground-water levels
declined, during the spring growing season of 1956, from
about 8 feet to 18 feet below the land surface in observation
well 928-122-1, west of Bunnell, and from about 2 feet to
feet below the land surface in observation well 920-119-1,
near Codys Corner. The greater decline west of Bunnell
undoubtedly is due, in art, to the greater number, closer
spacing, and higher discharge of wells in that area. Whether
it is also due in part to poorer water-bearing characteristics
of the aquifer west of Bunnell has not been determined.

QUALITY OF WATER

The chemical character of ground water is dependent
largely on the type of material with which the water comes
in contact. In recharge areas, where the water first enters
the ground, it is only slightly mineralized. As the water
moves through the ground it dissolves mineral matter from
the rocks through which it flows and mixes with any saline
water that may be present'.










L J I


z ___ WATER LEVEL
WELL 920-119-2

7---
S8--


26 0o I -.....-
240
2240 CHLORIDE CONTENT
200 WELL 920-119-2
200
180 -
160
140 -
120i--
I n0


19551 1956


Figure 10. Graph showing the. relationbetween the chloride
content of the water and the water level in well
920-119-2 near Codys Corner.


Ivv


I
0


FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG ISEP I OCT NOV DEC


JAN







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


SII

I 2 WATER LEVEL
2 WELL 928-122-1
o 13
14--
J 15
0 16
- I -- -- 4 -- -- -- -- -- -


W-j :T_ _
01 -- -______- _- -
'9 | -- -- -- --i- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- --

2100
S_____CHLORIDE CONTENT
1700- -_WELL 928-121 -
1500 /
1300 /
100 /
900 7--- -- --
700

300 o

DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
1955 1956


Figure 11.


Graph showing fluctuations of water level in well
928-122-1 and the chloride content of the water
in well 928-121-1, west of Bunnell.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


4. Fluctuations of chloride content and water level
in 24 wells throughout the countywere recorded.

5. This report was prepared, summarizing all
available facts concerning the ground-water
resources of the county.

As the investigations incomplete at this time, available
data are not adequate for final conclusions concerning the
ground-water problems confronting the county. However,
results obtained so far can be summarized as follows:

1. The principal source of ground water in Flagler
Countyis a thick section of limestone whose top
lies at depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet. The
50 to 150 feet of deposits above the limestone
consist predominantly of sand, clay, and shells.
These overlying deposits have not been differ-
entiated in this report, but records from a few
wells showthat impermeable beds in these over-
lying deposits confine the water in the limestone,
under pressure, in most or all areas of the
county. Beds of sand and coquina in the over-
lying deposits yield water of generally low min-
eral content to a few screened wells in the county.

2. Some of the ground water in Flagler County is
obtained from rain that falls on recharge areas
in Volusia and Putnam counties, but there are
areas of recharge in Flagler County also, par-
ticularly near Espanola and Favorita. Natural
discharge of ground water in Flagler County
takes place through transpiration by plants and
the flow from springs along the inlandwaterway
and in the bottoms of Lake Disston and Crescent
Lake, and along Haw Creek and its tributaries.

3. In recent years, rainfall has been deficient in
the western part of the county and the artesian
head has declined about three feet at Bunnell.
The decline may have resulted from a deficiency
in rainfall and allowed the salvage of recharge
formerly rejected.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


4. The chloride content of water from artesian wells
in Flagler Countyranges from less than 100 ppm
in recharge areas to more than 2, 000 ppm south-
west of Bunnell. In some areas the chloride
content of the water in certain wells changes with
depth and time. West of Bunnell, the ground
water of highest chloride content comes from
some of the deeper wells, whereas southwest of
Bunnell the groundwater of highest chloride con-
tent comes from some of the shallower wells.
West of Bunnell, and near Codys Corner, the
chloride content of water from certain artesian
wells is highest when the withdrawal of ground
water is greatest and water levels are lowest.

The results of the investigation to date show that supplies
of fresh ground water may not be available southwest of
Bunnell, and that present supplies in some farming areas
may be subject to serious contamination by the intrusion of
highly mineralized ground water. Therefore, future studies
iin Flagler County will emphasize mapping areas of such
mineralized water in greater detail and determining the con-
ditions that influence its movement. The following work will
be done :

1. A study willbe made of well cuttings to determine
the position and thickness of the different geo-
logic formations, especially to determine their
division into water-bearing beds (aquifers) and
confining beds (aquiclude s).

2. Electric logs and test borings will be made to
add to the information on position and thickness
of water-bearing zones and confining beds.

3. Water from selected wells will be collected with
deep-well sampling equipment to determine the
quality of water in each zone.

4. The altitudes of measuringpoints onwater-level
observation wells will be determined for use in
mapping the piezometric surface in greater
;detail.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


some zones of the artesian aquifer than in other zones. West
of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawing from
the upper 200 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower
chloride content than artesian water yielded by wells drawing
from deeper zones. Also, southwest of Bunnell, artesian
water yielded by wells drawingfrom the upper 50 feet of the
limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than
water yielded by wells drawing from certain zones of the
younger deposits.

One of the most important water problems facing the
county is the danger that water maymove fromhighly miner-
alized zones and contaminate the producing zones as with-
drawals from wells are increased. Analyses of periodically
collected water samples show that the chloride content of the
artesian water from some wells increased duringthe spring
growing season, when the withdrawal of artesian water for
irrigation was greatest and water levels were lowest.
Figure 10 shows the relation between the chloride content of
the water and the water level in a well near Codys Corner.
-It also shows that a 5-foot drop of the water level was
accompanied by a temporary twofold increase of the chloride
content. Figure 11 shows the relation between the fluctua-
tions of water level in a wellwest of Bunnell and the fluctua-
tions of chloride content in the water of a nearby well. A
water-level decline of about 10 feet resulted in a sevenfold
increase in chloride content, from about 300 to 2, 100 ppm.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

During the first year of the investigation of the ground-
water geology and hydrology of Flagler County the following
things were done:
1. Pertinent information on 261 wells was collected
for use in preparing geologic and hydrologic
maps of the county.

2. Water samples from 163wells and springs were
analyzed for use in describing the chemical
quality of ground water throughout the county.
3. Deep-well sampling equipment was used to col-
lect water samples for determining the chloride
content of water at various depths in a well.





30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

5. Quantitative studies including pumping tests will
be made to measure the recharge and discharge
rates and the water-transmitting and storing
capacities of aquifers.
6. Data on the use of ground water will be collected
inorder to estimate the rate of withdrawal. This
information will be used, in conjunction with
data on water levels, the water-transmitting and
storing capacity of the aquifer, and chemical
quality to predict the effect of increased with-
drawal on water levels and quality of water.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13


REFERENCES


Black, A. P.
1951


(and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of
Florida's waters 1951: Florida State Board
Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,
Paper 6.


Brown, Eugene (see Black)


Collins, W. P.
1928 (and Howard, C. S. ) Chemical character of
waters of Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 596-G.

Cooke, C.W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 29.


Howard, C.S. (see Collins)

Leutze, 'Willard P. (see Wyrick)


Leve, G: W.
1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources
of Putnam County, Florida:Florida Geol. Survey
Inf. Circ. 15 (in press).

Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C.

Tarver, G.R.
1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources
of St. Johns County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Inf. Circ. 14 (in press).

Vernon, R. O.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33.

Westgate, P. J.
1950 Effects of soluble soil salts on vegetable pro-
duction at Sanford: Florida State Hort. Soc.
Proc., Oct. -Nov. 1950.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Wyrick, Granville G.
1956 (and Leutze, Willard P. ) Interim report on the
ground-water resources of the northeastern
part of Volusia County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Inf. Circ. 8.





































--










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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