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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Well-numbering system
 Geography
 Geology
 Hydrology
 Surface water
 Ground water
 Summary and conclusions
 References


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Interim report on the water resources of Brevard County, Florida, with special reference to the central area ( FGS: Info...
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 Material Information
Title: Interim report on the water resources of Brevard County, Florida, with special reference to the central area ( FGS: Information circular 11 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 11 )
Physical Description: 111 p. : illus., tables, diagrs., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Delbert Wayne, 1922-
Brown, Delbert W
Kenner, William E
Brown, Eugene, 1919-
Publisher: n.p.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1957
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Delbert W. Brown, W.E. Kenner,and Eugene Brown.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 91-93.
General Note: "Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692708
oclc - 01719543
notis - AJA4782
System ID: UF00001071:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Page 3
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 10
    Well-numbering system
        Page 9
        Page 8
    Geography
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 10
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Geology
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 17
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Hydrology
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 33
    Surface water
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 47
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Ground water
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 74
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 96
    References
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text





STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Herman Gunter, Director




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11




INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES

OF BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA


With Special Reference to the Central Area




By
Delbert W. Brown
W. E. Kenner, and Eugene Brown


Prepared by
U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District
and the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army




Tallahassee, Florida
1957










PREFACE1


The purpose of this report is to summarize the avail-
able information and to review briefly the progress of the
cooperative investigation to December 31, 1955. This interim
report marks the completion of the first half of the investi-
gation; the final, comprehensive report will be prepared
after the completion of the field work of the investigation in
1958. In addition to the data collected during this investiga-
tion, the report contains published and unpublished data col-
lected by other agencies and individuals.

Most of the data used in this report were collected by
the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central
and Southern Florida Flood Control District, the Florida
Geological Survey, and the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.
Other data were furnished by Mr. Jerry Sellers, water-plant
superintendent of the Cocoa Water Department. Special
thanks go to the many residents of the area who cooperated
in the collection of data and freely supplied water information.

This report was prepared by the following personnel of
the U. S. Geological Survey: D. W. Brown, under the super-
vision of M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, Ground Water
Branch; W. E. Kenner, under the supervision of A. 0. Pat-
terson, district engineer, Surface Water Branch; and Eugene
Brown, district chemist, Quality of Water Branch. E. L.
Hendricks, staff engineer, General Hydrology Branch, pro-
vided technical assistance in the preparation of the report.



1
The classification and nomenclature of the rock units
conform to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey and
also, except for the Ocala group and its subdivisions, with
those of the U. S. Geological Survey, which regards the
Ocala as a formation.







TABLE OF CONTENTS


Abstract . . .
Introduction . .


Occurrence and source..


. . . . 71


S S S *( *( S *


Nature of the problem. . .
Previous investigations . .
Present investigations. . .
Well-numbering system. . .
Geography. . . .
Location . .
Physical features . .
St. Johns River valley . ..
Atlantic coastal ridge. . .
Barrier islands area. . .
Climate . . . .
Population . . . .
Geology .. . . . .
Test drilling .... . .
Formations . . . .
Avon Park limestone. . .
Ocala group. . . .
Hawthorn formation . .
Upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits
Pleistocene and Recent deposits .
Structure. . . .
Geologic history. . . .
Hydrology. . . . .
Chemical quality of natural waters .
Water-quality criteria . .
Surface water . . . .
Scope of streamflow records .
Results of investigations . .
St. Johns River flood plain. .
Prairie and flatwoods forest area .
Atlantic coastal ridge area. .
Indian River . . .
Merritt Island . . .
The barrier beach area . .
Groundwater .. . .
Nonartesian ground water. ..


Page

. 1
3
S3
S4
. 5
S8
.10
. 10
.10
. 12
. 13
. 14
. 15
.15
. 17
.19
. 20
. 22
23
.24
. 24

. 26
. 27
.30
. 35
. 36
.44
.44
. 45
. 45
. 59
.59
.67
S69
. 70
.70
. 71





Page

Fluctuation of the water table . . 71
Configuration of the water table and movement
ofnonartesian water. .. . . 72
Storage of water in the nonartesian aquifer . 73
Chemical quality of nonartesian ground water 75
Salt-water contamination. . . 77
Utilization. . . . .. 78
Artesian ground water . ......... 79
Occurrence and source .' . . . 79
Fluctuations of the piezometric surface . 81
Configuration of the piezometric surface and
movement of artesian water. . . 82
Chemical quality of artesian water . . 83
Salt-water contamination . . 86
Utilization . . . . . 87
Summary and conclusions . . . 87
References. . . . . . 91







ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page

1 Map of Brevard County and adjacent counties
showing the location of the Atlantic coastal
ridge, central area, gaging stations,
observation wells, and quality-of-water
sampling stations . . . . 7
2 Sketch showing the well-numbering system
derived from latitude and longitude grid lines. 9
3 Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the
location of Brevard County. . . 11
4 Precipitation records at Titusville and Merritt
Island, Florida, 1878-1954 . . 16
5 Map of the central area of Brevard County and
parts of Orange and Osceola counties showing
the location of test wells and geologic sections
B-B', D-D', and C-C' . . facing 20
6 Graphs showing data obtained from test well
822-051-1. . . . . . 21
7 North-south geologic cross section of Brevard
County along line A-A' in figure 9. . . 25
8 Geologic sections in the central area of
Brevard County along lines C-C' and D-D' in
figure 5. . . . .. facing 26
9 Map of Brevard County showing the
approximate altitude of the top of the
limestone of Eocene age and the location
of geologic section A-A' . .. .. facing 28
10 East-west cross section through central
Brevard County along line B-B' in figure 5 29
11 Diagram showing the generalized hydrologic
conditions in east-central Florida. . . 31
12 Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the
contour of the piezometric surface . . 34
13 Duration of records at surface-water gaging
stations. . . . 40
14 Flood-stage frequencies on the St. Johns
River, Florida ... . . 46





15 Maximum periods of high stages of Lake
Poinsett near Cocoa, Florida, 1941-1955. . .47
16 Profile of maximum stages on the St. Johns
River, Florida, during flood of October 1953. .. 48
17 Storage-duration curve for Lake Poinsett,
Florida, 1941-1955. . . . 52
18 Map of the upper St. Johns River and Indian
River basins showing quality-of-water
sampling stations. .. . .. .53
19 Graph showing analyses of water from
St. Johns River .. . . facing 54
20 Maximum, average, and minimum concen-
tration of chloride at station 13 on
Lake Poinsett. . .... . .55
21 Duration curve of the chloride content at
sampling station 13 on Lake Poinsett and
the St. Johns River at Lake Poinsett outlet
near Cocoa, October 1953-September 1955. .. 56
22 Map of Lake Poinsett near Cocoa, showing
chloride concentration at various points
during period of approximate minimum flow.
Samples collected in May, 1955. . . 57
23 Approximate relationship between concentration
of chloride and discharge of St. Johns River at
Lake Poinsett outlet during falling stage for
period October 1953-September 1955 . . 58
24 Chloride content, stage, and pumpage Clear
Lake near Cocoa, Florida. . . . 60
25 Map of the central area of Brevard County and
parts of Orange and Osceola counties showing
the contour of the water table and distribution
of nonartesian wells in June 1955. . facing 70
26 Map of Brevard County showing the chloride
content of water from nonartesian wells facing 74
27 Hydrographs of wells 19, 20, 79, 148 and 159 in
Brevard County............. ..... 80
28 Map of Brevard County showing the piezometric
surface and location of wells . . facing 82
29 Map of the central area of Brevard County and
parts of Orange and Osceola counties showing
the contours of the piezometric surface and
distribution of artesian wells in 1954 . facing 84
30 Map of Brevard County showing the chloride
content of water from artesian wells .. facing. 86


vii







Table


1 Population of Brevard County and principal
municipalities in Brevard County, 1910-50. 17
2 Stratigraphic units of Brevard County, Fla. 18
3 Suggested water-quality tolerances. . 39
4 Location and type of record at surface water
gaging stations in the Brevard County area 41
5 Monthly and yearly mean discharge of St.
Johns River near Christmas, Fla. . . 50
6 Monthly and yearly mean discharge of St.
Johns River near Melbourne, Fla. . . 51
7 Analyses of water from Clear Lake near Cocoa 63
8 Analyses of water from a slough in the Atlantic
coastal ridge near Cocoa. . . 64
9 Discharge of small streams tributary to the
Indian River . . . . 65
10 Monthly and yearly mean discharge of Crane
Creek at Melbourne, Fla. . . .. 66
11 Partial chemical analyses of water from
tributaries of Indian River, May 1953 to
May 1955. . . . . . 68
1L Analyses of water from the nonartesian
aquifer in the central area of Brevard County 76
13 Analyses of water from the Floridan aquifer
in the central area of Brevard County . 85
14 Chemical analyses of surface waters in the
St. Johns and Indian River areas . . 94
15 Chloride content of Lake Poinsett, near Cocoa. 111


viii


Page







INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES

OF BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA

With Special Reference to the Central Area

By

Delbert W. Brown
W. E. Kenner, and Eugene Brown



ABSTRACT


Brevard County comprises an area of 1, 298 square miles
along the Atlantic Ocean in central Florida. Lying in bands
roughly parallel to Indian River are three distinct landforms:
the St. Johns River valley, which parallels the westernborder
of the county, the Atlantic coastal ridge, which forms the
eastern boundary of the mainland, and the barrier islands,
which lie offshore and parallel to the mainland.

The county is underlain by a series of limestone forma-
tions having a total thickness of several thousand feet. The
upper several hundred feet constitute the artesian aquifer,
which generally includes the Avon Park limestone and the
overlying Ocala group of limestone formations, all of Eocene
age. Overlying the artesian aquifer are beds of sandy clay,
shells, and clay of the Hawthorn formation and deposits of
late Miocene or Pliocene age. These beds serve to confine
water under pressure' in the underlying artesian aquifer.
The confining beds are overlain by unconsolidated deposits
of sand and sandy coquina of Pleistocene and Recent age
whichcompletely blanket the entire county.

The development of adequate supplies of freshwater and
the alleviation of flooding are the principal surface-water
problems in Brevard County. Increased supplies are needed,





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


particularly in the Atlantic coastal ridge area, on Merritt
Island, and in the barrier beach area. Flooding is a major
problem in the St. Johns River valley.

Lakes and streams occur throughout the county but the
more important potential surface-water sources of supply
are: (1) the St. Johns River, (2) the lakes and sloughs of the
coastal ridge area, and (3) the streams flowing eastward into
the Indian River. All the sources will provide water supplies,
but the quality and quantity of water vary widely.

Records from stream gaging stations range in length
from one year to more than 22 years. The longer records,
usually on bodies of water in the St. Johns River basin, allow
fairly dependable estimates of the potentialities. The shorter
records, principally on streams in the coastal ridge area,
do not provide enough data for reliable estimates, and an
adequate evaluation of potentialities must await the collection
of more data.

Ground water inBrevard County occurs under both arte-
sianand nonartesian conditions. The nonartesian water oc-
curs in the sediments of Pleistocene and Recent age, whereas
the artesianwater is in the underlying limestone formations
of Eocene age.

The sediments of Pleistocene and Recent age average
about 50 feet in thickness in the coastal ridge area but are
less than 20 feet thick in the vicinity of the St. Johns River.
An average of about 40 feet of these sediments are saturated
in the coastal ridge area, but the zone of saturation in them
thins toward the St. Johns and Indian rivers.The lower part
of the sediments contain, in some places, relatively saline
water. Upward movement of relatively saline water from
the artesianaquifer can occur inareas where the water table
is below the piezometric surface, including areas where the
water table is or in the future may be, lowered by large
withdrawals of ground water from the nonartesian aquifer.
Ground water in the nonartesian aquifer above the contami-
nated zone is generally low in color and in all chemical con-
stituents except iron. In general, the nonartesian water is





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


suitable for most purposes after it has been treated for the
removal of iron and color and for the reduction of hardness.

Groundwater in the limestone formations of Eocene age
is confined under artesian pressure. Over most of Brevard
County, the piezometric surface is higher than the land sur-
face, and hence wells drilled into the artesian aquifer will
overflow at the surface. The top of the artesian aquifer is
about 75 feet below sea level in the northwestern corner of
the county but it is more than 300 feet below sea level in the
southeast corner. In Brevard County, the direction of
movement of the artesianwater is generally northeastward,
except on the barrier islands where, in the area north of
Cocoa Beach, it is northwestward and in the area south of
Melbourne it is directly eastward. The mineralization of
the artesian water in the area under investigation exceeds
the standards set by the U. S. Public Health Service for
public drinking supplies except in the following areas: (1)
west of the St. Johns River, (2) the southeast corner of the
county, and (3) two small areas north and west of Titusville.


INTRODUCTION

Nature of the Problem

The development of water supplies of suitable quality
and quantity for municipal, industrial, and agricultural pur-
poses has long been a major problem in Brevard County.
This problem has become more acute in the past decade be-
cause of the rapid growth in population. The establishment
of potable water supplies for the expanding population is of
first importance in fostering the continued growth of the
area. The determination of potential sources of water for
agricultural and industrial use is also important. Besides the
relatively local problems of water supply there are county-
wide and regional problems of flood control and drainage.

B revard Countylieswithinthe boundaries of the Central
andSouthern Florida Flood Control District. The District's
interest in Brevard County is twofold: (1) to collect basic
hydrologic data thatwill provide a sound basis for the oper-
ation of its comprehensive plan, and (2) to obtain information





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


on specific water problems. These interests spring from the
District's fundamental aim to promote the most beneficial
use of the natural resources within the area under its juris-
diction. The results of the present investigation, whichis a
part of a systematic program of the U. S. Geological Survey
to determine the water resources of the nation, should be
helpful to the District in achieving this objective.

The water resources problems in the area are of nation-
al importance both because of considerations of the general
welfare and because of large federal investments in drainage
and flood control and in nearby military installations.

Several potential sources of water within the county are
considered in this report. These are as follows:

1. The St. Johns River and associated lakes.

2. The several small streams that flow eastward into
the Indian River.

3. The nonartesian aquifer in deposits of sand and shells
of the Atlantic coastal ridge.

4. The artesian limestone aquifer that underlies the
surface of the county at depths ranging from about
75 to more than 300 feet.

5. The shallow ponds along the coastal ridge.

The artesian limestone aquifer in eastern Orange and
Osceola counties may be considered a potential source of
water of good quality.


Previous Investigations

The water resources of Brevard County are briefly de-
scribed in several reports published by state and federal
agencies and unpublished reports by consultants and other
interested parties. The published reports that contain spe-
cific information on Brevard County include the following:





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


suitable for most purposes after it has been treated for the
removal of iron and color and for the reduction of hardness.

Groundwater in the limestone formations of Eocene age
is confined under artesian pressure. Over most of Brevard
County, the piezometric surface is higher than the land sur-
face, and hence wells drilled into the artesian aquifer will
overflow at the surface. The top of the artesian aquifer is
about 75 feet below sea level in the northwestern corner of
the county but it is more than 300 feet below sea level in the
southeast corner. In Brevard County, the direction of
movement of the artesianwater is generally northeastward,
except on the barrier islands where, in the area north of
Cocoa Beach, it is northwestward and in the area south of
Melbourne it is directly eastward. The mineralization of
the artesian water in the area under investigation exceeds
the standards set by the U. S. Public Health Service for
public drinking supplies except in the following areas: (1)
west of the St. Johns River, (2) the southeast corner of the
county, and (3) two small areas north and west of Titusville.


INTRODUCTION

Nature of the Problem

The development of water supplies of suitable quality
and quantity for municipal, industrial, and agricultural pur-
poses has long been a major problem in Brevard County.
This problem has become more acute in the past decade be-
cause of the rapid growth in population. The establishment
of potable water supplies for the expanding population is of
first importance in fostering the continued growth of the
area. The determination of potential sources of water for
agricultural and industrial use is also important. Besides the
relatively local problems of water supply there are county-
wide and regional problems of flood control and drainage.

B revard Countylieswithinthe boundaries of the Central
andSouthern Florida Flood Control District. The District's
interest in Brevard County is twofold: (1) to collect basic
hydrologic data thatwill provide a sound basis for the oper-
ation of its comprehensive plan, and (2) to obtain information





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


The geology and ground water of Brevard County are
mentioned in a report by Matson and Sanford (1931, p. 273-
277). Sellards and Gunter (1913, p. 232-245), in a report on
the artesianwater supply, gave descriptions of wells, water-
level measurements, and a few chemical analyses of water.
Analyses of water from several wells in Brevard County are
given in reports by Collins andHoward (1928) and Black and
Brown (1951, p. 31-33). A report by Stringfield (1936) in-
cludes records of wells and artesian pressure in Brevard
County and a piezometric map of the principal artesian aquifer
in the Florida Peninsula. In Brevard County the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey has been gaging streams since 1933 and making
water-level measurements in wells since 1946. These data
are published in the regular series of annual water-supply
papers of that agency. The water-supply papers that contain
records on surface-water supplies in Brevard County are
nos. 757, 782, 802, 822, 852, 872, 892, 922, 952, 972
1002, 1052, 1082, 1112, 1142, 1172, 1204, 1234, 1274 and
1334. Those that contain records on ground-water levels and
artesian pressures in Brevard County are nos. 1072, 1097,
1127, 1157, .1166, 1192, 1222, 1266, and 1322. Cooke's
"Geology of Florida" (1945, p. 47, 267, 301) mentions some
of the formations inBrevard County. Vernon (1951, figs. 11
and 33, and pl. 2) has drawn structural maps which include
Brevard County.

An unpublished manuscript entitled "Geology and Ground
Water Resources of Brevard County, Florida" by R. M. Neill
and M. C. Schroeder, contains the results of a ground-water
reconnaissance of Brevard County made in 1947-48 by Neill
as a part of the program of investigations by the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological
Survey. The table of well records and illustrations of that
investigation were released to the open file in a report by
Neill (1955). The illustrations of that release are incorpo-
rated in this report.


Present Investigation

The present intensive investigation is being made by the
Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey in
cooperation with the Central and Southern Florida Flood Con-
trol District. Other agencies supporting the investigation





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


are the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Florida
Geological Survey. Surface-water and quality-of-water data
were collected on a countywide basis, but the early phases
of the ground-water investigation, through 1955, were con-
fined to the central area of the county and adjacent areas of
Orange and Osceola counties (fig. 1). The locations of the
stream gaging stations, ground-water recording gages, and
quality-of-water sampling stations in and adjacent to Brevard
County are shown in figure 1.

The collection of streamflow records inBrevard County
by the U. S. Geological Survey began in 1933 and was con-
tinued to the beginning of the present investigation, whenthe
program was expanded to its present scope. The surface-
water work of the investigation consists of the collection of
stage records on lakes, streams, and other water bodies and
the measurement of the flow of the streams. Much recon-
naissance work has been done to define the limits of drainage
areas, to determine flow patterns, and to select gaging sites.

The current ground-water investigation was started in
the Spring of 1954. The present investigation supplements
the results of the ground-water reconnaissance made byNeill.
in 1947-48. The current investigation covers the central
part of the county in more detail thanthe earlier study. The
major phases of the ground-water investigation include the
following:

1. Inventory of wells to determine their location, num-
ber, depth, distribution, diameter, yield, and other
pertinent data.

2. Drilling of test wells in selected areas where infor-
mation cannot be obtained from existing wells.

3. Collection and study of water-level records to de-
termine the seasonal fluctuations and progressive
trends.

4. Geologic studies and interpretation to determine the
thickness, lithologic character and extent of the dif-
ferent geologic formations.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


ORANGE COUNTY


EXPLANATION

Approximoae or0e of the Atlntic coastal range
Approximaol area ol lhe central area
Surofcewolter going slolion
Qualily-of-woler somplng sttoion, srface-wtler source
Also stage or discharge record It indicated by
seller designation
Ground-wolet observolon well
Quolity-of-woler sampling station, ground-water
source Also slage or discharge record if
indicoled by letter designation
Slage
Discharge and sloge
Complelo onolysis
Chloride
Conlinuous
Daily
Periodic'lol intervals ol obout 416 welrks)
Semipnnual
Annual


0 2 4 6 8 10 MILS


LHoa e SoAs
Hellen 8/ussU o






iSoAs





SBREVARD COUNTY
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY


Figure 1.


Map of Brevard County and adjacent counties

showing the location of the Atlantic coastal ridge,

central area, gaging stations, observation wells,

and quality-of-water sampling stations.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


5. Study and interpretation of the wator-transmitting
and water-storing capacities of the different water-
bearing formations.

6. Study and interpretation of all the above phases to
determine insofar as possible the occurrence, quan-
tity, and quality of ground water and its relation to
surface water.

The investigation of quality of water in the upper St.
Johns and Indian River basins, begun in the Fall of 1953, was
intensified during 1955 to meet the requirements of the cur-
rent water-resources study. Water-sampling stations for
daily and periodic collection of water samples for chemical
analyses were established. The results of chemical analyses
of surface and ground waters indicate their chemical quality
and their suitability for domestic, industrial, and agricul-
tural uses. Samples were collected periodically to detect
progressive changes in the chemical quality of the water and
the effects of water use and control on the chemical quality
of the water. These stations were, in general, established
in conjunction with stream-gaging stations.or ground-water
recording gages.


Well-Numbering System

The well-numbering systems used in this report consist
of the county system and a latitude and longitude location
system.

Under the county system the wells are numbered con-
secutively in each county. The county system was superseded
in 1955 by the latitude and longitude location system, and
the wells inventoried after that time were numbered by this
system as illustrated in figure 2. The latitude and longitude
system consists of a statewide grid of 1-minute parallels of
latitude and 1-minute meridians of longitude. The wells in
a 1-minute quadrangle are numbered consecutively in the
order inventoried. The well number is a composite of three
numbers separated by hyphens: the first number is composed
of the last digit of the degree and the two digits ofthe minutes
that define the latitude on the south side of a 1-minute quad-
rangle; the second number is composed of the last digit of the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


degree and two digits of the minutes that define the longitude
on the east side of a 1-minute quadrange; and the third num-
ber gives the number assigned consecutively to the well as
it was inventoried.

The ground-water reconnaissance in 1947-48 used the
county system. Several illustrations of that investigation
are reproduced in this report (fig. 7, 10, 26, 28 and 30); con-
sequentlythe well numbers used in these figures represent
the county system. The latitude and longitude location system
is used to designate well numbers in all other illustrations
of this report.


GEOGRAPHY

Location

Brevard County is on the Atlantic Coast near the middle
of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 3). It is bordered on the north
by Volusia County, on the west by Osceola, Orange, and
Volusia counties, and on the south by Indian River County.
The eastern border of the county is the Atlantic Ocean. Cape
Canaveral forms the central part of the Atlantic coastline of
Brevard County. The cape is a conspicuous interruption in
the relatively smooth lines of Florida's east coast.

The county covers an area of 1,298 square miles and
has a north-south length of 66 miles and an east-west width
of about 20 miles.

The central area, as definedinthis report, includes the
middle part of the countywest of the Indian River and extends
about seven miles west of the St. Johns River into Orange
and Osceola counties. The north and south boundaries of the
area are, respectively, about ten miles north and seven miles
south of the city of Cocoa. The area has a north-south length
of approximately 17 miles, an east-west width of about 17
miles, and an area of about 290 square miles.


Physical Features

Brevard County has been classified by Cooke (1939,
p. 14-16) as part of the Coastal Lowlands physiographic unit.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


80*50'


8049'


-1 I


4 I


I
o o
0 3-^
2
0


I A


WELL NUMBER


80048'
-2825'


2824'


2823'
8048


Well number 823-049-3 was the third
well inventoried in the I-minute quadrangle
north of the 28023' parallel of latitude and
west of the 80049' meridian of longitude.



Figure 2. Sketch showing the well-numbering system derived
from latitude and longitude grid lines.


80 51'


1


-3





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


5. Study and interpretation of the wator-transmitting
and water-storing capacities of the different water-
bearing formations.

6. Study and interpretation of all the above phases to
determine insofar as possible the occurrence, quan-
tity, and quality of ground water and its relation to
surface water.

The investigation of quality of water in the upper St.
Johns and Indian River basins, begun in the Fall of 1953, was
intensified during 1955 to meet the requirements of the cur-
rent water-resources study. Water-sampling stations for
daily and periodic collection of water samples for chemical
analyses were established. The results of chemical analyses
of surface and ground waters indicate their chemical quality
and their suitability for domestic, industrial, and agricul-
tural uses. Samples were collected periodically to detect
progressive changes in the chemical quality of the water and
the effects of water use and control on the chemical quality
of the water. These stations were, in general, established
in conjunction with stream-gaging stations.or ground-water
recording gages.


Well-Numbering System

The well-numbering systems used in this report consist
of the county system and a latitude and longitude location
system.

Under the county system the wells are numbered con-
secutively in each county. The county system was superseded
in 1955 by the latitude and longitude location system, and
the wells inventoried after that time were numbered by this
system as illustrated in figure 2. The latitude and longitude
system consists of a statewide grid of 1-minute parallels of
latitude and 1-minute meridians of longitude. The wells in
a 1-minute quadrangle are numbered consecutively in the
order inventoried. The well number is a composite of three
numbers separated by hyphens: the first number is composed
of the last digit of the degree and the two digits ofthe minutes
that define the latitude on the south side of a 1-minute quad-
rangle; the second number is composed of the last digit of the






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


25


Approxlmoto SCOI


EX PLANT IO N

,, Brevard County

G Central area


Figure 3. Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the loca-
tion of Brevard County and the central area.


A


T7 1 0 Mille


r


&





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The principal physical features are the St. Johns River valley,
the Atlantic coastal ridge, and the barrier islands area.


St. Johns River Valley

In Brevard County, the St. Johns River valley includes
all of the area west of the Atlantic coastal ridge. The source
of the St. Johns River is the marsh area in the southern part
of the county. The river forms a definite channel at Lake
Helen Blazes and passes through Sawgrass Lake, Lake Wash-
ington, Lake Winder, and Lake Poinsett and continues north-
ward. The channel at its source is approximately 15 feet
above sea level. The river flows northward from this source
to Jacksonville, Florida, where it turns east and flows to the
Atlantic Ocean. Along the river's 275-mile course to the
ocean the fall in the water surface is about 15 feet, when the
river is at low stage. The river flows northward along the
west border of Brevard County until it reaches a point west
of Titusville, where it turns westward and flows out of the
county. The stream channel is tortuous and is interrupted
by numerous lakes.

The gradient of the St. Johns River in Brevard County
is about 0. 27 foot per mile, and much of the land immediately
adjacent to the river is marshland. When the river is at flood
stage this marshland functions as part of the river channel
and the gradient decreases to0. 20 foot per mile. Duringlow
stages water from the marshland slowly drains back into the
channel and helps to sustain flow. The width of the marsh-
land ranges from less than one mile to more than seven
miles. In Brevard County the marshland adjacent to the
river is not generally present in areas higher than 20 feet
above sea level. The vegetation in the marshland consists
primarily of marsh grasses and occasional hammocks or
clusters of cypress trees.

A sandy prairie zone or dry prairie zone (Davis, p. 152)
forms the upland border of the marshland. It is several
miles wide in some areas and completely absent in others.
The prairie zone is part of the lower flood plain of the St.
Johns River and is frequently inundated when the river is at
flood stage. The vegetation of the zone consists principally






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


of grasses, saw palmetto, many other low shrubs and oc-
casional hammocks of cabbage palm trees.

A pine flatwoods forest (Davis, 1943, p. 147, 160-166)
in Brevard County lies upland from the prairie land and in-
land from the coastal ridge. It is a distinct physical feature
of the St. Johns River drainage system and, although it bor-
ders the Atlantic coastal ridge, it is not a part of the ridge.
The combined width of the prairie and forest areas ranges
from less than one mile to more than 12 miles. Where the
sandy prairie zone is absent, the pine flatwoods forest bor-
ders the marshland. The forest area is relativelyflat, poorly
drained, and covered with scattered intermittent ponds,
lakes, and sloughs. The altitude of the pine flatwoods forest
ranges from a few feet above sea level along the marshland
border to about 35 feet above sea level along the coastal
ridge border. The vegetation consists mostly of pine, saw
palmetto, andwire grasses. The area is suitable for lumber-
ing and cattle grazing.


Atlantic Coastal Ridge

The Atlantic coastal ridge in Brevard County is bordered
on the west by the pine flatwoods forest of the St. Johns River
valley and on the east by the IndianRiver. The ridge ranges
in east-westwidth from one and one-half to three miles and
is continuous along the full north-south length of Brevard
County. The area has a mature dune-type topography with
parallel north-south elongate ridges and intervening swales.
The sales contain many shallow ponds, lakes, and long,
narrow sloughs. The coastal ridge ranges in altitude from
sea level to 50 feet and is the highest area east of the St.
Johns River valley. The crest of the ridge forms the drain-
age divide between the St. Johns and Indian River drainage
systems. A series of small streams flow out of the coastal
ridge and flow eastward into the Indian River. The western
slope of the coastal ridge is drained by a series of small
interconnecting depressions that channelwater westward into
the St. Johns River. The principal types of vegetation found
in the coastal ridge are saw palmetto, sand pine, scrub oak,
and thickets of shrubs.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Barrier Islands Area

In Brevard County the barrier islands area is separated
from the mainland by the Indian River and bordered on the
east by the Atlantic Ocean. The similarity of landforms in
the barrier islands area indicates that their developmentwas
by similar depositional processes.

Merritt Island in this area has a maximum east-west
width of about seven miles and a north-south length of about
31 miles. It is bordered on the west by the Indian River, on
the southeast by the Banana River, and on the northby Banana
Creek. The land surface is undulating, with troughs near
sea level and low ridges that generally donot exceed ten feet
above sea level. The troughs and ridges, produced during
deposition, generally parallel the present coastline.

The development of Merritt Island was rather complex.
In general the deposition progressed fromwest to east, and,
consequently, the western part has been subjected to erosional
forces for a longer period of time than the eastern part. The
available topographic maps of the area show the wavy surface
in the western part as a nearly level plain. The range in
altitude between the crests and troughs of the land surface
becomes greater from west to east. Primarily the surface
drainage is internal, being trapped in long, narrow lakes,
ponds, and sloughs that have formed in the troughs, but some
of these water bodies have outlets to external drainage. The
vegetation on Merritt Island is a mixture of the types found
in the pine flatwoods forest and the coastal ridge of the main-
land.

The other barrier islands separate the Atlantic Ocean
from the Indian River, the Indian River lagoon, and the Banana
River and are hereafter referred to as barrier beaches. The
barrier beaches are continuous along the full north-south
length of Brevard County, and they generally range in east-
west width from a few hundred feet to a mile. However, at
Cape Canaveral the barrier beach expands to a width of four
and one-half miles. The barrier beaches are a system of
beach and dune ridges that generally parallel the present
shoreline. Their land surface ranges in altitude from sea
level along the shoreline to 20 feet above sea level along the






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


crest of the dune ridges. The vegetation on the barrier
beaches consists of salt-tolerant plants that can grow in the
relatively saline soil and air. The most common of these
are sea oats, saw palmetto, sea grape, cocoa plum, wax
myrtle, lantanas, bay cedar, and thickets of shrubs and
small trees.


Climate

The climate of Brevard County is subtropical. The
large bodies of water in and near Brevard County temper
the climate and reduce the range of temperatures. According
to the U. S. Weather Bureau, the normal monthly tempera-
tures at the Merritt Islandweather station range from 62. 4F
for January to 81. 6 F for August and the average temperature
for this station is 72. 6F. The water bodies contribute to
the generally high relative humidity of the area. Most of the
annual rainfall occurs from Maythrough October. The large
amount of rainfall in the latter part of this period is due, in
part, to the influence of tropical storms. The average annual
precipitation is 51.87 inches at the Merritt Island weather
station and 55. 29 inches at the Titusville station. Summaries
of the precipitation records for the stations at Merritt Island
and Titusville are given graphically in figure 4.


Population

The population of Brevard County in 1950 was 23,653.
This figure represents a 47 percent increase since 1940.
The geographic location, the mild climate, and the military
establishments in the area are factors that contribute to the
continuing growth in population. Table 1 shows the population
growth in Brevard County and the principal municipalities
in Brevard County from 1910 to 1950.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


degree and two digits of the minutes that define the longitude
on the east side of a 1-minute quadrange; and the third num-
ber gives the number assigned consecutively to the well as
it was inventoried.

The ground-water reconnaissance in 1947-48 used the
county system. Several illustrations of that investigation
are reproduced in this report (fig. 7, 10, 26, 28 and 30); con-
sequentlythe well numbers used in these figures represent
the county system. The latitude and longitude location system
is used to designate well numbers in all other illustrations
of this report.


GEOGRAPHY

Location

Brevard County is on the Atlantic Coast near the middle
of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 3). It is bordered on the north
by Volusia County, on the west by Osceola, Orange, and
Volusia counties, and on the south by Indian River County.
The eastern border of the county is the Atlantic Ocean. Cape
Canaveral forms the central part of the Atlantic coastline of
Brevard County. The cape is a conspicuous interruption in
the relatively smooth lines of Florida's east coast.

The county covers an area of 1,298 square miles and
has a north-south length of 66 miles and an east-west width
of about 20 miles.

The central area, as definedinthis report, includes the
middle part of the countywest of the Indian River and extends
about seven miles west of the St. Johns River into Orange
and Osceola counties. The north and south boundaries of the
area are, respectively, about ten miles north and seven miles
south of the city of Cocoa. The area has a north-south length
of approximately 17 miles, an east-west width of about 17
miles, and an area of about 290 square miles.


Physical Features

Brevard County has been classified by Cooke (1939,
p. 14-16) as part of the Coastal Lowlands physiographic unit.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MERRITT ISLAND WEATHER STATION


S YV ARS, 1e8?-1904


VARIATIONS IN MONTHLY PMCPITATION
TITUSVILLC WEATHER STATION


VARIATIONS IN MONTHLY PRIOIPITATION
MERRITT ISLAND WEATHER STATION


Precipitation records at Titusville and Merritt
Island, Florida, 1878-1954.


Figure 4.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11 17

Table 1. Population of Brevard County and principal munici-
palities in Brevard County, 1910-50
(Source: Reports of U. S. Bureau of the Census)

Population unit 19 10 1920 1930 1940 1950

Brevard County 4717 8505 13283 16142 23653

Titusville 868 1361 2089 2220 2604

Cocoa 613 1445 2164 3098 4245

Rockledge 453 551 725 1347

Eau Gallie 329 507 871 873 1554

Melbourne 157 533 2677 2622 4223



GEOLOGY


The earth materials exposed at the surface in Brevard
County are undifferentiated deposits of Pleistocene and
Recent age. These formations are the reservoir for the
nonartesian ground water. The surficial mantle of sediments
of Pleistocene and Recent age is underlainby unconsolidated
beds of late Miocene or Pliocene age, which, in turn, are
underlain bythe Hawthorn formation of middle Miocene age.
The deposits of late Miocene or Pliocene age and the Haw-
thorn formation include beds of material of relatively low
permeability which serve to confine water under pressure
in the underlying Eocene limestone formations. The lime-
stone formations of Eocene age are the principal source of
ground water in Brevard County and form a part of the prin-
cipal artesian aquifer in Florida and Georgia. In Florida,
the principal artesian aquifer has been called the Floridan
aquifer by Parker (1955, p. 189).

The geologic formations generally penetrated by water
wells in Brevard County are listed in table 2, which gives
their thickness, lithologic character, and water-bearing
properties.






Table 2. Stratigraphic units of Brevard County, Fla.


Approximate
Srratigraph.c thickness
Geologic age unit (feet) Cenerac .:ithoog.c character Water-be.-.rg properties

Recent Recent FLne to medium sand, coquna, Permeability low owing to small gra-n size; yield
and sandy shell marl. subject to "deposits" small quantities of water to
and 0-110 shallow wells;principal source of water for domes-
tic use not supplied by municipal water system.
Pleistoceae Pleistocene deposits

Pliocene Pliocene Cray to greenish-gray sandy Permeability very low; act as confining bed to
shell marl, green clay, fine artesian aquifer; yield small amount of water to
or 20-90 sand, and silty shell. wells tapping shell beds.

Late Miocene deposits

Miocene Hawthorn formation 10-300 Light-green to greenish-gray Permeability generally low; mayyield small quan-
sandy marl, streaks of greenish titles of fresh water in recharge areas;generally
clay, phosphatic radiolarian clay, permeated with water from the artesian one. Con-
black and brown phosphorite, thin tains relatively impermeablebeds thatpreventor
beds of phosphatic sandy limestone. retard upward movement ofwater from the under-
lying artesian aquifer. Basal permeablebeds are
considered part of the Floridan aquifer.

Crystal White to cream friable, porous
River 0-100 coquina in a soft, chalky marine
formation limestone.
Floridan aquifer:
Williston Light-cream soft, granular Permeability generally very high; yields large
0
A. formation 10-50 marine limestone, generally finer quantities of artesian water. Chemical quality
Eocene grained than the Inglis formation; of the water varies from one area to another and
Highly fossiliferous. is the dominant factor controlling utilization. A
Large percentage of the groundwater used in Bre-
Inglis Cream to creamy white coarse vard County is from the artesian aquifer. The
formation 70+ granular limestone; contains Crystal River formation will produce largequan-
abundant echinoid fragments, titles of artesian water. The Inglis formation
yields less, but is expected to yieldmore than the
White to cream, purple tinted Williston formation. Local dense, indurated zones
Avon Park limestone 285+ soft dense chalky limestone, in the lower part of the Avon Park limestone re-
localized zones altered to light strict permeability but in general the formation
brown or ashen gray hard porous, will yield large quantities of water.
crystalline dolomite.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


Test Drilling

Most of the data on ground water and geology in this re-
port were obtained from existing wells. However, in areas
where the datafrom this source were inadequate, test wells
were put down. The test-drilling program was divided into
two parts: (1) obtaining information on Pleistocene and Recent
deposits that form the coastal ridge, and (2) obtaining sup-
plemental data on the Eocene limestone of the Floridan
aquifer.

A power auger was used by the Geological Survey and a
cable-tool drilling machine was used by a contractor to put
down test holes (see fig. 5) in the Pleistocene and Recent
deposits. In the coastal ridge the power auger was used to
drill 29 shallow test holes which were converted for use in
observing changes in water level and chemical quality. The
cable-tool drilling machine was used to drill five test wells
four inches in diameter in the nonartesian aquifer. Three
of these are in aline across the coastalridge in the vicinity
of Clear Lake, one is at the intersection of State highways
520 and 503, inside the city limits of Cocoa, and the fifth is
outside the central area near the town of Eau Gallie. During
construction of the wells, rock cuttings were collected for
study, samples of water were analyzed for chloride content,
and measurements of water level were made. Some samples
of the water for chloride analysis were collected from the
bailer during drilling and some were pumped from isolated
sections of the wells.

Five test wells were drilled into the artesian aquifer by
a cable-tool drilling machine to obtain information on the
chloride content of the water at different depths, to determine
the westward limits of the relatively saline artesian water,
and to obtain supplemental geologic information on the arte -
sian aquifer. Well 822-051-1, on State Highway 520 right-
of-way about one mile east of the St. Johns River bridge and
eight miles west of Cocoa, was drilled to a depth of 550 feet
to test deep zones in the artesian aquifer. The following were
obtained during construction of this well: rock cuttings at
five-foot intervals, an electric log of the well, drilling time
per foot of material drilled, water samples for chloride anal-
ysis from the bailer and from isolated sections of the well,
and water-level measurements at different well depths. A





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


current-meter traverse was made in the completed well to
locate the water-producing zones and to determine the rate
of flow in the well. Upon completion of construction and
testing, the well was altered so that water-level measure-
ments could be made ontwo isolated sections of the aquifer.
A summary of the pertinent data collected during and after
construction of this well is shown diagrammatically in
figure 6.

Well 822-047-2, about 1.7 miles southwest of Clear
Lake, was drilled into the upper part of the Floridan aquifer
(see fig. 5). This well was put down to determine the thick-
ness of the Pleistocene and Recent deposits, the thickness of
the confining beds at the western edge of the coastal ridge,
and the quality of the artesian water. Also, it was drilled
to provide a well suitable for installation of a continuous
water-level recorder on the Floridan aquifer in the vicinity
of Clear Lake.

To locate the western limits of the salty water in the
Floridan aquifer, wells 822-055-1, 822-058-1, and 823-
056-1 were drilled in Orange County west of the bridge on
State Highway 520 that spans the St. Johns River. They were
spaced about two miles apart in the east-west direction.
The wells were drilled about 50 feet into the Eocene lime-
stone and provided data for formation identification and water
for chemical analysis. The chemical constituents of the
water are listed in table 13.


Formations

Water wells in Brevar'd County rarely penetrate rocks
older than the Avon Park limestone, although underlying
limestones of Eocene age form a part of the Floridan aquifer;
therefore, a description of these older rocks is not included
in this report. The Avon Park limestone and younger rocks
are described in the order of their age,. from the oldest to
the youngest that is, from the deepest formation to the
surface formation.






0' 59' 57 56
-! I I I I I I 111111


I I I I I 7F 1 J I I I I I---I I I I 7 1 E
I TA


NN~


If


I(/ ,


t ISt I % f'T I .. MtE R RI R T


I "I 2
~~ ~^ w

8 S/8 \


I.


- 4- I--4- 4 I>7127'


ISL ND


/!


4t 1 C24'
.CLEAR LAA C _

\23,


Q


16

5


i _____ I I 4. 4 F +- & + 1- T r r


- I I Lm a $ -4--I- -


CRET

ORANGE COUNTY-
OSCEOLA COUNTY
KAYLOR
| T~trlHI


O


EXPLANATION
O Augered test well, 1-1/4 inches in
diameter in water-table aquifer


Test well, 4 inches in diameter .t


in worter-fooble quifer.
0 Test well, 3,4, or 6 inches in
diameter in Floridon aquifer.
Location of geologic section. Wells
-8'projected of right angles into
section.
0 I 2
SCALE IN MILES


S' 57' 56' 55'


!s^


.. .. ...* 9 P.,. d


I 1, t _
V7L %M\s


'cI


Ns


SI J14 4. J- 4. 4


-ii


______ ~tt~T1tWt T I-'


di24


1 20'


..
-I --- ---------V' s-
S~ oin jf J5;3) vV, \v^! \\


Up'


IA' "


I I 44 I I j j I ii ,p -R


53 52' 51' 50' 49'


47' 46'


45'


t4 L'4


~j 28'5
C'37'


Figure 5.


Map of the central area of Brevard County and parts of Orange and Osceola
counties showing the location of test wells and geologic sections B-B!, D-D'
and C-C'.


_.I,
.1


2810
28"30!


27'-


)4'


22' --


21'


19 ---


--Is=


Is'


II"


"-SI


28-15'
8an


30'


ROCKLEDGE


g ". I I I I I \\ -- I l n I I I nil t- ----- 26"


i


m


. I ....'`~ I. .. ; ,,1- r l


Irnilr --


" I t .... 1


- --`


"" ~


r I _I I I I I I I


I \


_3


49' 48' 47' 46' 45'


42' 41' 40' 39' 38' 80*37'


5K' 5a' 3'


' '


--


S


,I


-^


. _1 -


r


5


1_~119'


.


,


8














#-I




0



0


Graphs showing data obtained from test well 822-051-1.


Figure 6.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Avon Park Limestone

The Avon Park limestone (Applin and Applin, 1944) of
late middle Eocene age is the deepest formation that is gen-
erally penetrated by water wells in Brevard County. This
formation is exposed at the surface in Citrus and Levy coun-
ties (Vernon, 1951, p. 95), and it is the oldest rock crop-
ping out in Florida.

The Avon Park limestone dips gently eastward from the
Ocala uplift and underlies all of Brevard County. The for-
mation is overlain by younger Eocene limestones in all of
Brevard County. The thickness of the Avon Park limestone
ranges from 150 to 300 feet in the central part of the State
(Applin and Applin, 1944, p. 1687) and is more than 300 feet
in Brevard County.

The Avon Park limestone consists mostly of white to
cream soft, dense, chalky limestone, but it ranges in color
from white to light brown or ashen gray and in composition
from chalky limestone to a loose coquina of Foraminifera,
echinoids, another marine shells. In places the Avon Park
has been largely altered to dolomite (see fig. 6). The per-
meability of the limestone may be changed through dolomi-
tization, but the nature of the change depends on the original
form of the limestone and the method of dolomitization. The
graph of drilling time and the resistivity curve of well 822-
051-1 in figure 6 indicate the presence of dense, highly re-
sistant zones in the Avon Park and overlying limestones.
These zones retarded the drilling rate and registered a
relatively high electrical resistivity. They are most promi-
nent below 420 feet, where several hard zones were encoun-
tered. Similar zones, encountered in test wells in Volusia
County, were reported by Wyrick and Leutze (1955, p. 22)
to be relatively impermeable. Thus, upward and downward
movement of water probably is retardedby these dense zones.

The Avon Park limestone is an important unit of the
Floridan aquifer and is the principal source of water for the
deeper artesian wells in Brevard County.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11 17

Table 1. Population of Brevard County and principal munici-
palities in Brevard County, 1910-50
(Source: Reports of U. S. Bureau of the Census)

Population unit 19 10 1920 1930 1940 1950

Brevard County 4717 8505 13283 16142 23653

Titusville 868 1361 2089 2220 2604

Cocoa 613 1445 2164 3098 4245

Rockledge 453 551 725 1347

Eau Gallie 329 507 871 873 1554

Melbourne 157 533 2677 2622 4223



GEOLOGY


The earth materials exposed at the surface in Brevard
County are undifferentiated deposits of Pleistocene and
Recent age. These formations are the reservoir for the
nonartesian ground water. The surficial mantle of sediments
of Pleistocene and Recent age is underlainby unconsolidated
beds of late Miocene or Pliocene age, which, in turn, are
underlain bythe Hawthorn formation of middle Miocene age.
The deposits of late Miocene or Pliocene age and the Haw-
thorn formation include beds of material of relatively low
permeability which serve to confine water under pressure
in the underlying Eocene limestone formations. The lime-
stone formations of Eocene age are the principal source of
ground water in Brevard County and form a part of the prin-
cipal artesian aquifer in Florida and Georgia. In Florida,
the principal artesian aquifer has been called the Floridan
aquifer by Parker (1955, p. 189).

The geologic formations generally penetrated by water
wells in Brevard County are listed in table 2, which gives
their thickness, lithologic character, and water-bearing
properties.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


Ocala Group

The Ocala group (Puri, 1953) is a series of limestone
formations of Eocene age that are of similar character. The
Ocala group unconformably overlies the Avon Park lime-
stone and unconformablyunderlies sediments of Miocene or
Pliocene age. The major subdivisions of the Ocala group
are; from the bottom up, the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal
River formations. The formations are differentiated on the
basis of fossil content and lithology. The limestone in the
Ocala group has been subdivided and renamed several times
in recent years by different investigators, but the above
nomenclature is currentlybeing used bythe Florida Geolog-
ical Survey.

The Inglis formation is a cream to white marine fossi-
liferous granular limestone. Rock cuttings from wells in
Brevard County show that the Inglis formation ranges in
thickness from 50 to 100 feet. The formation contains abun-
dant fragments of the echinoid, Periarchus lyelli, which is
the most readily identifiable fossil in the formation.

The Williston formation is essentially a cream-colored
fossiliferous marine limestone. It is distinguished from the
Inglis formation by generally being finer grained and con-
taining fewer echinoids. The Williston underlies all of
Brevard County and averages about 30 feet in thickness.

The Crystal River formation is a white to cream soft,
massive, friable fossiliferous limestone. The lower section
of it is distinguished from the Williston on the basis of fauna
and the fact that it has a more granular texture than the
Williston. The formation underlies the southern part of
Brevard County but has been eroded away in the northern
part (see fig. 9). The thickness of the formation gradually
increases southward to as much as 100 feet at the Indian
River County line. In the southern, part of the county the top
of the Crystal River formation represents the top of the
limestone of Eocene age. The structure contours in southern
Brevard County in figure 10 represent the configuration of
the surface of the Crystal River formation.

The hydraulic properties of the Inglis, Williston, and
Crystal River formations are similar and the formations act





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


more or less as a hydraulic unit and make up the upper part
of the Floridan aquifer. The Eocene limestone are the
source of most of the water utilized in the county. The
Crystal River and Inglis formations will ordinarily yield more
water than the finer grained Williston formation, but the
Williston formation is a productive aquifet nevertheless.


Hawthorn Formation

The Hawthorn formation of Miocene age underlies allof
Brevard County and ranges in thickness from ten feet in the
northern part of the county to about 220 feet in the southern
part (see fig. 7). The formation is composed of greenish-
gray calcareous clay; sandy, phosphatic limestone; black
and brown phosphorite; and light green to white phosphatic,
radiolarian clay. It contains many layers of relatively
impervious marl and clay which serve as confining beds to
the water in the underlying artesian aquifer. Basal limy
beds of the formation that are permeable and connected
hydraulically with the underlying artesian aquifer are con-
sidered to be part of the Floridan aquifer. Where the more
permeable sands, shell marls, and limestone of the Haw-
thorn formation contain relatively fresh water they constitute
sources for domestic and public supplies.


Upper Miocene or Pliocene Deposits

Unconcolidated beds of fine sand, shells, clay and cal-
careous clay of late Miocene or Pliocene age overlie the
Hawthorn formation and underlie the Pleistocene and Recent
deposits. In areas where the Hawthorn formation is absent
the deposits lie directly on the limestones of Eocene age.
Deposits of similar character in surrounding counties have
been classified as the Caloosahatchee marl of Pliocene age
by Cooke (1945, p. 214, 226-227, and pl. 1) and as beds of
upper Miocene age by Vernon (1951, figs. 13 and 33). Until
further investigation determines the correct age of these de-
posits in Brevard County, they will be referred to as deposits
of late Miocene or Pliocene age. Their great range in thick-
ness indicates that pre-Pleistocene erosion dissected their
surface. Their permeability is generally very low, and








1C -j Mal
Well a2 13s W
136 Wll I WIl
I0I0 70 2
-A A'

PLEISTOCENE RECENT


: UPPER MIOCE NE OR f PLIOCENE DEPOSITS g















sand a^ shells C porous limestone PARK 8
-I


z -100- Lis


o HAWTHORN FORMAT ION














I-pUnecon d portion of 11 B-0 A PArII

EeRadiolaria and Forasinieros Fe s T
ISCAE IN
3 EfpJooation l T E

SL sand and shells porous limestone PARz
Unconsolidated FolSandy. generally




Marl oa a nt LIME
ia aennd Forami ers a
-350- 2 a a o 6 L
SCALE IN MILES


IN i g %Tarth .ntrh, (rEldrh4 a7 rE. a. A fa I jh1 w"nwl ru le m 14tm a A- At 4,v %m 0 a 4 4 @ *


I. I~


OVL ra~a Y~~~~V~V I~~ICa 0Na CVL LU ~C





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


hence they retard upward leakage from the artesian aquifer;
A few small supplies of water are obtained from zones of
sand or shell in the deposits. This water is generally simi-
lar in quality to that from the artesian aquifer.


Pleistocene and Recent Deposits

The surficial deposits in Brevard County ate of Pleisto-
cene and Recent age. They consist chiefly of unconsolidated
white tobrown medium to fine quartz sand and beds of sandy
coquina. Their thickness ranges from less than 20 feet in
the St. Johns River valley to more than 100 feet in parts of
the coastal ridge area (see fig. 8). The deposits constitute the
principal source of relatively fresh ground water for hundreds
of domestic wells in the county. The chloride content of the
water in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is generally no
more than 100 ppm, but the iron content in the water from
some wells is high enough to impart an objectionable taste
and to produce rust stains on plumbing and laundry. In local
areas the lower section of the deposits contains relatively
saline water that is residual in the deposits or has leaked
upward from the Floridan aquifer (see fig. 8). This water
is unsuitable for domestic use.


Structure

The structure contours in figure 9 show the configura-
tion of the surface of the limestone of Eocene age. In the
southern part of the county the contours are on the surface
of the Crystal River formation, but in the northern part the
contours are on the surface of the Williston formation.
Post-Eocene erosionhas removedall the Crystal River for-
mation in the northern part of the county, as indicated in
figure 9. The structure contours show the surface of the
limestone sloping generally eastward in Brevard County.
The slope is uniform throughout the county, with a gentle
gradient of about 7. 5 feet per mile. The structure contours
may be used in conjunction with the land-surface altitude to
obtain the depth to limestone at any specific location in
Brevard County.

















-City of Cocoa

IA
1*


0
N
CD


I-- City


of Rockledge


i<> 0
0 0o 0n00
--_--o Mo
-v h' r s5


.... DEPOSIT
:-DEPOSITS __ -::

--__ ___ __ __ _- .- t,


1000 0 1000 2000
SCALE IN FEET


EXPLANATION


SSnd o


Marl


Shells


A clay


SLimestone


Line of equal chloride content
in parts per million.


Figure 8. Geologic sections in the central area of Brevard County along lines C-C' and

D-D' in figure 5.


oJ


*I -<"


:
": .;
:.::
i'

:f
. I





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


The test wells drilled west of the St. Johns River, in
Orange County (see fig. 5), penetrated a thick section of
Miocene deposits before penetrating the Crystal River for-
mation of Eocene age (see fig. 10). The abrupt change in
the dip of the Crystal River formation and the underlying
Williston formation seems to indicate that the wells are in
the depressed section of the Osceola low, which has been
described by Vernon (1951, p. 57, 58) as a wedge-shaped
downthrown block bounded on the northwest and east by
normal faults and open on the southwest. The downthrown
block created a depression in the surface of the limestone
formations of Eocene age which was later filled with sedi-
ments of Miocene age. The sediments of Miocene age have
a relatively low permeability and probably influence the
direction of ground-water movement in the upper part of the
artesian aquifer in the local area. The exact influence of
these sediments on ground-water movement cannot be
determined until better geologic and hydrologic control is
available in the affected area.


Geologic History

The Florida Peninsula was inundated repeatedly by the
sea during the Eocene epoch. Between periods of inundation
the formations were exposed to erosion, and the missing
sections in the limestone sequence are evidence of these
erosional periods.

The oldest of the Eocene limestones was laid down in
early Eocene time. The deposition of the limestone was
halted at the end of early Eocene time by its emergence,
after which its surface was eroded. The return of the sea
completely inundated Brevard County and marked the begin-
ning of middle Eocene time, which is represented by lime-
stone of which the Avon Park limestone is the uppermost.

These limestones were depositedon the eroded surface
of the lower Eocene limestone. The contact between the
Avon Park and the underlying limestone is reported by
Vernon (1951, p. 92) as being unconformable. The deposi-
tion of the middle Eocene limestone was followed by a period
of erosion, so that an unconformity separated middle and
upper Eocene rocks.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In late Eocene time the formations of the Ocala group
were laid down with no apparent break.

The retreat of the seas from Brevard County at the end
of the Eocene epoch exposed the Eocene formations to ero-
sion, which greatly reduced the thickness of these forma-
tions. The absence here of the formations that were deposited
elsewhere during Oligocene and early Miocene time indicates
either that the area remained above sea level during this
time or that erosion before middle Miocene time completely
removed all vestiges of these sediments. The upper Eocene
formations, where present along the east side of the Florida
Peninsula, are thinner than they are in the central and western
parts of the Peninsula. The thinness of the upper Eocene
deposits and the absence of Oligocene and lower Miocene
deposits indicate that the eastern side of the Florida Peninsula
was structurally high in early Miocene or later time.

The structuralmovement that resulted in the Ocala up-
lift, the Osceola low, and related flexures and faults was
dated by Vernon (1951, p. 62) as post Oligocene and pre-
Miocene.

In middle Miocene time the seas again invaded the Florida
Peninsula, and the resulting sequence of beds progressby a
series of overlaps that pinch out against the Ocala uplift. The
gradual thinning of the Hawthorn formation toward the north
in Brevard County and the absence of the formation over the
Sanford high (Vernon, 1951, fig. 33), in Volusia County, indi-
cate either that the Sanford high was above sea level during
middle Miocene time or that the Hawthorn sediments were
removed by erosion after middle Miocene time. After the
Hawthorn formation was deposited the middle Miocene sea
retreated from the area, exposing the formation to erosion.
Again in late Miocene or Pliocene time the sea invaded Bre-
vard County, but not so extensively as in middle Miocene
time. The sediments deposited in late Miocene or Pliocene
time were not subsequently exposed to prolonged erosion;
consequently their upper surface is regular, and their thick-
ness is greater than that of the middle Miocene sediments.

The Pleistocene epoch or "Great Ice Age"1was a time
of alternate glaciation and deglaciation. The repeated re-
treat and growth of the glaciers caused sealevel to rise and







A





V. ,




\ 159
C.*
*,




SITUSVILLE






** /














I \ -, I o 4\
is n
0j00


































/Contour line representing approximately
the altitude of the top of the Eocene0\
Cap
























t / "L



the Crystal River formation; north of

C L ine of geologic sentiong appr tel'








Figureh9. Map of Brevar County showing the approximate altitude of the top of the Eocene
line representone of Eocene age and the location of geologic section A-A'.

0 line the contours represents the top of
this line they represent the top of the
Williston formal which the depion of the Oclo imestgroup.ne

/CoLine of geologic represecting approxim-A tely


thFigure 9. ap of Brevard County showing the approximate altitude of the top o thef the Ecene

limit of thestone areaof Eocene 23age and the location of geologic section A-A'.



















20-


s9W


Figure 10.


East-west cross section through central Brevard County along line B-B' in
figure 5.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


fall. Whenever the level of the sea remained long enough at
one elevation, a shoreline, marked by an escarpment, gen-
erally developed. Several of these ancient shorelines, both
above and below the present sea level, have been recognized.
The higher shorelines are assumedtobe older than the lower.
Submerged areas were covered bya veneer of marine sands
during the Pleistocene epoch.

The beginning of Recent time brought about the estab-
lishment of sea level approximately at its present position.
During Recent time the major part of the windblown sand
was deposited and the land surface assumed its present form.


HYDROLOGY


Through the hydrologic cycle the endless circulation
of water by evaporation, transportation through the atmos-
phere, precipitation, and transportation back to the ocean
by surface and underground routes water of those sources
utilized by man for water supplies is replenished. Water
that falls to the earth as precipitation and is not evaporated
or transpired begins to move toward the ocean above or
beneath the ground. Water that remains above the ground
may be stored temporarily in lakes, ponds, sloughs, etc.,
or may flow in streams toward the ocean. The water that
filters into the ground and reaches the zone of saturation is
referred to as ground water.

In Florida, the average precipitation ranges from 46
inches to 64 inches per year, according to the U.S. Weather
Bureau. The average amount of precipitation that runs off
into the streams is dependent on the climate, geology, topog-
raphy, and vegetal cover.

Variations in annual stream runoff are closely associated
with climate, particularly precipitation and temperature.
The flows of some streams increase quickly in response to
changes in precipitation, whereas those of other streams
change more slowly, lagingbehind changes in precipitation
by many weeks, months, or even years. Temperature is
important because it affects the rate of evaporation and
transpiration. '






DIRECT RECHARGE BY PRECIPITATION
I I I II v I \ I

Surface water bodies
W er-table au Aquifer charged, H H
Stesian t e i most recharge rejected
Artesian zone


- ,o'V IWATER-TA8LE
FLOWING ARTESIAN
C r


--EZO T RiUc E- F L
PIE O E RI .. ........ ..SUR
_____ __ ___L_


V \_//
t LID




4Pte


A


4I


CONFINIIG/
/7//


-r tr I A LIr r i


-A I I. I A N


II


I V '



-K


$


II


//


~wIJ


II


BED S
_ _*^"'1-""" 7 /l' -' -.


F


1L-


_ 2/


100'-








300'-


I I F .


I I _~~ I r_ I_ UI U I- -l' _


i I i' ,,
_. f I I I I I t* i 1 I I I I 'i "' i i t
I I I I t 1 l i I L f, ;
i I I I" I ,, !" I I i I I i t


Figure 11. Diagram showing the generalizedhydrologic conditions in east-central Florida.


U I R-
J- LAQU I F E R-zz


500-
'I


r I


I<


I D I II I f


r


1 ;


.~.... ,,,.,.,


-


R





mII


|- |


A ll',_


[ .


-r i


1
1~


I


- 1 I ;I


~T .c~


# i


I I


I-


- "


IUU -


~


C1t


J


*p


~gr


oi





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The type of soil mantle and underlying rocks has a pro-
found influence on the amount of runoff in a given drainage
basin. In areas of permeable soils, such as the Atlantic
coastal ridge, rainfall is quickly absorbed and much of it
infiltrates to the water table. In areas where the soil has
poor absorptive qualities, rainfall tends to remain on the
surface until it evaporates or flows off.

Most streams of Florida tend to be sluggish because of
the comparatively flat topography. The St. Johns River -
the longest river wholly within the State falls only 27 feet
at high stage, and 15 feet at low stage over the distance of
275 miles from its headwaters to the ocean.

The amount of water transpired by vegetation or evapo-
rated reduces the total amount of water available for stream-
flow or ground-water recharge. In areas where the amount
of water available is not adequate to meet the demand, the
amount of water consumed by vegetation maybe large enough
to warrant an attempt to salvage a part of it.

Of the part of the annual rainfall that enters the soil,
some is evaporated, some is retained in the soil until used
by vegetation, and some seeps downward to the zone of
saturation to become ground water. Once water reaches the
zone of saturation it begins to move more or less laterally
under the influence of gravity toward a place of discharge,
such as a spring, a surface stream, or the ocean. Ground
water moving toward point of discharge maybe, at a given
moment, under either nonartesian conditions or artesian
conditions. Figure 11 is a generalized hydrologic cross
section from the south-central part of Orange County to the
Atlantic Ocean. In this figure the general direction of move-
ment of water as now considered to occur, is indicated by
arrows. Additional information may change radically the
ideas expressed in figure 11.

The nonartesian aquifer is exposed at the land surface
and will receive recharge over most of the area. The aquifer
will accept recharge only until it becomes as full as it can
get, after which much of the water available for ground-
water recharge will remain on the land surface. In the sandy





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


coastal ridge area, nearly all the rainfall will enter the soil
during or after dry seasons, but when the rainfall exceeds
the infiltration rates the surplus rainfall must drain off. In
the low-lying swampy areas the aquifer already is nearly
full and very little rainfall enters the soil. A large part of
the rainfall in the barrier islands area soaks into the ground.
Part of this water is returned to the atmosphere by evapo-
ration and transpiration and part seeps downward to form a
lens of fresh groundwater which floats on salt water. Water
in the lens moves laterally toward the ocean or river.

The Floridan aquifer consists of a series of limestone
formations which have a total thickness of several thousand
feet beneath most of Florida. The principal recharge area
for the artesian aquifer is in central and northern Florida,
where the piezometric surface is high as shown on figure 12.
In areas where the water table is higher than the piezometric
surface, such as west of the St. Johns River valley and in
parts of the Atlantic coastal ridge, some water may seep
downfrom the nonartesian aquifer into the artesian aquifer,
as shown in figure 11. In these areas, the amount of water
seeping down into the artesian aquifer is probably small,
because of the low permeability of the confining beds through
which the water must pass and the rather small water -level
differential between the water table and piezometric surface.

The aquifer acts as a natural conduit through which
artesian water moves from areas of recharge to areas of
discharge. The direction in which the water moves may be
determined by mapping the height to which water will rise in
tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. The height is
shown by means of contours in figures 12, 28, and 29. As
shown in figure 12, water stands at 110 feet above sea level
in the center of the Peninsula, higher than any other place
in the State. Ground water flows downgradient and perpen-
dicular to the contours, as indicated bythe arrows in figure
28. In areas where the piezometric surface is higher than
the water table, the water from the artesian aquifer may
move slowly upward and mix with water in the lower part of
the nonartesian aquifer.

The movement of water, both above and below ground,
is extremely complex in Brevard County, and is not yet known




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


EXPLANATION
Contour lines represent opproximOtaly the height,
n feet above mean sea level, to which water will
rse in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
principal ortsian oquifer in 1949.


0 o 5 50 58 100 Miles
approI motIe scal
opprollmale scale


Figure 12.


Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the con-
tour of the piemometric surface.


0
O
O?





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


in detail. It is important to understand the natural condi-
tions that govern the occurrence of water when planning to
make optimum use of a local source of water.


Chemical Quality of Natural Waters

Rainwater reaches the earth in an almost pure state,
its small amount of impurities being limited to gases and
dust removed from the atmosphere. In volcanic or highly
industrialized areas the mineral content of rainfall may be
greatly increased through contact with smoke, acid vapors,
and other atmospheric contaminants. In coastal areas the
chloride content of rainfall maybe come quite high from ocean
spray.

The really significant mineral content of natural waters,
however, is derived almost entirely from contact with rock
and other materials of the earth's crust. As water flows
over the land surface and percolates downward beneath the
surface it takes into solution and retains many of the more
soluble and less resistant minerals composing the crust of
the earth. The extent of this solvent action depends largely
upon the type of minerals encountered, their susceptibility
to chemical and physical attack, the length of contact, and
the chemical composition of the water itself. Thus, surface
waters are often highly colored from contact with leaves and
other decaying vegetation found in swampy areas and along
river banks, whereas ground waters are usually colorless
but often contain an appreciable amount of calcium and other
salts dissolved from underground formations.

Since the surface deposits in much of Florida consist
mainly of quartz sand, the surface waters often contain little
dissolved material. During periods of low rainfall the amount
of dissolved solids in such streams increases and the color
decreases, as much of the flow at such times is due to
ground-water inflow. In some areas of the State the mineral
content of surface streams becomes quite high as a result
of tributary flow from large artesian springs discharging
water from rocks which contain saline water or which are
themselves somewhat soluble. Almost all Florida streams






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


become quite saline near their mouths, as their extremely
low gradients allow sea water to penetrate inland for many
miles.

The solvent action of water seeping downward to the
water table is greatly increased by carbon dioxide acquired
from the soil zone. Water is able to decompose limestones
and other minerals somewhat in proportion to the amount of
carbonic and other acids in solution. In this manner calcium
and magnesium carbonates from limestone and dolomite arc
converted d to the soluble calcium and magnesium bicarbonate s
and taken into solution by percolating ground waters. Gen-
erally, water from the deeper geologic formations contains
more mineral matter in solution than water from the shal-
lower geologic formations. Some of the mineralized water
is residual from past times when the rocks were saturated
with sea water, and some of it results from the fact that, as
water percolates away from a point of entry into the rocks,
it becomes more mineralized. Thus, at great depths and at
points distant from the recharge area, ground water maybe
so highly mineralized that it is no longer suitable for most
purposes.


Water-Quality Criteria

The suitability of water for its three main uses agri-
cultural, industrial, and municipal supply is often deter-
mined by its chemical quality. In order to establish a yard-
stick to measure the potability of water supplies for human
consumption, the U. S. Public Health Service has defined an
acceptable supply as being clear, colorless, odorless, of
pleasant taste, and free from toxic salts. Standards for
some of the chemical substances that may be present in
natural or treated waters are as follows:






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


Constituent Maximum concentration
(parts per million)

Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn)
combined 0. 3

Fluoride (F) 1.5

Magnesium (Mg) 125.0

Chloride (Cl) 250.0

Sulfate (S04) 250.0

Dissolved Solids 500.0 (1,000
permitted when
water of better
quality is not
available)



To the average individual the most important character-
istics of water are esthetic the appearance, taste, and
temperature. To the homeowner, however, the iron content
and hardness are vitally important, since dissolved iron in
water stains clothes andplumbing fixtures, and a hard water
greatly increases soap consumption. The calcium andmag-
nesium salts in water, which are responsible for its hard-
ness, are often the cause of other plumbing trouble, such
as plugging of water lines and boiler failures. To those
individuals suffering from heart disorders, the amount of
sodium in their water supply is of great concern, as such
persons are generally restricted to diets containing little or
no sodium.

Waters containing moderate concentrations of sulfate
are seldom disagreeable, but excess amounts of this con-
stituent are quite likely to cause laxative effects in those
unaccustomed to such supplies. This effect is especially
noticeable when high sulfate is accompanied by a high con-
centration of dissolved solids in the water.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


As nitrate is the finaloxidation product of nitrogeneous
compounds, abundant in animalwastes and decaying vegeta-
tion, it may usually be found in surface waters. When an
appreciable concentration of this constituent is present in
ground waters, contamination may generally be suspected.
Drinking or use in feeding formulas of water containing ni-
trate in excess of about 45 ppm has been associated with the
development ofmethemoglobinemia, or cyanosis, in infants.

Fluoride in drinking water tends to reduce dental cavities
when consumed by children during the period of permanent-
tooth formation. Research by Smith (1935), Dean (1937),
and others has indicated a fluoride concentration of about
1.0 ppm as optimum for this purpose, whereas an amount
greater than 1. 5 ppm may cause mottling or staining of the
enamel.

The water requirements of industry are many and var-
ied, and the requirements as to chemical quality of water
are equally diverse. At one extreme may be found the use
of water for cooling purposes, which requires water only of
a lowtemperature and the absence of a tendency to corrode
or encrust. The food and beverage industries may be quite
concerned over the type and concentration of many constitu-
ents found in naturalwaters. The concern of these another
industries is so great, and some processes so exacting, as
to require at least partialtreatment of rawwater supplies by
most industries. It is apparent, therefore, that where raw
sources of supply canbe found that meet the requirements of
a particular process, such areas have great industrial poten-
tial. Since it is impossible to devise a precise set of quality
standards that willmeet the requirements of all industries,
table 3 has been included to indicate the approximate quality
requirements of some typical industry.

Unlike water for municipal supply, water for irrigation
use cannot be evaluated by simple criteriaor a single set of
standards. The suitability of a water for irrigation must
take into account not only the chemical composition of the
water itself, but also that of the soil. In addition, consider
action must be given to the physical nature of the soil, drainage
conditions, climate, the quantity and rate of water applied,,
and the salt tolerance of the crop grown. The general classi-
fications used to evaluate irrigation waters in the arid regions









Table 3. Suggested water-quality tolerances


(Allowable limits in parts per million)


Tor- Hardness Iron Manganese Total Alkalinity Odor, Hydrogen
Industry or use bidity Color as CaCO3 as Fe as Mn solids as CaCO3 taste sulfide Other requirements
b
Air conditioning -- -- -- 0.5 0.5 -- Low I No corrosiveness, slime formation.
Baking 10 10 -- .2 .2 -- -- Low .2 P.
Brewing:
Light beer 10 -- .1 1 500 75 Low .2 P. NaCI less than 275 ppm(pH 6. 5-7. 0).
Dark beer 10 -- .1 .1 1000 150 Low .Z P. NaCI Less than 275 ppm(pH 7.0 or
Canning: more).
Legumes 10 -- 25-75 .2 .2 -- -- Low I P.
General 10 -- .2 .2 -- Low I P.
Carbonated beverages 2 10 250 2 .2 850 50-100 Low .2 P. Organic color plus oxygen consumed
.3 less than 10 ppm.
Confectionery -- -- .2 .2 100 -- Low .2 P. pH above 7.0 for hard candy.
Cooling 50 -- 50 .5 .5 -- -- 5 No corrosiveness, slime formation.
Food: General 10 -- -- .2 .2 -- -- Low -- P.
Ice 5 5 -- .2 .2 -- -- Low -- P. SiO less than 10 ppm.
Laundering -- 50 .2 .2 -
Plastics, clear,
uncolored 2 2 -- .02 .02 200
Paper and pulp:
Groundwood 50 20 180 1.0 .5 -- .-- No grit, corrosiveness.
Kraft palp 25 15 100 .2 .1 300
Soda and sulfite 15 10 100 .1 .05 200
High-grade light
papers 5 5 50 .1 .05 200
Rayon (viscose):
Pulp production 5 5 8 .05 .03 100 Total 50; -- -- A103 less than 8 ppm, SiO2 less than
hydroxide 8 25 ppm, Cu less than 5 ppm.
Manufacture .3 -- 55 .0 .0 -- -- -- pH 7.8 to 8.3
Tanning 20 10-100 50-135 .2 .2 -- Total 135; -.
hydroxide 8
Textiles: General 5 20 -- 25 .25 ..
Dyeing 5 5-20 -- .25 .25 200 -- -- Constant composition. Residual
alumina less than 0.5 ppm.
Wool scouring -- 70 -- 1.0 1.0 -- -
Cotton bandage 5 5 -- .2 .2 -- Low

1 Moore, E. W., Progress report of the committee on quality tolerances of water
for industrial uses: Jour. New England Water Works Assoc. vol.54, p. 271, 1940.
a P indicates that potable water, conforming to U.S.P.H.S. standards, is necessary.
.b Limit given applies to both'irnd'alone and the sum of iron and manganese.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY







Atlntlf tOr ean at Canaveral Itrbor, FI*.

Atilantie orea neart Bru Oalll, lr.i

ml Rt river at CSnlveral Itrbor, Pla.
lrolrlv BStAln mRver Iat udubon, fle.)

Cram Creel Iat blbourm, Pie.

Clear Lake near Cenor. rl.

llhea Crem ear leu 0(111e, Ple.

Ilti. Canal meat Indian Rlver City, pie.


fPllet re Canal ear thllsere, PiI.

elo Crea k mer V ktrbat, p*,

Indra flyer at blba m ne, FPl.

Indlea liver at ebatllan, PIe.

Indian It r at tltueville, PIS.

Indian River at lWbeasa, PLe.

Jane blte Crsim nar D.tr Park, Pta.

La* Potinett( ear Coeo", pia.

lame Washington near Ilu "alle, Plr.

North Prnwg lebeat(n Creek mear leco, ~la.

It. John River I"fe ChPlrtma, Fia.


It. Jon Ritver Crest-tlage sage

II. JeOhM Rlir Iabove lake Nirmly nar Oenev, Fia.

st. Jokh Iread*tlrse mear lnanevillle, Vri.

II. John River m ear lhourne, Pla.

At. Jaths leadwtler nar Vero leach, Ila.

betth Pren Sebeatatn Crere near Bebastiln, pie.

urtfel laterr iuigh mear ceena, PI*.


lybea Creeml r llarpe*, Mi,.

TurLMe Cmreek Mer Pale say. Fla.


Figure 13. Duration of records at surface water gaging

stations.










Table 4. Location and type of record at surface water gaging stations in the Brevard County area


Station Name Location Type of Data Established Discontinued


SAtlantic Ocean
at Canaveral Harbor, Fla.

Atlantic Ocean
near Eau Gallie, Fla.

Banana River
at Canaveral Harbor, Fla.
(Formerly Banana River
at Audubon, Fla.)

Crane Creek
at Melbourne, Fla.



Clear Lake near Cocoa, Fla.

Elbow Creek
near Eau Gallie, Fla.



Ellis Canal near
Indian River City, Fla.



Fellsmere Canal
near Fellsmere, Fla.


At U.S.A.F. Crash Boat Head-
quarters in harbor entrance.

At Canova's pier, Canova
Beach.

On the east bank of Banana
River L mile north of Harbor



At U.S. 192 crossing at
Melbourne Country Club and
2. miles upstream from the
Indian River.

22 miles northwest of Cocoa.

At north-south graded road cross-
ing 11 miles west of Eau Gallie
and 2 miles upstream from the
Indian River.

At dirt road crossing 1* miles
south of Indian River City and
1 mile upstream from the Indian
River.

At Fla. 507 crossing 3. 3 miles
north of Fellsmere and 51 miles
upstream from the North Prong of
Sebastian Creek.


Stage


Stage


Stage




Stage and
Discharge



Stage

Stage and
Discharge



Stage and
Discharge



Stage and
Discharge


June 24, 1954


Feb. 18, 1941


Feb. 17, 1941




Mar. 14, 1951




Nov. 9, 1954

Sept. 28, 1954




Sept. 27, 1954




Oct. 1, 1954


__ __ __ 1 h


June 24, 1954


b.o














p-






Table 4. Location and type of record at surface water gaging stations in the Brevard Couaty area (Continued)


Station Name LwtiOJ Type of Data Established Discontinued


Goat Creek
near Valkaria, Fla.

Indian River
at Melbourne, Fla.

Indian River
at Sebastian, Fla.


Indian River
at Titusville, Fla.

Indian River
at Wabasso, Fla.

Jane Green Creek
near Deer Park, Fla.

Lake Poinsett
near Cocoa, Fla.

Lake Washington
near Ean Gallie, Fla.

North Prong Sebastian Creek
near Mieco, Fla.

St. Johns River
near Christmas, Fla.

St. Johns River
crest-stage gages


At dirt road crossing 1i miles
west of Valkaria.

At U.S. AIA crossing at
Melbourne, Fla.

On private dock 0. 7 mile
north of intersection of U.S. 1
and Main Street in Sebastian.

At Fla. 402 crossing and 1 mile
northeast of Titusville.

At crossing at Wabasso.


At graded road crossing 11 miles
southeast of Deer Park.

5j miles west of Cocoa at
Poinsett Lodge.

61 miles west of Eau Gallie
at Lake Washington Resort.

At dirt road crossing 2. 2 miles
southwest of Micco.

At Fla. 50 crossing, 4 miles
east of Christmas.

11 crest-stage gages dis-
tributed along the St. Johns
River opposite Brevard County.


Stage and
Discharge

Stage


Stage



Stage


Stage


Stage and
Discharge

Stage


Stage


Stage and
Discharge

Stage and
Discharge

Maximum Stage


Oct. 1. 1954


Dec. 5, 1940


July 29, 1948



Sept. 11, 1951


Nov. 5. 1940


Oct. 22, 1953


Nov. 25, 1941


July 24. 1940


Oct. 1, 1954


Dec. 14, 1933


Sept. 14, 1953


July 23. 1948


July 8, 1954








Table 4. Location and type of record at surface water gaging stations in the Brevard County area (Continued)



Station Name Location Type of Data Established Discontinued


St. Johns River above Lake
Harney near Geneva, Fla.



St. Johns Headwaters
near Kenansville, Fla.

St. Johns Headwaters
near Vero Beach, Fla.

St. Johns River
. near Melbourne, Fla.

South Prong Sebastian Creek
near Sebastian, Fla.

Surface Water Slough
near Cocoa, Fla.


Sykes Creek
near Sharpes, Fla.



Turkey Creek
near Palm Bay, Fla.


At bridge at Fla. 46 crossing.


On old county road 1 miles
east of Kenansville.

At bridge on Fla. 60, 16
miles west of Vero Beach.

At U.S. 192 crossing, 9. 2
miles west of Melbourne.

At Fla. 512 crossing, 4 miles
southwest of Sebastian.

At culvert on graded road,
1.6 miles north of the Cocoa
Water Plant.

On Merritt Island, at dirt road
crossing of canalized portion
of creek 1. 1 miles southeast of
Courtenay.

500 feet west of power line
crossing, 2.2 miles southwest
of Palm Bay and 2. 6 miles up-
stream from the Indian River.


Stage only until
July 1951; stage
and discharge
thereafter

Stage


Stage


Stage and
Discharge

Stage and
Discharge

Stage



Stage and Flow
Estimates



Stage and
Discharge


Sept. 4, 1943




Feb. 21, 1942


Feb. 27, 1942


Nov. 8, 1939


Oct. 1, 1954


Dec. 14, 1954



Dec. 13, 1954




Oct. 2, 1954


a






a


- --- --





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of the West are considered to have only moderate value in
evaluating waters for irrigation use in the humid areas of
Florida. For this reason such water classifications are not
discussed in this report.

The determination of the chemical quality of waters
makes possible their evaluation for proper use, and indicates
conditions of misuse. Many samples of water fromboth sur-
face and underground sources have, therefore, been collected
for chemical analysis during the course of this investigation.
The basic data collected during the current phase of the in-
vestigation have been included in the report, but the waters
have not been classified as to their beneficial use. The final
report covering the complete investigation will deal at length
with this important subject.


SURFACE WATER


Two important problems in Brevard County are those
relating to the availability of suitable water supplies from
streams and lakes for municipal, industrial, and agricultural
use and to the alleviation of flooding. The following discus-
sion pertains to the suitability of the several sources of sur-
face water for various uses and to the flood characteristics
of the streams and lakes in the county.

This section is presented in two parts. The scope of
the program of collection of stream-gaging data is described
in the first part. In the second part the characteristics of the
bodies of surface water are discussed and chemical analyses
of surface water and interpretations of the streamflow data
are given. For this purpose the county has been divided into
six areas: the St. Johns River flood plain; the Prairie and
Flatwoods forest area; the Atlantic coastal ridge area; the
Indian River; Merritt Island; and the barrier beach area.


Scope of Streamflow Records

Stream gaging began in the area in 1933 with the estab-
lishment of a gaging station on the St. Johns River near





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


fall. Whenever the level of the sea remained long enough at
one elevation, a shoreline, marked by an escarpment, gen-
erally developed. Several of these ancient shorelines, both
above and below the present sea level, have been recognized.
The higher shorelines are assumedtobe older than the lower.
Submerged areas were covered bya veneer of marine sands
during the Pleistocene epoch.

The beginning of Recent time brought about the estab-
lishment of sea level approximately at its present position.
During Recent time the major part of the windblown sand
was deposited and the land surface assumed its present form.


HYDROLOGY


Through the hydrologic cycle the endless circulation
of water by evaporation, transportation through the atmos-
phere, precipitation, and transportation back to the ocean
by surface and underground routes water of those sources
utilized by man for water supplies is replenished. Water
that falls to the earth as precipitation and is not evaporated
or transpired begins to move toward the ocean above or
beneath the ground. Water that remains above the ground
may be stored temporarily in lakes, ponds, sloughs, etc.,
or may flow in streams toward the ocean. The water that
filters into the ground and reaches the zone of saturation is
referred to as ground water.

In Florida, the average precipitation ranges from 46
inches to 64 inches per year, according to the U.S. Weather
Bureau. The average amount of precipitation that runs off
into the streams is dependent on the climate, geology, topog-
raphy, and vegetal cover.

Variations in annual stream runoff are closely associated
with climate, particularly precipitation and temperature.
The flows of some streams increase quickly in response to
changes in precipitation, whereas those of other streams
change more slowly, lagingbehind changes in precipitation
by many weeks, months, or even years. Temperature is
important because it affects the rate of evaporation and
transpiration. '





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


Christmas (at State Highway 50). In the early years gaging
was confined to the main stem and the lakes of the St. Johns
River. The gaging program was gradually expanded through
the years and beginning with the present investigation was
extended to all parts of the county (fig. 1). Figure 13 shows
the periods of record at stream gaging stations and table 4
gives the location of the stations and the type of records
collected. 'In addition to the gaging records that have been
obtained, much reconnaissance work has been done through-
out the county to determine flow patterns, define drainage
areas, and select gaging sites.


Results of Investigations

St. Johns River Flood Plain

The principalwater problem of this area is flooding. In
the early years, when the area was used primarily for the
seasonal pasturing of cattle, flooding did not constitute a
serious problem. However, as the agricultural potentialities
of the rich mucklands along the river became known, dikes
were constructed to obtain the uninterrupted use of this land.
At times highwater has caused considerable damage to these
dikes and the loss of truck crops and improved pastures.
Extremely high water occurred in 1948 and again in 1953,
and some flooding occurs nearly every year. The frequency
of high stages on the St. Johns River is shown in figure 14
andthe maximum periods of high stages are shown in figure
15. The profile of maximum stages during the flood of
October 1953, the highest of record, is shown in figure 16.
The peak discharge at the Christmas station during this flood
was 11, 700 cubic feet per second (cfs).

The defined channel of the St. Johns River begins at
Lake Helen Blazes and after passing through Sawgrass Lake,
LakeiWashington, Lake Winder and Lake Poinsett, continues
northward. The principal tributaries above the Christma'i
station are Jane Green Creek, Pennywash Creek, Wolf
Creek, Taylor Creek, and Jim Creek, all of which flow in
from the west. At the Melbourne gaging station at U. S. High-
way 192 the drainage area is 874 square miles; at the outlet
of Lake Poinsett, 1, 248 square miles; and at the Christmas



































MILES


Figure 14.


Flood-stage frequencies on the St. Johns River, Florida.






INFORMiATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


56 8 10


CONSECUTIVE DAYS


20, 1


CONSEOUTI'E 'MONTHs


Figure 15. Maximum periods of high stages of Lake Poinsett
near Cocoa, Florida, 1941-1955.


6 8 10 t12 I 24,


5 4





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


STAGE FEET

,


- -...--I I


ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL

5n 1


Near Veto Beagh (lo.


ilo. 507) 1

/
/
/





/ ----


I -I
I I
I I
I I
I I


Near


Ore ,


enaonevlle (


GOog No.


Creel Gage No. 3
Ir e No,


Near Melbourne (U.S. 192)


Lehe Woahington


0est 1e No 4
retl S No,. 6
OII I


'I


I I


Lake Polnsett




/

Crest Gage No. S
/

9 Near Christmas (ila. 50)

/


I
'6 NOr OnvGage No. 4




6 Near OGeneva (Flo, 46)


I


Profile of maximum stages on the St. Johns
River, Florida, during flood of October 1953.


oa-


Figure 16.


~~,UUU.


I


E




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


gaging station (State Highway 50) it is 1,418 square miles.
The average discharge at the Christmas station during the
period October 1934 to September 1955 was 1,358 cfs, or
878 million gallons per day. Table 5 gives the mean monthly
and mean annual discharges of the St. Johns River at the
Christmas station and table 6 gives these data for the Mel-
bourne station.

The St. Johns River throughout its length in the county
is a potential source of large quantities of water. This river
parallels U.S. Highway 1 for some 40 miles and is nowhere
more than 14 miles from it. The several large lakes in the
St. Johns River basin store large quantities of water even
during times of low flow in the river. It is estimated that
storage in the lakes at the lowest stage during the period of
record was as follows: Lake Helen Blazes, 650 million
gallons; Sawgrass Lake, 650 million gallons; Lake Washing-
ton, 3, 200 million gallons; Lake Winder, 1,080 million gal-
lons; and Lake Poinsett, 1,660 million gallons. A storage-
duration curve for Lake Poinsett is shown in figure 17. This
curve shows the percent of time during the period of record
that the lake contained various amounts in storage. It shows,
for example, that in 53 percent of the time the lake contained
at least nine billion gallons of water.

In order to indicate the general chemicalquality of sur-
facewater in the St. Johns River system, samples for analy-
sis Were collected at 32 stations. The locations of these
stations are shown in figure 18 and the results of these and
other analyses of surfacewaters are given in table 14. These
analyses show theater in the St. Johns River to be soft and
rather highly colored in the upper reaches west of Malabar,
but increasing in hardness and dissolved solids downstream.
The chemical quality of water at various points in the St.
Johns River during the relatively low stages in May 1954 is
shown graphically in figure 19. This illustration also shows
the minimum, maximum, and average chemical composition
during the 1954 water year of the river at the outlet of Lake
Poinsett.

In order to appraise the value and adequacy of Lake
Poinsett as a potential source of water for municipal, indus-
trial, and agricultural uses, chemical analyses were made.












Table 5. atmhly and yeury mean discharge of St. Johnk River amr Christs, Fla.
(in ubic feet per second)


Jam. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Je July Aug. Sepc Oct. Nov. Dec. Year

1934 1.110 652 645 709 1.170 2.960 3,680 2,360 1.760 1.331 802 511 1,48
1935 405 246 153 76.9 57.9 Z07 751 907 2,644 3,854 2.780 1.566 1.141
1936 1,487 2.388 3,519 2,319 875 1.003 1,347 1.192 879 945 1,178 969 1 506
1937 684 555 491 458 386 286 220 290 413 2, 259 2.860 2.972 993
1938 2.045 1, 26 743 373 173 175 704 744 416 432 477 301 652
1939 129 66.5 16.4 3. 3 197 129 820 1.509 053 2,533 2,060 1,326 911
1940 796 899 984 1,038 317 293 545 1.173 1.728 1.216 512 651 845
1941 1,804 175 2,033 2, 165 1.011 634 3,151 4,125 3,029 2.755 2.912 2.459 2,358
1942 1.972 1,387 2,003 1,680 964 1.369 1,900 1,321 1.273 948 378 174 1,281
1943 118 83.6 116 71.6 30.4 30.1 693 2 185 3.200 2,899 1,787 898 1,014
1944 407 201 118 197 82.6 252 632 1,764 432 2,607 2,679 1.303 1,057
1945 902 668 281 123 88.4 809 4,700 2,587 4,887 3,950 1,787 1.210 1 841
1946 816 457 411 222 90.9 129 406 2.083 2,464 1.756 1,176 584. 88
1947 284 426 973 1.045 401 1,123 2,654 2,910 3.933 9,303 4,741 2.449 2,535
1948 1.896 1,769 1,214 370 172 113 195 1,147 911 8.177 3,157 1.663 1,902
1949 868 450 227 145 76.1 153 859 969 3,295 5,497 849 1,743 1,434
1950 1.083 520 316 278 125 81.9 78.9 90.7 171 2,127 3.273 1.614 814
1951 893 706 374 230 340 302 468 780 1,454 3.,92 2,191 1,679 1.062
1952 976 660 856 899 360 196 123 ?67 615 3,409 3,890 1,806 1,172
1953 1,059 861 596 1.119 435 221 389 2.332 8,062 10,130 4,830 3.223 2,779
1954 1,927 988 508 303 187 2,271 2,618 2.080 1,569 2,512 2.228 1, 561 1.567
1955 993 808 549 351 199 223 764 1.002 1.800_














Table 6. Monthly and yearly mean discharge of St. Johns River near MeUmbou~e, Fla.
(in cubic feet per second)


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May- June July Ag. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year

1939 480
1940 401 479 438 366 137 67.1 80.3 249 541 401 245 261 304
1941 576 831 653 744 331 226 1,737 1,913 1,323 1,499 2,502 1,417 1,148
1942 1.053 665 1,128 792 283 723 1,136 398 274 126 48.1 89.1 560
1943 93.7 67 98.7 74.7 36.3 51.7 399 1,110 1,265 1,845 592 232 492
1944 143 92.4 59.2 78.2 32.3 42.1 183 875. 1,106 1,724 1,279 326 496
1945 330 198 145 80.0 46.6 456 1,912 1,190 2,433 2,296 836 445 868
1946 352 268 258 115 83.4 183 298 1,873 1, 99 997 362 189 526
1947- 101 161 734 417 107 621 1,903 1,644 3,108 5,636 2,934 1,402 1,573
1948 999 1,053 515 153 63.0 42.6 59.1 417 1,969 4,699 1,687 1,043 1,059
1949 423 202 134 106 74.0 73.4 141 500 2,414 4,374 1,536 638 889
1950 641 186 96.0 80.0 60.0 56.0 56.0 55.0 75.0 1,839 1.880 835 490
1951 348 266 180 228 276 177 184 504 511 1,740 959 880 524
1952 238 216 427 357 122 81.9 70.0 116 354 2,642 2,782 1,047 705
1953 493 516 213 223 97.5 56.7 177 998 5,079 6,369 2,601 2,018 1,574
1954 870 343 96.6 45.0 29.0 1,441 1,207 966 970 2,387 1,043 707 846
1955 367 508 158 10.0 0 3.3 1,037 614 1,537___


Ju





01



*-
































10.


20


30


40


PERCENT OF TIME STORAGE


60


70


90


EQUALLED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN


Figure 17. Storage-duration curve for Lake Poinsett, Florida, 1941-1955.


18
Is

16


8


'0 6

0
e-
a 4


2


0


100


in



too


M
0

S

m
0


a
10

W
0


3






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


VOLUSIA


. 1A


ORANGE


POLK


EXPLANATION


A Chemical quality-o
sampling stations.


- OSCEOL A








f-water
'1


RIVER


o 10 20 MILES
Ii


SST.


LUCIE


Figure 18. Map of the upper St. Johns River and Indian River
basins showing quality -of water sampling
stations.


I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Samples were obtained inDecember 1952, a time of relative-
ly high discharge, and in May 1953, a period of relatively
low discharge, for chemical analysis. As the need for
additional data became more apparent, a daily sampling
stationwas established at the outlet of the lake where samples
were collected daily and composite by ten-day periods for
chemical analysis. This type and frequency of analysis were
designed to provide information on the progressive change
in qualityaswell as on the probable annual extremes. Anal-
yses of samples collected during the period October 1953
through September 1955 showed that the hardness varied
from 30 to 108 ppm, averaging 59 ppm, and that the concen-
tration of dissolved solids varied from 103 to 436 ppm,
averaging 204 ppm. The color and hardness and the concen-
trations of dissolved solids and chloride were such that the
water, with appropriate treatment, would have been satis-
factory for most uses during this period.

To determine any difference in quality between theater
discharged from the lake (at sampling station 13-A) and that
near the lake shore, daily samples were also collected at
sampling station 13 on the northeastern shore of the lake.
Figure 20 presents the maximum, minimum, and average
monthly chloride contents observed at this station during the
period of its operation. A comparison of the chloride con-
centrations at stations 13 and 13-A is shown in figure 21.
The duration curve of station 13 departs from the trend be-
tween the chloride concentrations of 160 and 300 ppm. This
departure maybe caused bywater flowing into the lake from
a nearby canal and remaining near station 13 during periods
of low lake levels. The generally higher values found near
the lake shore are believed to result from the drainage into
the lake of highly mineralized irrigationwater from artesian
wells. To investigate this possibility more fully, samples
were taken from some 74 points in the lake and along the
shoreline. The points of collection and chloride concentra-
tions of these samples are shown in figure 22 and are listed
in table 15. These results indicate that the high chloride
concentrations found at some points in Lake Poinsett are
primarily the result of a drainage of water from the adjacent
areas that are irrigated with water from, artesian wells.
Water of high chloride content from flowing wells has been
observed discharging into the canals that flow into the lake.










EXPLANATI ON


o [ SODIUM 8
POTASSIUM


_J
16
-j


3 14



12


U


MAGNESIUM


CALCIUM


U


CHLORIDE a
NITRATE



SULFATE




BICARBONATE


( MAY 1954)


LAKE POINSETT
OUTLET
__ __


MAXIMUM
MAY 1-10
1954
------------------- ---- ------------------K (XSi5S588SS!


AVERAGE
OGT.I, 1953 TO
SEPT. 30,1954


MALABAR LAKE WINDER LAKE POINSETT CHRISTMAS LAKE HARNEY
I-A 10 OUTLET 16 INLET
13-A


Figure 19. Graph showing analyses of water from St.


0


MINIMUM
OCT.11-20
1953


13-A


I _


I


i-


L


uhns River.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


O ID J I
1953


300





250





900
IO0





150





1.00


A N J A S O D J F A J J A
19%U 1955


Figure 20. Maximum, average and minimum concentration
of chloride in parts per million at station 13 on
Lake Poinsett.


350


350





300





U250


a












100





50





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PERCENT OF TIME CHLORIDE EXCEEDED VALUE SHOWN


Figure 21.


Duration curve of the chloride content at sam-
pling station 13 on Lake Poinsett and the St.
Johns River at Lake Poinsett outlet near Cocoa,
October 1953-September 1955.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of the West are considered to have only moderate value in
evaluating waters for irrigation use in the humid areas of
Florida. For this reason such water classifications are not
discussed in this report.

The determination of the chemical quality of waters
makes possible their evaluation for proper use, and indicates
conditions of misuse. Many samples of water fromboth sur-
face and underground sources have, therefore, been collected
for chemical analysis during the course of this investigation.
The basic data collected during the current phase of the in-
vestigation have been included in the report, but the waters
have not been classified as to their beneficial use. The final
report covering the complete investigation will deal at length
with this important subject.


SURFACE WATER


Two important problems in Brevard County are those
relating to the availability of suitable water supplies from
streams and lakes for municipal, industrial, and agricultural
use and to the alleviation of flooding. The following discus-
sion pertains to the suitability of the several sources of sur-
face water for various uses and to the flood characteristics
of the streams and lakes in the county.

This section is presented in two parts. The scope of
the program of collection of stream-gaging data is described
in the first part. In the second part the characteristics of the
bodies of surface water are discussed and chemical analyses
of surface water and interpretations of the streamflow data
are given. For this purpose the county has been divided into
six areas: the St. Johns River flood plain; the Prairie and
Flatwoods forest area; the Atlantic coastal ridge area; the
Indian River; Merritt Island; and the barrier beach area.


Scope of Streamflow Records

Stream gaging began in the area in 1933 with the estab-
lishment of a gaging station on the St. Johns River near





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


Figure 22.


Map of Lake Poinsett near Cocoa, showing
chloride concentration at various points during
period of approximate minimum flow. Samples
collected in May, 1955.






600 I

400

300



a jEffect of increasing discharge
i S and subsequent decrease in
IL ^discharge

100
so
_____ ____---- -- -s -- -- ------------- _____
S o6 Example: With discharge of 140
Sc.;s. on a falling stage, chloride
X .. Decreasing discharge
Snconcentration will be approximately asing dichrg


40o ppn


20

20 40 60 80 100 200. 400. 600 80 1000 2000 4000 6000 8000
DISCHARGE IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND

Figure 23. Approximate relationship between concentration of chloride and discharge of
St. Johns River at Lake Poinsett outlet during falling stage for period October
1953-September 1955.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11 59

However, the high chloride contents at some of the sampling
points in Lake Poinsett are probably due to an upward leak-
age of artesian water.

An approximate relationship between the rate of flow
during periods of decreasing discharge and the chlorinity
of the water at the outlet of Lake Poinsett is shown in figure
23. By extrapolating the curve to lower rates of flow than
those occurring during the period of chlorinity records, it
may be referred that chlorinity does not get as high as 250
ppm until the rate of flow drops to about 65 cfs. The line
of arrows, illustrating the change in chlorinity during a
period of increasing discharge and the subsequent recession,
indicates that the effect of increased discharge is not re-
flected immediately by a decrease in chlorinity.


Prairie and Flatwoods Forest Area

The population density is low in this area and domestic
water supplies are obtained from individual wells. The land
is used principally for pasture, citrus, and truck crops.
The surface-water problems are primarily those related
to drainage, stock watering, and irrigation. The general
practice is to drain off the surplus water in wet seasons by
means of ditches and canals and to irrigate in dry seasons
with water from flowing wells. In some places a contami-
nation of the surface streams withwellwater of high chloride
content has resulted from this practice.

The runoff from this area, although large in the aggre-
gate, is not sufficiently concentrated, except in the drainage
districts, to provide surface sources of importance. Water
in excess to needs that falls on the land areas within the
drainage districts either is pumped into canals draining to
the St. Johns River or flows to the Indian River via canals
and creeks. The ponds and sloughs scattered throughout the
area provide some local supplies for stock watering.


Atlantic Coastal Ridge Area

In this area of relatively dense population the principal
water problem at this time is to obtain increased supplies







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY







DATA FURNISHED BY THE CITY OF OOOOA.


A nn .


2 1Soo


a-
U
S
w 300
h &'


100


J
44


1 RO
a




3
is








to
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t
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I-r









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14-4-4ct- 4u-t-c i i i i I i i i i I 1 -1


I -1- U-t-t f-+--H--+F-f-fr$--WFI-F $-F -1 I-I~ 4 +-f--i--1~t-i--I-I----I-t---f--I-ft-I1-i-f+-f~-I-Fft--


1TTttV1'ltlmrtlrt111 111 111111111l~llrlii Inmu


Figure 24.


Chloride content, stage,


Lake near Cocoa, Florida.


and pumpage Clear


S. . L . . . . . . I I I I . . . .


9 -.^- ^- ---. --- ,- ^.M .-." -- -----.----- .- .* -



0
.es ')1 le





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


of water suitable for municipal and industrial use. The
potential surface sources in the county from which such
additional supplies may be obtained are: (1) the St. Johns
River, (2) lakes and sloughs in the ridge area, and (3) streams
flowing from the ridge area into the Indian River. The
characteristics of the St. Johns are discussed on pages


There are a number of lakes and sloughs in the ridge
section from which small supplies could possibly be devel-
oped. The determination of the potentialities of any one of
these, or of a combination of several of them, would require
intensive local investigation. However, some idea of the
possibilities may be gained from the experience of the city
of Cocoa, which developed Clear Lake as a municipal supply.

Clear Lake, three miles northwest of Cocoa, has a
surface area of about 15 acres. No natural streams flow
into or out of it. In 1937, when its use as a municipal supply
began, its surface drainage area was 0. 17 square mile (109
acres. In 1950 its drainage areawas increasedto 0. 26 square
mile (166 acres) and in 1951 to 4. 94 square miles (3,162
acres), each time by connecting it to nearby sloughs. The
pumpage from 1951 through 1955, computed from data fur-
nished by the city of Cocoa, averaged 656, 000 gallons per
day. The average rainfall at the Merritt Island rain gage
during this period was 51. 92 inches per year. This amount
of rain falling on the Clear Lake drainage area, including
the sloughs, provided an average of 12, 200, 000 gallons per
day. Of this, 656,000 gallons per day (5.4 percent) was
used by the city of Cocoa and the remaining 94.6 percent
escaped by overland flow, evaporation and transpiration,
and seepage.

When the pumnpage rate exceeds the rate of surface in-
flow, water moves into Clear Lake from the surrounding
nonartesian aquifer. The chloride content of the lake water
indicates that, at least at times, there is upward leakage of
saline water from the artesian aquifer through the shallow
deposits into the lake. Figure 24 shows the variation in
chloride content, stage, and withdrawal at Clear Lake.

The water in Clear Lake, as indicated by the analyses
shown in table 7, is probably a mixture of ground water and





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


surface water draining into the lake. An analysis of water
from a slough connected to Clear Lake is shown in table 8.
In general, the concentration of mineral constituents is
lower, but the color is higher, in water from the slough than
in water from Clear Lake.

Although the investigation of the small streams flowing
into the Indian River has been in progress only a short time,
it appears that these streams have sustained flows even in
periods of low rainfall. The measurements of discharge of
these streams made since September 1954 are listed in table
9. A stream gaging station has been operated on Crane
Creek at Melbourne since March 14, 1951, and a summary
of discharges here is shown in table 10.

The outflow of several of the streams includes the runoff
from within one or more drainage districts, andany estimate
of future yield must be based not only on past streamflow
records but also on probable future developments in the
districts involved. Changes in district works could radically
change the flow regimen' of the stream leaving any given
district.

Except on Crane Creek, the gaging sites on the streams
in this group are upstream from anyknown source of pollu-
tion by municipal wastes and from any substantial contami-
nation by salty water from the Indian River.

A sampling program was begun in May 1953 to provide
data on the chemical quality of the streams draining the
eastern slope of the coastal ridge area. Sixteen tributaries
to Indian River between Fort Pierce and Titusville were
selected for periodic sampling. The location, type, and
frequency of sampling are shown in figure 1 and the analytical
data obtained through September 1955 are given in table 14.
The results obtained so far indicate that water from several
of these streams would, after treatment, be suitable for
municipal and most industrial uses. The maximum and
minimum values for chloride, hardness, and color of water
in representative streams are summarized in table 11.







Table 7. Analyses of water from Clear Lake near Cocoa

Bardness
(a) a O3 (c)

V a a -
U E z Qs rJ




11-9-54 3.3 0.22 19 11 85 24 24 165 0.2 320 93 73 646 6.8 140

12-14-54 13 .12 10 6.3 51 14 32 82 .3 202 51 39 352 6.3 90

1-31-55 5.9 .08 8.0 3.8 29 14 9.0 54 1.3 118 36 24 229 64 80

3-18-55 1.9 2 8.2 5.2 36 12 9.0 72 .1 139 42 32 297 6.5 180

4-28-55 2.4 .11 8.9 5.5 40 14 9.0- 79 .1 152 45 33 320 6.2 170

6- 6-55 3.3 .15 9.1 4.9 43 12 12 80 .2 159 43 33 327 6 2 180

7-19-55 3.3 .08 9.8 5.4 47- 10 15 88 .1 174 47 38 352 6.3 180

9- 2-55 4.4 .08 16 8.8 72 17 24 137 .2 271 76 62 544 6.3 75

10-10-55 162 626

11-16-55 188 721

12-19-55 64 246

1-28-56 335 1 240

3-13-56 578 2060

(Analysis by Quality of Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Results in parts per million
except specific condtctance, pH, and color.)

a Values reported are su=s of determined constituents.
b Micronmos at 25*C.
c Units, platinum-cobalt scale.






Table 8. Analyses of water from a slough in the Atlantic coastal ridge near Cocoa


Hardness
(a) as CaC (b) (c)

o 44 z as 0
0 09

A C, un -0 Ni

11- 9-54 5.6 0.41 4.6 2.6 16 12 1.0 32 0.2 68 22 12 147 6.3 400

12-14-54 3.5 .11 3.3 2.6 15 8 2.5 30 .2 61 19 12 127 5.8 360

1-31-55 1.4 .11 2.4 2.2 17 4 2.5 32 .0 60 15 12 126 5.4 280

3-18-55 2.8 .15 2.8 2.7 20 5 1.5 40 .1 73 18 14 149 5.4 250

4-28-55 1.1 .09 3.3 2.1 22 7 1.8 40 .1 74 17 11 163 5.3 260

6- 6-55 3.9 .12 2.8 1.5 14 6 4.5 24 .1 54 13 8 110 5.4 250

7-19-55 3.5 .07 1.7 1.4 12 3 4.2 21 .3 46 10 8 106 5.0 180

9- 2-55 3.5 .13 3.5 2.2 8.3 6 6.5 17 .2 44 18 13 91.0 5.7 320

10-10-55 22 101

11-16-55 28 123

12-19-55 20 92.9

1-28-56 .19 96.0


(Analysis by Quality of Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Results in parts per million except
specific conductance, pH, and color.)

a Values reported are sums of determined constituents.
b Micromhos at 25*C.
c Units, platinum-cobalt scale.










Table 9. Discharge of small streams tributary to the Indian River


Stream
_____ _Discharge (in ca. ft. per sec.) and date of measurement
1954 __1955__
Ellis Canal 11.2 (Sept. 27) 2.82 (Nov. 8) 2.74 (Dec. 13) 2.68 (Jan. 31) 2.26 (Mar. 15) 1.97 (Apr. 25)
Elbow Creek 11. 3 (Sept. 28) *1. 75 (Nov. 10) 2.58 (Dec. 14) 1, 57 (Feb. 1) .642 (Mar. 16) .546 (Apr. 25)
Crane Creek 24.5 (Sept. 29) 23.1 (Nov. 17) 10. 1 (Dec. 14) 7.87 (Feb. 3) 6.44 (Mar. 16) 4.83 (Apr. 26)
Turkey Creek 144 (Oct. 2) 53.2 (Nov. 10) 47.8 (Dec. 15) 57.8 (Feb. 3) 31.8 (Mar. 22) 31.6 (Apr. 26)
Goat Creek 13.4 (Oct. 1) 5.18 (Nov. ll) 3.60 (Dec. 15) 5.37 (Feb. 3) 2.30 (Mar. 17) 1.95 (Apr. 27)
North Prong Sebastian Creek 223 (Oct. 1) 85.4 (Nov. 18) 27.4 (Dec. 15) 19.4 (Feb. 2) 8.87 (Mar. 17) 8.71 (Apr. 27)
Fellsmere Canal 184 (Oct. 1) 134 (Nov. 11) 106 (Dec. 16) 124 (Feb. 2) 82.7 (Mar. 23) 69. 1 (Apr. 27)
South Prong Sebastian Creek 114 (Oct. 1) 336 (Nov. 18) 28.2 (Dec. 16) 42. 4 (Feb. 2) 25.0 (Mar. 23) 21.0 (Apr. 27)

Sum 725.4 641.45 228.42 261.09 160.012 139.706

*Field estimate




Stream Discharge (in cu. ft. per sec.) and date of measurement
1955
Ellis Canal 1.68 (June 6) 2.78 (July 19) 2.30 (Aug. 29) 2.45 (Oct. 10) 2.25 (Nov. 16) 2.14 (Dec. 19)
Elbow Creek .621 (June 8) .660 (July 20) 1.15 (Sept. 1) 11.3 (Oct. 14) .815 (Nov. 17) .783 (Dec. 19)
Crane Creek 4.43 (June 8) 5.39 (July 22) 4.84 (Sept. 1) 19. 3 (Oct. 14) 6.00 (Nov. 17) 5.45 (Dec. 21)
Turkey Creek 40.5 (June 7) 55.2 (July 22) 68.3 (Aug. 30) 81.9 (Oct. 11) 50.6 (Nov. 18) 41.2 (Dec. 22)
Goat Creek 1.25 (June 9) 1. 13 (July 21) 1.17 (Sept. 1) 37. 9 (Oct. 14) 1.63 (Nov. 18) 1.52 (Dec. 20)
North Prong Sebastian Creek 7. 11 (June 9) 7.57 (July 21) 9. 16 (Aug. 31) 32. 3 (Oct. 12) 7.94 (Nov. 19) 7.79 (Dec. 20)
Fellsmere Canal 46.8 (June 9) 72.3 (July 21) 75.8 (Aug. 31) 207 (Oct. 12) 51.8 (Nov. 18) 59.7 (Dec. 20)
South Prong Sebastian Creek 12.1 (June 9) 18.8 (July 21) 23.8 (Aug. 31) 80.0 (Oct. 12) 21.1 (Nov. 18) 15.1 (Dec. 20)

Sum 114.491 163.830 186.52 472.15 142.135 133.683

















0

Table 10. Monthly and yearly mean discharge of Crane Creek at Melbourne, Fla.
(in cubic feet per second)


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Tear

1951 14.2 7.27 3.04 5.95 10.1 16.6 39.4 27.8 10.3
1952 7.38 10.4 14.3 5.94 4.58 3.07 5.65 6.31 14.0 61.7 21.5 8.34 13.6
1953 7.34 9.41 10.5 13.8 9.09 6.05 6.75 23.8 66.8 89.9 35.1 23.2 25.2
1954 8.78 6.94 7.23 7.18 10.9 45.6 14.7 10.9 20.9 25. 15.0 9.04 15. -
1955 9.59 8.46 6.29 5.52 5.10 8.32 6.63 5 07 9.53 i






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11 67

Indian River

Indian River is not a river in the commonly accepted
sense but a lagoon connected to the Atlantic Ocean. The
part of the Indian River discussedin this report is the section
between the town of Sebastian (Indian River County) and the
northern extremity of the river, 13 miles north of Titusville.
Banana River, also a lagoon, will be considered as part of
Indian River andwillnot be discussed separately. The reach
of the river concerned is 74 miles long and one mile wide in
the narrowest section, and has a water-surface area of 235
square miles. It receives the runoff from about 838 square
miles of land area. There is considerable use of the river
system by relatively shallow-draft boats for recreation and
for sport and commercial fishing. In addition, as part of
the Intracoastal Waterway, it is used by larger vessels.
The Canaveral Harbor works, when completed, will provide
an opening, to the Atlantic Ocean near Cocoa and should
increase boat traffic considerably.

The major surface-water problems of the Indian River
at the present time are those related to navigation, flooding
of lowlands, mosquito control, pollution, and chemical qual-
ity as it affects sea fish for sport and commercial fishing.

The changes of stage in the river are relatively small
and are produced by wind, changes in ocean level, and run-
off from the land and rain falling on the river surface. Wind
is by far the most important of these in producing short-
term fluctuations. Because of the large surface area of this
section of the river and because of its having onlyone direct
opening to the ocean (Sebastian Inlet), short-term fluctua-
tions of the ocean are largely damped out. Fluctuations
caused by the inflow of fresh water and rain appear to be
very small.

The abilityof the Indian River to receive sewagewithout
becoming excessively polluted is limited by the exchange of
water between it and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as other
factors. No intensive investigation of the movements of
water in the river has been made.







Table 11. Partial chemical analyses of water from tributaries of Indian River, May 1953 to May 1955


Chloride Hardaes Color (a)
Location Maximum Minimunm Maximm Minimum Maximum Minimum

South Canal near Vero Beach 196 85 340 206 100 30

Main Canal at Vero Beach 168 55 320 158 140 40

North Canal near Vero Beach 112 64 256 165 120 45

South Prong Sebastian Creek near Sebastian 250 44 344 135 180 40

North Prong Sebastian Creek near Micco 180 28 .. --- --.

Fellemere Canal near Fellsmere 124 46 --- .---

Trout Creek near Grant 11,200 47 --- -

Kid Creek near Malabar 13,100 92 --- --

Goat Creek, 2 miles west of Valkaria 490 174 430 190 I80 40

Crane Creek at Melbourne 250 38 413 84 280 45

Turkey Creek near Palm Bay 255 58 --- -----

Elbow Creek near Eau Gallie 165 34 --- ---

Ellis Canal near Indian River City 700 595 690 410 160 45

Sykes Creek near Sharpe 7,500 1,150 --- ---

a
Units, platinum-cobalt scale.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11 69

Fishing, both sport and commercial, is an important
industry in the county especially that in the Indian River. A
major water problem here is to determine how much of the
floodwater of the county canbe drained into the river with-
out lowering its salt content to the point at which salt-water
fishwill leave the area. To aid in the solutions of these and
other problems, data on the stage, discharge, and quality are
being collected (see fig. 1).

Water samples were colledted at nine locations in the
IndianRiver, BananaRiver, and Newfound Harbor. Samples
were collected also from the Atlantic Ocean east of Eau
Gallie. The chloride concentrations observed in the Indian
River near Titusville ranged from 5, 230 ppm in October
1953 to 16, 200 ppm in May 1955. By comparison, concen-
trations observed in the IndianRiver near Fort Pierce ranged
from 14, 200 ppm inOctober 1954 to 19,800 ppm in May 1955.


Merritt Island

Water problems on Merritt Island include those related
to water supply, inundation, drainage, and irrigation.

Sykes Creek is the principal body of water on the island.
This creek, more aptly described as an arm of the Indian
River, is in the low, marshy area down the center of the
island and' is canalized throughout much of its length. It
receives and carries off excess water from a large part of
the 87 square miles of land area of the island. The move-
ment of water in the creek is erratic, the rate and direction
of flow being dependent upon inflow, wind, and changes of
stage in the Indian River. Estimates of flow, made at times
of periodic inspections, are listed below. The discharges
shown do not necessarily indicate the average flow.


Date Estimated flow Direction of flow

12-13-54 10 cfs To the south
3-22-55 Slight To the south
4-28-55 None discernible
6- 8-55 5 cfs To the south
7-19-55 10 cfs To the north
9- 2-55 30 cfs To the north
11-17-55 9 cfs To the south
12-19-55 6 csf To the south





70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

The chloride content of water samples taken at times of
inspections are shown in table 14.

The investigation has not revealed a potential surface
source of potable water on the island.


The Barrier Beach Area

The problem of obtaining a supply of water for municipal
and military uses is paramount in this area. The investiga-
tion has not revealed bodies of surface waterwithin the area
that could be classified as potential supplies.


GROUND WATER


Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of
saturation, defined as the zone in which all the pore spaces
are filledwithwater under atmospheric or greater pressure.
The groundwater in the central area of Brevard County may
be roughly divided into two classes: that which occurs in
the shallow formations, mostly under nonartesian conditions,
and that which occurs in the deeper limestone formations
under artesian conditions. Nonartesian conditions are those
in which ground water is unconfined, so that its upper sur-
face (the water table) is free to rise and fall. Artesian con-
ditions are those in which the ground water is confined in a
permeable formation that is overlain bya relatively imper-
meable formation, so that its surface is not free to rise and
fall, and the water is under sufficient pressure to rise above
the top of the formation that contains it. The imaginary
surface to which water will rise in tightly cased wells' that
are open to the artesian aquifer is called the piezometric
surface.

Generally, the water in the Pleistocene and Recent
deposits is nonartesian. The water in the Miocene or Plio-
cene deposits that constitute the confining beds fo0r t'e.Flori-
dan aquifer is generally artesian. The water in th"' oridan
aquifer is artesian and is under sufficient pressure to rise
above the top 61 the aquifer. In may areas we r wll flow
at the surface from wells that p4rate the aqFr i
,~ I) tT \ '* *v i -l








,ri '


ORANGE C(


L


- -,-


OSCEOLA COUNTY
4 1W'.


AK


. .0S


-------1-----~--- -T-----I---


4


e22


4


I1I 1 .1 i I- t-------- r- f-4 9 t


EXPLANATION


0 Water-table well.
Water- table well equipped with water
level recorder.
S/ Water-table divide, along each
/ side of which the water table slopes
downward in a direction owoy from
/ the divide.
Contour line (interval 5 feet) on water
_*5 loble. Datum is mean sea level.


I 0 I 2
SCALE IN MILES


\-


us
I
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1 IJ


90 0


to


Ar


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I 7Q
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503


4



5%
6- .
,,,B



> \LQT
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\ %~


L


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+ I -',---,-- -I -,-'I ---- I- -"-----


_-- --.-r -r1 .II I I l I 4 I --I--4 4 4 --- Ib


/ I


r


N ?


I1' I_ J~ J~ A&_ I _IJ_ 41*I h ~1 11..J


57' 56' 55' 54' 53' 52' 51' 50' 49'


45' 44


43 42 41 40


38 u0"?L


Figure 25.


Map of the central area of Brevard County and parts of Orange and Osceola
counties showing the contour of the water table and distribute n of nonartesian
wells in June 1955. I


-- / ~83O,


29'


M E R IR I T T
\ MERRITT


S._______ __ ._ 1c 27
/z / .

26. do 26'
a
ILIi





24 24'
LEAR LA4A*E 3
46

23' __ 23'
4
5' 55 '1 52' 51
















____ __ __ ___ __ __ __ ___ __ __ _______ ___ ~ *


21'L-


18



17'



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8100 59'


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j^u ^ 31 o7 i | 7 s \\., i _,1 --,'- ..... ,
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50' 49' 48' 47' 46' 45'


43' 42' 41' 40 39' 38' 80*37'


53' 52' 51'


57' 53'


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9Ro1 '





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


Nonartesian Ground Water

Occurrence and Source

In the central area of Brevard County, the surficial
Pleistocene and Recent deposits are the principal source of
nonartesian water. Theyare thickest in the Atlantic coastal
ridge and become thinner eastward and westward from the
ridge crest. Their average thickness is about 50 feet in the
coastal ridge area and less than 20 feet near the St. Johns
River.

The nonartesian aquifer is recharged principally by
direct infiltration of precipitation. It probably receives also
a small amount of recharge by downward seepage from lakes,
ponds, and streams when their water levels are higher than
the adjoining water table. In the central area, the principal
area of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer is the coastal
ridge. The nonartesian aquifer is thickest in the coastal
ridge area and, therefore, it has a greater storage capacity
than in the surrounding area, where the aquifer, being
thinner, is quickly filled, after which the excess water re-
mains on the surface or runs off. Discharge from the non-
artesian aquifer takes place by seepage into streams, lakes,
and ponds; by evapotranspiration; by pumping from wells;
and by downward seepage through the confining beds into the
underlying artesian aquifer.


Fluctuation of the Water Table

The nonartesian aquifer is constantly gaining water by
recharge or losing water by discharge. Consequently, the
water table does not remain stationary but rises and falls
with the change in ground-water storage. In many respects
the water table acts like the water surface of a surface
reservoir. That is, the water table rises when the amount
of recharge to the aquifer exceeds the amount of discharge
and declines when the recharge is less than the discharge.
Changes inwater levels in wells indicate the relationbetween
discharge and recharge. About 30 wells in the central area
were used for periodic measurements of the water levels,
and an additional five wells were equipped with continuous
water-level recording gages.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The periodic water-level measurements were started
in the Spring of 1955. The period of record, through 1956,
was too short to permit a determination of long-term water-
level trends.


Configuration of the Water Table and Movement
of Nonartesian Water

The configuration of the water table in the central area
is shown on figure 25 by means of water-table contours. A
contour is a line along which all points on the water table
have the same altitude. The water-table contours show the
configuration of the water table in the same manner that
topographic contours show the configuration of the land sur-
face. The configuration of the water table generally conforms
to the configuration of the land surface, although the water
table generallyhas less relief than the land surface. Ground
water moves downgradient at right angles to thewater-table
contours; thus, the contours indicate the direction of ground-
water movement, though not the rate. The rate is a function
of the hydraulic gradient and the permeability of the sedi-
ments through which the water moves.

A ground-water divide is an imaginary line on each side
of which the water table slopes downward, away from the
line. The ground-water divide is analogous to the land divide
between two drainage basins. The ground-water divide in
the central area is shown on figure 25. In the central area,
the ground water moves generally eastward and westward,
away from the divide. The gradient from the divide eastward
to a point about half a mile from the Indian River is about
ten feet to the mile. The gradient then steepens toward the
river, averaging about 70 feet per mile at the edge of the
river. In the area south of State Highway 520, the gradient
is about ten feet per mile between the divide and the marsh-
land of the St. Johns River. In the area north of State High-
way 520, the gradient west of the divide is 20 feet per mile
over a distance of about a mile, beyond which it gradually
decreases westward until it is about one foot per mile at the
edge of the marshland of the St. Johns River.

The water-table contours show a ground-water mound
in the area southeast of Clear Lake, north of State Highway






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11 73

520andwest of U.S. Highway 1, fromwhich the water moves
laterally in alldirections. The trend of the water-table con-
tours along the shoreline of Clear Lake indicates a move-
ment of water from the nonartesian aquifer into Clear Lake.


Storage of Water in the Nonartesian Aquifer

The quantity of water in storage under nonartesian con-
ditions can be estimated from the specific yield. The specific
yield of a rock or material with respect to water is defined
by Meinzer (1923, p. 28) as the ratio of (1) the volume of
water which, after being saturated, it will yield by gravity
to (2) its own volume. This ratio may be stated either as a
percentage or a decimalfraction. To obtain the totalvolume
of water in storage, the specific yield is multiplied by the
total volume of saturated material in the area.

The specific yield of the water-bearing deposits of the
central area was estimated roughly by comparing them with
similar materials, in other areas, for which the specific
yields were known, The Pleistocene and Recent deposits
are composed of fine to medium sand with very little silt
and clay. Their specific yield is estimated to be about 15
percent.

In order to calculate the volume of potable nonartesian
water in storage it was necessaryto determinethe thickness
and areal extent of the material saturated with potable non-
artesianwater. This information was obtained bytest drill-
ing in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits and making analy-
ses of the chloride content of water samples taken from
different depths in the test hole. The base of the Pleistocene
and Recent deposits and the base of the potable nonartesian
water do not coincide in allareas because, in some places,
the water of the nonartesian aquifer has been contaminated
by saline water. For example, it is known that relatively
saline artesian water has moved upward in some areas and
contaminated the water in the lower part of the nonartesian
aquifer. The chloride content of the nonartesian water gen-
erallyincreases as the depth increases. Achloride concen-
tration of 250 ppm was selected to represent the base of the
potable nonartesian water (see fig. 8). This is the highest





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


chloride concentration recommended by the Florida State
Board of Health for public drinking water.

Calculations were made of the amount of stored potable
nonartesian water in the narrow strip of land adjacent and
parallel to the Indian River. This strip is two miles wide
and extends northward from the southern city limits of
Rockledge to the northern city limits of Cocoa. This area,
which comprises approximately 9,600 acres, willhereinafter
be called the Cocoa area.

The sections in figure 8 were used in the calculation of
the average thickness of the material that was saturatedwith
potable nonartesian water. The volume of water in the non-
artesian aquifer in the Cocoa area was determined bymulti-
plying the specific yield of the saturated material bythe area
in acres and by the average thickness, in feet, of the mate-
rial that was saturated with potable nonartesian water. It
was calculated to be 53,000 acre-feet, or about 17,000
million gallons. Not all the stored potable water is available
for use, however, as the withdrawal of any large fraction of
it would allow damaging encroachment of saline water.

The amount of water being discharged into the Indian
River from the nonartesian aquifer in the Cocoa area may
be calculated by using the water -table gradient, permeability
of the sediments, and cross-sectional area of the discharge
face. These factors fit into.an equation expressing Darcy's
law of laminar flow, as follows:

Q = PIA,

in which Q is the rate of discharge, P is the coefficient of
permeability of the material, I is the hydraulic gradient,
and A is the cross-sectional area of the material through
which water percolates (Wenzel, 1942, p. 2-7). For field
computation, Q is usually expressed in gallons per day; P
is the rate of flowof water, in gallons per day, through a cross
section one mile wide and one foot thick, under a hydraulic
gradient of one foot per mile; I is expressed infeet per mile
measured in the direction of gradient;and A is expressedin
feet of thickness and miles of width of the water transmittingg
material.











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Compiled from 1947 field d







SBRVRD CO.
32635
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5660 CO







Chloride content

3 101 to 2W parts per million





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


The permeability coefficient used for the nonartesian
aquifer is 300 gallons per day per square foot. This value
is an average of the laboratory and field determinations of
the permeability of the sediments in the zone of saturation.

The hydraulic gradient is obtained from the geologic
cross section D-D' (fig. 8). The average gradient deter-
minedfor the discharge face at IndianRiver is about 70 feet
per mile.

The cross-sectional area of the discharge face adjacent
to the Indian River is obtained by multiplying the saturated
thickness of the nonartesian aquifer at the Indian River
(thickness taken from cross section D-D', in fig. 8) by the
distance in miles along the Indian River shoreline from the
northern city limits of Cocoa to the southern city limits of
Rockledge. The length of the section is 7. 5 miles and the
thickness is 21 feet; thus, the area is 157.5 foot-miles.

Using these figures in the equation given above, the
discharge into the Indian River in the Cocoa area is computed
to be about 3 million gallons per day. This rate of discharge
is computed from the water table in July 1955 and should
not be interpreted as being the average discharge.


Chemical Quality of Nonartesian Ground Water

Analyses were made of the chloride content of water
from about 158 shallow wells in Brevard County. In addi-
tion, complete chemical analyses were made of the water
from 30 wells in the central area. The locations of the 30
wells are shown on figure 25, and the results of the analyses
are given in table 12

Water from the nonartesian aquifer can generally be
distinguished from water from the Floridan aquifer because
of differences in chemical character. It is generally higher
in iron content and color, and lower in most other constitu-
ents, than water from the Floridan aquifer. The chemical
character of the water from the nonartesian aquifer differs
greatly from place to place. The total hardness of the 30










Ta.e 12. Aal:yee of ewaer froa thAe aonrusu aquier ua the csura: area of Srrard Couazy

.A.a.yei by 3al-ty oi Water Brcac. C. S. Ge.oloca Srvey. Bea. L z prt pter m:'-s
exxepc speci.c comadctaace, pH. and color. For he loca ,o of we0.., ei e 1. 25J





m 1 i S *' e 11
C *.O
a i


i a a a 4 3 a P 5 ar s s

816-041.- Jerry Sctusia 13 11-17-55 76 4.8 3. 3 4.8 L 9 3.6 0 0.8 o 0.010.4 24 a a. 1 1
817-054-3 U. s.. 5. 19 13 1- 4.54 -. 13 0.28 92 5.0 27 1.0o15 10 83 .1 .3 4436 250 74 616 6.8 32
818-042-8 U. S. G. S. 12.5 10 11-16-55 77 11 .01 137 49 289 198 142 610 .1 1.1 1340 544 381 390 7.3 40
819-042-1 Fay Doty .-- -- 11-16-55 75 3.6 .07 26 6.1 3.5 3.1 58 40 II .2 1.3 4131 90 43 213 7.1 22
819-042-2 U. S. .S. 32.7 30 11-16-55 76 3.3 .09 28 20 64 116 79 81 .1 .5 333 153 57 529 6.8 55
819-042-3 U. S. G. S. 28.5 26 11-16-55 78 4.5 .08 70 22 19 212 72 40 .3 .3 332 265 92 503 6.9 28
819-042-4 U. S. G.. 28.5 26 11-16-55 74 8.3 .05 77 20 21 274 40 37 .2 .4 339 374 50 576 7.2 33
819-043-1 UMrion Hawkis 24 19 11-16-55 74 5.3 .12 9.1 2.7 24 3 11 50 1 .3 104 34 31 202 4.8 14
819-043-3 U. 5. S. 32.7 30 11-14-55 76 3.4 --- 37 17 104 76 26 212 --- 1.0 437 162 100 800 6.7 260
819-043-5 ------------- --- ---- 11-14-55 76 5.2 .10 50 15 20 201 33 22 .1 .3 245 186 22 426 7.2 280
820-042-1 U. S. 0. S. 17.5 15 11-17-55 78 11 .05 102 28 104 306 44 312 .0 .7 653 370 118 1180 7.4 15
820-043-4 Weesthff UMemo
rial Hospital 40 -- 11-16-55 75 2.1 .00 44 16 121 37 61 243 .2 1.5 507 176 146 961 6.7 15
820-043-5 S. S. 23.5 21 11-17-55 78 6.4 .27 19 1.8 27 64 2S 24 .0 .2 136 55 Z 230 7.2 220
820-044-1 U. S. G. S. 22.5 20 11.13-55 76 12 .24 32 7.8 66 127 11 99 .1 .2 291 112 8 575 6.7 240
821-043-1 W. F. Brauaa 35 -- 11-18-55 71 6.8 .01 97 15 9.7 352 LO0 24 .0 .2 328 304 15 54 7.6 9
821-044-4 U. G. 5. 14.5 12 11-14.55 76 9.4 .53 23 1.1 4.3 48 22 6.0 .1 .4 91 62 23 133 7.5 600
821-045-9 U. S. G. S. 17 15 II-14-55 76 11 .49 22 8.3 3.3 82 20 5.5 .1 .3 111 89 22 183 7.0 210
821-046-0 P. D. Beanets 40 37 11-17-55 78 15 .01 162 94 609 140 200 1270 .1 .7 2420 790 676 290 7.3 13
822-044-1 A.P. Thomas 53 -- 11-16-55 74 2.0 .00 44 15 124 40 62 243 .0 1.5 512 172 138 955 6.6 25
822-044-5 U .. S. 17.5 15 11-16-55 78 4.5 .55 2.2 2.1 .3 4 1.0 6.0 --- 2.5 21 14 11 65.5 5.0 900
822-044-6 U. S. 32.5 30 11-14-55 76 7.0 .01 95 3.7 14 P74 32 14 .1 .3 300 248 24 488 7.3 20
822-045-6 U. S. S s. 22.5 20 11-16-55 76 4.4 .43 42 1.8 3.7 132 5.8 4.0 .1 .3 128 11 4 222 7.5 240
822-045-7 U. S. .. S. 22.5 20 11-16-55 77 3.7 .23 5.7 1.9 12 22 8.5 14 .1 .3 57 22 4 81.1 6.5 75
822-045-8 U. G. S. S 27.5 25 11-14-55 75 5.3 .19 44 1.5 5.7 136 5.0 8.0 .1 .2 137 116 4 242 6.8 180
823-045-2 U. S. G. S. 47.5 45 11-16-55 75 5.7 .88 6.7 1 5.1 29 1.0 8.0 0.1 0.2 44 25 2 76.5 6.6 65
824-045-1 -------------- 0 -- 11-16-55 8.2 .01 80 2.0 33 274 19 24 .0 .4 302 208 0 499 7.7 25
824-045-3 M. Bimbaua 25 22 11-16.55 76 8.2 3.4 10 1.8 4.3 38 .5 7.0 --- .4 55 32 1 136 6.4 1020
824-045-4 U. S. G. S. 23.5 21 11-14-55 74 7.8 .70 40 5.4 20 138 8.5 30 .1 .1 181 122 9 331 6.8 900
825-045-1 Emma Swaason 20 17 11-16-55 78 4.9 .83 11 3.1 7.8 30 22 6.5 .1 .2 71 440 16 115 6.6 55
825-046-1 -------------- -- -- 11-16-55 74 7.5 1.8 1.3 1.4 6.9 10 .0 11 .1 .2 35 9 1 63.2 6.7 360
a Values reported are suro of determined constituents.
b Microm o at 251C.
c Units, platinum-cobalt scale.
d Values reported are residue on evaporation at 180*C.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11 77

samples analyzed ranged from nine to 790 ppm, and chloride
concentrations ranged from 4.0 to 1, 270 ppm. The samples
containing the greatest concentrations of chloride also had
the highest hardness, indicating contamination by artesian
water from the underlying limestone formations. No samples
contained more than 0. 2ppm of fluoride or 4.0 ppm of iron.
The color was more than 200 in 11 samples and more than
1,020 in one sample. Except for its hardness, color, and
iron content, all of which can be reduced by treatment, the
water from most wells in the nonartesian aquifer is suitable
for most uses.

The chloride contents of water from 158 nonartesian
wells in Brevard and adjacent counties are shown on figure
26. The areal distribution of the chloride content does not
show any significant pattern. The geologic profiles C-C'
and D-D' (fig. 8) show that water having a chloride contentX
of as much as 250 ppm is first penetrated at different depths
in different wells. This suggests that the distribution of
chloride concentration with depth may be more significant
than the areal distribution.


Salt-Water Contamination

The contamination of the nonartesian aquifer by saline
water may have occurred in three ways: (1) by a movement
of sea water into the formation during Pleistocene time,
(2) by an inland encroachment of water from the Indian River,
and (3) by an upward flow of the relatively saline artesian
water. Information is lacking as to the extent to which pro-
cesses (1) and (2) are responsible, but there seems to be
no doubt that (3) is responsible at least in part.

Because the piezometric surface is higher than the water
table in the central area, the relatively salty artesian water
from the underlying limestone is able to move upward through
the overlying beds and into the lower part of the nonartesian
aquifer, to the extent that the confining beds of the artesian
aquifer are able to transmit it. The rate of this upward
flow, and hence the extent of contamination in the nonarte-
sian aquifer, depends in part on the altitude of the water
table in relation to the altitude of the piezometric surface






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of the artesian aquifer. This is illustrated in profiles C-C'
and D-D', in figure 8, which show that the 250-ppm isochlor
is depressed where the water table is high, and high where
the water table is low.

The depth of the 250-ppm isochlor probably fluctuates
in response to fluctuations in the water table and piezometric
surface. In the central area the piezometric surface is higher
than the water table. Therefore, the 250-ppm isochlor
should rise when the difference between the piezometric
surface and water table is increased. Conversely, the 250-
ppm isochlor should decline when the difference between the
two surfaces is decreased. Thus, the zone of potable non-
artesian water should vary in thickness in response to fluc-
tuations of the water table and piezometric surface.

The lowering of water levels in the nonartesian aquifer
by the pumping of wells should cause the 250-ppm isochlor
to move upward. Thus, the fluctuations of the water table,
piezometric surface, and the 250-ppm isochlor will have to
be observed closely if optimum utilization of the nonartesian
aquifer is to be achieved.


Utilization

The public water supplies for the cities of Titusville,
Eau Gallie, and Melbourne are obtained from ground-water
sources, principally from the nonartesian aquifer. Most of
the other communities, including the unincorporated areas,
are served by individually owned private wells that obtain
water from the nonartesian aquifer. Wells generally range
in diameter from 1 to 4 inches and in depth from 5 to 40
feet. Most domestic wells in the county are driven sand-
point wells which range from lI to 21 inches in diameter and
from 10 to 40 feet in depth.

A few domestic wells draw water from permeable beds
in the Hawthorn formation. These generally range in depth
from 75 to 140 feet.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 11


Artesian Ground Water

Occurrence and Source

The Floridan aquifer, which is the source of artesian
water in Brevard County, underlies all the county. It is
composed mainly of limestone formations of Eocene age but
includes some permeable beds in the lower part of the Haw-
thorn formation. The aquifer has a total thickness of several
thousand feet, but onlythe top few hundredfeet contain rela-
tively fresh water. The upper surface of the aquifer ranges
from 75 to more than 300 feet below sea level in Brevard
County (see fig. 9).

The Floridan aquifer receives much of its recharge in
Polk, Orange, and Lake counties, in the central part of the
State. In this area the confining bed is penetrated by numer-
ous sinkholes through which water passes freely into the
Floridan aquifer. Water entering the aquifer in the recharge
area moves laterally, below the confining beds, towardareas
of lower artesian pressure head in other parts of the State.

Apart of the water that flows eastwardfromthe recharge
area, through the limestones of the aquifer, is discharged
into the Atlantic Ocean. Along the route to the ocean, some
water is discharged from the aquifer; and, in some areas,
water is added to the aquifer. Local discharge in Brevard
County occurs by flow from springs, upward seepage into
the nonartesian aquifer, and discharge from wells.

Recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurswhere the con-
fining bed is absent or penetrated by sinkholes or where the
water table is higher than the piezometric surface. Under
the latter condition, water from the nonartesian aquifer
percolates downward through the poorly permeable confining
beds into the Floridan aquifer.

The configuration of the piezometric surface inBrevard
County is shown by contours in figures 28 and 29. The water
in the Floridan aquifer moves downgradient, in a direction
approximately perpendicular to the contours. Where the
piezometric surface is above the land surface, water will






FLORIDA -GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


29 ---- --- --- 1 --- --- 1 -- I i --- -
Well 20, 9.5 miles west of Molobar.
28 ---i
27 a
__ 2-/ e f0\t

ii ____ ^i~r^7oo


1947 1948


91 49 1950 1951 1952 19 5


1I IWell 159, 0 Orsina, Meriilt Island.
m .00-- t
(l ---=i= __ ---- --- --- I --- I --- j --- _
S-- --



to
i1 o r

:=:==:= =:=zT`3


Figure 27. Hydrographs of wells 19,20,79,148 and 159 in
Brevard County.