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Summary of the geology of Glades County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 30 )
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 Material Information
Title: Summary of the geology of Glades County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 30 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Open file report 30 )
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Kenneth M ( Kenneth Mark ), 1949-
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Florida -- Glades County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Kenneth M. Campbell.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001545258
oclc - 22424426
notis - AHF8776
System ID: UF00001029:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Geomorphology
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Lithostratigraphy
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Hydrology
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 8
    References
        Page 11
        Page 10
    Figures
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text











State of Florida
Department of Natural Resources
Tom Gardner, Executive Director




Division of Resource Management
Jeremy Craft, Director




Florida Geological Survey
Walt Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief









Open File Report 30


Summary of the Geology of
Glades County, Florida

by

Kenneth M. Campbell, P. G.


Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida
1990


































3 1262 04643 6143


LtIPARY




0 50

Summary of the Geology of
Glades County, Florida

By

Kenneth M. Campbell, P. G.

GEOMORPHOLOGY

Glades County lies partially within both the central and

southern physiographic zones of White, (1970). Several authors

have discussed the geomorphology of the Florida peninsula; White's
(1970) classification will be utilized in this report. The

dominant geomorphic features within the county include the DeSoto

Plain, Caloosahatchee Incline, Caloosahatchee River Valley and the

Okeechobee Plain (White, 1970) (Figure 1).


DeSoto Plain

The DeSoto Plain is located primarily in Manatee, Hardee,

DeSoto, Highlands, Charlotte and Glades Counties. The plain slopes

very gently to the south and has elevations which range from 85

feet at the north to 60 feet at the south. The DeSoto Plain is

found only in the northwestern corner of Glades County. White

(1970) stated that the DeSoto Plain was a submarine plain probably

formed under Pleistocene Wicomico seas (70-100 feet above present

sea level). White (1970) cites a notable lack of relict shoreline

features as evidence of the submarine origin of the plain.


Caloosahatchee Inaline

The Caloosahatchee Incline forms the southern bounding scarp

of the DeSoto Plain and the eastern bounding scarp between the







Okeechobee Plain and the Lake Wales Ridge. The crest of the

incline is at 60 feet above mean sea level (MSL) while the toe is

at 30-35 feet (White, 1970). White (1970) suggested that the

Caloosahatchee Incline was the steeper slope at the distal end of

a submarine shoal and was preserved during emergence due to a low

energy environment.


okeechobee Plain

The Okeechobee Plain is located primarily in Okeechobee,

Highlands and Glades Counties and ranges in elevation from 30-40

feet at the south edge of the Osceola Plain to about 20 feet at the

north shore of Lake Okeechobee (White, 1970). The Okeechobee Plain

includes Lake Okeechobee.


Caloosahatahee Valley

The Caloosahatchee Valley is a relatively low lying feature

through which the Caloosahatchee River flows. The valley is

bounded to the east by Lake Okeechobee and grades into the Gulf

Coastal Lowlands on the west. It is bounded to the north by the

Caloosahatchee Incline and to the south by the Immokalee Rise

(White, 1970).


LITHOBTRATIGRAPHY

The geologic formations which are encountered within 1000 feet

of the land surface in Glades County include, in ascending order,

the Avon Park Formation, Ocala Group, Suwannee Limestone, Hawthorn

Group (which includes the Arcadia and Peace River Formations),







Okeechobee Plain and the Lake Wales Ridge. The crest of the

incline is at 60 feet above mean sea level (MSL) while the toe is

at 30-35 feet (White, 1970). White (1970) suggested that the

Caloosahatchee Incline was the steeper slope at the distal end of

a submarine shoal and was preserved during emergence due to a low

energy environment.


okeechobee Plain

The Okeechobee Plain is located primarily in Okeechobee,

Highlands and Glades Counties and ranges in elevation from 30-40

feet at the south edge of the Osceola Plain to about 20 feet at the

north shore of Lake Okeechobee (White, 1970). The Okeechobee Plain

includes Lake Okeechobee.


Caloosahatahee Valley

The Caloosahatchee Valley is a relatively low lying feature

through which the Caloosahatchee River flows. The valley is

bounded to the east by Lake Okeechobee and grades into the Gulf

Coastal Lowlands on the west. It is bounded to the north by the

Caloosahatchee Incline and to the south by the Immokalee Rise

(White, 1970).


LITHOBTRATIGRAPHY

The geologic formations which are encountered within 1000 feet

of the land surface in Glades County include, in ascending order,

the Avon Park Formation, Ocala Group, Suwannee Limestone, Hawthorn

Group (which includes the Arcadia and Peace River Formations),








Tamiami, Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formations and

undifferentiated surficial sediments. See the cross sections and

cross section location map (Figures 2-4) in conjunction with the

text for this section.


Avon Park Formation

The Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation is the oldest lithologic

unit commonly encountered in wells in Glades County. The formation

underlies all of Glades County (Klein et al., 1964). Miller (1986)

combined the Avon Park and Lake City Limestone (previous usage)

into the Avon Park Formation in order to reflect the lithologic

similarities of the two units and the presence of considerable

quantities of dolostone.

The Avon Park Formation in Glades County consists primarily of
tan to white, slightly porous, calcilutitic and fossiliferous

limestone (packstone); well indurated granular limestone

(grainstone) and finely crystalline dolostone. The top of the Avon

Park Formation is encountered at approximately 840 feet below MSL

in the northern portions of the county and dips to the south and

southeast. In the southwest corner of the county, the Avon Park

top is at 1050 feet below MSL while in the southeast corner of the

county the top is at 1220 feet below MSL. The thickness of the

Avon Park is variable, but in general thickens to the south and

southeast and ranges from around 600 to over 1200 feet thick (Klein

et al., 1964). The Avon Park Formation is unconformably overlain

by the Ocala Group.







Oaals Group

The Upper Eocene Ocala Group consists of three formations. In

ascending order they are the Inglis, Williston and Crystal River

Formations (Puri, 1957). For the purposes of this report, however,

the Ocala Group will be undifferentiated.

In Glades County, the Ocala Group consists primarily of white,

cream or tan, poorly indurated calcilutitic limestone (packstone or

wackestone) or tan, granular dolostone. The limestone is often a

foraminiferal coquina. The top of the Ocala Group is encountered

at depths of 600-800 feet below MSL in Glades County and dips

generally to the south. The thickness of the Ocala Group, in wells

examined in this study, ranges from 265 feet in the northeast

portion of the county, to over 320 feet in the central and

southeastern portions of the county.


Suwannee Limestone

The Oligocene Suwannee Limestone underlies most, if not all,

of Glades County. Klein et al. (1964) show the Suwannee Limestone

in all but the northeastern corner of Glades County and extrapolate

maximum thicknesses of over 400 feet in southern Glades County.

Samples examined for the present study reveal lesser thicknesses,

ranging from 25 to 140 feet, with the greatest thickness in the

central and southwestern portions of the county. The top of the

Suwannee dips gently to the south-southeast.

The Suwannee Limestone in Glades County consists primarily of

white, cream or tan recrystallized limestone (packestone or

wackestone) or tan granular or sqcrosic dolostone. The limestone








is moderately to well indurated, variably calcilutitic, quartz

sandy and slightly phosphatic. The Suwannee is commonly shelly or

microcoquinoid, however, well-preserved fossils are rare and shells

are often replaced with sparry calcite.


Hawthorn Group

Scott (1988) raised the Miocene Hawthorn Formation of previous

usage to group status. In the south Florida area the Hawthorn

Group consists of two formations, in ascending order the Arcadia

and the Peace River Formations.


Aroadia Formation

The Arcadia Formation (Scott, 1988) is a predominantly

carbonate unit which corresponds to the "Hawthorn carbonate unit"

of past usage and includes the Tampa Formation of past usage as a

member. TheTampa Member is not found in Glades County. The

Arcadia Formation consists predominantly of white, light grey and

yellowish grey, poorly to well indurated, calcilutitic and very

finely crystalline limestone (wackestone to mudstone), dolomitic

limestone and dolostone. The Arcadia contains variable amounts of

clay, silt, quartz and phosphate sand with occasional phosphate

gravel. Beds of clay, dolosilt and sand are common. The Arcadia

is commonly somewhat fossiliferous (primarily oysters, pectens,

bryozoans, with diatoms and foraminifera in some clayey intervals).

The top of the Arcadia is encountered at depths of

approximately 100 feet below MSL in the northwest corner of the

county and dips in a general southeasterly direction to about 370







feet below MSL in the eastern portion of the county. The thickness

of the Arcadia ranges from about 200 feet to 460 feet. The unit is

thinnest in northeast Glades County and thickens to the southwest.


Peace River Formation

The Peace River Formation (Scott, 1988) consists of the "upper

Hawthorn siliciclastics" of prior usage as well as the

siliciclastics previously placed in the Tamiami Formation (Parker,

1951, and Parker et al., 1955) and the Murdock Station and Bayshore

Clay Members of the Tamiami Formation (Hunter, 1968). In Glades

County, the Peace River Formation consists primarily of white,

light gray and light olive, interbedded, poorly to moderately

indurated sands, silts, clays and carbonates. The siliciclastic

components are dominant. Carbonate material is primarily

calcilutite or dolosilt. All lithologies typically contain

variable amounts of quartz and phosphate sand.

The top of the Peace River Formation is encountered at

approximately 40 feet above MSL in the northwest corner of the

county. The formation dips generally to the east and southeast to

depths of about 90 feet below MSL at the eastern edge of the

county, although a depth of 111 feet below MSL is encountered in

the south-central portion of the county. The thickness of the

Peace River Formation typically ranges from about 140 to 280 feet,

with the greatest thickness in rhe eastern portion of the county.


Tamiami Formation

The Tamiami Formation of Parker (1951) and Parker et al.,








(1955) has been restricted by later authors (Hunter, 1968; Scott,

1988). The Tamiami as used in this report reflects these changes

and consists of the Ochopee and Buckingham Limestone Members and

the Pinecrest Sand Member. Some difficulty arises in identifying

the Tamiami where sandy sediments are devoid of shell material and

recognizable limestone units are not present.

The Tamiami Formation is sporadically present within Glades

County, primarily in the southern and western portions of the

county. The top of the Tamiami, where encountered, ranges from 10

to 56 feet below MSL. The thickness of the formation ranges up to

70 feet.

The Tamiami consists primarily of yellowish gray, shelly,

quartz sandy, slightly phosphatic limestone with calcilutite or

recrystallized calcite matrix. Molds of aragonitic fossils are

common. Quartz sand, shell content and induration are variable.


Caloosahatohee and Fort Thompson Formations

The Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formations of previous

usage are undifferentiated in this report due to the lack of

lithologic characteristics on which to differentiate the units.

These units were originally defined based on the fossils they

contain.

The Caloosahatchee typically consists of unconsolidated sand,

sandy "marl" and limestone containing abundant marine molluscs

(Klein et al., 1964). The Fort Thompson consists of alternating

marine and freshwater limestones and "marl" (Klein et al., 1964).

These.sediments are found in the northeast corner of the county, in








a band along the west edge of Lake Okeechobee and along the

Caloosahatchee River Valley in the southern portion of the county.

The top of the Caloosahatchee/Fort Thompson undifferentiated unit

is encountered from approximately 25 feet above MSL to about 45

feet below MSL. The maximum thickness of the unit is around 60

feet.


Undifferentiated surficial sand and clay

The undifferentiated surficial sediments consist of terrace

sands, organic soils and "marl" of Pleistocene and Holocene age.

Undifferentiated surficial sediments blanket most if not all of the

county. The thickness of these sediments ranges up to slightly

more than 100 feet. Surficial sediments are thickest in the

central portion of the county, in the vicinity of the

Caloosahatchee Incline.


HYDROLOGY

Two regional aquifer systems are important in Glades County:

the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems (SEGS, 1986). The

Floridan aquifer system, although utilized in the past, contains

nonpotable water (chloride and/or sulfate concentrations above 250

milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the Glades County area (Causey and

Leve, 1976) and thus will not be discussed in this report.


Surfioial aquifer system

The surficial aquifer system consists of undifferentiated

surficial sands as well as shell beds, limestone and "marl" of the







Caloosahatchee/Fort Thompson and Tamiami Formations which contain

water under unconfined, or water table conditions. The base of the

surficial aquifer system consists of relatively impermeable beds of

regional extent in the Peace River Formation. The thickness of the

surficial aquifer system ranges from about 20-100 feet.


Intermediate aquifer system
The intermediate aquifer system consists primarily of

permeable beds in the Peace River Formation or Arcadia Formation

where it is not in hydraulic communication with the Floridan
aquifer system. Permeable beds are typically interbedded with

impermeable beds and water is under confined conditions. The

intermediate aquifer system ranges from around 90 to over 225 feet

thick in Glades County.


Water Quality

Water quality in the surficial and intermediate aquifer

systems is highly variable, but is generally better than the

underlying Floridan aquifer system. Water sample analysis reported

by Klein et al. (1964) indicate that in general the water is hard

(13-755 mg/L) with around one half of the wells with total

dissolved solids above 500 mg/L. Sulfate, iron, chloride and color

are all highly variable and often exceed standards. Phelps (1978)

reports that some water in Glades County exceeds .5 mg/L ammonia
concentration.







MINERAL RESOURCES

Quartz sand and limestone are currently produced in Glades

County (Spencer, 1989). Quartz sand is mined in the vicinity of

Ortona from beds tentatively assigned to the Peace River Formation.

These sands are characteristically coarse and are mined for use as

concrete and asphalt sand, fine aggregate and filter bed materials.

Limestone is mined from an area adjacent to the northwest shore of

Lake Okeechobee and from an area west of Moorhaven (Figure 2).

This limestone is utilized for road base material.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Causey, L. V., and Leve, G. W., 1976, Thickness at the potable-
water zone in the Floridan aquifer: Florida Bureau of Geology
Map Series 74.

Hunter, M. E., 1968, Molluscan guide fossils in Late Miocene
sediments of southern Florida: Transactions, Gulf Coast
Association of Geological Societies, Vol. xviii, p. 439-450.

Klein, H., Schroeder, M. C., and Lichtler, W. F., 1964, Geology and
ground-water resources of Glades and Hendry Counties, Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigations 37, 101 p.

Miller, J. A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan
aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama and
South Carolina: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
1403-B, 91 p.

Parker, G. G., 1951, Geologic and hydrologic factors in the
perennial yield of the Biscayne Aquifer: Journal of the
American Water Works Association, v. 43, pt. 2, p. 817-834.

,Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K., 1955, Water
resources of southeastern Florida: U. S. Geological Survey
Water Supply Paper 1255, 965 p.

Phelps, G. G., 1978, Chemical quality of water used for municipal
supply in Florida, 1975: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series
82.

Purl, H. S., 1957, Stratigraphy and donation of the Ocala Group:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 38, 248 p.








a band along the west edge of Lake Okeechobee and along the

Caloosahatchee River Valley in the southern portion of the county.

The top of the Caloosahatchee/Fort Thompson undifferentiated unit

is encountered from approximately 25 feet above MSL to about 45

feet below MSL. The maximum thickness of the unit is around 60

feet.


Undifferentiated surficial sand and clay

The undifferentiated surficial sediments consist of terrace

sands, organic soils and "marl" of Pleistocene and Holocene age.

Undifferentiated surficial sediments blanket most if not all of the

county. The thickness of these sediments ranges up to slightly

more than 100 feet. Surficial sediments are thickest in the

central portion of the county, in the vicinity of the

Caloosahatchee Incline.


HYDROLOGY

Two regional aquifer systems are important in Glades County:

the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems (SEGS, 1986). The

Floridan aquifer system, although utilized in the past, contains

nonpotable water (chloride and/or sulfate concentrations above 250

milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the Glades County area (Causey and

Leve, 1976) and thus will not be discussed in this report.


Surfioial aquifer system

The surficial aquifer system consists of undifferentiated

surficial sands as well as shell beds, limestone and "marl" of the








Scott, T. M., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn (Miocene)
of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59, 148 p.

Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydro-
stratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986, Hydrogeological units of
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 28, 8
P.

Spencer, S. M., 1989, The industrial minerals industry directory of
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 105,
Part 1, 35 p.

White, W. A., 1970, Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula:
Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, 164 p.







MINERAL RESOURCES

Quartz sand and limestone are currently produced in Glades

County (Spencer, 1989). Quartz sand is mined in the vicinity of

Ortona from beds tentatively assigned to the Peace River Formation.

These sands are characteristically coarse and are mined for use as

concrete and asphalt sand, fine aggregate and filter bed materials.

Limestone is mined from an area adjacent to the northwest shore of

Lake Okeechobee and from an area west of Moorhaven (Figure 2).

This limestone is utilized for road base material.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Causey, L. V., and Leve, G. W., 1976, Thickness at the potable-
water zone in the Floridan aquifer: Florida Bureau of Geology
Map Series 74.

Hunter, M. E., 1968, Molluscan guide fossils in Late Miocene
sediments of southern Florida: Transactions, Gulf Coast
Association of Geological Societies, Vol. xviii, p. 439-450.

Klein, H., Schroeder, M. C., and Lichtler, W. F., 1964, Geology and
ground-water resources of Glades and Hendry Counties, Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigations 37, 101 p.

Miller, J. A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan
aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama and
South Carolina: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
1403-B, 91 p.

Parker, G. G., 1951, Geologic and hydrologic factors in the
perennial yield of the Biscayne Aquifer: Journal of the
American Water Works Association, v. 43, pt. 2, p. 817-834.

,Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K., 1955, Water
resources of southeastern Florida: U. S. Geological Survey
Water Supply Paper 1255, 965 p.

Phelps, G. G., 1978, Chemical quality of water used for municipal
supply in Florida, 1975: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series
82.

Purl, H. S., 1957, Stratigraphy and donation of the Ocala Group:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 38, 248 p.







Figure Captions


Figure 1:



Figure 2:



Figure 3:



Figure 4:


Geomorphic Map of Glades County, After White, 1970



Cross section location map



Cross section A-A'



Cross section B-B'





0 10 MILES
i I
0 10 KILOMETERS
SCALE



LAKE WALES
RIDGE

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DESOTO
PLAIN


.. .. CAI

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S.c.tosa. .
rL I'l--** C *******U lu ^ ******^ ^


OKEECHOBEE
PLAIN




^LAKE
S_- OKEECHOBEE



LOOSAHATCHEE
VALLEY
Moore Haven
LTCRHE RIVER
---^^T^


CALOOSAHATCHEE
VALLEY


x IMMOKALEE RISE


1: Geomorphic


~""''


1970.


Figure


of Glaodes


County,


after White,


Map








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OCALA GROUP


10 MILES


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Approximate vertical exaggeration 200:1
SCALE

Figure 4 : Cross Section B -- B'


B'


W-- 15880



UNDIFFERRENTIATED
SANDS AND CLAYS

PEACE RIVER FORMATION





ARCADIA FORMATION


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FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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