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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction and background
 Methods
 Discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 References
 Appendices


FGS



Characterization of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, Florida ( FGS: Open file repo...
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 Material Information
Title: Characterization of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 29 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Open file report 29 )
Physical Description: 114 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Green, Richard
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1989
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Aquifers -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Richard Green ... <et al.>.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 72).
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001545262
oclc - 22438985
notis - AHF8780
System ID: UF00001028:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction and background
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Discussion
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 32
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 67
    References
        Page 72
    Appendices
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
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        Page 109
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        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text








State of Florida
Department of Natural Resources
Tom Gardner, Executive Director





Division of Resource Management
Jeremy Craft, Director





Florida Geological Survey
Walt Schmidt, State Geologist





Open File Report 29

Characterization of the sediments
overlying the Floridan aquifer system
in Alachua County, Florida

by

Richard Green, Joel Duncan, Thomas Seal,
J. Michael Weinberg and Frank Rupert


Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida
1989


~:~'~S
~~~L~J~a
IT-







Table of Contents


Introduction and Background....................................1
Methods ... ** ......... .... ... ... ....*..... ........ 2
Core and Cutting Descriptions...........................6
Permeameter Testing ...... ......... .. ...................6 6
Sieve Analysis................. *....................... 1
Pipette Analysis.... ....... ..... ......................... 22
X-ray Diffraction Analyses.................................23
Discussion.... .. ........ ............... ................... 32
Summary and Conclusions.............. ..................... 67
References................ ............... ............ .72
Appendix I.............. ..... .. .; ... .. .... .... .......73
Appendix II .......................... ......... ............ 111.




List of Figures


Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure


1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:


Core location map .................. ................ 4
Typical Falling-head permeameter setup........... 10
Columnar section for well #1 (W-16198)..........35
Columnar section for well #2 (W-16199).........39
Columnar section for well #3 (W-16200) ......... 41
Columnar section for well #4 (W-16201)..........45
Columnar section for well #5 (W-16202)...........49
Columnar section for well #6 (W-16203)...........52
Columnar section for well #7 (W-16204)......... 55
Columnar section for well #8 (W-16205).........58
Columnar section for well #9 (W-16206)..........61
Columnar section for well #10 (W-16207)..........65


List of Tables


Table 1:
Table 2:

Table 3:

Table 4:


Table
Table
Table


Alachua County wells studied in this Project.......7
Theoretical times needed to conduct (1) test on a
sample of given hydraulic conductivity (K)........12
Results of permeameter analysis of selected
samples ........................................... 13
Average ranges of hydraulic conductivity for
various geologic materials........................17
Grain size analysis results .......................18
Bulk x-ray diffractometer data.................... 26
Clay separate x-ray diffractometer data...........29








Appendices


Appendix 1:
Appendix 2:


Lithologic logs for the 10 study cores.........74
Permeameter procedures............. .......... 112









INTRODUCTION AND,BACKGROUND

The Water Quality Assurance Act of 1983 mandated the

establishment of an:Ambient Ground Water Quality Network to aid in
the prediction and detection of contamination of Florida's ground

water resources. Administered through the Florida Department of

Environmental Regulation, this legislation provides the funding for

constructing a background ground water quality well network

statewide. Also included within the scope of the Act are research

provisions for defining aquifer systems based on new and existing

hydrogeologic data, water quality sampling and analysis, as well

as in-depth studies ranking the hydrogeologic pollution potential

of the aquifer system. The bulk of the hydrogeologic data

acquisition, compilation, and analysis work is currently being

undertaken by the five water management districts and, in Alachua

County, by the Alachua County Department of Environmental Services

(ACDES).

As an integral part of its on-going aquifer definition

research under Ambient Contract WM-206, ACDES contracted the

present hydrogeologic study with the Florida Geological Survey

(FGS). The primary purpose of this project is to attempt to

improve the existing hydrogeologic information through lithologic

and hydrogeologic characterizations of the sediments overlying the

Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County. These sediments locally

comprise both the intermediate aquifer system and associated

confining beds and the surficial aquifer system. In addition, the

continuity and lithology of hydrogeologic units within these post-







Eocene sediments directly determine groundwater and contaminant

movement in the aquifer systems. A detailed study of the

lithology, mineralogic composition, and relative permeability of

these sediments would therefore aid in better understanding their

hydrogeologic nature, extent, and their hydrogeologic relationship

with the underlying Floridan aquifer system.

In the initial phase of this contract, the FGS provided its

core-drilling rig, personnel, and split-spoon sampling equipment.

Over a three month period, the post-Eocene sediments overlying the

Floridan aquifer system at ten pre-selected sites throughout the

county were drilled and sampled. A series of split-spoon cores and :

cuttings were recovered from nine locations, and a continuous two-

inch core was taken at the tenth site. Phase two of the study

involved laboratory analyses of the cores by research assistants

at the FGS. As detailed in the methodology section of this report,

the samples were described lithologically, analysed for mineralogy

and grain size, and tested for relative hydraulic conductivity.

The result of these analyses are tabulated and discussed in

succeeding sections of the report.

Volume II of this report contains the bulk of the untabulated

raw data. This includes the x-ray mineralogical peak charts, sieve

analysis data sheets, and the permeameter calculation forms.

METHODS

During the course of the project, a series of ten

stratigraphic core tests were drilled at selected sites in Alachua

County by the FGS drilling rig (See Figure 1). An attempt was made

to completely penetrate the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene







Eocene sediments directly determine groundwater and contaminant

movement in the aquifer systems. A detailed study of the

lithology, mineralogic composition, and relative permeability of

these sediments would therefore aid in better understanding their

hydrogeologic nature, extent, and their hydrogeologic relationship

with the underlying Floridan aquifer system.

In the initial phase of this contract, the FGS provided its

core-drilling rig, personnel, and split-spoon sampling equipment.

Over a three month period, the post-Eocene sediments overlying the

Floridan aquifer system at ten pre-selected sites throughout the

county were drilled and sampled. A series of split-spoon cores and :

cuttings were recovered from nine locations, and a continuous two-

inch core was taken at the tenth site. Phase two of the study

involved laboratory analyses of the cores by research assistants

at the FGS. As detailed in the methodology section of this report,

the samples were described lithologically, analysed for mineralogy

and grain size, and tested for relative hydraulic conductivity.

The result of these analyses are tabulated and discussed in

succeeding sections of the report.

Volume II of this report contains the bulk of the untabulated

raw data. This includes the x-ray mineralogical peak charts, sieve

analysis data sheets, and the permeameter calculation forms.

METHODS

During the course of the project, a series of ten

stratigraphic core tests were drilled at selected sites in Alachua

County by the FGS drilling rig (See Figure 1). An attempt was made

to completely penetrate the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene
































Figure 1: Core location map.
















1II


IENERAI. HIII WAY .MA



.. .4 .:::: -
"P' su
ALACHUA COUNTY
FLORIDA

upv .wsr


I .
S... I -- ,. : ', .. ,



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section and the Hawthorn Group section, where present, in each

well. The drilling was stopped when top of the Ocala Group was

reached.

Two-foot split spoon samples were taken in each well at

approximately ten-foot intervals downhole. The split-spoon

sampler, consisting of a steel barrel, core catcher, and removable

clear plastic liner, was hammer-driven through each interval.

Split-spoon samples were taken in each well until the top of the.

Ocala Group was reached or until a hard, tight, or otherwise

impenetrable lithology was encountered. The cores, contained

S.-within the clear plastic liner tubes, were sealed and sent to the

FGS laboratory for analysis. Standard well cuttings, caught at the

rig mud pan, were collected to cover the depth intervals between

split-spoon cores.

A variety of geological techniques were employed in this

study. The lithology of each sample was described using the

Florida Geological Survey computer sample coding system. Falling-

head permeameter tests were conducted on split-spoon core samples

from each well to characterize the hydraulic conductivity of these

sediments. Selected samples, generally corresponding to the split-

spoon intervals, were sieved using a nest of 1/4 phi sieves to

determine grain size distribution. The fraction of each sample

finer than 4 phi was then pipetted to obtain a silt-clay

distribution. Portions of the split-spoon samples, where

applicable, were also analyzed on an x-ray diffractometer to

determine to mineral components of both the bulk and clay

fractions.







Core and cutting descriptions

Lithologic descriptions utilizing the Florida Geological

Survey computer sample coding system were made for the 10 Alachua

County Study wells and entered in the county well-file data base.

Of these descriptions, nine were made from split-spoon cores, and

one was made from the continuous core. Table 1 lists numbers,

depths, elevations, and locations of the ten wells.

Split-spoon cores in polyurethane tubes were first sampled for

permeameter analysis and then cut open lengthwise with a table saw.

The cores were then arranged according to depth in cardboard core

boxes. Samples for sieve and pipette analysis-were subsequently

taken from the split-spoon and continuous cores.

A binocular microscope was utilized in describing the

lithologic characteristics of each cutting or core sample. The

major characteristics described and recorded in the FGS computer

coding system include sample color, porosity, lithology,

induration, cement type, accessory minerals, and fossils.

Formation tops were determined based on lithologic and/or

paleontologic criteria. Rock colors were based on the Geological

Society of America's Rock Color chart (Geological Society of

America, 1984). Appendix I contains complete lithologic

descriptions of each of the wells described in this study.


Permeameter Testing

Samples for permeameter testing were-talcerr-from- each series

of split-spoon core tubes recovered from the ten sites in Alachua

County. These tubes consisted of a PVC core tube which was filled









ALACHUA COUNTY


TABLE 1

WELLS STUDIED IN THIS PROJECT


Study
Well Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10


Accession
Number

16198

16199

16200

16201

16202

16203

16204

16205

16206

16207


Location
T R S


11S

09S

07S

08S

07S

10S

10S

11S

09S

09E


19E

18E

18E

18E

18E

20E

20E

20E

20E

21E


Elevation* Total Depth
(Feet) (Feet)


70

120

160

115

140

60

60

85

175

150


50

36.5

90

53

101

30

42

65

125

191


*From 7-1/2 minute U. S. G. S. topographic quadrangle maps.







with a two foot section of sediment. Permeameter sample

preparation and set-up follow the standard procedure outlined in

Appendix 2. In general, an attempt was made to choose the least

disturbed section of each core tube, while keeping the sampling

interval as consistent as possible. This involved visually

inspecting each section of core tube for defects which would unduly

influence the permeameter tests (e.g., air pockets in the sediment,

void spaces, dried or cracked sediment). Each tube as then marked

and a small length (5 cm) of tube cut from the section. After each

sample was taken, it was covered at both ends with a polyurethane

mesh in order to keep the sediment from escaping. The samples were

then placed in a beaker of water for approximately 7-10 days in

order to allow for at least partial saturation of the sample before

the permeameter tests were preformed.

Each sample was placed on a permeameter for a period of time

sufficient to conduct three falling-head permeability tests. This

was usually about 72 hours per test. Figure 2 illustrates a

typical falling-head permeameter as used in this study. In each

of these tests, the initial head, the final head, the total elapsed

time of the test, the volume of the sample, the volume of water

which passed through the sample, and the water temperature were

measured. They hydraulic conductivity (K) of the sample was then

determined for each test according to the formula:

K-2.303al/At(log10h/h, )T

Appendix 2 provides additional information on the permeameter set

up, and defines the terms in this formula.

Each sample was allowed to stay on the permeameter as long as































Figure 2: Typical Falling-head Permeamter setup.



































WINGNUT OUTLET
o PORT \


UPPM RETAINING
SCREEN-

THREADED
ROD-


LOWM RETAINING


METER STICK


h- -





h,-





















PLEXIGLAS
*-TOP
PLATE
UPPER GASKET

SAMPLE
IN PLASTIC
CORE LINER

LOWER GASKET


STOPCOCK


PLASTIC
TUBING


IECT FITTING

* WATER FLOW DIRECTION


QUICK


,/#







was necessary to conduct three tests. Table 2 summarizes the

theoretical times required to test for three different magnitudes

of hydraulic conductivity (K). For a sample of very low K (10'8),

the time needed to conduct a complete test is 16 days. Since there

were only five permeameters available for use, and since there were

47 samples to be analyzed, it was not possible to leave all samples

on the permeameter for such a long period of time. Therefore, a

decision was made to leave the samples on a permeameter for up to

21 days. If, after this amount of time, a sample had not allowed

water to pass through, the sample was removed from the permeameter

and was deemed to be relatively impermeable. If a sample did show.

evidence of flow within this period of time, it was allowed to

remain on the permeameter until three tests could be performed.

The results of the permeameter tests performed on the split-spoon

samples are presented in Table 3. Values obtained for the

coefficient of hydraulic conductivity give only a relative measure

of sediment permeability. In general, the larger the negative

exponent obtained from testing, the poorer the respective sediments

are as an aquifer. Table 4 shows some comparitive K values for

various soil and rock type.

Sieve Analysis

Samples were taken from each of the appropriate split-spoon

core tubes for grain size analysis. Each tube of sediment was

visually inspected in order to estimate the combined sand and silt

percentage. If a sample was estimated to contain more than 50%

sand or silt sized grains, a small portion (between 50 and 100

grams) of the interval was sampled for grain size analysis. If,


11.






TABLE 2

THEORETICAL TIMES NEEDED TO CONDUCT (1) TEST ON
A SAMPLE OF GIVEN HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (K)


K( CM/SEC)


5.00 X 10-7

5.00 X 10-8

5.00 X 10-9


t(SEC) t(DAYS)
HO=60CM/H1-55CM


1.34 X 105 1.55

1.34 X 106 15.45

1.34 X 107 154.55


t(SEC) t(DAYS)
HO=60CM/H1=59CM


2.57 X 104 0.299

2.57 X 105 2.99

2.57 X 106 29.9


THIS TABLE WAS CALCULATED USING THE FORMULA IN APPENDIX 2

VALUES USED FOR THE VARIOUS CONSTANTS ARE TYPICAL NUMBERS

VALUES USED ARE:

a- 1.72 CM2

A- 9.08 CM2

L- 5.0 CM

To- 0.81 (T 24 DEGREES CELSIUS)

C- 2.1815


12.






TABLE 3: RESULTS OF PERMEAMETER ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SAMPLES


WELL NUMBER 1. W-16198 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : TlS R9E S09

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 2.62 X 10-8

20.5-22.5 2.31 X 10-8

.30.5-32.5 6.60 X 10-6

40.5-42.5 2.62 X 10-6


WELL NUMBER 2. W-16199 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : T09S RISE S35A

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 1.31 X 10-8

20.5-22.5 1.49 X 10-8

30.5-32.5 1.41 X 10-8


WELL NUMBER 3. W-16200 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : T17S RISE S27AA

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 1.70 X 10-8

20.5-22.5 1.77 X 10-8

30.5-32.5 2.75 X 10-7

40.5-41.5 1.24 X 10-4

41.5-42.5 7.73 X 10-5

50.0-52.0 4.86 X 10-7


13.








WELL NUMBER 4. W-16201 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : T=SS RI8E S17AB

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 6.17 X 10-7

30.5-32.5 6.64 X 10-7

40.5-42.5 NO FLOW

50.5-52.5 2.35 X 10-7


WELL NUMBER 5. W-16202 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : TI2S RI8E SQ5BD

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 2.72 X 107

20.5-22.5 1.24 X 10-8

30.5-31.0 1.10 X 10-7

43.5-45.0 5.01 X 10-8

50.5-52.5 NO FLOW

60.5-62.5 6.30 X 10-8

85.5-87.5 5.47 X 10-7

90.5-91.0 5.49 X 10-6


WELL NUMBER 6. W-16203 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : TIPS R20E S21BD

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 2.48 X 10-7

20.0-22.0 NO FLOW


14.


1, 1








WELL NUMBER 7. W-16204 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : TIOS R20E S28

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

-20.0-22.0 9.60 X 10-8

30.0-32.0 1. 0-:-:i: -



WELL NUMBER 8. W-16205 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : T11S R20E S03

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.0-12.0 2.78 X 10-6

20.0-22.0 1.92 X 10-6

40.0-42.0 NO FLOW

50.0-52.0 NO FLOW

60.0-61.5 4.61 X 10-5

61.5-62.0 1.94 X 10-6


15.




WELL NUMBER 9. W-16206 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : TQ9S R20E SgA

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.0-12.0 2.89 X 10-4

20.0-22.0 5.60 X 10-8

30.0-32.0 .1.62 X 10-6

43.0-45.0 1.78 X 10-7

50.0-52.0 9.75 X 10-8

70.0-71.0 NO FLOW

80.0-81.0 NO FLOW

100.0-101.0 NO FLOW

110.0-111.0 NO FLOW



WELL NUMBER 10. W-16207 COUNTY ALACHUA

LOCATION : T09S R21E Sq0

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.0-11.0 2.66 X 10-5

36.0-37.0 5.94 X 10-7

47.0-49.0 1.05 X 10-7


16.









TABLE 4:


AVERAGE RANGES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
FOR VARIOUS GEOLOGIC MATERIALS (Adapted
From Freeze and Cherry, 1979 and Davis and
DeWiest, 1966)


ROCK TYPE


HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
(K) In cm/s.


w 0
I
I Q




SJ3


t
o

I0

0
0




a
0
U.


oc
0
0
I


w


I '


s "
-a

< ~.
I (


102
10


-1-1
10 -2
10-3
10-4



-10-5
-3
10




10-6
-7

-10


10-9
- 10-1
-10


17.





TABLE 5: GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS RESULTS

ALACHUA COUNTY

WELL #1. W-16198 LOCATION: .T SlfR 19E S 09

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT % CLAY%

20.5-22.5 62.92 16.58 20.50

30.5-32.5 86.90 3.95 9.14.

41.5-42.5 94.62 3.53 1.58



WELL #2.W-16199 LOCATION: T 09S R 18E S 35A

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.5-12.5 69.71 13.65 16.55

30.5-32.5 59.63 17.89 22.21



WELL #3. W-16200 LOCATION: T 17S R_ 1E S 27AA

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.5-12.5 60.10 (39.90 COMBINED)

20.5-22.5 51.09 11.40 36.96

30.5-32.5 80.45 6.39 13.31

50.0-52.0 82.23 11.29 6.32



WELL #4. W-16201 LOCATION: T 08S R 18E S 17AB

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT % CLAY %

10.5-12.5 67.92 13.86 18.19

30.5-32.5 80.92 7.49 11.45

40.5-42.5 74.12 13.43 12.25


18.






WELL #5. W-16202 LOCATION: T 17S R 18E S 05BD

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.5-12.5 79.71 3.23 16.97

43.5-45.0 69.87 6.82 23.61

85.5-87.5 81.50 5.29 13.64

90.5-91.0 68.73 22.11 9.89


WELL #6. W-16203 LOCATION: T 10S R 20E S 21BD

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.5-12.5 76.85 1.65 21.87


WELL J7.W-16204 LOCATION: T 10S R 20E S 28

NOT ANALYZED


WELL #8. W-16205 LOCATION: T 1S R 20E S 03

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.0-12.0 85.60 2.35 11.84

20.0-22.0 77.26 3.84 18.63

60.0-61.5 89.38 1.94 7.06


WELL #9. W-16206 LOCATION: T 09S R 20E S 06

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.0-11.0 78.33 3.21 18.46

20.0-22.0 47.91 8.55 43.54

50.0-52.0 68.00 5.21 26.78

60.0-62.0 82.06 5.69 12.25


19.







WELL #10. W-16207 LOCATION: T 092 R 21 S 04

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.0-11.0 76.76 3.53 19.71
47.0-49.0 52.06 22.85 25.09







on the other hknd, the predominant grain size was estimated to be

in the clay range, that core tube was not.sampled for grain size

analysis of a sample which is predominantly clay is not

statistically meaningful. In addition to the split-spoon grain

size samples, a total of fourteen samples were taken from selected

intervals within the continuous core (Well No. 10, W#16207) which

was drilled for this project.

Each of the samples which were chosen for grain-size analysis

were weighed and dried slowly at a constant temperature of 35
degrees Celsius. The dried samples were taken reweighed and the

water content of each sample was calculated. This gave a minimum

estimate of porosity when the water content of the sample was

divided by the volume of the sample. This is a minimum porosity

because the samples were not fully saturated before the initial

weighing.

Each sample was then placed in a beaker with a known volume

of a dispersing agent (sodium hexametaphosphate) and stirred

vigorously in order to disperse the clay fraction and facilitate

wet sieving of the sample to remove the clays. Following this

bath, the sample was run through a 4 phi wet sieve in order to

remove the silt and clay fraction. This fraction was collected in

a beaker and saved for pipette analysis.

The fraction coarser than 4 phi was saved and dried. The

weight of this coarse fraction was calculated and subtracted from

the total dry weight of the sample. The resultant loss upon wet

sieving was assumed to be the combined silt and clay weight.

Following these calculations, the sand fraction was placed in


21.







a next of 1/4 phi interval sieves which ranged from -1.25 phi to

4.00 phi. If the total weight of the coarse fraction was more than

75 grams, the sample was split using a mechanical splitter, and one

half of the sample was sieved. If the total weight of the coarse

fraction was less than 75 grams, the whole coarse fraction was

sieved. This nest of sieves was placed on a Ro-Tap machine for 30

minutes.

The sieves were then removed from the Ro-Tap and the

individual sieves were cleaned. The weight of the sand fraction

on each sieve was measured and recorded. The pan fraction (that

fraction of the "coarse" sample which was finer than 4-phi) was

saved and added to the beaker which contained the fine fraction.

The totals of both the fine and coarse fractions were then

mathematically adjusted (the pan fraction weight was subtracted

from the "coarse" fraction weight, and added to the "fine" fraction

weight). This allowed for a more accurate representation of the

percentage of sand and silt-clay fraction for each sample.

Pipette Analysis

The fine grained sediments (4 phi or less) collected during

sieving procedures were evaluated for their silt and clay fractions

using the pipette method (Friedman and Johnson, 1982; Folk, 1974).

Fines from each split-spoon sample, except those in for W-16207,

were pipetted. Time constraints precluded pipetting samples from

well W-16207. One sample from well W-16200 was not pipetted

because the sample fines flocculated.

Each sample was first dispersed in a known concentration of

dispersing agent and then poured into a 1000 ml graduated cylinder.


22.







Distilled water was added to the cylinder until the fluid/sediment

column reached the 1000 ml level. The fluid/sediment column was

then stirred vigorously for 1 minute prior to initiation of the

experiment. After stirring, 20 ml withdrawals (or 25 ml depending

on pipette used) were made at predetermined time intervals and

depths appropriate to recover fines representative of each phi size

class from 4 phi to 9 phi. Each aliquot (fraction) was released

into a preweighed 50 ml beaker. The pipette was then filled with

distilled water and rinsed into the same beaker to recover fines

that may have adhered to the pipette interior. The beakers

containing-the aliquots were then oven dried at 100 degrees:C to-

evaporate the water content of the sample. Upon drying, the

aliquot beakers were removed from the oven and allowed to

equilibrate to room temperature (24 degrees C) for 30 minutes

before weighing.

After determining the aliquot weight (Friedman and Johnson,

1982; Folk 1974) the weight in each phi class was calculated.

Using the phi class weights, weight percentages and cumulative

weight percentages for each phi class from 4 to 9 phi were

calculated to determine the clay and silt fractions of each sample.

Table 5 lists the sand, silt, and clay percentages for each sample.

X-ray Diffraction Analysis

X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are useful for the

identification of the various minerals in a sample, but are semi-

quantitative, at best, for determination of the exact mineral

abundance or percentage. The purpose of this portion of the

Alachua ,County project was to use an x-ray diffractometer to


23.






investigate the mineralogy of the ten study wells.

Representative samples for XRD analyses were collected at

selected intervals in wells W-16198 through W-16207. The XRD

samples were collected immediately above or below the location of

the permeameter samples, thus the mineralogy of permeameter samples

may be assumed to match that of the intervals reported in this

section. Samples were also collected from well W-16207, which is

a continuous core, whenever there was a change in lithology.

Therefore, well W-16207 sample intervals are quite variable.

Two approaches of the XRD analysis were chosen for the

samples. The first approach was to analyze the sample as.a bulklc"

sample. Approximately 20-30 grams of each sample was ground to a

fine powder. This procedure insured homogeneous mixing of the

sample and reduced the chance of preferential orientation of

certain minerals during analysis. The sample was then placed into

planchets (sample holders) and placed into the x-ray

diffractometer. The diffractometer records the x-ray reflections

as peaks, both in a computer and on a paper chart or graph. Every

mineral exhibits a series of characteristic peaks, which are used

to determine the presence of the mineral. These charts are

included in this report as an appendix. The x-ray pattern for each

sample begins at a 2-theta angle of four degrees so that all major

clay mineral peaks could be identified. The second approach, used

with approximately 85 percent of the samples, was to analyze the

mineralogy of the clay-size fraction by first physically separating

the clay particles from the bulk sample. The separation was

achieved by suspending the clay minerals in water with a Calgon


24.







dispersant and allowing the larger particles to settle. Samples

of the clay fraction were decanted onto glass slides and dried to

produce oriented samples for XRD.

The results of the XRD analysis are listed in Tables 6 and 7.

The sample number and interval are listed in the first two columns

of each table. The subsequent columns are for the minerals

identified. A total of eleven minerals were positively identified.

Table 6 contains the results of the bulk mineral analyses, and

Table 7 contains the results of the clay fraction analyses.

Mineral abundances were determined from the relative peak heights.

When possible, estimates of relative abundances:.were made, with- Cl

- C2 C3 representing abundance in descending order. Quartz

(Si02) is virtually ubiquitous in the samples. Opaline quartz

(partially hydrated silica) is present in trace amounts in a few

samples. Two forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcite and

aragonite, are common, and dolomite, a calcium-magnesium carbonate,

CaMg(CO3),) is also common. Phosphate minerals are abundant in

numerous samples. The type of phosphate abundant in sediments

overlying the Floridan aquifer system in carbonate-fluorapatite,

(Ca10(PO4)6(F, OH, CO3)2, commonly known as francolite. This mineral

is a form of apatite in which fluorine and carbonate ions partially

substitute for hydroxyl groups.

A variety of phosphate-bearing minerals, known as secondary

phosphates, are derived from the chemical weathering of francolite.

These minerals form authigenically in the sediments. The phosphate

mineral wavellite, (Al3)PO4)2(OH)9*3H20, another secondary phosphate

mineral, has tentatively been identified in one sample.


25.






TABLES 6 AND 7. BULK AND CLAY FRACTION
X-RAY DIFFRACTION DATA

In these two tables of x-ray diffractometer datat., 'he4^"
following abbreviations have been used: QTZ = quartz; CAL =
calcite; ARG -aragonite; DOL dolomite; OPA opaline quartz;
PHO francolite orcarbonate-fluorapatite; WAV = wavellite; KAL =
kaolinite; MON =montmorillonite; ILL = illite; PAL =
palygorskite. The phosphate mineral millisite is most likely
present in one sample (well #8-2); the clay mineral sepiolite is
present in one sample (well #8-6), and a calcium zeolite mineral
is present in one sample from well #4 (#4-1).
The letter C implies.that the mineral is common, or abundant.
Based on relative peak heights, the most common mineral is listed
as C1 and the second most abundant mineral is listed as C2, and
so forth, when more than one mineral is present. The letter T
implies that the mineral is present in trace amounts, and is not
a major constituent of the sample.


TABLE 6: BULK


SAMPLE # INTERVAL


WELL #1
W-16198
1
2
3
4

WELL #2
W-16199
1
2
3

WELL #3
W-16200
1
2
3
4
5

WELL #4
W-16201
1
2
3
4


X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER DATA


MINERALS
QTZ CAL ARG DOL PHO WAV OPA


(FEET)

10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5


10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5



10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5
50.0-52.0



10.5-12.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5
50.0-52.5


C2 C3


26.










WELL #5
W-16202
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

WELL #6
W-16203
1
2

WELL #7
W-16204
1
2'
3
4

WELL #8
W-16205
1
2
3
4
5
6

WELL #9
W-16206
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10


10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5
50.5-52.5
60.5-62.5
85.5-87.5
90.5-91.0



10.5-12.5
20.0-22.0



10.0-12.0
20.0
20.0
30.0-32.0



10.0-12.0
20.0-22.0
30.0-32.0
40.0-42.0
50.0-52.0
60.0-62.0


C3 C2


Cl C3
C2
C3


10.0-12.0
20.0-22.0
30.0-31.0
43.0-45.0
50.0-52.0
60.0-62.0
70.0-71.0
80.0-81.0
100.0-101.0
110.0-111.0


C1
Cl
T C


C2 C3


27.







SAMPLE #


WELL #10
W-16207
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33


INTERVAL
(FEET)



4.0
9.0
10.0-12.0
14.0
19.0
20.0-22.0
25.0
27.5
29.0
30.0-32.0
35.0
38.5
40.0-42.0
42.0
46.0
50.0-52.0
54.0
60.0-62.0
61.5
67.5
70.0
76.0
78.0
83.0
87.0
95.5
104.5
110.0
126.0
162.5
167.0
174.0
182.0


MINETZ CAL ARG DOL PO WAV OPA
QTZ CAL ARG DOL PHO WAV OPA


C3 Cl
Cl
C2
T
Cl
C1 C2
C2
Cl
C2
C1
Cl
C1
C2 Cl
C
T C
Cl
C2
C
C2
C1


T Cl
C1 C2

T
C


C2 C3


28.










SAMPLE #

WELL #1
W-16198
1
2
3
4

WELL #2
W-16199
1
2

WELL #3
W-16200
1
.2 .
3.
4
5

WELL #4
W-16201
1
2
3
4

WELL #5
W-16202
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

WELL #6
W-16203
1
2


TABLE 7:


INTERVAL
(FEET)


10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5


CLAY SEPARATE X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER DATA

MINERALS
KAL ILL" PAL: MONTH -....AV" QTZ "CAL DOL PHO ARG


10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5



10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5
50.0-52.0



10.5-12.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5
50.0-52.5


10.5-12.5
20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5
50.5-52.5
60.5-62.5
85.5-87.5
90.5-91.0


C1 T
C1

T
T
C1
C
No sample


10.5-12.5
20.0-22.0


T T


ST


C2



C2
T
prepared


T T


29.




BOOK TIGHTLY DOUND]


SAMPLE #


WELL #7
W-16204
1
2
3
4

WELL #8
W-16205
1
2
3
4
5
6


INTERVAL
(FEET)


10.0-12.0
20.0
20.0-22.0
30.0-32.0



10.0-12.0
20.0-22.0
30.0-32.0
40.0-42.0
50.0-52.0
60.0-62.0


KL .L L MOINEjRAL AL
KAL 'ILL 'PAL MON 'AV QT2 CAL


T Cl
No sample prepared
T
Cl



Cl C2
No sample prepared
C1 T
C2
C2 Cl


DOL PHO


C3
. T


10.0-12.0
20.0-22.0
30.0-31.0
43.0-45.0
50.0-52.0
60.0-62.0
70.0-71.0
80.0-81.0
100.0-101.0
110.0-111.0


C2
No sample
C1 T
C3
C1
C1
C1


C2

prepared


C2
C2
C3


WELL #10
W-16207
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16


4.0
9.0
10.0-12.0
14.0
19.0
20.0-22.0
25.0
27.5
29.0
30.0-32.0
35.0
38.5
40.0-42.0
42.0
46.0
50.0-52.0


sample
Cl
C3
sample
sample
sample
C1
C
sample

sample
sample


prepared


prepared
prepared
prepared


prepared

prepared
prepared


30.


WELL #9
W-16206
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10









SAMPLE INTERVAL


MINERALS
KAL ILL PAL MON WAV QTZ CAL


DOL PHO ARG


WELL #10
W-16207
17
:18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33


(continued)

54.0
60.0-62.0
61.5
67.5
70.0
76.0
78.0
83.0
87.0
95.5
104.5
110.0
126.0
162.5
167.0
174.0
182.0


C2 C3
No sample prepared
C
C3 C2
C1
T C2 T
No sample prepared
C2
C T
C2
No sample prepared
C2
T C
T C2
C
Cl C3
No sample prepared
KAL ILL PAL MON WAV QTZ


C2


CAL DOL


PHO ARG


NOTE: The clay fractions contain fine-grained quartz, dolomite, calcite
and phosphate (in the form of francolite) as well as various clay
minerals.


31.







Kaolinite, ameotite, illite, and palygorskite are the

predominant clays present. The clay samples were not glycoated,

and the illite and smectite components are lumped as the smectite

group in Table 7. Hetrick and Friddell (1984) report that, in

general, smectite is the more common clay mineral in Hawthorn Group

sediments in north Florida and Georgia.


DISCUSSION

In Alachua County, the upper Floridan aquifer system is

comprised of porous marine limestones of the Eocene Ocala Group.

Locally, the Floridan aquifer system is overlain by var4ngi.r.

thicknesses of post-Eocene siliciclastics and occasional calcareous

beds. West of Interstate 75, the Ocala Group is overlain by

generally thin undifferentiated Plio-Pleistocene sands and clayey

sands. A shallow surficial aquifer system may be present in

portions of this area. Throughout most of this area however, the

Floridan aquifer system is unconfined, allowing contaminants direct

access to the aquifer (Macesich, 1988).

East of Interstate 75, the Floridan aquifer system is overlain

by up to 160 feet of Miocene age Hawthorn Group siliciclastics and
carbonates (Scott, 1988; Macesich, 1988). Porous sands and

carbonate units in the Hawthorn Group locally comprise the

intermediate aquifer system. In areas of the county where low

permeability clay units of the Hawthorn overlie the Floridan

aquifer system this group also forms the intfermediate confining

unit.

The sample sites in the present study were situated in areas


32.








where little or no data is available on the lithologic and

hydrodgeolgic characteristics of the sediments comprising the

surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit.

In order to obtain a complete representation of the post-

Eocene sediments, an attempt was made by the drill rig personnel

to penetrate the entire sediment section overlying the Ocala Group

limestone. Drilling stopped when the first fragments of Ocala

Group limestone were brought up in the drilling mud. In one well,

however (number 8, W-16205), drilling problems prevented proceeding

to the top of the Ocala Group. The location, lithology and

hydrogEilogic aspects of each well are discussed- individuaily-: in

the following discussion section.

Well No. 1 (FGS accession number W-16198) was drilled on a

hillside slope at the northeastern edge of the Kanapaha Prairie.

The surrounding terrain is comprised of gently rolling

siliciclastic hills resting on Ocala Group limestone. Karst

features have modified the surface relief with abundant solution

depressions and sinks. Macesich (1988) characterized the region

as a zone where confining clay sediments of the Hawthorn Group

above the Floridan aquifer system are perforated.

Figure 3 illustrates the lithology of the sediments penetrated

by Well No. 1. Due to encountering extremely hard Ocala Group

chert at a depth of 50 feet, the drilling stopped. The predominate

lithology in Well No. 1 is unfossiliferous, clayey quartz sand,

with occasional interbedded clay beds. Four split-spoon cores were

taken, spanning depth intervals of 10.5 to 12.5 feet below land

surface (bls), 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls, 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls, and


33.


5~~___ _1_


























Figure 3: Columnar section for well #1 (W-16198).


34.





DEPTH
(FEET ML) W-16198
BLEVATION.70 PEET (I

.. L.... .-. ..
.., .. ...., .... ............ .

5
5 r ;.- .- .-



10 .' .'';'.l..'.jr"



...................... ..........
-15 E-- 1m.r: ---:.- : .-.:a .: I
Z ......^







20






30




35




40 : :
.45 .'. :; .: ..





U
3 5 0.'.;;-. ;'. : ; :.'.. ;







450


T.11S R.19E S.09 ALACHUA COUNTY

MSL)



Moderate-brown organic-rich quartz sand.



Dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.

Greenish-black sandy clay.


Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.


Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.
SGrayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.
Grayish-brown clayey, organic-rich, dolomitic quartz sand.
Grayish-orange clayey quartz sand.




Grayish brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.



Grayish-orange clayey quartz sand.


Grayish-brown to very light gray clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.


Grayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, dolomitic, organic-rich quartz sand.

Yellowish-gray calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.

Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand with chert fragments and Eocene fossils.



Light blue-green to grayish-brown chart with sand and limestone fragments.

ST.D.-50 FEET.


35.







41.5 to 42.5 feet bis. Permeameter analyses of these intervals

that the two shallow samples have surprising low conductivities,

with magnitudes of only 10"8cm/s (see Table 4). The shallowest

sample, 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls, is an unfossiliferous greenish

black, sandy, kaolinite-smectite clay (Table 7). This Unit is most

likely part of the undifferentiated Pleistocene*Holocene sediments,
and therefore is associated with the surficial aquifer system. The

deeper low-permeability beds occur in the split-spoon interval 20.5

to 22.5 feet bls. Although this interval is primarily quartz sand,

with approximately 20.5% clay, the kaolinite-palygorskite-smectite

clay matrix (Table 7) effectively seals the-pore -paces in:-the

sand.

The other two deeper split-spoon samples, 30.5 to 32.5 fe

bls and 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls, show low hydraulic conductivity

values of 10*6cm/s (Table 4). These clayey, quartz sand intervals

contain kaolinite-smectite or palygorskite-kaolinite-smectite

mixtures (Table 7), which comprise less than 10 percent of each

sample (Table 5). The lower clay content is the primary reason for

the much higher conductivity values of the deeper split-spoon
samples.

Most of the sediments penetrated by well W-16198, with the

exception of the chert at 41.5 to 45 feet deep, appear to be

undifferentiated post-Miocene. The chert represents a silicified

layer developed at the top of the Ocala Group limestone.

Well No. 2 (W-16199) was drilled to a depth of 36.5 bls, where

it penetrated the top of the Ocala Group. The well is situated at

the western edge of the perforated aquifer zone, one mile south of


36.







the University of Florida Experimental Farm. Figure 4 illustrates

the lithology of the sediments penetrated in Well No. 2. The top

of the fossiliferous, calcilutitic, marine limestone of the Crystal

River Formation of the Ocala Group was reached at 36 feet below

land surface (bls). Clays and clayey quartz sands of the Miocene

Hawthorn Group were penetrated from 36 to 30.5 feet bls, and

Pleistocene-Holocene undifferentiated clayey sands were encountered

between 0 to 30.5 feet bls.

Three split-spoon cores were taken in the depth intervals 10.5

to 12.5 feet bis, 20.5 to 22.5 feet bis, and 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls.

SAll three':samples were comprised of clayey, quartz.sands, and-all

had very low hydraulic conductivity values of 10'8cm/s (Table 4).

Quartz was the most common mineral in the two intervals in the

undifferentiated section. In the 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls interval,

kaolinite and smectite are the predominant clays. The 20.5 to 22.5

feet bls sample contains kaolinite, wavelite, and smectite clays.

Sample interval 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls is situated in the upper

Hawthorn Group sediments. Quartz, francolite, and wavelite are the

dominant minerals present (Table 6).

Well No. 3 (W-16200) was drilled four miles north of Alachua,

just east of Alligator Road. The well site is located in the

rolling hills at the western edge of the Northern Highlands

geomorphic zone (White, 1970). Figure 5 is a columnar section

illustrating the lithologic units penetrated in this well. The

well bottomed at 90 feet bls, at or very near the top of the Ocala

Group limestone. Typical Ocala Group forminifera in the last

sample suggest the top of the limestone was reached.


37.



























Figure 4: Columnar section for well #2 (W-16199).


38.
















T.09S R.18E S.35 ALACHUA COUNTY


DEPTH W-16199
(FEET.MSL) .11
ELEVATION-120 FEET


0 "--"""


5



10







W






I-
2



25 .








.J


(MSL)


Moderate brown to moderate yellowish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand.
with chert fragments.




Dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand.




Dark yellowish-brown sandy, organic clay with chert fragments.



Dark yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand.
Light olive-gray clayey, organic quartz sand.



Grayish-brown sandy, organic-rich clay.




Light olive-gray clayey, dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand.

Grayish-brown to yellowish-gray clayey, organic-rich quartz sand

Very light-orange fossiliferous limestone.
T.D.-36.5 FEET.


39.



























Figure 5: Columnar section for well #3 (W-16200).


40.






DEPTH
(FET MS W-16200 T.07S R.18E S.27 A ALACHUA COUNTY

ELEVATION-l60 FEET (MSL)




10 W
Very lIlht-orange clayey quartz sand.
Yellowin lsh-gray to darght yellowish orange clayey, organic quartz sand.
oz:. .o.,..,..

Yellowish-gray to light yellowish-orange clayey quartz a and.

20 Light greenish-yellow sandy, phosphatic clay.

Grayish-brown to yellowish-gray clayey quartz sand.

30 ......... Very lightornge to white clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.

.i..........:.:....: Grayish-brown to yellowish-gray clayey quartz sand.

:40 ...O.. Very light-orange to white clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.
~~ .Grayish brown to dark yellowish-orange clayey quartz sand with silica cement.
-- Yellowish-gray to light olive clayey, phosphatic quartz ind with limestone fragments.
Z r.'"":",:-":":"i::":: "-':" Yellowishgray to Ilght-olive clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with clay and limestone fragments.
0
50 'r-:--.-.;-. : Very light-orange clayey quartz sand.
White sandy caolllutlte.
...- White to dark yellowllhorange sandy, phosphatic calcilutite.
.i. IYellowish.gray calcareous, phosphetic quartz sand.

60
6 0 Yellowish-gry sandy, phosphatic calclutite.


7 0......... .

.... ..Yellowish-gray to moderate yellowish-brown calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.



SYellowlsh-gray sandy, phosphatic calcilutite.

Yellowish-gray to white foslliferous limestone.
L90 oI -- T.D.-90 FEET.
009


41.







Undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments occurred from 22 to 90

feet bls. The upper portion of this section, from 22 to 52.5 feet

bls, was largely clay, phosphatic quartz sands, with occasional

interbedded clays. Some of these sediments may represent reworked

Hawthorn Group deposits. A series of sandy, unfossiliferous

carbonates, containing interbedded sands, extends from 52.5 to 90

feet bls. Although permeameter testing was not performed on

sediments in this interval, visual examination of the calcareous

units indicates these sediments probably have relatively high

permeabilities; they may locally serve as units of the intermediate

aquifer system.

Six split-spoon samples were recovered in Well No. 3, spanning

the interval from 10.5 to 52 feet bls. The uppermost samples (10.5

to 12.5 feet bls and 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls) were taken in the

undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, and have very low

hydraulic conductivities of 10-cm/s (see Table 4). Both intervals

contain abundant silt and clay fractions. The interval from 10.5

to 12.5 feet bls is almost 40 percent silt and clay (Table 5), with

the clays comprised largely of smectite and palygorskite. In the

interval 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls, silt and clay combined from over

48 percent of the sample. Smectite is the dominant clay present.

The four deeper split-spoon samples were situated in the clayey,

phosphatic sands of the Hawthorn Group. These displayed a range

of hydraulic conductivity values. The 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls

interval tested at a value of 107cm/s. Although this interval

contains less than 20 percent combined silt and clay, the

predominantly smectite clay component effectively seals this


42.







phosphatic, quartz sand unit. A moderate conductivity of 10"4cm/s

is observed in the 40.5 to 41.5 feet bls interval. This interval

is also a phosphatic, clayey quartz sand. Smectite and

palygorskite are the most common clays present. The lower portion

of this split-spoon sample, comprised of the interval 41.5 to 42.5

feet bls displayed a lower conductivity of 10 scm/s. Interestingly,

the lithology over the entire 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls sample appeared

visually to be similar; the order of magnitude difference in

conductivity between the upper and lower parts of the same sample

underscores the vertical variability in the hydraulic

conductivities of these samples.

The deepest split-spoon sample covered the depth interval 50.5

to 52.5 feet bls. Lithologically, this interval is quartz sand,

with less than 18 percent silt and clay matrix. Smectite is the

only clay present in the clay fraction, and quartz is the most

common constituent of the bulk sample. Despite the relatively low

clay content, the interval tested as a low conductivity of -cm/s.

Well No. 4 (W-16201) is situated two miles west of Alachua,

at the westernmost edge of the Northern Highlands zone. It is

located in the karst-modified, rolling hills of the perforated

aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988). Well No. 4 was drilled to a total

depth of 53 feet bls where it penetrated the fossiliferous Crystal

River Formation of the Ocala Group. The columnar stratigraphic

section is shown in Figure 6. Hawthorn Group sediments were not

present in this well. The upper 53 feet of the section consisted

of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene clayey, quartz sands.

These sediments may consist, at least in part, of reworked Hawthorn


43.



























Figure 6: Columnar section for well #4 (W-16201).


44.








-o




-5



-10





-15




-20




-25




-30


(DEPT, W-16201
(FEET ELEVATIONS
ELEVATION-115 FEET (MSLI


.......
........ .....











0


I-
Z




Ut





(L






X 1i:iii :;-,i:iiiii iil









p L'.t 7, .


(L
Z:
03


T.08S R.18E S.17 A ALACHUA COUNTY


Moderate yellowish-brown to moderate-brown clayey, phosphatic,
organic-rich quartz sand.














Grayish-orange to yellowish-gray clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.













Light-red to light-brown clayey, organic-rich, dolomitic quartz sand.




Very light-orange clayey quartz sand.




Light-brown clayey, calcareous quartz sand.





Very light-orange to white fossiliferous limestone.
T.D.=53 FEET.


- 40




- 45




- 50







Group deposits. Only the interval from 0 12.5 feet bls contains

phosphatic sands.

Four split-spoon core samples were taken between 10.5 and 52.5

feet bls. All four showed low or very low hydraulic

conductivities. The interval 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls consisted of

a clayey, phosphatic, and dolomitic quartz sand. Smectite, and

trace amounts of kaolinite comprise the clay component.

Permeameter testing showed a hydraulic conductivity of only 10"7cm/s

(Table 4). Similarly, the next deeper split-spoon interval (30.5

to 32.5 feet bls), a clayey, organic-rich quartz sand also tested

at 10Tcm/s. The interval 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls consisted-of clayey

quartz sand, and exhibited no hydraulic conductivity (no flow)

after 21 days on the permeameter. This interval was comprised of

about 26 percent combined silt and clay, less than some other more

permeable samples studied during this project. The last split-

spoon sample interval (50.5 to 52.5 feet bls) contained a

phosphatic, clayey, calcareous, quartz sand. Phosphate is the most

common mineral in both the bulk and clay fraction x-ray analyses.

This interval tested at 10"cm/s hydraulic conductivity, similar to

values obtained up-core.

Well No. 5 (W-16202) was drilled in extreme northwestern

Alachua County, about one and a half miles west of the community

of Bland. This well is situated in the Northern Highlands

geomorphic zone (White, 1970), and in the perforated aquifer zone

(Macesich, 1988). The topography surrounding the well site have

been modified by numerous karst depressions and Hawthorn Group

sands are exposed in nearby creek banks. Well No. 5 encountered


46.







Ocala Group limestone at a depth of 94 feet bis. Figure 7 shows

the columnar section for this well. Seventy-four feet of

undifferentiated Hawthorn Group clayey, phosphatic quartz sands and

sandy clays were penetrated from 20 to 94 feet bls. The upper 20

feet of the well consists of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene

quartz sand and clay. Quartz and phosphate are the most abundant

minerals throughout the entire section (Table 6).

Eight split-spoon cores were taken between 10.5 and 91 feet

bls. The shallowest interval sampled (10.5 to 12.5 feet bls) was

in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section.

Lithologically, this interval is comprised of a sandy, phosphatic,

organic-rich clay, with a hydraulic conductivity of 10'Tcm/s (Table

7). The three uppermost Hawthorn Group samples (20.5 to 22.5, 30.5

to 31.0, and 43.5 to 45.0 feet bls), which consist of clayey,

phosphatic quartz sands and sandy, phosphatic clays, had relative

conductivities of 10'8, 107, and 10-7cm/s respectively. No

hydraulic conductivity was observed in split-spoon interval 50.5

to 52.5 feet bls, which is a dolomitic and phosphatic, slightly

clayey quartz sand. The lower three split-spoon cores, 60.5 to

62.5, 82.5 to 87.5, and 90.5 to 91.0 feet bls, showed downward-

increasing hydraulic conductivities of 10'8, 10', 10-6cm/s

respectively. These sediments are largely phosphatic, clayey and

dolomitic quartz sands.

Well No. 6 (W-16203) is located at the northern edge of Paynes

Prairie, one half mile west of Alachua Sink. Paynes Prairie is

part of the Alachua Lake Cross Valley, a lowlands physiographic

zone of white (1970). The prairie terrain is flat and karstic, and


47.



























Figure 7: Columnar section for well #5 (W-16202).


48.













DEPTH
(FEET MSL)


W-16202
ELEVATION-140 FEET (MSL)


T.07S R.18E S.05 B ALACHUA COUNTY


0LL 0

- 20 .:-;"T.." -.-i
2 --






-30




-40

- 720









i ...iiiiii.........- .-. ..-.8....







-80




-90
970 ..; ... ..

... .- ... ...







." i, i 1 i ;i.1.1


8100
... ..
...... .

90,1


Yellowish-rey to moderate yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand with plant remains.




Yellowish-gray to dark yellowish-orange sandy clay with plant remains.


Dark grayish-yellow sandy, phop hatic clay.

Yellowish-gray to grayish orange sandy clay.

White to dark yellowish-orange sandy, phosphatic clay.

Grayish-brown clayey, phosphatle quartz sand.


Grayish-yellow clayey. phosphatic quartz sand.

Yellowish-gray to moderate yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand.

Grayish-yellow clayey quartz sand.

Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.

Very light-orange clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.

Grayish-brown to white calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.

SWhite calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.


Grayish-orange-pink to dark yellowish-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.


Light greenish-yellow clay with limestone Iragments.
Very light-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.
SYellowish-grey calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand with bryozoan fossils.
Very light-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.
Pinkish.gray calcareous quartz sand with chert fragments.

Very light-orange tossiliferous limestone.
T.O.=101 FEET.


49.







is situated in the perforated aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988). Ocala

Group limestone is near the surface, covered only by a thin veneer

of Hawthorn Group and undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene

deposits. A columnar stratigraphic section for Well No. 6 is

illustrated in Figure 8. The top of the Ocala Group was penetrated

at the well's total depth of 30 feet (bls). This limestone is

overlain by 10 feet of sandy, phosphatic clay and clayey sand of

the Hawthorn Group. The Hawthorn is in turn overlain by 20 feet

of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene clayey, peaty, quartz

sands.

Two split-spoon cores were taken in Well No. 6 covering the

depth intervals 10.5 to 12.5 and 20 to 22 feet bls. The shallower

interval lies in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section,

and was comprised of clayey, dolomitic, quartz sand and sandy,

kaolinite-rich clay. Permeameter analysis of this interval shows

a low hydraulic conductivity of 10'7 cm/s, reflecting the low

permeability of the clay matrix. The 20 to 22 feet bls interval

is situated in the top of the Hawthorn Group sediments. This

interval consisted of a quartz sandy, phosphatic clay. Phosphate

and quartz are the most common minerals present, and the clay

fraction is comprised of francolite and trace amounts of kaolinite

(Tables 6 and 7). This interval showed very low hydraulic

conductivity, with no flow in the permeameter after 21 days of

testing.

Well No. 7 (W-16204) is situated on the man-made levee

crossing north-central Paynes Prairie, about one and a half miles

east of Rocky Point. This well was drilled to a total depth of 42



























Figure 8: Columnar section for well #6 (W-16203).


51.






D...H W-16203
ILIVATIONe-O PRET (M8L)


w
.5



.10 I





r 0


..0 ........





C o
*J0 6.- -:


30


T.10S R.20E S.21 B ALACHUA COUNT


Light-brown organic-rich quartz sand.




Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.



Grayish-orange.pink sandy, organic-rich clay.



Light-olive to light brown sandy, phosphatic clay. .--.;.



Grayish-brown to light brown clayey quartz sand.


Very llht-orange to yellowish gray fossiliferous limestone.
T.D.-30 FEET.


/J


52.







feet bls, and penetrated the Ocala Group at 40 feet bls. Figure

9 shows the columnar section for this well. The interval from 0

to 32 feet bls is tentatively placed in the category of

undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section due primarily to the

abundance of organic and Holocene freshwater gastropod shells in

many of the samples. Phosphatic sand, probably reworked from

Hawthorn Group sediments, is present in the interval from 10 to 12

feet bls.

Four split-spoon cores were recovered from the intervals 10

to 12, 20, 20 to 22, and 30 to 32 feet bls. Permeameter tests were

not performed on the 10 to 12 or the 20 feet bls intervals, both. -

phosphatic, calcareous, quartz sandy clays, because they were

either too badly grooved by the core catcher or too unconsolidated

to seal in the permeameter. The interval 20 to 22 feet bls is a

calcareous, quartz sandy clay with a very low hydraulic

conductivity of 10'8 cm/s (Table 4). Calcite and aragonite are the

most abundant minerals, with trace quantities of palygorskite clay

also present. The presence of freshwater gastropods (Helisoma sp.)

suggests a fluvial or lacustrine origin for these sediments.

Split-spoon sample interval 30 to 32 feet bls consisted of a sandy,

clayey, organic-rich limestone at the base of the Hawthorn Group

section. Hydraulic conductivity was tested at 10'7 cm/s, a low

value probably due in part to the kaolinite clay content of the

sample.

Well No. 8 (W-16205) is located at the southern edge of Paynes

Prairie, about two and a half miles northwest of Micanopy. The

well site was situated on a small remnant highland, surrounded by


53.



























Figure 9: Columnar section for well #7 (W-16204).


54.






DEPTH W-16204
(FEET MSL)
ELEVATION-60 FEET (MSL)















-15













0..' ..35 .;
40
0 a Z '4









o5 .
UJ1w;?^
I- L'''.J~ji9r--'
.( rSv^r

-.ff:^''f~w W
~ I -f J iiiii.iti -.it~a
IL Q.f~~~~sW:-f
o aasis^





35 .rAi%'^^^
U t^'af;"^;-;.i--


T.10S R.20E S.28 ALACHUA COUNTY







Dark gray to yellowlih-gray sandy peat.




Yellowish-gray calcareous. sandy, phosphatic clay.
Dark-brown calcareous, sandy phosphatic clay.



Dark yellowish-brown to dark-brown sandy, calcareous clay with freshwater gastropods.




Dark yellowish-brown calcareous, sandy clay with freshwater mollusk fragments.




Moderate gray to black organic-rich clay with mollusk shell fragments.



Dark yellowish-brown to black clayey, sandy, organic-rich limestone.




Black to moderate-gray clayey quartz sand with plant remains and limestone.
and Eocene fossils.



Light gray fossillferous limestone.
T.D.-42 FEET.


55.







the otherwise flat, swampy, and highly karstic prairie terrain of

the Alachua Lake Cross Va lley geomorphic1 zone' (White, 1970).

Figure 10 illustrates the stratigraphic section penetrated by the

well. The well did not reach the top of the Ocala Group, ending

instead in a moderately-indurated Hawthorn Group cemented sand.

Much of the well section was composed of interbedded sandy clays

and clayey sands, making an accurate formational pick somewhat

subjective. The top of the Hawthorn Group was placed at 40 feet

bis, where phosphatic sand first appears downhole, and where

organic remains cease to be an accessory constituent of the

samples. Overlying the Hawthorn Group, in the:~iterval -rom.-Qto--

40 feet (bls), are a series of clayey sands and sandy clays

containing plant remains. These sediments are considered to be

undifferentiated, Pleistocene-Holocene section.

Seven split-spoon cores were recovered between 10 and 62 feet

bls. One interval, 30 to 32 feet bis, could not be tested for

conductivity because it was scored by the core-catcher teeth and

would not seal in the permeameter. The shallowest intervals, 10

to 12 and 20 to 22 feet bls, are part of the undifferentiated

Pleistocene-Holocene age section. Both intervals are clayey sands,

showing moderately low hydraulic conductivities of 10"6cm/s (Table

4). Quartz is the most abundant mineral in the bulk sample and

kaolinite and palygorskite comprise the clay fraction in the 10 to

12 feet bls interval. .Quartz, francolite, and wavelite are the

abundant mineral components of the 20 to 22 feet bls interval. The

phosphate may be derived from reworked Hawthorn Group sediments.

Four of the split-spoon cores were taken in the Hawthorn Group.































Figure 10:


Columnar section for well #8 (W-16205).












(PIST MSL) W-16205
ELBVATION-O5 FElT (MEl




Z
10 W


z
Z
W20 uZ
W
30 .:---

...w.J... .
430




40 WW W10A


-50 o




-60


T.11S R.20E S.03 ALACHUA COUNTY


Moderate yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz and.


Yellowiih-gray to grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.

Gray Ih-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.

SVery light-gray to yellowishgray clayey quartz sand.
Gravish-brown clayey, organic-rich sand.

Oark yellowish.orange to grayish brown sandy, organic*ich clay;
Light blue-green sandy cay.

Grayish-brown to dark yllow shorange sandy clay.

YellowlshWay sandy, clayey, phosphatic doloslit.

Grayish-brown sandy clay.


Ought olive dolomltic, phosphatic clay.
Grayish-brown undy clay.

Yellowishray sandy, phosphatic calcllutlte.
S Yllowtih-gray to moderate yellowlsh-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.
- White to very light gray clayey, photphatlc. sandy dolomite.
No rmplae
- Modrate orangeplnk clayey quartz snd.
T.D.-65 FEET.


58.


L)







The intervals 40 to 42 feet bis and 50 to 52 feet bls are quartz-

.'sahdyFriphospiha ic, dolomitic clays. Both did not flow in the

permeameter- tests, indicating extremely low hydraulic

conductivities. The clay fraction of the 40 to 42 feet bls split-

spoon core is predominantly smectite and dolomite; in the 50 to 52

feet sample, palygorskite, smectite, and quartz are the most

abundant minerals comprising the clay (Table 7). Split-spoon

samples taken in the last five feet of the well (60 to 61.5 and

61.5 to 62 feet bls) showed moderately low hydraulic conductivities

of 10'5 and 10"6 respectively (Table 4). The 60 to 61.5 feet bls

interval is a clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand. Clay-

comprises 9 percent of the sample. Between 61.5 and 62 feet bls,

the lithology is a sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolomite. The small

clay fraction in this interval is comprised of quartz and

francolite (Table 7).

Well No. 9 (W-16206) is situated in the confined aquifer zone

(Macesich, 1988) in section 6, T9S, R20E, five miles north of

Gainesville. In this area of the Northern Highlands, the

surrounding topography is comprised of flat, swampy bays punctuated

by gently rolling hills. This well penetrated the Ocala Group at

approximately 120 feet bls, and ended at a total depth of 125 feet

bls. Figure 11 illustrates the stratigraphic section obtains in

this well. The Hawthorn Group is comprised of a series of

interbedded, phosphatic dolosilts, sandy clays, and clayey sands,

spanning the depth interval between 27 and 120 feet bls. Overlying

the Hawthorn Group is a typical sequence of undifferentiated

Pleistocene-Holocene, iron-stained, clayey, organic-rich quartz


59.





























Figure 11: Columnar section for well #9 (W-16206).




DEPTH
(FEET MSU W-16206
ELEVATION-175 FEET
-o



410 0










f n inir ii 'ra
2' ......




30



40



50



60

O .

70 Z








-90



100



-110 .
1...0.....


-120 ,
BC i 1 I L I ,: ; i.


T.09S R.20E S.06 ALACHUA COUNTY


:MSL)


Grayish-brown to moderate reddish-orange clayey, organic, quartz sand.

SLight olive-gray clayey quartz sand.

Grayish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand.

Light olive-gray clayey quartz sand.
Grayish brown to moderate yellowish-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.




Grayish brown to yellowish-gray sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolosilt.



Light olive-gray to yellowish gray sandy, dolomitic clay.
Light olivegray sandy, clayey, phosphatic calcilutite.
- ellowish-gray clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand.


Olive-gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with chert fragments.

Light olive-gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand

Olive-gray to light olive gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.

SGrayish orange to moderate yellowish-brown sandy, phosphatic clay.

Olive gray clayey, calcilutitic, phosphatic quartz sand.

Olive-gray sandy clay.

Grayish-brown calcilutitic, clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.




Yellowish-gray calcilutitic, phosphatic quartz sand with limestone fragments.

-Dark greenish-gray calcilutitic, sandy clay.

Dark yellowish-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with limestone fragments.

ery light-orange to light olive-gray sandy, calcilutitic, phosphatic clay.
Grayish-brown sandy, phosphatic dolomite.


Very light-orange fossiliferous calcilutite.

.__(T.D.-125 FEET)


61.







Kaolinite, ameotite, illite, and palygorskite are the

predominant clays present. The clay samples were not glycoated,

and the illite and smectite components are lumped as the smectite

group in Table 7. Hetrick and Friddell (1984) report that, in

general, smectite is the more common clay mineral in Hawthorn Group

sediments in north Florida and Georgia.


DISCUSSION

In Alachua County, the upper Floridan aquifer system is

comprised of porous marine limestones of the Eocene Ocala Group.

Locally, the Floridan aquifer system is overlain by var4ngi.r.

thicknesses of post-Eocene siliciclastics and occasional calcareous

beds. West of Interstate 75, the Ocala Group is overlain by

generally thin undifferentiated Plio-Pleistocene sands and clayey

sands. A shallow surficial aquifer system may be present in

portions of this area. Throughout most of this area however, the

Floridan aquifer system is unconfined, allowing contaminants direct

access to the aquifer (Macesich, 1988).

East of Interstate 75, the Floridan aquifer system is overlain

by up to 160 feet of Miocene age Hawthorn Group siliciclastics and
carbonates (Scott, 1988; Macesich, 1988). Porous sands and

carbonate units in the Hawthorn Group locally comprise the

intermediate aquifer system. In areas of the county where low

permeability clay units of the Hawthorn overlie the Floridan

aquifer system this group also forms the intfermediate confining

unit.

The sample sites in the present study were situated in areas


32.







sands.

Ten split-spoon cores were taken between 10 and 111 feet bls.

The two uppermost sample intervals (10 to 12 and 20 to 22 feet bis)

are situated in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section

and display significantly different hydraulic conductivities.

Between 10 and 12 feet bls, the lithology is a slightly clayey,

kaolinitee) quartz sand, with a moderately low conductivity of

10'4 cm/s (Table 4). Combined silt- and clay-size components

comprise about 22 percent of the sample. The 20 to 22 feet bls

interval also contains clayey quartz sand and sandy clay, but

tested at a much lower hydraulic conductivity of 10'8 cm/s. This

lower permeability most likely results from the higher fines

fractions of the 20 to 22 feet sample, which contains over 52

percent combined silt and clay. The eight deeper split-spoon cores

are from the Hawthorn Group section in the well. Cores taken in

the upper part of the Hawthorn Group (30 to 32, 43 to 45 and 50 to

52 feet bis) show a trend of decreasing hydraulic conductivity with

depth, with values of 10'6, 10'7, and 10'8 cm/s respectively. The 30

to 32 and 43 to 45 feet bls intervals are quartz sandy dolosilts.

Dolomite, quartz, and francolite are the dominant minerals present

(Table 6). In the 30 to 32 feet bls sample kaolinite and

palygorskite comprise most of the clay fraction, while in the

interval 43 to 45 feet bis, quartz and smectite are the major clay

components. The interval from 50 to 52 feet bls is a clayey,

phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand. Clay and silt combined comprise

32 percent of this sample. Sediments in the split-spoon core

interval from 60 to 62 feet bls were over 80 percent quartz sand,


62.







and too unconsolidated to test in the permeameter. The last four

split-spoon cores, spanning the intervals 70 to 71, 80 to 81, 100

to 101, and 100 to 111 feet bis, did not flow in the permeameter

tests, indicating very low hydraulic conductivities. These

intervals are, for the most part, sandy, phosphatic, dolomitic

clays. Dominant clay minerals in the samples were smectite and

palygorskite (Table 7). The interval from 70 to 71 feet bls also

contained quartz and dolomite in the clay fraction. The interval

from 110 to 111 contained substantial quartz in the clay.

Well No. 10 (W-16207) is a continuous two-inch core located

in the Austin Cary Memorial Forest. The detailed, columnar

stratigraphic section is illustrated in Figure 12. This well was

drilled to a total depth of 191 feet bls, and bottomed in limestone

of the Ocala Group. Appendix I provides a detailed lithologic log

for this well. The Crystal River Formation, the uppermost

formation of both the Ocala Group and the Floridan aquifer system,

was penetrated at a depth of 173.7 feet bls. Unconformably

overlying the Ocala Group are three recognizable formations of the

Hawthorn Group. In ascending order these are the Penney Farms

Formation (94 to 137.7 feet bls), the Markshead Formation (69 to

94 feet bls), and the Coosawhatchie Formation (16.2 to 69 feet

bls), with the Charlton Member of the Coosawhatchie Formation in

the interval 16.5 to 24.2 feet bls. The Hawthorn Group is in turn

overlain by a thin veneer of clayey, organic-rich, undifferentiated

Pleistocene to Holocene undifferentiated quartz sands.

Six split-spoon core samples were recovered during the

drilling for permeameter analyses (Table 4). Three of these cores


63.



























Figure 12: Columnar section for well #10 (W-16207).


64.




DEPTH
(FEET MSL) vW-16207


T.09S R.21E S.04


ALACHUA COUNTY


a
SELEVATION-180 FEET (MSL)
4 11 1 .. ... ... .. .. .. ..__
.0 -. '*- .

................ Yellowioh-gray to grayish-brown clayey, organic quartz samd
-10


- 20 Greenish-gray to light grayish green clay.
....... ..-...

White to very light-grey clayey quartz sand.
Grayish-green to light grayish-gren clay.
S30 Yellowish-gray to graylsh-green sandy, phosphatlc clay with shark teeth, mollusks, and dolosilt.
Yellowlshgrey to grayish yellow clayey, dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand.
Yellowlsh-grey sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolosllt.
Light grayish-green to graylih-graen phosphatlo, dolomltic clay.
-40 Yellowlsh-gray sandy, phosphatic doloillt.

S*- Very light-orange to yellowish gray dolomltic, phosphatic quartz sand.
-50


-60 -Light olive-gray to moderate olive brown sandy, phosphetic clay with shark teeth.


-70 ht W tvery lightgy.ndy, phophatlc dolomite.
ht *yisFh-ngreen to ig rnlsn.ray phatic doloslt.
Light Oli-gray to light grenl. l wclay.
80
L Light olive-gray to grayish green phosphatic dolosilt.
90 l

SVary light-gray to white phosphatic, fossiliferous dolomite.

-100 I -
Yellowish.gry to very dark-purple sandy, phosphatic, fossiliferous dolosilt.
110 -- Moderate light-gray to moderate dark gray sandy, phosphatic clay.


120 Very light-gray to light gray sandy, phosphatic dolomite.

.White to very light gray clay.
130


140
No Samples

150


-160 t White to very light gray sandy, phosphatic calcllutite.
Yellowish gray to light olive-gray dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand.
Very light gray to yellowish gray undy, phosphatic dolomite.
-170 Very light-gray to yellowish-gray dolomitic clay with interbedded micrita.
I .I.. Yellowish-gray to white sandy, phosphatic calcllutlte.
=o
-180 c
White to light olve-gray fossilifrous limestone.

190 T.D.-191 FEET.


65.








(10 to 11 feet bls, 58 to 60 feet bls, and 67.5 to 68 feet bis)

were either grooved by the core-catcher of had shrunken inside the

plastic core tube and would not seal in the permeameter. The

useable cores included the depth intervals 10 to 11 feet bls, 36

to 37 feet bls, and 47 to 49 feet bls. The shallowest split-spoon

sample (10 to 11 feet bls) showed a moderately-low hydraulic

conductivity of 10'5 cm/s (See Table 4). This interval is in the

surficial aquifer system, and is predominantly sand with

approximately 18 percent kaolinite and palygorskite clays (Table

5 and 7). The two deeper split-spoon intervals are in the

intermediate aquifer system and were both taken in the

Coosawhatchie Formation of the Hawthorn Group. Both show

relatively low hydraulic conductivities of 10" cm/s (Table 4). The

35.9 to 37 feet bls interval is a yellowish gray dolosilt, a

lithology common to the Hawthorn Group. Dominant minerals in this

interval include smectite and dolomite, with traces of kaolinite

and francolite (Table 7). The deepest usable split-spoon interval

(45.1 to 49 feet bls) is largely comprised of clayey, dolomitic

quartz sand. Both the clay and dolomite components of the matrix

undoubtedly contribute to the lower permeability of this interval.

The x-ray analysis of Well No. 10 show a mineral distribution

pattern which correlates closely with the stratigraphy (Tables 6

and 7). Quartz is the most common mineral in the undifferentiated

Pleistocene-Holocene and in the uppermost Charlton Member of the

Coosawhatchie Formation. This quartz is present as sand-size,

silt-size, and clay size particles. The clays in the upper 42 feet

of the core are predominantly kaolinite and smectite. Below 42


66.







feet, and through most of the Hawthorn Group, quartz, dolomite, and

francolite are the most common minerals in the bulk samples.

Palygorskite, quartz, and dolomite are the dominant constituents

of the clay fractions. Occasional occurrences of aragonite and

calcite appear to correlate with the limestone or calcareous sand

intervals within the Hawthorn Group. As would be expected, calcite

is the dominant mineral present in the top of the Ocala Group

limestone.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The information obtained in this study indicates considerable

variation, both vertically and laterally, in the hydrogeologic

nature of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in

Alachua County. At the same time, certain commonalities exist

locally between some of the parameters studied during this project.

Unfortunately, a detailed analysis of the lateral continuity of

many of the hydrogeologic datums observed in individual wells is

precluded by the limited scope of this project. To accurately

correlate zones of very low hydraulic conductivity or of particular

mineralogic composition, if even possible, would require a more

extensive well grid than current funds and time allow. However,

several conclusions may be made out of the present study. These

are outlined in the following section.

1. The lithologies of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer

system in Alachua County, in general, range from sandy clays and

clayey sands, containing variable amounts of phosphatic sand and

gravel, to sandy, phosphatic dolomites and limestones. The

intermediate aquifer system and associated confining units,


67.







comprised of Miocene-age Hawthorn Group sediments, is a series of

interbedded lithologies. These lithologies vary from clayey,

generally phosphatic sands and sandy, phosphatic clays at the top

of the section, to sandy, phosphatic calcarenitic limestone or

dolomite near the base of the section. Thickness of the Hawthorn

Group sediments varies from 0 in western Alachua County to nearly

160 feet in the northeastern. part of the county. The

undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene age section is predominantly

clayey quartz sand. It frequently contains organic and reworked

phosphate. This section comprises the surficial aquifer system in

Alachua County and varies between 15 and 60 feeq-thicq ..;-.-* :-...

2. Grain size analyses of selected samples from the split-spoon

cores reveals no significant trends. For both the undifferentiated

Pleistocene-Holocene and the Hawthorn Group sections, the quartz

sand content (weight percent greater than 4 phi size) ranged from

a minimum of 47.91 percent to a maximum of 94.62 over the entire

sample set. Most individual samples contained a sand size range

of very fine to coarse, with modes of either fine or medium size.

Graded bedding was not apparent. Silt content ranged from a low

of 1.65 percent to a high of 22.11 percent. Clay content ranged

from a minimum of 1.58 weight percent to a maximum of 36.96

percent. In general, those samples with high silt and clay

components showed the lowest permeabilities (low hydraulic

conductivities). Vertical distribution of the high-clay content

intervals showed no apparent pattern, in either the

undifferentiated intervals or Hawthorn Group.

3. X-ray analysis of selected samples in the ten study wells


68.







reveals that quartz is the most abundant mineral present. It

occurs as either the only mineral or as one of the most abundant

minerals in 88 percent of the bulk samples tested. Most of these

samples are from intervals containing abundant quartz sand.

Calcite occurs in 17 percent of the samples, usually as a calcilute

matrix component of sand, clay, or dolosilt, or in fragments of

freshwater gastropod shells found in some of the undifferentiated

Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. Some of the calcite in the Hawthorn

Group sands and clays may be derived from the reworking of

subadjacent calcareous units. Calcite is more prevalent in wells

-7 .through 10, taken in Paynes Prairie and. eastern .Alachua:County. --:-

Aragonite occurred in nine samples, in a pattern similar to that

of calcite. Dolomite is a common constituent of the dolosilt and

dolomitic clay intervals in wells 8, 9, and 10. It is restricted

to the Hawthorn Group sediments, not occurring in any of the

undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene interval samples. Francolite

(phosphate) is a common constituent of the Hawthorn Group

sediments. In most of the wells, phosphatic sands and gravels also

occur in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, where

they may occur as reworked deposits. These phosphatic,

undifferentiated intervals may also correspond to what was once

informally called the Alachua Formation. The only well in which

phosphate is conspicuously absent is Well No. 1, from the Kanapaha

Prairie.

4. Kaolinite, palygorskite, and smectite are the common clay

minerals occurring in the split-spoon samples. Smectite and

palygorskite tend to commonly occur together in the Hawthorn Group


69.







sediments. In contrast, a smectite-kaolinite clay assemblage, with

occasional occurrences of palygorskite, tends to characterize the

undifferentiated sediments and the upper part of the Coosawhatchie

Formation. Palygorskite and dolomite comprise the major clay

constituents of the Markshead and Penney Farms Formations in Well

No. 10.

5. The coefficient of hydraulic conductivity (K) values of the

sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County

range from an undetermined low of less than 10'8 cm/s (samples

showed no water flow after 21 days on the permeameter) to a high

of 10'4 cm/s. A very low K value of 10'8 cm/s. was the minimum

calculated conductivity for samples that flowed within the allotted

time. Both the Hawthorn Group sediments and the overlying

undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene sediments show a similar

range of K values. The highest hydraulic conductivities observed

(10'4 cm/s) occurred in two samples. One is in Well No. 3, located
north of Alachua,. at a depth of 40.5 to 41.5 feet bls in a clayey,

phosphatic sand in the Hawthorn Group. The second is in the depth

interval 10.0 to 12.0 feet bls, also a clayey sand, in the

undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section of Well No. 9

situated north of Gainesville. Zones of very low permeability were

observed in both Hawthorn Group and undifferentiated Pleistocene-

Holocene sediments. Samples which did not flow on the permeameter

ranged lithologically from clayey, dolomitic sands to dolosilts and

sandy, calcareous, phosphatic clays. Other samples, which tested

at low K values of 10'6 to 10'8 cm/s, were predominantly dolosilts,

clayey quartz sands, and sandy clays. Moderately low K values of


70.







10,4 and 10'5 cm/s were obtained from clayey sands with generally

lower clay percentages than the low conductivity samples discussed

above. The range of low hydraulic conductivity values obtained

from the Alachua County sediments would indicate that all the

intervals tested are poor aquifers. Some probably function as

confining units. Among the 10 well sites analyzed, there is no

apparent areal pattern to the distribution of low conductivity

zones. Samples selected for analysis were generally sediments with

high clay content. There is apparently considerable vertical

variation in permeability, and it is most certainly related to

lithology. One interesting example of this variability occurs in

the near-surface, undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section of

Well No. 1. Here the hydraulic conductivity tested at a very low

10,8 cm/s, which is significantly less permeable than many intervals

tested in the Hawthorn Group to the east. The cause of this very

low permeability is undoubtedly the presence of tight clays in the

otherwise sandy section. A future continuation of this study

should include more samples from easternmost Alachua County to help

determine the extent to which the clay content influences the

permeability of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene sands.

Unfortunately, all lithologies in a given well could not be tested

for permeability, and some strata, particularly carbonate units,

may have much higher hydraulic conductivities. Delineation of both

vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity trends in Alachua

County will require a more extensive sample network, and possibly

finer resolution in the permeameter sampling interval in each well.


71.







feet, and through most of the Hawthorn Group, quartz, dolomite, and

francolite are the most common minerals in the bulk samples.

Palygorskite, quartz, and dolomite are the dominant constituents

of the clay fractions. Occasional occurrences of aragonite and

calcite appear to correlate with the limestone or calcareous sand

intervals within the Hawthorn Group. As would be expected, calcite

is the dominant mineral present in the top of the Ocala Group

limestone.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The information obtained in this study indicates considerable

variation, both vertically and laterally, in the hydrogeologic

nature of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in

Alachua County. At the same time, certain commonalities exist

locally between some of the parameters studied during this project.

Unfortunately, a detailed analysis of the lateral continuity of

many of the hydrogeologic datums observed in individual wells is

precluded by the limited scope of this project. To accurately

correlate zones of very low hydraulic conductivity or of particular

mineralogic composition, if even possible, would require a more

extensive well grid than current funds and time allow. However,

several conclusions may be made out of the present study. These

are outlined in the following section.

1. The lithologies of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer

system in Alachua County, in general, range from sandy clays and

clayey sands, containing variable amounts of phosphatic sand and

gravel, to sandy, phosphatic dolomites and limestones. The

intermediate aquifer system and associated confining units,


67.







REFERENCES:

Davis, S., and DeWiest, R., 1966, Hydrogeolcgy: New York, John
Wiley and Sons, 463 p.

Folk, R., 1974, Petrology of sedimentary rocks: Austin, Hemphill
Publishing Co., 184 p.

Freeze, R., and Cherry, J., 1979, Groundwater; Englewood Cliffs,
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 604 p.

Friedman, G., and Johnson, K., 1982, Exercises in sedimentology:
John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 44-49.

Geological Society of America, 1984, Rock color chart: The
Netherlands, Huyskes-Enschede.

Hetrick, J., and Friddell, M., 1984, Clay mineralogy of the
Hawthorne Group: Georgia Geologic Survey Open File Report
84-7, 90 p.

Macesich, M., 1988, Geologic interpretation of the aquifer
pollution potential in Alachua County, Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Open File Report 21, 26 p.

Scott, T. M., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group
(Miocene) of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59,
148 p.

White, W., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 51, 164 p.


72.





























Appendix I: Lithologic logs for the 10 study cores.


73.









LITHOLOIC WILL LOG PRINTOUT


WILL NUIIER U* 16196 COUNTY ALACHUA
TOTAL DEPTHN 00050 FT. LOCATION: T.11S R.19E S.09
15 SAMPLES FROM 8 TO SO FT. LAT N 290 33 09
LON UW 82D 24M 50
CCOPLETION DATE 07/12/87 ELEVATION 070 FT
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE NONE

OMIR/DRILLIER FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -ALACHUA WELL # 1

UORKEO BYt CUTTINGS WORKED BY MIKE WEINBERG, AND SPLIT SPOON
SAMPLES WORKED BY THOMAS SEAL, INTERVALS 7.5-12.5,
16-22.5, 27.532.5, 37.5-42.5, 45-50 WERE CUTTINGS,
REMAINDER WERE SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES; POROSITY ESTIMATED

0.0- 40.3 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
40.5- 50.0, 1240CAL OCALA GROUP

0 7.5 SAND; MODERATE BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERORANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDONISSlUI-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALSs PLANT REMAINS-15X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILSs NO FOSSILS;

7.5- 10 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDONSSlSU-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S)t CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-25%, PLANT REMAINS-1O0;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10 12.5 CLAY; GREENISH BLACK; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-10X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS:

12.5- 16 SANO; GRAYISH BROWN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESSISUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S)i CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%, PLANT REMAINS-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSNtLS NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE FGS


. '..










U- 16198 CONTINUED


16 18 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 35 PORgSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS SULBANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05, IRON STAIN-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

18 19 SAND; GRAYISH BROUN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-15%, CLAY-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

19 20 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUl;fRANGE VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-1OX, PLANT REMAINS-03%, IRON STAIN-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20 22.5 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

22.5- 27.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROUN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, IRON STAIN-02%, PLANT REMAINS-05X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

27.5- 30.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZEi MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, IRON STAIN-02X, PLANT REMAINS-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE 2









W- 1691 CONTINUED


30.5- 32.5 SANO GRAYISN ORANU; 35X POROSITY, INTERQRANULARL
MAIN SIZ81 MOIUM; RANGlC FINE TO COMSAR
ROUNIONiss UB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALSs CLAY-05X;
OTHER FEATURISl UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILSt NO FOSSILS;

32.5- 37.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROW TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN Si Nl MDIUM RANGmi FINI TO COARSM
ROUNNSStSUB-ANUILAR; MDOIUM SPHMRICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPt(S) CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMNT;
ACCESSORY NINIRALS IRON STAIN-02X, PLANT REMAINS-03%, CLAY-05X;
OTHER FrATUREt UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SANOf GRAYISH BROUN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROUW; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GAIN SIZEs. MEDIUM; RANGEs WRY FINE TO COARSE;
MUNOSNEStSUI-ANJLARI MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CIMINT TYPI(S)t CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY NINERALIl CLAY-04%, LIMISTONE-O1X, PLANT REMAINS-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
FIRST OCCURRENCE OF LIMESTONE FRAGMENTS

SAN; YELLOWISH MAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZtE MEDIUM; RANGOl FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDONSSi US*-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALSi LIMESTONE-02O, PHOSPHATIC SAND-O1X;
OTHER FEATURES UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


4' -...


41.5- 45 SAN ; GRAY35 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZs MEDIUM; RANGEl VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUINNESSSIU-ANGULAR; MEDIUM PHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S)s IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS CHERT-15%, IRON STAIN-05X, CLAY-02X;
OTHER FEATURES UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: ENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;

45 4 LIMESTONE; NO COLOR GIVEN TO LIGHT ORANGISH RED; OCX POROSITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY,
LOW PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPlt OOLITE;
GRAIN SIZEl VRY COARSE; RANGEl VERY COARSE TO ;
ABUNDANT FRAGMENTS OF BLUE TO WHITE CHERT


37.5- 40.5


40.5- 41.5


PAG 3


'r










W- 16198 CONTINUED


PAGE 4


45 50 CHERT; LIGHT BLUE GREEN TO GRAYISH BROUN; LOU PERMEABILITY; GOOD INDURATION;
CEENT .TYPE(S)a SILICIC CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND'40X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


50 50 LJESTONE; NO COLOR
LOU PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: ;
COLOR OF CHERT BLUE


GIVEN TO LIGHT ORANGISH RED; OCX POROSITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY,



TO GRAY TO UNITE, TEXTURE DULL TO VITREOUS, SAND LIKELY DUE TO CAVING


50 TOTAL DEPTH




*-


._ -- .. .. .


I --











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WULL NUMBER U- 16199 COUNTY ALACHUA
TOTAL DEPTH 036.5 FT. LOCATIoN: T.09 R.18 8.35
8 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 37 FT. LAT a N 29D 40N 20
LON W 82D 29M 12
COMPLETION DATE 08/12/87 ELEVATION 120 FT
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE -* ONE

OWNIR/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALACHUA WELL # 2

WOKEO BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON
SAMPLES DISCRIMD BY THOMAS SIAL; POROSITY VALUES
VISUALLY ISTIMATEDI CONSULT PERNEITER DATA SHEETS FOR
PIAMEAtLITY DATA;SANPLRE 10.5,20.5,30.5,36 DESCRIBED
B1Y MIKE WEINBR0; REMAINDER BY THOMAS SEAL

0. 22. 09OUDSC UNDIFFRENTIATEO SAND AND CLAY
22. 30.5 122HTRN HAWTHORN GROUP
30.3- 37. 1240CAL OCALA GROUP

0 10.5 SAND; MODERATE MOUW TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE FIN; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNISSESUS-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-OSX, CHERTO01X, PLANT REMAINS-03X, IRON STAIN-01X;
OTHER FEATURESs UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10.5- 12.5 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANG1l FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDONSSI SUI-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALSS CLAY-1SX, IRON STAIN-01X, PLANT REMAINS-02X;
OTHER FEATURESt UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

12.5- 20.5 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH ROIW; 25% POROSITY, INTERORANULAR; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, CHERT-01X, PLANT REHAINS-O2X;
OTHER FEATURESt UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


__


SOURCE FGS










U- 16199 CONTINUED


20.5- 21 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS; SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X, IRON STAIN-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

21 22.5 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-25%, PLANT REMAINS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

' 22.5- 30.5 CLAY; GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;,
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-40%, PLANT REMAINS-O2X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

30.5- 32.5 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: PHOSPHATE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-25X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, 0OLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
PHOSPHATIC CLAY CEMENT WITH MINOR DOLOSILT

32.5- 36 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 05X POROSITY, LOW PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-40X, LIMESTONE-02%, PLANT REMAINS-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

36 36.5 LIMESTONE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 45% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE; VERY FINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, ECHINOID;
FOSSILS INDICATIVE OF THE CRYSTAL RIVER FM

36.5 TOTAL DEPTH


PAGE 2


;'''`"'










LITHOLOGIC WILL LOG PRINTOUT


UILL NUNMER UI 16200
TOTAL DEPTH: 00090 FT.
19 SAMPLES FRONT 11 TO 90 FT.

COMPLETION DATE 11/12/88
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE NONE


COUNTY ALACHUA
LOCATION: T.078 R.18E 8.27 A
LAT w N 290 51M 01
LOWN V 820 30M 13
ELEVATION 160 FT


OMUER/DRILLIRl FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALACHUA MELL # 3

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERO; SPLIT SPOON
SAMPLES DOSCRIBD BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES
VISUALLY ESTIMATED; CONSULT PRNEANETER DATA SHEETS
FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES
SAMPLIS 10.5,14,20.5,30.5,40.5,43-50.5,53.5-90
DESCRIBED BY MINiEWINBERO, REMAINDER BY TH4MAS SEAL


0WUISC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
122HTRN HAWTHORN GROUP
1240CAL OCALA GROUP


0 10 SAND; PINKISH GRAY TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZEt MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNISS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CLIENT TYPR(IS) CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY NINERALSl CLAY-20, IRON STAIN-04%, PLANT REMAINS-03X;
OTHER FEATURESt UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


10 12.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY;
CEMENT TYPtE(S) CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-202;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLONITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


POOR INDURATION;


12.5- 14 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDONIE SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPI(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20%, IRON STAIN-03%, PLANT REMAINS-OSX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE FGS










W- 16200 CONTINUED


14 20.5SANO; YELOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT,;YELLOWISH ORANGE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR;. MEDIUM. SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS:.IRON STAIN-10X, CLAY-15%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; .
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20.5- 22.5 CLAY; LIGHT GREENISH YELLOW; INTERGRANULAR, LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, QUARTZ SAND-25X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

> 22.5- 30.5 SANp; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CMENT TypesS). CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-10%, IRON STAIN-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

30.5- 32.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, CLAY-05X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

32.5- 40.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICIT; MIUbKALE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS; CLAY MATRIX, SILICIC CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-06X, QUARTZ-02X, IRON STAIN-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
CLUMPS OF QTZ-GRAIN AGGREGATES CEMENTED BY SILICA

40.5- 42.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, CLAY-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE 2









W- 16200 CONTINUED


42.5- 43 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUE-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ-04X, CLAY-05 IRON STAIN-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
LOCALLY, MODERATELY INDURATED BY SILICA CEMENT

43 44 SANDSTONE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ-08X, CLAY-05X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, LIMESTONE-10X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
LIMESTONE OCCURS AS ROCK FRAGMENTS

44 S0.5 SANDSTONE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUE-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-35X, LIMESTONE-10X, OUARTZ-04, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X;
OTHER FEATURES. UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
CUTTINGS CONTAIN MIXED LITHOLOGIES: CLAY FRAGMENTS ARE WELL INDURATED, WAXY, & GREY TO
GREEN IN COLOR


50.5- 52.5


SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 25 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


52.5- 53.5 CALCILUTITE; WHITE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 05 OALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: NICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S)s CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-OSX, IRON STAIN-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


-- .~- ..`... -.;---I ~


PAGE 3










W- 16200 CONTINUED


53.5- 54 CALCILUTITE; WHITE TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 20X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-2OX, IRON STAIN-05X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; :
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

54 58 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: ANGULAR TO SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-40X, IRON STAIN-01%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

58 60 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR, MOLDIC, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 20% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20X, IRON STAIN-04X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;

60 67 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 15X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUT.ITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, IRON STAIN-04X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

67 70 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 15X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, CLAY-05X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01 IRON STAIN-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

70 80 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35X, IRON STAIN-03X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE 4









W- 16200 CONTINUED PAGE 5

80 85 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPEs CALCILUTITE; 30X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZEs MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPI(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS QUARTZ SANO-30%, PHOSPHATIC SAND!O1X, IRON STAIN-O1X,
PLANT R$MAINS-015;
OTHER FEATURES: UNUWSHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILSs NO FOSSILS;

85 90 CALCAREITE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO WHITE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPlt CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 50% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZEl NICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S)s CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALSs QUARTZ SAND-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%;
OTHER FEATURESs UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FOIRMINIFERA;
LEPIDOCYCLINA SP.,NUMMULITES SPP.


90 TOTAL DEPTH











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: U- 16201
TOTAL DEPTH: 00053 FT.
9 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 53 FT.

COMPLETION DATE 16/12/87
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE NONE


COUNTY ALACHUA
LOCATION: T.08S R.18E S.17 A
LAT = N 290 47M 52
LON = W 820 31H 42
ELEVATION 115 FT


OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALACHUA WELL #4

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON
SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES
VISUALLY ESTIMATED; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS
FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; SAMPLES 19.5,40.5 WORKED BY
'BY MIKE WEINBERG;.REMAINDER BY THOMAS SEAL
I


0. 53.
53.-


090UOSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
1240CAL OCALA GROUP


0 10.5 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN TO MODERATE BROWN; 20X POROSITY, INTER
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-10X;
OTHER FEATURES: DOLOMITIC, UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


GRANULAR;


10.5- 12.5 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, CLAY-15%, PLANT REMAINS-10X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

12.5- 19.5 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20X, PLANT REMAINS-10X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE FGS


;









W- 16201 CONTINUED


19.5- 30.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGEs FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-15X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

30.5- 32.5 AS ABOVE

32.5- 40.5 SAND; LIGHT RED TO LIGHT BROUN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-04%, IRON STAIN-04%, PLANT REMAINS-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

40.5- 42.5 SANO; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, HEAVY HINERALS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

42.5- 52.5 SAND; LIGHT BROUN; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE:. FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNONESS: SU-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-10, CLAY-25X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

52.5- 53 PACKSTONE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR,
POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 35% ALLOCHENICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, BRYOZOA, ECHINOIO, MOLLUSKS;
INDEX FOSSILS INDICATIVE OF CRYSTAL RIVER FM.


53 TOTAL DEPTH


PAGE 2











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: W- 16202
TOTAL DEPTH: 00101 FT.
19 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 101 FT.

.: COMPLETION DATE 15/01/88
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE NONE


COUNTY ALACHUA
LOCATION: T.07S R.18E S.05 B
LAT = N 290 54M 30
LON = W 82D 31M 43
ELEVATION 140 FT


OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALACHUA WELL # 5

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON
SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES
ESTIMATED VISUALLY; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS
FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES
*SAMPLES 20.5,30.5,40.5,50.5,60.5,70.5,71,80,85.5,88,
94 DESCRIBED BYMIKE WEINBERG; OTHERS BY TdHMAS SEAL
t


0. 20. 090UDSC
20. 101. 122HTRN
101. 1240CAL


UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
HAWTHORN GROUP
OCALA GROUP


0 10.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-05X, CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10.5- 20.5 CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-35X, IRON STAIN-04X, PLANT REMAINS-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20.5- 22.5 CLAY; DARK GRAYISH YELLOW: LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10X, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-02X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

22.5- 30.5 CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY TO GRAYISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20X, IRON STAIN-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE FGS










W- 16202 CONTINUED


30.5- 32.5 CLAY; WHITE TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-01X, QUARTZ SAND-OSX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

32.5- 40.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGEs VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESSISUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT, SILICIC CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05O, IRON STAIN-02X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-O1X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
LOCALLY, SAND IS SILICA CEMENTED & INDURATED

40.5- 45.5 SAND; GRAYISH YELLOW; 25% PORbSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SU-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S)t CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

45.5- 50.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MAJRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, IRON STAIN-02X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-O1X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

50.5- 52.5 SAND; GRAYISH YELLOW; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

52.5- 60.5 SAND GRAYISH BROUN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS:SUS-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, IRON STAIN-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE 2










W- 16202 CONTINUED


60.5- 62.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
THIN (10 CM) ZONE OF PHOSPHATIC CLAY

62.5- 70.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO WHITE; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02O, IRON STAIN-04X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

70.5- 71 :-SAND; UHITE; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; --.;:
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-25X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

71 80 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE PINK TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE:. VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X, IRON STAIN-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

80 85.5 CLAY; LIGHT GREENISH YELLOW; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-03%, LIMESTONE-1OX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
TEXTURE OF CLAY RANGES FROM WAXY TO DULL; FRAGMENTS OF SAND IN A CALCAREOUS CLAY MATRIX

85.5- 87.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: HEAVY MINERALS-01X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE 3










U- 16202 CONTINUED


87.5- 8 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
RUNONESS:SUB-ANGULAR; HIGH SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BYOZOA;

88 91 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, HEAVY MINERALS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

91 94 SAND; PINKISH GRAY; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZll FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS:SUS-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-40X, HEAVY MINERALS-02X, CHERT-O1X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

94 101 CALCARENITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 70% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE; MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-05;
OTHER FEATURES: COQUINA, UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;
LEPIDOCYCLINA PRESENT

101 TOTAL DEPTH


PAGE 4











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: W- 16203 COUNTY ALACHUA
TOTAL DEPTH: 00030 FT. LOCATION: T.1OS R.20E S.21 B
6 SAMPLES FROM 10 TO 30 FT. LAT N 290 36N 22
LON W 820 181 12
COMPLETION DATE 06/01/88 ELEVATION 060 FT
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE NONE

OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALACHUA WELL # 6

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON
SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES
ESTIMATED VISUALLY; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS
FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; SAMPLES 10,20,30 DESCRIBED BY
MIKE WEINBERG; OTHERS BY THOMAS SEAL

0. 20. 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
20. 30. 122HTRM HAWTHORN GROUP
30. 1240CAL OCALA GROUP

0 10 SAND; LIGHT BROUN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; HIGH SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-03X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10 12 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 05X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-30%, HEAVY MINERALS-01X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

12 20 CLAY; GRAYISH ORANGE PINK; LOW PERMEABILITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-40%, IRON STAIN-01X, PLANT REMAINS-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20 22 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE TO LIGHT BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10X, IRON STAIN-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE FGS










W- 16203 CONTINUED


22 29 SAN; GRAYISH BROWN TO LIGHT BROUN; 20 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGEs VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
RGUNDNESSISUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: LIMESTONE-05X, CLAY-25X, IRON STAIN-OZX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

29 30 CALCARENITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR,
POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 35% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAOND25X, CLAY-25X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, MOLLUSKS;
PROBABLE CONTACT OF HAWTHORN & CRYSTAL RIVER NUMEROUS LEPIDOCYCLIHA AND LIMESTONE
FRAGMENTS MIXED WITH PHOSPHATIC SANO -*:.. -

30 TOTAL DEPTH


K


PAGE 2












LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: U- 16204
TOTAL DEPTH: 00042 FT.
8 SAMPLES FROM 10 TO 42 FT.

COMPLETION DATE 08/01/88
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE NONE


COUNTY ALACHUA
LOCATION: T.10S R.20E S.28
LAT z N 290 35M 19
LON = U 820 18& 52
ELEVATION 060 FT


OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR ALACHUA COUNTY

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE UEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON
SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; CONSULT PERNEAMETER
DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; POROSITY VALUES
ESTIMATED VISUALLY; SAMPLES 10,40 DESCRIBED BY MIKE
'WEINBERG; OTHER SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL

0. 32. 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
32. 1240CAL OCALA GROUP


0 10 PEAT; DARK GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-20X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


10 11.5


CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY; LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, CALCILUTITE-20X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


11.5- 12 CLAY; DARK BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-07X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
CARBONATE-RICH CLAY ZONE

12 20 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN TO DARK BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, ORGANIC MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-15X, QUARTZ SAND-15X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS;
FRESHWATER SNAIL FOSSILS IN ORGANIC RICH CLAY THESE GASTROPODS ARE PROBABLY IN PLACE, BUT
MAY BE DUE TO UPHOLE CONTAMINATION


SOURCE FGS









W- 16204 CONTINUED


20 22 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-20%, QUARTZ SAND-08X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, FOSSIL FRAGMENTS;

22 30 CLAY; MODERATE GRAY TO BLACK; LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-30%, QUARTZ SAND-02X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, FOSSIL FRAGMENTS;
ABUNDANT, WELL PRESERVED TERRESTRIAL SNAILS ORGANIC MATTER IS GENERALLY NON-FIBROUS

30 32 LIMESTONE; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN TO BLACK; LOU PERMEABILITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 10% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: MICIOCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, ORGANIC MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-20X, CLAY-20X, QUARTZ SAND-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS;
POSSIBLE SINKHOLE FILL; CLAY RICH ZONES, WITH CLAY APPROACHING 20-40X, CALCILUTITE
VARIABLE AS WELL AS SAND

32 40 SAND; BLACK TO MODERATE GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; HIGH SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-40%, LIMESTONE-03X, CLAY-05X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, ECHINOID, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;
LEPIDOCYCLINA SP. PRESENT

40 42 PACKSTONE; LIGHT GRAY; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, SKELETAL; 50% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, COQUINA;
FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;
FORAM COQUINA WITH MICRITIC MATRIX LEPIDOCYCLINA PRESENT

42 TOTAL DEPTH


: .


PAGE 2