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 Front Cover
 Title Page
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 Back Matter
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Winter cities in a summer land
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000635/00001
 Material Information
Title: Winter cities in a summer land a tour through Florida and the winter resorts of the South
Physical Description: 126 22 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas-Pacific Railway Co
Publisher: Published by the railway
Place of Publication: Cincinnati
Publication Date: 1882
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0336
notis - AAP9468
alephbibnum - 000133430
oclc - 01699187
System ID: UF00000635:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
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        Back Cover 3
        Back Cover 4
Full Text




WINTER CITIES
IN A
Summer Land:
A TOUR
THROUGH FLORIDA AND THE WINTER RESORTS OF THE SOUTH.
PUBLISHED BY THE
cincinnati, \ew orleans a^d texas-p/cific j\wy. co.
(Cincinnati Southern Railway.)
JOHN SCOTT, E. P. WILSON, REAL) CAMPBELL,
Vice-Pres't and Gen'l Manager. Gen'l Pass Agt. Gen'l Trav. Agt.
CINCINNATI, O. 1882.




HERE is a merry jingle in the silvery tone of the sleigh bell which fascinates and makes us .love to linger in the icy Northland; | but in the whistle of the mocking-bird there is a softer melody to charm and make us"'forget it. all in the land where every day is Summer. If you will follow us through these pages we will make a tour together, and leave behind all that fascinates in the snowdrop's whiteness a fair exchange for the fragrance which nestles in the orange flower; leave behind the land where the thermometer's upper stories are all to let, for one where the mercury lives all the year round on the parlor floor; exchange the wealth of snow and icewhich is only water frozenfor the wealth of feeling to which the "cobbler" is so conductive, and in which the only ice is found.


4
WINTER CITIES
This shall be the story of a tour through a land whose fame had gone abroad beyond the seas when it was yet an undiscovered country. A famous story then was told of its youth-restoring fountains, which smoothed the wrinkles of him who drank its waters and brought again youth's fair whiteness, rivaling her own lilies and orange flowers. The first excursion was "a many years ago," 'way fo' de wah."
Breathe easy now. We will not attempt its history, but will rehearse a plain, unvarnished tale, which has no cold-blooded figures or uncertain story of threadbare history for its only attraction. We will speak of the present, of the sparkle in the gilding of the newest palace car, or the froth of a boarding house "bill of air"either having the advantage of newness over a story of the adventures of Hernando de Soto or Rene de Laudonniere. Let us leave to others the discussion of the claims of Sebastian Cabot, Juan Ponce de Leon, and Diego Miruelo, as to whose arrival was the first on the sands of the flowery land: we will go and spy out the land to find whatever there may be of pleasure there now ; try'trie efficacy of the waters for which these ancient mariners searched so long but never found; breathe the air of a sunny clime in which the hand of trme falls so lightly that youth-renewing springs are unsought for. We will not "talk about the weather," or give figures of highest and lowest range of thermometers, and mean temperature-don't believe there ever was any real mean temperature in Florida. We assume that the geographical position is the same as in our school days. As to the death rate, leave that to the undertaker when he orders his Spring styles, but "never say die" while you can buy an excursion ticket to Florida. We will not go back to "days before the war," when England, Spain and these United States fought over, swapped, and finally sold out this fair land. It's too far to go ; the story would be stale, like unto a glass of last Summer's soda water. Its rehearsal here would bring back unpleasant memories of those old school days when we would so much rather "go a'fishin' than sit and study that which could in no possible way ever interest us; for what does the average school boy care whether the Adelantado hung those early settlers as Lutherans or Frenchmen. The result was the same to the victims; the settlers were hanged, and the school boy had just as leif be as to read about it, there being now so many more pleasant ways of passing the time. Hence the hanging shall not find a place on these pages, nor any words be written that shall be a reminder of days that were not happy ones.


for all his journey is new to him, and at its ending, undreamed of surprises await him. If the coming be in daylight, the bewildered tourist cannot decide which window to look from. On one side the broad waters of the St. John's almost wash the wheels of the palace car, the river's other shore fringed with palmettos, while in between snow-


white sails flutter in graceful completion of the charming picture. From the other window a city of metropolitan proportions salutes his astonished gaze; on every hand there are palatial buildings to which a more ambitious city might point with pride. The streets are lined with elegant equipages ; here and there are the inevitable horse cars, with their five-cent fares, and as the 'bus takes the tourist to the hotel of his choice, he remarks again upon the bustle and rush of a city entirely unlooked for.
Should our coming be after nightfall, the scene gains in surprises more impressive than those which greeted our friends on the morning train. From the starlit river, a melody of laughing voices, blended with the splash of oars, makes music in the almost Summer air. From the shore, through open windows, there may be heard sounds of revelry; upon wide galleries the light costumes and flashing diamonds of gay prome-naders bring memories of Summer days at Newport and Saratoga. We find familiar faces under these Florida gaslights, of friends who have come to while away a Winter's holiday; faces of friends whom we met at "the Falls," in the White Mountains, or at Waukesha and Chautauqua during the heated termthey come here still seeking the Summer days which may be found in these Winter Cities.
You are soon at home in Jacksonville ; few hours elapse before you are out on the wild hunt for alligator teeth and sea-beans. It does not take long to get "a feather in your cap," if you will but listen to the seductive voices of the curiosity dealers, any one of whom has a shop that would make Little Nell's grandfather ashamed of his.
To give the names of all the places in which Florida curiosities are to be found would take more pages than are at our disposal. Greenleaf's has a national reputation, and Gumbinger's attractions demand an encore to every visit, due as much to the affable smile of genial "Jake," ever in his happiest mood when he shows his teeth, as to the pearly shell or polished 'gator tooth which he offers as a souv-e'nir. On every hand there are shops where his alligatorshipalive, well and heartymay be purchased. There are birds of every feather, with bright plumage, to help beauty in the adornment of her head gear.
Don't forget the sea-beannot a native but a tourist, as it were. These beans are washed over from a foreign shorefrom the coast of the Indies, where they grow in pods, like all well-regulated beans, whence they drop into the sea. Just how these sea-beans make their voyage across the Gulf stream, we cannot say; we only know that th?y grow in the West Indies and are picked up on the coast of Florid \, where they do not grow.




8
WINTER CITIES
The trade-mark of the Florida tourist, is his sea-bean sleeve buttons or her alligator-tooth vinegarette, ear-rings or bangles, without which articles of adornment one can not be recognized as having been there.
Greatly to the credit of the vender of Florida curiosities be it said he does not importune you to buy, and club you if you don't, as is the case at Niagara and other resorts where souvenirs are deemed essential. Your Florida merchant shows his wares, comes up smiling with an answer to every question, and an air evincing confidence that the pretty toys will sell themselves ; there is no fear of the Niagaratic way of doing thingsyou will not be put in jail if you don't buy.
The elegant appointments of the average Florida hotel, figure prominently in the list of pleasant surprises. For comfort and convenience, these hostelries embrace all modern appointments, from the parlors to the dining halls ; every feature bears testimony to the kindly forethought of the host. To this rule there are some exceptions, which we need not enumerate. When you have found them, you will recognize them. Good hotels are so numerous that there is no necessity for going twice to a bad one.
Did you ever see a plank walk ? No ? Well, in Jacksonville you can, at any time; but you don't have to "walk a plank," unless your finances are in such a state as to compel that primitive styte of locomotion. However, walking is cheap, and is rendered pleasant by the smooth plank pavements that form the side walks.
Next to walking, the horse cars, intersecting the principal thoroughfares between railway stations, hotels, and steamer landings, afford the most economic mode of locomotion ; but if a carriage be desired, half a dozen well-stocked livery establishments furnish elegant turnouts "rigs" that bear the brands of Brewster and of Curtisand high-steppers from the Blue-Grass land, boasting a lineage running back to Ten Broeck and Mambrino King. There are pleasant drives through the live-oak shaded streets of the city, to the suburbs of Brooklyn, La Villa, Wyoming, or to Moncrief Springs, four miles from the city. This spring rejoices in an Indian legend, the details of which the writer has forgottenreader, return thanks.
The Fair Grounds are reached over a shell road, leading east from city. In the same vicinity, lies the Talleyrand estate, once owned by the Marquis de Talleyrand. Do your tastes run in a nautical way ? There are boats of all kinds to be had almost for the asking ; boats are cheaper than buggiesprobably because boats don't eat anything, and don't


have to be greasedbut if you would have a nice sail, it would be well to "grease" the skipper.
A sail on the St. John's is the proper caper for a full day's pleasure; white sails in scores gliding here and there for miles upon the bosom of this grandest of rivers, bear witness to the truth of our statement.
Arlington, upon the opposite shore, and Riverside, above Jacksonville, are pleasant objective points. Villa Alexandra is a lovely place, suggesting visions of Claude Melnotte's Como cottage. It is the Winter home of the Hon. Alexander Mitchell, of Milwaukee, and is three miles up the river.
Longer voyages may be made to Orange Park, \ twelve miles,
Mandarin, fifteen miles, or Fort George Island, twenty-five miles. A miniature steam yacht plies between Jacksonville and Mayport at the mouth of the St. John's, and
FORT GEORGE ISLAND,
With its romantic drives through avenues shaded by long lines of Palmettos to the pirates' graves, and the shell-covered beach, washed by the restless surf. The discovery and settlement of this island, were among the earliest incidents in our country's history. Men and women of every race and color have figured in its legends. First, Lo, the poor Indian, was the hero ; then the Huguenot, from Sunny France;" and, in later years, Aaron Burr sought a refuge here, and was entertained by a Scotchman, named Macintosh, with whom he remained until the impression created by his trifling irregularities had subsided. Again, it is said, that one Kingsley, a slave trader, occupied the island, making


IO
WINTER CITIES
trips to Africa to recruit his stock in trade. During one of his excursions, being an invalid, he was the guest of the King, was nursed by a royal princess, the daughter of his sable majesty. ***** But why say more, when we have already guessed the sequel? The "old, old story" was told again, although a little "off color"Kingsley married the princess, and ruled the island, his will the only law. He was for years, truly, monarch of all he surveyed. Our informant does not state however, whether or not he surveyed the entire island. The Princess Kingsley had the entree to good society, her sons and her daughters became good citizens and citizenessesFinis.
The most enlivening feature of the day at Jacksonville, is the arrival of trains bringing new comers, and, what is still more important, letters from home. The register looked over; the new arrivals taken in ; letters read and answered, then comes the evening,
"What mask, what music? How shall we beguile The lazy time, if not with some delight?"
When we have dreamed the night away, and in happy visions lived yesterday over again, we are ready for another day; and it comes right quickly, its younger hours laden with the perfume of the orange flower in its freshness, which causes the strong man to exult over his freezing friends at home, and the invalid to forget the cause of his coming.
There are schools and churches : Jew or Gentile find their altars here as well. Delicate children need not lose their learning while gaining health.
In every land the guide book is the traveler's most useful companion, thrice cherished if its pages treat of what is, not what has been. If, committing the historical to the tourist's memory, your little book embraces the more practical information as to the where and how to go and do, and affords a fair estimate of the cost, we have a consummation devoutly to be wished. There is a guide book which not only tells "where to go in Florida," but also "what to do," aryi for the month of January suggests the following "advice to new comers," among other things: "Set out asparagus roots and sow seeds; dig stumps; make fences; paint the house; put out shade trees." And adds: "This is the best month to set out grape cuttings;" but we conclude, "this is the best month to set out" on our journey, and if there is any fun in "digging stumps" leave it to the readers of the other book to investigate, and while we are gone, let the hired man "make the fences" and "paint the house."


WINTER HOME IN FLORIDA.
Travelers in this sunny land will remember that, in former years, they needed no guide book"Mac" was there and "Mac" could tell you all about itwhere to go, and how to get therehow much it would costwhat the captain's name wasand who kept the hotelall about the fish and the game. He knew well the usages of society, as well as the habits of the game, from a "live coon" to a "dead rabbit"all found a ready story, told by his eloquent tongue. One might visit St. Helena and forget Napoleon, or Juan Fernandez and be oblivious of Robinson Crusoebut Jacksonville and "Mac" are inseparable in the minds of those who knew him. He was the first to welcome your coming, as he was the last to speed your parting. Alas poor Mac ; we ne'er shall look upon his like againhe was self-made,


WINTER CITIES
self-educatedsuigeneris"a fellow of infinite jest" and infinite resource was "Mac." He has gone upon the long journey, whence there are no return tickets. His only legacy was a fragrant memory Of kindly actions and earnest work.
Jacksonville is the metropolis of Florida. Commercially, it is first in importance. A railroad center, whence diverge lines to all parts of the country. Going to Florida, one naturally buys a ticket to Jacksonville, for to that point the through sleepers run, there the trunk lines end and Florida routes commence. The harbor has at all times a fleet of vessels loading; the cargoes are of cotton, naval stores, lumber, fruits, and vegetables. After a tour, one comes back to Jacksonville to start home; from this port passengers embark for all the water journeys in the flowery state. There are day boats to Magnolia, Green Cove, Tocoi (for St. Augustine) and Palatka, leaving every morning and returning in the evening. There are through boats for the upper river, for all of which Jacksonville is the starting point.
From- Jacksonville, all tours of the state are arranged, the most interesting being up the St. John's and Ocklawaha Rivers, elegant steamers leave the wharves every day for any landing on either river. Their names, schedules, and rates of fare need not be mentioned here ; the tourist will know how utterly useless it would be to attempt anything of the kind; when he arrives within fifty miles of the city, the agent who comes to meet him, so glad to tell him just how to go and which boat to takehe will tell you all. It will be impossible to make any mistake.
We mention, in passing, the Sylvester, of which Captain John A. Post is master, the morning boat for Palatka, touching at all the important landings, and returning to Jacksonville in the evening, making" the entire run by daylight; on her schedule a visit to St. Augustine may be made, returning the same day. The affable Cornelius Post is master of the elegant Eliza Hancox, the afternoon boat. The average tourist likes to travel with "Corneil," and the usual full passenger list is not "all on account of Eliza."
The Sylvan Glen is the morning mail boat, a swift sailing, stanch craft which can throw the sandnothe dust in your eyesnonot that eitherbut she's a goer. The Glen belongs to Baya's line, and Capt. Lamee is master. Her sistership, the H. T. Baya, claims the "horns and everything" for speed and elegance of appointment.
The DeBary Line fleet, carries the blue ribbon of all the southern waters, awarded by a large majority of travelers. The boats of this line are, the City of Jacksonville, Capt. Wm. Shaw; the F. De Bary, Capt.


IN A SUMMER LAND. T3
Leo. Vogel; the Rosa, Capt. J. L. Amazeen;
the Geo. M. Bird, Capt. G. J. Mercier; and the Welaka, Capt. J. S. Matthewson; one of them leaving Jacksonville daily. The Anita, Capt. Chas. Brock, or the H. B. Plant, Capt. J. W. Fitzgerald, leave Palatka daily for Sanford and Enterprise, on the upper St. John's; thus, upon a round trip, the entire river may be passed by daylight.
Among other boats, we mention the Water Lily, Pastime, Gazelle, Fannie Dugan, Big Sunflower, Port Royal and the Magnolia, whose schedules may be seen in the daily papers, as are the movements of all the steamers. To make a tour of
THE ST. JOHN'S,
one goes up the river, yet travels down the country.
Heabani, the dead philosopher, who, raising up his thirsty voice from the Assyrian Hell, cried out his wish to enter "the place of abundant


WINTER CITIES
waters, fed by eternal springs," must have remembered the'St. John's River, and thought that the weather, even there, would be cool enough if he could only get back. The navies of the world might ride at anchor on the broad waters of St. John's River, after they had passed the bar. but it is hard to pass a bar, sometimes, you know.
The Indians called the river "Welaka," which, being interpreted, means "a chain of lakes," which, indeed, it is, the width varying from
GREEN COVE SPRING.
two to six miles, the water running with a scarce perceptible current, so slight, that the tides can make it run up stream as well; hence the boats that ply the river make the fastest time, and are in themselves, models of palace steamers; smaller editions though they may be, they would induce from the ghost of Robert Fulton a smile of satisfaction.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
15
The tour of the St. John's and Ocklawaha Rivers, including the St. John's Railway and St. Augustine, is the grand tour of Florida ; we will see how real we can make this journey on paper. The steamer's prow is-turned up the river again. Jacksonville fades from view, the changing scenes make us forget the gay city we"have left behind ; we have exchanged all that is metropolitan for an invasion of the home of the alligator and wanderings through orange groves; swapping beefsteaks for a diet of bananas and pine-apples.
This is not the mail-boat, and will stop only at the most important landingsso says our skipper, "C. B. S.," the "for-short" for Capt. Bill Shaw, of the good ship City of Jacksonville, running through to the head-waters, the flag-ship of the de Bary Line. For the convenience of the tourist, we give the list of landings on St. John's River, with
DISTANCES FROM JACKSONVILLE.
miles. miles.
2 I07
3 P'ort Gates,* ... I07
Georgetown, . , ... Ill
... 10 Racemo, ... . 112
... 15 ... 113
... 15 ... 113
... 19 ... 114
Hibernia,* . ... 22 119
23 I20
Remington Park, . 25 Yellow Bluff,*..... 121
28 122
... 30 ... 132
34 . . J37
Hogarth's Landing, . .38 Fort Butler,*..... ... 138
45 ... 139
... 52
. .60 ... 155
. .64 ... 156
... 65 Crow's Landing,* . 159
... 66
. .... 67 ... 162
Whetstone,* ..... ... 68 . . 162
. .69 ... 166
Palatka,*...... 7-5
Hart's Orange Grove, ... 75 . 184
. .78 ... 185
... 80 Shell Bank, ...... 193
Buffalo Bluff.* ... ... 88 Sanford,* ^ ... 199
Horse Landing,* . . . .94 Mellonville,* '..... . . 200
. 96 Fort Reid,*...... ... 203
205
* On West Bank.


The distances are computed as to the steamer's course; the U. S. Coast Survey showing a shorter mileage.
BEAUCLERC
Claims to be the oldest settlement on the river, having been laid out over two hundred years ago, by a French nobleman, Compte de Beau-clerc. Its inhabitants have experienced the vicissitudes of wars and rumors of wars, but in these piping times of peace, they bask in the sunlight of happy homes, beneath the grateful shade of the magnolia and the orange tree.
MANDARIN
Attracts attention as the home of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. "Wild Cat," upon one occasion, with his band, visited this village, massacred the people, and burned their housesthis occurred prior to Mrs. Stowe's arrival. Mandarin is a pleasant place in which to while away a few idle days; far enough from Jacksonville to escape the conventionalities of a fashionable resort, yet within easy reach of its pleasures; an hour,'s sail up or down the river, brings one to the midst of gaieties.
On the west bank are Orange Park and Hibernia; a few miles further, Magnolia, with a good hotela new one with all the improvements. A steam yacht plies between Magnolia and Green Cove Springs, two miles distant. A horse railway is to be built; in the meantime, a drive or a walk by the river-side is not without its charms. Rowing and sailing by day, and dancing and music by night, make the hours pass quickly at Magnolia.
One of the most attractive places in Florida, is
GREEN COVE SPRINGS,
where there is located one of the springs for which Ponce de Leon made search.
This spring is situated in a park near the landing, in the center of the village. Water boils from a fissure some twenty feet below the surface at the rate of three thousand gallons per minute. It is clear, and when the rays of a noonday sun fall upon it, objects in the basin are tinged with prismatic colors.
The waters are health-giving ; the baths are highly recommended. A prominent physician, whose "sands of life" were made to percolate with renewed vigor beneath a Floridian sun, writes of surprising


IN A SUMMER LAND.
17
entrance to st. augustine.
cures in cases of neuralgia, nervous prostration, rheumatism, liver and kidney complaints, having been effected by the waters of this famous White Sulphur Spring."
Whilst you are packing do not forget that pretty bathing dress which was so admired in the surf last Summer, the one which Mac said "would make a man throw rocks at his grandmother." You will need it at Green Cove.
Imagine, if you can, a pool of running water, pure as the air you breathe, and more translucenta pool fringed about with bananas and palmettos, canopied by magnolia leaveswhen you sport in its limpid waters "listen to the mocking bird." Such is a mid-winter picture of the swimming pools at Green Cove.
For the pedestrian there is St. David's path, which leads you down the river, through the palmettos by Governor's Creek to Magnolia-St. David's Path is two miles long, but as a "Lover's Walk," with the proper sweetheart on your arm, it iswellabout the length of a lover's sigh. Have you any idea of sighs ?
When you have bathed, walked, rode or_ sailed to your heart's content, you may find rest in elegant apartments in the hotels which


abound, and commiserate the friends at home, who are shivering amid the mists and frosts and snows of the icy North-land. Which, then, hath the greater charmsthe jingle of the sleigh bells, or the soft melody of the mocking bird's whistle ?
Now let us cross the river, passing Picolata, a place of some importance in the Spanish days of old. We come to Tocoi, the western terminus of the St. John's Railway, which takes us to
ST. AUGUSTINE,
the oldest city in the United States, "and the laste improved," adds the old sergeant at the Fort. We will now bid "C. B. S." au revoir, and exchange our cosy state-room for a seat in the cars, promising him, after a few days in ye ancient citie," to join him on his trip for our journey to the upper river.
A pleasant ride of sixteen miles and forty-five minutes brings us to the city by the sea. Here are scenes amid which memory loves to linger.
We have spent the day on the river, and might have been here hours earlier had we not stopped by the way; hence our arrival is after night-fall, and as the carriage rolls noiselessly along the sandy way, under a canopy of orange leaves and magnolias, shutting out the starlight, through an avenue that might lead to fairy-land, we reach the Plaza, and are let down gently to earth again. Even now, we are not so sure 'tis the same world we dreamed we left, and when sleep comes -to hearts so feasted with scenes of pleasure, the world is wafted still farther away. Then morning comes, "and such a morning as does not come anywhere except at St. Augustine." If it be that your window looks to seaward, you may see the sun rise from beneath blue ocean's restless waters. As you look upon the picture ask yourself if you are yet awake, or is this but a continuance of the pretty dream which came with the music of the cathedral bells which have chimed a lullaby through all the hours.
The starlight night and rosy morn have passed so quickly that we are fain to conclude with visitors who have gone before, that St. Augustine is unlike all the other world. With wanderings through the quaint old streets, sailing down the bay to the light-houses and the coquina quarries, gathering shells by the sea-shore, strolling along the sea-wall, resting now under the shadow of the watch tower in the Castle San


IN A SUMMER LAND.
*9
Marco, the hours fly quickly; but we linger long enough to paint upon memory's canvas pictures which will lend pleasure to many hours of reverie.
There is much to be seen in St. Augustine which cannot be described in our present space. We start from the Plaza. A glance reveals several objects of interestthe monument erected to commemorate the promulgation of the Spanish Constitution ; one to the memory of the Confederate dead ; the old market; the Cathedral, finished in 1793; the Moorish belfry, supporting a chime of four bells, arranged in the form of a cross, one of which, bears date of 16S2. On the south side of the city is the military burying-ground, where, under three pyramids, rest the bones of Major Dade and one hundred and seven of his soldiers, massacred by Osceola's warriors.
On the north side is the old Huguenot cemetery, and close by, that of the Catholics, where are many old tombs of crumbling coquina which have numbered more than one centennial. A little further on, at the head of St George Street, is the City Gate, built in the olden time, when the town was protected by a wall. Along the harbor front is a sea wall built by the United States Government, which renders
additional service as a promenade to and from Fort Mar-on, at the north end of the city. Fort Marion, once the Castle of San Marco, has a history which might fill a volume. Begun in 1696, completed in 1756, occu-S pied by the heroes of a dozen wars, who "fought, bled and died" for theirvar-ious countries, and doubtless saved them all. We shall not undertake to give details, but will leave it to the old Sergeant'"' to tell you its history and its legends- Sergeant
CITY DATES, ST. AUGUSTINE.


20
WINTER CITIES
McGuire is one of the lions of St. Augustine, "not to know whom," etc. When one has crept into the dungeon and stood by his side, with flickering candle throwing its weird, mystic light on his fine, old Irish countenance, and its tallow on your dress, one has a fitting introduction to "The Sergeant's Story." If you have heard it, we need not write it; if you have not, we will not usurp his prerogative. Conceive it if you can.
Picture to yourself the tall, spare form of a fine old Irish gentleman, in the dim light of the dungeona score of curious faces dimly revealed by the light of the tallow diphanging upon his words as he narrates the history of the fort from the days of its foundation. How the King of Spain, three hundred years ago, was seen gazing intently over the sea, and when asked the object of this reconnoissance, made reply that he was "looking for the towers of the Castle of San Marco, which must now be mountain high, having cost in their building so much in years, in men and treasure." Whether the- king really said this, the Sergeant is careful to inform you he is uncertain, as far as he is concerned, adding "that I don't know, I wasn't there, I didn't see it."
Continuing the story, he tells of the two cages that were found in the dungeon; cages large enough to hold a human being, one fastened to the wall, and the other lying on the ground, each containing human bones. These bones, the Sergeant hints, were once the property and main stay of some religious heretic, or possibly a member of the Royal family; but this the Sergeant can't say" positively, as he wasn't there and didn't see it." He conjectures that these cages, with their inmates, were put in place hundreds of years ago. As the entrance was walled up, and the dungeon was only discovered a few years ago, by the breaking down of the walls from the top, we may say of the Sergeant that it is greatly to his credit that he does not tell a more positive story. It is probable that he wasn't there." How, then, could he be expected to "say" to whom the bones belonged ?
We will not translate the Spanish inscription over the entrance ; if we did so, we might be construed as presuming that the tourists could not do so.
During our later wars this old fort has been left severely alone. Oglethorpe fired a few shots at it during the Revolution, and the scars are shown on the north side, but after the fashion of the King of France, the old governor sailed down the coast from Savannah and back again.
' 'In these weak, piping times of Peace."
" When grim-visaged war has smoothed its wrinkled front,"


IN A SUMMER LAND.
Old San Marco joins the sea wall h* in its duties. ''There
are many persons who carp at this sea wall, and revile the United States Government for having gone to the great expense involved in its construction, with no other result than that of furnishing a promenade for lovers. But these are ill-advised persons. It is easily demonstrable, that this last is one of the most legitimate functions of the Govern-THE PLAZA, ment. .Was not the encouragement of the laws of ST AUGUSTINE, marriage a direct object of many noted Roman Laws ?
Why should not the Government of the United States protect true love, as well as pig-iron ? Viewed from the stand-point of political economy, is not the former fully as necessary to the existence of the State as the latter ?
Whatever may have been the motives of the Federal authorities in building it, its final cause, causa causans, is certainly love ; and there is not a feature of its construction which does not seem to have been calculated solely with reference to some phase of that passion. It is just wide enough for two to walk side by side with the least trifle of pressure together; it is as smooth as the course of true love is not, and yet there are certain re-entering angles in it, (where the stairways come '* At


22
WINTER CITIES
which one is as apt to break one's neck as one is to be flirted with, and in which, therefore, every man ought to perceive a reminder in stone of either catastrophe.
It has on one side the sea, exhaling suggestions of foam from Venus and fickleness, and on the other the land, with Bay Street residences, wholesomely whispering of settlements and house-keeping bills. It runs at its very beginning in front of the United States Barracks, and so at once flouts war in the face, and pursues its coursehappy omentowards old Fort Marion, where strife long ago gave way to quiet warmths of sunlight; where the wheels of the cannon have become trellises for peaceful vines ; and finally itends.
How shall a man describe this spot where it ends ? With but a step, the promenader passes the draw-bridge, the moat, the portcullis, edges along the left wall, ascends a few steps, and emerges into the old Barbican. What, then, is in the Barbican ? Nothing: it is an oddly-angled inclosure of gray stone, walling around a high knoll where some grass and a blue flower or two appear. Yet it is love's own trysting-placethus the Barbican discourses of true love to him who can hear. I am persuaded that Dante and Beatrice, Abelard and Heloise, Petrarch and Laura, Leander and. Hero, keep their tender appointments here. The Barbican is love-making already made. It is a complete yes, done in stone and grass."
When one grasps the idea conveyed by the word "street" it is too exaggerated for anything that pertains to St. Augustine; all pictures and descriptions go wide of the mark. But to give some idea of their narrowness, a correspondent writes this: "An old lady owns a cow, which she feeds from a bucket in her kitchen door, while the milking is done over in the lot opposite; remember the herd consists of one cow; while the milking is going on, that street becomes 'no thoroughfare'."
Whilst the streets in St. Augustine are so narrow, they are as long as in any town of its size. They have the advantage of two shady sides nearly all day long. A stroll or drive through their narrow lanes, is not to be neglected; the orange and magnolias and palm trees towering or drooping over frowning coquina walls, form a picture, which, in its novelty, cannot be readily forgotten.
Drive to the barracks, to the tomb of Maj. Dade and his men ; through the city gates to the ruins of Fort Matanzas ; to the old cemeteries ; and as you return, stop and see the mammoth rose tree, high as a house and in full flower, with beautiful roses. As for roses, the town is full of them, blooming at a time when the little blue-eyed violets at home, have


yy Old San Marco's coquina parapets, the sea wall's promenade, the orange tree's romantic shadows can not claim a monopoly of the charms
935999999994


24
WINTER CITIES
that lurk within this old city's crumbling walls. For, verily, a Bay of Naples, hath its counterfeit at St. Augustine, and upon its waters a hundred sails try their speed before a wind from off the Indie Isles, as it blows with every balmy day. That party 'neath the sunny shadow of the snowy sail, have forgotten all save their own little world, they can not remember the big one they've left behind. Yes there are shells and shells on the North Beach, as pink as the ear which so willingly listens to love's whispers; yet ori such a day, all neglected, the shells are scattered there, and the sand serves as a writing place for the old, old story, and one almost concludes the great big world does not expect one to return ; then the pearly souvenirs are hurried into one's handkerchief, and soon the first sail in St. Augustine is in memory's care, and we go under the flashings of the light-house beacon fires.
Anon, there comes floating on the Summer air, the sweet melody of some love song, a melody which, when 'tis heard again, brings to your heart once more, dreams of these happy days.
Florida is indeed "a land of abundant waters, fed by eternal springs." Three miles off the coast of Matanzas, is a spring of clear, fresh water, boiling up from a basin a hundred feet below, the surrounding salt water being about fifty feet deep. Such is the force of this spring, that a boat can not float over it, but is driven aside by the strength of the current.
Although St. Augustine is the oldest town in the United States, it has newer and better hotels than are found in many cities of more modern birth. Whilst one revels in dreams of the long forgotten ages, suggested by the old Spanish pictures which meet the eye at every turn, he awakes to feast upon Fulton Market steaks, Vienna bread and coffee, with every fruit that ripens under a tropic sun.
Boats may be taken from St. Augustine to Matanzas, Indian, and Halifax Rivers. There are also stages to Daytona and New Smyrna, connecting with mail boats on the Indian River.
There are many elegant Winter homes at St. Augustine, owned by the princes of American commerce, which we will not attempt to describe. There are churches and schools adapted to all ages and sects.
One says only au revoir, upon leaving St. Augustine, hoping that the companions of such happy hours may be with us when we come again.
The little engine takes us swiftly away, and in a few moments we are once more the guests of the "C. of J.," with a smile of welcome from "C. B. S."


IN A SUMMER LAND.
An hour's ride brings us to the midst of the orange country, and on either bank the bright green leaves tell where the groves are. Our next stopping place is
PALATKA,
a village of some two thousand people, which, from November until May, assumes the proportions of a fashionable Winter city. The wide streets,
Fort MatansasTreasury StreetEntrance to Fort Marion.
i.


shaded by luxuriant wild orange trees, present a scene peculiarly Flori-dian, not easily forgotten. Every balmy day has its night of melody and dancing ; or we may stroll out under the trees, inhale the rich perfume of the orange flower, and forget the cares that made us think of a trip to Florida, and when the "wee sma' hours have come, regretfully leave it all for the Land of Nod, where the dreams are scarcely brighter than the reality.
Palatka is the distributing point for Southern Florida. It is the terminal landing for the day-boats from Jacksonville, for Charleston and Savannah steamers, for Ocklawaha steamers, for boats to the Upper St. John's, and the Florida Southern Railway, as well as the landing for all through boats of the de Bary Lines.
If your coming be after night fall, look from the cabin window on star-board side, see the flashing lights in among the orange trees, each making its double in the clear water of the river, rivaling the twinkling stars of the blue vault above.
Again on shore, and we are greeted by familiar sounds. "You tek yo lef han side fa de Lah-ken""doan you forget de Lah-ken," sings Berry the Porter. You follow his light and you are soon comfortably bestowed. When you look from your window in the morning, the sun lights a garden of oranges, bananas and roses.
Palatka may be well styled the capital of the orange land, for in the region round about are many groves, which number their trees by thousands. Immediately opposite, on the east bank of the river, are Col. Hart's groves, producing all fruits of the tropics in every stage of development.
At the splendid hotels of Palatka, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, and all Florida, there is a freshness about the vegetables in midwinter, which pertains alone to this "Summer land," and one observes the absence from his green peas of the solder which is so inseparable an adjunct to a January dinner upon the "canned goods of the "icy Northland."
As the oyster loses some of its delicious flavor with every mile it travels, until, after half a weeks' journey, his own brother would not recognize him, so does the alleged Florida orange, as offered by the news butchers in a thousand palace cars, differ from the Florida orange, on its native heath; the one maketh the passenger to rejoice when he reads of a short crop, the other induces the investment of the tourist's "bottom dollar" in the purchase of the last dozen, which last dozen can be had from any or all dealers.
We had not heard of any written rule prescribing just when to eat


IN A SUMMER LAND.
27
an orange, and in the absence of any time card, we have been going it wild, on the restaurant plan, at all hours; now Sidney Lanier tells us how. Hear him :
"At this hour in the morning in Florida, everybody is eating his ante-breakfast oranges, with as much vigor as if he saw himself growing suddenly wrinkled and placid, like the gods and godesses in Wagner's Rheingold, when they had in their agitation forgotten to eat their daily allowance of the golden fruit which grew in Freya's garden, and which was the necessary condition of their immortal youth. In truth, to eat one's orange with some such thought as this would not be wholly absurd.
"These old metaphors, which, by a curious intersection of events and of lines of thought, converge to a point here in Floridathe metaphors of Freya's youth-conferring fruit, of DeLeon's youth-conferring spring are they not evolved out of a certain vague sense in the bottom of our hearts that the trees and watersNature are full of healing, and that the man
will
never die who wisely and lovingly reaches INTERIOR FORT MARION, forth his hand and plucks nature as a fruit, and eats it, and digests it, and incorporates it with himself ?
" But the sight of dripping fingers reminds one that while there are few plcasanter things than the eating of an orange, yet it is also in the order of nature that difficulty and delightwhich are essentially birds of a feathershould fly together, and there are, therefore, few harder things than the eating of an orange dry-fingered. The stickiness of orange-juice seems somehow at once one of the most unavoidable and most disagreeable of the earthly bads that hang by the goods; and we can never help regretting that neither Mr. George Lewes, in his Problems


28
WINTER CITIES
of Life and Mind, nor Mr. Greg, in his Rocks Ahead, has thought fit to treat the question "How to eat an orange."
"Yet it can be done with great daintiness, if the proper appliances are at hand. By appliances I mean a lady. It is notorious that women can manage an orange with their delicately-tactile fingers to a marvel. There is a tradition in Jacksonville of one who, with kid gloves on her hands, kept the same wholly unspotted during the entire process of peeling, dividing and eating. However that may be, it is certainly an aesthetic delight to see ten white fingers deftly coaxing apart the juicy orange-sectors. Indeed, that is apples of gold in pictures of silver. It has been suggested that the reason of this superior skill is longer experience ; woman, though younger than man, commenced to handle fruit sooner. But it is a suggestion that I make a point of loudly and ostentatiously scorning; for, as has been said, the solution of the problem of How to eat an orange," depends on being on good terms with woman.
" First get your orange ; and you will at least produce an implication of your connoisseurship in the mind of the dealer, if, in doing so, you ask for Indian River oranges, which many persons hold to be the typic fruit. Then get your sister, or any available womankindanother man's sister might doto peel your orange ; divide it into sectors, and hand you these, each lying on its detached arc of peel as on a small salver. The rest, as the old play says, can be done without book.
" Thus the question how to eat an orange without stickiness, resolves itself, in the last analysis, into a question of morals and of behavior; into, in other words, the question, how to be very good and amiable to_ your womankind before breakfast; insomuch that we may look to see the timecoincident with the bearing time of the millions of young orange-trees which the recent activities of Florida have set growing when the orange shall transform the bearish husbands of the whole land into knightly lovers, and when Growly's manner to Mrs. G. before breakfast shall be as suave and bland as is the juice of the fruit itself like the dyer's hand, subdued to what it works in.
It may be all very well for Growly to have Mrs. G. peel his orange, leaving him only the arduous duty of eating it; but no knightly lover" would stand by, after gathering his sweetheart's roses, and permit her to peel the breakfast oranges, however deftly. Oh no if his "Dearie" was a little late, which, she might sometimes be, you know, she would find the oranges peeled in a way which will admit of her handling them with or without gloves. The "knightly lover" finds a fresh orange,


thin brown rind, carefully cuts the rind without abrading the skin, cutting deftly around the periphery, then taking a teaspoon passes it under the rind, then gently turn it wrong side out, as it were, now cuts the orange diagonally across, passing to his audience, who most surely will give him an encore.
As we have said, from Palatka we have the choice of several tours through the flowery land, and we may do them all; but first let us continue in the way we started, to the Upper St. John's. Now that we
have reveled in groves of oranges and lemons, we will investigate the hospitality of the alligator, and feast our eyes on the beauties of a turtle orchard.
UPPER ST. JOHN'S.
After leaving Palatka the river jrows narrower, almost immediately, and save in crossing an occasional lake, our boat runs so near the shore, that we have a better view of the scenery, which with every mile grows more tropical. Scenery in Florida does not partake of the grandeur of the Cumberland or the Alleghenies ; nor does distance lend it any enchantment, unless, perchance, the landscape is embellished with alligators, in which case the proper distance does enhance the enchantment in
"That I
Dont KnowI Can't SayI Didn't See It.'


WINTER CITIES
proportion as to how you are "fixed" for his saurian majesty in case he declares war.
The boat runs close to either shore, not too close, but just close enough to afford the shot-gun fiend an ample opportunity to annoy his fellow-passengers with continual fusilades, generally without inflicting any discomfort upon the innocent natives. He blazeth away indiscriminately at every living object, from a humming-bird to an alligator. One of the rules of the boat is, that every gun is loaded, whether it is or not, and no looking down the barrel from the front end to see the' bullet come out.
After the murder is committed, the excuse, did'nt know it was loaded," won't go with C. B. S., as he is very particular; therefore, if you will shoot, keep the business end of your artillery over the edge, nautically speaking, the guards of the boat, in the direction of some unsuspecting alligatorthey are used to it, and besides, their hides are tougher than white folks', and they don't seem to mind it; or if it happens to be a turtle, he'll slide off the log and likely laugh at you for undertaking to kill an alligator with a little thing like a gunthe turtle will, for he thinks they are tough customers.
"Just as easy as falling off a log "is an old simile, but one can never fully realize the truth of it, and how easy it really is, until he has seen an alligator perform this acrobatic feat. If a boat rounds the bend, he looks neither to the right nor to the left, neither does he search for a soft place to drop on. He does not tarry to see who is on board the boat; he remarks, with an air of dejection, "well, I'll b. d. if here ain't another boat! andslides noiselessly out of sight, and possibly, after a few moments "bobs up serenely" in the hunting grounds of some fish-eating bird, who, being a stranger, is taken inout of the wet.
SAN MATEO
is a very old settlement, four miles above Palatka. A few miles further a creek leads off to Crescent Lake, upon which are located the villages of Oakwood, Owasco, and Crescent City, flourishing settlements in a rich and healthful region.
WELAKA,
is nearly opposite the mouth of the Ocklawaha River. In its population has been embraced three nations since its first settlementIndians, Spaniards, and Americans. After leaving Welaka, the river widens


IN A SUMMER LAND.


32
WINTER CITIES
Now we are indeed in Florida, and what may be said in favor of one of these thriving little villages may be said of the other. But if questions suggest themselves, and doubtless they will, any man on the boat will most cheerfully answer. There is none of that damfino askcapen air about these Florida sailors. They are all "jolly, good fellows," and have "a right good captain, too." They will permit no thirster after knowledge to famish in their presence. It may be that the air of the St. Johns stimulateth the imagination. How else can we explain the serious candor with which the artless inquirer is informed that "those pigs climb the tallest palms and fatten upon the 'cabbages' which grow upon their tops," or that "those cows grazing upon 'bonnets' upon the surface of the water are web footed." They may speak whereof they know, butwe have doubted it.
Now we come to a sheet of water as fair as any the sun shines on. Lake George is eighteen miles long and twelve wide, the steamer's course being straight through the center, affording the passenger a fine view. There are several lovely islands ; the largest, Drayton Island, was called by de Laudonniere the Island of Edelano." The old Huguenot pencil thus describes it:
" I sent my two barks to discover along the river, and up towards the head thereof, which went so far up that they were thirty leagues good, from a place called Matthiaqua; and there they discovered the entrance of a lake, upon one side whereof no land can be seen, according to the report of the Indians, which was the cause that my men went no farther, but returned back ; and in coming home went to see the Island of Edelano, situated in the midst of the river, as fair a place as any that may be-seen through the world; for in the space of three leagues that it may contain in length and breadth, a man may see an exceeding rich country and marvelously peopled. At the coming out of the village of Edelano to go unto the river's side, a man must pass through an alley about three hundred paces long and fifty paces broad, on both sides whereof great trees are planted, the boughs whereof are tied like an arch, and meet together so artificially that a man would think that it were an arbor made of purpose; as fair, I say, as any in all Christendom, although it be altogether natural."
Rembert's, or Rembrant's Island, produces some of the finest oranges brought to market, and the grove is one of the largest in the State. Birds of all the brightest feathers flock to the shores and islands of Lake George, and make their homes near its waters.
A few moments more and we arrive at Volusia, quite a little village,


and in the earlier days an important trading point, which in these 1 times has maintained her importance.
Passengers for the St. John's and Lake Eustis R. R. debark at Volusia. A ferry connects with the station at Astor, half a mile up the river, where trains leave daily for Fort Mason, connecting with boats on Lake Eustis for Leesburg, near the headwaters of the famous Ocklawaha River.
Volusia is the landing from which conveyance may be secured to Day tona and New Smyrna.
For two hours more
Wharf and Orange Market, Palatka.
we must amuse ourselves with what we may see until Blue Spring is reacheda wonderful spring, one of the largest which supplies the immense volume of water to the St. John's. The spring is nearly a quarter of a mile long, and is over seventy-five yards wide, and nearly a hundred feet deep. Imagine a spring which would float the Great Eastern, whose waters are so clear that fish and other objects may be plainly seen a hundred feet below the surface. There are persons who go so far as to say there is no bottom to it, or if there is, there is a hole in it; but, then, that's on account of the sulphurand that can't be, you know,


for the water is not warmand Ingersoll says there isn't any, anyhow.
Blue Spring is tlie landing for Orange City, two miles distant. Shakespeare doubtless was mistaken as to there being nothing in a name, hence this real Orange City.
LAKE MONROE.
Lake Monroe is the terminus of our river tour. We are now two hundred miles from Jacksonville, at the head of navigation for all through boats ; very small steamers only go farther south. Lake Monroe is twelve miles long and five wide ; is a beautiful body of water, the fame of whose fish has gone abroad throughout the land. Along the shorses are dotted the Winter homes of gentlemen who have located in this Summer land. Mr. Fred, de Bary has a magnificent place on the eastern shore, with probably the largest orange grove on the continent, to sayaiothing of a flourishing garden, growing every species of tropical fruit. Mr. de Bary is a wealthy wine merchant of New York, the American Agent for "Mumm's Extra Dry," also the owner of the de Bary line of St. John's River steamers, whose guest we have been through the gallant C. B. S.," while on board the City of Jacksonville.
Sanford, on the south-west bank, is the first of the cities on the lake, and is splendidly located in the piney woods" high grounds, and is the point of debarkation for Orange County, the veritable home of the citrus family. Sanford was so-called in honor of Gen. H. S. Sanford, Ex-U. S. Minister to Belgium, and owner of "Sanford Grant," the original grant of the King of Spain to Thomas Atkinson, which covers an area of about forty thousand acres ; so there is plenty of room for a city here, and the streets have been laid out with that end in view, drainage being arranged to flow into Lake Monroe, while the clearest water will be brought from a small lake two miles back of the city. There is a bright future for Sanford. It has every advantage of location, while the climate cannot be surpassed. And here we will depart from our rule to have nothing to do with statistics just far enough to mention one artist who has figured Jack Frost's chances to put in an appearance here to about "two-tenths of a probability." Now there is not much excuse to "bull the overcoat market on information like that.
Sanford is the northern terminus of the South Florida R. R., over which trains are now running to Maitland, Winter Park and Orlando, down to Kissimme, through the very heart of the orange country, the


IN A SUMMER LAND.'
35
ultimate destinations being Tampa and Charlotte Harbor, on the Gulf Coast. Something may be said of the attractions of Orange County when it is known that ten years ago the population scarce reached eight hundred people, while now it claims nearly ten thousand.
From the windows of a cozy car we look out upon sister scenes to those which just now we viewed from the deck of the C. of J."
At Bellaire, the first station from Sanford, are orange groves belonging to Gen. Sanford, Gen. Babcock, Fred. Grant, Thurlow Weed, Senator Anthony, Mr. Charles Amory, of Boston, and other prominent gentlemen, who seem to have only waited for the means of transportation to seize upon this inheritance.
Maitland, on a lovely lake of the same name, a thriving little village, has attractions as a health resort on account of the healing effects of the balm-laden breezes from the pines surrounding it.
We are now in the lake region of Southern Florida. Nine lakes adorn the landscape within full view of Maitland.
Wintei Park is two miles further south, and an embryo city. Being built to order, having plenty of room for the houses and streets, it will doubtless be a model. It is already filling up with prominent men who come to establish winter homes, expecting to find safe and profitable investment for their capital in the rich orange lands of the surrounding country.
Orlando, the county seat, is a typical old town, such as one finds everywhere in the south. A sojourn here may contribute to health and pleasure. For a time Orlando was the terminus of the railway, now the iron horse runs to the far south to Kissimme, on the shore of Lake Tohopkaliga. Pleasing little names aren't they ? What's in a name ?
There surely must be something in these names, else why was the alphabet so recklessly mutilated in their construction?
As usual in such cases, the native poet supplies an Indian
legend to explain the name of "YOU TEK YO LEF HAN SIDE!"


this station. This time it is the tale of a knight who came over -the sea, met a dusky maiden wandering by the river-side, asked her for a kiss. She, guileless child of the forest, knew naught of kisses, but became an apt scholar under the knight's tutelage, and when she met her sister maidens, she exclaimed, "kiss-him-me !" The poet concludes,
" * the breezes which wafted the words where they met. Settled down on the river and whisper it yet.
Hence the name of the station, lake, and river.
Ere this is read the rails of the South Florida Railroad will have completed the link between the St. John's and reached the sands of the Gulf, opening the way to Tampa or Charlotte Harbor.
But we must retrace our steps over this newspaper railroad," yes, the only newspaper railroad in the world. It was built and is owned by the proprietors of the Boston Herald. Before our return, we may go, if we wish, through the canal to Kissimme River, thence on to Lake Okeechobee, where there are scenes too utterly wild to encourage a protracted stop.
A return to Sanford brings us again to the water way of our journey. One mile to the south of Sanford, is
MELLONVILLE,
Which we are venturesome enough to call a suburb to the former. One would suppose, that being so near the water, and from its name, that the town had some remote connection with the watermelon trade, but such is not the case. The town occupies the site of Fort Mellen, built during the Indian difficulties, and Mellonville should be spelled with an "e" instead of an "o."
ENTERPRISE
Is on the eastern shore of Lake Monroe; it is the extreme southern point to which the St. John's River boats run, connecting with those of lighter draft for Lake Harney, thence to the Indian River. Enterprise is a favorite resort, and has a full quota of visitors all the season. A mile from this village is another one of the magnificent springs for which the State is noted. This one is eighty feet wide, and correspondingly deep. Here, also, hunters most do congregate, the accommodations being good, and the facilities for reaching the hunting ground of the Upper St. John's, Indian and Halifax Rivers, first-class.


From Enterprise, small steamers run regularly during the season, up the St. John's to Salt Lake, where connection is made with tramway for Titus-
A WINTER GARDEN, PALATKA.
ville and Indian River, only six miles distant from the landing. Any fruit dealer will tell you that every orange he has is an Indian River orange, and that other dealers only keep inferior fruit from other groves. Such is the reputation of the Indian River orange, that it commands highest prices in all markets. The groves are famous. The celebrated Dummitt Grove was recently purchased by an Italian nobleman, who will import labor from his own sunny Italy. Here are also the finest hunting and fishing grounds in all Florida. They must be visited. No description would do them justice.
Titusville is the eastern terminus of the St. John's and Indian River, Railroad, and is the stopping-place for all points on the Indian River Boats may be hired for a sail on this and Halifax Rivers, or to go even as far up the coast as St. Augustine. These can hardly be called rivers;


WINTER CITIES
they are inlets from the sea, which is, in some places, only a hundred yards away. <
Hence, we will sail northward on the Indian River, through the Haulover to the Halifax River, passing en route New Smyrna, in old times a place of some note, now a pleasant little village of some two hundred people, and a good place to go in Winter. The country all around these rivers is thickly settled, and some of the villages date back through a century and a half. There must be some attraction or it would have been long ago deserted.
Daytona is the principal point of interest near the coast south of St. Augustine ; there are a number of pleasant stopping places in the town.
Daytona reached, and we leave the Atlantic Coast and go by stage, ten miles to Volusia, on the St. John's, or thirty miles to Enterprise, on Lake George, this time, bound down the river and up the country.
Once more on board our good ship, C. of J.," we sail over the raging waters of the Upper St. John's to Palatka, to start upon a tour of
THE OCKLAWAHA RIVER,
A tour that must be made to be appreciated.
When the average Floridian tells a "whopper," he usually locates his experiences on the Ocklawaha, his audience liken him unto a friend of the lamented Mac, who "would run a mile on a Summer's day, in the hot broiling sun to tell a lie on credit, when he could stand still in the shade, tell the truth and get the money for it."
" Have you been up the Ocklawaha ?" is a conundrum, to which the affirmative answer is given with an air of serene satisfaction, which is inseparable from the conciousness of having a good thingis generally followed by a behest to go and do likewise.
One embarks at Palatka at 9 A. M. There are two lines : Hart's, consisting of the steamers Osceola, Okahumkee and Astatulanice little names for nice little boats. The other, Capt. Bouknight's line, is composed of the Tuscawilla and the Forrester. During the season, a boat leaves Palatka every morning, passing all interesting points by daylight. The through fare to Leesburg and the head waters is $20.00. To Silver Springs $12.00, which includes meals and staterooms. These prices are for the round trip.
The distances here given are from Palatka ; add to these seventy-five miles and you will have the mileage from Jacksonville. The first twenty-five miles of the journey is on the St. John's as far as Welaka, opposite which we enter the famous river.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
39
miles. miles. ... 136
Mouth of Ocklawaha, . ... 25 ... 151
... 26 Moss Bluff, ....... ... 154
34 ... 188
. . 61 Orange Hope,..... . 190
... 63 . 194
... 76
Forty Foot Bluff, . ... 80 Lake Griffin P. O., .
... 94
... 96 ... 230

. . 108 255
. 114
... 118 273
Limpkin Bluff, .... . 122

Now we have given names of the. boats, the fares, schedules, and the distances, and that is about all that can be truly written of the Ocklawaha. Descriptions are attempted by every artist, on business or pleasure bent, with the same resultlike a conundrum, they give it up.
Sidney Lanier came nearer than any other to telling all about it. You can get his description for a dollar and a half, ours for nothing about what it is worthor you can see it for twenty dollarspay your money and take your choice. For fear, after reading our description, you might take our word for it, conclude that it was "too utterly lovely," not go at all, thereby defrauding us of one fare, we will attempt no history of its beauties.
Ock-la-wa-ha is the Indian for "crooked water," but don't infer that there is anything crooked about the water, though you may always find it "on a bender." The old adage "that one good turn deserves another," seems to be religiously adhered to throughout its course.
The noble Red doubtless referred only to the circuitous course of the river, some idea of which may be formed when the distance by an air-line from Palatka to Okahumkee, eighty miles, is compared with the steamer's course, two hundred and seventy-five.
The Oceola and her sister crafts are sui generisbuilt without guards or passage ways along side. Her guests occupy the forward deck, and are, as it were, on the lookout all the day long, varying the day's pleasure by an occasional visit to the pilot house, where a smile of welcome ever plays beneath Captain Edwards' strawberry blonde moustache. 1
Leaving Palatka at 9 A. M., Silver Spring is reached the following morning. Soon as we have "done" the Spring, the return journey is


commenced, reaching Palatka the following morning, thus having seen every mile on the Mystic River in daylight.
Our gallant captain knows that civilized man cannot live without cooks," the first meal, dinner, proving that he has brought along a thorough-bred.
There are twenty-four places to sleep on this boat, and there are
A FLORIDA CANAL.
twenty-four places to eat, hence there is no crowding, no one has to wait."
The meeting of the "up" and "down boats" is one of the features of the day. The point of passing can be foretold with schedule regularity. The bon voyages which come from the returning tourists on the down boat, are given with a right good will, as if foretelling the pleasure which will come with the morrow.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
4i
When the day is gone, one might think the sight-seeing over; it might be so but for the light-wood fire, which, from the top of the pilot house, throws its glow across the waters, and as far as the eye can reach through the forest, serving doubly as a beautifier of the scene and a guide to the pilot; affording a new picture wholly unlike any other. See the light glare among the palmettos; the shimmering water swelling into little wavelets, breaking in white bubbles behind us ; the dark outline of the river, fringed with green lily pads, and the twinkling stars far above it all, which might make any but a perfect lover forget the brighter twinkling of pretty eyes nearer to him.
There is music with it all, music which is wild and wierd as the picture is. The splash of the wheels making the waters ripple under the lilies, the cry of a frightened birdor out in the darkness the whippoor-will's call, wooing its mate, all combine to produce a strange wild melody.
To-night, a concert is in store for us, and the soft notes of a guitar have called the attentive listeners into the little cabin, where a novel scene presents itself. Cigars have been thrown away, and the smoker? gather there to do gallant duty in the cabin's little dress-circle, where the fair tourist, in silk attire, listens with wrapt attention to aduskyCam-panini, who, incog, has erstwhile been our steward, and with jeweled hands she applauds to an encore, as earnestly as if Patti had warbled a love song in her pretty ears.
Ere we have grown tired of this, our cabin boys have gathered "for-'ard," and have organized a minstrel .band, worthy of a larger audience. When the clear ringing notes of their well-trained voices have died away, "good nights are said and pleasant dreams await us. One falls asleep feeling very sure that the companions of such a voyage cannot be forgotten.
" Come come and see the pretty waters !" shouts a childish voice without our state-room door, and from the very tone of the baby words, we are sure that Silver Spring mr.it be near.
After passing all that is romantic, lovely, lonely, dismal and swampy in the river proper for over a hundred miles, the principal object of our journey is reached. Silver Spring is at hand. Here is the spring of all the Florida springs, with its palmettos fringed about the shores, and the lilies; the traditional clear water, "clear as a diamond," that if you dropped a ten-dollar gold piece in the water you could see it a hundred feet awayyou could see it, yes, but you couldn't get it any more, so that knocks the romance out of that; see it, like many a poor fellow
WWW
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42
WINTER CITIES
has seen ten dollars before, and perhaps, went one or two better," and then never saw it more. If you must drop something try a nickel, it's cheaper and can be seen just as easily.
We cannot do better than tell you what Lanier says of the Silver Spring: Here new astonishments befell. The water of the Ocklawaha, which before had seemed clear enough, now showed but like a muddy stream as it flowed side by side unmixing, for some distance, with the Silver Spring water.
"The steamer now left the river and turned into the Run which flows from the Spring. How shall one speak quietly of this journey over transparency The Run is very deep. The white bottom seems hollowed out in a continual succession of large spherical holes, whose entire contents of darting fish, of under-mosses, of flowers, of submerged trees, of lily stems, and of grass ribbons, revealed themselves to us through the lucent fluid as we sailed along thereover. The long series of convex bodies of water filling these white concavities impressed one like a chain of globular worlds composed of transparent lymph. Great numbers of keen-snouted, blade-bodied garfish shot to and fro in increasing motion beneath us ; it seemed as if the under worlds were filled with a multitude of crossing sword blades wielded in tireless thrust and parry by invisible arms. For nine miles, counting our gigantic rosary of water wonders and loveliness, we fared on. Then we rounded to, in the very bosom of the Silver Spring itself, and came to wharf. Then the claims of scientific fact and of guide-book information could hold me no longer. I ceased to acquire knowledge, and got me back to the wonderful Spring, drifting over it face downwards, as over a new world of delight."
" One would think these elements of color variation were numerous enough ; but they were not nearly all. Presently a splash of an oar in a distant part of the Spring sent a succession of ripples over the pool. Instantly it broke into a thousand-fold prism. Every ripple was a long curve of varigated sheen. The fundamental hues of the pool when at rest were distributed into innumerable kaleidoscopic flashes and brilliances. The multitudes of fish became multitudes of animated gems, and the prismatic lights seemed actually to waver and play through their translucent bodies, until the whole Spring, in a great blaze of sunlight, shown like an enormous fluid jewel that, without decreasing, forever lapsed away upward in successive exhalations of dissolving sheens and glittering colors."
Silver Spring may be likened unto the happy denouement of some


IN A SUMMER LAND.
43
at home.
pretty story to which the uncertain bends of the river are the opening chapters.
It can neither be written nor portrayed by any artist's pencil. Some carving may be done on a block of wood, a picture madesome type letters underneath, that spell the words "Silver Spring." 'Tis like a song which may be written, yet there can come none of its melody to the soul from the paper.
One must see Silver Spring and gaze down into the deep crystal waters, whence there come visions of romance which other thousands dream not of.
Here indeed must be the home of 'the mermaids queen, and one imagines what a pretty mermaid his dainty sweetheart might make;


and to live in such a crystal palaceperish that thought, how could you ever live there, and you a mere man.
"So soon! Are we to go from this place, so soon?" As our little steamer turns her prow homeward, we wish that it were yesterday again or that to-day was yet to dawn.
" Yes," says Mac, It's the boss spring, and any fish that is sucker enough to live any where else than in Silver Spring, deserves a diet of worms stuffed with fish hooks."
Until arrival at Silver Spring, there is absolutely no stopping place, at least for the tourist, who is advised to retain the key of his state-room until the return to Palatka. And yet there are some elegant residences all along the river, but the owners are not of that hospitable ilk which constitutes the average American landlord. It is perhaps just the thing to give you a tourist's idea of one of these homes.
" Some twenty miles from the mouth of the Ocklawaha, at the right-hand edge of the stream, is the handsomest residence in America. It belongs to a certain alligator of my acquaintance, a very honest and worthy saurian of good repute. A little cove of water, dark-green under the over-hanging leaves, placid, pellucid, curves around at the river edge into the flags and lilies, with a curve just heart-breaking for the pure beauty of the flexture of it. This house of my saurian is divided into apartmentslittle subsidiary bays, which are scolloped out by the lily-pads according to the sinuous fantasies of their growth.
" My saurian, when he desires to sleep, has but to lie down anywhere ; he will find marvelous mosses for his mattress beneath him ; his sheets will be white lily petals, and the green disks of the lily-pads will straightway embroider themselves together above him for his coverlet. He never quarrels with his cook; he is not the slave of a kitchen, and his own housemaid, the stream, forever sweeps his chambers clean. His conservatories there, under the glass of that water, are ever and without labor filled with the enchantments of strange under-water growths ; his parks and his pleasure grounds are bigger than any king's. Upon my saurian's house the winds have no power, the rains are only a new delight to him, and the snows he will never see. Regarding fire, as he does not employ its slavery, so he fears not its tyranny. Thus all the elements are the friends of my saurian's house. While he sleeps he is being bathed. What glory to awake sweetened and freshened by the sole careless act of sleep !
" Lastly, my saurian has unnumbered mansions, and can change his dwelling as no human householder may; it is but a filip of his tail,


IN A SUMMER LAND.
45
and lo he is established in another place as good as the last, ready furnished to his liking."
Through boats go on up the Ocklawha to Leesburg and Okahum-kee, through another chain of lakes, classed extra, "A i," in sporting circles, for every kind of sport, Lakes Griffin, Harris, Hawkins, Eustis. and Sam's Lake forming the group.
Thirty miles further on Lake Eustis is Pendry ville/where the hunter and tourist may be taken in and cared for. Now, of course, the way is open behind us, and we may return by river to Palatka ; but, if you prefer, we can take the cars of the Transit Railroad at Silver Spring for Cedar Keys and the Gulf, or return by rail via Fernandina to Jacksonville, or the trains of the Florida Southern at Ocala for Tampa back to Palatka direct. At Fort Mason take cars of St. John's and Lake Eustis Railroad, now running, for the St. John's River, connecting with boats at Astor.
If time is any object to the tourist, return to Palatka may be made in a few hours, as first class passenger trains run regularly from Silver Spring, over the Transit and Florida Southern R. R's., or one may continue the journey to Ocala, Leesburg, Waldo, Gainesville, Cedar Key, and the Gulf, to Tampa and Charlotte Harbor, or even back to Jacksonville or Fernandina by rail.
From Palatka the Florida Southern Railway runs daily trains to Silver Spring, and parties may make the journey and return in a day, and avoid the loss of time required to make the trip by boat.
The road runs through a section of country rich in tropic beauty, through an orange grove or a palmetto forest, now through the pines for a while, then along the lakeside whose clear waters are the homes of myriads of fish that live under the lilies, where bright-feathered birds come to dine.
They stood on the platform of the car together. One puffed a fragrant Havana, his reveries doubtless of that Como-Claude-Melnotte order that obtains while drinking in these tropic beauties.
The other bit off more than any other man could "chaw," and remarked : Say, stranger, don't look like a thutty pound trout could live in that air little lake, duz it?"
No reply, only a look of encouragement from the smoker.
"Thutty pound's purty big fish."
No reply, though more encouragement from the audience. Ketched one there myself, weighed leetle more'n that." No reply, just a twinkle of applause,
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IN A SUMMER LAND.
45
and lo he is established in another place as good as the last, ready furnished to his liking."
Through boats go on up the Ocklawha to Leesburg and Okahum-kee, through another chain of lakes, classed extra, "A i," in sporting circles, for every kind of sport, Lakes GrifHn, Harris, Hawkins, Eustis. and Sam's Lake forming the group.
Thirty miles further on Lake Eustis is Pendry ville/where the hunter and tourist may be taken in and cared for. Now, of course, the way is open behind us, and we may return by river to Palatka ; but, if you prefer, we can take the cars of the Transit Railroad at Silver Spring for Cedar Keys and the Gulf, or return by rail via Fernandina to Jacksonville, or the trains of the Florida Southern at Ocala for Tampa back to Palatka direct. At Fort Mason take cars of St. John's and Lake Eustis Railroad, now running, for the St. John's River, connecting with boats at Astor.
If time is any object to the tourist, return to Palatka may be made in a few hours, as first class passenger trains run regularly from Silver Spring, over the Transit and Florida Southern R. R's., or one may continue the journey to Ocala, Leesburg, Waldo, Gainesville, Cedar Key, and the Gulf, to Tampa and Charlotte Harbor, or even back to Jacksonville or Fernandina by rail.
From Palatka the Florida Southern Railway runs daily trains to Silver Spring, and parties may make the journey and return in a day, and avoid the loss of time required to make the trip by boat.
The road runs through a section of country rich in tropic beauty, through an orange grove or a palmetto forest, now through the pines for a while, then along the lakeside whose clear waters are the homes of myriads of fish that live under the lilies, where bright-feathered birds come to dine.
They stood on the platform of the car together. One puffed a fragrant Havana, his reveries doubtless of that Como-Claude-Melnotte order that obtains while drinking in these tropic beauties.
The other bit off more than any other man could "chaw," and remarked : Say, stranger, don't look like a thutty pound trout could live in that air little lake, duz it?"
No reply, only a look of encouragement from the smoker.
"Thutty pound's purty big fish."
No reply, though more encouragement from the audience. Ketched one there myself, weighed leetle more'n that." No reply, just a twinkle of applause,
\\\\\\\Wk\\m
Hi


IN A SUMMER LAND.
4?
building westward to the rich regions of the Suwanee River. The Ocala division is being built southward with an ultimate destination at Tampa and Charlotte Harbor, passing the Orange Lake region and other valuable lands en route.
FERNANDINA AND THE TRANSIT RAILWAY.
Fernandina, the second city in the State, situated on Amelia Island, at the mouth of the St. Mary's River, has a fine harbor. Vessels drawing nineteen to twenty feet of water can pass the bar in safety, thus making it a shipping point of great importance. Its splendidly landlocked haven is often crowded with shipping, bearing flags of half a dozen nations, waiting their cargoes of yellow pine, cotton, naval stores, or vegetables.
Fernandina is the northern terminus of the Atlantic Gulf and West India Transit Railroad, where are also their headquarters and shops. v
The Transit Road, as it is called in Florida parlance, runs from the Atlantic to the Gulf of Mexico at Cedar Keys, which, with its Peninsular Division, now building southward to Tampa and Charlotte Harbor, opens to Fernandina a business prospect which will enhance its importance in a commercial way very considerably, and makes it a growing city.
Fernandina has much to attract the pleasure seeker, and the tour is not complete till one has a ride down the beach, which affords a drive of twenty miles, which induces the native to whisper confidentially, in case you should forget it, that this "the Long Branch of the South," and indeed the sand, hardened by the continual washing of the waves, makes a roadway not found everywhere. The novelty of a mid-winter drive on the sea shore hath its charms.
To gather shells for your lover, to write upon the sands the oft spoken words as that vehement Florida lover did when he said :
* ?i wrote upon the sands,
Agnes, I love thee;
An angry wave washed away the words.
Cruel waves! Treacherous sands !
I'll to the Norway's frozen shore,
And pluck her tallest pine,
With its top dipped in Vesuvius crater,
Upon the skies I'll write
-Agnes, I love thee,
and I'd like to see any dog goned wave wash that out."
^31


48
WINTER CITIES
Fort Clinch at the north end of the beach, just at the entrance of the harbor is the terminus of a pleasant drive. Within an hours' sail is Cumberland Island, the object of a pleasant excursion, easily and safely reached by sail or row boat. Close to the landing are the ruins of Dun-geness, once the home of Nathaniel Greene, presented to him by the State of Georgia, in gratitude for his soldierly services. Near by is shown the grave of Henry Lee, the father of Gen. Robert E. Lee: Henry Lee, who won the sobriquet of "Light Horse Harry" in the old Revolutionary days. The old gardens with the olives, the oranges, and the magnolias, down by the sea, tell the story of the old-time grandeur in this sunny Southern home, where these gallant soldiers found a rich reward in the peaceful days which came after long years of war.
Opposite Fernandina, on the river St. Mary's, is the town of that name, a quiet little village of some importance in the lumber trade, also growing as a resort for invalids and pleasure seekers, being a first-class place to stop.
All around these two cities game and fish are found in greatest abundance, particularly on Cumberland and the other Islands that dot the sounds along the coast. Large parties of hunters and fishers make their headquarters here during the season, and ample accommodations are to be found.
The completion of the new railroad, places Fernandina within an hour of Jacksonville, and the two cities, linked at last, become the most popular Winter resorts in America.
All along the line of the Transit Railroad are points of interest to the tourist, the tradesman, the emigrant, or the invalid, and for their information we give the names of all stations, and the distances from Fernandina.
miles. miles.
Hart's Road, (Jacksonville June.) 12 Gainesville, (Palatka Junction) 98
Callahan (Waycross Junction) .27 Archer,..........113
Dutton,............36 Bronson,..........122
Baldwin, (Tallahassee Junction) 47 Rosewood, .........145
Maxville,...........55 Cedar Keys,........155
aldo. (Peninsula Junction) . 84
The road runs through the immense pine forests, for which the State is noted, but boasts some very fine lands convenient to the track ; a large number of acres being controlled by the railroad company, offered to settlers at very low prices lands suited for garden farming, equally adapted to the culture of the orange and other tropical fruits, some of the finest groves in the State being immediately on the line;


IN A SUMMER LAND.
49
in season, whole trains are required to move the immense quantities of vegetables, which are ready for market weeks before any other part of the country.
Waldo, a little village of some five hundred people, is the junction of the Peninsular Division, where a number of warm-weather hunters may find pleasant stopping places.
A canal connects Waldo with Lake Santa Fe, on which there are pleasure boats for the use of all.
NEARING SILVER SPRING.


5o WINTER CITIES
Here, also, the Peninsular Division connects with the main line, through cars running to Orange Lake, Silver Spring, Ocala and Wild-wood. The following are the
DISTANCES FROM WALDO.
miles. miles.
Dixie,............. 8 Silver Spring,.........46
Hawthorne,..........14 Ocala,............50
Lochloosa, ....... 20 Lake Weir Station,......66
Orange Lake,.........28 Wildwood,..........76
Anthony Place,.......37
Gainesville, the most important town in the interior, has a population of about two thousand. In Winter the number is largely increased. On account of the very mild climate large numbers of health seekers come here to recuperate. Gainesville has the advantage of location, perhaps, over any other town in the State. In the midst of the pine woods, the immense forests shut off the sometimes too cool east wind, and the gentle breeze is laden with the healthful resinous perfume from the giant pines which completely surround the city and stand between it and the sea.
Gainesville has some importance as a trade center, numbers commodities from a pine log or cotton bale to a cucumber or a Winter strawberry. This is one of the most important stations on the road, both in freight and passenger traffic.
Near the city is the celebrated Alachua Sink, a strange body of water which has no visible outlet, and is supposed to be relieved through subterranean channels to the Gulf or the Atlantic. It is said where the water now is, was once dryland. An open prairie sank to thebpwels of the earth, and the waters rose and covered the face thereof.
You never thought of it, did you ? Where do all the cords and cords of cedar come from, which go to make the bone and sinew of our lead pencils. Without intending it, we have come to the greatest market for cedar logs in the country,
CEDAR KEYS,
a little Florida town on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. Among her other articles of commerce are fish, green sea turtles and sponges ; also, fruit, cigars from Key West and Havana, and the inevitable yellow pine. The Bay of Cedar Keys affords a fine harbor, and there is a regular line of steamships plying from this port to New Orleans,


Key West, Tampa and Havana ; also, several small steamers and sailing vessels in the trade coast-wise.
This is the landing place for those who "go down to sea in ships" from New Orleans.
As the ship comes in, one watches the nodding palm trees which fringe the shore, they seem to bid a welcome from the dangers of the sea. Coming up the pretty bay half a hundred little islands are passed, half hidden in cedars and palmettos, cozy cottages peep from between the leaves, giving evidence that a contented people are passing their palmiest days."
A volume might be written of the sporting pleasures to be found in the country around Cedar Keys; game which would make Daniel Boone forget he ever was in Kentucky, and fish which Isaac Walton never dreamed of. Here are facilities in the way of boats, either sail, steam, or row, which may be had at reasonable rates, with guides who tell you more than any book can, and to show all there is to be seen.
The late Green Smith, the celebrated shootist, told the writer that he had hunted and fished in almost every land under the sun, but that nowhere had he been so absolutely surrounded with game as in the Cedar Keys country, down to and beyond the Homosassa River, as far as Charlotte Harbor. His plan was to make headquarters at Cedar Keys, secure a sail-boat with a smaller row-boat in tow, and, after stocking it fully with all supplies; start on his cruise; remaining, sometimes, weeks, always returning surfeited with his successes. Try this plan once, and you wiH find out more than we have time to write.
For invalid tourists, the climate here is pronounced superior, which is attested by the large numbers going there every Winter. They will find ample accommodations at good hotels and private boarding places.
It would be impossible to print here all the information we have at hand ; and if we went south of Cedar Keys and tried to tell all about the country there, another volume must needs be written ; we must leave it to the guide to tell you, or yourself to find out, about Tampa and Key West, Charlotte Harbor and the Everglades.
At Cedar Keys all facilities for getting to these points may be found, and our advice is go and see what may never be truly written. How could one tell on paper how a green turtle looks lying on her back, with the hot tears streaming down her cheeks, or how many hundred eggs she had deposited in the sand in the fond hope of a prolific posterity,


52
WINTER CITIES
a hope which is so often rudely blasted by the unfeeling Minorcan, who gathers them in for his own insatiable appetite ?
"Turtling," is a favorite sport on the Gulf coast. The hunt is always by night, when the turtles come up on the sands to deposit their eggsno bait is needed, no "fishin'-pole," only two good hands catch the turtle under the eaves, as it were, turn it on its back and go for another, till you are tired turning them over.
This is no laughing matter with the turtles, .^IBlllBil and they
SILVER SPRINGTHE RUN,

9m


IN A SUMMER LAND.
53
about it; on your return for your game you will find them, every one, weepingpresumably over their own funerals, or those of "their sisters and their cousins and their aunts."
Carloads are shipped from Cedar Keys to find their ways to the lunch counters and dining rooms of the North-land.
The shelter of their youth ofttimes becomes their tomb-stone, an epitaph of singular sameness inscribes them all, and three little words tell all their virtues, Turtle soup to-day."
The Cedar Keyster don't care whether a month has an R" in it or not; there are oysters to the right of him, and oysters to the left of him, in the front yard and the back garden-. He gathers them in, when he does the strawberries and potatoes, and they occupy a place on his bill of fare three hundred and sixty-five times a year.The average Cedar Key girl is not to be caught by an oyster supperbetter bait with breakfast bacon or some other foreign delicacy.
How could we tell you just how a sponge diver looks as he scrambles over the edge of his boat with arms full of dripping sponges ?
Alive and a kicking, the sponges are, snatched ruthlessly from home and friends, they are hung out to dry, then shipped to other lands to do ignominious duty in bath houses, and to be spit upon by school boys for their slates, "aye, there's the rub""to what base uses are we come."
What words are there to impress on your mind the picture of a manatee, even if we do tell you a manatee is a sea-cow; it is a fish which lives in the sea, yet eats grass and feeds its young after the manner of the most approved short-horn in the Blue Grass country. I say, you must see all this, for paper won't tell you about it, and you can only see it all on the Gulf coast of Florida.
More venturesome tourists come back from voyages along the southern coast and tell stories which sound like Sinbad the Sailor's yarns "A country of cedars, of sponges, of corals, of strange fish, of shells multitudinous in shape and tint, of hundreds of quiet bays whose circular waters lie embraced in the curves of their white beaches as the old moon in the cusps of the new." ,
"There is a certain large blandness in the air, a sense of far a ay-ness in the wide water-stretches, an indefinable feeling of withdrawal from harsh life, which gives to this suave region, as compared with others, the proportion which mild dreams bear to realities. It is a sort of Arabian Nights vaguely diffused and beaten out info long, glittering, slopy expanses; the waters presently cease to be waters and seem only great level enchantments which shine."


54
WINTER CITIES
This land of beauty can only be reached, at this writing, by boat from Cedar Keys ; but ere many moons have passed over the land of Oceola and Tiger Tail, the whistle of the locomotive will be heard all along its shores.
Tampa was the landing place of Florida's first tourist, Ponce de Leon, whose ships dropped their anchors in the deep waters of her harbor.
Whatever is said in praise of other Florida towns, Tampa "sees it and goes one better."
Punta Rossa is the telegraph station where the wires end and the cable for Key West and Havana begins.
TALLAHASSEE AND MIDDLE FLORIDA.
Our journey now must be on the barjk track to Jacksonville, whence we will go to Middle Florida, this time taking the cars of the Florida Central and Western Railroad, a road running west from Jacksonville some two hundred miles, tapping a' country as different from any that we have seen as is possible. At Baldwin we cross the Transit Road again, bound west through all the towns given below, with the distances from Jacksonville:
miles. miles.
Baldwin, (Cedar Keys Junction), 19 Madison,..........no
Darbyville,..........28 Monticello,.........142
Sanderson,...........37 Tallahassee, (St. Mark's Junction) 165
Lake City,...........59 Quincy,..........189
Live Oak, (Savannah Junction), 82 Chattahoochee River, .... 209
Ellaville,...........95
Lake City is a pleasant little town of about seventeen hundred people, and, as its name would indicate, is in the midst of the lake region. These lakes abound in every species of fresh water fish, easily taken in large numbers at any season of the year. Twelve miles east of Lake City, at Olustee, was fought during the war between the States the battle of Ocean Pond, General Seymour commanding the United States troops with Generals Finnegan and Colquit, (the latter since governor of Georgia) on the Confederate side. The monotony of the seemingly almost interminable pine forest is broken by the splendid live oaks which shade the streets of Lake City, and, in fact, all along the line these live oak patches, which would indicate a better soil, have been selected as the sites for the little towns; and one comes to them as to an oasis, so pleasant is the relief from the monotony of piney woods.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
It would seem that where live oaks grow, villages abound; but ust whether the trees grow up with the town, or the towns with the trees, the deponent sayeth not.
The next point of importance is Live Oak, which city is not recommended for anything in particular, save that it is the proper place to
change cars for Sajp.nnah, Thomasville, and points beyond; for the benefit of any who might lose a connection (and such things have occurred there), we give the stopping places on another page of this book.
Near Live Oak is a White Sulphur Spring, which has, for many years, enjoyed a local reputation. The fame of its waters have gone abroad in the land, and a company of capitalists have purchased the


WINTER CITIES
spring, and are erecting a large hotel. These springs are situated in Suwanee County, on the Suwanee River, six miles from Live Oak Junction, one mile from the Sav., Fla. & W. R.R., long famous in Florida and Lower Georgia, for its remarkrble cures of rheumatism, gout, dyspepsia, kindred diseases, and general debility. It is the original great "medicine spring" of which Ponce de Leon heard. Its fame extends as far back as the memory of the oldest inhabitant. It has been visited in Summer from time immemorial by the people of Middle Florida, rich and poor, who regard it as one of the most wonderful springs in the world. The accommodations have always been meagre, and no provision made for Winter visitors. The location of the spring is on the banks of the beautiful Suwanee. The river water, clear and rapid, boating and fishing good all the way, hunting fine around the spring, and a beautiful grove of live oaks'; the banks of river are high and studded all along with the ancient oaks. It is the most healthful section of the State. The surrounding country is covered with pine trees; no swamps or marshes near; no cold winds, but balmy breezes, soft in Summer, bracing in Winter, making music through the pines all the time.
A few miles west of Live Oak is the famous Suwanee River, which has give name to a song, whose simple melody has been heard in every land under the sun, and
"Way down upon de Swanee Ribber,"
is the little village of Ellaville, the residence of Ex-Governor Drew, an important point in the lumber interest, Gov. Drew's mill being one of the largest in the country, and employing hundreds of laborers.
It is a good plan for sportsmen, to go to Ellaville, have a flat boat built, which can be done for a small sum, and drift down the Suwanee River to the mouth, whither the current alone will take him in about ten days, plenty of fish and game en route. A steamboat plies regularly from the lower waters to Cedar Keys, and return may be made that way. Ellaville is only eleven miles west of Live Oak.
The next station on our way westward, is Madison, just on the boundary of the Piedmont regions of Florida, in a fertile country which brings a good trade to the town.
At Driftofl we take "the branch train" for Monticello, four miles distant from the main line, a thriving little town situated in a belt of fine cotton lands, and a very pleasant place to go.
This little city boasts herself the rival of Thomasville, which city is only twenty miles away.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
57
For a time, we are done with pine barrens and low, flat lands on which they grow.
You would never have known that there were any hills in Florida if we had not come to Tallahassee, would you? We strike the hill ciountry soon after crossing the Suwanee, and each mile we travel westward makes them higher and higher, till it looks as though we-may have a mountain to climb before we reach the Chattahoochee.
Five miles east of Tallahassee is Lake Lafayette, of which a prominent writer says: It was early in the morning, and the water had that delicate sheen of distilled silver, which it wears at no other time; a sheen like an indefinite rolling out of the two dainty cusps of the very newest morn; a sheen like the soft and innocent childhood, of a brightness, which at maturity, will be dazzling. Over the stirless plain of pleasant glory, lay hundreds and thousands, and surely millions, of virginal white water lilies.
Presently they thickened; there were yards and rods and acres of them, until the whole surface of the water was covered without a break. It was a long winding lake of lily-pads, mysteriously upborne, and stretching away like a green heaven, in which were set the innumerable spherical stars of the lilies. Winding about among the hills for a few moments longer, we came presently to the Tallahassee Depot."
We have not said that Tallahassee is the capital of Florida; but surely you have not forgotten your geography lesson, and really we did not think to mention it; but such is the fact which did not occur to our minds until the carriage reached the top of the long hill running back from the depot, and we passed right in front of the capitol building. Imagine a large brick building, with massive white columns, on which rests a portico, fashioned after the manner of the court-house of the olden time, and you have in your mind's eye, the State House, only you must surround it with magnificent live oaks, magnolias, and even roses and bananas. The grounds are well kept, "snowy with tall lilies and fleecy with sprays of bridal-wreath shrubs. The live-oaks put forth their tassels, and the dusky green fig-orchards have a tinge of tender green. The winds from Jke Gulf have in them, the sweetest tropical languors. Should there not be good laws manufactured in a garden of magnolias and roses?-And yet there are complaints even of the Florida legislator; but then you know, some people will complain of anything.
Many days may be pleasantly spent in the Tallahassee hills, if we would "do" all the excursions which are offered. Lake Lafayette, of which we have spoken, is so called from its location on the estate granted to the Marquis de Lafayette by our government.


WINTER CITIES
tallahassee.
Lakes Bradford, Iamonia and Jackson, must all be rowed over and fished in. The residence of Murat must be visited and asked about; the St. Mark's River investigated, as to why it will not run on top of the earth all the time, like all well-regulated rivers, but will persist in going part way under ground. ,
Perhaps you may not have noticed it, but through all these pages, there has been a marked absence of any allusion to "the fountain of perpetual youth," as sought for, by that ancient go-^^you-please tourist, Ponce de Leon; and we have left it to the last on purpose, because we did not desire to make any statement on the early pages to retract on the latter ones, for every one from Silver Spring and Blue, including Green Cove, and one at St. Augustine, claim the honor, and now Wakulla is the last one of the identical springs to be read about, and we thus escape any charge of partiality.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
59
Wakulla Spring is fifteen miles from Tallahassee. For description, turn to the account of Silver Spring in this book, and where the word Silver occurs, insert Wakulla.
Some day while yau are climbing over Tallahasse hills, stop at the summit of the highest, look to the south-east and far away over the hills; see the mysterious smoke, which rises from Wakulla swamp, and wonder, as all your predecessors have done, where on earth it comes from; if it does not comes from "on earth "for it might not you knowthere is a sulphur spring near, and where there is so much smoke, there must be some fire. The darkies have dubbed this column of smoke, de debbil's tar kiln," but what the devil wants with a tar kiln, is past finding out, unless, perhaps his satanic majesty may use its productions in the way of refreshments; a warm mnch, as it were.
"Who ever goes to Tallahassee will hear of the mysterious smoke of Wakulla. It was first talked of in the early days, when St. Mark's" was just beginning to be known as a landing-place for Gulf-coast vessels. The sailors saw it from far out on the water; a tall, slender column, now black like pitch smoke; now gray, like the smoke from burning leaves, and anon, white, like steam.
" Its apparent location is in the midst of a swamp, very little^above tide water, wherein grow every conceivable aquatic weed, and grass, and bush, and treea jungle a hundred-fold more difficult to penetrate than any in Africa or India."
"It is no hoax, no illusion, no creation of a vivid Southern imagination. The smoke is there. It has been noted and commented on for nearly fifty years." It has been seen almost constantly from the north, the east, the south, and the west."
" It is a permanent and persistent mysterya constant taunt and banter which nature flaunts in the faces of scientific explorers, and it offers the reward of fame for high achievement to whomsoever will solve its riddle."
Its origin has been credited to all sorts of people, smugglers, pirates, run-a-way negroes, deserters, and thedevil himselfbut just why that smoke is there, is ^mething which no fellow can find outof course it has been called a volcano.
Its history forms a chapter in that pretty little story entitled "A Tallahassee Girl," from whose pages we have quoted.
Agriculturally speaking, we have now reached the acme of our tour. The lands hereabout are fertile to a degree eminently satisfactory. Cotton, corn, sugar-cane, wheat and tobacco, are grown with


6o
WINTER CITIES
equal success ; and particularly the tobacco of the kind which makes a Havana cigar so fragrant, requiring a peculiarity of soil, grows here luxuriantly, while fifty miles away will not produce the amount of seed. Market gardening, however, is destined to become a large part of Tallahassee's trade; the one thing needful, capital, will not be long coming, as soon as the facilities for marketing the produce are perfected.
To the invalid, we commend the climate, and if any day on the hills becomes too cool, let him run down in the pines for a little season he will not be gone long. To all comers we commend the hospitality of the people. Dan Mullaney, in his "Tour in Florida," says: "Why the tourist who Winters in Florida don't visit this section more, I am unable to understand, unless they don't know anything about it; for I must say in all my travels I have never met a pleasanter set of people than at Tallahassee; without any exception, the houses I have visited are first-class in every respect." And Dan has travelled.
Another popular writer, Lanier, has to say on this subject: "The repute of these people for hospitality, was a matter of national renown before the war between the States ; and even the dreadful reverses of that cataclysm appear to have spent their force in vain against this feature of Tallahassee manners ; for much testimony since the warto which this writer cheerfully adds his owngoes to show that this exists unimpaired."
From Tallahassee we will follow in the course taken by the star of empire. Westward twenty-five miles we come to Quincy, travelling through the hills which remind one of Tennessee or Kentucky. Quincy is one of those old fashioned towns which one finds in so many journeys over this fair land.
The inevitable court house square, with its temple of justice in the centre of it, is at Quincy. And that reminds us that the expression on the square," doubtless originated in one of these old time towns where the courts held their sessions in their chambers at the court house on the square.
There are those old time mansions in Quincy which one reads about in books; white with green blinds, wide galleries all around, with rambling old hallways running through ; all halfiiidden among the trees, the path-way from the gate, lined on either side by a hedge of roses or myrtle trees.
Whatever is said of Tallahassee's flowers, and all Florida imports roses from Tallahassee, may be said also of Quincy; they are on every hand, and bloom every month in the year.


IN A SUMMER LAND
61
Agriculturally speaking, the country round about, takes the blue ribbon as to fertility. The soil, like that of Tallahassee,
among the pines
imparts all the superior quality to that tobacco which has made the Havana cigar celebrated the world over. Before the war, its cultivation was carried with success, but has since been entirely neglected. There is now


required only enterprising management to make this land Cuba's most successful rival.
Continuing our ride westward a few miles, Chattahoochee is reached, where is located the State Insane Asylum. Only a little village is there, but with advent of other railroads now building, a city, or at least a town is prophesied.
It has the Chattaaoochee River for an outlet to the Gulf. West, ward, the Pensacola and Atlantic Railway connects it with Pensacola, Mobile and New Orleans ; eastward, the Florida Central and Western, for Jacksonville and the Atlantic; and the Savannah, Florida and Western, for Savannah, Charleston, and the North. Northward, the Chattahoochee River is navigable to Eufaula and Columbus; both railroad centres of some note; hence the commercial future of this little hamlet, must be considered bright.
On the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers, little boats ply up and down, where are new fields for the tourists' pleasure. Down the river to the Gulf is a ride, rich in semi-tropic scenery, with the quaint old town of Apalachicola at the end of it. Once a metropolis, mistress, of an immense traffic; now a lazy little town, where the inland Southern sportsman "goes a fishin" on a large scale. Clubs in Macon and Columbus charter little steamers, and go out to the snapper banks, where they spend days in fishing and having a good time. A lot of royal fellows they are too, who know what a good thing is when they have it.
Up the river, the stream winds away among the hills to Fort Gaines, Eufaula, and Columbus, at which latter city, is a fine water-power which has not its equal in the land. Immense cotton factories are on its banks, employing thousands of operatives.
The ride up the river and back again, is richly worth the time of the tourist; under the care of such mariners as Captains Moore and Whiteside, one is assured of safety and good living.
If we start from Chattahoochee, where we left the cars, we mu^t make the round trip, for we must do the rest of the country, which as yet we have not explored.
So when we have seen all the pretty windings of these rivers we will go back again to Tallahassee and take the stage for Thomasville. We can go by rail also, and most pleasantly too, along the road whence we came, changing cars at Live Oak; but as we have had no stage riding in this tour, suppose we try a little here for a change.
A prominent writer says ; "It occasionally happens that some one


IN A SUMMER LAND.
63
desirous of turning aside from that great stream of excursionists, tourists, health-seekers, pleasure-seekers, and orange maniacs, which pours through Way Cross on to Jacksonville and up the St. John's, is led to accept the offer of a days ride in a hack, from Thomasville to Talla-hasssee." 'Whoever does this, does it with misgivings; but he never regrets it. Without doubt, it is the most delightful little over-land journey in the South."
"There is a touch of the old time, in the way departure is made ; the horses prancing, the coach rattling, and the driver sending a melody of sweet sounds through his horn into the pines." We are whirled along a smooth road, the white line of its sands mark the way far ahead and behind us. Anon the silver of a lake's shining waters shimmering in the sun-light, shows its lilies close- to the road-side; this, after the chocolate hills are passed, wrrffch shut out Tallahassee from the pine levels of Georgia.
It is a.days journey from Tallahassee to Thomasville but the hours pass right quickly, as one contemplates the entire newness of things.
THOMASVILLE
*
lies white and clean, half hidden in its orchards of peach a.nd pear trees, in the heart of what appears to be a limitless pine wood, but which is in reality the southern fringe of that wood where it breaks into the brown fertile billows of the Tallahassee country. There is a really fine hotel at Thomasvillea large, well appointed brick structure with modern improvements. It over-tops the surrounding buildings, so that one standing on its iron balconies, can look away beyond the clustered town houses to those of the country, as they nestle in their embowering orchards and live oak groves.
Thomasville is a resort made by nature's own hand. Her people have not been slow to realize the fact, and to develop it. Its future is assured, and the tourist is welcomed to a happy family of contented people, whose home-life is as rose-colored as are the pretty flowers which embower their houses.
Thomasville is a commercial city of no mean importance. Situated as it is, on the main thoroughfare between Savannah and New Orleans, and on the Albany line between Cincinnati and Jacksonville, it has every facility of communication with the outside world.
It had been our mind to engage the facile pen of an artist who had traveled over the ground, to write an article on the climatology of


64
WINTER CITIES
Thomasville, which description we intended to use for that city, and then garble it to suit Aiken and Eastman, as they are "three of a kind," but the artist has not appeared, and we are thrown on our own resources, culling a few verses from the native writer, who says :
"The natural advantages for man's sustenance and enjoyment, are more equally distributed throughout the earth than is generally supposed ; but when the climate, the seasons, the water courses, the soil and its varied productions, the proximity to the great highways of commerce, and the topography of Thomasville are duly considered and compared with the advantages of other sections, Nature will be found to have expended here more than an average share of her blessing."
In reference to Thomasville as a Winter resort for invalids, we quote the following from the report of Dr. T. S. Hopkins, Chairman of the Committee on the pfectice of Medicine, second Congressional District, on "The Pine Forests of Southern Georgia, its Climate and Adaptability to the Consumptive," read before the Medical Association of Georgia, at its twenty-fifth annual convocation, on the second day of April, 1874, at Thomasville, Georgia. '
"While I do not hesitate to recommend the entire district as a safe resort for the consumptive, I must admit that certain localities therein possess advantages superior to others. With my knowledge of the country, if an invalid, seeking a Winter resort, I would select Thomas County, on account of its elevation, its thorough natural drainage, its pure and delightful freestone waters, its dryness, its equability of temperature. The natural drainage of the town is excellent, fully adequate to the speedy removal of all the water that falls. In a few hours after the heaviest fall of rain the streets are dry and the atmosphere as clear and balmy as though no rain had fallen. In consequence of the rapidity with which the water is carried off, there is little absorption, hence but little evaporation, and, as a consequence, less moisture than at other points less favorably situated. There are no bodies of water within eighteen miles of the town, and the nearest river is four miles distant.
Immediately after the reading of the report, Dr. H. V. M. Miller, of
Atlanta, Ex-United States Senator, offered the following resolution, which
was unanimously adopted by the Association :
"Resolved, That this association earnestly and fully endorse the opinions and statements contained in the paper just read by Dr. T. S. Hopkins, and in view of its importance to the whole country, desire to give to it the widest possible publicity."
The healthy tourist can find much to amuse during a stay in Thomasville. There are splendid drives over the long level roads, only twenty


IN A SUMMER LAND.
miles to Monticello and thirty-five to Tallahassee, Floridaan easy drive for any day with the good livery at hand. There is good fishing and hunting near by, in the Ocklocknee or Iamonia Lake.
On the route to Jacksonville, a score of miles to the eastward of Thomasville, is Quitman, a flourishing little town of two thousand inhabitants, with a considerable trade in the products of the country, and a nice, quiet place to spend a month when the weather every-where else is cold and disagreeable. Near the town are several springs, having a local reputation as to their healing properties.
Valdosta, the county seat of Lowndes County, Georgia, and is still further southward on our line of travel. There are about two thousand people in Valdosta. All that pertains to Thomasville and Quitman in the way of a Winter home, applies to Valdosta as well, and their trade list is as large.
The Albany Line, from Macon to Jacksonville, runs through a series of Winter Cities of the Aiken-Eastman-piney-woods variety, and much frequented by visitors desiring of quiet, restful quarters, with dry, resinous air, rather than the gay season of the fashionable Winter resort.
Albany is north of Thomasville; is a pleasant little city of some three thousand people ; has a commercial importance of some note, through the large amount of cotton received and shipped. Three railroads center here, the Central, of Georgia, to the North and West ; the Savannah, Florida and Western, to Savannah, Jacksonville and the East; the Brunswick and Albany to Brunswick and the Coast. The same broad, well-shaded streets which mark the Southern town, are found in Albany.
Macon is the distributing point for all this section, as well as the other lines to Florida. Let us ramble over her hills for a day.
When one has spent a day in Macon, another is wished for. The hotels are good, with all modern conveniences; the climate just right and plenty of it
All along the line of the different routes to Florida, are pleasant places where the tourist may stop, either coming or going, and thus make gradual his transition from Winter to Summer.
Southward from Macon, the cars of the Macon and Brunswick division of the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia R. R., carries the passenger to Jacksonville, without change, the time required for the journey, being about twelve hours over a good road-bed, in well-equipped trains, with all modern appliances for comfort and safety.


66 WINTER CITIES
On the direct line, fifty-six miles from Macoi, is
EASTMAN,
In the very heart of the upland pinery of Middle Georgia; the climate attracts a large number of visitors every Winter. For some fifteen or twenty miles in either direction, the land rolls like a Western prairie. The woods have but little under-growth, and present an English parklike aspect.
The soil being of a sandy, clay loam, stiff enough to bear wheels, renders driving and riding very attractive. A good livery to suit the wants of visitors, will afford guests and invalids ample opportunity for
FOUNTAIN, FORSYTH PARK, SAVANNAH.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
67
enjoying the pleasant drives in the surrounding country. Good saddle horses for gentlemen and ladies are to be had at moderate prices. The air of these pine uplands is found to have a healing virtue in all bronchial and pulmonary complaints.
At Eastman will be found one of the most complete hotels in the South. It has ample accommodations; broad piazzas surrounding the building on three sides, covering in the lower and second stories. Rooms on the upper floors have balconies opening out over the piazza. All the bedrooms have a pleasant outlook, are all ventilated, and are arranged for fires. The offices, ladies' parlor, and dining rooms, with their bay windows filled with flowers, lend to the house a feeling of home comfort. Among the attractions, are the Croquet Lawn, Magnolia Lake, Sulphur Pool on Col. Harrell's Plantation near the Ocmulgee River, Long Cave. The Lake with no inlet or outlet on Hon. Wm. Pitt Eastman's Plantation. Finest hunting and fishing in Middle Georgia. In short, another one of the many pleasant stopping places to be found all along the line.
Double daily trains leave for Jacksonville and the far South, also for Northern and Western cities through cars run without change.
At Jesup the Jacksonville cars are attached to the Waycross train, but we will retain our seats till arrival at Brunswick, the southern terminus of the M. & B. R. R. Brunswick is on St. Simond's Sound, on the coast of Georgia, and boasts the finest harbor on the South Atlantic coast, and does a large shipping trade in lumber, cotton, and naval stores, as well as an import business in merchandise from New York and the East. Between Brunswick and the coast towns a line of steamers, and also in season to Fernandina, connecting there with the railroad system of Florida.
Brunswick is the embarking point for sportsmen bound for the happy hunting grounds of Jekyl and Cumberland Islands. The broad, shady streets present a pretty scene, the long gray moss hanging from the massive limbs of live oaks, almost brushes the car windows as our train winds around the town to the depot. For invalids, the climate of Brunswick is as good as any in this latitude, and the town always has her quota of visitors.
Jekyl and Cumberland Islands lie just off the coast of Georgia, between Brunswick and Fernandina, and the sounds between them and the main land, form the pathway of the inside route of the Sea Island Route Steamers between Savannah and Florida.
The islands are resorted to by sportsmen from all over the South-


68
WINTER CITIES
land, and as the same parties go there year after year, it is supposed that their successes have something to do with their repeated visits. They may be reached by sail or steamer, from either Fernandina, Savannah, or Brunswick. A further writing of Cumberland Islands will be found on another page, where Fernandina is spoken of.
SAVANNAH AND THE WAYCROSS LINE.
The line through Savannah to Florida, has many the attractions to go that way. Savannah has a historybut it will not be attempted here. It was intended for a city from the start, and was just as big a hundred and fifty years ago, only it has more houses now. The original projection of the city was on a charity basis, and was intended to open up new fields of labor to poor men, the idea being suggested to some fine did English gentleman by the crowded state of their debtors' prisons.
Oglethorpe was chairman of the committee of arrangements, and it seems he lost no time in starting his town. He arrived February ist, 1733, and on the 10th wrote back to England that he had marked out the town. A "P. S." to the letter, says "the first house was begun yesterday forenoon."
The average Savannahian points with pride to the vein of romance in the old gentleman's composition in the manner of his laying out the city in beautiful squares and parks; but some matter-of-fact person, with a taste more for truth than poetry, is always to be found to knock all the romance from the story, by telling that these lovely parks were in the old days, only cattle pens, to which they were driven for protection from the Indians.
But whether parks or cattle pens in the original, Savannah's lovely style has not its equal in the country ; the splendid oaks that form so perfect an archway of evergreens over every street, would have Mr. Bergh's approval if they were only to shade the sesqui-cen-tennial cows of Governor Oglethorpe, and as they now are, have the commendation of the tourist of to-day, that will remind himself of a lovers' walk in Forsyth Park; and her title of the Forest City is well earned. 1
In the days of first settlement every man was allowed a lot sixty by ninety feet, with a five-acre lot back for a garden, and the most of them have got them yet. An old chronicle says "they made great profit out of them by greens, roots, and corn," and to this day, their


IN A SUMMER LAND.
market gardens attest the value of an experience of a hundred and fifty years.
Profiting by bitter experience in the old country, they enacted laws which would at least keep them out of jail; in the first place, they admitted no lawyers to the town ;* second, it was illegal to run into debt, and remembering again, the days when they dwelt in marble halls, the sad result of their financial indiscretions, they made it impossible to break that law by passing another not allowing anything sold on credit, and it is not recorded but that the unfortunate, unpossessed of "the wherewith," went dry, and for that matter, hungry too.
bon A venture.
By sea or by land, there is much to attract, down the river and the bay to Tybee and Fort Pulaski, with its history of three wars, down the road to Thunderbolt and Bonaventure. Thunderbolt, a resort on the drive down the coast, a watering place, as it were, for your team, while youwell, that other old law about selling sherry cobblers has been repealed, too, and of a consequence, Thunderbolt road has its long line
* This law has been repealed.


WINTER CITIES
of elegant equipages every sunny day. There bu1 one Thunderbolt Road. Go and ride over it, then will your memory tell you pretty stories that no pencil ever can.
' Bonaventure is the last place you will go tobecause it's a cemetery. Don't leave Savannah till you have visited Bonaventure, temporarily, any more than you would leave Rome without seeing St. Peter's. There are no trees on the earth like those in this grand old burying ground. The long, gray moss hangs as a funereal drapery from every bough, and tells a story of sadness which renders its neighbor Thunderbolt almost a necessity to bring us back to life again.
Other rides are to Jasper Spring, (you remember reading about the gallant sergeant, don't you ? well, he is dead, but the spring is -there yet,) as also is Bethseda, ten miles away, where Whitfield built an Orphan Home, which was burnt so many years ago.
When you walk, wander an hour in Forsyth Parkits broad pathways differ from the streets only in that there are no houses on either side; both are shaded by the moss-covered live oaksgrand old trees which were babies in Oglethorpe's days.
Savannah's commercial importance is measured by the depths of her harbor, floating the finest ships in the coast trade, and by her railroad system extending its rails through thousands of miles of rich interior.
The Ocean Steamship Company's steamers to New York, Boston and other eastern cities, are models of the ship builder's art, while the lines to Florida, via the Steamer St. John's, or the inside route, the Sea Island Line, carry a large quota of business.
The Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad to Florida and the South-west; the Central Railroad to the North and West; the Charleston and Savannah Railroad to the East, make Savannah's commerce all it isamong the first cities in the traderanking second as a cotton market, New Orleans only being ahead. There is not space to give a resume of the trade, and, as we are on a pleasure trip, we will proceed.
The Central brings passengers from the North and West, and delivers them to the Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad, whose entire train of Palace sleepers, parlor cars, elegant new day coaches, and even baggage cars runs through to Jacksonville without change, and it only takes seven hours to make the journey.
Savannah's hotels were built after Oglethorpe "marked out the town," but the guest is apt to conform to a different opinion, as he wanders through a labyrinth of corridors till the door of his cozy


IN A SUMMER LAND.
71
chamber closes upon him, or is ushered into a spacious dining hall, where an air of newness about the appointments contrasts with the old-fashioned rooms and hallwaysa place altogether satisfactory for a pleasant sojourn.
In the memory of happy days in this old-time city, comes not one of regret, every picture is rose colored. The very air makes one love to linger within its borders, and naught but the call of those that may make any day a happy one, brings a thought of leaving.
A few hours ride by rail or sea from Savannah, with an eastward course up the Atlantic coast, we come to
PORT ROYAL.
On the extreme southern coast of South Carolina, where the aborig-inees of Charlestown first landed nearly two hundred years ago. Port Royal is possessed of a splendid harbor, that is not locked a part of every day by low water on a sandy bar, but at all times the largest ships may come and go without waiting for the tides, a single fact that assures the brightest future.
Four miles distant, on the island of Port Royal, is the town of Beaufort, with a population of about four thousand people, resorted to by warm weather hunters commensurate with her attractions. We take the following extract from a letter written by a visitor :
"We alighted sleepily at the depot just about dawn (for we were ahead of the season), and drove away toward the invisible town of Beaufort. Four hours' sleep at the Sea Island hotel and we woke to look out upon a pleasant expanse of water, where sloops floated lazily in the morning sun. Beaufort, as everybody knows, is ancient, and being ancient is interesting. A melan-cholly interest attaches to the fine and stately old mansions which border the water front, for here war has made sad havoc with the old families, and few of those who dispensed magnificent hospitality in the ante-bellum days remain upon the scene of their former greatness."
Situated about two and ,half miles from Beaufort, and about one and a half miles from Port Royal is the "Old Spanish Fort." It is built of Tabby, sometimes called "Coquina," a natural composition of shells, cement, etc., which was extensively used by the Spaniards. Not a few of the dwellings and other buildings on the Southern coast are constructed of this concrete. A local physician says :
"Beaufort is situated on a bold arm of the sea which stretches from the harbor to Port Royal, runs to the South, East and North of the town.
0




IN A SUMMER LAND.
becoming residents of Beaufort have grown to be stout and healthy men. Men and women die every-where, but the death rate of our town will compare favorably with any place in the world."
Florida passengers desiring to stop off at Beaufort should secure stop-over checks at Yemassee, South Carolina, where excursion tickets may be bought for Beaufort or Port Royal.
The old timers who lived at Port Royal two hundred years ago, in their wanderings up and down the coast, found another harbor still further on to the eastward, where two rivers brought their waters from the hills down to the sea, and some of them moved thither and built a town which they called
CHARLESTON.
This was two hundred years ago, which fact gives Charleston the age on all the towns of the South Atlantic coast except St. Augustine, which is now over two hundred years old. In 1670 a settlement was lo-located at Port Royal, some miles further south ; a year later, the colonists removed to what was then called Oyster Point, on the Ashley River, but to secure deeper water and better harbor facilities, the colony was finally removed to the peninsula formed by the Cooper and Ashley Rivers, and Charleston founded on its present site in 1680. Port Royal never recovered from the blow, and is about the same size now that it was then, while Charleston has grown somewhat, being now the largest city in the South-east.
Charleston has had more of wars and rumors of wars than usually fall to the lot of a city of her tender yearsthere, don't be alarmed, we are not going to attempt even an enumeration, for it is a subject tabooed in that city, and we are under the impression that they have had enough of it.
There seems to be in the balmy air, which blows through the feath-, ery palm trees of this tropic clime, that which poets' reveries are borri of. South Carolina, one of the "old pioneer thirteen," boasts such names on the pages of poesy as Timrod and Hayne; and just over the border, in her sister state of Georgia, in the same warm sunshine, lived such heroes of literature as Jackson and Randall, whose well measured lines have written melodies, which will go singing their music down the corridors of time, while Cooper's chapters in flowery eloquence have told the history of her early days in words of poetic prose. In later days came Lanier to lay his tribute at their feet and


write his own immortal epitaph in the words which a nat her hundredth natal day.
Can there be any wonder, then, that people always want to go again, who have once been to Charleston. Both on land and on the sea are many attractions to keep the tourist here; drives through Rutledge Avenue and Magnolia Cemetery, visits to St. Michael's, strolls along the Battery must not be overlooked and can not be forgotten. Down the bay is Fort Sumpter and Castle Pinckney, and the old sand batteries on either river, which have written their own histories in fire and blood within our memory. We can sail there or to Sullivan's Island and the Magnolia Garden, and while away the hours of our stay.
In the early days one Thomas Ashe (as is supposed), writing over the nom de plume of "T. A.," hacl much to say in Charleston's praise as a health resort, distributing the remedies justly between earth, air and water.
In the earth he found "three kinds of rattle snake root," which he says "are all sovereign remedies against the mortal bites of that snake too frequent in the West Indies"as if any brand of snakes could be "not too frequent, but just frequent enough." It is needless to add that "T. A." doubtless lived in utter ignorance of Bourbon county's staple remedy for snake bite.
Of the air he tells the "old, old story," now in these latter days never questioned. One breathes it and is well again, if there is any that surrounds the earth will help him.
It was left for "T. A.," "clerk on board His Majesty's Ship, the Richmond," to find a specific in the waters that wash this old city's walls. He says of the turtles, "the flesh is commended for a good anti-scorbutique diet, * and some that have been far gone in consumption, with the constant use of this diet, have been thoroughly recovered and cured in three or four months."
It will take days to test all the pleasures which invite our staying. The smooth shell road-ways, which suggest an encore to every drive. The billowy waves glisten in the sunlight and tell us to sail again to-morrow to Sumpter, Moultrie, or Point Pleasant. A trysting place is beneath the moss-covered oaks which shade the Battery's tiny park. Every pathway is a lover's walk," where can come no sounds save the melodies which are only in lover's words; yet just there on the sea wall's stone parapet we may listen and try to guess what are the wild waves saying?" Here one may stand and watch the ships leagues away, down to the open sea; but rather "let us watch the sail come in


IN A SUMMER LAND.
75
"AN OLD TIMER."
that may bring us good tidings or kind friends we have waited for, and look not after the bark that sails away, we know not where, with the precious burden of living freight, fond adieus coming back over the waves, answering a dear bon voyage wafted from a thousand mi's."
When the day is gone, and "tired nature's sweet restorer" woos you to balmy sleep, the chimes of old St. Michael's bells will ring softly from the distant spire, a lullaby, which shall be your reveille as well, when another happy day is born.
HHH


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Of the history of these bells, which make the music of St. Michael's chimes, any native will discourse to you; by whom presented, whether in time of war's rude alarums they were molded into cannon, and spoke in tones of thunderous _anger, rather than in peaceful call to worship, or were broken and hid away that the same precious metal might be made into bells again, when peace would come and "grim visaged war had smoothed its wrinkled front," and how they ring out now the same sweet sounds they did in days of yore.
The Charleston hostelrie ranks high in a class whose register the experienced traveler delights to honor with his autograph. As the 'bus backs up to the door, if the tourist can remove from his mind the doubt as to whether he will get a room or not, the splendid facade is apt to remind him of the marble halls the poet dreamed he dwelt in; th^ massive white columns support a portico running along the entire front, giving the hotel a palatial air. The idea of luxurious comfort is not dispelled in the frescoed dining hall or the sumptuous parlors, and the marble hall idea is further induced by good beds in large, airy rooms.
The South Carolina Railroad runs to the north and west, the North-Eastern Railroad to the east, and Charleston and Savannah to Savannah and Florida. The steamer St. John also makes regular trips to Jacksonville, touching at Savannah and Fernandina, running as high up the St. John's River as Palatka.
To those who go down to sea in ships Charleston boasts the finest harbor on the Southern coasts, and the crafts which sail upon her waters are of the finest that ever went bent before a wind.
North-west of Charleston on the South Carolina R. R., one hundred and twenty miles, and within eighteen of Augusta, is located the most noted of all the sand hill sanatoria, that "Village of the Hills,"
AIKEN,
.South Carolina, the most noted, perhaps, because longer known.
A pretty little village nestled among forest-crowned hills, and enriched with so many of Nature's attributes as to render it an object of attraction to all who, either from inclination or in search of health, seek a refuge from the cold Winters of the North. It is seven hundred feet above tide water, and four hundred feet higher than the Savannah River at Augusta, eighteen miles distant. The soil is porous, surface sand, with clay and gravel subsoil. The drainage is complete. The water, from wells and springs, is clear as crystal, and so pure and soft that rain water is discarded.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
rr
The groves and forests surrounding the village are pine, but the shade trees within its limits are principally native oak and orange. Of the former there are many, some very beautiful, and unlike any of those seen at the North. So numerous are the trees that it is difficult to decide whether the village is in the woods or the woods in the village. Park Avenue, approaching somewhat the modern style of boulevard, is a mile in length and two hundred and fifty feet wide, while the other streets, intersecting each other at right angles, are one hundred and fifty feet in width.
From the plateau, which fringes one of the valleys, the eye rests on seemingly interminable forests, and wanders along boundless paths. Nor are the walks about Aiken less enticing than the drives. The strolls through endless paths, bordered with the rich glasses of the South, and shaded by the lordly pines; the trippings over the pine-straw -carpet, from out whose folds modestly peeps the violet; the sauntering along the graceful Outlet of the clear springs, all are replete with charms that never pall on the taste.
But Aiken's greatest and chiefest wealth lies in its climate. The air. is clear, warm and highly oxygenized, and consequently invigorating to the system. It is a luxury to breathe it. Impregnated with the aroma of the pine, it is particularly gratful to delicate lungs, and has been justly lauded as an important adjunct in the climatic treatment of pulmonary affections. Far removed from the exhalations of swamps or evaporations of sluggish streams, the atmosphere is free from dampness, and the air at midnight as dry as at noon-day.
The modest, neat little churches, of which there are seven, are indeed ornamental to the "Village of the Hills," and comprise an Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Roman Catholic, and two plain edifices for colored denominations. A Lyceum capable of seating four hundred persons, through its private theatrical entertainment, contributes materially to the pleasure and gratification of the residents of Aiken, and those who have selected the hill country of Carolina as their Winter, homes. Four livery stables afford an ample supply of horses and vehicles for riding and driving over the numberless roads which radiate in every direction from the village. A large grove in which are erected buildings for the convenience and enjoyment of the Aiken Schuetzen Club, is but a few minutes walk from the hotels. Four daily railroad trains between Charleston and Augusta, to which may be added a special accommodation for Augusta.
At Aiken the tourist finds all the comforts in demand at the well-


WINTER CITIES
known resort, and within the usual four dollar rangeper day or per week, as may best suit his purse ; and in most cases one gets the money's worth.
There is yet another stopping place, not named last in this section because it is least in merit as a Winter resort, for
AUGUSTA
stands in the front rank, the peer of its best. Augusta, like Savannah, is one of the old-time cities, and is but two years her junior, having been laid out in 1735. Bearing all the honors of the Indian wars and the War for Independence, Augusta escaped the visitation of another army during the civil war, at least till it was ended. George Washington visited the city during the term of his Presidency, and was received by the people with abundant expressions of loyalty and gratitude. Augusta has two streets the fame of whose beauty has gone abroad through the landGreene, and Upper and Lower Broad Streets. On each there is a double row of large evergreen oaks down the center, and a row on each curb, making a complete canopy of green leaves for nearly two miles. Summerville and the Sand Hills are two pretty suburbs well worth a visit.
The Georgia Railroad runs to the North, West and East; the Central to Florida and the South ; the Port Royal and Augusta to the coast at Beaufort and Port Royal, with connections for Charleston and Florida; the South Carolina to Aiken and Charleston ; the Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta to the Carolinas and the East.
Augusta does a large cotton trade, both in shipping and in manufacturing, the extensive factories employing thousands of operatives.
Here ends our tour of the cities of tire South-east, and a few hours ride will bring us to our starting place again, Atlanta, the Gate City of the South, through which all tourists, south bound, must pass as well as on their homeward trips.
A city of Chicagoistic growth, forty years ago a "howling wilderness," now a thriving city, whose people number nearly fifty thousand, and who have a kindly welcome for all who come within their borders.
In this realm of sunshine, this Summer land of balmy airs and softly blowing breezes, there are other Winter Cities which have charms to call the tourist to them to find other happy days, which can almost make one forget the others we have traveled over.


IN A SUMMER LAND. 70
On a southward journey one involuntarily lingers under the shade of "grand old Lookout," thinking kindly of a host's generous care, and
whilst we wait hesitate over the prospective tour, whether its direction shall be to the right hand or to the left, a few hours ride on either road


So
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bringing you to the Summer Land, "whar de blue jay whistles from Jiniwerry to Jiniwerry."
Whilst we wait let us look about us and search out Chattanooga's treasures of scenic beauty.
An hour's carriage ride will bring us to the top of
LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN,
Whence we may look into the States through which our journey lies. From the "point" the land-marks of five different States are shown: to the eastward, the blue mountains of the Carolinas; to the south, Georgia and Alabama; at our feet, Tennessee. With a glass (or after you have had one or two) the number of States increase: Kentucky and Virginia appear in the distant Northland. Thus, from our vantage point on high, seven States in all are seen, showing, as Dr. Talmage says, "the grandest prospect on the continent." He further writes: I had stood on Mount Washington, and on the Sierra Nevadas, and on the Alps, but I never saw so far as that morning from the top of Lookout Mountain." But 'tis not distance which lends all enchantment to the view.
In the foreground, the Tennessee River bends in graceful curves, forming in shape a perfect foot, a moccasin, as it were; hence, Moccasin Bend." We thus explain, to disabuse your mind of any suggestion of snakes, superinduced by the serpentine windings of the river, or the number of glasses required to see into all the States. Back among the hills, like a thread of silver, so small it seems in the sunlight, the river is first seen, growing larger and larger, until it rolls in a mighty torrent nearly two thousand feet below us, then it disappears behind the towering cliffs of Walden's Ridge.
At the base of the rocks is a whirl-pool, called the Boiling Pot," caused by the mountain sides being so nearly together that the great volume of water passes with the utmost difficulty ; and an eddy occurs that carries floating objects in its circle for days and days, when they sink to an under-current and are carried on. It is said that in the early days, when the product of the land was floated down the river in barges, a boatman from the upper river, who knew nothing of this Boiling Pot, undertook to make a through trip.
He reached the pot just after dark, and, being entirely ignorant of the eddy, was carried round and round all the night long. When daylight dawned, and he brought his ship to an anchor near a cabin on


IN A SUMMER LAND.
St
the shore, he found the inmates finishing up a dance, and a sleepy fiddler hard at work on a tune which the boatman thought he had heard before.
He told the proprietor and floor manager of the ball that he left Chattanooga 'bout dusk last night and passed eighty-seven houses whar they was dansin', and every fiddler was playin' 'Old Zip Coon' for dear life." If his figures were right, the eddy water had carried his boat past the house just eig"hty-seven times; but history does not say whether his count was correct or not, and we will not "go behind the returns."
At the base of a perpendicular cliff, three hundred feet below "the point," lies a plateau, upon which brilliant fancy has laid the scene of a celebrated "Battle above the Clouds." That there ever was such a battle is a question ; but we will not undertake to spoil a pretty story by going into details, thereby depriving the veterans of a fruitful source of debate. Surely this grand old mountain is the only one upon which such a battle were possible.
One never tires -of the scene. There are to be found on the mountain top objects of interest which must not be forgotten. Within a few yards of the Point is Umbrella Rock," where, 'neath its grateful shade, many a fair face has lent beauty to the picture. Why any one should describe this "umbrella" as the property of his Satanic Majesty, and say so in plain English, is something no fellow can find out.
In the first place, what possible use could he have for any umbrella in a region so completely devoid of water as his is alleged to be ? but, being an umbrella, it is as likely to be on the top of Lookout Mountain as anywhere else, and being here is not evidence that it isn't the "Devil's Umbrella." In any event one can give the umbrella the benefit of the doubt, and say it is not his.
There are good resting-places at the cottage-built hotels, which adorn the mountain park, and have a welcome for all. It will not be hard for this tour to find a place in your memory; but a little flower, or a pebble from "the Point," or that sprig of holly there, overhanging from the bridge of rocks, will help to tell the story. Now we are ready to go. The descent is easily and quickly made, and almost before we know it we are in our hotel.


WINTER CITIES
CHATTANOOGA
Has hotels in which even a Chicago man (so says one of 'em who has been there) can feel at homehence it is unnecessary to add one other word in their behalf.
We have made that journey which is to our left hand, on the other pages of
this book, hence our side shall be to a blue grass farm. the right, down towards the great Southwest.
Leaving the splendid new passenger station, within a few moments


IN A SUMMER LAND. 83
our train is rushing along under the shadow of the towering rocks that form Lookout's rugged sides. A thousand feet of frowning cliffs on one side, a rushing river on the other, and we, the pigmy passengers on board the tiny train which we watched from "the Point yesterday.
The solid roadway is hewn from the rocks and the train passes safely along twixt the mountain and the river, the Tennessee, now a broad and wicked looking river, which yesterday seemed so like a silver ribbon glistening in the sunshine, as we saw it from far up on the mountain top.
Soon the mountain and river are left far behind us; at least the river is, and so is the Point, but we follow long the mountain side for nearly a hundred miles, the course of our train being down through Will's Valley, with high hills on either side, it seems a gigantic road-way dug out in the long forgotten ages, for some Titan railway, in the days when giants were, compared to which, ours seem only the veriest narrow gauges.
All along the line the earth is rich with a wealth of coal and minerals which might have supplied this Titan railway and all the gigantic people who might have ridden over its rails ; and as far our own lilipu-tian wants in that line, there is enough within a stone's throw to supply another world like ours for all the ages to come.
On either side, a panorama unrolls itself in pretty pictures, one after another, till at last one concludes it must take two trips to see it all, for one can't look from both sides of the train at once; so a round trip ticket is the proper paper to hold, which "admits to the entire show."
The mountains on the east side of the track, is a continuation of Lookout Mountain, while the peaks of Sand and Raccoon" Ranges lift their rocks against the western sky.
These thriving little villages are classed among the Summer places where Southerners come, to get away from their own sultry homes and while away the Summer days. And yet the climate here boasts an even temperature all the year round, and there are those who find the Winter days quite mild enough, the high mountains shutting of the too rude blasts which come from off the snowy hills of the North-land.
At Attalla, a branch road runs to Gadsden, a little town on the Coosa River, whence there is a line of pretty little steamboats running up to Rome, Georgia. A minature Hudson, their route seems to be, and the ride one altogether to be remembered.
The river winds about among the high hills of Georgia and Alabama, till almost it would seem to lose its way, and rushes with a mighty


84
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torrent gainst some towering rock, as if by main force to thrust it from its path-way. While the foaming waters, white with rage, as it were, go back in whirling eddies, as if for one more effort, then rushing on through the narrow channel till the play is done over again.
A nice little ride this is, which may be done in a day, with good hotels at either terminus of the journey.
We follow the shadows of these mountains down the valley for more than a hundred miles, till Birmingham is reached. Birmingham the future great city of Alabama, the new Pittsburg, the Iron City, is its pet .name. Half a score of years ago, it had no existence, save in the fertile brains of its projectors and on the maps of railroad contractors. Where now are busy streets throughout, with men on the wild hunt for
the mighty dollar, then was a--forest, (we did intend to write
this down "a howling wilderness," but having said that of another city we forbear,) at any rate where Birmingham now stands, was then out in the woods; the haunt of the rabbit and the squirrel, and the lair of possum."
The immense coal and iron fields round about insure the future of this little city, and a single look about its streets is all-convincing.
At Birmingham change cars for Montgomery and Pensacola.
Passengers for New Orleans, Vicksburg and Mobile keep your seats.
Now we are leaving the coal and iron hills and soon will be in the fertile flat lands of the cotton country.
Tuscaloosa is the chief city of the cotton belt in this section, and here are located several manufactories, and also the State Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, and a Military Academy. A hig-htoned elegant people make up its inhabitants, who have a welcome for all who come to them on business or in pleasure's cause.
When we have crossed the Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers, we are fairly on the border of the great cotton belt of the South, the richest country on earth, whose acres extend from the Atlantic to the Rio Grande. ,
Eutaw is a thriving little town just on the border, and a pleasant place to stop. At
LIVINGSTON,
Alabama, is an artesian well, whose waters flow in a never-ceasing stream from a basin more than a thousand feet below the surface of the earth, where every drop is worth its weight in gold, ere it falls in crystal globules from the marble fountain.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
NEAR HIGH BRIDGE.
The waters are a certain and absolute cure for dyspepsia, and kindred diseases. That's allit is not claimed for these waters that they are a panacea for all, or nearly all, the ills flesh is heir to, but if you are dyspeptic, and will drink the waters you can be well.
"Well I should smile," said a hearty-looking man on the train, when a friend remarked on his improved appearance, asking if the artesian water had done the work, "I should smile/' said he, and you know dyspeptics hardly ever smile, but he was not a dyspeptic now, yet a few weeks before had been, but had drank the water and was well again.
The well was bored with a view to obtaining a supply of pure water to supply the town; when, after boring more than a thousand feet, at last water was found. It was thought to be all a labor lost, as it was
99999994


86
WINTER CITIES
so disagreeable to the taste, that at first the citizens would not use it. But it improved on acquaintance, and soon became a favorite beverage, till now "the well is the resort of all the town for morning or evening walks and at noon-time.
And here it is, you are invited by the average citizen, when he asks you to take a drink, (this is told by way of information that you may not be disappointed when you are asked out,) and while half hesitating you sip the water, the native points with pride to the marble column through which the water flows, and looks more than half regretfully at the water which flows on unused, wasted for want of thirsty dyspeptic throats to come and drink and be well, instead of fighting every tempting morsel of dainty food, which, like Banquo's ghost, "will not down."
The well is the joint property of the town and county, and the waters are free to all who may come and drink, without money and without price. It is located in the center of the village, at the corner of the Court House square, convenient to hotels and boarding places.
The healthfulness of the locality is unsurpassed any where, and as an example, the death list for 1881 was only nine, and two of them were hung and two died from hereditary disease. In fact, Livingston is the town where they had to shoot a man to start a grave yard.
Livingston is a pretty little town of the old time style, with its public square, green grass and spreading live oaks, wide streets, with flower gardens and cozy homes on either side, whose inmates welcome you with a right good will, feeling sure they have a treasure which they are willing to share with you.
The pleasure seeker may find much to amuse in and about Livingston. There is good fishing in the streams near by, and the woods are full of game, large and small. Deer, turkey and bears abound, as well as small game.
Soon after leaving Livingston we come to the piney woods, whose resinous leaves spread healthfulness through all the air, and at any of the towns along the line the health seeker can not stop amiss.
Meridian is the junction of the Mobile and Ohio R. R., the Vicks-burg and Meridian, New Orleans and North-Eastern, and Alabama Great Southern Divisions of the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway.
"Passengers for Mobile change cars; for Vicksburg and New Orleans keep their seats!" shouts our train man. We will go on to the sea shore.
Meridian is strictly a commercial city, which has just claims to some


IN A SUMMER LAND.
importance. The. cotton receipts running to the thousands, induces trade. Manufacturing interests are not neglected, but are steadily growing, which insures a bright future for this little city.
We will change cars and run down to Mobilepet name, the Gulf City,"where many people have gone in all the ages past, for health and pleasure, ever since the days of De Soto, who is credited with having made the city a visit. For years before ever! these pale-faced warriors ventured so far into the New World, Mobile was a city, the capital of a kingdom, and the place of the king's residence.
Quite "an old timer," you will say, and when you think of it, there must be some attraction which has held this place a city through scores of years, till a pair of centuries have passed away.
"Al-a-ba-ma! were the words that faltered on the dying warrior's lips, as his comrades gently laid his tired body down to rest, on the greensward, 'neath the grateful shade of a dark-leafed magnolia, whose snowy blossoms sent fragrance through all the air. "Al-a-ba-ma" were the words which said to their Indian ears "here we rest," and they called the country Alabama.
It has always seemed that Mobile more fully illustrated the meaning of the word than any place in the State. When one has found out the good quarters which-are in the hotels, with bills of fare to match, and has breathed the pure fresh air, warm and salt-laden from the gulf, yet tinged with the resin of surrounding pines, involuntarily one breathes the words again, "here we rest."
Mobile is just within the orange belt. Orange blossoms and magnolias mingle their perfume with the roses and the lily.
Drives about the city, through the broad .shaded streets, along the busy wharves, to Summerville and to Frascati, will be found of interest. Drive down the Bay Road, where the magnolias shut out the sunshine, and through their glistening leaves may be seen the broad, quiet waters of the Gulfwith here and there a distant sail, a white spot on the silver of the water.
You may gather some little flower by the road-side, that it waste not its sweetness when you are gone, but memory will not need its help to bring the picture back.
If you would sail down the bay, a pleasant excursion may be made to Point Clear, twenty miles away, where there is a good hotel. Longer sails may be made to Bay St. Louis and Pensacola. To the latter city the journey may be made by steamer, or to either by rail.
It is most pleasant to visit Mobile when the season is at its height.




IN A SUMMER LAND.
advantages of climate, of its markets, the fish and the oystersthe finest in the world. There is no space here to write of them ; go and see for yourself, and the native will rehearse fish stories which may sound just the least bit sca'y, but are true just the same.
Back to Meridian again, our course is through the pines to the hills which form the banks of the Mississippi.
At Jackson is the junction of the Jackson Route for New Orleans, and here also one may change cars for Natchez.
Jackson is a pleasant little city, where a few days sojourn may be made ere one grows tired of its hills and pretty homes, with the flowers and the trees, which make them look like pictures.
Westward still we go till Vicksburg is reached. Pleasant days may be spent at Vicksburg, or sails on the river. From the high hills on which the city is built, the Mississippi River may be seen for miles up and down its winding way. The view's are fine and novel in their way, new to almost every one. It is known that some of the finest craft that ever steamed on any waters, ply these Western rivers. From the hills the smoke of their chimneys may be seen afar off, long before their white palaces can be seen rounding the bends, and when they come in view, like little toys they seem on the silver ribbon of the river, growing-larger and larger, till, like a floating palace, she steams alongside the. wharf.
During our sojourn at Vicksburg pleasant excursions may be made up and down the river, to the Bends, up the Yazoo and Sunflower Rivers. The industries of the cotton belt prove interesting to all.
One can hardly go amiss in selecting a boat. A hearty welcome awaits you any and everywhere, but for information we mention names of some of them.
The S. H. Parisot, Natchez, and Ed. Richardson, of the Packet Line; the Greenville, Vicksburg, and Grand Tower,'of the Anchor Line ; De Smet, E. C. Carroll, Sun Flower Belle, Yazoo, and Carrie Hogan "carry the horns" in their trade, and the captain who walks the hurricane roof with his word of welcome, gives a guarantee of a safe and prosperous voyage.
Vicksburg is a city of the highest commercial importance, and ere we depart from her borders, we should visit the immense cotton presses; see the elevators and mammoth railroad transfer boats, which bridge, as it were, the Father of Waters>" bearing on their decks the traffic of the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway, bound to and from their Louisiana and Texas connections.


WINTER CITIES
The National Cemetery is one of the prettiest in all the land, and if scenery and surroundings could be advertised as advantages to any grave yard, this one at Vicksburg might secure the business. Ride out and look at it.
A ride over the Vicksburg, Shreveport and Pacific Railway to Monroe is an attraction not to be overlooked. A pleasant stop may be made in the pretty little city of Monroe, where the climate claims "ten months of Summer and two very late in the Spring."
Ere this edition is exhausted, the rails will be laid and trains running through to Shreveport, where connections will be made for all points in Texas, Mexico, California, and the far West.
It is our purpose to go down the Mississippi from Vicksburg to New Orleans. There can be no choice of boats ; what is said of one may be said of the other, and they have "right good captains, too." One remembers the names of Beck, Leathers, Campbell and McVey as among the "jolly good fellows," whose genial ways and kindly care have made their friends numberless as the sands on the bars they avoid so scrupulously (steamboat men don't like bars in the river, you knowtoo little water).
With sumptuous quarters, a state-room as large as your own chamber, a cabin like the salon of a palace, with music and dancing to drive away your cares, one concludes a journey round the world might be made on such a craft, and the traditional eighty days lengthened into as many weeks.
From Vicksburg south of Natchez, the high hills of the Mississippi form the east bank ; after that the low grounds are on either bank. All along this river may be found sunny Southern homes; of which much has been said and written. With their white walls making light through the magnolias and orange trees, "green blinds" and wide galleries on every side, a hammock out under the trees, whence, some dark-eyed beauty looks out through long lashes, scarce forgetting the half open book in her hand, to think of the great stream which passes so near to her door. A look of quiet contentment betrays no wish to leave her own luxurious home.
Passing on and on through the cotton fields till we come to those of sugar and rice, lying on either bank in vast plantations, requiring regiments and brigades of "colored troops for their cultivation.
The sugar houses back among the trees look like forts, with their chimneys for watch towers. Here the river's waters seem to be higher than the land, and our boat floating above the surrounding country,


'UMBERLAND HOTEL, POINT BURNSIDE, KV


WINTER CITIES
and it is true in some places, where the levees have been built up high, and the deposit in the bottom of the river has raised the bed till it is higher than the land.
This ride is one never to be forgotten, and long ere we have tired of the scene the spires of the Crescent City are pointed out, though we are yet a score and ten miles away.
For miles along the levee on either side may be seen the shipping, bearing the flags of every nation, every style of craft known to the art, from the magnificent ocean steamer and the river palace to the "oyster boy" or the "fruiter" from the Indies. One wonders where our boat will come to an anchor. She gets in; just how, "no fellow can find out," except the gallant fellow who is our captain.
Adieux are said, and kindly "come agains" are spoken, and promises fervently made so to do. Once more we are on terra firma. At
NEW ORLEANS
One has all the advantages of a metropolitan city life, while enjoying the balmy breezes from off the tropic islands, which are her neighbors. All the day long there are attractions with which to while away the time the magnificent streets, gay shops, and gayer people, to walk and see. Only a square from the principal hotels is Canal street, the most splendid business thoroughfare in the country. It is in fact two streets in one, with two rows of trees in the center. The street is well paved, and handsome buildings are on either side. The tourist should make a note of this, that all horse cars pass on Canal street, within a block of the Clay statue. You may take a car there for any part of the city, and returning any car will bring you to Canal street again at the starting place. Horse car rides may be made to Carrolton, the Cathedral, and through the pretty uptown streets, through the French quarter, and to the markets.
For the Spanish Fort take steam cars at Basin and Canal. The Spanish Fort is a resort after the style of Brighton and Manhattan Beaches on Coney Island, and the gay scenes of Summer days may be witnessed here in mid-winter.
The ride is only six miles, and in a few moments after we have left the bustle of the city we may listen to the waves of Lake Ponchartrain as they roll upon the sandy beach at Spanish Fort.
The other lake resorts are reached by steam railway also; for West End, take cars on Canal street, and for "the old lake," at Ponchartrain


IN A SUMMER LAND.
93
Depot. Both places are well patronized. A pleasant way to take them all in, is to go out on one line; after you have "done" the first one, take passage on a little steam launch which is doing business there, and sail over to the others, returning to the city by the other routes if you like. There is but one French Market in the world: it is at New Orleans, and while you are there, go and see it. There you can buy anything in the world, from a piano to a banana. The best time to go is Sunday morning); of course you can go any morning, but the scenes have reached their climax on Sunday mornings, between five and seven o'clock. The market extends a mile or more along the river front, commencing a few squares east of Canal street, and just another such a market is nowhere to be found.
All sorts of people come here, to buy all sorts of things. There, a dark-eyed French beauty, in laces and diamonds, threads her way through the motley crowd, buying here a dainty piece of fruit, or a bonbon, perhaps on her way to early Mass, she sips a "cafe.au lait" as an eye-opener, though her eyes twinkle brightly enough now, and seem to watch your North-land strangers from behind her cup as she drinks.
This housewife here, is on business strictly ; a sleek servant bears a well-filled basket of fish, flesh and fowl, with fresh vegetables and a few hundred shrimps just for lagniappe.
That "roustabout" with his shining black face, is buying a pair of "gallusses" for himself and a head-hanker-cher for Dinahand that sailor, a card of buttons and a needle big as a marling-spike; the little chambermaid from your floor in the hotel, has slipped off to bargain for a new cap, or a bit of lace.
And youwhat will you buyfirst of all, after you reach the market, a cup of cafe noir at one of the stands, where you may sit as you drink, eat the brittle coffee cakes, and look at the people; look as much as you please, they will hardly see youtoo busy. Now try an orange fresh from the tree, or a banana which has ripened under a tropic sun. A-ha! I thought so; a "carload," eh; "send a carload home to Kalamazoo" did you say? Oh! beg pardon; yes "I will send a cartload to the hotel." You never did know what an orange tasted like before, did you ?
So the morning has slipped away, and as we wander back to our hotel, we notice how the streets are busy, even though it is Sunday. In New Orleans, Sunday is a holiday.
No matter when your coming has been, do not let your going from the Cresent City be until the carnival is over. The carnival is to


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"OLD KAINTUCK." carnivals of the Old
World cities.
Now please don't ask what Mardi Gras isdon't ask such hard questionsyou know Mardi Gras means Shrove Tuesday, and that Fati Tuesday is the last day before lent; that's all we can tell you. What Mardi Gras is in New Orleans, you must find out by spending the day on her streets, and then you won't forget about it.
The carnival season begins with the New Year, then Twelfth Night and other festivals are celebrated in their order, until the climax is reached and they end in the wild whirl of the grotesque and merry parades and shows of Mardi Gras, so called in France, the "favorite child of the Church."
In 1857 Mardi Gras in New Orleans reached its crowning glory, that being the year of the first appearance of the justly celebrated, mysterious, and always welcome Mystic Krewe of Comus.


This wonderful organization is enveloped in impenetrable mystery. Notwithstanding the curiosity which has attended it from year to year, as each fresh representation added to its interest, none of the efforts to discover its personnel have ever been successful.
When the organization was first spoken of, it created great interest, which was increased-by the mystery surrounding its affairs. The beautiful cards of invitation issued to their entertainment at the Varieties (then Gaiety) Theatre, coming fromthe recipients knew not wherewere highly prized, and everybody was on tip-toe of anxiety to know what the new spectacle would be."
As we have said, the Mystic Krewe first appeared in 1857, and their displays being made at night, the want of some organized arrangement for the maskers who thronged the streets in daylight was long felt, but it was not until 1872 that Rex, the merry king of all the revelers, first appeared in his favorite city, and under his standard all the maskers bowed allegiance.
A writer thus describes the first appearance of his merry majesty:
"And now comes the wonder of the 19th century, a crowned head without an enemy. A monarch whose sway is absolute and unquestioned in the Republic of Republicsa sight which a quarter of a century ago would have been thought impossible, but which is always hailed with salvos of artillery, and every show of popular joy. A king in AmericaGlorious Rex, King of the Carnival."
Such was the first coming of Rex, as described by the King's own historian, by the divine right of a gifted pen, a prince of the royal household. Each succcding Mardi Gras witnessed the coming of the king in a style more gorgeous than before, and following in his train new bands of courtiers came every year to do him homage.
There is only one Rex on Mardi Gras day, but the next morning a hundred thousand aching heads proclaim their tired bodies wrecks.
An excursion down the lower river to "the Jetties" is interesting, and must not be overlooked. And the rad excursions over the Mobile Road to Bay St. Louis, Biloxi, Pass Christian, Mississippi City and Pascagoula, little towns along the Gulf, where are pleasant places to spend winter days, in hunting, sailing and fishing.
It is the proper thing to have a cottage at "the Bay," Biloxi, or any of the others, and go back and forth on "the Coast trains," which run at convenient hours, so one may live in the country, and yet partake of the city's pleasures at will.
Yes, there is a cemetery in New Orleansseveral of them, and like


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every thing else in this city, they are totally unlike the well-regulated grave-yards of other cities. No graves are dug; hence Hamlet's friend would find "his occupation gone" if he came to New Orleans. Bodies are placed in tombs built of brick or stone; the wealthy classes owning splendid vaults, while the poorer people may buy a compartment in a long, wall-like tomb, where there are a hundred others already filled or waiting to be.
There is one thing to be said in favor of this tomb arrangement, in the matter of seeing that graves are kept greenyou can have 'em painted.
If yet you would travel farther in this Summer Land, "go West," to Galveston, to Houston, to Austin, to San Antonio. Books have been written about them all, and there is no space here to add to what has already been told by eloquent pens.
We will now turn our faces homeward, and ere another year has rolled away may take the through trains of the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway, over the New Orleans and North-Eastern, with its bridge across the lake, the longest in the world, thence on through the pines to the hills of the Lookout Mountain Line, over the scenic Cincinnati Southern, to our homes.
"WHEN THE LEAVES BEGIN TO TURN,"
We wish the Summer days to linger yet a little longer, and when they will not, it is in our thoughts to follow after them, and with the birds that know their hiding places well, follow after, fly with them.
That we will go is most sure ; but how ? is the all-important questionaye, we '11 ride. There have been people who have walked to Florida, but that was long years ago when no Pullman cars ran through without change. In those days a lower berth in the center of the car, on the shady side," was all Greek to the old-time tourist; and if any .ship was going toward the flowery land, he was only too glad to give up what he had for a bunk, and what he didn't give up then in all probability he did afterwards, even that which he hadwhen the seas were rough and waves ran high.
They came high, these bunks did, but they must have them; and so it was old Ponce de Leon started this excursion business "way before the war," and it has increased, till now there are thousands who follow not in his foot-steps exactly, but his example. And so we will ride, and over that line which carries the Pullman Palace Cars Through Without Change.


IN A SUMMER LAND.
The tourist of the olden time had no line of Pullman palace cars, "through without change,", and no enterprising agent to tell him about the shortest and quickest route; but when he heard the pretty story of this sunny land, he hied him to the sea-shore, bought a ship or a berth in one, and sailed over the sea on the same errand we pursue to-day.
In those days every journey was a "go-as-you-please," and distance measured by weary miles. To-day, the miles are scarcely remembered.
"How many hours ?" is the conundrum propounded across the ticket office counter, quickly answered with the supplemental information "without change"referring to the car service, not the price of ticket, which usually does require some little change. The gentlemanly agent who names the fewest hours, changes, and dollars, takes the passenger. It is needless to add, these few lines are written in the interest of the route represented by that agent.
NATURAL BRIDGE, KY.-C. S. Rwy.


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In early days the voyager landed when his ship did, it mattered aot where. In latter times the tourist makes his landing at the terminus of the Palace Car hues.
Cincinnati, so near the center of population, naturally becomes the distributing point for pleasure travel. Her own railroad, the shortest possible line to the South, operating the most perfect system of through cars, secures the patronage of the Winter tourist bound for the clime where overcoats are at a discount, where ice merchants are millionaires, and coal dealers are paupers.
By all lines the business comes to Cincinnati. To be specific, we quote from a long fellow in the office. They come via
"Kan-ka-kee, the short line, Or Ko-ko-mo, the fast route, By Oh-an-em, the shortest, Or Van-da-lia, the quick line, By Three-sees-and-i, the bee line, Or See-aytch-and-d, the good road. By Em-an-see, 'the daisy,' Or Pan-han-dle, the high toned, By En-y-pe-an-o, the royal, And take tl isjourney southward, To Florida, the South-land, Where every day is Summer."
Of the route thence southward, a writer says of its Summer beauties:
"Scenes that are brightest" have their location all along the line, through a land of beauty whose ever-changing pictures induce a recollection of the gentle Silas Wegg, whose poetic soul would fain "drop into poetry" as the wild and dashing Emory springs to life upon a landscape, whose blue back-ground is a lofty mountain, resting upon a thousand feet of rocky cliffs, whose fantastic shapes remind one of giants with sphynx-like faces, throwing their shadows across our path.
Rounding another curve, new scenes, kaleidescopic in their unlike-ness to the others, bring new beauties to put in evidence that we are on the right track. Now the picture stretches out in broad acres. Dotted in the blue grass, are the white galleries of "Old Kentucky Homes" which have been the theme of song. The blue-blooded native calls this country "God's own." Here are horses which would make Mazeppa think his ride was only a "walk-over;" here are wines, in the native vernacular called "Bourbon," which would have made Bacchus forget his nectar; here are women so fair that the Paris of old could have given away a hundred thousand apples ere he crossed Kentucky River. Thus it is, from Lookout's lofty brow to the turbid waters of the Ohio


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