PUBLIC T7FN OP 'A,7.i -.Vr fO.A 0HA.V RItE OF (Crff.VERCE.
GEORGIA AND FLORIDIA.
NECESSITY FOR CONTINUING THIS IMPROVEMENT.
Information as to opteratijos heretofore conducted for the
imlprov(.emenit of t]li harbor iy contained in the ann~ul report
of Chief of Engineers Appendix O, p. vii :Lud pp. 1273 et Leq.
The harbor of Fern;nidimtu, known officially as the En-
trance to Cumnirl.trind So)und; GeCrgia and Flonridj], Iha bec'n
knownv ever ~iiin the dise-overv of Floridil. J s o~eC of tio b(st
natural h:iaorhr Anr the AtLantic icoat of t.e Uiited SiaLes.
The faet of its having so long liorne this rtputaiio.n attestk its
value anfd charnc.ter.
It was superior to both Ch(iarleton and Savaitrnnmah I.rfre
their improvement by Government aid.
The Engineer Department expect, by their propoyed plan
of jettjies, to mr;ike it (qi]1al to any existing harbor on the At-
lantic cot of ttch United States.
It is i1itqueestionably the 1blct policy to improve good nat-
urnl l1tii'bcrs, where they already exist, as the natural causes
which lhave created tlhern may b. relied upon to aid in the
work of their improvement.
The completion of the proposed improvement, of the En-
trincc, to Cuilmbur]iad Sound [ (iliula.'t e.,d t)o obtaitL a mean
low water depth of 21 fect, equal to 27 fieet at high w:iter-
givin g ta increase of 8 feet over [Ireit-Lt CoidiLionl..
c r ^^ Uusr
(1( II II_ I) j ( 111 1
Ths increase is necessary to permit the loading at this
port of large vessels, such as are usually employed in foreign
commerce, and which require great depth of water.
The improvement of this bar deserves attention because
of its acknowledged importance and value, not only to the
two States in which it lies, but to the whole country.
First, as to Florida. A glance at any good railroad mnap
shows a railway system peculiar in itself, and adapted to the
peninsular configuration of Florida; instead of being crossed
like a chcquer-board, all main lines run north and s~iutli, thus
concentrating freight and travel. The principal trunk line of
the State is thi Florida Central & Peninsular, reaching from
its northern boundary at Fernandina to Tampa uay, in South
Florida, and from the Atlantic, at Fernandina, to the Chatta-
hoochec, and thence via the Louisville & Nashville Railroad
to New Orleans, thus bisecting the State in its two main
portions and compriAing, in one system, about 700 t iles, or
one-third of the entire railway mileage of the State. For all
this extensive interior line of transportation Fernandina is the
natural outlet, because it has the best port harbor on the
whole Atlantic coast. It is to Florida what Boston is to Mas-
sachusetts, Charleston to South Carolina, acld Savannah to
Georgia-the principal deep-water port. Considering the
rapid growth of population in Florida, the development of
its resources, and the immense output of bulk freights which
must be provided for, the necessity of such a deep-water port
is self-evident. The present orange crop of Florida alone
amounts to 10,000 car-loads. The lumber shipments at Fer-
nandina during the year 1889 required the transportation of
16,000 loaded car, besides the thousands of car-loads of cedar,
cotton, naval stores, etc.
While coast steamerrs may be constructed with flat bot-
toms and little depth of keel to enter the shallow bars of our
coast, it is well known that no vessels are so built for foreign
trade; depth is essential to safety and carrying capacity. It
is also equally well known that the cost of transportation is
diminished as the aize of vessels increases. Lumber vessels
must be of large carrying capacity to be profitable. The same
reasoning will apply to other bulky articles like phosphate
rock. From the recent discoveries of phosphate deposits
along the lines of the Florida Central and Peninsular Rail-
road it umy safely be assumed that as soon as these deposits
can be placed in reach of rail tratisporiation at least 500,000
tons annually, equal to 25,000 car-loads, will seek a market
through this port.
Secondly, as to the Gulf States and the Valley of the Mis-
aissippl. As railway economies are introduced and l ocmro-
tives and cLr ofc greater power and capacity are used, a much
larger proportion of freight., such a cotton, grain, etc., seeks
shorter lines uo the seaboard. The bulk of the cotton from
the Valley of the MiseiBippi fuonuerly went from New Orleans
and other Gulf ports around the circuitous navigation of the
Florida Keys, but a change has taken place, and railway
transportation is sought to Atlantic ports.
With an increased depth of water over the bar at the En-
trance of Cumberland Sound, it would seemi but natural, as
Fernandina is the ncirest Atlantic port to New Orl]eans and
less than 00O miles distant from it, thut a large shipment of
cotton for Eastern and European ports should be made from
Ferna;idina. The shipments of cotton from Savannah for
the year ending August 31, 1888, amounted 891,( 1) bles in
consequence of the deepening of her harbor from 17 feet to
The commencement of work on a railroad across the
Isthmus of Tebhunte-pen is an important event in relation to
the commercial interests of the State. An air line projected
lbtweeLI Cape Hatteras and the mouth of Iuascualcrw, the
ocean terminus of the Tehuantepev line, crosses directly over
the track of t.he road between Fernandina and Cedar Key
and varies but little from the line of road to rTampa. The
distance between Ctldar Key or Tampa to HuLiriacualcoa is
aliout 00l rniles, and across that Isthmus 150 miles. Thus,
by the construction of that hIthmnus road, we shall have a
shorter and cheaper connection with the Pacific and Asia thLn
any other Atlantic port of the United States. And if we ex-
amine the more direct all-ratil communication froni California
we find that when the Southrern Pacific Railroad reaches El
PLeo and passes through Texat, it will be more direct to seek
an At~rinti&. port tit Reriaridina than any other pnrt firllier
north, whether itR freight be destinwAd ffpr TEuropean or it- 4
Let us see, tlh(n, if this porlt af~i rc1s the rcf.1Lisite facibtics
andl room for Iiiis rxtel .w;'ive 0olIuuwrlcr~ c .
ernaruidina excelq zi l1 utriv.r pt'rLS on the c:imt in the LI-et
that th- d'ekaie itdock iS Only RIMotitELI MailoCS firOM t he i
uoyr or'rlu op.en After ero,!ngi the blar tlhere iP a Ibroad
d:1lMI riic1 Wtay frull 'iu to 60 r-et in depth ;it low wati.'r, to the
fnchfiflrmiL in the liarbor. Tho inuricr basin.- ihli t tnrm the
II'Lrbor are colesly lauad.-Iorckr-. of-unitimiud capwCilv, of a
kelierai depth of 30 to 40 f;ea at low water, I-mod hk)(i L1dit
groUrud Of Stiff blUe clay. and lined by exiviiave shores fll
bioth sidCs for wbarves. Notbi~ilg, thieref-fore, ig wvantijn biutt
he securing of greater ilIelth oif' wtter o'vr theC bar.
iX, th ef1iflr in (Ku .hLI.r pavp irn his re.i-rt, the mi-
prov4i llt'1it. of tOflttra rir? tri tCo 0ier rlaiii.1 Sioun d loi 'arceei
bcr~uii."~II HLUccC." HILIAt 'i.cpcnj on the arTrtimirt whiuh mlay
he :i 1 ~ropri ldi1 towards earrvtn-g uLt the plan foF i iup
mwit. The meagre approprio tiorn amoUnjtriig J 1to-c'bler to
less L1ditn 25 per cent, orf th- amount naked for the mccmil-
p;ia~hin the work, have been spreiul uver a pEM-illd Of eight~
yrf ar. So fatr :'s thbe Nvurk has goIW the engirieerm reponri it
;ZLiS.'t:wICck'wV zin in r riwl ordecT; thab the hc:Lr has -rmved soLa-
w:trl Land theQ JV1hpth inCrL.'.1,Vd. Had the approprinLions htln
'More lilemiral ;infl irnore in rItolwrtion- to the irnpiort.lmii4ci (iC the
work girea1e progi'e ~ ~tlid 1nri.ir resuLlts would hb'te bee-n
Tue itIm rjITOVeMIn tt Of th Tlntranoo to Cnnnmac r J:dtd Snund
Will afi'or:I a safe ni wral station, a rxattier (if great irnipi;rfne-c
in vii-w- of its proximity to the Strailtit fit blorida. and it 1Tuv
1104JI w) pointed out byv the Naval Comkimissrionn in their rep'oorL
of J uly ;u01, 186. Te Ite iLT-flir-uc- i lefcnded by Fort Clineh,
on the nor-tO end of Amnelia Islr d, the guin o( wbLit-h corm-
rnar1Ud the blr cntirmee and afl line of apriroach, so that it
Would be an impllrt.:uit. jkew(, of re'ni.:zvoiEs for our naval
for(T' ill time (if %r, leic, te fll rst har[ior accesE1e'U toi ve-
sels (f Riv (:o'faLny ] C draft Llf~or Icavilnr Key Wost.
Florid~t is th'Qi only AtltantiC State that IL:u4A no dccjp-wr dt-v
hufrbo)r, Its products e~an find tralspvrtation in thu Ihir;;&r
is~c a~otf r el tlm~u~gh tho ports of othlr tAnte only, which
IL:.Ie been improved through nat ion ail apIjproyprilAiors 'Md
deepened so as to enable thcrn to bring to their wbLharves the
l:ffgr esr mels which can transport freight much more cheaplv
thban srnmaler 4u1LE 0 th11 takillig From Florida its rightful busi-
Ils.e .li ich, iw T-akin. the improvement of Cumberland
Siund effective would be don'e through it Florida port, Fe-r-
flifndinaI h being theu .uiiI.ural coinmInc 6lUil outlet of Florida ab
welt as the morst Idvantqayeou-. outlet for the products of
Loui~iuna uiid Tfexas. Owing, tvo its position it is praict.ically
A ft Relir tko New York ais SaviRnnub, measured by the w,-Lutil
Tihis entrance is al1(o ava-lable for thce cwImlmiaee of the
Southcu.tern portion of Giecli-ia, and is the, Atlkiitie. port con-
tcmpIW-ife ,i the terrniolwd of any s0i6) curial whliich may bo
c-fnstructcd arcro." Florida fromn the G; 1f of fexico.
The following ta1icsl 91r- a111j~eLided S111i)W I the arrivals
and dncr arturet. of vsse'1s at tbis port from V;SO to 189O, and
k c----- tiw IbipcIuelt8 Of 1urnlrr)r LILIring- thC lPit fiVe years, -,Ind the
REPOR-J OP ARRIVALS ANID CL-EARA-NCB AT
D114A V--) T 18-01
TIHE PORT OF FFWAN-
Ire ':ed. R .LU~
..i.-l ................. 278 110I-
.................. 270 1 22j9
J%4...... ........ .111 210
1. q84. 1819 21
I'Mdi I 172 CI2-671 =3
1151 .' I I.H
1 liii~) ______
:Xiddinl in the 594 veie& r and WJ. clt'riu
~ I Ht[; 8
frOM St. M.-try'
we Ilavoa t~ ottl vessels entering md1 f-Iiarru, Nr the yuar o55I rf
JSO~d, withll al art-1rat- tunjagi a r ()f fI
RESORT OF LTUMBEBlS TI-TED6 rafJm F.R-NIti';A I&M44 TuO 1SM)9.
8IM ............... .....11.59,494,00 feet w
1886. .......... .......... . . ...'...... 43,25 70,01D0
188 Rd4 41, .......... **"** ........ ,,,,.........LI~...l 9211428,000170
Iss ..., .................. I ................ .......... A 731720,M06
1889 ............ I o....1.-.L.... -I ---- I....... 95, ogoqr)00
Off which about 23 pyr C"nt. was to foreign porter.
Your Committee is respeotfully referred to Senmte ]Doc.,
28th Cong., 2d Ses., p, 180-1, for a report of GenemLl Totten,
Chief of Engiiiecrs, in reference to proposed fort for theo
Entrance to Cumberland Sound, for official tLtatcmenats in
roferencie to the importance -of this port; as, also, W~ the Doe.
No. 206), 2f6th Cong., lot Sess, upon the military defenses of
Engiluer Parets repijrt, 188kp p. 1477
Frow this coirnparris on it is safo. to Bav that the action of the
jet*- is causing tdli bgr to move seaward. The doop-water Iineshows
a decided tendency to foI low the lii i of the jetty,. TI e re Beems to
be no material shoaling on the bar, rather a alig]iL deepening, if any-
thing; a good 13 2-10 feet can be held across. A Ilat inmpe(Aic~I Of
the vi-irk thows both jetties in su41 intLialy tihe ouine condition as
Iast rcnp-cted. Co~isidiring the expcxqed posjtiton of the present work
and the unrolia'le westbor lately enLN4unteed, gtfite wtisitctory
prugrens is being in~de,"'
EnginIeer Carter's report, p. 1725:
Both jt. tties are in goo.d order. I The work I oin*n during the fia-
al year just imk.'~etd has hbcfn expomrAd to severe atorrmis, and no flat-
kFiiing Of tIHk 8l1pe! of thte jetty is apparent. Thc bar has uiuved
seaward during the year anid the channel has dvvpened Riithtly,
tlhere being ot present a t]4pthi of 12.2 feet at Imear low rwatr.
"The cocIarKcrrie of'Feriiandina 1 an increastdl very rapidly of
"The iinpxvemnent of the Entrahce to Cumhbf-land Sound has
IFThe town 1-9 rapidly growing: extensive crloSntIng workst hav
becn onlnstruct4ei -Ithe railroadet termninatirng there are being JPrt in
better conditions; ioew wharvra are buhlldin, and more extawgive
terminal facilities are Iicing provilpml.
"Ihle North Jett v is 1 ti St. M5ary's Cu( le-lt4oi District., Georghi
the Suoth Jetty in that nf Fernandliin. Florida, Fernanitrnr is the
nearest port of entry. Amelia light-house is the nearest light-houee
and Fort Clinch the nearest fort.
"Appropriations made have been-
In 1830.- ....................... ..... ................... 30,00X
In 1881 ....................... .................. ..... ......... 100
In 1882 ............ ......... ......................... .. W ,5,0)(
In 1884.... ............. ......... ............................. 75,0)0
In 18 .......................... ................... ..... 112,50
In 1888,................ .............................. 112,,00
Total,.................. ............................... 180,
"The appropriations heretofore made have been entirely inade-
quate to an economical and advanlageous prosecution of thd work of
improvement The moat satisfactory results cannot be obtained with
expenditures during the next fiscal year ending June .10, 18E1, of
lemR than $1,000.000."
Extract of Report of Gen. Q. A. Gillmore, 1883. Appen-
dix L, 12, p. 931:
In my annual report uf the improvement for the fiscal year
ending June SO, 1881, printed as appendix J. 11, of the annual re-
port of the Chief of Enine ers for 1881, I madeF some remarks con-
cerning the advantages which the harbor of Fernandina inosAseses
on account of its large capacity and its deep and well sheltered
anchorage. With an improved bar channel the harbor will become
at once more valuable and iiTiportatt, not only for maritime com-
erce, but also for naval purposes, since iron-clads ani other large
iron-hulled vemele can then enter C'unberland o und and proceed
,up St. nMary's river, where, at a distance of about thirty miles from
the main harbor, they will find deep and entirely fresh water."
ENTRANCE TO CUMBERLAND S0UND
Engineer Carter's report:
The appropriate ions zi ioreto rre mad have 1been entirely inade-
quate to an economical and advantagetouii pro.(tecLtion of the work of
improvement. The most satisfactory results cannot be obtUai ed with
expendit, ures during the' next fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, of
less tl an $1,(l00,000."
FINANCIAL BRIEF OF THE ARGUMENTS why the above
recommendations should become ta law:
1st. The appropriations heretofore made by the Commit-
tee have been cut down. They should now he restored.
2., Our shipments of lumber have doubled in the past
four years. In 1880 it wis 41,00(~ ,000 and in 1889 95,000,000,
and the trade increasing. On this shipment the past year
there has been paid 895,000 more- than would have been re-
quired if our bur improvements had been completed.
Mr. Ir. E. Dofteier, Pre dent Chamber (f Commjerce, Ciy :
1)EAR S-* W Yare paying, on all ur lumber ship-
ments, fifty cents per thousand, or ont dollar per t~ n, more than
deeper water ports, for the reason that our bar has not sLfilicient
water to admits larve vressyl. *
We remain yours very respectfully, N. B. BORDEN & Co.
3d. The present boring crop amounts to over 1,000X) car-
loads. If we haid deep water on thel har the freight would be
reduced to $12 per car-load, amounting to $120,000.
4th. It is estimated that our shilpicnts of phosphlte will
be 500,000 tons per annun. On every ton there is an extra
charge of $1, behaiuset we cannot charter large vessels. and
almost this entire shipment is in English bottoms. This
m;lk(.s an annual tax on the citizens of Florida of $500,00X0,
and for the benefit of foreign vessels.
5th. There is a large shipment of miscellaneous cargoes
-as cedar, cotton, naval stores, etc., on every ton of which we
are taxed $1 extra.
Lumb1 .r shipmentts ......... ............. ...............,. 95 ,(00
Orange crop................................................ .. 120,00
Phosphates, estimated.............................. ... 500,000
Miscellaneous cargoes, estimated ............................. 25,000
Total ....... ..... .. ............ ................. ..... .. .$740,000
Here is an annual tax of $740,000 on the people of Florida.
We are thus required to pay nearly as much each year as is
necessary to complete the harbor improvements.
The people of Florida believe that the above simple state-
mer~f facts will have due weight with the Committee on
Riv 4 and Harbor Improvements, and on every Member and
Senator in Congress.