<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Main


FGS



Florida's ground water quality monitoring program
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000523/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida's ground water quality monitoring program hydrogeological framework
Series Title: Special publication - Florida Geological Survey ; 32
Physical Description: 1 atlas (97 p.) : chiefly maps (some col.) ; 28 x 44 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, Thomas M.
Lloyd, Jacqueline M.
Maddox, Gary L.
Copeland, Richard Evan, 1947-
Florida Geological Survey
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1991
Copyright Date: 1991
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Maps -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Hydrogeology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water quality -- Measurement -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water quality monitoring stations -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 13-16)
Statement of Responsibility: coordinated by Rick Copeland ; edited by Thomas M. Scott, Jacqueline M. Lloyd, and Gary Maddox.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA1633
notis - AJG7273
alephbibnum - 001754284
oclc - 26676293
System ID: UF00000523:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
Full Text






















74 l


.":


IM I


ii:.
i. : r.


: ';''~P'L ~:~i*ll~llla

u:.

:






FLORLDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



STATE OF FLORIDA


DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Tom Gardner, Executiv iroctor


DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Jeremy Craft Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmkit, State Geologiar and Ca r


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Caro M. Browner, Secetary


DIVISION OF WATER FACILITIES
Howard L Rhodes. Director


BUREAU OF DRINKING WATER AND GROUND WATER RESOURCES
Charles C. Allt, Chnef


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY SPECIAL PUBUCATION NO. 32

FLORIDA'S GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAM

HYDROGEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

r* ,-.',C,'a.* '.Q.
-. .


Rick Go i .G. #12 .

SEDITE. .
.S 'j .' "'" ",""" '" ". "' '



.- na ,mcott, P.G. '.
q. A a'w''i ; ... "'. -
C *: .t
Gary Fhcldox
";. "- .. ;.'







4 -lished or 9he

pRIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
.*-. '" '- Tallahassee .o .: .
l. . ..i
,.. .* --,, ,
, ".,
',L i l: ..... ". -- ,
"-:;6 .....-. lh1 e "."


!F E U PE5A


ISSN 0085-0640







FLORLDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


LAWTON CHILES
Governor


JM SMrrH
Secretary o State


TOU GALLAGH-ER
State Trasurer


BOB BUTTERWORTH
AftomW General


GERALD LEWIS
Slate Comptroler


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Flornca Geofogical Survey
Tallahassee
June 1991


Governor Lawton Chlles, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida ,3230

Dear Governor ChlUs:


The Florida Ge'ogica Survey, Division of Resource Managemern, DOepartment ol ralural Resources,
is puLiJshig, as as Special Pubbllation No. 32, Florida's Ground Water Quality Monloring Program:
Hydrogeoloic Franewort. This pitllcation Is the first In a sedes which will present the readtl of the
ground waler quality network program abolished by the 1983 Water QOtaty Assurance Act (Florida
Statutes, Chapter.403-O83). II ls prinariy aseriea of maps which provide the basic hydrogeologic
conditions preserf plthln the princlpaI aquiers of Florida. These results can be used by slate and local
govemmenas, planners and developers for land-use planning, consrvatlon, and protection of Florida's
valuatie water resources.

Respectiully y~irs.


BETTY CASTOR
Commissioner of Education


BOB CRAWFORD
Commnussoner of Agricullure


Waller Schmldkt Ph.D., P-G.
State Gedogist and Chlef
Florida Geological Survey


TOM GARDNER
Execute Diroctor


DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES









i D i







SPECIAL PUBUCATION NO. 32


LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS


NORTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT:


JeNery R. Wagner (Project Manager)
Thomas Prati
Chriss Richards
Jay Jornson
Mark Dielrich0
Bruce Moore
Wyndham FRiale
Linda Ann Clemnar
Brian Caldwell


SUWANNEE RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT:

Nolan Col (Program Adminkstrator)
Ron COryak (Project Manager)
Libby Schridt


ST. JOHNS RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT:


Don Bcwio (Project Manager
Dave Tolh
George Robinson
Donald Glison
Scott Edwards
Doug Munch


SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT:


Gregg Jones (Project Manager)
Lee Clark
Eric DeHaven
John Gee
Dave Moore
Chris Person
Tom Rauch


ALACHUA COUNTY:


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT:


Ubly Scimidt (Project Manager)
Jim Trtfllo
John Regan
Robin Hallbourg
Lci BOOlZ


Jetl Herr (Proec Manager)
Scott Burns
Jon Shaw
Phil Fairbank
Roberto Sanchaz
Alison Gray


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION:

Rick Copeland (OveCall Program Ad mirustrator)
Cynlhia Humphreys
TWn Glorw
Gary Maddox
Jaclye Bonds
Jeff Spicda
Liang Lin
Donna Burmeister
Peter Grasel
Paul Hansard
Jay Sivanlma


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

Jacqueline M. ULoyd (Program Manager}
Thomas M. Scon (Program Managerl
Cindy Collier
Jim Jones
Ted Kiper
David Allison
Kent Hartong
Miesa Macesich
Tom Seal
Troy ThDnpson
Will Evans


Cover IIlstratlon
?y Paulete Bond

Florida's population growth creates ever-increasing pressures on fragile waler resources. Thks drawing Illustrates I any of the complex
realtionships that exist between a Florida community and the onironment whtic sustain It, Water 1 o various uses is withdrawn from subsurface
iUnestones which are extremely porous and permeable. Ground water which resides in these limesones is natwally protected from various types of
contaminais by a widespread clayey confining layer. The situation is complicated by the presence of discontinuous carbonale lenses and
Iractures withi[ the coining layer. Limestone Is vulnerable to extetlste dissauton leading to 11e (development of Sirhcfes uWhich may breact the
confriing unit in the process d af V formation. Thi same dissolulonal process results in the lcIonation cd the large springs, highly prized features
of Forida's environment, Irotn which large amounts of grord waler discharge constarily. The spring pictured here includes as part o its recharge
mechanism, the ncIy lotrned sinkhole, ostensibly disant from it. The suricial sands and clayey sands which blanket the confining layer are subject
10 major inpacts resulting from the alivities of man. Subsurface storage tanks will be buried wrlhln them, municipal solid wesle will be disposed
into them and locally, small domestic wels may lte drilled Irto them where thoir permoatbily and poros t make them a viable surfical aquifer. At the
same lime, precipitation movlng down Into those shallow malerias may locally enter sinkholes a fractures within the coflining layer, contributing to
lecage of the underlying limesloe aquiler system.

.. .. . .







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY




TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE


Introduction..................... ........ .................................... .........
Ground Water Qualiy Monitoring Pirogam. ........... ..
Hydogeologic Map Production and Publication.................
Ground Water Qualty Monitoring Network and Future
P u blicallo ns ... ......... ..... . .. .. .... ....................
Background Network..... ......... ..................
VISA N etw ork ....... .... .... ....... .... ...................... ..... ........
Private W all Survey............................................................
Sam piling Protoc ........................................... .....................
Data Base System s .................. ........ ..... .... . .....
Data Analysis and Applicatlon of Program
R esults.... .......... ... .............. ... ................. ......... ..........
A Geological Overview of Florida.................. ..............
Introduction .............................................................................
G eO oalc History ,,............... ,..,.,.,.. ,...... ... .......... ... ......
S structure ................. .................................... .......... .....
G eom orphology...................................................................
Uthostrrlgra y and Hydostratlaphy ..............................
Lithostratlg raphy ..... . ...... ..... .. ................ ...... ............
C anozoic Eratlhen ........................................ .... ...............
Tertary System ........... ..................... ............................
Paleocene Serles....... ............. ............
Cedar Keys Formatlon ..... ............................
Eocene Series . .. ............... ....... . .....,
Clalbomr e G roup...........................................................
Oldsmar Formalton. ............ ........,
Avon Park Frmalion......................
Ocawa Limestone ............... .......................... .......
Oligooene Series ................................. .............. ....
Suwannee Limestone ..................................................


M arianna Umesa l ne.....................................................
Bucatunna Clay Member of the Byram Formation......
Chlckasawhay Formation ..................... .......
M ocen Seres.............................................. ..................
Chattatiooctee Formntlon ...................... ....
St. Marks Formation...........................
Hawthorn Group............................. ...................... ..
Bruce Creek Umestone.....................................
Alum Bluff G roup..................... ... ....... .. ... .......
Penaacola Clay...........................................................-
Intracoastal Formation...,.... .. .... ....... . ........
PIlocene-Peiscene Serie..................................
'Coarse C laE ica ..........................................................
Tam lan i Form ation ,.,...................... ., ... ..... .,., . .
C ranelle Form ation.................................................
Mlccosukee Fornallon,, ................ ..... ,,
Cyprasshead Formalion.............. .....................
Nashua Formation .........................
Cafoosahatchee Formation......... .........................
Fort Thompson Formalion....................................
Key Largo Limestone..... ......... ..................
Miam i LImestone,......,,., , , , ... ...
Anastasia Formation..... ............................ ............
Undifferenliated Plelstocene-Holacene Sedimenis.....
H yo rostratlgraphy ........... ..... . . .............. ..... .
Surfi ial aquifer system..................................................
Intermedlate aquifer systemcnlnlng nit.................
Floridan aquler system ........... ...... .....
Conclusionr,.... ............... .................... ....... ..........
Relerences... ... .... .. . . .. .. .. .....


TABLES


TABLE


1 Ground water quality rnework monitoring
parameters ... ... ..... ..........................
2 LIst of selected V1SAs rby Water Managemmen
D istrict.......................... ........................................


APPENDICES


APPENDIX


Additional Sowces of Information ......................
List of Related Reports and Pullcalons................


PAGE


PAGE


PAGE







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO- 32



ILLUSTRATIONS


I Water Management DIslricd BoinJaries...............
2 Background Network well locations................................
3 VISA N etw ork.....................................................................
4 Hydrostatigraphic Norenclature {modtiled frorn Soulth
aastem Geologica Soclety Ad Hoc Committee on
Florida Hydrostratlgraphic Unit Defnition, 1986).............
5 Structural Feaeures of Florida: a) PreCenozoic
b) M -C noz c..... .................................................
5 Geomrorph~ogic Provinces of Florida (after White,
19 70)................................. ..... .. ............ ................. . ...
7 Gaemorpholglc Features of Northwest Florida Waler
Management District (NWFWMD) (after White, Purl
andVernon in Pur and Vernor 1964)................ ...
8 Geomorpholdgic Features of Suwannee River Water
Management District (SRWMD) (after White, 1970).........
9 Geomorphiogic Features of S. Johns River Water
Management District (SJRWMD) (after WMe, 1970).......
10 GeomnorphoogIc Features of Soauhwest Florida Water
Marmgerent District (SWFWMD) (after Wite, 1970)..,
t1 Geomorphdolgic Features of South Florida Water
Management District (SFWMD} (after White, 1970).........
12 Top of Hawthorn Graup, NWFWMD (after Scott,
lB88a).................... ,, ...... ........... ............. .......
13 Isopacht o Hawthorn Group, NWFWMD (after Scott
1988a ...................................... ....... ., .. ,.. ... ................
14 Top of Hawthorn Group. S$WMD aMfter Scott,

15 Isopach of Hawthorn Group, SRWMD (after Scott
1 968 8). .. ...... .......... .. ................................ .......... ... . . .
16 Top of Hawthorn Group, SJRWMD (after Scott
19 6 a ) ................ . .. ... ....................... .................. ...

Scott, 18a...............................................
18 Top of Hawthorn Group, SWFWMD and SFWMD (after
Sccl 1988a)................... ......... ........ ........ ..................
19- Isopach of Hawthorn Group, SWFWMD and SFWMD
(after Scott, ) BBa)......................... ........ ..... ,.........
20 Statewide aquifer m ap....................................................
21 Occurrence and exlect ol ground water In
NW FW MD................................. .. .......... ....... .....
22 Surlace-water basins, NWFWMD....................................
23 Surface-water basins. SRWMD....................................
24 Surface-water basins, SJRWMD...............................
25 Surfacewaer basins. SWFWMD, ..... ... ..............
26 Surface-water basin SFWMD.......................................
27 Ground-water areas, WFWMD.............. , . ...
28 Ground-watag areas, SRWMD.........................................
29 GroWnd-water areas, SJRWMD .......................................


30 Grou d-water rea SW FWM D................ ...................
31 Ground-water area SFWMD............ ......... ...........
32 Flordan aquifer system potentiomatric surface,
NWFWMD (modified from Wagner, 199)...............
33 Floridan auifer system poteltiometric surface,
SRW M D ...................... .................................... ..............
34 Foridan aquifer system potentlometric surface,
SJRW M D .,... ..... .... .. ...,,,, .. . ...... . .
35 Florkan aquifer system polerniometrlc surface,
SWFW MD (after Berr, 198 )...........................................
35 Floridan aqufer system potenllometrc surface,
SFW M D ,., , , , ,,,, .... .. ,..... ... .. .. .......... ..... ... .
37 Surlicial aquifer system thickness, NWFWMD................
38 Surficlal aquiter system thickness, SWFWMD
(after Wotansky o al,, 1981).,..................... .. ...
39 Surficlal aqulfer'system base, SFWMD ...........................
40 Areas of suictal aquifer ssem use, SJRWMD.......
41 Top of Irnermedlate aquifer system/confinlng unit,
N W FW M D.......................................................... ..........
42 Isopach of the Intermediale aquifer system/
confining u ilt, NW FW MC..................................................
43 Top of the intermediate aquifer system,
SWFWMD (after Corral and Woansky, 1954)...............
44 Thickness oA the Intermediate aquLer system.
SwFWMD {alter Corral and Wolansky, 1984).................
45. Top of mid-Havihaom confining zon, Lee
C ounty.................. ............. ... .......,.,...... .. .. , ,... ,
468 Top o1 the sandstone aquifer. Lee County................
47 Top of mid-Hwtthorn aquifer. Lee County......,.,,,,,,,
4& Top o the ulpe" Floridan aquifer system,
NWFW M D............... ........................................ ........ ..
49 Thlckness of the upper Florian aquder system.
N W FW M D .....................................................................
50 -Top of the lower Floridan aquifer system, NIWFWMD.....
51 Thickness of the lower Florilan aquier system.
NW FW M OD ....... ,.,, .. ....... .. ....... .. .......
52 Top of the Bucatunna Cay. NWFWMD............................
53 Thickness of the Bucatunna Clay, NWFWMD.,.......,, .
54 Top of the lower Florldan aquifer system, SJRWMD......
55 Top of the Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD...........
56 Top of the Floridan aqulfor system., SWMD..................
57 Top of the Floridan aquifer system SJRWMD..............
58 Top of the Floridan aquifer system, SWFWMCO.,......,,
59 Top of the Floridar) aquifer system, SFWMD...................
60 Thickness l Ihe Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD ..
61 Thickness ol the Florkfan aquiler system, SRWMD
(alter M iller. 198 )...... ...... ..................................................
62 Thickness al the Floridan aquifer system, SJRWMD,. ,


63 Tickness of the Florkan aquiler system, SWFWMD
(after W0ansiy anid Garbode. 1961).......... ........
64 Thickness of the Floridan aquifer system, SFWM D
(after Miler, 1986).... ........... ..................
65 Base ol Ihe FTorilan aquiler system, NWFWMD....
66 Confinement of the Floridan aquifer system.
N W FW M D .......................................................................
67 Confinement of the Florkan aquier system. SRWMD....
68 Areas ol uncorulied Floridan aquier system.
S JRW M D ............................................................................
69 Areas of karst development In NWFWMD.............
70 Thickness ol the Florldan aquifer system conning
bed, SWFWMD (after Buona and others, 179)...............
71 Areas where Ihe Floridan aquifer system Is at or
near the surace, NWFWMD......... .... .........
72 Floridan aquifer system recharge potential,
NWFW M D,,.. ... .. ., .. .... ... .... .
73 Floridan aquifer system recharge polenlif,
SR W M D ..........................................................................
74 Floridan aqufler system recharge poienlil,
S JRW M D ... .... ... ... ................ ...... . ..... ......... .. . .
75 Floiden aquifer system recharge pOenz el,
SWFWMD (after Stewart, 1980)..................................
76 Fiordan aqtSer system recharge potenlal.
SFW M D ..................................................... ...........
77 Areas of artesian flow Irom the sand and
gravel aquaer and lower Floridan aqulir
system, NW FW M D............................................................
75 Areas of arteslan flow Irom the Intermedwae
aquiler sysloem and Floridan aquifer system,
NW FW M D ............................ .................... ......... ....
79 Areas of artesian flow from the Floridan aquifer
system SRwMD. ........... ....... ... ......... .......
80 Areas of artesian flow from the Floriden aquifer
system SJRW M D ............................................................
81 Areas of artesian flow from the Floidan aquller
systern, SW FW M D ........................................................ .
82 Areas of artesian flow from the Florldan aquifer
system, SFWMD ............................................. ....
83 Areas of mineralized waler In the Flonkdn aquier
system, NWFW MD . . ...................................
84 Areas of mineralized water In the Floridan aquiler
system, SJRWMD.....,, ......,......,.... , , ,..
85 Areas c6 mAnwraldid water in the Floridan aquifer
system, SWFWMD (after Causseaux and Fretwell,
1962 )..-. .. ..... . ., . ..., . ...., n .... . .. .. . ..
86 Areas of mieralized water in lIh Florldan aquifer
system SFW M D ..........................................................


FIGURE


PAGE


FIGURE


PAGE


FIGURE


PAGE







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION

By

Gary Maddo and Jaccuellne M. Uoyd, PG. *74

Usable fresh water is Florida's most important
natural resource. Pressure on this resource comes
Irom rapid land use changes associated with urban
and agricultural development In order to Insure
suilicienri fresh water for the stale's current and
future needs, this resource must be defined,
protected and conserved,

As of 198D, 87% of Florida's pubic water
supply came from subsurface aqulters, The
renalning 13% was extracted from surface water
sources, such as rivers and lakes. Most surface
water requires onslderably more treatment than
ground water before use as a poiable water source
(Fernald and Patton, l984). Florida's ground-
water and surface-water systems are intimately
connected. Lake and river waters recharge
underlying aquifers at times when surface-water
levels are higher than water-table elevations.
Conversely, ground water flows into rivers and
lakes through seepage and spring flow when
water-table levels exceed surface-water levels.
Where karst features, such as sinkholes, are well
developed. Here may be a direct connection
belwee surface water and ground water. Sfhallow
aquifers often have little or no protective, overlying
aqultard or aqulclude. These common
hydrogeologic conditions Increase the risk ci
contamination of Florida's water supply.

Land-use planning musl take hydrogeologlc
conditions into account. Whether through
percolation or direct connection, polluted surface
water can eventually contaminate ground waler
Pesilcides, herbicides and fertilizers from
agricultural areas, metals and organics from urban
stormwater runoff, and hydrocarbons fromn leaking
storage tanks ara all threats to Florida's aqulfer
systems.

In addition to these water quality
considerations, lard-use planr~ig must also take
itto account water quantity. Excessive withdrawal
of fresh water Irom an aquifer may lead to
replacement of lighter, lresh water by denser,
connate seawater. This Is a problem In high
volume ground waler wihdirwal areas, such as In


the vlcintly of urban well fields. Excessive fresh
water use In coastal areas may lead to the lateral
Intrusion of salt water from the sea.

Recharge areas where significant arrourts of
meteoric and surface water enter the aquifer are
particularly sensive lo land uses Some land uses
may contribute contaminants to soil Or surface
waters or relrncl the downward percolation of
meleoric ard surface waters, Protecting these
areas from heavy development aids in the
preservation of the quality and quantity ol the
ground-waler supply.

Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program

The Florida legislature, acknowledging the
need to protect our ground-water resources.
passed the Water Quality Assurance Act in 19B3
The legislature recognized that we must
understand the Impaci of man's activities on our
ground-water systems before we can determine
appropriate protective measures. Thus, a portion
of the Act required the Department of
Environmental Regulation (DER) to 'establish a
ground-water quality monitoring network designed
to detect or predict conlamlnation oi the state's
ground-water resources (Florida Slatutes, Chapter
403.063)- The Act required DER to work
cooperatively with other federal and state
agencies, Including Florida's five water
management disricis (WMD's) (Figure 1), In the
establishment of the network. The Florida
Geoogical Survey {FGS) and the Water Resources
Division of the U.S. Geological Survey provided
technical support. In addition, several studies
were funded through the State Univwsity System,
Appendix 1 contains contact information for these
agencies. AppOindlx 2 contains a lIst of reports and
publications resulting from these efforts.

The major goals of the Grournd Water Quallty
Monitoring Program are:

1. To establish the baseline ground-water
quality cd major aqulfer systems In ihe
state.
2. To detect and predict changes in
grouno-walte quality resulting Irom the
affects of various land uses arnd
potential sources of contamination;
3 To disseminale water-quality data
generated by the program to local
governments and the public.


Hydrogelogic Map Production and PublIcation

To meet the goals set forth above, a
hydrogeoleoic framework must lirst be defined.
This publication is primarily a series of maps which
portray the basic hydrogeologic conditions
present within the principal aquifer systems of
Florid. These maps were prepared by the water
management district, the FGS, and the DER.

Most maps were compiled on water
management district base maps. Specllic map
coverage varied between districts. Singletopic
maps may nal be comparable between districts
because they were not Initially produced as a
cooperative effort. For example, contour intervals
may differ, making edge-malching impractical.
The maps for each dlstrie general Indude:

1. Isopach and structure contour maps ol
the surllc~l, intermediate and Forldan
aquifer systems;
2. Isopach and structure contour maps Of
beds acting as aquitajds and
aquicludes;
3. Areas where the Floridan aquifer
system is at o rw ar 1he surface and
areas where it is under water-table
coil)dliors:
4. Areas of recharge to 1he Florldan
aquifer system;
5 Poletomnetric surface of the Floridan
aquifer system;
6. Areas of saltwater itrusion;
7, Areas of karst development;
8. Ground-water and surface-water hasis.

Ground Water Quailly Monitoring Network
And Future Publilctlons

The hydrogeologic framework declined by the
maps in this publication provide the background
necessary to establish he monhoring network, se4
priorities, and deernnina strategies icr meeting the
goals of the program.

The Ground Waler Quality Montoring Network
is made up of three princlpa elements: two major
subnetworks and one survey, each o which has
unique monitoring priorities and goals. These
elements are:

1. Background Network designed to help
decline background ground -water


quality through a network od
approminalely 18&I wells that tap all
major potable aquifers within 1he state
(Figure 2);
2. VISA (Very Intense Study Area)
Network, designed to monitor the
effects of various land usage on
groumd-water quality within specific
aculler systems In selected areas
(Figure 3);
3. Prvate Well Survey, designed to
analyze ground-w.ater quality from 50
private drinking water wells in each 01
Florida's 67 counties. This survey is a
joint effon between the Florida
Department of Helth and Rethab
Iltative Services H-IRS) and the DER.

The water-quality data collected. analyzed. and
ovauated through these elements will be published
ir separate volumes,


Background Network

A well in the Background Network is designed
to monitor arn area Of the aqulfer system which Is
representative of the general ground-waler quality
ol a region. For this publication, a region is
defined as constituting an area greater than or
equal to the size o an average Florida county. It is
further defined by atuller system extent and, II
possible, by ground-water basin Background
Network wells are actually used to define baseline
rather than original background ground-water
quality. Baseline differs from background 1 that it
refers to current, representative regional water
quality. Widespread changes in water quality
associated with regional land uses may be present
Thus, Background Network water quality may
differ Irom the original water quality that existed
before there was measurable human Impact on the
aquifer system. Wells which indicate specific
contamination sources are not Included In the
Background Network. The slatewide distribution
ot Background Network wells Is shown in Figure 2.

Before drilling of Background Network
monitoring wells began, existing weBs suitable for
inclusion in rte network were sought An Inventory
of potentially useful existing monioring sales was
compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the
water management districts. The following criteria
wero used to determine eligibility:






SPECIAL PUBUCATION NO. 32


I. Depth of wEi and cased interval
known;
2. Open hole Interval taps only one
aquifer or water-bearing zone;
3. Precise site location known,
4. Well owner cooperative;
5. Future accessibility for sampling
granted;
6. History of the aite (prior land use.
previous sampling rests) known,

Other non-mandatory, but desirable criteria
include:

7. Site ownership by local, state or
federal agency;
B. Prior waler-quality data available;
9. Well diameter known;
10. Lihological and geophysical logs available;
11. Hydrogeologc inormatlon available.

To further aid In wel selection and placement,
the locatiors of potential and confirmed sources of
ground-water contamJnation were determined.
These included point source such as locations of
free-flowing weUs, major landfills, Injection and
recarge wells, surface ImpouLdments, industrial
and hazardous waste generators, sewage
treatment plants, and mining areas. Nonpoint
sources included sewered versus septic areas,
pesticide application agriculturall) areas,
wastewater application areas, slormwater faclities
and fresh water outfalls.

Over 1200 existing weirs were irniiaily selected
for inclusion in the Background Network Although
optimal quality assurance and control could be
more fully realized by drilling all monitoring wells
expressly for use in tha network, the associated
costs prohalted such an approach.

Approximately 600 new wells were drilled for
inclusion In the network Depending on the
hydrosratigraphy at each new site, a single wall or
duster of wels wa installed, allowing each major
water-bearlrng zone to be separately monitored.
Geological Information was obtained at each site
during drilling. A core from the uppermost
significant confining bed was obtained Irom many
sites for laboratory determination of permeability
and llhologic description of the constituent
sediments


The initial sampling of each well In the network
involved the measurement of a comprehensive set
ol field, chemical, and mlcrobiologlcal
parameters, as well as naturally-occurring
radloactMvy (Table 1), These analyses, combined
with historical data, are used to eslmate baseline
ground-water quality. This data is then used to
help delineate areas where ground-water quality
degradation has occurred.

As lunds allow, the entire Background Network
will be re-sampled and all the parameters listed in
Table 1 will be re.measured. This continued
monitoring of the network will reveal water-quality
changes over time, as well as targeling the onset
of degradalfon or contamination.

A subset ol the Background Network is the
Temporal Varlablly Subnetwork (the 'TV Net').
These wels are sampled more frequently (on a
monthly or quarterly basis) for a smaller sec ol field
parameters (Table 1). These field or indicatorr
parameters" will be used to quantify lemporal
watr-qualily variations. The feasibility of Installing
dedicated sampling equipment allowing
continuous monitoring of a few selected wells is
currently under consideration.

Refinement o1 te Background Network is an
ongoing task. Wells which provide redundant
information or do not represent baselIne water
quality are removed Irom he network. New walls
are Inataled where needed.

VISA Network

The Very Intense Study Area (VISA) Network
(Figure 3) monitors specific areas believed to be
highly susceptlble to ground-water contamination
Irom surface sources. VISA Network wells are
monitored lor an extensive suite of chemical and
field parameters, as well as organic, pesticides,
herbicides and naturally-occurring radloactivily
(Table 1). VISA's are selected based on an
assessment of predominant land use and
hydrogaeoogic susceptibility. The purpose of the
VISA Network Is to quantity the effects on ground,
water chemistry of different land uses within a
specific hydrogeoogic envlronmenl. A VISA wel
is designed to monitor the allects of multiple
sources of cantamlralnon ground-water quality
within a segment of the aquifer. Most VISA wells
monitor the uppermost aquifer system present
within the study area, since that is where suldace.


introduced contamlnanis should llrst be deleced.
This Information might ultimately serve as a
predictive tool, allowing ground-water
professionals to ascertain the potential eoects of
changing land use on ground-water quality in
areas with similar hydrogeologlcal conditions.

Predominant land-use areas ware located
using the Florida Summary Mapping System, a
microcomputer-mapping package developed at
the University of Florida. The system contains
Jand-use data derived from ad valorem tax
inrormalion obtained from each of Floilda's 67
counties. These data have been summarized for
each square-mile section of the state based on Ihe
Public Land Survey System (section, Townshlp
and Range). This system allowed rapid access to
a large volume of annually updated land-use data.
One hundred Florida Department of Revenue land-
use codes exist In he database; a subset of Ihese
were grouped Into st~een more general categories
for the purpose of VISA selection.

Hydrogeoiogic conditions which determine
aquifer-system vulneratlllty were determined using
DRASTIC, a mapping system developed jointly by
Lhe U.S. Environmental Prolection Agency and the
National Water Well Association (AIIr et al, t985)
DRASTIC is an acronym representing the seven
hydrageologlcal parameters considered most
Ind cative o0 relative pollution potential. These are:

D Depth to water;

R Net recliarge;

A Aqulfer media:

S- od media;

T Topograpn;

I mpact of the vadose zone;

C Hydraulic conductWivty.

Each of these parameters is mapped
separately for each aquifer, using existing data.
Numerical scores are assigned to each map
polygon The score lor each polygon is then
multiplied by a weighting factor. The seven
parameter maps are next overlaid and the resullig
polygons and weirghled scores are summed to
create a composite DRASTIC aquifer vulneralb ity


map. Higher scores indicate higher relative
pollution potential. These maps indicate overall
relative aquifer-syslem vulnerability. Combined
with the knowledge gained through analysis of the
VISA Network results, these maps will be an
invaluable land-use planning tool. DRASTIC maps
are currently being produced lor each county in
Florida. These maps, covering the surticlal and
Floridan aquifer systems, will be published In a
separate volume.

Twenty-one Initial VISAs were selected, based
on the above criteria (Table 2). Initial sampling of
these VISAs occurred In late 1990, Results Irom
tllese analyses will be published in a separate
volume.

Privale Well Survey

The Florida Department of Health and
Rehabilltative Services (HRS) Is conducting a
survey 01 private drirking-water systems to
determine their general water quality. OER and
HRS entered into a cooperative agreement to
select up to 70 wells per county (50 primary, 20
backup) for the survey, using the same criteria
developed to select existing Background wells.
HRS Is sampling these welIs for approKimately 180
parameters (Table 1). The data generated from
these wells is supplemenling the Background and
VISA data, wnhe also Indicating the general quality
oc water consumed by private well owners. The
sampling process wri not be completed lot several
years-


SAMPLING PROTOCOL

Sampling of the statewide network began in
mld.1985 and was carried out by the water
management districts. A portion of the existing
wells were sampled using perinraently installed
pumps. The remaining existing wells and all new
wells were sampled using teflon bailers, bladder
pumps of submersible pumps specifically
designed and manufactured with non-
contaminating malarlals. Sampling protocol
followed procedures established by the U.S
Environmental Protection Agency. All sampling
agencies and analytical laboratories were required
to submit quality assurance plans 10 maximize
uniformity of results. The Initial sampling episode
included a mo and chemical parameters Ihan were moillored









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TPKI I
URTER 9W WLITT MET MLFMIM FAM PEMS

m rMWim


Baetground VISA


MRS am.rwrly Ihnthly


TAlunrDf uKrtm 1.2


IWJUa lIOlS
i carbonate
Carbarace
ChLoridr
Cyvni d
Fluw i de
Nitrate
Phosphate
sul faT*

METALS
ArOan IC
Barim
esaia
CaLcium
Chruraum
ofpper
Cronr
[rcn
Led
Mapiesium
Mrqrww
Mercury
H rcketL
Potamiunt
SeLrnlL
St1rrit ifn
Si Lver
SodiLI
Zinc

FIELD PAMUTERS
CoDUAt ivi ty
pM
OH
DisoLvatd Iyuogun (OD)
Twprgjw#
Mater Lvels
Odor

NlCRADP ILOICCAL
rF nl GoLifonl
Feca rCoLiforri
Total CoLiforr

ORUANJE5 M A PET]ESJEB
Iacal OrgaiEe Carbon TOC)
VoL4atIl Crgmnic Carbon (va)
ALdicarb I reLated eampourwt
Purqoabl HLtLocrbw
Purgeabte Aro atic
P*Erl r1dd
PCts. Chlorinated Pesticides
PELttcidan
Orgqaisphate Pesticidem
Mixed PurgeabLt
lBem / MeutraL / Acid Extractubli
Carbmute P6IetlEide
Pesticides
Hoarbildd
Flmiant Penticiks

RAD LodwIAlCs
Groar AL ha
Crgaa Beta



OTHER
ictaL DiIssoved Solids (TDS)
imignl
Sitica


406
406
407A, 4a7B, or 4Dm0
41Zl, 412C, or 4120
4135, 4138, 413c, or 413E
41BC or 415F
4F o-r 424
42&A or 42MC


303o



303A
303A cr 315
3O3A ar 303a
303 or 3158
U3w ar jI350
33A or 3196
3I3A r 319
3030
303 or 322B
303E


303A or 303B
303i or 3255
555o or 30m


B 1J
v


B V
I



B v
I v


* V
H
V
V
V
V
V
V


V
V
I'

V


N

a
o M
a a


9W- or 90w
9Ma or 909M


SOS
EPA 601 & 60W, or PA 524
EPA 531
EPA 601
EPA 6d2
EPA At. 614
EPA ALt. 617
EPA ALt. 619
EPA 622
EPA 624
EPA 625
EPA 63?
EPA 644


I V
v
v


TABLE 2
tL~r O CF SA 1 VIT 2 VlTER hIMMsnIW DIETRITr


ir Al liu


ALACHLM CUITTY;
1) orw*ville

MDTHlEST fWIDA, WIDr
S1) PenaacoLa
2) OuLf Breze
3) Ii TlLLabasee
4} (e Jackson Go.
5) Poran City

STr, JoU RIVER Lh I
1) Patm Bay
2) NI Lake Ap*pk
3)1 Ja. TulLeyrund
4) ttata

SDUTI FRI. DA at:
1) WE Dade Co,
2) MEi Irunard Co.
3) S. Orang Ca.
4) itSrti CIo.
5) Lee Ca.

X$JTlMIST FLcOUDA r
1) E. Polk Ca.
2) E, Polf cCo.
3) HE H i Lborough
4) Prlln Co.

SLlUMIEE RIVER La;
11 Live Oak
2) Lafayette Ca.


i+arEcD


Surflclil


Smwd A Gravel
Sard & travel
Surficial & Flaridert
UrLenfhired FLorideti
SurficiaL


Biurf EielL
Sirficial
3urflcstL
tinconf red FLoridan


litcayne
BticayTneM
Surfltlal
surflcial


Surficial

t lOlaL & FILoridarent
Surficial


tJr oneir f Lorida
u~ rf irnd FLoridan


I iAui tiHn


MWixd tJrb,/iSub.


I ieavy ndustrial
Mixed Ub./Sibxrb.
LIrgh Irnatrial
CropLand Agricut.
Mixed UfrblWI0d.


SrItLe fmiLy
CropLr"d Arlriul
HMevy Irdatriat
UrbhorVbLubtwrb


Huvy IndrJ trial
Mind UtrborV/nd.
Mixed Urbarn/rd.
Orc brde, Cltrum
Single- Faity


Orchard, Citru4
orchoir, Citrue
S irFLe-Fai Ly
Light Frdatrfil


PiH ed UrbeC nnd.
Crop. Aga./DIlrli


20


- 10
- 10
* 15




a
" a





3
-3


6
16








7

I
-I1


IOTEB, TALE 1;

Piethor oren frm i titrmard Nthoh fr the Eaminatlon of Ustr nd L ast"eter, 15th edition ( erLean
Pdlic Health Association, 19o0), O frvw thU Flarid Departatic olf (lrofanmtal teguLat[ln'
SuEWm tt "A- to Standard (peretlrn Proce dres and Ouality Aier s PeMnual (191).

Other approved neVthd uith thi se Or better minimum etcttim I1larl, iccuay a 'i precision are
*Lsl C cttable.

S A sILabM of ipprolrletly 100 ackgrourn Mttslwk i*LLs is being sampLed for roadn narw radlia,


20B


rmg i rma ZllMq lwnn FL _IN -


& i~i -t LNI W -RU M?


--


jmma irm"l


I







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


during subsequent rouline sampling (Table 1).

The frequency of sampling and the chemical
parameters monitored at each site were based on
several factors, including network designation,
land-use activity, available resources, and gecodlic
sensithay of the site, After inhitt sampling, seven
weas were dropped from one network and added
to another, based on analysis of sampling results
For instance, some wevs believed not to represent
background-water quality were dropped Irmn the
Background Network and included In the VISA
Network, This rellnemenl process Is ongoing-
When significant concentrations of potentially
harmlut parameters were detected, the well was
resampled to confirm or deny conlamlnatlon.
When corlamirnatlon was cornirmed in a private
well, HRS was notllied so that potential health
threats could be assessed,

DATA BASE SYSTEMS

A varlety of data base and software systems
have been used and developed to store,
manrpulale and display Inwonmatlon related to the
Ground Water Qullty Monitoring program. These
include the Florida Summary Mapping System
(FSMS), Ihe Generaltzed Well Inlormatlon System
(GWIS), the Wel Log Data System and DERMAP.

The FSMS Is a microcomputer land-use
database and retrieval system developed at the
University of Florida (Miller, et al., 1986) and
currently marketed by ARMASI, Inc. This system
uses state ad valorem tax Informatlon annually
compiled by each county tax assessor, Land-use
information Is compiled and displayed In raster
format using the Publi Land Survey System grid
as a map base.. The resultIng one square mil a
resolution allows general delineation o0 areas o0
predominant land use.

GWIS Is a microcomputer database and
retrieval system which contains all well and
analytical water-quality Information generated by
the network It consists of two separate data sets:
1} physical well characteristics, and 2) sampling
reS ls. The two dae sets are linked by a cornmon
well Identifier. DER developed the system to
quickly and efficently manage the large volume of
data generated by the network Oata can be
redlievd by predellned groups or dates, for values
exceeding speckled limits (e.g. EPA standards), or
by any combination oa physical well attributes.


Data entry programs allow the user to add ew
well and analytical information to the system.
OuLput can be tabular or graphic (when combined
with a PC CAD package). Network data is also
available in dBASE IU Plus format. GWlS programs
and data are available to the public for a nominal
disk charge or free via a computer bulletin board
system accessible by telephone. For further
idnormation, contact:

Florida Dapartmen4 of Erwnronmental Regulation
Bureau of Drinking Water and Ground Water
Resources
Ground Water Qualty Monitoring Section
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400

Staff: (904) 488-3601
Bulletin Board Service: (904) 487-3592

The FGS maintains an extensive database
of geologic well data lithologlc descriptions
and formational contacts of well core and
culting samples). The Well Log Data System
includes a series of BASIC programs written by
Dr. Robert Lindquist (GeoLogic Informatlon
Systems, Galnesvlle, FL) to manage and use
this database. The system was written for IBM-
PC compatibility, providing the FGS and other
users access to the stalewlde geologic
database. It also provides a standard format for
additions to the database. The programs can
be used lor data entry and editing, as well as for
generating bolh graphic and text output of
geologic data.

DEE MAP integrates data from the FSMS,
GWIS and the Well Log Dala System. DEFMAP
was developed by ARMASI, Inc. In cooperation
with GeoLogic Informallon Systems. DERMAP
allows data tram all three databases to be
displayed simultaneously on a common map.
allowing the user to visually relate water quality to
land use and geology.

DERMAP and GWIS programs and data are
available from DER. The FGS can be contacted for
currea wel log clata FSMS can be obtained from
ARMASI, Inc. and the Well Log Dala System can
be obtained Irom GeOLog Information Systems.
Appendix 1 contains contaac information for these
agencies and companies.

All network chemical and physical well


Information is also stored In DER's mainframe
computer system. This central repository allows
access to the data by other state agencies.


Data AnatylB and Applicaon of
Program Reuts

The Ground Water Qualiy Monitoring Program
was designed to improve understanding of nan's
Impact on Florida's ground-wter resources Data
collected and analyzed by this program will
ulilmately yield tool for dascribing ard predicting
the complex Interactions between land use.
hydrogeologic conditions, waler quality and
quantity. Specifically, data generated by the
network wl be analyzed to;

1. Determine the extent and thickness
of the major aq*ilrr systems
containing potabe water;
2. Define regional hydrogeologlcl con-
diltons;
3. Map rechrge and discharge areas;
4. Map physical and chemical aqumer
characteriilce;
5 Slatlslicaily define geochemicaly
homogeneous segments within each
aquifer system;
6. Delemrine Ihe boundares of ground-
water basins and th~e relationship to
the geochenically-dellned aquler
segments;
7. Detennine current general ground-
water quality for each major aquifer
system statewide;
8. Establis9 average basellne-and
background-water qualty by para-
meer and aqiLir segmert;
Determine effect of potential con
lamlnation sourcs,
10. Evaluate water-quality changes over
time;
S1. Define relationships between land use
and ground-water quality:
12, Quantify and pradic changes In
ground-water quality due to land-use
changes;
13. Dallneet physical ground-water
divides;
14. Correlatlon of ground-water qually
changes with waler-leve fluctuations
to aid In dellning quality-quantty
relationship;


15. Delarmlne ground-waler basins for
each monitored aqufer:
16, Estabilsh the baselne-water quality of
similar aquifer sedlments within each
basin;
17. Produce waler-quality maps by
parameter.

Dala generated by the Ground Walar Qually
Monitoring Program can be used to determine
protective measures for water quallly and quantkit
for a variety of practical applications. Example
appical ons Include;

1. Aiding land use planning and zoning
decisions:
2. Oevelopmen of Local Government
Comprehensive Plans;
3. Protection of the quality and quantity
of public water supplies:
4. Preacllon of saltwater ntruslon due to
excesslv ftreshwatar withdrawal In
fields and coastal areas;
5. Surtace-wetsr/grourd-water co-mrn
agement;
6. Mapping ol potential aquifer system
vulnerabily;
7. Development of aquifer resource man-
agement strategies and protection







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A GEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF FLORIDA


present) sediments form the intermediate aquifer
system and/or conlining unll and the surflcial
aquifer system (Figure 4).


Geologic Hislory


Thomas M. Scott, P.G. 99

Introduction

The State of Florida lies princlpally on the
Florida Platlorm. The western panhandle of Florida
occurs In the Gull Coastal Plain to the northwest of
the Florida Platform. This subdivision is
recognized on the basis of sediment type and
deposltional history. The Florida Platfom extends
into the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from the
southern edge of the North American continent.
The platform extends nearly four hundred miles
north to south and nearly low hundred mess n Its
broadest wktth est to east as measured between
the three hundred fool Isobaths. More than one-
hall of the Floride Platfonm is under w Mer lea
a narrow penh ua ol tend adending to the south
from the North American mainland.

A thick sequence of primary carbonate rocks
capped by a thin, sillclastic sedlment-rich
sequence forms the Florida Plallorm. These
sediments range in age from mid-Mesozoic (200
million years ago [mya]) to Recent. Florida's
aquifer systems developed In the Cenozoic
sediants ranging from latest Paleocene (SS mya)
to Late Pleistocene (<100,000 years ago) In age
(Fgure 4). The deposition ol these sediments was
strongly influenced by flucuations of ea level and
subsequent subaerial exposure, Carbonate
sediment deposition dominated the Florida
Platform unti the end of the Ollgocene Epoch (24
mya). The resulting Cenozoic carbonate sediment
accumulallon ranges from nearly two thousand
leet thick in northern Florida to more than five
thousand feet In the southern part of the state.
These carbonate sediments form the Floridan
aqulfer system, one ol the world's most prolllic
aquifer systems, regional Intra-aquifer confining
unlis and the sub-Floridan confining unli. The
eadlmenis supradjacent to the Florldan aquifer
system Include quartz sands, silts, and clays
(sillciclastlcs) with varying admixtures ol
carbonaes as discrete beds and sedimer matrirx
Deposition ol these sediments occuLred from the
tiocene (24 mya) Io the Recent. The r4eogene (24
mya to 1.0 mya) and Quatemary (1.6 mya to the


Florida's basement rocks, those rocks older
than Early Jurasscl (>200 mya), are a fragment of
the African Plate which remained allached to the
North American Plate when the continents
separated In the mlkMesozoc., This fragment of
the African Plate provided the base for the
development of a carbonate platform which
Included the Bahama Plallorm and the Florida
Platform (Smith. 1982). The Florida Straits
separated the Bahama Platform Irom the Florida
Platform by the beginning of the Late Cretaceous
(approximately t10 mya (Sheridan at l.. 1981).

Carbonate sediments donmnated the deposit
lional environments Iram the mid-Mesozofc
(approximately 145 myae in southern and central
Florida and Irom the earliest Cenozoic
(approximately 62 mya) In northern and the
eastern panhandle Florida, Carbonate
sedimentation predominated In the Paleogene (67
1o 24 mya) throughout most of Florida. Evaporate
sediments, gypsum, anhydrite and some halite
small) developed periodically due to the restriction
of circulation in the carbonate depositional
environment, The evaporites are most common
In the Mesoaolc and the Paleogene carbonates at
and below the base of the Floridan aqiLfer system,
where they help form the Impermeable sub*
Floridan confining unit

During the early part of the Cenozoic, the
Paleogene, the silcicilalic sediment supply Irom
the north, the Appalachian Mountains, was Ibaled,
The mountains had eroded to a low level through
millions od years of erosion- The minor amount of
sediment reaching the marine environment was
washed away from the Florida Platform by currents
In the Gtdf Trough (Sthannee Strats) (Figures 5a
and b). This effectively protected the carbonate
depositlonal environments of the platform from the
Influx of the sillciclastic sediments As a resulL the
carbonate of the Paleogene section are very pure.
with extremely limited quantities of sillclcastlc
sdimerns. In the central and western panhandle
areas, which are part of the Gulf Coastal Plain.
silicldastlc deposition continued well into the
Paleogena. Signilica carEbonate depDsition did
not begin in this area until the Late Eocene (40


my). During the later Eocene, as the Influx of
silidclastics declined dramatically, carbonate
eoposilonal environments developed to the north
and west of the limits of the Florida Platform.
Carbonate deposilion was continuous In the
cenlrl panhandle and intermIttenrt in the western
panhandle through the Late Oligocene
(approximately 28 mya)

During the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene,
an episode of renewed uplift occurred In the
Appalachians (Sluckay, 106B). With a renewed
supty of sediments being eroded and entering the
Iluvial transport systems, sllicldastlc sediments
flooded the marine environment near the
southeastern North American coastline. The influx
of massive quantiles o these sediments killed the
Gulf Trough and encroached onto the carbonale
platform through longshore Iransport, currets and
other means. Al lirst, the sands and clays were
mixed with the carbonate sediments. Later, as
more and more sitlclclastlcs were transported
south, the carbonae sediment deposition declined
to only limited occurrences. Siliclclastic
sedlmentr. with varying amounts of carbonate in
the matrix, dominated the depositional
environments. The carbonate depositional
environments were pushed further to the south
uri virtually the entire ptalorm was covered with
sands and clays. The Inllux ol slilcclastice has
diminished somewhat during the later Plelsiocene
and the Recent resulting in carbonate deposition
occurring in limited areas around the southern
portion of the Florida Platlovm.

The Miocene-aged sliiclasllcs appear to have
completely covered the Florida Platform providing
a relatively impermeable barrier to the vertical
mlration ol ground water (Strngleld, 1966; Scott,
1981). This aquldude protected the underlying
carbonate sediments from dissolution. Erosion
breached the confining unit by the early
Pleistocene (?) allowing aggressive waters to
dissolve the underlying carbonates. The
progressive dissolution of the limestone
enhanced the secondary porosity of the near-
surface sediments of the Florldan aquifer system
and allowed the development of numerous karat
features,

KarsI features formed in the Florida peninsula
at least as early as the latest Oligocene as
determined Irom the occurrence of terrestrial
vertebrate faunas (acFadden and Webb. 182).


Based on subsurface data Irom the interpretation
of FGS cores, it appears that the development of
karst in Florida occurred during the Paleogene,
Unpublished work by Hammes and Budd
(progress report to the FGS, U. Hammes and D.
Budd, Unlversiy dc Colorado, 1990) indicates the
occurrence ol numerous "Intraformationai discon-
formllies" which resulted In the development of
karstt, callche and other subaerlal exposure
featues..'. These disconoarmnties were the result
of sea level fluctuations on a very shallow water,
carbonate bank depositlonal environment, At this
tirne there is no documentation of large scale karst
features forming durJng these episodes of
exposure,

Structlre

The oldest structures recognized as affecting
the deposition of sediments of the Florida Platform
ae expressed on the pre-Middle Jurassic erosional
surface (Arthur, 1988), These include the
Peninsular Arch, South Florida Basin, Sotheast
Georgia Embayment Suwannee Straits and the
Southwest Georgia Embayment or Apalachicola
Embayment (Figure 5a). These structures
affected the deposition of the Mesazolc sedi-
ments and the Early Cenozoic (Pateogenel
sediments. The structures recognized on the
top of the Paleogene sectJon are somewhat
different than the older features, The younger
features, which variously affected the deposi-
tion of the Neogene and Quaternary sediments.
Include the Ocala Platiorm. Sanlord High.
Chattahoochea Anticline, Apalachicola Enbay-
ment, Gulf Trough, Jacksonville Basin (part ol
the Southeast Georgia Embaymant), Oaceola
Low and the Okeechobee Basin (Figure 5h].
For more specific information on these
structures and their origins refer to Chen
(1965), Miller (196~) and Scott (198la).

The occurrence and condition of the aquller
systems are directly related to their position with
respect to the structural features. The Florlden
aquifer system lies at or near the surface under
poorly confined lo unconfined conditions on the
positive features such as the Ocala Platform,
Sanford High and the Chattahoochee Anticline.
Within the negative areas, (the Apalachicola
Embayment, Jacksonville Basin, Osceola Basin
and the Okeechobee Basin) the Floridan aquifer
system is generally well confined. The
Intermediate aquller system Is generally absent








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


from the positive structures and best developed
In the negative areas. The surllclal aquller
system may occur anywhere In relation to these
structures where the proper conditions exist

The occurrence and development of the
beds confining the Floridan aquiler system also
relate to the subsurface structures. On some of
the positive areas (Ocala Plallorm and
Chattahoochee Anlicllne) the confining beds of
the intermediate confining unit are absent due
to erosion and possibly nondeposition. In
those areas where the conilning units are
bleached, dissolution of the carbonate
sediments developed a karstic terrain.
Dissolution of the limestones enhanced the
porosity and permeability of the Floridan aquiler
system Including the development of some
cavernous Ilow systems,

Geomorphology

Floridsa' land surface is relatively flat and has
very low relief. The SAiface leatures of Florida are
the result of the complex interaction o1 deposi-
tional and erosional processes. As sea level
iluctuated during the later Cenozoic. the Florida
Plaltorm has repeatedly been inundated by marine
waters resuming in marine depositlcnal processes
dominating the development oi Florida's geomor-
phology. The relict shoreline features lound
throughout most ol the slate are most easily
identilied at lower elevations, nearer the present
coastline. Inland and at higher elevations, these
features have been subjected to more extensive
erosion and subsequent modification by wind and
water, In those areas of the state where carbonate
rocks and shell-bearing sediments are ubiJected to
dissolution, the geomorphic features may be
modified by development of karst features. The
extent of the modification ranges from minor
sagging due to the slow dissolution od carbonate
or shel to the development co large collapse sink-
holes. The changes that result may make
identification of the original features dilfctil.

White (1970) subdivided the State into three
major geomorphic divisions, the northern or
proxirTa tone, the central or mid-peninsular zone
and the southern or distal zone (Figure 6). The
northern zone encompasses the Northwest Florida
Water Management DIsltict and the northern
portions of the Suwannee River and St. Johns
River Water Management Districts. The central


zone includes the southern portions of the
Suwannee River and St. Johns River Waler
Management Districls, the Southwest Florida
Water Management District and the northem part
of the South Florida Water Management District.
The southern zone composes the remainder of the
Soiuh Florida Water Management DIslrct.

In a broad general sense, the geomorphoagy
of Florida consists of the Northern Highlands, the
Central Highlands and the Coastal Lowlands
(While, Vemon and Puri in Purl and Vernon, 1964).
White (1970) funher subdivided these features as
shown in Figures 7 thru 11. In general, the high-
lands are well drained while the klnwands often are
swampy, poorly drained areas. The highland areas
as delimited by White, Vernon and Purl In Purl and
Vernon (1964) ollen coincide with the areas of
*high recharge" as recognized by Stewart (1980).
Oriy a law, lited areas of 'high recharge' occur
In the Coastal LowlarKds

Many of the highland areas in the peninsula to
the central panhandle exhibit variably developed
karEl features. These range from shallow, broad
sinkholes that develop slowy to those that are
large and deep and develop rapidly (SinclaIr and
Stewart, 1985). The development of the karst
features and basLns has a direct impact on tlhe
recharge In 1he region. The karst features allow
the rapid infiltration of surface water into the
aquifer systems and offer direct access to the
aquiers by pollutants.

Lilhoatrallgraphy and Hydrostratigraphy

The aquifer systems in Florida are composed
of sedimrnlar1 rock units of varying composition
and induration which are subdivided into geologic
lonnelions based on the lihologic characteristics
(rock composition and physical characterislics.
Lithoslratigraphy is the formal recognition of the
defined geologic formations based on the North
American Stratlgraphic Coda (North American
Commission on Stratlgraphic Nomenclature,
1983). Many urns are related by the similarities of
the sediments whve others may be defined on the
sediment heterogeneity. An aquifer is a body of
sediment or wock that Is sufflclently permeable to
conduct ground waler and to yield economically
significant quanlitles of water to wells and springs
(Bales and Jackson, 1957). Florida's primary
aquilers am re erred lo as aquifer systems due to
the complex nature of the water-producing zones


they contain. The aquiler systems are Idenliied
Independently from lithostratigraphic units and
may Include more than one formation or be limited
to only a portion of a lormation. The succession c
hydrostratigraphic units forms the framework used
to discuss the ground-water system in Florlda
(Figure 4) (Souethastern Geological Society Ad
Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrosallgraphtc Unit
Deflnitlon, t198.

The Iihostratigraphlc and hydrostraligraphlc
framework of Florida shows significant variability
from norlh to south and west to east In the
peninsula and the panhandle. The formational
units discussed are only those Cenozoic sedi-
ments that relate to lth Floridan aquifer system,
the intermediate aquilar system/Confir*tg unit and
the surliclal aquifer system

UTHOSTRATIGRAPIHY

The lithosiratigraphic units that comprise the
aquifer systems In Florida occur primarily as
subsurface units with very limited surface
exposes, As a resul of the generly low relief of
the slate, virtually all the Illhostratigraphic
descriptions are Irom wall cuttings and cores used
to study the sediments. Geophyslcal logs have
proven useful In studying the sediments and
attempting regional correlations (Chen, 1965;
Miller, 19E6 Scott, 1988a: Johnson, 1984).

The allowing description of the llthologic
parameters of le various units associated with the
aquifer systems is brief and generalized, More
complete information concerning these groups
and formations can be obtained by rafenring to
Florida Geological Survey and U. Geologlcel
Survey publications relating to specific areas
and/or specific aquifers. Slate-wide data con-
ceminng the thlckness and tope of sediments of
Paleacene (67-55 mya) and Eocene (55-38 mya)
age (chrono tratigraphlc unite) can be found In
Chert (1965) and Miller (1986). Miller (19H1)
provides this data for Oligocene (38-25 mya) and
Miocene (25-5.3 mya) sediments. Scott (tGBsa)
provides detailed information on Ihe Miocene
strata kn the eastern panhandle and peninsular
areas The PlIo-Plelstocene (5-3-.01 mya) and the
Holocene (.01 rnya -Present) sediments which
make up the eurficial aquifer system, are discussed
in a number of references which are cited in the
appropriate setilon o this paper. Figure 4 shows


the iIthostratigraphic nomenclature utilized in this


Cenazloc Eralhem
Tertiary System
Paleocene Series

In general, most of the Paleocene sediments in
the Florida peninsula lorm the sub-Flordsan
confining unll and only a limited portion of these
rocks are part of the Floridan aquller system
Sillciclastic sediments predominate in Ihe
Paleocene section in much of the panhandle
(Chen, 1955; Miller, 19S6). The sllliclaticl
sediments are composed ol low permeability
marine clays, line sands and impure limestone
(Miller, 1986) which lie below the base of the
Florldan aquifer system. Following Miller (1986),
the silliclastlc sediments are referred to as
'Undifferentlated Paleocene Rocks (Sediments)"
and are not discussed further.

The .hlclkassc sediments grade laterally Into
carbonate sediments across the Gulf Trough in the
eastern panhandle (Chen, 9S65). Carbonate
sediments, mostly dolostone, occur Inlerbedded
with evaporle minerals throughout 1he Paleocene
section in the peninsula (Chen, 1965). These
sediments are included in the Cedar Keys
Formation end occur throughout the peninsular
area and Into the eastern panhandle.

Cedar Keys Formation

The Cedar Keys Formation consists primarly
of dolostone and evapories (gypsum and
anhydrlie) wth a minor percentage of limestone
(Cher, 1965). The upper portion ol the Cedar
Keys consists ol coarsely crystalline, porous
dolostone, The lower portion of the Cedar Keys
Formation contains more finely crystalline
dolostone which Is Interbedded with anhydrile.
The Cedar Keys Formallon grades Into the
Undlllerenllated Palecoene Sediments in the
eastern panhandle (Mier, 1986) which equal with
the Wilcox Group (Braunstin et al., 1985).

The codilguration of the Paleocene sediments
In peninsular Florida reflect depositional controls
Inherited from the pre-existing Mesozoic slruc.
tures, including the Peninsular Arch, Southeast
Georgia Embaymet, and the Somh Florida Basin
(Miller, 1986). The Cedar Keys Formalion forms
the base do the Foridan aqiler system Ihwoughoif







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the peninsula except In he northwestern-mosl
peninsular area where the Oldsmar Formation
forms the base (Miller, 196). The upper, porous
dolostone comprises the lowest beds oi the
Florldan aquifer system. The lower Cedar Keys
Formation is significantly less porous, contains
evaporates and forms the sub-Flormdan confining
unit.

Eocene Series

The sedimewts the Eocene Series that form
portions of the Floridan aquifer system are
carbonates. During the Eariy Eocene, deposition
followed a distribution pattern similar to the
Paleocene carbonate sediments. However.
through the Eocene, carbonate-forming environ-
ments slowly encroached further north and west
over what had been siliciclasti depositlonal
environments during the Palec;ene. The Eocene
carbonate sediments are placed in the Oldsmar
Formation, Avon Park Formallon and the Ocala
Group. The Eocene carbonate sediments com-
prise a large pant l he Floridan aqrier System

Clalborne Group

The Lower to Middle Eocene Claiorne Group
unconformably (?) overlies the undifleren!iated
Lower Eocene and Paleocene sediments. The
Claiborne Group consists of the TaUelhatta and
LUsbon Formnllons which arem lhologically nearly
identlcal and are not separated. The group Is
composed of glauconitic, often clayey sand
grading into fine-rained limestone to the south
{Allen, 1957). The Clahbome Group ranges from
250 to 400 feet below NGVD and is up to 350 leet
thick (Allan, 1987). It is unconlormably overlain by
the Ocala Lunestone.

Oldsmar Forrallon

The Oldsmer Formation consists predomi-
nantly of limestone interbedded with vuggy
doloslone Oolomillzatlon Is usually more ex.
tensive in the lower portion of the section.
Pore-filling gypsum and thin beds of anhydrite
occur In some places, often lorming the base of
the Floidan aqulersystem (Miler, 1986).

The Oldsmar Formation is recognized
throughout the Florida peninsula. I grades
laterally in the eastern panhandle into
Undifferentiated Lower to Middle Eocene


sediments equivalent to the laiborne Group.
The undifferentiated sediments are marine
shales. sllistones, fine sandstones and impure
limestones (Miller, 1986}.

Avon Park Formatlon

The Miodde Eocene sediments of peninsular
Florida as originally described by Applin and
Applin (1944) were subdivided, in ascending
order, into Ihe Lake City Limestone and the
Avon Park Limestone. Miller (1986) recom-
mended the inclusion of the Lake City In the
Avon Park based on the very slmJlar nature of
the sediments, Miller also changed the term
limestone to formation due to the presence of
significant quantities of dolostone within the
expanded Avon Park Formation.

The Avon Park Formation Is primarily
composed of lossililerous limestone inter-
badded with vuggy dolostone. In a few, limited
areas of westcentral Florida, evaporiles are
present as ug fillings in dolostane.

The Avon Park Formation occurs
throughout the Florida peninsula and the
eastern panhandle In a patlern very similar to
the underlying Oldsmar Formation. The oldest
rocks cropping out in Florida belong to the
Avon Park Formation. These sediments are
locally exposed on the crest of the Ocats
Platform n wasl-cenlral pernnstar Florida.

The carbonate sediments of the Avon Park
Formation form parl of the Florldan aquifer
system and serve lo subdivide I1 Into an upper
and lower Floridan in many areas. Miller [(1139
recognized that portions ol the Avon Park
Formation are fine-grained and have low
permeability, often acting as a confining bed in
the middle of the FJorldan aquifer system. In
Brevard County. lor example, these low
parneability beds are relied upon to keep less
desirable water IJnected Into ihe lower Florldan
from migrating into the potable water of the
upper Floridan.

Ocala Limestone

Dai and Harris (1-8921 referred to the
limestone exposed In central peninsular
Florida near the city od Ocala in Marion County
as the Ocala Limestone. Puri (157) raised Iha


Ocala to group and recognized formations
based on the Incorporated foramlniferal faunas.
As a result of the bLoslratigraphic nature of
these subdivisions, formational recognition Is
alien difficult. In keeping with the intent of the
Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature, in this
lexl. the Florida Geological Survey is returning
to the use of the Ocala Unestoneterminology.

The lower and upper subdivisions ol the
Ocala Limestone are based on distinct
lithologic differences. The lower subdivision
consists of a more granular limestone
(gralnstone to packslone). The lower lacies is
not present everywhere and may be partially to
completely dolomilized in some regions (Miller,
1986e. The upper unil is composed of variably
muddy (carbonate), granular limestone
(packstone to wackestone with very limited
gralinslone. Often this unit is very soft and
friable with numerous large loraminifera. In
southern Florida. virtually the entire Ocala
Limeslone consists ol a muddy {carbonale) to
finely pelletal limestone (Miller,1986)- Chart is a
common component of the upper portion of the
Ocala Limestone. The Bumpnose 'Formation",
a very early Oligocene fossiliferous Hmeslone,
is Ilthologlcally very similar Io the Ocala
Limestone. it Ls included In the Ocala Lime-
seone in this report.

The sediments of the Ocala Limestone form
one of the most permeable zones within the
Floridan aquifer system. The Ocala Limestone
comprises much of the Floridan aquifer system
in the central and western panhandle. The
extensive development of secondary porosity
by dissolulian has greatly enhanced the
permeability. especially in those areas where
the confining beds are breached or absent. The
Ocela Limestone formal the lower portion of the
Florldan In the western panhandle (Wagner,
1982). In much of the peninsular area, it
comprises all or part of the upper Foridan.

By Late Ecene, carbonate sediments were
deposited significantly further to the north and
west than had previously occurred during the
Cenozoic, The Ocala Limestone Is present
throughout much of the State except where the
unit has been eroslonally removed. This occurs
In outcrop on the crest ol the Ocala Platform
and in the subsurface on the Sanlord High, a
limited area in central Florida and a relatively


large area in southernmost Florida (Miller,
1985). Chen (1965) suggests that the Ocala
Limestone is also absent in a portion of Palm
Beach County in eastern southern Florida. The
surface and thickness of the Ocala Limestone
are highly Irregular due to dissolution of the
Ilnestones as karst topography developed

Oligocene Series

The carbonate sediments of the Oligocene
Series form much ol the upper portion of the
Florldan aquifer system In Florida. The
deposilional pallern ot the Oligocene sediments
shows that carbonate sediments were
deposited well updip to the north of the Florida
Platform (Miller, 198). In the central panhandle
and to the west, siliclcastic sediments began to
be mixed with the carbonates.

The Ollgocene sediments in peninsular
Florida and part ol the panhandle are
characteristically assigned to the Suwannee
Limestone. The Oligocene sediments in the
central and western panhandle are placed In the
Marlanna, Bucatunna and Chickasawhay
Formations (MilLer, 1986). In the westernmost
panhandle, the lower carbonates of the
Suwannee Limestone grade Intl the silciciasti
Byram Fodration (Braunstein ea al., 1968).

Suwannee Limestone

The Suwannee Limestone consists primarily
of variably vuggy and muddy (carbonate)
limestone (gralnstone to packstone), The
occurrence ol a vuggy, porous dolostone is
recognized In the type area, the eastern to
central panhandle and in southwest Florida.
The doloslona often occurs interbeddad
between limestone beds.

The Suwannee Limestone is absent
throughout a large area of Ihe northern and
central peninsula probably due to erosion.
Scattered outliers ol Suwannae Limestone are
present within this area. Where it is present, the
Suwannee Limestone forms much oi the upper
portion of the Floridan aquiler system. The
reader is referred to Miller (1986) lor a map of
the occurrence ot the Suwannee Limestone in
the peninsula.







SPECIAL PUBUCATION NO. 32


Marianna Lineslone

The Marianna Limestone is a lossllilerous,
variably argillaceous limestone (packstone to
wackestone) that occurs In the central
panhandle. It is laterally equivalent lo the lower
portion of the Suwannee Limestone. The
Marianna Limestone forms a portion of the
uppermost Floridan aquller system In the
central panhandle region.

Bucalunna Clay Member of the Byram
Formation

The Bucatunna Clay Member is silty Io
finely sandy clay. Fossils are generally scarce
in the Bucatunna (Marsh. 1966). The sand
content of the Bucatunna ranges from very
minor percentages to as much as 40 percent
(Marh, 1900).

The Bucalunna Clay Member has a limited
distrlbulbon In the western panhandle- It occurs
Irom the western end of the state eastward to
approximately the Okalaosa-Walton County line
where It pinches out (Marsh, 1965). The
Bucattnna Clay Member provides an effective
intra-aquier confining unit in the middle of the
Floridan aquifer system In the western
panhandle.

Chickasawhay Formation

Marsh (1966) describes the Chlckasawfay
Formation as being composed of highly porous
limestone and dolomltl llmestone. This Is
often interbedded with porous to compact
dolomktic limestone to dolostone. The
Chickasawhay Formation grades into the upper
Suwannee Limestone eastward. Due to
diffloulty in separating the Chlckasawhay Irom
the Lower Miocene limestone in the western
panhandle, both Marsh (1960) and Miller (1986)
included thin beds ol possible Lower Miocene
carbonate In the upper portion of Ihe
Chickasawhay Formation. The permeable
sediments ol the Chickasawhay Formalion form
part ol the upper Floridan In the western
panhandle (Wagner, 1982).

Miocene Series

The Miocene Epoch was a time of
significant change in the deposilional sequence


on the Florida Platform and the adjacent Gull
and Atlanllc Coastal Plains. During the early
part of the Miocene, carbonate sediments
continued to be deposited over most of the
Slate. Intermixed with the carbonates were
increasing percentages ol slliclclestic
sediments. By the end of the Early Miocene,
the deposllon of carbonate sediments was
occurring only in southern peninsular Florida.
Slllclclastic deposition dominated Ihe Middle
Miocene statewide with this trend continuing
into he Late Miocene

The basal Miocene carbonate sediments
olten form the uppermost portion of Ihe
Floridan aquifer system. The remainder of the
Miocene sediments lorm much of the
Inlermediate aquifer system and Intermediate
confining system, In some instances, these
sediments may also be included In the surficlal
aquifer system.

Unusual deposltional condtllons existed
during the Miocene as is evident from the
occurrence of abundant phosphate,
palygorskite, opaline cherts and other
uncommon minerals plus an abundance of
dolomlte within the Hawthorn Group (Scott,
1988a), The presence of these minerals may
influence ground-waler quality In areas where
the Miocene sediments are being weathered.
Ground-waler quality may also be affected
where these sediments form the upper portion
of the Floridan aquller system or portions of the
intermediate aquifer system.

Current geologic thought holds thai In the
peninsula the Miocene section Is composed of
the Hawthorn Group. The Tampa Formation is
Included as a member In the basal Hawthorn
Group. In the panhandle, the Lower Miocene
remains the Chattahoochee and SI. Marks
Formations, the Middle Miocene Alum Bluff
Group and the Upper Miocene Choclawhalchee
Formation and equivalents. Formations
previously mentioned in the literature as being
Miocene in age Include Ihe Temlami. which is
Pliocene in age, and the Miccosukee Formation
which is now recognized as being Lele Pliocene
to possibly early Pleistocene In age.

The Miocene sediments are absent from the
Ocala Plallorm and the Sanford High (Scott,
1088a). These sediments are as much as 800


leet thick In southwest Florida (Mitler, 1986;
Scott, 1968a), 500 Feet thick in the northeastern
peninsula (Scott, l88a) and 900 to 1000 leet
thick in the westernmost panhandle (Miller,
1986).

Chatahoocee Formation

The Chattahoochee Formalion Is predomi-
nantly a fine-gralned, often fosslliferous, silly to
sandy dololtona which is variable to a
limestone (H1uddleslun, 1988). Fine-grained
sand and sill may also form beds with various
admixturea of dolomite and clay minerals. Clay
beds may also be common In some areas (Purl
and Vernon, 1964).

The Chattahoochee Formation occurs in a
limited area of Ihe central panhandle from the
axls of the Gulf Trough westward. It appears
that the Chattahoochee grades to the west into
a carbonate unit alternately referred to as
Tampa Limestone (Marsh, 19060 Miller, 1956) or
St. Marks (Purl and Vernon, 1964; NWFWMD
Stall. 1975). Northward into Georgia, this unit
grades into the basal Hawthorn Group
(Huddlestun, 1988). To the east of the axis of
the Gull Trough, the Chattahoochee Formalion
grades into the St. Marks Formation (Purl and
Vernon, 1964; Scott, 1986). The gradatlonal
change between the Chaltahoochee and St.
Marks Formations occurs over a broad area of
Leon and Gadsden Counties (Scott, 1986). The
sediments of the Chattahoochee Formation
comprise the upper zone of the Floridan aquiler
system in the central panhandle.

St. Marks Formation

The St. Marks Formation is a lossiliferous
limestone (packstone to wackeslone), Sand
grains occur acallered in an often very moldic
limestone. The llthoiogy ol the St. Marks and the
associated units in the Apalachicola Embaymernt
and to the west are often difficult to separate
(Schmldt. 1984). The St. Marks Formation
Illhology can be traced in cores grading into the
Chatlahoochee Formation (Scolt, 1986). This
formation forms the upper part of the Floridan
aquller system In portions of the eastern and
central panhandle.


Hawthorn Group

The Hawthorn Group Is a complex series ol
the phosphate-bearing Miocene sediments In
peninsular and eastern panhandle Florida, The
carbonate sediments otf he Hawthorn Group are
primarily llne-gralned and contain varying admbx-
tures of clay, salt, sand and phosphate. Oiostone
Is Ihe domlrant carbonate sediment type In the
northern two-thirds of the peninsula whife lime.
stone predominates In the southern peninsula and
in the eastern panhandle area.

The sielclastic sediment component conalsts
of fine- to coarse-grained quartz sand, quartz silt
and clay minerals In widely varying proportions.
The clay minerals present Include pelygorskte,
smectite and Illite with kaollnlte occurring in the
weathered sedinwts,

The top of the Hawthorn Group Is a highly
irregular erosional and karstic surface. This
unconfrmnaleN surface can exhibit dramatic local
relief especly In outrop along the flanks of the
Ocala Platform. Figures 12 through 19 show the
top and thickness ol the lawthorn Group
sediments which comprise the intermediate aquier
aystem/confining unit.

In the peninsa, the Hawthorn Group can be
broken into a northern section and a southern
section, The northern section consists of inter-
bedded phosphatic carbonated and sillcclastlcs
with a Irend of increasing slllciclastles in the
younger sediments. In ascending order, the for-
mations in northern Florida are Ihe Penney Farms,
Marks Head and Coosawhatches and its lateral
equivalent Statenville (Scot, 1968a), The sedli
ments comprising these lormallons cherac-
lerislically have low permeabilItles and lorm an
effective aqulclude, the Intermediate conlrning unit.
In a few areas, permaablities within Ihe Hawthorn
sediments are locally high enough to allow the
limited development of an intermediate aquifer
system.

The southern section consists of a lower
dominanty phosphatic carbonate section and an
upper phosphatic siliciclaslic section. In the
southern area. In addition Io Increasing
s Illccla stics upsection. there Is also a trend of
increasing siliciclastica from west to east In the
lower carbonate section, The Hawlhorn Group in
southern Florida has been subdivided Into, in







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ascending order, the Arcadia Formation with the
former Tempa Formation as a bas]l member, and
the Peace River Formallon (Scott, 1980a).
Throughout much ol south Florida. these
sediments have limited or low permeabllties and
lorm an effective Intermediate confining unit.
However, where the Tampa Member Is present and
permeable enough, It may lorm the upper portion
of the Floridan aquifer system, In portions of
sodhwasten Florida, the HthWorn sedimurts are
permeable enough to form several Importent
producing zones In the Intermediate aquifer
system (Knapp et al,, 1986; Smith and Adams.
1968).

The Hawthorn Group, Torreya Formnalon s dl*
ments in te eastern panhandle are predominantly
slliclClastics wRh limied amounts of carbonates
(Scoll, 1988a). In this area. carbonated become
Increasingly important in the Gulf Trough where
the basal Hawthorn sediments are lne-grained
carbonates. The slliclclastic sediments are very
clayey and form an effective intermediate confining
unit. The carbonate sediments may locally be
permeew e enough to form the upper portion of lhe
Florlda aquifer system.

Bruce Creek Umestone

Huddlestun (1976) applied the name Bruce
Creek Limestone to tale Middle Miocene lime-
stones occurring In the ApeJachikol Emhaymeit
and coastal areas 01 the central and western
panhandle, The Brue Creek Limestone ih a lossil-
ferous, variably sandy mnestone (Schmilt, 1984).
This lithology becomes Indlstinguishable. to the
east, irom IIlhocogies lound In lhe St. Marks Forma-
lion (Schmkdt. 1984). The Bruce Creek Limestone
is laterally equivalent to and grades nto the lower
portion of the Alum Bluff Group (Schmidt, 1984).
The Bruce Creek Limestone forms part ol the
upper Floridan aquifer system in the central and
western panhandle.


Alum Bluff Group

West of the Apalachicola River In the Florida
panhandle, the Hawthorn Group is replaced by Ihe
Alum Btuf Group. The Alum r ufl Group Includes
the CNpola Formation, Oak Grove Sand, Shoal
River Formation and the Choctawhatchee For-
mation (Braunetein at l., 1988). The lormeliorn
Included In this group are generally defined on the


basis of their moluskaen launas and are of variable
areel extends. These sediments can be dlstin-
guished as a Jfthologle entity at the group level and
will be referred to as such In thistexd.

The Alum Bluff Group consists of cays, sands
and shell beds which may vary from a fossliferous,
sandy clay to a pure sand or day and occasional
carbonate beds or lenses. The Jackson Bluff
Formatlon is currently thought to be Late P1locene
In age; and, even though Huddleslun (1976)
Included It in the Alum Bluff Group, Ft was not
Included In the Alum Bluff Group on the latest
Correladlon charts (Braunsteln et al., 1988).
Sedimends comprising the Jackson Suff Formation
are very skr ar to those making up the Alum Blurl
Group,

The sediments comprising the Alum Blufl
Group are generally Impermeable due to the
abundance of clay-sized particles. These
sediments form an important part of the
intermediate confining unit In the central
panhandle.

Pensacola Clay

The Pensacola Clay consists of three mem-
bers- lower and upper cay members and a middle
sand member, the Escambil Sand (Marsh, 1966).
Lithologically. the clay members consist of silty,
sandy days with carbonized plant remains (Marsh,
19~6). The sand member is fine to coarse, quartz
sand. Marine iosslis are rarely present in the
Pensacola Clay with the exception of a
fossillferous layer near the base (Clark and
Schmidt, 1962), The Pensacola Clay grades
laterally into the lower portion al the 'Miocene
Coarse Clastlca' o1 the north and the Alum Bluff
Group and the rower Intracoaslal Fomailon to the
east (Clark and Schmidt, 1982].

The Pensacola Clay lorms the intermediate
confining unit for the Florldan In Ile western
panhandle. It lies Irmnedlately supradjacent to the
Ilmestones of lhe upper Floridn aquler system.

Irnracoaslal Formaidon

Schmldt (1964) describes the Intraoastaj For-
mallon as a "ery sandy, highly microfosslliferous,
poorly consolidated, argillaceous, calcarenitlc
limeatone.- Phoephale is generally present in
amounts greater than one percent. This unit is


laterally gradatlonal with the Pensacola Clay and
Mlo.Pliocere 'Coarse Castlcs" (Schmidt. 1984).
The lower Intracoastal Formation is Middle
Miocene while the upper portion is Late Pliocene.
Wagner (1982) indicates that the Intracoastal
Formation Iorms part of the intermediate confining
unit in the central to wesemn panhandle,

Pliocene-Pleistocene Series

The sediments of the Piiocene-Plaislocene
Series occur over most oc the State. These
sediments range from nonfossllilerous, clean
sands to very fossllilerous, sandy clays and
carbonate Uthcogic units comprising this series
include the 'Corse Claslcs", Tamlaml Formation.
CitroneJle Formallon, MiCCOsukee Formation.
Cypresshead Formation, Nashua Formation,
Caloosahatchee Formellon, Fort Thompson
Formelion, Key Largo Limestone, Miami Lime-
stone, Anas asia Formation and Undifferenliated
Plelstocene-Holocene sediments. The upper
portion of the Inlracoastal Formation Is Pliocene
and Is discussed with the lower Intracoastal
Formation under the Miocene Series

"Coarse Castlcs"

The name 'Corse Clastics' has been applied
to sequences of quartz sands and gravels in a
number ol areas around Florida. These sediments
ae often referred to in the literature as "Miocene
Coarse Clestlcs' (lor example, Purl and Vernon.
1964).

In northern Florida, these sediments are
referred to as the Cypresshead Formation of Late
Pliocene to Eary Pleislocene age (Scott, 1988b).
In southem Florida, Knapp at al. (1986) referred to
these sediments as the "Mlocene Coarse Clastics"
and placed them In the Hawthorn Group. In the
panhandle, Marsh (1966) mentions the 'Miocene
Coarse Cleetlcs' as sands and gravel with some
clay which unfdedle the Citronelle Fonrmaion.

In the panhandle, the "Coarse Clastlcs" are
variably clayey sands with gravel and soie shell
material (Clark and Schmldt, 1982). These
siliclclastlcs occur In Escambia, Santa Rosa end
western Okaloosa Counties In the western
panhandle. They equate In part to the upper part
o4 the Pensacola Clay, part ol the tltracoaslal
Formation and pen of the Alum Bluff Group.


In southern peninsular Florida, the coarse
siliciclastics are fine to very coarse quartz sands
with quartz gravel and variable amounts of clay,
carbonate and phosphate. These sedIments may
equ~e wtth the Cypressghed Foormaion sediments
inl central and nortlern Florida.

These sidlcJlastlc sediments form important
aquifer systems In portions of southern and
parnandle Florida In the western panhandle, the
'Coarse Caslics" farm a portion of the Sand-and-
Gravel aquifer, part ofl he surficlel aqLTer system.
These sediments also comprise a portion al the
surflclal aquifer system in the peninsular area.
especially In southern Florida.

Tantiami Formation

The Tamiaml Formation consists lo the
Pinecrest Sand Member, the Ochopee Limestone
Member, and the Buckingham Limestone Member
(Hunler, 1968). The various faces of the Tamlami
occur over a wide area of southern Florida The
relationships ol the facies are not well known due
to: I- the complex set of deposllianal environ-
ments thai were involved In the formation of the
sediments and 2- the Tamlami Formation most
often occurs as a shallow subsurface unll
throughout much of Its extent. Many of the facies
are important Irom a hydrogelogic perapective in
an area of ground-water problems.

The limestone in the Tamiemi Formation
occurs as two lypes: 1- a moderately to well-
induraled, slightly phosphatlc, uaulably sandy.
lOssliferous limestone (Ochopee) and 2- a poorly
induraled to unindurated, slightly phosphellc,
variably sandy, losslllierous limestone (Bucking-
ham). The sarrd faces is oflon composed of a
variably phosphatic and sandy, fossiniferous.
calcereous, quartz sand often containing abun-
dant, well-preserved mollusk shells (Plnecresti.
The sand varles rom a wel-sortd, clean sand wlh
abundant wel-preserved sheets end traces oc silt-
sized phosphate In the type Pinecrest Sand
Member (Hunter. 1968) to a clayey sand with
sand-ized phosphale, day-sized carbonate in the
matrix and abundant, well preserved mollusk
sheas. Slllciclastic sediments (undfferentlated) ol
this age appear to occur along the eastern side cA
the peninsula but have not been assigned to the
Tamiaml Fornalion.

Sediments of the Tamiami Formation exhibit







SPECIAL PUBUCATION NO. 32


variable permeal ies and form he lower Taanm
aquifer and Tamlaml conlining beds of the surficiao
aquler system (Knapp et al-, 1986), Smlh and
Adams (198) Indicate that the upper Tamlami
sediments form the basal portion o the "water
table aQuilfer overlying the Tamlami confining
beds.

Cironelle Fomwnalon

The Citronelle Fomrmaion Is composed 0d fine
to very coarse sillciclastics. The name was
extended to Include the sillcilastlcs comprising
the central ridge system In the Florida peninsula by
Cooks (1945). As It is currently recognized, the
Cironelle Forrrllan occurs ory in the panhandle.
The unit is recognized from central Gadsden
County on th east to the w ertm boundary of the
State. The Cltronele Formation is composed of
very fine to very coarse, poorly scored, angular to
subangular quartz sand. The unit contains
significant amount ol clay, silt and gravel which
may occur as beds, lenses or srlingers and may
vary rapidly over short distances. LImonite
nodules and limonltic cemenled jones are
conTwnon.

The Citronelle Formation extends over much
ol the central and western panhandle. Previous
Investigators encountered problems In the
separation of Ihe Citronelle and the overlying
terrace deposits and generally considered the
thickness o the Citronele inducding these younger
sediments (Marsh, 1956; Coo, 1979). The
Citronelle Formation grades laterally Into the
Miccosukee Formation through a broad transition
zone in Gadsden County. The Citronelle For-
mation lorms an Important part o the Sand-and-
Gravel aquller In the western panhandle and
produces up to 2,0~0 gaons of water per minute
(Wagner. 182).

MicosUkee Formnaion

Hendry and Yon (19i7) describe the
Miccosukee Formation as consisting of
irnerbedced and crossbedded clay, slit, sand and
gravel of varying coarseness and admixtures.
Limonite pebbles are common In the unill The
MIccosukee Formation occurs In the eastern
panhandle from central Gadsden County on Ihe
west to easlernm Madison County on the eat Due
to its clayey nature, the Miccosuke Formation
does not produce significant amounts ci water, It


is generally considered to be part of the surliclal
aquier system (Soulheastem Gelogical Society,
1986).

Cypresahead Formation

The name Cypresahead Formation was khrst
used by Huddleslun (1988). It was extended Into
Florida by Scott (1986b). The Cypresshead
Formation la composed entirely of slliclclastics;
predominantly qualtz and clay minerals. The unit
Is characterlslically a motled, fine- to coarse-
grained. often gravelly, variably clayey quartz
sand. As a result ol weathering. Ihe clay
component of these sediments has charac-
teristally been altered to aollnlte. Clay serves as
a binding matrix for Ihe sands and gravels. Clay
content may vary from absent to more than Ilty
percent in sandy clay lithologles although the
average clay content is 10 to 20 percent. These
sediments are often thinly bedded with zones ol
cross bedding. The Cypresshead Formallon
appears to occur In the Central HigMhands of the
penlriula south to northern Highlands County,
although the extent ol the Cypresshead Formation
has not been aourately mapped In this area. This
unit may locally comprLse the surficlal aqufter
system where dcay content Is low.

Mshua Formation

The Nashua is a fosslliferous, variably
calcareous, sometnes clayey. quartz sand. The
fossil content Is variable from a shelly sand to a
shell hash. The dominant fossils are mollusks.

The tent of the Mashua hi nonher Florida Is
rnt currently known, It extends some distance iwo
Georgia and appears to grade laterally Into lhe
Cypresshead Formation (HuddlesU n, 1988). The
Nashua Formation may produce limited amounts
of water in locallied areas where it forms part oI
the SurfciE aquier system,

Caloosaatcee Formation

The Caloosahalchee Formation consists of
lossliferous quartz sand wlh variable amounts of
carbonate matrix Irterbedded with variably sandy,
shely limestones. The sediments vary trom non-
indurated to well iduraled. The launa associated
with these sediments are varied and often well
preserved. Fresh water limestone are commonly
present within this unit.


Sediments Identified as part ol the
Caloosahatchea Formation by various
Investigators occur From north of Tampa on the
west coast south to Lee County, eastward to the
East Coast then northward Into northern Florida
(OuBar, 1974). The Caloomahatchee Formation as
used here includes those sediments informally
referred to as the Barmont formation (DuBar,
1974).

in most hydrogeologic investigations of
souaem Florida, the Caloosahatchee Forrmalon Is
not differentiated from the Fort Thompson
Formation and other faunal units. The
undllierenliated sediments lorm much of the
surflcial quilersystem.

Fort Thompson Formation

The Fort Thompson Formation conslste of
Inte(aedded shell beds and limestones. The shell
beds are characterlasically variably sandy and
slightly indurated to unindurated. The sandy
limestones present In the Fort Thompson
Formation were deposited under both freshwater
and marine condilons. The sand present in these
sediments is fine. to medium-grained. The
sediments of Fort Thompson age in oent4l Florlda
along the east coast, consist of fine to medium
quartz sand with abundant mollusk shells and a
minof bd variable clay content.

The Fort Thompson Formation, as the
Caloosahatchee Formation, is part of the
undiferentiated sediments In soulhm Florida- II
forms a portion of the surict aquifer system.

Key Largo Limesone

The Key Largo Limestone is a corailine
ilmeslone composed of coral heads encased in a
matrix of calcarenlIe (Stanley. 1966). Hoflmelster
and Multer (1968 Indicate that the Key Largo
iUnestone occurs in the subsurface from as far
north as Miami Beach to as far south as the Lower
Keys- The fossi reef Iract repretsewed by the Key
Largo sediments may be as much as 8 miles wide
(DuBar, 1974). Near the northern and southem
limits of the Key Largo Limestone. it Is overlain
conformably by the Miami Limestone with which
the Key Largo is, in part, lateraly equlvalenl.


The Key Largo Llmestone forms a part of the
Biscayne aquller of the surgical aquifer system.
The Biscayne aquifer provides water lor areas of
Dade, Browad and Monroe Counties

Miami Umestene

The Miami Limestone indudes an oolitic faces
and a bryozoan lacles. The bryozoan ladles
underlies and extends west of the western
boundary of the oolilc taces, The bryozoan faci
consists ol calcareous bryozoan colonies
imbedded in a matrix oooilds pacls and skeletal
sand. It generally occurs as a variably sandy.
recrystallized, kossilerous limestone (Hoffmeister
et al., 1967). The oolitl faces consists co variably
sandy limestone composed primarily ca ooliles
with scattered conoentralons of lo ssls,

Hoffmelster et at, (1967) indicate that the
Miami Limeston covers Dade County, much of
Monroe County and the southern pan of Broward
County. It grades laterally to the south Into the
Key Largo Limestone and to the north into the
Anastasia Formation The oolitic faces underlies
the Atlantic Coaslal Ridge southward from
southern Palm Beach County to southern Dade
County

The Miami imestonem Iuma a portion of the
Biscayne aquifer of he d urllclal aquifer system. It
is very porous and permeable due to the
dissolution ol carbonate by ground water as It
recharges the aquifer system.

Anadasla Formallon

The Anastasia Formallon consists of
Interbedded quartz sands and coquinoid lime-
stones. The sand beds consist of line to medium-
gralned, vamably fosallferous, calcareous, quartz
send. The contalned fossils are primarily broken
and abralded mollusk shells, The lImestone beds.
commonly called coqulna, are composed of shei
Iragmnts, scattered whole shells and quartz sand
enclosed In a calcareous matrix, usually sparry
calcle cement.

The Anastasia Formation forms the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge through most of its length (While,
1970). Natural exposures of this unit occur
scattered along the east coast from St. Augustine
south to souhern Palm Beach County near Boca
Raton. South ol this area the Anasmasia Formaton






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


grades Intothe Miami Limestone, Cooke (1945)
felt hat the Anastasia Formation ex endd no
more tlen three mies dnland from the Inlraeoatal
Waterway. Field work by this author (Scott)
suggests that the Anarstala may oexnd as muc
as 10 mies Inland; although, Schroader (1954)
suggests that this unll may occur more then 20
mies idand.

The Anastesia Formation lorms a portion of
the suficlaJ aquifer system along the easaem coast
ol the sat,. Groeld weler la withdrawn from the
Anaslasla Formation In many areas along the
Alantic Coastal Rklge wr,. localy. a may be the
major source of grud water. Ner the soulhm
extent of the Anastasia Formation. it forms a
portion of the Biscayne aquifer (offmelser 1974).

ULndferentiated Pleistoene-Holocane Sedlments

The sediments referred to as the "undiffe-
rerilaled Pielstocene-Holoeen saedknert cover
much of Florida effectively hiding most older
sediments. Included in this category are marine
"terrace" medimenls, sollan sand dunes, fluvial
deposits, fresh water carbonates, pe an d a wide
variety of sedimani mixtures These sediments
often occur as thin layers overlying older
lomations and are not defnable as Ionmalokr As
such. these sedlments have been referred to by
many tdfernt names including Plloone to aRe6 nt
sands. Pleistocene sands, PMsloatcea Terrace
Deposica

The medinents Incorporated In this category
are mols often quartz sands. The sands range
from fine- to coarse-gralned. nonindurated to
pooiy indurated and ronclayey lo slightly dayey.
Gravel may be present in these sediments in the
panhandle area. Other sedimnts Indudd in this
grnup ihcude peat deposils, some day beds, and
freshwater carbonrle. The freshwater arbonales
occur in many freshwater springs and in large
areas of the Everglads.

Localy, Ihese sedimernt may lonn a portion ol
the surliclal aquifer system. The greatest
thicknesses o Ihese sediments occurs Inilling
paleokarsa leaIures where more than 300 leel of
undlfeentlated Ptcstoeoe W-Hl ocne sediment
have been recorded (Florida Geologlcal Survey,
unptlltiaed wel daa).


HYDROSTRATIGRAPHY

The hydrostratigraphy of the Florida Platform
has been the focus of nurnerous nvestlgallons by
the various water management disriscs, the USGS
and the FGS. The hydrostratigraphic framework
recognized in Florida conalats of a thick sequence
ot Cenozoic sediments which comprise the
Florldan aquller system, the Intermediate aquifer
system/confJning unit and the suriiclal aquiler
system (Figure 4) (Southeastern Geological
Society Ad Hoc Committee, 1IN6). The Floridan
aquiler system underlies much ol Ihe State,
providing abundant potable water for a rapidly
expanding population (Figure 20). in limited
areas throughout the State, the intermediale
aqukfer system Is utilized. Water Is also
withdrawn from the surflcial aquiler system in
many areas particularly In the western
panhandle and southern Florida. As an
example, Figure 21 Illustrates the extent and
occurrence of ground-waler systems in the
NWFWMD area of the panhanle.

The hydrologic parameters of each aquifer
system vary widely from one area 0l the state to
another as do tha lithologies of the sediments.
Hydrologic subdivisions do not have to
conform to the IIthostralgrapAlc framewarl

Each water management district has
IdenlIfled surlace-water basins and ground-
water areas. The surface-water basins (FIguraB
22 through 26) delineate the areas influenced
by the tributaries of the major drainage features.
The ground-water areas (Figures 27 through 31)
were delineated as convenient study areas.
Maps representing the potentlometric suflace
of the Florldan aquifer system were constructed
for each district (Figures 32 through 36).

Sunlclal aquifer system

The surficlal aquifer system is declined by
the Southeastern Geological Society (SEGS) Ad
Hoc Committee on Florida Hydro-stratlgraphic
Unit Definition (198i6 as "the permeable
hydrologic unil contiguous with the land
surface that is comprised principally of un-
consolidated to poorly Indurated, slllclclastlc
deposits. II also includes well-indurated
carbonate rocks, other then those of the
Floridan aquiler system where the Floridan is at
or near land surface. Rocks making up the


surliclal aquifer system belong to all or part of
the Upper Miocene to Holocene Series. II
contains the water able, and the water within ii
Is under mainly uncanlined conditions; but
beds of low permeability may cause semi-
confined or locally conllned conditions to
prevail in Its deeper parts, The lower limit of the
surliclal aquifer system coincides with the top
of the laterally extensive and vertically
perslstent beds of much tower permeabilty

Some areas 1o the state rely heavily upoir
the surficial aquifer system for potable water in
areas where the water quality of the Florldan
aquiler system is poor. The two main aquifers
of the surflclal aquifer system ol which names
have been applied are the Sand and Gravel
Aquifer of northweslen panhandle Florida and
the Biscayne Aquifer In southeastern Florida.
The distribution of these aquifers is limited
(Figure 20). Maps dellneating the thickness of
the surlickal aquller system were provided by
the Northwest Florida Water Management
District (NWFWMD) (Figure 37) and Southwest
Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD)
(Figure 38)- The South Florida Water Manage-
ment Distric provided a map of the base of the
surficiat aquifer system (Figure 39). Figure 40
depicts those areas of the SJRWMD where the
surlicial aquifer system is a primary ground-
water supplier.

The surlcial aquifer system is composed ol
Pliocene to Holocene quartz sands, shell beds
and carbonates (Figure 4). fn the Florida
panhandle, these untls Include the Citronelle
and Miccosukee Formations and undifferen-
tiated sedmnenls. In the northern portion of the
peninsula, sediments belonging to the
Anastasia Formation. Cyprasshead Formation
and Undllferentlated Sediments which Include
shell beds and limestones that are time
equivalent to the Caloosahatchee and Fort
Thompson Formations, comprise the surliclal
aquifer system. In southern Florida, the
surficlal aquifer system consists of the
Tamamml, Caloosahatchee, Fort Thompson, and
Anatasia Formations, the Key Largo and Miami
Lirestones and the undifferentleled sediments.
FolJowing Ihe definition ol the Tamiemi as
proposed by Hunter and Wise (1985), the
portion of the Tamiaml previously considered to
be Ihe lower Tamiami confining unit now forms
the upper part of the Hawthorn Group ol the


intermediate confining unit. Where a clay bed
separates the upper and iower ilmestones of the
Tamlaml. as in Hendry County (Smith and
Adams, 1l98), the clay bed is recognized as a
thin confining unit within the surflcla aquller
system,


Intermediate aquifer system/orinirg unit

The SEGS (1980) declines the intermediate
aquifer system/confining unit as 'all rocks thai
lie between and collectively retard the exchange
of water between the overlying surdiclal aquifer
system and the underlying Floridan aquifer
system. These rocks In general consils of fine-
grained silicclastic deposits Inlerlayered with
carbonate strata bel ogng to all or parts of Ihe
Miocene and younger series. In places, poorly.
yielding to non-water-yieldlng strala mainly
occur and there the term 'inlermedlale
confining unit' applies. In other places, one or
more low- to moderale-yielding aqullers may be
Interlayered with relatively impermeable con-
fining beds; there the term intermediatee aquiler
system' applies, The aquifers within this sys-
tem contain water under confined conditions.

The lop of the intermediate aquiler
system/confining unit "coincides with the base of
the surficlal aquifer system. The base ol he In-
termediale aquler lr oconfning uni] is at the top
ao the vertically perglstent, permeale, carbonate
section that composes the Flordan aqufer system,
or. In other words, that piece in the section where
sllicIclastic layers ol significant thickness are
absent and permeable carbonate racks are
doumiant Where the upper layer of the perslst-
ent carbonate section are ci low permeability, they
are part of either the intermediate aquifer system
or itermediate confining unt, as applicable to the
area,"

The sediments comprising the Intermediate
aquifer syslem/conininng unit exhibit wide
variability over the stale. In the central and
western panhandle, this section acts prinncpaly
as an Intermediate confining unit for the
Florldan aquifer system. The formations
belonging lo the Intermedlate confining unit
Include the Alum Bluff Group, Pensacola Clay,
Intracoastar Formation, and the Chlpola For-
mellon (SEGS, 1985). In the eastern panhandle,
the confining unit Includes primarily the








SPECIAL. PUBLICATION NO. 32


Hawthorn Group sediments. Figures 41 and 42
show the top and thickness of the Intermediate
confining unit In the NWFWMD area while
Figures 12 and 13 show the lop and thickness
of the Hawthorn Group sediment in the e stem
part of the District. In the northern peninsula.
the Hawthorn Group sediments form the Inter-
medate confining unit with minor occurrences
of aquifer zones (Figues 14 through 17). In the
southern peninsula, the Hawthorn Group
sediments lorm both an Intermediate conining
unit and an inleriediate aquifer ayalem. The
lap and thickness of the Intermediate aquifer
syelem/conflinlng urUt In the SWFWMD area is
shown In Figures 43 and 44, The top and
isopach oF the Hawthorn Group sedimenis In
southern Florida (SWFWMD and SFWMD) are
shown on Figures 18 and 10. In many areas of
the stale, Impermeable carbonateD of Eocene
and OIIgocene age may form the base of the
Intermediate confining unit. Conversely, per-
meable carbonates occurring al the base of the
Hawthorn Group may be hydraulically con-
nected to the Floridan aquifer system and
loclly onn the top of the Floridan.

The Intermediate aquifer system plays a
very Importanl role in the ground-water
resources of soulhwestern peninsular Florida.
In the Lee County and surrounding areas, the
Intermediate aqulfer system provides relatively
large quarlties of potable water, The Hawthorn
Group may contain two producing zones
(Wedderburn et al., 1982) referred to as the mid.
Hawthorn aquifer and the sandstone aquifer.
Figure 45 Illustrales the top of the mid-
Hawthorn conining zone In Lee County. Figure
46 delineates the base of the sandstone aquifer
while Figure 47 shows the top ol the mid-
Hawthornaqulfer-

The intermediate confining unit occurs
widespread In Ihe state providing an effective
aqulclude for the Floridan aquifer system. On
the crests of the Ocala Platform, Sanford High,
St. Johns Platform. Brevard Platlorm and the
Chattahoochee Anticline {Figure 4) these beds
are absent due to erosion. In these areas,
surface water has a direct avenue to recharge
the Floridan aqulier system. Immediately
surrounding these areas, Ihe Intermedlate
confining unit is present but Is breached by
karst features which also allow surface water
and water from the urilclal and Inlermedlate


aquifer systems dkect access to the Florldan,
In the west-cntral portion of the ponlrnsa and
along the wes coast from HlHsborough County
Inlo the eastern panhandle. the Intermediale
confining unh la generally absent and the
Florkan aquifer system occurs unconrlned. In
the east-central peninsula, the intermediate
confinirng urdt Is thin and provides only limited
confine it for the underlying Floridan aqulfer
system. Miller (19S6) mapped a maximum
thickness of the Intermediale confining unit as
being greater than 1000 feet thick in the
welsem-moal panhandle and In southwestern
Florida.

Floriden aquifer system

The Florldan aquifer system Is one of the
wold's most productive aquier. The sediments
that comprise the aquller system underle the
entire stale although potable water is nol
present eveyerwe (Figure 20)

The Floridar aqulfer system may occur as a
continuous series ol vertically connected
carbonate sedimentls o may be separated by
ub-reglonal to regional confining beds (Mler,
1086). Often the conlining bads consist or low
permeability carbonates. In the western
penhandle, the Intra-aquller confining unit Is
the Bucatunna Clay. Elsewhere, the conning
beds are carbonate sediments belonging to the
Ocala Limestone, Avon Park Formation or the
Oldsmar Formation. When Intra-aqulfer
confining beds are present, the loridan aquifer
system can be aidlvided into an uppr and lower
Flordan. Figures 48 through 51 indicate the
configuration of the lop end the thickness of the
upper and lower limestone of the Floridan
aquifer system. Figures 52 and 53 reveal Ihe
top and thickness of Ihe Bucatunna Clay, the
intra-aqulfer confining unit In the western
panhandle. Figure 64 shows the lop of the
lower Florlden aquifer system In the SJRWMD
area-

The Floridan aquifer system in penlnestar
Florida and the eastern panhandle is composed
ol all or parts of the Cedar Keys Formallon,
Oldsmar Formation, Avon Park Formation,
Ocala Limeslone, Suwannee Limestone, St.
Marks Formation and, possibly, the basal
carbonates c the Hawthom Group In ilIned areas
ol the state (Figure 4), The Floridan aquifer


system encompasses the Ocala Limestone,
Marianna Limestone. Suwanne e Llstone,
Chickasawhay Umestone, CtWatahoochee Forma
tlon, Si. Marks Formation and Bruce Creek
Umestone (Figure 4) in the central and western
panhandle.

The elevation of the upper surface o ithe
Floridan aquifer system Is directly related to the
positioning on ihe major structural features
(Figure 5). The top of the Floridan aquifer
system ranges In elevalion Irom greater than
+ 100 let NGVD on the Ocala Platform and
Chattahoochee Arch to more than -1400 feet
NGVD In the western-moat panhandle and more
than -1100 feet NGVD in the Okeechobee Basin
ol southern Florida (Figures SS through 59).
The thickness of the Florldan aquifer system
(Including those areas where water from the
Florlden aquifer system may not be polable)
varies Irom less than 100 feet along the state
line In north-central panhandle to more than
3000 feet In the Apalachlcola Embayment and
3400 feet In southern peninsular Florida
(Figures 00 through 04). The base of the
Florldan aquifer system In the NWFWMD area Is
shown h Figure 65,

The degree of confinement oi the Flordan
aquiler system also varies in relation to the
position of the major structural features. The
Florldan may be unconfined or semiconllned on
the ma|or features Including te Ocata Platform
and the Chattahoochee Antlline Figures 66
through 66). In the negative areas such as the
Jacksonvl Basin, Okeechobee Basin and the
Gulf Coast Basin, the Floridan aqulfer system is
well confined. Many areas of central peninsular
Florida and In the eastern panhandle exhibit the
development of karst leatures thai breach the
confining unit allowing Jocalized recharge to
occur. Figure 69 Illustrates the NWFWMD area
karct development. Throughout most ol
southern Florida, particulary the SFWMD area.
the Florldan aquifer system occurs under
confined conditions. The thickness of the beds
conflnIng the Floridan aquiler system in the
SWFWMD area is show In Figure 0,

Recharge to the Floridan aquifer system Is
directly related to the conlinemeni of the
system. The highest recharge rates occur
where the Floridan is unconfined or poorly
confined as In those areas where the Florldan


aqufr system is at or near tend etfuac (Figure
71), Redarge may also be high In areas whe
the oonlning layers are breached by karst
features as shown for the NWFWMD area
(Figure f8). Figures 72 Ihrough 78 Indiate the
relate charge rate arondwthe ate,

The potrntiometric surface of the Flordan
aquiler system vales widely throughout the
state, In locaIIzed areas, the potentlometric
surface may be affected by intensive pumpage
of ground water. Figure 32 through 3B Indicat
the elevation of Ihli surface relative to NGVD.
In those areas where the potentlometrtc urtace
is higher than the ground alevallon artesian
condiliana occur. Figures 77 through 82
delineate the areas where artesian How hs
pectd based on mcrt daft

The Intrusion of saline water into Iresh
water producing zones la a rmaor concern for
Florida's coastal. and sonm Inland. commu-
ntla. Exceesiv pmnpage of trsh wetr may
draw the sallne waters lateral or may cause an
upooning ol underlying nonpolabl water. The
salt water that can affect the potable water
Supply may be connate water trapped during
the deposition of the sediments forming the
aquifer system. It may reprasnt salia waters
that entered the aqulfer system during prervouL
high sea level stands which have not been
flushed Irom the aquifer. The Ilmits of eub
water intrusion are shown on FIgures 3
through a&

The Clalborne aquifer occurs in a limited
area of the central-northern panhandle, n Is a
permeable portion of the aub-Florldan Con-
fining Unit in tha area. h Is poorly defined and
rrely used at this time ~AJies 1O8).







FL.ORIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This volumrr prnern a rwvw of 1th curre n
knourldgo of th ee Cnozoc 1thOulgraphy md
hydrouttgrtIrhy as It relate to ground weaw In
Florida Tts pUWblmn repuuwe the slA of
the five water management dislrlcta. the
Dspfrwl of E ir wrrnrtJ Aiaullon and the
Florda GKeologkl rwey, Oeptmnl t nof M
Raomwca to prvWde a geologlec fnruck od the
ate 'a round-msr r ,bMias. FRogntlon of
the gedoE0 *sameftr ol o t a*qar ytmn and
corflrdng unte Is kmperati for detrmuinng and
uwndershm tdhe satmbient groundwamor qully In
FSoried. Through renhling the geogl frame-
work, are thI ae paricdlarty .elve to pdu-
Ikon may be defined and proper ground-watur
man g ournmtf lecnkM n e apiled to prCtad
these Faource,


REFERENCES

Aen.. W. 1987. Hydrogeoogy dl the Hdmolw
Jackson and Wadlnl Courn a
Forida: unpullhed MS ThBta, Flodda State
Unwersy, Tabihoeae, FL 183 p.

Aler. L. Bennett, T., Le., J. H., md Pay, R. J.,
Is6. DRASTIC: a Sirdar~dzed sywpm lor
evalLialng ,ounud water pollilon ptentW
ustig hydrgeoogc m nlngst United Stat
Emronmental Pmltcton Agency o0/2
85/01-0163 p.

Applbf. P. L, and ApplIe, E. R.. 1944, Regloal
subsutace aIratigMrapty and trcture of
Florda and outhen Georgl; Amnerran
Asoclation ofPeCrneamf Gedomft B4u*.
v. 28, pp. 1673-1 78E

American PubRi Health Assoclalion, 190.
Slndadrd methods lor the eomnaldon of
wIuer and swau lier, i5th edaon; American
Public H ulth Assoclabon, Wshlngnon, D.C-

Arthur, J. 0., 19i8. Petrognes s of Early MsBoroic
tholelte In the Florda basment and overview
do Fkorik b mnent gmbdgy Flrida
Geological Survey Report of Irn tlpallon 97.
30 P-

Barr, G. L, 199, Potentlocnetrc waface of ith
upper Floidan Aquifer, Wstmntral Flordka.
May 198. United Stales Gotogica Survey
Open Fl Report 89-33.-

Batem R, L, and Jackw n, J. A., (eds.) 1967,
Gossary of Geology Amerian Geological
ineute. 788 p.. Alexaindri Virgria.

Braunstdin, J., Huddlesun. P., and Bid. RF, 196l
Gulf Coas region corela on of nratl-
graphic u te o North Ameria: American
Association of Peadleum Geo ogts
Corra t n Chwat

Buono, A.. Spedker, R. M., Barr. L, and
Wolasky, R. M., 1970, Generdized thickims
of 11t conf*ng bed overykg the Florkwd
Aquifer, Southwet Florlda Waler MaafgoenWt
District U red States Geological Survey
Open Flie Report 79-1171.


Causemux. K. W.. and Fretwell, J, D., 1982,
Postiton ol Ihe sltwaeatr-resanwtr iearce in
the upper part of the Floridan Aqutr,
Soa mset Florkda: Unied States Geologial
Survey Open Fi Repot 62-90.

Chin, 8., 1965, The reonal Ithostraraphilc
anrlysb of Paleoene and Eo rocs al
orkda: Flortda Gelogal Surwvey Betln 45,
105 p,

Clark, M. W., and Schmk, W, W 198. Show
straigraphy c Okaloosa Couty and vlcilny,
Florl : Florida GecdgcaJ Survey Report o
Irnvmsgatiorm f. 28 p.. 1 fg.

Coa, C J., 1979, Gology of the Pli-Plielsiocne
sediments in Esambia and Santa Rosa
Coumtes, Florida: Master Thes*, Florida
Sate Unkveriy Departnen of Geogy,
TaltthasoaB Flrmida, 115 p-

Cooke. C W,, 1945, Geaog of Fdork Floride
Geodogo C Survey Bulletin 29 339 p.

Conal. M. A., Jr., and Wolanky, R. M., 1964,
QGeneraed thickness end configuration of the
lop f the IntermedIale equifer. wet-carenal
Forda: United Statb Geologlcal Survey
Open File RepOf 84-4018

Dal, W. H.. and Herds, G. D., 1882, CrmLatron
paDmprs4-eoene: U.S. Geologcal Survey
Buelln i4, 349 p.

DuHar, J. R., 1974, Sumnary 1d w Meogene
astUragphy o Solhen Florida: Ironm Pot
Miocne stratlgrphy of the Central and
Sao~ern Allate Co ta Plain. 1974, Utah
State UnNlvsty Pret, Logan. Utah, 206 p.

Femakd. E. A., and Paton, D. J., 1984, Water
resow alasi 0f Florida: Florida Stale
Univwty InstItute o Science and Public
Affair, 291 p

Florda. State of. 183, Floda Siatute, S~cuon
403 Warer quality aeurance act Chapler 17-
4.2455 Ground waer qually monltorkg:
1983 Floida Legilature, Tallahassee, Florida.


Florda Deparmn it Envirnment feaultlon,
1961, Suppemens 'A4 to sandard operation
procedes and quality aws nct namual;
Florida Departmnt of Errmonfm inal
Relaton, S$dld Waste Secton. TaJlaassee.
Florida. 110 p.

Hndry, C. W., Jr., and Yon, J. W., Jr., 1987,
urallglphy of Upper Mlouee Mt=oim.
Fomrallon. jefteron and Loa Countlis.
Rlorda: Amarcan Assomiaton of Peoldeum
GQdolb Bullelln, v. 51. pp 250-256.

Hoffmabter, J. E, 1974. Land from the sea:
Unvertaty of Miami PTr s Cora Gables, FL
143 p.

Stoclmen, K. W., and
Multer. H.G, 1967. Miami Lknesen of Florkla
and As Recent Bahamlern corterparl:
GeologIal Sockty of Ameca Bullelin 78.

and Mutter, H. G., 1968,
GQeogy and ourign 0o the Florida Keys:
Gedocal Society of America Bulletin 79.
pp. 1487-1152.

Huddleun. P. F., 197 The Nogn lratral aphy
of the Centrl Florida Panhandle:
Unpubisled Dlssertatw n Florida tte
Unr&vwty Department of Gelogy.
Tallahassa Florid

,_ 19i68 A rvlson of is
Bfhoaratlgraph un s ofthe Coasta Plain of
Georgta: Georgia Gologtal Survey Blethi
104, 152 p.

Hunrer, M. E., 1968 Whais the Caloos hatche
Mar?: In Icdrogeology of South-eantral
Floria;: Southeagem Geological Society
22nd Annual Field Trip Gudebook, pp. 61 -.

and Wise, SW.. W. 19. Possible
Trelrictlon and rede lnitlon d the Tamlaml
Fonallm of South Florida: Poakh ao
Dslussion tAbe,): Florda Scientit, v. 43,
supplernnt ., 42 p.

Knapp, M. 8., Bums, W. S., and Strp, T, S.. O196,
Preliminary assessment 0o the groundmte
resoumes of weeten Coller Coumry, Florda:
J SBoh Florida Water Manegemrn Ditrlct
Technical Publlcation *8-1, Par 2 -
Appendicek







SPECIAL PLIBLICATION NO. 32


JohnSOn, R. A., 1984. Stratigraphic arklysts of
geophysica logs ornm water wets h
penlnsdr Florida: St. Johns Rer Water
Management Districd Techniia Pu]ication
SJB4-16, 76 p.

MacFadden, B. J., and Webb, S. O,. 1982, The
succession of Miocene (Arlkateean tWough
Hemphllilan) tertstrial rnamrimaian locallties
and launas In Florida- in Scott, 1, M., and
Upchurch. S. B, (eds.), Miocene of the
Souheastern Unied States, procedings of
the symposium, Florida G1doica Survey
Special Pubication 25, pp. 106-199.

Marsh, T., 1966, Gecogy of Escamnbit and
Santa Rosa Coarties, Western Florida
Panhandle: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin
46, 140 p,

Miller, J. A,. 1986, Hydrogeocogic Iranmewrk of the
Floridan aquifer system in Florida and pards
of Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina:
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
403-B, 91 p.

Mier, W. L, Alexander, J. F., Frazier, D. L., and
Halchit, J. L. 1986, An information system to
locate potenrlal weals to groundwater
iesoces: Unirvsity of Florida, Galnesville,
Florida. 160 p,

North Arrnican Commission on Strallgraphic
Nomenclature, 1983, North American
Stratigraphic Code: American Asaoclallon of
Petroleum Geologisls Bulletin, v. 67, no. 5, pp.
841-875.

Northwest Florida Water Managemenr District,
1975, Staff report Water Reaources
Assessmnen, 126 p.

Purl, H. S., 1957, Stratlgraphy and zorallon of the
Ocala Group: Florida Geologlcal Survey
Bulletin 35, 248 p,

arnd Vernon, R. 0.. 1984, Sunmary
o0 it geology of Florida Florida Geological
Survey Special Publication 5 (RevisGd), 312 p

Schmidt, W, 1984, Neogene sratigraty and
geologic history o1 the Apalachicola
Emntyment. Florida; Florila Gelogicaic
Survey Bulletin 58, 146 p


Schroeder, M. C., 1964, Strallgraphy of the
oicropping formations in southern Rorkda
Southeasten Geological Sociley. 8h Fiedd
Trip Guidebook, pp. 18-48.

Scott T. M., 1961, The Paloextert of the Mlocene
Hawthom Formatlon it penIsular Florida
(abs.): Florida Scientist, v, 44, Supplement 1,
p. 42,

1986, The llthosltatlgrapMic rla
lionships ol the Chattahoochee, St Marks ard
Torreya formations, eastern Florida Panhan-
die: Florida Academy of Sciences, Abstract,
Florida Scientist v. 49, supplement 1.

,_ 198. The Lhostratigraphyof the
Hawthom Group (Miocene) of Florida: Florda
aeologlcW Survey Bulletin 59. 148 p.

_, 19sb, The Cpreeshead
Formation In Northern Peninsular Florida: in
Pirlde. F. L. and Reynolds, J. G,. (eds.) South-
BBBtern Geological Socelty Annual Field Trip
Guidebook, Febnrary 19-20, 198, pp. 70-72.

Sharidan, R. E, Croaby, J. T., Bryan, G. M., and
Stoffa, P. L, 1951, Strallgaphy and structure
of Southem Blake Plateau, Northern Florida
Stral~e and Northern Bahama Platform from
mulllchannel selsmic rellection date: Ameri-
can Association of Petroleum Geologists
Bulletin 65, n. 12, pp. 2571 '250.

Sinclair, W. C.. and Stewart, J. W., 1985, Slnkhole
type development and distribution in Florida:
Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey Flori-
da GelLogklc Survey Map Serie 11IO. Scale:
50 kmr to 1 Inch,

Smith, D. M., 1982, Review o0 the tectonic hslory
of the Florida basement: Tecionophysics, v.
88, pp. 1-22.

Smith. K. R., and Adara, K. M., 198, Ground
water resource assessment of Hendry County.
Florida: in Souh Florid Water Management
Distrlct Technical Publikatlon B8-12, Part II -
Appendimes.


Southeastern Gologici Society Ad Hoc Commit-
lee on Florida Hydrotratlgraphtc Uni DUefinl-
lion. 198, Hydrogeologial unlis of Forida-
Floridd Geologial Survey Special Publication
28, 8 p.

Stanley, S. M, 196 Paleoecology and diageneals
Od Key Largo Limesto Florida: American
Association of Petrdleun Geologltsa BuEkirn,
v. 50, pp. 1927-1947.

Stewart, J. W.. 1980, Aeas o natural recharge to
the Forkdan aquier in Florida Prepared by
the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with
the Florida DepartRnen of Environmentea
Regulation/ftork i Geological Survey Map
Series 9, Scle', 30 mim to 1 ih

Sbrgfleld, V. T., 19,6. Arleslan water in Tertiary
Mmetone in the Southea en lSate~ U. S.
Geiogtcal Survey Profassiol Paper 517, 226
P,

Sluckey. L, 165. North Carolina: Its geology
and mineral resources North Carlina
Department do Conservallon and Devlop-
ment, 550 p.

U. $- Enuronmertal Prolection Agency, 19S0,
Stanard operating procedures and quality
asurance manual; United Stales
Enrfonmerlal Prote lon Agency, Region IV,
Athens, Georgia. 203 p.

U. S. Enironnuernal Pfotecion Agency, 1952,
Handbook for ampiing end wampke
presevation of waler and waslewaler United
Slates Einvroniental Protetion Agency,
Clnclnratl, Ohio, 402 p

Wagner. J. FL 6, 9, Hydrogedogy of the
Northwes Floride Water Manageenwil Ditrtd:
Fisher. G. (ed.) Ground Waler In Florida,
proceedIngs of the FInr Annual Symposnim on
Florida Hydrogedogy, Northwet Florida
Water Management District, Publil
Infojmalon Bulletin 82-2 pp, 37-50.

Wagner, J, R,, 1989, Potentiorneric surface of the
FPorldan aqiuer system n the Northwesi Flori-
da Water Management DIstrlct. May. 1986:
Northwest Florida Water Management DI~srict
Water Raeources Map Sere 59-001.


Wedderbum, L A. Knaip, M. lS.. Wlz, D. P. and
Bunrm, W. S., 1982. Hydro oologi reconnas.
sance of Lee County, Florida: South Florida
Water Management District Tchnicl Publica.
tion 82-1, 12 pL

While, W. A., 1970, Gemorphotogy of the Flori.a
Florida Panhandle: Florida Gecdogcl Survey
Buletin 61, 164 p.

Wolansky, R, M., and Garbode, J, M., 1961,
Generalied c hicknss of the Floridan Aqufer,
Southwen Florida Water Management District:
United States Geological Survey Open File
Report l0-128~

SSpeckler, R. K,, and
Bunao, A., 1981, Generallied thickness ol the
surfical depoalls above the confninig bed
overtying the Florldan Aquller, Southwesl
Florida Water Management DIstflc: Unhled
SaIes Geologlcal Survey Open File Aepo t 7'-
1071.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


APPENDIX 1

Additional Sources of Information



ALACHUA COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT Well Log Data can be obtained from:
ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES DISTRICT
#1 Southwest 2nd Place Tampa Service Office FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Gainesville, Florida 32606 7601 U.S. 301 North 903 West Tennessee Street
(904) 336-2442 Tampa, Florida 33637 Tallahassee, Florida 32304-7700
(813) 985-7481 (904) 488-9380
DADE COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SUWANNEE RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT GENERALIZED WELL INFORMATION SYSTEM
111 Northwest 1st Street DISTRICT (GWIS), DERMAP (Integral Mapping Package for
Suite 1310 Route 3, Box 64 GWIS, WLDS, FSMS), Ground Water Quality Data
Miami, Florida 33128 Live Oak, Florida 32060 (GWIS or dBASE III+ format):
(305) 375-3318 (904) 362-1001
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL Bureau of Drinking Water and Ground Water
REGULATION Database and Software Distributors Resources
Bureau of Drinking Water and Ground Water Ground Water Quality Monitoring Section
Resources FLORIDA SUMMARY MAPPING SYSTEM 2600 Blair Stone Road
Ground Water Quality Monitoring Section (FSMS) Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2400
2600 Blair Stone Road Land Use Database: (904) 488-3601
Tallahassee, Florida 32399
(904) 488-3601 Automated Resource Mapping & Analysis Systems Computer Bulletin Board System (904) 487-3592
Integration
NORTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT (ARMASI, Inc.)
DISTRICT P.O. Box 13027 The BBS (Computer Bulletin Board) allows
Route 1, Box 3100 Gainesville, Florida 32607 access to GWIS and the most recent water quality
Havana, Florida 32333 (904) 462-2955 data from any PC with a modem, telephone line
(904) 539-5999 and communications software. The BBS runs 24
WELL LOG DATA SYSTEM (WLDS) Well Log hours a day, seven days a week. Users can either
ST. JOHNS RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT Analysis Software: run GWIS remotely, performing retrievals and then
DISTRICT downloading the results, or can download the full
P.O. Box 1429 GeoLogic Information Systems program and data sets for use on another PC.
Palatka, Florida 32078 P.O. Box 15224
(904) 328-8321 Gainesville, Florida 32604 DERMAP and GWIS are also available on disk by
(904) 338-1128 mail, for a small media fee. Contact the DER staff
for further information.
SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT
P.O. Box 24680
3301 Gun Club Road
West Palm Beach, Florida 33416
(407) 694-0546


APPENDIX 2

List of Related Reports and Publications


ALACHUA COUNTY:

Regan, J., R. Hallbourg and T. Newman
1987 Design and Implementation of an Ambient
Ground Water Quality Network in Alachua
County (unpublished report): Alachua
County Department of Environmental
Services (DER Contract WM134).

Trifilio, J. and R. Hallbourg
1989 The Ground Water Quality Monitoring
Program in Alachua County, FL., 1988 to
1989, Volume 1: Alachua County
Department of Environmental Services
(DER Contract WM206).

(Geologic Information Systems, Inc. staff)
1989 The Ground Water Quality Monitoring
Program in Alachua County, FL., 1988 to
1989, Volume 2 Well Log Data Summary:
Alachua County Department of
Environmental Services (DER Contract
WM206).

Trifilio, J. and R. Chambers
1989 The Ground Water Quality Monitoring
Program in Alachua County, FL., 1988 to
1989, Volume 3 Background Network field
data sheets: Alachua County Department
of Environmental Services (DER Contract
WM206).

DADE COUNTY:

Baker, J.A.
1987 Survey of Chlorinated Pesticide Residues in
Ground Water in Rural Areas of Dade
County: Dade County Department of
Environmental Resource Management
Technical Report 88-5; 66 p. (DER Contract
WM98).


_ I


CI ~-- Ir 3 1 I LI II







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32

APPENDIX 2
(Continued)


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
REGULATION:

Humphreys, C.L.
1985 Florida Ground Water Monitoring Plan
(pamphlet): 8 p.


Glover, N.T.
1985 A Generalized Well Information
System: Proceedings,
Applications of Ground Water
Columbus, Ohio; p. 1-4.


Inventory
Practical
Models,


1986 A Large Scale Data Base Management
System for the Manipulation of Monitor Well
Analytical Results: Southeastern Ground
Water Symposium Proceedings; Orlando,
Florida; p. 167-170.

Humphreys, C.L., G.L. Maddox, R.E. Copeland,
and N.T. Glover
1986 Organization and Implementation of
Florida's Statewide Ambient Ground Water
Quality Monitoring Network: Southeastern
Ground Water Symposium Proceedings;
Orlando, Florida; p. 3-19.

Glover, N.T and G.L. Maddox
1987 A Comparator Value for Targeting Monitor
Networks (abstract): Southeastern Ground
Water Symposium Proceedings; Orlando,
Florida; p. 3.


1988 Ground Water (Florida State of the
Environment brochure series); 20 p.

Maddox, G.L. and J. Spicola
1990 Ground Water Quality Monitoring Network
(Florida State of the Environment brochure
series); 20 p.

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY:

Cooper, W.T.
1986 Effects of Well Casing Materials on the
Integrity of Ground Water Samples Taken
for Chemical Analysis: unpublished draft,
FSU Department of Chemistry; 77 p. (DER
Contract WM116).


NORTHWEST FLORIDA WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT:

Wagner, J.R., T.W. Allen, LA. Clemens and J.B.
Dalton
1984 Ambient Ground Water Monitoring Program,
Phase 1: unpublished report, NWFWMD
(DER Contract WM65).

Bartel, R.L and J.D. Barksdale
1985 Hydrogeologic Assessments of Solid Waste
Landfills in Northwest Florida: NWFWMD
Water Resources Special Report 85-1; 104
p. (DER Contract WM101).

Wilkins, K.T., J.R. Wagner and T.W. Allen
1985 Hydrogeologic Data for the Sand and
Gravel Aquifer in Southern Escambia
County, Florida: NWFWMD Technical File
Report 85-2; 53 p. (DER Contract WM71).

Bartel, Ronald L.
1986 Hydrogeology and Contaminant Movement
at Selected Solid Waste Landfills in
Northwest Florida: NWFWMD Water
Resources Special Report 86-2; 119 p.
(DER Contract WM101).

Clemens, L.A., J.B. Dalton and R.D. Fendick
1987 Ambient Ground Water Quality in Northwest
Florida, Part 1: Ground Water Sampling
and Analysis, Ambient Ground Water
Monitoring Program: NWFWMD Water
Resources Special Report 87-1, 103 p.
(DER Contract WM115).

Clemens, L.A.
1988 Ambient Ground Water Quality in Northwest
Florida, Part 2: A Case Study in Regional
Ground Water Monitoring Wakulla
Springs, Wakulla County, Florida:
NWFWMD Water Resources Special Report
88-1, 25 p. (DER Contract WM115).


SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT:

Anderson, S.D.
1986 South Dade Agricultural Pilot Study:
SFWMD Technical Memorandum (DER
Contract WM69).

Herr, J.
1986 Okeechobee County Airport Landfill Inves-
tigation Pilot Study: SFWMD Technical
Memorandum; 87 p. (DER Contract WM69).

Whalen, P.J. and M.G. Cullum
1988 An Assessment of Urban Land
Use/Stormwater Runoff Quality Relation-
ships and Treatment Efficiencies of Select-
ed Stormwater Management Systems:
SFWMD Technical Publication 88; 52 p.
(DER Contract WM142).

SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT:

Moore, D.L., D.W. Martin, S.T. Walker and J.T.
Rauch
1986 Design and Establishment of a Background
Ground-Water Quality Monitor Network in
the Southwest Florida Water Management
District: SWFWMD, Brooksville, FL; 141 p.
(DER Contract WM77).

Moore, D.L., D.W. Martin, S.T. Walker, J.T Rauch
and G. Jones
1986 Initial Sampling Results of a Background
Ground-Water Quality Monitor Network in
the Southwest Florida Water Management
District: SWFWMD, Brooksville, FL; 393 p.
(DER Contract WM77).

(SWFWMD Staff)
1988 Lithologic Descriptions from Wells Drilled by
the Ambient Ground-Water Quality
Monitoring Program (Second Revision):
SWFWMD, Brooksville, FL; 93 p. (DER
Contract WM137).


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA:

Alexander, J., W. Miller, J. Hatchitt, D. Frazier and
D.Costakis
1986 An Information System to Locate Potential
Threats to Groundwater Resources:
unpublished report, University of Florida;
160 p. (DER Contract SP103).

Miller, W.L and M. Brusseau
1987 Method for Producing Improved Estimates
of Pesticide Use: unpublished report,
University of Florida; 32 p. (DER Contract
WM140).

Miller, W.L, R. Bass and C. Lin
1987 An Investigation of Solid Waste Landfills in
the South Florida Water Management
District: University of Florida (DER Contract
WM142).

Hornsby, A.G., K.D. Pennell, R.E. Jessup and
P.S.C. Rao
1988 Modeling Environmental Fate of Toxic
Organic Chemicals in Soils: University of
Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences; 72 p. (DER Contract WM149).

Hatchitt, J.L.
1990 The Florida Summary Mapping System A
Land Use Analysis Package (User Manual):
ARMASI, Inc.; 79 p. (DER Contract
WM207).

U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY:

1985 Results of a Water Quality Reconaissance of
Selected Springs (unpublished report):
USGS (DER Contract WM88).

Seaber, P.R. and M.E. Thagard
1986 Identification and Description of Potential
Ground Water Quality Monitoring Wells In
Florida: USGS Water Resources
Investigations Report 85-4130, 124 p.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DISTRICT V


SUVANNEI
VA1
MANAGI
DISTI


SCALE
0 50 100 150 MILES
I I I I iI I
0 80 160 240 KILOMETERS



























Figure 1. Water Management District Boundaries


f a HILLSBOROUGH
Ia



MANATEE


SOUTHWEST FLORIDA /SARASTA
WATER
MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT








SOUTH FLORIDA
WATER
MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT


ST JOHNS
RIVER WATER
MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT


t)

..A









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE

0 10 20 MILES
-N-
0 10 30 KILOMETERS











































Figure 2. Background Network well locations


AI


- -I LI

















SCALE


0 10 20 MILES
I I I I *
0 10 20 30 KILOMETERS





LEGEND

URBAN OR BUILT-UP LANDS
INDUSTRIAL LANDS
I I AGRICULTURAL LANDS
OTHER LANDS
















Figure 3. VISA Network


A
-N-

aI


.4


.1 ~~*


19


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


PANHANDLE FLORIDA


SYSTEM SERIES LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNIT HYDROSTRATI-
GRAPHIC UNIT


QUARTERNARY HOLOCENE
-- --- m UNDIFFERENTIATED
PLEISTOCENE-HOLOCENE SURFICIAL
PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENTS AQUIFER

SYSTEM
TERTIARY CITRONELLE FORMATION
PLIOCENE MICCOSUKEE FORMATION
COARSE CLASTICS
-iag a m -m m m m mm im
ALUM BLUFF GROUP
PENSACOLA CLAY INTERMEDIATE
INTRACOASTAL FORMATION CONFINING
UNIT
MIOCENE HAWTHORN GROUP

BRUCE CREEK LIMESTONE
ST.MARKS FORMATION
CHATTAHOOCHEE FORMATION

CHICKASAWHAY LIMESTONE FLORIDAN
SUWANNEE LIMESTONE AQUIFER
OLIGOCENE MARIANNA LIMESTONE SYSTEM

BUCATUNNA CLAY



OCALA LIMESTONE
EOCENE CLAIBORNE GROUP

UNDIFFERENTIATED SEDIMENTS SUB-FLORIDAN
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ __ CONFINING

PALEOCENE UNDIFFERENTIATED PALEOCENE ROCKS UNIT

CRETACEOUS
AND OLDER UNDIFFERENTIATED
l~~i^W^^^^i^^MWWM ~ ~ ~ ~ fl^M --IM- ^ B^ ^-.^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ -- ---- -


NORTH FLORIDA


LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC HYDROSTRATI-
UNIT GRAPHIC UNIT



UNDIFFERENTIATED SURFICIAL
PLEISTOCENE-HOLOCENE AQUIFER
SEDIMENTS SYSTEM

MICCOSUKEE FORMATION
CYPRESSHEAD FORMATION 00
NASHUA FORMATION

INTERMEDIATE
AQUIFER
SYSTEM OR
HAWTHORN GROUP CONFINING
STATENVILLE FORMATION UNIT
COOSAWHATCHIE FM.
MARKSHEAD FORMATION 000
PENNY FARMS FORMATION
ST MARKS FORMATION





SUWANNEE LIMESTONE FLORIDAN
AQUIFER
SYSTEM


OCALA LIMESTONE
AVON PARK FORMATION
OLDSMAR FORMATION



CEDAR KEYS FORMATION -- --
__________ SUB-FLORIDAN
CONFINING ,
UNDIFFERENTIATED UNIT .


SOUTH FLORIDA


LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC HYDROSTRATI-
UNIT GRAPHIC UNIT

UNDIFFERENTIATED
PLEISTOCENE-HOLOCENE
SEDIMENTS SURFICIAL
MIAMI LIMESTONE AQUIFER
KEY LARGO LIMESTONE
ANASTASIA FORMATION SYSTEM
FORT THOMPSON FORMATION
CALOOSAHATCHEE FORMATION


TAMIAMI FORMATION
INTERMEDIATE
AQUIFER
SYSTEM OR
HAWTHORN GROUP CONFINING
PEACE RIVER FORMATION UNIT
BONE VALLEY MEMBER
ARCADIA FORMATION

TAMPA- NOCATEE .- ---
MEMBERS




SUWANNEE LIMESTONE

FLORIDAN
AQUIFER
SYSTEM

OCALA LIMESTONE
AVON PARK FORMATION
OLDSMAR FORMATION



CEDAR KEYS FORMATION ----
__ ___ _____^__ SUB-FLORIDAN
CONFINING
UNDIFFERENTIATED UNIT
I


Figure 4. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature (modified from Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit
Definition, 1986) 20









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


4 pA-,


Figure 5. Structural Features of Florida
a) Pre-Cenozoic
b) Mid-Cenozoic























SCALE
0 10 20 MILES
-N- IIy
0 10 30 KILOMETERS






































Figure 6. Geomorphologic Provinces of Florida (after Wh


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32











NORTHERN OR
PROXIMAL ZONE















CENTRAL R R
MID-PENINSULAR
o ZONE 0





r\0
-~0


SOUTHERN
OR DISTAL
ZONE


ite, 1970)


.3
-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SCALE


TERN


HI GHLAND


IAN A L LOWLANDS


TALLAHASSEE HILLS


C~y


LEGEND


'/4


RELICT


I SLOPE .__ HILLS

_i J RIDGES


LAKE MUNSON
HI ..S
WAKULLA
SAND
HILLS


-N-


Figure 7. Geomorphologic Features of Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) (after White, Puri and Vernon in Puri and Vernon,
1964)


W E


50 5 10 20 30 KILMETERS
50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


__


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


dia -


P"






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


j


SCALE
5 0 5 10 21
5 0 5 0 20 30
5 0 5 10 20 30


BROOKSVILLE
RIDGE


-N-


Figure 8. Geomorphologic Features of Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) (after White, 1970)






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


-rmiiii z em


Z n. I ct
IDI
w
w
WHD
L l T Z


L~j
W0
< 0 0

U-)U
Lo CD
1LO
LO
LO


xc


SI


C O


C3


5
F4


plL


;


ill


''. ~P"





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


00,TAL SV-VA/lp


I


I


":,










LEGEND


L I SLOPE PLAINS

- SPURS \\\ RIDGES


DISTAL
ATOLLS


Figure 11. Geomorphologic Features of South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) (after White, 1970)





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


i, i .I I II


50 5 10 20


30 KILOMETERS


LEGEND
CONTOUR INTERVAL : 50 FEET
LIMITS OF TORREYA
FORMATION, HAWTHORN GROUP
^ FACES CHANGE


Figure 12. Top of Hawthorn Group, NWFWMD (after Scott, 1988a)


L
/7


)I


J-'


i
i
i


P


,i-2-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


50 5 10 20 30 KILO
50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


(T


LEGEND
CONTOUR INTERVAL I 50 FEET
T LIMITS DF TORREYA
FORMATION, HAWTHORN GROUP
SFACIES CHANGE


f



/
rsi


Figure 13. Isopach of Hawthorn Group, NWFWMD (after Scott, 1988a)


i


.r -


~J/





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20 MILES
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


LEGEND
CONTOUR INTERVAL : 50 FEET
>rC( LIMITS OF THE HAWTHORN
GROUP


Figure 14. Top of Hawthorn Group, SRWMD (after Scott, 1988a)


/-~-I


150


-,,s


-N-A


3y,


__~~i


;r"





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


I MILES


KILOMETERS


LEGEND
CONTOUR INTERVAL : 50 FEET


LIMITS OF THE HAWTHORN
GROUP


Figure 15. Isopach of Hawthorn Group, SRWMD (after Scott, 1988a)


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20
5 0 5 10 20 30


-N-


I


I_


V---


A


I


X7-
































LEGEND


CONTOUR INTERVAL t 50 FEET

FI-T LIMITS OF HAWTHORN GROUP


SCALE


5 0 5 10
511 1 0 20I I I
50 5 10 20


-N-


20 MILES
-u
m
30 KILOMETERS 0
I>
-o
C

i-
0
-I
0
z
0















\


-100
-100 \
\


Figure 16. Top of Hawthorn Group, SJRWMD (after Scott, 1988a)


L-_


i















LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL : 50 FEET

TTTT LIMITS OF HAWTHORN GROUP




SCALE


5 0 5 10 20 MILES
I il i I1 1 I I
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS








0

-N-













0












100

200
50

150

100 100




150

200

250
300


Figure 17. Isopach of Hawthorn Group, SJRWMD (after Scott, 1988a)





















-/1-


Figure 18. Top of Hawthorn Group, SWFWMD and SFWMD (after Scott, 1988a)


LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL 50 FEET

> LIMITS OF HAWTHORN GROUP
PEACE RIVER FORMATION
ABSENT

HAWTHORN GROUP
UNDIFFERENTIATED











u,
-U
m

o
r-

63
I-














I
















LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL : 50 FEET

% LIMITS OF HAWTHORN GROUP


c=- : /- /L,


5 5


35

"-- 5
-~~~~~~~ .bO16L (~\\/E5riy


650


SCALE


5 0 5 10 20
50 5 10 20 30


MILES
KILOMETERS


Figure 19. Isopach of Hawthorn Group, SWFWMD and SFWMD (after Scott, 1988a)


-N--


i

950


/







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE
0 10 20 MILES
I '- I I
0 10 20 30 KILOMETERS





LEGEND


- BISCAYNE AQUIFER

// SAND AND GRAVEL AQUIFER

SHALLOW AQUIFER
Pk ro HIGHLY MINERALIZED FLDRIDAN
AQUIFER SYSTEM

il FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM















Figure 20. Statewide aquifer map


36 ""
3^,


..J


WD<
OLL


I
















-N







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20 MILES
5 5 20 30 KILOMETERS
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


LEGEND


-0-


VAKL4)W



jr\vA


EASTERN LIMITS OF SAND AND GRAVEL AQUIFER, WEST IF LINE, AQUIFER THICKENS
PROGRESSIVELY AND BECOMES MAJOR SOURCE OF GROUND WATER FOR ESCAMBIA AND
SANTA ROSA COUNTIES, EAST OF LINE, PERMEABLE AND CONTIGUOUS, UNCONSOLIDATED
SILICICLASTIC DEPOSITS ARE REFERRED TO AS SURFICIAL AQUIFER SYSTEM,
SOUTH AND EAST OF LINE, THERE MAY BE MINOR AQUIFERS REFERRED TO
AS INTERMEDIATE AQUIFER SYSTEM.

WESTERN LIMITS OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER AS AN ECONOMICAL POTABLE GROUND-WATER SOURCE.

EASTERN EXTENT OF BUCATUNNA CLAY CONFINING UNIT. WEST OF LINE, FLORIDAN
AQUIFER SYSTEM IS SUB-DIVIDED INTO UPPER LIMESTONE AND LOWER LIMESTONE OF
FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM. EAST OF LINE, FLORIDAN AQUIFER SYSTEM IS UNDIFFERENTIATED.

WEST OF LINE, IT IS GENERALLY ACCEPTED THAT LOW PERMEABILITY BEDS IN THE
UPPER LISBON FORMATION FORM THE SUB-FLORIDAN CONFINING UNIT. EAST OF LINE,
LITHOLOGIC CHANGES CAUSE CLAIBORNE GROUP TO BE PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER
SYSTEM. EAST OF LINE, SUB-FLORIDAN CONFINING UNIT HAS NOT BEEN DEFINED.
WEST AND SOUTH OF LINE, UNDIFFERENTIATED CLAIBORNE GROUP PORTION OF FLORIDAN
AQUIFER SYSTEM CONTAINS HIGHLY MINERALIZED WATER. EAST AND NORTH
OF LINE, FLORIDAN AQUIFER CONTAINS FRESH WATER,

SOUTH OF LINE, IT IS ASSUMED THAT CLAIBORNE/LISBON AND WILCOX/CLAYTON AQUIFER
SYSTEMS ARE NOT PRESENT.,






Figure 21. Occurrence and extent of ground water in NWFWMD


37


-N-



I







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


Perdido Escambia
River Basin


Blackwater Yellow
Basin


River A .
RiverApalachicola Chipola River

Basin
SCALE


5 0 10 20 MILES
Il,.I1 I I I I


5 0 10 20 30


KILOMETERS


Ochlockonee St.Marks
River Basin


Choctawhatchee River
Basin


Figure 22. Surface-water basins, NWFWMD






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


\%'ITH-1LPCV 1CHEE RT'.'I


Surface-Water
Drainage
Basins


B ,? I!r[


~Iri K 4,H F F-J V BASIN


SUCIL.LA
'.. ER
BASIN


LOWER
SUWANNEE
RIVER


PFF E R
v.;:j trjE E


MARYS
IVER
BASIN


S/ COASTAL
RIVERS
BASIN


0,

SCALE

5 10 20, MILES
10 0 30 KII METERS
10 20 30 KILOMETERS


OKLAVAHA
RIVER
BASIN


-N-I


it


Figure 23. Surface-water basins, SRWMD


5 0
5 0 5











NASSAU
RIVER
BASIN


ST MARYS
RIVER
BASIN




r


SCALE


ST JOHNS
RIVER
BASIN


5 0 5 10


II 1 I 1 0 I I I
5 0 5 10 20 30


20 MILES


KILOMETERS


ATLANTIC
COASTAL
AREA


WITHLACOOCHEE
RIVER
BASIN








A
-N-


ST JOHNS
RIVER
BASIN


Figure 24. Surface-water basins, SJRWMD


-lii


"--~s


Fli


















WACCASASSA
RIVER
BASIN







COASTAL
RIVERS
AREA





HILLSBOROUGH
RIVER
BASIN










ALAFIA
RIVER
BASIN


5 0 5 10 20 MILES
S0 5 10 2 I I0 KI
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


Figure 25. Surface-water basins, SWFWMD


Fr

























KISSIMMEE-
OKEECHOBEE-
EVERGLADES
BASIN


PEACE RIVER
BASIN


CHARLOTTE HARBOR
BASIN AREA ---


ST, JOHNS RIVER
BASIN


TURKEY CREEK
COASTAL AREA















\ m







z
z
0


KISSIMMEE-ODEECHOBEE
EVERGLADES BASIN


-N-


SCALE


5 0 10 20
5 0 10 20 30


MILES
KILOMETERS


""\4
r
s






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS
50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


VESTER


1 PANHANDLE
A EA


DOUGHERTY PLAIN
AREA


-N-


OLA
NT


Figure 27. Ground-water areas, NWFWMD


ODV


AREA






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20
5 0 1 I I2 I
5 0 5 10 20 30


COAST







MILES
KILOMETERS


SUWANNE

VALLI


AREA


Figure 28. Ground-water areas, SRWMD


-I---


-`i'i...












MARYS


LOWEr


JO n1NS


AREf


SCALE


5 0 5 10 20
S* I I l I l I
5 0 5 10 20 30


-N-


MIDDLE


VOLUSIA


AREA


JOHN


AREI


PER


JOHNS


AREA


Figure 29. Ground-water areas, SJRWMD


S
ST


MILES


KILOMETERS


r


ST.














.9 R.


BRDOKSV LLE


RIDGE


\ 69

L-


AREA


KILOMETERS


Figure 30. Ground-water areas, SWFWMD


-N-





















SSI


-ALLAPATTAH LOXAHATCHEE I
SOKEECHOBEE AREA 0)
SBIG CYPRESS
REA -----



BISCAYNE
AREA
SCALE
0 10 20 MILES
0 10 20 30 KILOMETERS

v (
'


Figure 31. Ground-water areas, SFWMD


I
-N-

I








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


L50 5 I 10 20 30
50 5 10 20 30


LEGEND


CONTOUR INTERVAL : 10 FEET


L 10

- I 0

-y1'
N,


Figure 32. Floridan aquifer system potentiometric surface, NWFWMD (modified from Wagner, 1989)


KILOMETERS






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20 MILES
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


LEGEND
CONTOUR INTERVAL
10 FEET


/

60
701
S80

/











-N-


I


Figure 33. Floridan aquifer system potentiometric surface, SRWMD



















LEGEND


55


6.0



-65


CONTOUR INTERVAL 1 10 FEET
WITH SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOURS
AT 5 FEET


S 75 25
S85

S 15
10


80 SCALE
.60 5 0 5 10 20 MILES

5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS m

55

CC
30


40 0
z
54Cz


55 10 3

-N-


lo 10
Ill L0'


Figure 34. Floridan aquifer system potentiometric surface, SJRWMD


0
OJ 0
Ri C


SI. .j






























10 50

LEGEND

-N- 60 CONTOURS INTERVAL : 10 FEET
S70 WITH SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOURS
AT 5 FEET


II
S0 SCALE

70 1 5 0 5 10 20 MILES -n

12 /5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS
30 110>
m
120 0
5iI-
20
80 80
100 80

( 0 \r


Figure 35. Floridan aquifer system potentiometric surface, SWFWMD (after Barr, 1989)






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


LEGEND


CONTOUR INTERVAL ; 10 FEET


-'V~Q~


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


5 0 5 10


20 30 KILOMETERS


Figure 36. Floridan aquifer system potentiometric surface, SFWMD


120


-N-


i e, I 1,0 ,


-F


r






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


0 0
/. '- ,


0


CONTOUR INTERVAL 100 FEET WITH
SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOURS AT 50 FEET
_ SURFICIAL AQUIFER SYSTEM
HIGHLY VARIABLEj GENERALLY
< 50 FEET
--__ SURFICIAL AQUIFER SYSTEM
NOT PRESENT


SCALE


5 0 10 20 MILES
' 1 I I I '1 1
5 0 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


-N-


I


Figure 37. Surficial aquifer system thickness, NWFWMD. This does not represent one continuous aquifer over the extent of the district.


10 03


LEGEND


i~;?








































CONTOUR INTERVAL: 50 FEET
WITH SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOURS
AT 25 FEET


SCALE -
m

5 0 5 10 20 MILES

5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS

-\
7510 0
z
z
0
r.,


Figure 38. Surficial aquifer system thickness, SWFWMD (after Wolansky and others, 1981)







































































































Figure 39. Surficial aquifer system base, SFWMD


I _


~' "





Figure 40. Areas of surficial aquifer system use, SJRWMD


LEGEND


- SURFICIAL AQUIFER
- z SYSTEM

AREAS WHERE SURFICIAL AQUIFER
SYSTEM IS PRIMARY SUPPLIER OF
DRINKING WATER



SCALE


5 0 5 10 20 MILES
I I I i I I
S 50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS





-N-


r


~ni -


i'








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


e. 0-


o SCALE

5 0 5 10 20 MILES
\' ' I I I 1 1 7
50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


I


LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL i 50 FEET
VITH SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOURS
AT 25 FEET


0


-N-


Figure 41. Top of intermediate aquifer system/confining unit, NWFWMD






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


50


Figure 42. Isopach of the intermediate aquifer system/confining unit, NWFWMD





1






































LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL:
50 FEET

-n
r-
0

SCALE
m
0 5 10 20 MILES 0
'L I II I I I o
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS G
0

c
CO

m
)-<


Figure 43. Top of the intermediate aquifer system, SWFWMD (after Corral and Wolansky, 1984)


























-N-j





-N LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL
100 FEET

SCALE
5 0 5 10 20 MILES

SABST 5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS 0
"-
u
0I-

SABSENT 0 I
L0 0
o/ / o
0
100 z


- 600


Figure 44. Thickness of the intermediate aquifer system, SWFWMD (after Corral and Wolansky, 1984)


;ilxc(








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


01257













Figure 45. Top of mid-Hawthorn confining zone




Figure 45. Top of mid-Hawthorn confining zone


Figure 47. Top of mid-Hawthorn aquifer


-N-


LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL
25 FEET


Lee County -


SCALE


5 0


Figure 46. Top of the sandstone aquifer


5 10


20 MILES


I '
I a: 4n i .


5 0 5 10


20 30 KILOMETERS


l-~ Ic~


_ I






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32







































LEGEND

LIMITS OF UPPER AND
LOWER LIMESTONE OF
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
SYSTEM


SCALE


5 0 5 10


I, 0 5 I I20
50 5 10 20 30


Figure 49. Thickness of the upper Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD


20 MILES


KILOMETERS


I


Figure 48. Top of the upper Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


LEGEND

-- LIMITS OF UPPER AND
LOWER LIMESTONE OF
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
SYSTEM


SCALE


5 0 5 10 20

50 5 10 20 30
50 5 10 20 30


Figure 51. Thickness of the lower Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD


MILES

KILOMETERS


Figure 50. Top of the lower Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


CONTOUR INTERVAL 1 100 FEET


CONTOUR INTERVAL I 50 FEET


LEGEND


EASTERN EXTENT OF THE BUCATUNNA CLAY
CONFINING UNIT


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


I 5 I I I I I
50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


Figure 52. Top of the Bucatunna Clay, NWFWMD


-N-


Figure 53. Thickness of the Bucatunna Clay, NWFWMD

















--500


LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL 1 100 FEET


SCALE


5 0 5 10 20

50 5 10 20 30
50510 20 30


MILES


KILOMETERS


-N-


LI


-600


Figure 54. Top of the lower Floridan aquifer system, SJRWMD


-400


-300


-1200






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


50 5 10 20 30 KILMETERS
50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


LEGEND
CONTOUR INTERVAL 1 50 FEET
WITH SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOURS
AT 25 FEET

-N-


1=


Figure 55. Top of the Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD


0o e


-450,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20
5 0 5 10 20 30


LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL : 25 FEET


25o


Figure 56. Top of the Floridan aquifer system, SRWMD


-275
-225
-175
-125

'-75


-N-
























L 1 .


LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL : 50 FEET



SCALE


5 0 5 10 20
5 0 l 10 I 1 3I
50 5 10 20 30


MILES

KILOMETERS


-N-


Figure 57. Top of the Floridan aquifer system, SJRWMD


50


I




























LEGEND


CONTOUR INTERVAL 50 FEET


SCALE


20 MILES
30 KILOMETERS
30 KILOMETERS


Figure 58. Top of the Floridan aquifer system, SWFWMD


.?~~


~J(


t,.


---i~


--~--
O
























Sf.


/#' ,/

(* (
"7 0O
`'JO? ~S 0
N\ '


-50-
--'-


LEGEND

CONTOUR INTERVAL
50 FEET


- -.


I I


Figure 59. Top of the Floridan aquifer system, SFWMD


--/


\ -

j


J







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SCALE

,100 5 0 5 10 20 MILES
I I I I
50 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS
200
300- ---


LEGEND


CONTOUR INTERVAL : 100 FEET
- INDICATES WESTERN EXTENT OF
UNDIFFERENTIATED FLORIDAN
AQUIFER SYSTEM, WEST OF THIS
LINE THE BUCATUNNA CLAY
CONFINING UNIT DIVIDES AQUIFER
INTO THE UPPER AND LOWER
PORTIONS,


L
-N-


Figure 60. Thickness of the Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD


-;T-


I I I I I







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE


5 0 5 10 20
5 0 5 10 20 30


CONTOUR INTERVAL ; 100 FEET


Figure 61. Thickness of the Floridan aquifer system, SRWMD (after Miller, 1986)














1600



1500


LEGEND


CONTOUR INTERVAL i 100 FEET


SCALE


5 0 5 10


20 MILES


1500 ''
11 o00II I I I I I
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS






1500

S1 -N-

1700 -
1800 /

1900>
m
0
2000\

-- 2100 / \





*~_ 2 0 2300

S2400


^"" / 2500


2300
6 0 00

22 500
2700 >\

2600

2900



2900
02800

2700


2800K 2


Figure 62. Thickness of the Floridan aquifer system, SJRWMD
























600-)
\y


~00
'C


7


/


LEGEND
CONTOUR INTERVAL i 200 FEET


SCALE


5 0 5 10
I I' 1I II
5 0 5 10 20 3


20 MILES
j KILOMETERS
30 KILOMETERS


1200


1800


2000

2000


2400,


Figure 63. Thickness of the Floridan aquifer system, SWFWMD (after Wolansky and Garbode, 1981)


-N-



i


































-N-










a,


'^^__^300 cc^^-
^-^ __ ___^ \0 _*
---_ ____iQ-
3300-
3400o


Figure 64. Thickness of the Floridan aquifer system, SFWMD (after Miller, 1986)


U- #







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


-200


CONTOUR INTERVAL I 200 FEET


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20 MILES
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


-N-


Figure 65. Base of the Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD


2000
-2000


LEGEND


-2600 -


-2800
.-" a





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MIO-PLIOCENE SEDIMENTS
CONFINED --


SCALE


5 0 5 10 20 MILES
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETERS


TO
UNCONFINED


'SEMI-CONFINED


CONFINED


LEGEND


_-_- NORTH OF LINE, EXCEPT AS NOTED,
CONEFINING UNIT IS FORMED BY
CARBONATE RESIDUUM, SOUTH OF LINE,
MIO-PLIOCiT-IiE SEDIMENTS FORM
CONFINING UNIT


-N-


I


Figure 66. Confinement of the Floridan aquifer system, NWFWMD


CONFINED







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 32


SCALE
5 0 5 10 20 MILES
5 0 5 10 20 30 KILOMETI




LEGEND

TYPES OF AQUIFERS


UNCONFINED

SEMI-CONFINED

CONFINED


Figure 67. Confinement of the Floridan aquifer system, SRWMD


-N-















































-n


-N-




u m


I-































Figure 68. Areas of unconfined Floridan aquifer system, SJRWMD










Figure 68. Areas of unconfined Floridan aquifer system, SJRWMD