• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Part I. The principal vegetable...
 Part II. Citrus fruits, strawberries...
 Part III. Miscellaneous Florida...














Group Title: Bulletin New series no.
Title: From field to market with Florida vegetables and citrus fruits
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000509/00001
 Material Information
Title: From field to market with Florida vegetables and citrus fruits
Series Title: Bulletin New series no.
Physical Description: 181 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhodes, Neill
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Department of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetable trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Prices   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fruit trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Neill Rhodes.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: First published in 1931.
General Note: "April, 1938."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000509
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA3240
ltuf - AMG3903
oclc - 41560579
alephbibnum - 002458554
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Preface
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Acknowledgement
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
    Part I. The principal vegetable truck crops of Florida
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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        Page 75
        Page 76
    Part II. Citrus fruits, strawberries and watermelons
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Part III. Miscellaneous Florida farm crops
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
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Full Text



FROM FIELD


TO MARKET WITH



flotica Veqea&bles






By
NEILL RHODES
Assistant Marketing Commissioner


NATHAN MAYO
Commia.is om Aoricultur


APRIL 1938 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


NEW stalKS
NUMBER 88


- _F- -- -----------


-- -











LIRRARV






PREFACE
In presenting this edition of FROM FIELD TO MAR-
KET to the public I feel that we are offering the most
practical bulletin ever published on the economic side of
farming not in the methods of production but in the
cost, handling, output, competition, sale price, and mar-
gin of profit and loss. That is the kind of information
that Florida farmers and prospective immigrants want to
know. The statistics are from actual data and not esti-
mates or guess work. There is no better authority on the
subject-matter herein presented than the author of this
publication- Neill Rhodes. Assistant Marketing Com-
missioner.
NATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner of Agriculture.





INTRODUCTION
In Part One of From Field to Market with Florida
Vegetables and Citrus Fruits will be found data showing
where the particular vegetable is produced, the acreage
by counties, in Florida; the principal commercial variety;
the method of planting, the quantity of seed ordinarily
planted, the time required for it to reach maturity, and
the average yield; the cost per acre of growing, and the
cost per packed unit delivered shipping point; the stand-
ard container; the pack requirements; the usual method
of loading packed containers in the car; the Florida ship-
ping season, the volume shipped by months and the State
total, and also the total by counties; the competition in
carlot terms the Florida vegetable has with United States
domestic, storage, or import shipments; the area of dis-
tribution; the northern terminal market jobbing prices by
months, by seasons; the Florida home market prices by
months; when the peak price periods occur and why,-
all this information is shown briefly under appropriate
sub-titles, the same sequence and arrangement running
uniformly for each of the following Vegetable crops of
Florida: Green Beans, Cabbage, Celery, Cucumbers, Egg-
plant, Lettuce, Green Peas, Peppers, Potatoes, and To-
matoes.
In Part Two the information is given in practically the
same style for: Oranges, Grapefruit, and Tangerines; and
for Strawberries and Watermelons.
Part Three is devoted to a number of less important
Florida farm crops, most of which have not yet reached
sufficient commercial importance to have established as
complete data as were available in the form shown for the
Vegetables and Citrus Fruits included in Part One andl
Part Two: Lima Beans, Bunched Beets, Broccoli, Bunched
Carrots, Cauliflower, Green Corn, Escarole, Okra, Green
Bunched Onions, Spinach, Squash, Sweet Potatoes and
Bunched Turnips.
The contents of Field to Market are so written and ar-
ranged that reliable information on any subject included.
may be immediately located and readily comprehended.
The book is neither theoretical nor technical. Further
introductory comment appears unnecessary.
From Field to Market with Florida Vegetables and
Citrus Fruits was first published in 1931. The thousands
of requests for copies of the book made by growers, ship-
pers, agricultural authorities, schools, the trade, trans-


/12?)





portation agencies and many others, have completely ex-
hausted the supply. The favorable reception of the book,
especially by the Fruit and Vegetable Industry of Florida,
as attested by many letters and verbal reports, gratified
me beyond words of expression. The current demand for
the material that appeared in the original book, now un-
available, and for other information that is featured in
the present issue, has inspired the revision. If this book
helps growers and shippers to more wisely market their
shipments, and helps if only in a small way to increase the
farm income of the State, the energy and time spent in
its preparation will have been a good investment. The
reader's appreciation of the work will be my only reward
for its compilation.
NEILL RHODES,
Assistant Commissioner,
Florida State Marketing Bureau.












ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes to express his appreciation to the
clerical force of the Florida State Marketing Bureau for
the assistance rendered in the preparation of From Field
to Market with Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits.
Typing the manuscript, and arranging and verifying the
many statistical tabulations included in the book, in ad-
dition to discharging their regular arduous duties, made
the task all the more toilsome.
For the valuable assistance of my friend and associate
for many years, Mr. S. W. Hiatt, in offering suggestions
that were followed in the manuscript, and for his help in
verifying particularly the cost data with growers and
shippers in all the leading shipping sections of Florida,
I am greatly indebted. And to those who so courteously
cooperated with Mr. Hiatt in checking From Field to
Market, I am greatly obligated.
Gratefully acknowledging the assistance of all who in
any way contributed to the preparation of From Field to
Market, I assume full responsibility for the contents. Since
every word in the book was written by the author, it would
be most embarrassing for anyone else who may have
kindly supplied or verified some part of the raw material,
to be held chargeable for the final composition, and con-
clusions of the author.





TABLE OF CONTENTS


PART ONE
The Principal Vegetable Truck Crops of Florida
Pages
Beans, Green .-...........--------- .....---------......------- 9-15
Cabbage -......- ............................... 16-23
Celery ---........... ..------- _....... .....----...------------.... ----.. 24-29
Cucumbers ---..-..............---. ....-------------....--- 30-36
Eggplant -....-----......------...---------------...---.. .. 37-43
Lettuce ......--...---......... ....-....------..--- .........-. --------- 44-48
Peas, Green ..--...------..........------........-------. 49-54
Peppers .--.............-.............-------------------- 55-61
Potatoes --...........--------------------.......... .. .... 62-68
Tomatoes ..--...--............... ---..... ---....---- ... ------ 69-76


PART TWO
Citrus Fruits, Strawberries and Watermelons
Oranges ..----. -.....--------------.........----------........---... 79-108
Grapefruit ...--........-...---.....-------.... --------...109-134
Tangerines -.--.-.........-..-... ..-----------.---..---......- 135-144
Strawberries --.............--..--- .-----....----.. ---..--145-151
Watermelons ---......-.........----------....--152-158


PART THREE
Miscellaneous Florida Farm Crops
Beans, Lima -----....-...................----- -----.----. 161-163
Beets, Bunched --......................--------------.-- 164
Broccoli ......---.........-..... ......................--- 165-167
Carrots, Bunched ----.......... ------....... .. ..------.. 168
Cauliflower -...------..........----........--. ....----- -- .... 169
Corn, Green ..--...--......--.....- ---....-----.....--...170-171
Escarole -- -------.... .-.. ... ...... .......-......... 172
Okra ---...-------- -------------.........................-. 173-174
Onions, Green Bunched -....--..........--.-..-- ......-------.. 175
Spinach -.---.._......-----------.----.................. 176
Squash ...-------.....---...--....-- ...--- ........-- .............177-178
Sweet Potatoes -------------..... --.. .....----- ...-- .......179-180
Turnips, Bunched ...-....-....---------------------.......... 181










From Field to Market With Florida

Vegetables and Citrus Fruits




PART ONE



THE PRINCIPAL
VEGETABLE TRUCK CROPS
OF FLORIDA
BEANS, GREEN
CABBAGE
CELERY
CUCUMBERS
EGGPLANT
LETTUCE
PEAS, GREEN
PEPPERS
POTATOES
TOMATOES







From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 9


GREEN BEANS

The per-annum farm value of the Florida crop, ten-season
1926-27 through 1935-36 average, was $5,360,900. In the cal-
endar years 1933 through 1936 Florida led all States in the
shipments of snap beans, including limas, and shipped 70% of
the United States total.

Acreage.-The location of the commercial bean growing
districts in Florida is shown by the following county acreage
tabulation, eight-season period:


County


Alachl i ...........
Bradford ...........
Brevard ............
Broward. ...........
Colli r .............
Co'umnbia .....
Clay ..............
Dade . .............
DeSuto .......
Gad dh'l n ...........
Glades .......
H ar . . . . . .
Henry .... ....
ernando . . . . .
liai hlands ..........
Ilillboroullh ......
Indian tiver .......
Lake ...............

Levy .............
M[anatee ...........
M3arion . . . . . .
.Martin ............
Ok(,ehobtx .......
Oralng . . . . . .
O. rnola .. .........
1'a.111 ll ehl h ........
Pasco .............
Polk ..............
Putnlam *........
SaintI Johls ........
Saintl Lu iir, .........
Sarasoza ...........
Seminole ...........
Suimter .....
Union . . . . . . .
Vo lllt ia ............
Miscellalleoul .......

Stat. Total .... ....


Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties of green
beans grown in Florida are: Bountiful, Stringless Black Val-
entine, Giant Stringless. Kentucky Wonder and Wax Beans
are also grown in a number of sections.

Planting.-From three pecks to one bushel (45 to 60 lbs.)
of seed per acre is the usual amount. Beans are planted in
drills 3 feet apart, from 2 to 4 inches in the drills, covered about
2 inches deep. From the time beans are planted, crop will pro-
duce in from 45 to 60 days. The State's average yield is about


10(11
.100



10
5830

:123

700
101

9.)o
1.000
17:3
5o
175
I.">
123
2.07."
7530
:132
210
153
7.300
7.:110


1010

3:,

2.400

130

27.000


1.1250 ].L00
.110 250
)0
4.400 7.300

i60 1i00
100 50
1.1001 1.000

(100 5>00
300 13'0
:10 ) .'0(
3II10 300
85ill 1100
210 '2O

1.100 8 ,


11,0 :t10
1300 1410(
I 100) 2.9.50
45,0 30.41
.00 :300
22.5 .51o1
7., 100
11.000 14.>00
100 .0
30 300

"0 -030
41:.. 40,
i0 1.30
46(i3 (60
4.0000 .1100

.00 ) 0(0

34.9100 40.000


1.20(1


1.200

7.700

100
.i0
.00
501



33.
5(1o


100

55300



200
55 0


000
11.000
275


-(0
111,000


.10

30
875
3.701
100


41.500(


850 55>0
3:00 200

19.000 14.000
100


1..00 7530


17- 744
100 300)

:51O :100
5.5,1 700
100 3:00

5100 530

-tOO 700
4.000 .500
4.000 '1.300
701) 1 .:10
3.-10 300
25, 50
17.300 361.800
100 100
125 100

*1 :300
... 30
:100 700
1.2.0i 1.150
151 ...

400 . .

4!>.f;> at623


500 900


300 100
100

.:1)00 2.200
... 100
100
tO0 5100
SI) 50
700 900
200 17:
50
lO
1.3200 60i
1:10) 4.100
100 ..

.00 :600
130 130
1.000 2.000
400 :Ioo
1.300 1.100
400 300o
50 50
36.700 61.000
200
100 100
.. 100

400 4.)0
54 50
-3n0 325
(630 :300
100 100

100

(7.000 611.200


]o*_-8-,.!o I9,_1-30 1930-31 1931-32~ 19321-33l 1933-3.1 193.1-35 1935-360





10 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

90 bushel hampers per acre. In the principal bean districts,
a much higher yield is realized, 125 hampers or more per acre.
Cost.-The cost of growing a crop of beans in Florida, not
including land cost, rental, taxes or depreciation, will range
from $40 to $75 per acre: Preparation and cultivation of land
$12.50-26.50; seed $6.50-9.00; fertilizer $15-30; spraying and
miscellaneous $6.00-9.50,-or 40c-75c hamper, on a yield for
instance of 100 hampers per acre. To deliver beans at loading
station, the cost will average from 90c-$1.30 per hamper:
Growing 40c-75c; picking 22c-25c; grading and packing (most
beans in South Florida are belt graded) 9c-10c; hamper 14c-
15c; hauling 5c.

Container.-The bushel hamper is the standard shipping
container in general use in Florida.
Pack.-The hamper should be well filled, tight pack, so
that settling and excessive shrinkage in transit will not result.
Only well formed, bright, fresh, young, tender, firm beans of
similar varietal characteristics, of uniform size, and free from
damage, should be placed in the package.

Loading in Car.-Beans in carlots are shipped under re-
frigeration. The hampers are usually loaded in each end of
car, 8 stacks, 5 and 6 rows wide, 5 and 6 layers high on sides,
with hampers alternately reversed, or layers of hampers al-
ternately reversed. Irregular loading between doorways. The
average load per car is about 572, ranging from 446 to 660
hampers or more per car.

Florida Shipments.-The shipping season of Florida green
beans is from October through June. The following table shows
the carlot shipments from Florida by months for nine seasons,
1928-29 through 1936-37:

Total
Senion Oct. Nov. lDe. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Season
1928-29 ......... ... 160 203 119 432 687 1.270 371 3 3.251
1920-30 ......... 9 298 993 591 452 390 594 728 58 4.113
1930-31.......... 224 1.019 333 214 272 433 700 995 65 4.315
131-32 ........... 330 1.3:0 1.403 1.254 87. 456 264 087 41 6.941
1932-33.......... 407 597 603 1.515 1.375 1.332 1.425 597 17 7.868
1933-34 ......... 204 1.522 1.270 1.454 1.040 1.321 1.429 1.007 63 0.328
1934-35 ......... :.. 7 055 508 65 1.401 1.508 1.500 390 17 0,399
1935-36 ......... 144 1.028 240 717 949 772 885 033 37 5.411
193037 .......... 271 1.145 1.185 1.202 470 537 841 303 65 0.139






From Field to 3Markft With Florida Vegetables and ('itrus Fruits 11


The following compilation of carlot bean shipments from
Florida counties, from the 1926-27 season through the 1936-37
season, will show definitely the commercial bean shipping cen-
ters. (Note the heavy increase in Broward and Palm Beach
counties) :



County ZV n C W
Se -e n r: V -

Alachua ..... 78 97 259 129 150 6t 10 64 34 50 68
Bradford .... 32 26 43 14 28 10 ... ... ... 2 4
Broward .... 453 20:3 658 007 745 1.010 2.102 2.007 1.352 1.223 1.431
Collier ...... ... ... ... ... ... 4' 1) 7 10 1
Dade .......... 2 80 27 20 18 1110 78 118 87 83
DeSoto .................... ... 1 ... ... ...... 2
Flagler ..... 21 3 ... ... 3 3
Gadeden .... 5 41 10 7 3 1 15 ...
Glades ...... 48 35 24 13 23 12 3 3 1 25 .
Iardee ..... 2 3 7 3 20 ... 2 3
Henry ..... 394 51 04 1140 73 12 15 24 .4 10 1
ernando ........ ... 10 11 20 15 :38 30 5 2 .
Highlands ... 24 11 ... .... .... .. ..... 1 3 ... 10
Hillsborough ... 67 47 44 25 18 25 29 6 13 10
Indian River 86 49 50 27 33 37 20 2
Jacksonl .... ... .. ... ... ... .. . .
Lake ....... 39 23 22 1 5 ...... .
Lee ........ 48 5 ... ... 10
IA on ....... ... ... ... ... ... 1 . ... ... ... ...
Levy ....... ... 1 22 7 2t1 3: 14 27 16 10 13
Madison ... .... ..... . 5 ... ..
Manatee .... 85 21 8 20 50 13 55 43 11 1 3
Marion ..... 178 389 540 231 :116 1-10 153 158 I 22 40
Martin ..... ... ... 35 9 141 I 20 30 141 3
Okeechobee .. 3 11 310 48 28 !11 145 21 123 1 00
Orange ..... 1 1 28 10 64 33 41 70 2 7 16
Osceola ..... ... ... ... 1 13
Palm Beach.. 487 1.!31 1.057 1.859 2.05 :3.002 3.6t069 4.895 3.493 3.046 3.771
Paseo ...... ... 2 7 5 3 ... 3 7 ... ... 2
Polk ....... 11 10 4 2 5 1 ... .
Putnam ..... 4 ... 1 1 2 ... ... ... ... 1 1
St. I.ucie .... 38 5 5 4 14 I 3 3 5 .11 16
Sarasota .... ... ... 1 14 . 2
Seminole .... 12 41 44 22 112 96 30 100 9 111 10
Sumter ..... 075 302 353 183 318 1010 55 52 37 0 35
Union ...... 14 13 211 8 0 ... ... ... 4 3 .
Volusia ..... 54 ... ... .. 1 4 ... ... ... ... 1
Others ...... ... 7 ... 1 13 . ... ... .
Total Rail ...2.795 3.394 4.109 3.513 4.233 5.094 6.593 7.942 5.353 4.611 5.587
Boat ......... ... ... ... 138 80 148 97 :329 260 180 21
Express ............ ... 403 ... 700 978 1.056 786 020 333

Grand Total..2.795 3.394 "4.109 *4.054 *4.319 6.9-11 7.808 11.327 0.3911 5.411 0.139
* Total in Season 1928-29 includes express lhilpments allocated to different counties. It will
be noted that the totals for Seasons 1920-30 and 1930-31 vary slightly front the State's total
shown in the table of Florida Shipnments immediately above, which is due to final revision for
season's total, and to boat and express shipments being included.





12 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Competitive Shipments.-The preceding table indicates
the local home competition bean growers must expect to meet
every season. There is competition to Florida beans from other
States, most pronounced naturally in the early fall and late
spring season of these outside States. Competition is at the
minimum in January, February and March. Texas and Louis-
iana beans are on the markets in more months of the Florida
season than those from other States, but Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia ship in October for in-
stance, and as the Florida season ends in June, in addition to
these States, Arkansas, Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey and
Tennessee are shipping beans. The imports of snap beans are
not serious, and are principally from Cuba, from 2 to 14 cars
per season; from Puerto Rico, about 10 cars per season; and
Mexico with only 3 or 4 cars per season. The Cuban and Puerto
Rican beans are sold largely on the New York market. The fol-
lowing tabulation will better emphasize the volume and time
of the carlot competition to Florida Green Beans:
U. S. Shipments, All States Except Florida, Eight Seasons, by Months
Total
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June (9 mo.)
1928-29 .... 406 163 15 .... .... 44 325 2,196 1,256 4,405
1929-30 .... 809 160 .... ... .... 78 451 1,824 2,015 5,337
1930-31 .... 405 83 .... .... 1 26 341 1,545 1,915 4,316
1931-32 .... 443 70 3 6 48 136 9 1,443 1,230 3,388
1932-33 .... 544 149 .... .... .... 31 382 895 610 2,611
1933-34 .... 197 170 19 4 1 17 135 1,554 1,053 3,150
1934-35 .... 465 145 2 .... .... ... 176 1,618 1,050 3,456
1935-36 .... 336 148 58 7 .... 1 136 858 1,059 2,603
Distribution.-About 91% of the Florida bean crop (ex-
clusive of truck shipments) in the 1936-37 season was shipped
by rail in carlots compared to 85% in the 1935-36 season.
About 5% was shipped by express compared to 12 % in 1935-
36, and 4 % by boat compared to 3 % in 1935-36. In the 1936-
37 season 70 % of the Florida rail carlot shipments moved into
Eastern territory, 24% into Western territory, and 6% into
Southern territory. New York City alone takes about 45 % of
the total shipments of Florida beans, by rail, boat, l.c.l. ex-
press and truck, which is considerably less in proportion than
eight or ten years ago. Considering the four-year period, 1932-
1935 inclusive, the rail receipts on the New York market from
Florida have declined; the truck receipts have about doubled
the previous year's total, each year.
Northern Market Prices.-The following compilation of
simple average destination jobbing prices, by months, of Flor-
ida Green Beans, in bushel hampers, No. 1 or top grade basis,






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 13


for twelve seasons, 1925-26 through 1936-37, shows the period
of highest, as well as the months of lowest prices:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June

1925-26 ..........$4.05 $4.55 $7.85 $9.60 $8.85 $4.00 $4.61 $2.00
1926-27 .......... 3.85 3.43 7.69 8.45 4.55 2.89 1.82 ......
1927-28 .......... 2.11 2.43 7.29 7.09 5.92 4.32 2.64 ......
1928-29 .......... 4.75 5.20 6.20 3.85 3.55 3.25 2.10 ......
1929-30 .......... 3.92 2.63 3.85 4.46 5.66 4.47 2.72 1.28
1930-31 .......... 2.17 4.03 7.29 6.19 5.36 3.71 2.44
1931-32 .......... 1.88 1.79 2.01 2.39 4.20 5.54 2.15
1932-33 .......... 2.21 3.58 1.95 1.69 2.41 1.77 1.61
1933-34 .......... 1.48 1.50 1.96 2.35 2.51 2.37 1.63
1934-35 .......... 2.47 2.99 5.96 2.83 1.79 2.06 1.20
1935-36 .......... 1.84 4.02 3.10 2.53 2.96 3.08 1.88
1936-37 .......... 1.78 1.60 2.04 3.25 3.94 3.06 2.64


Perhaps the best means of illustrating the price trends of
the different seasons and of determining whether there is con-
sistently every season a period of one or two months of the
highest prices, is by charting the data. If a table, or "price
field" is made up, the months November through June running
horizontally across the top, and the prices $1.00 to $10.00 run-
ning vertically up the left side, a line representing each season
can be quickly filled in. Part or all of the seasons can be chart-
ed, as may be desired.

Florida Market Prices.-Growers who use at some time of
the shipping season, especially those who ship largely by ex-
press or truck to home markets, have use also for Florida mar-
ket quotation averages. The following table of monthly Jack-
sonville, Florida, simple average jobbing prices, best grade
quoted, bushel hampers, for the calendar years 1926 through
September 1937, will meet the requirements of those inter-
ested in home markets:


Year


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


1926 .......
1927........
1928........
1929 ........
1930........
1031 ........
1932 ........
1033. .......
1934 ........
1935........
1936 ........
1937 ........


$5.15 $ . .
5.36 6.22
4.40 5.07
3.54 2.62
2.03 3.02
4.82 4.05
1.66 2.23!
2.05 1.54
1.51 1.91
5.33 2.36
2.28 1.01
1.24 2.32


$7.30 $3.40 $2.97 $1.81 $2.14 53.73


1.63 2.41
1.57 1.0
1.10 1.27
1.85 1.24
1.52 1.33
1.50 .70
1.74 2.11
.98S .86S
.78 1.08
1.25 1.19
1.46 1.18


2.56 2.30
2.17 3.61
2.33 3.02
2.87 2.37
2.95 1.85
1.27 2.04
2.89 1.05
2.07S 2.44S
1.54 1.59
1.59 1.28
1.34 1.50


53..54 $2.65 $2.23
2.58 2.40 1.03
4.23 3.50 3.32
2.80 2.55 2.74
2.71 1.58 1.55
1.93 1.03 1.51
2.01 1.36 1.88
1.41 2.24 1.18
1.78S 1.36S 2.12
1.93 2.35 1.65
1.24 1.00 1.27
1.07


* Part month. S Southern offerings.


$2.36
1.78
2.52
2.28
2.85
*1.50
2.99
.99
2.31
3.12
1.25






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


The next table gives the total U. S. bean shipments for
each month of the Florida shipping season, and the corre-
sponding destination monthly jobbing price average for Flor-
ida beans. In checking the relationship of average-price to
total-shipment supply, liberal views must be taken, for it does
not always follow that, on a monthly basis, slightly increased
shipments result in lower prices, or decreased shipments in
higher prices. The fluctuation in competitive product supply,
the change in consumer demand, the weather, economic con-
ditions, are factors along with others that affect the supply
and demand, and the price trend.

Sensoni Nov. Dec. Jan. Fel. Mar. Apr. May June
1928-29
Total V. S. Shipments ........ 323 218 119 432 731 1.601 2.567 1.259
Northern Prices Fla. Beans.... $4.75 $5.20 $6.20 $3.85 53.55 53.25 $2.10 $...
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 458 993 591 452 468 1.045 2.552 2.073
Northern Pricen Fla. Beans.... $3.92 $2.03 53.85 $4.40 55.66 $4.47 $2.72 15.28
1930-'31
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 1.102 333 214 273 450 1.101 2.540 1.080
Northern Prices Fla. Beans.... $2.17 $4.03 $7.20 $0.19 $5.30 $3.71 $2.44 $...
1931-3 2
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 1.400 1.406 1.260 024 592 273 2.430 1.271
Northern Prices Fla. Beans.... $1.88 51.79 52.01 $2.39 $4.20 $5.54 $2.15 $...
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 746 003 1.515 1.375 1.363 1.807 1.492 027
Northern Prices Fla. Beans .... 52.21 53.58 $1.05 $1.69 $2.41 $1.77 $1.61 $...
19:13-3.:
Total U. S. Shipment l ........ 1.6902 1.208 1.458 1.050 1.338 1.504 2.501 1.110
Northern Prices Fla. Bkean .... $1.48 $1.50 $1.00 $2.35 $2.51 $2.37 $1.03 $ ...
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 1.100 510 65 1.401 1.508 1.685 2.017 1.067
Northern Prices Fla. Beans.... $2.47 $2.99 $5.96 $2.83 $1.79 $2.00 $1.20 $...
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 1.176 304 724 949 773 1.021 1.491 1.096
Northern Prices Fla. Beanr .... $1.84 $4.02 83.10 $2.53 $2.90 53.08 51.88 5...

Peak Prices, When and Why.-The market prices of Flor-
ida beans fluctuate, as do prices of other vegetables. The early
fall shipments, if made before killing frost reduces the supply
in northern States, and the late spring shipments if made after
a number of other States begin their harvesting, bring low
prices. The mid-season, or January, February and March
period, are the ranking price months. In these months Florida
bean shippers have the least competition from other States.
The high price mid-winter period has its attendant risks, such
as frost, and it is not practical or possible for growers in all
bean producing centers to time their planting for harvesting
in this period. The producers in the less dangerous frost area
who have had steady supplies also in December and November
have averaged well. A large supply at fair prices yields as
much or more revenue some seasons as a limited supply at high
prices.
Taking a twelve-season average, 1925-26 through 1936-37,
into consideration, the following table is arranged to show the





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 15

average price rank each month of the Florida shipping season
has taken:

Rank Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
First in ....... 0 Seas. 2 Seas. 4 Seas. 2 Seas. 3 Seas. I Seas. 0 Seas. Too
Second in ...... 0 Sea. 2 Seas. 2 Seas. :3 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 0 Seas. Few
Third in ...... Seas. 0 Seas. 1 Seas. I Sars. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 0 Seas. Sales
Fourth iln ..... SeRas 1 Seas. 2 Sens. 1 SeaI I Sn. S an. I Sa 3 Sea To
Fith it n ...... ... Sean Sm. Sel. 3 Seas. I Senas. 1 Seas. 3 Sena. U2 Seis. Quote
Sixth In ...... .. Seas. : Seas. 0 Seas. I Seas. I Scas. Seas. :1 Seas. All
Sevellth in ..... 3. Seas. 2 Sea. O Seas. 0 Seas. 0 Seas. I Seas. 4 Seas. Seasons

Rearranged according to price rank, the order of the above
months is: March, January, February, April, December, No-
vember, May. Note for instance March ranked first 3 seasons,
second 3 seasons, third 3 seasons, and fourth, fifth and sixth
only once. May, on the other hand, did not rank first, second
or third any season, and ranked seventh, the lowest place 4
seasons.






16 From Field to Market With Florida vegetabless and Citrus Fruits

CABBAGE
The per-annum farm value of the Florida cabbage crop,
ten-season 1926-27 through 1935-36 average, was $911,100.
Florida ranks second to Texas in the cabbage shipments, rail
and boat, from the early States, and fourth in total shipments
from all States, shipping in the years 1933-36 slightly under
10 % of the United States total cabbage.
Acreage.-The amount of cabbage planted and where it is
grown in Florida is given in the following tabulation of acre-
age, by counties, eight-year period:
County 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936
Alachua .......... 450 500 500 600 500 600 300 400
Bradford ........ 25 10 20 25 ...... ..
Brevard .......... 10 10 20 20 ...... 25 25
Broward ....... 150 50 200 150 50 200 25 100
Clay ................ 75 30 20 20 ...... 50
Dade .............. 700 150 450 300 ...... 300 100 100
DeSoto ............ 10 ...... 50 50 100 25 ...... 25
Escambia ........ 25 50 50 50 ...... ...... ...... 50
Flagler .......... 300 100 100 100 300 350 50 300
Gadsden ........ ...... .... ...... ...... 50 100 200 200
Glades .......... 100 40 100 100 50 100 50 100
Hardee .......... 40 25 50 50 ...... 50
Hendry ............... 30 150 100 100 300 100 500
Hernando ........ .... ...... .......... ....... .. .. 650
Highlands ...... 25 ...... 30 30 ...... 30
Hillsborough .. 175 25 50 50 50 400 25 100
Indian River.... 25 10 50 50 ...... 150 25 50
Lake ........... 375 250 300 150 250 450 250 300
Lee ................ ...... .... .... ...... ...... ...... ...... 50
Levy .............. 20 10 20 ...... 100 200 ...... 25
Madison .......... ... ... ...... ...... ...... 100
Manatee ......... 250 200 40 300 250 600 350 400
Marion ............1,100 500 700 900 600 900 400 700
Martin .................. 25 20 25 ...... 50 200 250
Okeechobee .... 40 30 50 50 100 300 200 250
Orange........... 550 325 650 500 800 900 300 350
Osceola .......... 20 50 50 200 150 150 50 100
Palm Beach.... 100 150 650 400 1,000 1,500 1,400 2,000
Pinellas .......... 20 10 40 40
Polk ................ 350 350 550 400 400 750 350 400
Putnam .......... 200 30 30 40 50 50 100 300
St. Johns ........ 300 30 50 100 200 100 300 700
St. Lucie ........ 40 10 75 50 100 100 100 100
Sarasota ........ 15 ...... 50 ...... 50 50
Seminole ........ 370 250 450 400 300 600 300 400
Sumter ........... 500 300 300 250 450 1,000 300 500
Volusia........... 140 150 225 200 200 250 50 50
Miscellaneous.. ...... ...... ...... ....... ...... ....... 50 150
State Total......6,500 3,700 6,500 5,700 6,200 10,730 5,600 9.000

Varieties.-For many years pointed type cabbage has been
produced for commercial purposes in Florida. In recent years
there has been a tendency toward round type. The Early Jer-





Fronm Field In .llarkel W'ith F'lorilda 'eetables. n (and Citru Fruits 17

sey Wakefield, Charleston Wakefield, and Copenhagen Market
are the principal commercial varieties.
Planting.-Cabbage plants are usually from 12 to 15 inches
apart in rows 21/2 to 3 feet apart. In planting seed-beds, about
6 ounces of seed will produce enough plants for one acre, double
or 12 ounces if seed is planted in the field, covered about 1 inch
deep. From the planting of seed, from 80 to 100 days will be
required for the plants to produce the crop. The State's aver-
age yield is about 5:!' tons per acre, or about 200 hampers
(11/2 bushels).
Cost.-The average cost of growing cabbage in Florida,-
exclusive of land cost, rental, taxes or depreciation,-is from
$55-75 per acre. Broken down into individual items: Prepara-
tion and cultivation of land $25-30; seed $1.00-1.25; fertilizer
$25-35; spraying and miscellaneous $4.00-8.75. Delivered at
shipping station the cost per 11, bushel hamper is about as
follows (Basis 200 hampers per acre yield) from 50c-68c:
Growing 27c-37/c; harvesting and field packing 5c-10c;
hamper 15c-16c; hauling 3c-5c.
Container.-The 11/-bushel hamper is in more general use
in Florida than other containers, especially for pointed types
of cabbage. Several different crates are used, the barrel, half-
barrel, Western type lettuce crate, etc.
Pack.-The pack should be tight, and consist of heads of
cabbage of only one type, which are solid, and free from rot,
seed stems, and damage caused by any means. Florida cab-
bage in hampers will range from 1 to 5 lb., mostly 1/2 to 2 lb.,
from 20 to 33 heads per hamper, mostly 26.
Loading in Car.-Cabbage is ordinarily shipped under re-
frigeration, the load top iced by many shippers. The hampers
are loaded in each end of cars, lengthwise, side load with
hampers alternately reversed, 5 stacks 5 x 6 or 7 x 7 rows wide,
5 to 6 layers high, loading irregular in doorway (3 x 3, 3 x 4,
4 x 5, 5 x 6, etc.). The average load ranges from 420 to 450
hampers.
Florida Shipments.-The Florida cabbage shipping season
is from December through the following May, a few cars some
seasons moving out in November. The following tabulation
shows the carlot shipments from Florida, by months, for the
seasons 1928-29 through 1936-37:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Total
1928-29 .......... ...... 35 547 1,076 1,390 76 12 3,136
1929-30 ........... ...... 75 500 528 799 344 25 *2,272
1930-31............ 1 200 617 718 1,106 569 46 t3,263
1931-32............ 19 229 329 430 379 124 11 1,521
1932-33............ 17 141 414 732 1,054 418 97 2,873
1933-34........... ...... 184 952 916 981 221 70 1:3,336
1934-35 ......... 1 26 45 179 1,008 832 104 2,196
1935-36........... .... 24 201 295 606 685 35 1,846
1936-37............ 3 139 311 402 455 221 8 1,539
*Includes 1 car in June; +6 cars in June; 12 cars in June; 1 car in June.







18 From Field to Market With Florida Vreetables and Citrus Fruits


County shipments will better show the location of the prin-

cipal cabbage producing sections in the State. The seasons
1926-27 through 1936-37 are included:


County


2 a

a cu


Alachua ...... 279 233 301
Bradford .......... ... 3
Brevar ....... ... 4 3
Broward ...... 2 154
Clay ........ ... ... 12
Collier ........ ... ... ...
Dade ........ 1 3 139
DeSoto ...... ... ... 3
Fscamhia ..... ... ... .
Flagler ....... 23 11 159
Gadsden ...... 2 .
Gladies ....... ... 30 62
Hardee ....... 4I ... 12
Hendry ....... .. 7 ..
Hernando .... ... ... ...
Highlands .... ... ... 1
Hillborouh . 21 8 37
Indian River .. 5 ... 1
Jefferson . 7 .
Lake ........ 77 81) 105
Lec .........
Levy ........ 7 12 1
Manate ...... .33 58 219
Marion ....... 49 !236 417
M martin ....... ... ... ...
Okeechobe . ... .. 1 2
Orange ....... ..53 118 292
Osceola ...... ... .. . 2
Palm Beach ... 7 25 35
Pinellas ...... ... ... ...
Polk ......... 201 258 245
Putnam ...... ... ... 134
Saint Johns . 4 11) 262
Saint Lucle ... ... ... 20
Sarasota ...... 3 0 7
Seminole ..... 31 89 118
Sumter ...... 351 213 2l64
Union ......... 2 3 ...


Volun ia ...... ...


80 98 53 50 51 135 02 17 10 70


Total Rail ....1.162 1.532 3.176 2.221 3.207 1.478 2.832 3.220 2.175 1.846 1.487
Boat ......... ... ... ... 1 56 43 41 116 21 71 52

Grand Total .1.162 1.532 *3.176 2.272 :1.63 1.521 2.873 3.330 2.196 1.917 1.539

STotal in Season 1028-29 includes express andl boat rlipments allocated to different counties.


o M

I

283 270

6 4
18 45
9 2

34 7


I2 no6

24 63
14 8
10 4r5
0

9 19
1 23

1.1: 1903

... d7
130 361
328 372
2 1
10 12
276 401
9 15
102 200
3 2
262 .40,1
18 9
21 34
5 14
... 22
15" 203
220 243


32 274 143

1 ... 8
0 2 14

1
21 2 34


53 128 01l
... 12 37
9 23 10

2 30 07


3 3 08
20 ... 30

50 113 105

3 20 11
144 126 342
124 395 217
7
7 25 101)
240 :120 200
16 15 12
239 429 411

218 262 027
2 9 06
10 52 27
17 33 47
1 1 16
110 82 154
83 3:11 230
... ...


ea a r*




52 94 73

1 ... 1
3


5 ... 3


.. 1 19
21 6 46
11 13 1

18 18 6




3 11 4

9. 81 96
... 22 5

60 50 110
82 50 65
05 24
94 72 20
152 230 334
4 5 6
915 726 247

212 218 131
18 5
78 35 107
11 1 1

123 72 42
104 78 84





From Field tl Market Withi Florida VI'eelablre and Citrius Fruits 19

Competitive Shipments.-Many of the Florida vegetables
have only the new crop competition, but cabbage has not only
the new crop, but the shipments from the late States and stor-
age stock with which it must compete. Cabbage from Louisi-
ana, South Carolina and Texas is shipped in almost every
month of the Florida season, and storage stock from New York
and Wisconsin competes with Florida offerings practically
every month from December through April. Alabama, Georgia,
Mississippi, and North Carolina place new cabbage on the
market in April and May, and Tennessee and Virginia in May.
There are shipments from other States that at some time dur-
ing the Florida shipping season give competition, for instance,
Arizona, California, Minnesota, etc. Import competition is
not serious. Cuba occasionally exports one or two cars to the
United States, usually in February. Less than 30 cars per sea-
son have come in from the Netherlands, usually in the period
January to April. The following table will show the extent
of the competition Florida has in every month of its shipping
season:

Cabbage Shipments, total U. S., except Florida, eight sea-
sons, by months:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Total
(7 mo.)
1928-29........ ........ 2,667 3,841 2,694 3,459 4,651 4,663 21,975
1929-30........ 3,564 3,145 4,020 2,299 1,562 2,821 3,979 21,390
1930-31....... 3,108 3,115 3,529 2,920 3,270 3,254 4,049 23,245
1931-32........ 3,149 2,843 3,082 2,359 2,319 2,508 2,341 18,601
1932-33........ 2,213 2,502 2,311 2,116 1,809 2,114 2,670 15,735
1933-34....... ........ 2,213 2,197 2,594 3,166 3,007 3,731 16,908
1934-35........ ........ 3,176 3,143 2,342 1,178 1,748 3,113 14,700
1935-36........ ........ 2,324 2,901 3,101 2,500 2,319 3,353 16,498

Distribution.-In the 1936-37 season, 80 % of the Florida
cabbage shipments by rail went into Eastern territory, 13%
into Western, and only 7% into Southern territory. In the
calendar years 1934-35-36, an average of more than 50% of
the rail and boat shipments went to New York and Phila-
delphia, and about 69 % to these cities and Baltimore, Boston,
Newark, and Washington, D. C., inclusive. New York City
is the largest receiver of Florida cabbage, and handles more





F ro,, Fi'eld to markett With Florida Veietables and Citrus Fruits


than one-third the total Florida commercial crop. Although
New York State ranks first in carlot shipments of cabbage, New
York City in 1934 and in 1936 handled more rail and boat car-
lot equivalents (exclusive of I.c.l. freight, express and truck
receipts) from Florida than from New York or any other State,
and second only to New York receipts in 1935, and incident-
ally of rail and boat carlot receipts, Jacksonville handled more
cabbage from New York than from any other State. The ship-
ments by boat, and by truck, have increased in the last few
years.

Northern Market Prices.-Based on No. 1 grade of Florida
pointed or round type cabbage in 11/ bushel hampers, the fol-
lowing are simple average destination prices by months, and
cover the period from the 1925-26 through the 1936-37 season:

Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
1925-26................ $...... $3.18 $3.21 $2.43 $1.62 *$1.25
1926-27............... ...... 2.06 1.38 1.88 1.20
1927-28................ 1.60 2.05 1.50 2.00 2.80 *1.95
1928-29................ ...... 2.25 1.30 1.40 *1.05
1929-30.............. *2.67 2.45 2.82 3.27 2.67 *1.72
1930-31................ 2.06 1.54 1.18 1.16 1.09 *1.08
1931-32................ 1.81 1.37 1.40 2.25 1.84 *1.63
1932-33............... 1.16 1.00 1.21 1.21 1.33 *1.62
1933-34................ 1.63 1.31 1.08 1.05 1.06 *1.12
1934-35................ *1.19 *1.21 *1.96 2.94 2.76 *1.20
1935-36................ 1.67 1.40 1.19 1.04 1.24 *1.00
1936-37................ ...... .95 1.00 1.16 1.33
* Part month.


20










Florida Market Prices.-In view of the heavy volume of cabbage sold on the Florida City
Markets, and the Farmers State Wholesale Markets, the local price trends are followed closely.
The Jacksonville simple average jobbing prices will serve as a good index of the Florida home
markets, and the following table gives the data by months, for twelve calendar years, top quote
basis, container or unit of sale as indicated:


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.


May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


1926........ $3.02H $2.85H $2.62H $1.84H $2.58C $3.25C $4.09C $ ...... $ ...... $ ...... $ ...... ......
1927........ 1.54H 1.14H 1.21H 2.22C 2.45C ...... ...... ...... ......
1928........ 1.26H 1.15H 1.1911 1.581 1.5511 1.40H ......
1929........ 1.1511 1.OH .85H .751- 2.15C 2.00C ......
1930........ 1.10H 1.06H 1.39H 1.64H 1.12H 1.27H ...... ...... ...... ...... 1.01H 1.05H
1931........ 1.04H .92H .85H .80H .71H 1.16H ...... ...... ..... ...... 1.57H .99H
1932........ .70D .66D .75D .82D .66D .63D .52D .43D .33D 1.53A .62D .45D
1933........ .27D .28D .66D .72D ...... ...... 3.22A 2.18A 1.91A ...... .90D .83D
1934........ .48D .44D .39D .47D .59D .47D 1.20A 1.80A 1.45A 1.40A 1.75A 1.56A
1935...... 1.43A 2.87A 3.39A 3.20A 1.61A 1.24A 1.35A 1.12A 1.22A 1.29A 1.56A 1.76H
1936........ 1.70A 1.40A .98A 1.13A 1.00A 2.11A 4.55A 3.88A 2.56A 1.78A 1.53A 1.55A
1937........ .77A .70A .97A .75A 1.65A 1.63A 1.24A 1.42A 1.26A ...... ...... ......
H Hampers C Crates D Per Dozen Heads A Per hundred Pounds


Year






22 Froum Field to Markdt With Florida Veyetables and Citrus Fruits

In connection with the Florida cabbage destination prices,
the total United States and Florida individual shipments are
given below for the months December through May:


Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May


1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments............
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments .............
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments............
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments..................
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments............
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments..................
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments............
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments..................
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments............
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments.................
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments...........
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments..................
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments............
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments..................
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments............
Northern Prices Fla. Cabbage
Florida Shipments..................


2,702

35

3,220
$2.67
75

3,315
$2.06
200

3,072
$1.81
229

2,643
$1.16
141

2,397
$1.63
184

3,202
$1.19
26

2,348
$1.67
24


4,388
$2.25
547

4,520
$2.45
500

4,146
$1.54
617

3,411
$1.37
329

2,725
$1.00
414

3,149
$1.31
952

3,188
$1.21
45

3,102
$1.40
201


3,770
$1.30
1,076

2,827
$2.82
528

3,638
$1.18
718

2,789
$1.40
430

2,848
$1.21
732

3,510
$1.08
916

2,521
$1.96
179

3,396
$1.19
295


4,849
$1.40
1,390

2,361
$3.27
799

4,376
$1.16
1,106

2,698
$2.25
379

2,863
$1.21
1,054

4,147
$1.05
981

2,186
$2.94
1,008

3,106
$1.04
606


4,727
$1.05
76

3,165
$2.67
344

3,823
$1.09
569


4,675

12

4,004
$1.72
25

4,095
$1.08
46


2,632 2,352
$1.84 $1.63
124 11


2,532
$1.33
418

3,228
$1.06
221

2,580
$2.76
832

3,004
$1.24
685


2,767
$1.62
97

3,801
$1.12
70

3,217
$1.20
104

3,388
$1.00
35


Peak Prices, When and Why.-The earlier Florida cab-
bage shipments begin in the fall, the heavier the competition
from domestic late States, and the later Florida cabbage is
shipped in the spring, the heavier the increase in new cabbage
from early or second-early States. There is no month of the
year when some State other than Florida fails to ship cabbage,
either fresh or storage stock. Florida shipments do not any





Fromn Field It Malrrket IVith Florida 'eeletables andi Citrus Fruits 23

month equal the total shipments from other States. In the
winter months, Florida competition narrows down to storage,
and fresh cabbage from only a few States. Further consider-
ing the freeze damage occasionally to new crop cabbage, it
is rather difficult to prove a certain month, or months, have
consistently been higher in average prices. Based on a twelve-
season period, 1925-26 through 1936-37, the different months
of the Florida cabbage shipping season have in price average,
ranked from first to sixth the number of times shown:

Rank Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May
First in............ 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas.
Second in........ 0 Seas. 5 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 3 Seas. 0 Seas.
Third in .......... 2 Seas. 0 Seas. 6 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas.
Fourth in........ 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas. 1 Seas. 3 Seas. 2 Seas.
Fifth in......... 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 2 Seas. 3 Seas.
Sixth in .......... 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 1 Seas. 0 Seas. 2 Seas.

In the five seasons, 1932-33 through 1936-37, an average
of more than three-fourths the Florida cabbage shipments
moved in three months of the season-February, March and
April. Including January, 92.6% of the total was shipped in
the first four months of the year, only 7.4% being shipped in
November, December, May and June. March has been the
heavy month in Florida cabbage shipments, followed next in
order by February, April and January. The destination price
average these same five seasons was top in April, next in order
March, December, February, May (part month), January. The
January 5-year average was $1.17, February $1.29, March
$1.48, April $1.54, but the fact must be stressed that these are
average shipments and prices over a five-year period. The
total U. S. shipments, 1932-1936 inclusive average, declined in
order in February, March and April under the previous months
average shipments, and as noted above the average five-season
1932-33 through 1936-37 price increased in February, March
and April over the previous month's average prices. Thus the
monthly average declining shipments in direct relation resulted
in monthly average increasing prices, and followed the U. S.
shipment volume more directly than the corresponding Florida
total shipments.





24 From Fieli toI MIarkel With Flo'ridal IVeg1 blelrs rad Ciltrus, Frutit

CELERY
The ten-season, 1926-27 through 1935-36, per annum farm
value of the Florida celery crop, was $4,211,500. Florida
shipped in the years 1932-36 an average of about 40 % of the
total U. S. celery shipments. Florida leads all States in the
average Florida shipping season's total, December through
June, and ranks second to California in the calendar year total.
Acreage.-The following county acreage of celery is given
for eight seasons:

County 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936
Brevard ........ 50 100 100 100 75 100 35 ........
D ade.............. ....... ........... ....... ........ .... .... ........ 20
Highlands .... 25 25 30 50 50 40 30 10
Lake ............ 5 5 5 5 5 5 .......
L ee ................ 5 ........ ........ ........ ........ .... ........ ........
Marion ........ ........ 10 ........ ........ 70 100 150 250
Manatee ........ 1,000 800 800 625 500 550 500 500
Orange ......... 70 75 75 40 50 50 30 30
Palm Beach.... 25 70 150 25 125 100 50 100
Putnam ........ 75 15 5 5 ........ 5 5 5
St. Johns....... 65 50 ........ ........
Sarasota........ 1,000 1,200 1,085 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,200 1,350
Seminole........ 4,300 4,300 3,900 4,800 3,725 3,650 4,000 4,250
State Total.... 6,620 6,650 6,150 6,850 5,900 6,000 6,000 6,515

Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties of celery
in Florida are Golden Self-blanching and Special.
Planting.-In planting seed-beds, from 6 to 8 ounces of
seed should produce enough plants for an acre. Plants are
transplanted to the field when 5 to 6 inches high, in rows from
30 to 36 inches apart, set from 31/2 to 5 inches apart in the row.
As celery seed is very expensive, they should be selected with
great care from only the most reliable sources. Celery will
mature, from the planting of seed to harvesting, in from 85
to 120 days. The average yield for the State is 291 crates per
acre. The yield will average in principal sections from 400
to 600 crates, with 800 to 900 crates averaged by some farms.
Cost.-The average cost of growing a season's celery crop
in Florida outside the Everglades is from $260-$325 per acre,
not including cost of land, rental, taxes, interest on investment,
insurance, depreciation, or living costs. The costs included,
itemized: Preparation and cultivation of land $125-150; seed
$10-12; fertilizer $100-125; spraying and miscellaneous $25-
38. On the basis of 500 crates per acre of marketable celery,
the cost per crate at shipping point is from $1.00-1.20 per





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 25

crate: Growing 52c-65c; harvesting 6-8c; crate 17-20c; haul-
ing 4c; grading, packing and precooling 21-23c.
Container.-The standard celery containers in Florida are
the 10-inch crate, 10x20x22, the small 16-inch 10x16x22, and
the wirebound standard 10x20x22.
Pack.-The celery pack should be tight and consist of well
developed stalks of celery, having similar varietal character-
istics, good heart formation, be well trimmed, not wilted or
badly spread, and be free from blackheart, decay and damage.
Most of the Florida celery is individually washed, individually
washed and precooled, or crate washed. Sizes range from large
21/-4 dozen to small 8-10 dozen per crate, or XX's smaller
than 10 dozen. In recent seasons the trade tendency has been
more towards the smaller sizes, some markets discounting
the large sizes.
Loading in Car.-Celery is shipped under refrigeration.
Crates are usually loaded in the car, 16 stacks long, 7 or 8
rows wide, and 3 layers high. The 2 lower layers are double
stripped, top layer single stripped. Rows should be well spaced
and aligned. The average load is 352 crates, ranging from
336 to 384 crates.
Florida Shipments.-The Florida celery crop is shipped
in th'e period December through June. The following table
shows the total celery carlot shipments, and the proportion of
the season's total by months, for the seasons 1928-29 through
1936-37:

Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1928-29......... 1 651 2,442 2,565 2,011 1,124 37 8,831
1929-30............ 102 1,329 2,563 2,338 2,154 1,219 147 9,852
1930-31............ 73 996 1,694 2,210 2,965 279 27 *8,245
1931-32............ 336 1,223 1,649 1,476 1,987 1,175 85 7,931
1932-33....... 38 1,225 1,403 1,828 1,568 885 40 6,987
1933-34........ 34 901 1,351 2,173 2,313 1,527 44 8,343
1934-35............ 15 336 1,514 2,136 2,003 1,218 29 7,251
1935-36......... 1 681 1,601 1,940 2,131 1,068 158 7,580
1936-37....... 29 1,537 1.461 1.965 2,332 1,715 51 9,090
*Includes 1 car in July.
The celery shipping sections in Florida are concentrated,
the three counties of Manatee, Sarasota and Seminole shipping
most of the crop. The following tabulation of carlot shipments





26 From Field to Market With Florida Vrgetables and Citru Fruits

by counties will show the extent of commercial production of
celery and the relative volume each county ships:



.- a a. M o 4 I-
County 2 2


Ilrovard ...... ... 7 34 103 00 11 07 73 13
lIroward .... ... ... ... 1 .. .. ... ...
Clay .......... 1.
Dade .......... ..... .. ... ... ... ... a6
Highland .... I T 7 18 24 53 25 22 11 2
Hillborou h .. 10 ... ... ... ... 7 ... ... ... . 2
Lake ........ 2 8 1 1 1 2 4 2
Lee ............. 3 3
Manato ..... 70 1.158 708 575 111 1.005 830 041 481 605 503
Ml rlo .n ...... .... .... ... ... ... ... 17 40 172 140 08
Martin ........ ..... ... ... 1
Okeechobc . . 5.
Oranr ....... 29 47 64 35 34 51 21 23 29 20 20
Palm rach .... .. ... 30 148 40 99 54 57 82 191
i'utnm ....... ... 7 "-T ."4 1 1 : I 1 4 4 4 5
St.Johns ..... 37 ... 20 35
Sarasota ..... 280 1.054 1.223 1.075 1.800 1.704 1.520 2.273 1.245 1.401 1.588
Seminolt .....0.570 7.570 0.055 7:172 0.048 4.880 4.374 5.002 5.101 5.203 0,525
Total Rail ....7.078 11.895 8.844 11.852 8.243 7.1130 0.973 8.200 7.203 7.483 8.l02
IT lloat ..... ... .. ... . .. 2 1 14 14:1 48 07 188
Grand Total ...7.078 9.895 8.844 0.852 8.245 7.931 6.987 8.343 7.251 7.580 9.090
Total In Season 1928-20 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different counties.

Competitive Shipments.-Celery is another of the Florida
crops that has current new crop competition, and also storage
celery with which it must compete. California ships in heavy
carlot volume in every month of the Florida season, and Flor-
ida shipments beginning in December have on the average the
most serious competition from California of any month of the
Florida season. Louisiana ships from 7 to 18 cars of celery
in May and June. The chief competition from old crop or late
State celery comes from New York in December and January,
and next from Michigan in these two months. The imports are
of no consequence. Bermuda occasionally ships in a car.
The time and extent of the competition Florida celery ship-
pers have had, in the seasons 1928-29 through 1935-36, is
shown in the tabulation below:
U. S. Shipments, all States except Florida, eight seasons:

Total
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June (7 mo.)
1928-29.......... 3,329 2,692 788 599 412 653 581 9,054
1929-30.......... 3,075 1,522 650 599 426 728 759 7.759
1930-31.......... 3,278 1,682 936 568 504 610 567 8,145
1931-32.......... 2,422 1,298 691 1,058 397 554 723 7,143
1932-33.......... 1,887 1,079 768 833 267 710 626 6,170
1933-34.......... 2,041 1,450 790 565 70 195 451 5,562
1934-35.......... 2,325 1,533 406 236 107 437 672 5.716
1935-36.......... 2.036 953 665 701 311 812 653 6.131





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 27

Distribution.-In the recent 1936-37 Florida celery ship-
ping season, carlot quantities went into 144 cities in 35 States,
the District of Columbia, and Canada, which was about the
same as in the previous season. The boat movement of celery
from Florida ports in domestic trade showed considerable in-
crease in the 1936-37 season, 188 cars moving out by boat com-
pared to 97 cars the 1935-36 season, and 48 cars in 1934-35.
Practically all of the boat movement goes to New York and
Philadelphia. More Florida celery is shipped to New York than
any other State, Pennsylvania being next in order. Ohio, Illi-
nois, Michigan, Massachusetts and Maryland are also ranking
States in the use of Florida celery. New York City, Phila-
delphia, Cincinnati and Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, Boston
and Baltimore are the large receiving markets in these States.
Montreal and Toronto are the two largest Canadian markets
for Florida celery.
Northern Market Prices.-The following table is a com-
pilation of simple average destination price averages of Florida
celery in standard crates, No. 1 or top quotation basis, mostly
3s-6s, covering a twelve-season, 1925-26 through 1936-37 pe-
riod, by months:

Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26.......... $ ...... *$4.03 $5.09 $4.50 *$3.36 $...... $......
1926-27.......... ...... 2.74 2.18 2.65 2.46 ...... ......
1927-28......... ...... *2.58 2.73 3.13 3.45 ...... ......
1928-29.......... ...... ..... 2.70 2.40 2.55 ...... ......
1929-30.......... ...... 2.65 2.80 2.85 3.60 3.70 ...
1930-31.......... ...... 3.20 3.51 3.03 2.63 2.88 ......
1931-32.......... 2.64 2.43 2.64 3.46 3.59 2.80 *2.31
1932-33.......... .... 2.44 1.91 2.10 1.74 3.22 *3.88
1933-34.......... ..... 2.10 1.97 2.11 2.22 2.92 *4.01
1934-35......... ...... *2.86 *3.28 2.65 3.02 3.41 *3.75
1935-36.......... ...... 3.35 2.85 2.74 2.89 3.08 2.77
1936-37.......... ...... 2.76 2.52 3.18 2.18 2.73 *4.12
* Part month.
Florida Market Prices.-The carlot volume of Florida cel-
ery outranks that of all other vegetables-average 1927-28
through 1936-37 8,402 cars per season-and the bulk of the
crop must be sold to outside markets. Only a few hundred
cars are consumed within the State each year. There is not
the interest therefore in home market prices of celery that there
is in the prices of beans for instance. The following average
jobbing prices of Florida celery in crates, top quote basis, on
the Jacksonville market, by months and calendar years for






28 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


1926 through June 1937 will supply the data to those who may
have need for the information:

Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1920..... *$4.58 $5.03 $5.04 $3.00 *$5.07 $... $... S... S... S... $... S...
1927 .... *3.25 2.55 2.73 2.54 *2.86 . ......... ... ..
1928 .... '2.63 2.25 2.01 2.74 4.20
1929..... ... *1.00 1.85 2.24 2.85 ... ... ... ...
1930 .... 3.04 2.05 2.43 3.14 4.04 3.009 ... ... ... ... ... ...
1931.. 2.88 2.98 2.02 2.30 2.76 '3.85 ... ... ... ... ... ...
1932 .... 2.48 2.59 2.92 3.38 2.20 2.17 ... ... ... ... ... ...
1933 ..... 2.17 1.37 1.44 1.20 2.24 .. ... .... ...
1934 ... 1.92 1.37 1.42 1.74 2.09 3.68 ... .........
1935 ... .2.82 2.67 2.28 2.34 2.90 '3.35 .............. ...
1930..... 2.81 2.22 1.91 2.58 2.91 '3.03 ... ... ... ... ... .
1937..... 2.12 1.94 2.74 2.00 1.90 2.00 ......
*Part month.

The relation that exists between the U. S. Total and Florida
Celery Supply, and the average destination market prices by
months, is shown by the arrangement below:

Season I)Dc. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1928-".
Total U. S. Shipments .............. 3.330 3.343 3.2:30 3.104 2.42:1 1.777 018
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... ... 5 ... $2.70 $2.40 2.55 $ ... $ ...
Florida Shipments ..................... 1 651 2.442 2.565 2.011 1.124 37
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments .............. 3.177 2.851 3.213 2.937 2.580 1.947 000
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... ... $2.65 $2.80 $2.85 $3.00 $3.70 $ ...
Florida Shipments ................. 102 1,329 2.5632 2,338 2.154 1.219 147
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments ............... :.351 2.678 2.630 2.778 3.409 889 594
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... $ ... $3.20 $3.51 $3.03 $2.3 S2.88 5 ...
Florida Shipments .................. 73 990 1.1194 2.210 2.905 279 27
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments .............. 2.758 2.521 2.340 2.534 2.384 1.729 808
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... $2.64 $2.43 $2.04 $3.46 $3.59 $2.80 *$2.31
Florida Shipments .................. 336 1.223 1.094 1.476 1.087 1.175 85
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments .............. 1.925 2.304 2.171 2.661 1.835 1.595 066
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... $ ... $2.44 $1.91 $2.10 $1.74 $3.22 *$3.88
Florida Shipments ................. : 38 1.225 1.403 1.828 1.508 885 40
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments .............. 2.075 2.351 2.141 2.738 2.383 1.722 495
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... $ ... $2.10 $1.97 $2.11 $2.22 $2.92 *$4.01
Florida Shipments .................. 34 901 1.351 2.173 2.313 1.527 44
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments .............. 2.340 1.869 1.920 2.372 2.110 1.655 701
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... $ ... *$2.86 *$3.28 $2.65 $3.02 $3.41 *53.75
Florida Shipments ................. 15 330 1.514 2.136 2.003 1.218 29
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments .............. 2.037 1.034 2.200 2.641 2.4142 1.880 811
Northern Prices Fla. Celery .......... $ ... $3.35 $2.85 $2.74 $2.89 $3.08 $2.77
Florida Shipments .................. 1 681 1.001 1.940 2.131 1.068 158
* Part month.

Peak Prices, When and Why.-California celery competes
with Florida celery throughout the shipping season, and has
carlot celery on the markets from either the northern, southern
or central districts, every month of the year. Florida celery
is shipped from December through June, having practically no
carlot shipments in the five months of July through November.





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 29

The Florida celery crop enters the markets under strong com-
petition in December which continues, though usually in less
volume from California each consecutive month from Decem-
ber to May. In the 1935-36, 1934-35, 1933-34, and 1931-32
seasons the decline in monthly shipment volume from Cali-
fornia was definite and regular; in 1932-33 the order was ir-
regular, but the California total in April was as in all seasons
the lightest of any month from December to July. (Note: The
U. S. total celery shipments are lowest in July, next in August,
of all the twelve months of the year). The U. S. total with
Florida eliminated showed consecutive decline in shipments
December to May in the seasons 1933-34 and 1934-35, and in
1935-36 except March exceeded February in 1936 by 36 cars.
If Florida shippers therefore do not fill the gap too rapidly and
increase their shipments in reasonable proportion to the de-
clining volume from California and storage celery, the months
of March, April and May should be those of top or uniformly
good prices. Considering that Florida celery is shipped in such
heavy carlot volume, competition begins at home, and the price
decline depends probably as much on how orderly, and in
what volume the Florida crop moves, as that from California,
and other States. The quality of the crop, relative yield of
trade preferred sizes, aggressive distribution, the extending or
spreading of the normal peak shipping seasons, are important
factors, even if Florida celery had much less competition than
it does. With only one other state shipping new crop celery
the first six months of the year in strong competitive volume,
and with the growing districts in Florida concentrated in only
a few counties, the Florida celery crop could it seems be much
better marketed than some of the other vegetables. With
celery marketing agreement or Control Committee in opera-
tion, progress and good service has been accomplished. When
prices of vegetables soar, it is because of increased demand,
existing or expected, and far fewer shipments bring the ex-
tremely high prices than the average or low prices. If the very
low prices and adverse market conditions can be avoided by
orderly marketing the celery crop so that fair and uniform
prices can be realized every month of the Florida season, the
weighted average will be greater for all shipments and returns
higher to all shippers. It is wiser for all shippers to bring
about an average good or high price each month of the season,
and prevent the causes that bring about disastrously low prices,
than for all to attempt to single-shot the peak weeks or months
of the celery season.







30 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


CUCUMBERS

The ten-season, 1926-27 through 1935-36, per annum farm
value of the Florida cucumber crop, was $1,412,400. In the
1933-36 period, Florida shipped about 18% of the U. S. total
boat and rail cucumber shipments.

Acreage.-The amount of the Florida cucumber acreage,
and where it is produced in the State, is shown in the following
tabulation, covering eight seasons by counties:


County


1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-3


Alachua ........... 1.825
Baker ............. ....
Bradford .... ... ....
Broward ........... ....
Charlotte ......... .. 2
Clay .............. 40
Collier ............. 25
Columbia ......... 150
DeSoto ............ 150
Gadsden. .......... ....
Gilchrlat ........... ....
Glades ............. ....
Hamilton .......... ...
Hardee ............ .1.940
Hendry ............ 175
Hernando .......... 35
Hillsborough ....... 300
Holmes ............ ....
Indian River ........ 30
Jackson ........... ...
Lake .............. 250
Lee ............... 450
Levy .............. 1.425
Madison ........... ....
Manatee ........... 100
Marion ............ 940
Martin ......... ..
Nassau ............
Orange ............ P00
Osccoln. ........... 40
Pasco ......... . 25
1Pinellas ........... ....
Polk .............. 0
Putnam ........... 100
St. Johns .......... :100
St. Lucie .......... .10
Sarasota ........... ....
Seminole ........... ....
Suimtr .......... .. 1,700
SuwanInee .......... ....
Union ............... 200
Volusia ............ . 20
Washington ........ ....
Miscellaneous ..... 75
State Total ......... 11.350


1.750 2.050
25 25
.... 150
10
23 "25
50 50
25 50
140 200
200 200
.. 20
100 35
25
20o "
1.925 1.800
70 50
10 ....
500 150
50 170
110 100
350 300
1.420 825
150 25
100 160
1.050 575
50 70
1.000 530
110 30
20 50
100 50
110 100
50 ....
50
50 50
10 "20
2.050 1.5,20
135 25
280 130
50 20


12.110 0.050


1.225
100
200

50



25
...5
25
1.150
50
200
100
50
200
725
25
200
300
"0
420
35
300



753
25
1,120
150
100
235
25
7.350


350










1.300
100
75
150
50
25
600
450
200
200

200





200
100
000


300




200





1.050
100
150
300
200
50
50
1.050
200
50
350


250



100
60
200
100
60
000



50


5.000 5.000 5.150 5.760


Varieties.-The principal market varieties of Florida cu-
cumbers are Early Fortune, Davis Perfect, Improved White
Spine, and Kirby's Improved Straight-8.

Planting.-Cucumber seed is planted in rows from 4 to 6
feet apart, in hills in the rows from 2 to 3 feet apart, about 6
seed to the hill, covered about s/ of an inch deep. From 2 to 3






From Field to Market With Florida Vlgetables and Citrus Fruits 31

pounds of seed will plant an acre. From planting the seed to the
first picking, from 50 to 60 days will be required. The average
yield for the State is about 80 bushels per acre, though under
normal growing conditions the yield in the principal sections
will range from 200 to 250 bushels per acre, with higher yields
reported.
Cost.-Exclusive of taxes, interest, rental, depreciation, it
will cost from $70 to $95 per acre to grow cucumbers in Flor-
ida: Preparation and cultivation of land $20-30; seed $3.00;
fertilizer $35-40; spraying and miscellaneous $12-22. On the
basis of a yield of 125 bushel hampers per acre, the cost per
hamper delivered at shipping point is from 95c to $1.30 as
follows: Growing 56-75c; harvesting 10-15c; hamper 14-15c;
hauling 5c; grading and packing 10-20c.
Container.-The tub type bushel basket and the bushel
hamper are the principal containers used in the carlot ship-
ments of cucumbers from Florida.
Pack.-The pack should be tight and the contents consist
of cucumbers that are well formed, fresh, firm and mature
enough for slicing, but not full grown or ripe, and that are
free from damage or decay. The minimum length should be
not less than 5 inches, and the cucumbers be carefully ar-
ranged, especially if shipped in baskets.
Loading in Car.-Cucumbers from Florida are generally
shipped under ventilation, in dry refrigerator cars. The baskets
are usually loaded lengthwise the car 21x22, or 22 stacks in
each layer of each row, end-to-end offset method, 3x3 rows,
3 layers sometimes 4 layers high. Average load 421-450 bas-
kets, range from 400-500 baskets. Hampers are loaded alter-
nately on ends full length of the car, 7 rows wide, 2-3 layers
high, reverse order in layers with tops against tops, bottoms
against bottoms. Average load 450 hampers per car, range
from 420 to 520.
Florida Shipments.-Carlot shipments begin moving from
Florida in October, and continue until the season ends in June.
The following record of monthly carlot shipments shows the
movement from Florida for the seasons 1928-29 through
1936-37:
flelson Oct. Nov. I)r. Jan. Fel. Mar. Apr. My June Total
1921-'9 ......... .. 63 If ... 5 3 1.221 483 ... 2.18
191-9-30........ 5 0 o 34 .. ... 9 '21o 581 30 987
1930-31........ Mt .l1: 20 ... . ... 1>4 1.097 L8 1.6.T3
1931-12........ 3T 82 10 ... 22 8s 14 379 49 678
11:'2-3. .......... .19 I8 13 ... ... 9 o201 101 4 58,3
19:11- ....... . 7 r151 08 r , 5 20() 338 .1 8s2
11i0:145:i ........ 2(1 127 :10 .. ... n :18 2: 5 ... 89
19:15-30........... 1 210 4(1 5 ... 1 2 'll 273 2 8341
1936s37 ...... .. .31 311 38 14 1 ... 63 22 15 14 544








32 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


The principal Florida cucumber shipping counties are indi-
cated in the following eleven-season record of carlot shipments:


County


Alachua ........
Baker ..........
Bradford ........
Brevard .........
Broward ........
Charlotte ........
Clay ............
Coller ...... ..
Columbia ........
Dade ..........
DeSoto. .........
Gadden .........
Gilchrist ........
Glades ..........
Hamilton ...
Hardee. .........
Hendry .........
Hern do .......
Hillsborough .....
Holmes ..... .
Indian River .....
Jackson. ........
Lake ...........
Lee ............
Levy ........
Madison ........
Manatee ........
Marion .. ......
Orange .........
Pasco ...........
Pinellas .........
Putnam .........
St. Johns ........
St. Lucie ........
Sarasota ........
Seminole ........
Sumter ....
Suwannee........
Union ...........
Volusla. ........
Washington ......
Others ..........

Total Rail .......
By Boat .........

Grand Total ......


400

12
8

1



23

3
431

8


12
23
452

39
20
566
6

4

o..

517

1


2.031

2.631


* Total in Season 1028-29 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different counties.

Competitive Shipments.-If the Florida cucumber season
starts in October, growers have fall domestic competition with
Louisiana, Georgia, New York and northern home-grown local
supplies. In November supplies fade out from these sources
and Florida ships in December practically all of the domestic
volume. Import competition from Cuba and Puerto Rico be-
gins in a limited way in November and by the end of December
reaches good volume, December imports ranging in the last
four years 1933-36, from 24 to 62 carlot equivalents. Florida
has competition in January, February and March with hot-
house supplies mainly from Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and the


c a



280 480


3







5
.. 28


3
... ..

320 372


2


14 7731



... ".2



1.8 4243
202 138
5 .2. .

... 7 2



390 430

.. .33


1,718 2 0



1,718 ..2
~...~0


240
2




3
25

7

2
4
1
177
5


12

8
54
175
2
D
38
31

8



1
151
12
4
4

3

981

87
987


E C


277 135 51
12 14 ...
14 35 7



3 .. 1
11 . ..

22 5 11
15 ... 3
1 .
4 . ..
406 96 101
12 3 3
.. 14
5 2 4

20 3 11

12 8 ..
88 50 07
175 66 37

37 14 27
64 51 0
153 34 31
... 15 .


... 21 .. .

2
285 106 111
... 18 5
11 1 ...
5 ... .. .


1.034 077 553
1 1 ...

1.035 678 553


10 14 ... ...


......... 12

14 10 15 28
6 .
... ... ... 1...
1

1 . ... ...


192 158 120 47
11 11 4 2
4 10 .

... ... 8 ...
10 23 8 1


... ... 8 ..
15 2 ... 1

4 3 ...
110 118 169 49
85 52 7 ...
1 ... 4 ..
28 24 47 37
22 10 3 6
30 65 43 40

... ... 10 .
... ... 1 ...
25 48 71 18
12 21 ... 32

119 253 180 184


.13 0
4 .

826 886 750 515
2 0 77 29

828 895 830 544





From Field to Market With Fl'orida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 33

Cuban and Puerto Rican imports, which are heaviest of the
season in January and second in February declining in March
with an average of about 23 cars, ending in April, but largely
dominating the market in the first three months of the year.
April marks the beginning of the early domestic shipments
from Texas, the peak movement from which State is reached
in May. During May, Alabama, South Carolina and Georgia
cucumbers roll in carlot volume, and the Florida cucmber sea-
son ending in June must meet competitive shipments from
Arkansas, Maryland, Mississippi, Texas, Virginia, and heavy
shipments from Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and South
Carolina, and a few scattering cars from other States.
The following record will show the total domestic competi-
tion from the United States-total shipments excluding Florida
-in each month of the Florida shipping season, for eight
seasons:
Total
Sonlhso Oct. Nov. Dec. Jun. I-F. Mar. Apr. May Juno (9 mo.)
1928-29. .............. . 2 3 ... 2"2 30( 207 1,480 2.107 3.881
1929-30 ........... 88 18 1 ... 20 33 154 1.798 2.445 4.557
1930-31........... 137 14 2 ... ... 37 91 958 1.0:'3 2.292
1931-32 .......... 106 ... ... ... ...... . 1 961 1.513 2.641
1932-33............. 130 ... 1 13 13 141 665 925 1.892
1933-34 ............ 10. 3 . 2 15 16 18 890 1.327 2.436
1934-35........... 107 ... ... 2 10 12 157 1,738 1.318 3.344
19"35.3 .......... 79 2 ... 2 4 1 28 890 1.334 2.340

The following record shows the imports by months of the
Florida season, from Cuba and Puerto Rico, for seasons 1933-
34, 1934-35, 1935-36:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1933-34
Cuba ...................... 1 23 28 13 8 ...... 73
Puerto Rico .............. 1 22 37 23 7 7 97
1934-35
Cuba ...................... ... 24 45 29 15 1 114
Puerto Rico .................. ...... 37 44 17 16 114
1935-36
Cuba ......................... 33 48 32 8 1 122
Puerto Rico .............. 2 31 40 21 25 5 124

Distribution.-About two-thirds the Florida cucumber ship-
ments go to New York City. About 77 % of the rail shipments
moved to Eastern territory, 22 % to Western, and less than 1 %
to Southern territory in the 1936-37 season. The boat ship-
ments in carlot equivalents in 1933-34 amounted to only 2 cars,
9 cars in 1934-35, 77 cars in 1935-36, and 29 cars in 1936-37,
which went largely to New York and eastern ports. The in-
crease in truck shipments accounts for the low percentage of
the rail shipments into Southern territory.







34 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Northern Market Prices.-The following simple average
destination prices by months are based on No. 1 grade or top
quote, of Florida cucumbers in bushel hampers or baskets.
Twelve seasons in order through 1936-37 are given:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June

1925-26.......... $3.54 *$5.94 $8.49 $...... $...... *$6.46 $3.22 *$1.55
1926-27.......... 5.01 4.97 5.24 ...... 6.96 3.35 2.66
1927-28......... 4.25 4.30 ...... ...... ...... 5.95 4.20 "2.45
1928-29.......... 5.40 5.35 8.25 8.00 '6.60 3.55 2.40
1929-30.......... 5.25 4.60 *5.25 ...... *8.05 6.20 3.35 1.15
1930-31.......... 2.61 4.81 ...... ...... ...... *3.26 2.58 *1.31
1931-32.......... 4.01 5.48 ...... *4.82 3.99 *6.55 3.97 *1.25
1932-33......... 2.68 4.92 ...... ...... 4.54 3.36 2.59
1933-34.......... 1.93 2.63 *3.00 ...... *5.82 4.32 2.96 ......
1934-35.......... *3.05 *3.22 ...... ...... *4.98 3.59 *1.56
1935-36.......... 2.85 3.02 *4.38 ...... *6.30 4.77 *2.96 *2.12
1936-37.......... 3.40 5.45 *5.14 ...... *5.15 4.33 4.86 *2.29

* Part month.


Florida Market Prices.-The shipper who has only a few
dozen hampers of cucumbers and the trucker who patronizes
the State Farmers Markets, or privately owned and managed
farmers markets inside the State, like to know how the home
markets range in price, and how these prices compare with
outside market averages. The following tabulation of the Jack-
sonville, Florida, market, simple average jobbing prices, top
quote, per bushel basis, will supply an index of home market
price trends, twelve years ending with part of 1937, are shown:


Year Jun. Feb. Mlnr. Apr. Many June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dee.


$*..'2 5 ... . .
4.21 ... *-5.67
.. "4.06
... . 3.50


4.80 5.'23 :3.51
. . 3.78
*1.91 *3.19 *4.68
. 3.85
2.10 "-.19 4.25
3:.0(4 4.20 3.87


$5.711 $2.86
:.06 1.43
4.44 2.82'
2.15 1.42
5.08 2.06
4.71 2.03
*4.5>8 *1.93
2.34 1.69
3 76 1.97
2.0:3 .89
3.31 1.57
2.45 2.38


$1.21 $1.69 ...
*1.617 *1.36 1.91
1.28 1.15 ...
1.73 2.73 3.10
1.01 2.11) 2.79
1.03 2.00 1.87
.70 ..
... 1.50S 1.62S
.82S 1.54S 2.21S
.74 1.32 1.87
1.08 1.41 1IjO
.197 1.00 1.55


S. .. $2.51 "3.48
2.50 2.06 2.50
S. 3.14 2.75
2.70 2.51 2.89
3.318 2.30 2.24
2.27 ... ...
... 1.60 2.29s
1.92S 1.62S 1.39
2.58S 2.05 2.20
2.41 2.66 2.07
1.5(1 1.20 1.48
2.08


* Part mouth. S Southern offerings.


192I ......

1928 .......

1911 .......
1i930 . . . .
11:11 ........
19:3 . . . .
19:13 .......
19 . . . .
1: . . . .

11113 ........
11137 ........






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 35


The following compilation will give the total United States
shipments of cucumbers and the northern market simple aver-
age jobbing prices of Florida cucumbers by months, and the
Florida shipments and Jacksonville jobbing prices for the
months common to the Florida shipping season, for eight sea-
sons ending with 1935-36:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June


1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 89 19
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes.... $5.40 $5.35
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... (13 10
Jacksonville. Fla.. Prices ...... $2.75 $3.42
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 124 55
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes .... $5.25 $4.60
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 106 54
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices ...... $2.89 $2.76
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 229 22
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes .... $2.61 $4.81
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 215 20
Jacksonville. Fla.. Prices ...... $2.24 $2.84
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 83 10
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes .... $4.01 $5.48
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 82 10
Jacksonville, Fla.. Prices ..... ... ...
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 102 13
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes .... $2.68 $4.92
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 98 13
Jacksonville. Fla.. Prices ...... $2.298 $3.46
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 154 08
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes .... $1.93 $2.63
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 151 68
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices ...... $1.39 $1.77
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 127 30
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes .... *$3.05 *$3.22
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 127 30
Jacksonville. Fla.. Prices ...... $2.26 $2.56
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments ........ 212 46
Northern Prices Fla. Cukes.... $2.85 $3.02
Fla. Shipments Carlots ....... 210 46
Jacksonville. Fla., Prices ...... $2.07 $2.12


27 433 1.428
$8.00 *$6.60 $3.55
5 397 1.221
$ ... $3.50 $2.15
20 42 356
$ ... *8.05 $6.20
9 202
$2.90 $5.98 $5.08


1,903 2.107
$2.40 ...
483
$1.42 $1.73
2.379 2.475
$3.35 $1.15
581 30
$2.69 $1.01


37 245 2.055 1,136
$ ... $ ... $ ... *$3.26 $2.58 *$1.31
... .. .. 154 1.097 83
$3.62 $4.14 $4.54 $4.71 $2.03 $1.03
... 22 85 75 1.340 1.502
$ ... *$4.82 $3.99 *$6.55 $3.97 '$1.25
22 85 14 379 49
$4.80 $5.23 $3.59 '$4.58 *$1.93 $ .70
1 13 110 342 700 929
$ ... $ ... $4.54 $3.3 $2.59 $ ...
.. .. 97 201 101 4
S ... $ ... $3.78 $2.34 $1.09 $ ...


15 21 218
$ ... $5.82 $4.32
5 200
*$3.19 *$4.68 $3.76


2 10 31
$... $... *$4.98
19
$ ... $ ... $3.85
7 4 2
*$4.38 $ ... *$0.30
5 ... 1
$2.10 *$2.19 $4.25


1.228 1.331
$2.96 $ ...
338 4
$1.97 SS .82


595 1.993 1.318
$3.59 *$1.56 $ ...
438 255
$2.93 $ .89 $ .74
284 1.163 1.360
$4.77 *$2.90 *$2.12
256 273 20
$3.31 $1.57 $1.08


* Part month. S Southern offerings.

Peak Prices, When and Why.-The Florida cucumber ship-
ping season, commercial movement to northern markets, in-
cludes nine months of the year, yet the mid-winter three months
of the nine, is the period of the lowest movement from the
State. January, February, March and to April 15th are like-
wise the months of the lightest total domestic U. S. Shipments.
The retarding influence on Florida cucumber prices in this pe-
riod comes from hothouse shipments, and from imports. From
strictly a price position rank in the twelve season 1925-26
through 1936-37 period, March is first, January second, Feb-
ruary third, April fourth. On the basis of average prices, same
twelve-year period, February, March, April and December are
in the order named the high price months. Taking the more





36 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

recent five season average, 1932-33 through 1936-37, March,
January (February too few sales reported regularly to estab-
lish market), April and December rank in the average price
order named. Prices have in the last five seasons 1932-33
through 1936-37 started the decline in April from March levels,
continued with May lower than April (exception May 1937)
and with June prices under those of May. This is natural with
Texas shipments reaching their peak in May, considering also
the additional number of States that begin their shipping sea-
son in May. June is invariably the lowest average-price month
of the season, for not only the volume but the availability of
fresh receipts from so many different States brings down the
prices. In the recent five-year period November is next to June
the lowest in average price rank of the season. The October
and November Florida shipments as the season begins must
compete with the finishing supplies shipped as the season ends
in other Southern and Northern States, while the May and
June Florida shipments as the season ends must compete with
supplies shipped as the season begins in other early and second
early States.






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 37


EGGPLANT

The per annum farm value of the Florida eggplant crop,
1926-27 through 1935-36 ten-season average, was $374,100.
In rail and boat shipments, Florida leads all States and shipped
91.5% of the United States total in the five-year period 1932-
1936.

Acreage.-The Florida eggplant acreage is limited, com-
pared to that of the major truck crops. The acreage is dis-
tributed among a number of counties as the following tabula-
tion of county acreage for eight seasons will show:

County 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36
Alachua ............ 110 120 70 35 35 60 75 50
Brevard ............ 10 .. .. ... ..
Broward ............ 50 ... 25 ... ... 200 50 25
Charlotte ........... 5 30 30 15 15 40 40 40
Clay ............... ... 25 25
Citrus .............. 60 25 25 25 50 50 50 25
Collier .............. 10 25 105 125 25 50 25 25
Dade ............... 60 50 50 100 100 25 25 25
DeSoto ............ 10 30 20
Gilchrist ............ 20 55 60 25 50 50 ...
Glades .......... ... 5 5 5
Hardee ............. 90 60 200 175 225 150 150 75
Hendry ............. 10 30 25
Hernando ........... 20 205 300 250 350 325 180 60
HiUsborough ........ 50 45 40 100 100 150 100 100
Indian River ........ 10 25 25 15 15 ...
Lake ............... 25 20 .
Le ................ 270 280 100 450 400 350 300 300
Levy ............... ... 10
Manatee ............ 220 250 150 175 125 200 100 150
Marion ............. 30 55 00 50 25 50 75 50
Martin ............. 25 25 10 ... ...
Okeechobee ......... .. 5 5 25 .
Orange ............. 20 15 35 75 175 25 25 25
Osceola ............. ... 70 40 .
Palm Beach ......... 75 20 70 50 25 25 50 25
Pasco .............. 5 25 100 50 ... 50 60
Polk ............... 20 25 25 50 50
St. Lucie ........... 20 30 30
Seminole ............ 80 40 60 50 5500 50 45 50
Sumter ............. 5 5 5 25 .. ..
Union ................ 10 50 110 50 ...
Volusia ............. 5 5 5 ... ...
Miscellaneous .. ..... .. ... ... ... 85 75 ... 25
State Total .......... 1.325 1.80 1.800 1.950 1,950 1.925 1.350 1.050

Varieties.-The Black'Beauty, Ft. Myers Market, Manatee
Special, New York Improved Purple Spineless, Florida High-
Bush and New Orleans Market are the leading Florida varieties
of eggplant for shipping purposes.

Planting.-About 6 ounces of seed in the seedbed should
produce enough seed for an acre, should be planted about 1/2
inch deep in the bed. In transplanting to the field, about four





38 From Field to Market 'ilth Florida V'getables and ('itru Frwits

weeks after seed planted, plants should be set about 3 feet
apart in rows 5 feet apart. For plants to reach maturity it will
take from 115 to 120 days. The Florida State's average yield
is about 162 bushels, or 108 crates per acre, although the
yield in leading sections will range to as high as 500 bushels
per acre.

Cost.-Not including cost of land, rental, taxes, interest,
depreciation, the average cost per season of producing egg-
plant in Florida will average from $95 to $125 per acre: Prep-
aration and cultivation $35-50: seed $2-3; fertilizer $50-55;
spraying and miscellaneous $8-17. On a yield of 200 bushels
per acre, the cost per crate delivered shipping point is from
$1.13-1.45: Growing 70-93c; harvesting 10-15c; crate 18-20c;
hauling 5c; grading and packing 10-12c.

Container.-The principal container used in shipping Flor-
ida eggplant is the 11/ bushel crate, inside dimensions 11x13-
%x22 inches. Shipments are also made in bushel baskets and
hampers.

Pack.-Only eggplants of similar varietal characteristics,
that are smooth, firm, well colored and shaped and that are
free from damage, should be packed. Sizes packed, from
24s to 60s.

Loading in Car.-Crates are loaded full length of the car
16 stacks long, usually 6 rows wide, and from 4-5 layers high.
Bottom layers are double stripped, top layer single stripped.
The number of crates per carload ranges from 426 to 496,
average about 448 crates per car. Shipped in straight or mixed
cars under refrigeration.

Florida Shipments.-The Florida carlot eggplant shipping
season begins in October and ends in July. The following rec-
ord shows the volume shipped in each month of the Florida
season, from 1928-29 through 1936-37:

Neamon Oct. Nov. D! Jan. FeEl. uMar. Apr. May June July Total
11128-2I11..... .. .. .. I I 5 88 '418 5 201
1211t-30 ....... 21 .1 2 4 2 2 11 5 : 01 9 207
1930-11 ....... 40 72 7 l( 1 :1 4 9 40 25 *208
1931-32...... .. 13 21 25 18 28 5T 61 41 21 1286
1932-3.1....... 26 30 2 1 53 5 90 73 53 9 $342
1933.1-4 ...... 13 11 9 18 11 8 56 102 47 3 273
134-35 ....... 15 9 20 .. .. 2 31 55 42 6 180
o10I15-10 ...... . 2 E .. 2 3i0 78 71) 18 228
10U3U37...... 14 15 18 11 5 15 28 30 00 18 240
* 1 Car In Sept. t l Car In Aug. 2 Car in Sept.







From 'Field to Market With Florida I'egetables and Citrus Fruits 39


The table given below shows the carlot shipments of egg-
plant, by counties, from Florida for the seasons 1926-27
through 1936-37:



County a it a *


Alachua ...... Il 17 it 15 4 .. 5 1
Broward ...... .. .. 17 .. .. .. .. I .. 3
Charlotte ........ .. .. .. .. 1
Cltrus ............. .. 0 It 2 1 2
Collier ........ .. . 3 .. 0 '23 .. LI .. 2
Dado .. ..... .. .... .. .. 5i .. 2"
Gilchrist ...... .. 35 . 8 2
Gladl. ........ II
Hardee ....... 42 13 1 .. 3 .. .. 3 .. I
Hendry ....... .. .. 1
Hernando ........ .. .. 23 70 10 44 10 7 .. 1
Hillsborough .. 1 .. : .. 5 23 30 20 0 18 7
Indian liver . . 11 1 .. . 1 . ... . 1
Le. .......... 22 311 I8 43 11 52 12 0 li d 1 3:1 13
Levy ......... 1
Manatee ...... 41 73 114 81 42 64 41 51 21 38 22
Marion ........ .. .. 10 8 .. M .. 3 1 1
M martin .......... 1 .. 1
Okerchobee .... . 5
Orange ....... I .. .. .. 1 12 8
Palm lIrach ... . 14 . . 1 :1 16 3 3
Pa iuo ........ 2 .. .. 2 10 3 .: . 1
Polk ......... 1 3 .. . .. 10
St. .urlu e ...... . .
Seminole ...... 31 1 11 : . 2 5 8 2 1 3
Sumter ....... 1 7
Union ........ Ill .. . .. I ..0 .. .. 4 4
Volusla . . . 1
Total Ral ..... 19 P1 234 *240 194 186i 235 28 175 80 10 'f
By Boat ..... ... ... 13 22 .1 74 118 100 122 184
Grand Total ... 1111 2:14 *2-10 207 208 280 342 273 180 228 240
Total in ,eason 1928-21) includes express and boat shipments allocated to different ,ountlii.

Competitive Shipments.-Since Florida has in the last five
years 1932-1936 shipped more than nine-tenths of the total
U. S. rail and boat supplies, it appears that Florida eggplant,
especially during its shipping season, controls the markets. Do-
mestic carlot competition is negligible until Virginia shipments
begin in June and July, as the few cars from Texas, Louisiana
or South Carolina are not serious. However, imports account
for about 45% (in the yearly average 1932-1936) of the total
rail and boat supply, the total U. S. shipments amounting to





40 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

only 55% of the total. Cuba is the chief competitor, Mexico
next and occasionally Puerto Rico places eggplant on the U. S.
markets. Cuban shipments usually begin in December, or latter
November, increase in January, and inFebruary, to reach the
peak in March. The Cuban receipts drop off sharply in April,
and end in May. Mexico ships mostly in the period January to
May inclusive, but in much less volume than Cuba. The fol-
lowing table shows the total U. S. shipments by months, ex-
cluding the Florida shipments, for nine seasons:

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
(lOmo.)
1928-29 ......... .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 103 107
1929-30........ .. 8 .. .. .. .. .. 4 69 81
1930-31....... . .. 3 .. .. .. .. .. 3 105 111
1931-32........ 1 8 1 .. .. .. .. .. 2 6 08
1932-33........ .. .. .. . .. 2 40 42
1933-34 ........ .. .. .. .. 30 30
1934-35........ .. .. 1 .. .. .. .. 1 19 21
193-37........ .... .. .. .. .. .. . 1 1...
1936-37...

Since imports are relatively of such importance, a tabula-
tion is given below of the monthly volume each source has
supplied in the seasons 1932-33 through 1936-37:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Total
1932-33
Cuba ................... ...... 4 15 28 36 11 1 95
Mexico .................. ...... ...... 1 2 2 4 1 10
Puerto Rico .......... .... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
1933-34
Cuba ................... ...... 7 20 47 62 43 2 181
Mexico .................. ...... ...... 1 2 1 2 ...... 6
Puerto Rico .......... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 ...... 1
1934-35
Cuba .................... ...... 13 33 57 84 52 2 241
Mexico ................. ...... 1 4 5 2 3 2 16
Puerto Rico ......... ..... ...... .... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
1935-36
Cuba .................... ...... 23 88 107 132 43 3 396
Mexico ................. ...... .... 1 4 7 3 ...... 15
Puerto Rico .......... ...... ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
1936-37
Cuba .................... 3 52 61 62 85 20 2 285
Mexico .................. ...... ..... 3 5 7 7 3 25
Puerto Rico .......... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... *1
* Aggregate total of I.c.l. shipments
Distribution.-Although the Florida carlot shipments of
eggplant are rather limited, not averaging 1 car per day for
the year, about 78% the shipments rail and boat are sent
to New York City. Cuba the principal Florida competitor in






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 41


eggplant shipments, likewise dumps the most of its shipments
to the United States on the New York market, about 88 % of
the U. S. imports from Cuba going to the market that also uses
more than three-fourths the Florida outside commercial crop.
This condition is largely a result of transportation, Cuban ship-
ments being by boat, and in the 1936-37 season of the total
rail and boat movement 76 % of the Florida total going out by
boat. This about reverses the method used in Florida in the
1932-33 season, only five years difference in time, when 78 %
of the total eggplant movement went out by rail, compared to
only 22 % by boat. The truck movement is increasing, from 25
to 30 carlot equivalents going from Florida to the New York
market each year by truck.

Northern Market Prices.-The following eight-month,
twelve-season simple average destination jobbing price record
will show the market trend of Florida eggplant throughout
the shipping season, No. 1 offerings in standard crates:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26.......... $4.20 $3.61 $5.45 $6.68 *$6.79 *$6.65 $5.67 *$4.99
1926-27.......... 4.79 5.08 5.07 5.08 5.14 3.75 3.42 3.22
1927-28.......... 2.78 1.96 3.73 3.62 *4.68 3.86 3.45 2.89
1928-29.......... 6.65 8.20 *7.35 6.00 4.30 3.45 2.90 2.30
1929-30.......... 4.20 3.88 4.37 4.13 4.11 4.33 4.20 2.66
1930-31.......... 2.11 2.20 3.35 4.36 4.88 4.50 4.15 3.48
1931-32.......... 3.69 2.98 2.95 2.75 2.86 2.65 2.24 1.99
1932-33.......... 2.09 3.26 3.35 3.26 2.85 1.94 2.33 2.02
1933-34.......... 3.23 3.44 2.63 2.89 2.85 2.82 2.30 2.02
1934-35.......... 2.32 2.29 *3.74 *5.02 *4.20 3.13 2.50 2.38
1935-36.......... 3.66 3.44 2.94 *3.74 3.68 2.97 2.47 2.19
1936-37.......... 2.41 2.27 2.11 2.50 2.87 2.95 3.09 2.18
* Part month.

Florida Market Prices.-The record of monthly jobbing
prices on the Jacksonville, Florida, market is given by calendar
months, for twelve years, crates, top quote basis:

Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


$3.85 S ... $5.50 $5.52 $
3.88 4.77 4.18 3.46
2.69 2.67 2.78 2.41
4.38 4.34 2.61 2.35
2.84 2.66 2.60 2.65
2.22 2.07 2.71 2.72 3
... 1.27 1.34 1.20 3
1.33 1.66 1.45 .98
1.21 *1.22 1.25 1.09
2.25 2.71 1.65 1.40 1
1.30 1.34 1.71 1.34 ]
.92 1.04 1.10 1.26 1


$4.39 $1.91
2.28 ...
2.25 1.52
1.88 1.74
2.12 1.94
1.83 1.03
.88 ...
.74 .63
.78 .77
1.11 l85
.92 .80
.95 .63


$1.98 $2.28 $2.41 $2.90 $3.31
1.72 1.71 1.66 2.04 1.70
2.08 1.81 3.16 3.21 3.03
1.87 2.15 1.73 2.03 2.72
1.65 1.63 1.69 1.77 2.17
.84 1.03 1.30 1.29 1.16
... 85 .71 .95 1.28
.59 *.88 1.28 1.31 1.61
.90S 1.178 .868 1.03 1.42
.65 1.23 1.64 1.84 1.66
.57 .77 .80 .85 1.01
.71 1.54


1926 .......
1927 .......
1928. .......
1929.....
1930........
1931. .......
1932 .......
1933 .......
1934. .......
1935 .......
1936 .......
1937 ........


*Part month. S Southern offerings.






42 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Since so large a proportion of the total shipments of egg-
plants consists of imports, and the Florida total is such a large
percentage of the U. S. total, the U. S. shipments, Florida ship-
ments, imports (beginning with the 1932-33 season), and Flor-
ida terminal market jobbing price averages by months are
shown together in the following table:

Selson Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July

1928-29
Total U. S. Shipments ...... ... ... ... 1 14 45 88 52 108
Florida Shipments ............ ... ... 1 14 45 88 48 5
Northern Prices Fla. Egplant.S6.65 $8.20 *$7.35 $0.00 $4.30 $3.45 $2.90 $2.30 $...
1929-30
Total U. S. Shipments ...... 50 2 4 2 2 11 53 65 78
Florida Shipments ....... .. 42 2 4 2 2 11 53 01 9
Northern PricesFla. Eggplant.S4.20 $3.88 $4.37 $4.13 $4.11 $4.33 $4.20 $2.86 $...
1930-31
Total U. S. Shipments ...... 72 10 6 1 3 4 9 43 130
Florida Shipments ......... 72 7 6 1 3 4 9 40 25
Northern PricesFla. Eggplant.S2.11 $2.20 $3.35 $4.30 $4.88 $4.50 $4.15 $3.48 $..
1931-32
Total U. S. Shipments ...... 21 22 25 18 28 57 61 43 77
Florida Shipments ......... 13 21 25 18 28 57 1 41 21
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant.$3.69 $2.98 $2.95 $2.75 $2.86 $2.65 $2.24 $1.99 $...
1932-33
Total U. S. Shipments ...... 30 2 1 5 51 90 73 55 49
Florida Shipments ......... 30 2 1 5 51 90 73 53 9
Imports .................. ... 4 16 30 38 15 2
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant.S2.09 $3.26 $3.35 $3.26 $2.85 $1.94 $2.33 $2.02 $..
1933-34
Total U. S. Shipments ..... 6 9 18 11 8 56 102 47 33
Florida Shipments ......... 9 18 11 8 50 102 47 3
Imports .................. ... 7 21 49 63 46 2
Northern Pricbs Fla. Eggplant.$3.23 $3.44 $2.03 $2.89 $2.85 $2.82 $2.30 $2.02 $...
1934-35
Total U. S. Shipments ...... 9 20 1 ... 2 31 55 43 25
Florida Shipments ......... 9 20 ... ... 2 31 55 42 6
Imports .................. ... 14 37 62 86 55 4
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant.$2.32 $2.29 $3.74* $5.02* $4.20* $3.13 $2.50 $2.38 $ ...
1935-36
Total U. S. Shipments ...... 4 2 6 ... 2 39 78 79 19
Florida Shipments ......... 4 2 6 ... 2 39 78 79 18
Imports .................. .. 23 89 111 139 46 3
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant.$3.66 $3.44 $2.94 $3.74 $3.68 $2.97 $2.47 $2.19 $...
1936-37
Total U. S. Shipments ...... 15 18 19 5 15 28 39 69 18
Florida Shipments ......... 15 18 19 5 15 28 39 69 18
Imports .................. 3 52 64 67 92 27 5
Northern Prices Fla. Eggplant.$2.41 $2.27 $2.11 $2.50 $2.87 $2.95 $3.09 $2.18 S...
*Part month.

Peak Prices, When and Why.-On either the six-season av-
erage beginning with the 1925-26 season, or the twelve-season
average ending with the 1936-37 season, the average high price
months of the Florida shipping season are January, February
and March, with February and March very close for top rank,





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 43

January third, April fourth, December fifth with November av-
eraging about as good, May next to lowest and June at the bot-
tom. However, in the 1936-37 season May was the top Florida
price month, April second, March third and February fourth,
and shipments from Florida beginning with February increased
in March, April and May, as they did also in 1936 and in 1935.
On the average May is the peak month of the Florida shipping
season and April second, the Cuban peak imports being in
March with February second. Had the Florida and Cuban peak
shipments both been made in the same months, prices would
have been less. All of the Cuban imports being by boat, and in
later seasons the greater portion of the Florida shipments by
boat, which port shipments are made not on daily schedules,
and which boat shipments from both principal sources of supply
are destined so largely to New York City, with the result of sup-
plies piling up abnormally on boat-arrival dates, the Florida
eggplant shippers should spread out their heavy or peak ship-
ments all possible, yet they cannot reasonably be expected to
yield their principal market outlet to Cuban shippers.






44 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

LETTUCE
The per-annum farm value of the Florida lettuce crop in
the ten-year period, 1926-27 through 1935-36 seasons, was
$359,800.
Acreage.-The Florida lettuce acreage, by counties, for
eight seasons ending with 1935-36 is shown below:

County 198-.29 1029-30 1930-31 1931-32 1032-33 1933-34 193-1-3 1035-30
Alachua ............ 100 100 1:0 100 100 50 25 50
Highlands .......... ... .. . . ... ... ... 50
Lee .............. ...... 5
Manatee ............ 50 00 :00 11 150 325 400 100
Marion ............. 100 150 250 100 100 250 100 50
Orange ............. 300 185 200 175 25 75 25 50
Palm Beach ............ 1. 5 00 25 25 100 50 25
Polk ............... .. .. 40 25
Seminole ............ 4o30 220 300 210 75 250 250 200
Sumter ............. ... . ... ... ... 50 25 25
Volusia ............. 20 ... 40 .
Miscellaneous . . . . ... 10 40 50 . ...
State Total .......... 1,500 1180 1.380 800 475 1.100 000 555

Varieties.-Big Boston is the principal variety of lettuce
grown in Florida for shipping purposes, and Iceberg is grown,
but less extensively.
Planting.-From one-half to one pound of seed in seed-bed
or from one to two pounds in field, will be required per acre.
Should be planted about one-quarter inch deep, or rolled
lightly into the soil. Plants are transplanted usually when
from 2 to 3 inches high, and are set in the field, level culture,
14x14, 15x15 or 16x16 inches. Big Boston and Iceberg lettuce
will reach maturity in ten or eleven weeks. The average yield
for the State as a whole is about 240 crates per acre; up to 600
crates per acre are produced in the leading sections.
Cost.-Not including taxes, rent, interest, depreciation, it
will cost about $97.50 an acre to grow lettuce in Florida: Prep-
aration and cultivation $55; seed $1.50; fertilizer $35; miscel-
laneous $6. The cost per crate delivered at shipping point, on
a yield in the principal sections of 300 crates per acre, is about
60c crate: Growing 32c; harvesting, field packing, 10c; crate
15c; hauling 3c.
Container.-The 1 1/ bushel hamper is more generally used,
but the 2-dozen crate, 7/,xl6x19 inches inside, is preferred by
some shippers.
Pack.-The lettuce container should be well filled, have
tight pack, consist of heads of similar varietal characteristics
that are fresh, not split or burst, and that are free from damage
by any means. The 1 1/ bushel hamper, Big Boston type, usu-
ally contains from 24 to 30 heads (large), 30 to 40 heads






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 45

(medium), or if small-weighing less than 1/-lb.-more than
40 heads. The crate usually holds 24 uniform heads, or from
24 to 36 heads.

Loading in Car.-Lettuce is shipped under refrigeration.
Loaded full length the car, side load with hampers alternately
reversed, 5x6, 6x6, 6x7 rows wide, 4 to 6 layers high. Average
load range, from 400 to 500 hampers.

Florida Shipments.-The Florida lettuce shipping season
begins in November and usually ends in the following April.
The following report shows the amount of lettuce shipped from
Florida each season, the monthly shipments, for the seasons
1928-29 through 1936-37:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1928-29 ................. 61 378 363 146 169 .... 1,117
1929-30 .................. 68 189 145 56 98 4 560
1930-31 .................. 52 244 189 205 221 29 940
1931-32 ................. 147 123 89 69 12 .... 440
1932-33 .................. 43 84 113 120 86 17 465*
1933-34 .................. 39 132 120 54 68 7 420
1934-35 ................. 55 50 72 82 53 4 316
1935-36 .................. 38 125 59 35 63 4 324
1936-37 .................. 13 96 116 53 42 1 321
*Includes 2 cars in May.

The segregation of the State's total lettuce shipments ac-
cording to counties for several different seasons will better
show the producing centers in Florida:

a a E a i a a o a
County e 1 >
c. a5 a a a a t a a
it it i M M -
Alachua ...... 104 111 42 39 40 ... 43 22 15 19 43
Dade ........ ... ... 1.
Hillsborough .. 6 27 3 ... ... 14 .......... 25
Indian River .. ... ... 1 . . .
Lake ........ ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1
Manatee ...... 230 299 440 218 399 215 215 158 170 100 160
Marion ....... 151 221 157 50 128 16 73 70 22 27 26
Okeechobee ... ... ... ... .. ... .. ... ... 1 ..
Orange ....... 417 337 285 122 120 32 19 13 5 12 3
Palm Beach.... ... ... ... 7 36 ... 20 9 15 7 1
Polk ........ 21 12 ... ... 20 5
Sarasota ..... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 2
Seminole ..... 456 619 471 120 186 158 93 143 73 13 74
Sumter ....... 5 4 2 4 4 ... ... 5 12 10 10
Union ........ 1 ... ... ... ... ... 1
Volusia ....... .. .... 1
Total Rail ....1.391 1.630 1.402 560 940 440 464 420 313 324 319
By Boat ...... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 ... 3 ... 2
Grand Total .. .1.391 1.630 1.402 560 940 440 405 420 316 324 321
* Includes Escarole shipments.





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Competitive Shipments.-Florida is outranked in lettuce
shipments by several states, and has very strong competition.
California, shipping more than 70 % of the total U. S. lettuce,
is the strongest competitor, and moves more lettuce in every
month of the year than Florida ships in the entire season. Ari-
zona has about the same shipping season as Florida, but much
heavier volume. The Iceberg type of lettuce shipped by Cali-
fornia and Arizona is well established, and preferred by most
of the trade. Georgia occasionally ships a few cars in March
or April. North Carolina and South Carolina ship in March,
April and May in good carlot volume, and Texas has a few cars
in January or February. Most of the southern states ship the
Big Boston type. There is no import competition.
The following table will show the competition Florida let-
tuce has in every month of the shipping season, November
through the following April:
Lettuce Shipments, total United States, except Florida, for
eight seasons:

Total
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. (6 mo.)
(6 mo.)
1928-29.......... 4,021 4,183 4,613 5,090 4,702 5,646 28,255
1929-30.......... 3,313 3,712 4,832 5,863 5,712 5,593 29,025
1930-31.......... 3,196 4,750 4,774 4,007 5,423 5,237 27,387
1931-32.......... 3,675 3,000 4,734 4,591 4,539 5,457 25,996
1932-33.......... 3,913 2,989 3,854 3,786 3,028 4,647 22,217
1933-34.......... 3,313 3,740 4,092 3,863 4,257 5,047 24,312
1934-35.......... 3,336 3,470 4,283 4,339 4,192 5,171 24,791
1935-36.......... 3,542 4,565 3,961 4,492 4,886 5,435 26,881

Distribution.-About 75 % of the Florida lettuce shipments
are absorbed by New York City, and 10 % by Philadelphia. In
the 1936-37 season more than 90 % of the Florida lettuce went
into eastern territory. The competition from the western
states, and the Big Boston type lettuce selling to better advan-
tage in the eastern markets, results in most of the Florida ship-
ments moving into only a few markets, which can be done to
advantage in view of the limited Florida shipments spread over
a shipping season of several months. In the calendar year 1935
Florida shipped out to eastern markets 366 cars of mostly Big
Boston lettuce, while only two of the Florida markets, Jackson-
ville and Tampa, used from the western states 421 cars of Ice-
berg. In 1936 calendar year, Florida shipped out 262 cars, and
brought into Jacksonville and Tampa 439 cars of lettuce. Flor-
ida shippers have competitive distribution not only in every
month of their shipping season in the outside markets, but also
in the home markets.





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 47

Northern Market Prices.-The table below will show the
simple average jobbing prices Florida lettuce, principally Big
Boston in the 11/2 bushel hampers, top quote, has brought at
destination-mostly New York and Philadelphia-from the
1928-29 through the 1935-36 season. The total United States
lettuce shipments, and those also from Florida, are given by
months of the Florida shipping season, together with the des-
tination jobbing prices.

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.


1928-29
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce
Total U. S. Shipments............
Florida Shipments ..................
1929-30
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce
Total U. S. Shipments............
Florida Shipments ...............
1930-31
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce
Total U. S. Shipments............
Florida Shipments ..................


$ ......
4,082
61


*$1.55
4,561
378


...... $2.80
3,381 3,901
68 189


$ ......
3,248
52


1931-32
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce*$1.75
Total U. S. Shipments........... 3,822
Florida Shipments .................. 147
1932-33
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce $ ......
Total U. S. Shipments........... 3,956
Florida Shipments ................. 43


1933-34
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce
Total U. S. Shipments............
Florida Shipments ..................
1934-35
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce
Total U. S. Shipments............
Florida Shipments ...............
1935-36
Northern Prices Fla. Lettuce
Total U. S. Shipments............
Florida Shipments ..................


$ ......
3,352
39

$ ......
3,391
55

$ ......
3,580
38


$1.13
4,994
244


$1.45
4,976
363

$3.10
4,977
145

$1.12
4,963
189


$1.95
5,236
146

$3.41
5,919
56

$1.33
4,212
205


*$1.80
4,871
169

$2.76
5,810
98

$1.69
5,644
221


$1.62 $1.92 $2.56 *$1.90
3,123 4,823 4,660 4,551
123 89 69 12


$1.63 $1.39
3,073 3,967
84 113


$1.30
3,872
132


$1.24
4,212
120


$1.95 $1.67
3,520 4,355
50 72


*$1.32
4,690
125


*$1.65
4,020
59


$1.59
3,906
120

$1.82
3,917
54

$1.63
4,421
82

*$2.53
4,527
35


$1.61
3,114
86

$1.62
4,325
68

*$1.87
4,245
53

*$2.49
4,949
63


$ -....
5,646


$2.96
5,597
4

*$1.37
5,266
29

$ ......
5,457


$ ......
4,664
17

*$1.89
5,054
7

*$2.14
5,175
4

*$1.45
5,439
4


* Part month.

Peak Prices, When and Why.-Florida Big Boston lettuce
shipments, with the total Big Boston from all other southern
states, are not sufficient to control or seriously affect the mar-





48 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

ket prices of the total supply, as the volume is negligible com-
pared to shipments of Iceberg lettuce from other states. At
least 2 cars of Iceberg lettuce are shipped into Florida itself
for every one of the Big Boston shipped out. Western and cen-
tral markets demand for Iceberg has practically eliminated
Florida Big Boston. April is the month of the heaviest United
States lettuce shipments, the lightest in Florida shipments.
Florida usually ships out more lettuce in December than in any
other month, in 1932 and 1934 January leading. If the total
Florida shipments were of the Iceberg type, the price relation
would probably follow the United States total shipments, but
since the Florida crop of Big Boston is absorbed mostly by New
York and Philadelphia, the price trend on Florida lettuce
would follow more closely the Florida shipments than the U. S.
total. On the average, February, March and April are the
months of the highest Florida lettuce prices, and on the aver-
age shipments from Florida decline in regular order in these
months, in fact from December through April the average
monthly decline is regular.






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


GREEN PEAS

The per-annum farm value of the Florida green pea crop,
ten-year 1926-27 through 1935-36 average, was $287,300.
Florida ships an average (1933-1936) of about one car in every
eight of the United States total.

Acreage.-The largest acreage of green peas in Florida
is grown in Palm Beach County, in which county the increase
has been rapid in the last few years. The sections producing
peas in Florida are shown in the following county acreage data,
eight seasons:

County 1920 1930 1931 1032 1033 1034 1935 1936
Alachua ............ 100 50 50 50 50
Dade ..... ...... 30 ... 50 ... . . . ...
Hardeo ............. 00 10 50 50 50 ... ..
Hcndry ............. 25 25 300 50 50 50 ... 100
Hernando ........... .. ... ... 100 50 200 100
Hillsborough ........ 150 50 100 75 100 ...
Indian River ......... 75 25 25 25 ...
Lake ............... 40 25 25 25 .
Manatee ............ 30 ... 25 50 0 ...
Marion ............. 130 50 50 50 ...
Martin ............. ... ... ... ... ... 100 100
Okeechobee ......... .. .. 50 500 350 200 200
Palm Beach ......... 300 300 1.000 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 7.700
Polk ............... 200 50 50 50 50 50 ... 100
St. Lucle ........... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... 100
Sumter ............. 30 75 200 200 50 ... ... ...
Miscellaneous ........ 180 40 75 25 50 50 100
State Total .......... 1.350 700 2.000 3.800 4.500 4.800 5.000 8.200

Varieties.-The principal varieties grown in Florida for
shipping purposes are Little Marvel, Telephone, and Laxtonian.

Planting.-If planted in single rows, about 1 bushel, (56-
60 lbs.), double rows about 112 bushels per acre, of pea seed
will be required. Rows are from 21/ to 4 feet apart, seed
planted 1, 11/, 2 inches apart in rows, covered about 2 inches
deep. Peas will reach maturity in Florida in from 50 to 65
days, according to variety and growing conditions. The yield
on a State average basis is 60-65 bushels per acre, in some sec-
tions from 100 to 200 bushels have been harvested.

Cost.-Without allowance for rental, taxes, interest, depre-
ciation, the average cost of growing a season's crop of peas in


49





50 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Florida will average in the Everglades District from $38-63
per acre: Preparation and cultivation $15-25; seed $8-10;
fertilizer $10-18; spraying and miscellaneous $5-10. The cost
delivered at shipping point, on an average yield of 75 bushel
hampers per acre, is from $1.05 to $1.50 per hamper: Growing
51c-84c; harvesting 25-35c; hamper 16c; hauling 5c; grad-
ing and packing 8c-10c.

Container.-The bushel hamper is the standard container
used for shipping Florida green peas.

Pack.-The hamper should be well filled, and the pack
tight. Should consist of pods of peas of similar varietal char-
acteristics, not too small, not badly misshapen. The pods
should be well filled, fresh, tender, firm and free from decay
and damage caused by any means.

Loading in Car.-Green peas are shipped under refrigera-
tion. Top ice, crushed or chunk, is used by many shippers of
fresh peas. Loaded upright alternative inverted method, full
length the car, 7-8 rows wide, 3 layers high; upright load with
alternate stacks inverted 5-6 rows wide, 3 layers high; side
load with hampers alternately reversed 8 rows wide, 4-6 layers
high; side load with layers of hampers alternately reversed,
6-5 rows wide, 5-6 layers high. Load generally ranges from
550 to 650 hampers per car.

Florida Shipments.-Carlot shipments are made from Flor-
ida from November to April. January and February are the
average peak months; in 1936-37 December and January. The
amount shipped by months is shown by the following tabula-
tion:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1928-29.............. ....... ... ...... 11 18 1 ...... 30
1929-30................. ..... ...... 3 3 ...... ...... 6
1930-31................. ...... 1 5 56 49 19 130
1931-32................. 4 19 58 56 6 2 *146
1932-33................. 1 16 119 144 51 ...... 331
1933-34................. ...... 99 285 262 93 5 t745
1934-35................. 1 23 66 266 126 4 486
1935-36................. 6 25 298 363 35 ...... 727
1936-37.................. 7 152 185 23 35 12 414


* Includes 1 car in June.


t Includes 1 car in June.






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 51


Shipments, carlot rail and boat, from counties have been as
follows in the different seasons shown:


County


1928-29 1920-30 1030-31 1931-32 1032-33 1933-34 1034-35 1935-30 1936-37


ac lua .......... .. .
Broward .......... 1
Dado ............. 1
Hardee ............ ...
Hendry ........... 1
Hernando ......... ...
Hillsborough ....... ...
Indian River ....... 4
Jackson ........... ...
Levy ............. ...
Manatee .......... ...
Martin ........... ...
Okecchobec ........ 2
Palm Beach ....... 19
Polk ............. 2
St. Johns ......... 1
St. Lucie .......... ...
Sumter ........... ...

Total Rail ........ 31
By Boat .......... ...

Grand Total ....... *31


3
134
1
5






1
3

1


1

140


140


1








U



Al


Al 1


1








3
22
458





484
2

486


1










2
410





413
1

414


* Includes boat shipments allocated to different counties.


Competitive Shipments.-Shipments of green peas from
California far exceed the shipments from any other State, about
58 % the total United States shipments moving from California.
This competition continues with Florida during every month of
its shipping season, and with other States every month of the
year. Mentioned in the order of the quantity of green peas
they ship, the States of the South and East competitive to Flor-
ida are North Carolina, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas.
Florida has import competition, Mexico principally, shipping
December through March, January and February the peak
months. Puerto Rico averages about 2 cars per month in Jan-
uary, February and March, beginning shipments in November.
Mississippi ships in April and May, North Carolina April and
principally May, South Carolina April and May, Texas from
December through March, Alabama and Georgia occasionally
have carlots out in April. Virginia carlot shipments do not
begin until May. In the season proper Florida competition
comes therefore mostly from California, Texas and Mexico, at
least until April.


7
11




1
10
35
6509
4
(iSO


1


737
8

7.15





52 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

The following table will show the total United States com-
petition Florida has (Florida shipments deducted from total)
every month of the shipping season, for several recent seasons:
Total
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. (6 mo.)
1928-29............ .... ..... 84 301 265 929 1,579
1929-30............ 18 243 32 158 379 1,199 2,029
1930-31............ 39 170 ...... 46 588 1,781 2,624
1931-32.......... 46 1 14 10 710 1,245 2,026
1932-33............ 501 261 6 8 177 1,320 2,273
1933-34........... 555 236 48 285 883 1,155 3,162
1934-35.......... 345 155 185 374 302 870 2,231
1935-36............ 314 409 74 294 431 1,095 2,617
Imports are given below for three seasons, 1933-34, 1934-
35, 1935-36:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Total
1933-34
Mexico .................. ...... 80 180 34 3 ...... 297
Puerto Rico .......... ...... ...... 2 2 1 ...... 5
1934-35
Mexico .................. ...... 28 189 31 3 ...... 251
Puerto Rico .......... ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1
1935-36
Mexico .................. ...... 30 91 72 6 ...... 199
Puerto Rico .......... ...... ...... 2 3 2 1 8
Distribution.-Florida green peas are distributed almost
exclusively in the larger Eastern markets, New York City alone
taking three-fourths the Florida shipments.
Northern Market Prices.-Based upon the leading variety
in different markets, No. 1 grade or top quote, bushel hamper,
the following simple average monthly destination (mostly New
York and Philadelphia) prices will show the market trends,
the high, and the low market price months, for seven seasons
ending with 1936-37:
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
1930-31.................... *$2.73 $4.75 $2.74 $2.69 $2.27
1931-32...................... 4.03 2.77 2.95 *2.89 *1.44
1932-33.................... 2.17 2.54 2.76 3.00 *1.54
1933-34.................... 2.04 2.29 2.03 1.49 *1.56
1934-35...................... 3.13 2.81 1.93 2.06 *2.23
1935-36.................... *2.52 *1.98 1.72 *2.14
1936-37.................... *1.54 2.07 3.63 4.07 *2.49
* Part month.
Florida Market Prices.-For the purpose of comparison
with northern prices, and as an index of price trends for the
smaller shipper using the home markets for part or all of his
express or truck shipments, the following record of the Jack-





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 53

sonville, Florida, jobbing prices by months, arranged by cal-
endar years, from January 1926 to July 1987, is shown:
Year Jun. Feb. Mur. Apr. 3itay June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1092....... $4.30 $4.72 $3.94 $3.10 $... ... $... ... S... $... $... $2.33
1027 ....... .*3.3 ... 2.82 2.08 1.21 .92 .90 .00 .98 1.03 ... 1.87
1028........3 3.49 3.91 2.84 2.80 ... 2.37 ... ... ... ... *3.43 2.83
1020....... 3.03 1.65 2.23 2.02 2.23 ... *1.03 .97 ... ...... *2.88
1930....... 2.75 2.54 3.23 2.95 *2.21 .... ...... .. ... *2.72 2.73
1931 ....... t3.090 2.06 2.77 1.74 1.4 54 ... ......... .. 3.09 2.42
103 ....... .2.53 2.30 2.80 2.07 1.01 .. .. ... ... ... .. .. 2.5 3.42
1933....... 1.08 2.10 2.18 1.03 ... ... ... ... ... ... 2.34 1.39
1934 ....... 1.38 1.60 1.41 1.51 1.33 ... ... ............ 3.26
1035 ....... .2.00 1.90 1.70 2.21 1.95 .......... ...... 2.07 2.83
1030....... .1.00 1.40 1.81 1.82 1.39 ... ... ... ... ... 1.77 1.38
1037....... 1.20 2.43 3.30 1.89 1.41 *1.03 .........
SPart month. S Southern offerings.
The following arrangement is given in summary of fore-
going tables, to show the United States and Florida shipments,
and imports by comparison (from the 1932-33 season), and
the northern prices with the corresponding Florida home mar-
ket price averages:


Season Nov.
1930-31
U. S. Shipments .................... 39
Florida Shipments .............. ......
Northern Prices Fla. Peas...... $ ......
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices........ *2.72
1931-32
U. S. Shipments ................... 50
Florida Shipments ................ 4
Northern Prices Fla. Peas...... $ ......
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices........ 3.09
1932-33 e,
U. S. Shipments ................... 502
Florida Shipments ................ 1
Imports, c/1 equivalents ........ ..
Northern Prices Fla. Peas...... ......
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices........ 2.54S
1933-34
U. S. Shipments .................... 555
Florida Shipments .................. ......
Imports, c/l equivalents .....:.. ......
Northern Prices Fla. Peas...... $ ......
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices........ 2.34
1934-35
U. S. Shipments .................... 346
Florida Shipments ................ 1
Imports, c/1 equivalents ....... ......
Northern Prices Fla. Peas...... $......
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices........ ......
1935-36
U. S. Shipments ................... 320
Florida Shipments ................ 6
Imports, c/l equivalents ..............
Northern Prices Fla. Peas...... $ ......
Jacksonville, Fla., Prices........ 2.67


* Part month. S Southern offerings.


Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.


171
1
*$2.73
2.72

20
19
$4.03
2.42

277
16

$2.17
2.42

335
99
80
$2.04
1.39

178
23
28
$3.13
3.26

434
25
30
*$2.52
2.83


5
5
$4.75
3.69

72
58
$2.77
2.53

125
119
96
$2.54
1.68

333
285
182
$2.29
1.38

251
66
190
$2.81
2.99

372
298
93
*$1.98
1.90


102
56
$2.74
2.06

66
56
$2.95
2.36

152
144
278
$2.76
2.10

547'
262
36
$2.03
1.60

640
266
31
$1.93
1.90

657
363
75
$1.72
1.40


637
49
$2.69
2.77

716
6
*$2.89
2.80

228
51
124
$3.00
2.18

976
93
4
$1.49
1.41

428
126
3
$2.06
1.70

466
35
8
*$2.14
1.81


1,800
19
$2.27
1.74

1,247
2
*$1.44
2.07

1,320
1
*$1.54
1.63

1,160
5
*$1.56
1.51

874
4
*$2.23
2.21

1,095

1
$ ......
1.82





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Peak Prices, When and Why.-In the five-year (1932-36)
average, the total United States shipments of green peas have
been lightest in January, second lightest in December, third in
October, fourth in February. With imports added to the total
U. S. domestic shipments, December, October, January and
November are first, second, third and fourth light supply
months. Ranked according to months of heaviest U. S. total
shipments, the order is:
May, April, July, August, June, March, September, Novem-
ber, February, October, December, January. With imports in-
cluded:
May, April, July, August, June, March, February, Septem-
ber, November, January, October, December.
As the Florida seasons ends in April, Florida shipments
must compete with the average second heaviest monthly vol-
ume of the season, and shipments if continued into May would
strike the season's largest monthly total. Imports averaging
heaviest in January meet the least competition from U. S. sup-
plies in that month, after beginning in December, the second
lightest shipment month. As Florida shipments usually in-
crease in February over January, the imports decline in Feb-
ruary and usually end in March. With January and December
being the months of lowest U. S. domsetic shipments, and with
imports included, the total volume likewise being lowest in
December and third lowest in January, it would appear nat-
ural, this being the mid-winter period, for these two months
to be those of high price ranking averages. On the basis of the
six-seasons, 1930-31 through 1935-36 period, December, Jan-
uary and February were the peak price months for Florida
green peas. In the 1936-37 season, however, December was
the low price month of the season, prices advancing each month
until the peak in March, but the Florida peak shipments were
in December and January which was exceptional. Since Cali-
fornia is the largest domestic competitor, and Mexico the larg-
est import competitor, both these sources having priority in
western and central markets-Florida shipments ending be-
fore the spring movement begins in other southern and eastern
states, it is natural that Florida distribution be mostly in the
eastern markets.


54





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 55


PEPPERS

The per-annum farm value of the Florida pepper crop,
1926-27 through the 1935-36 ten-season average, was $1,844,-
300. Florida leads all States in the rail and boat shipments of
peppers, shipping in the years 1932-36 average 77% of the
total United States shipments, and 69 % of the total carlot sup-
ply with imports included.

Acreage.-The following table of county acreage of pep-
pers for eight seasons, 1928-29 through 1935-36, will show the
principal commercial producing sections in Florida:

County 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36

Alachua ............ 100 250 200 200 200 300 300 300
Brevard ............ 25 ... .. .
Broward ............ 1.800 2.000 3.100 2.000 3.000 1.700 2.050 2.900
Charlotte ........... 100 95 70 250 100 100 50 75
Clay ............... 50 50 100 25 25 25 25
Collier .............. 75 25 100 275 125 150 125 50
Dade ............... 10 ... 100 50 50 50 50 75
DeSoto ............. ... 50 50 50 5 ...
Gadsden ............ 25 25 ... ...
Hardee ............. 75 150 730 275 600 300 1.100 350
Hendry ............. 45 10 45 50 25 ...
Hernando ........... ... 20 25 50 50 50 50 35
Hillsborough ........ 950 1.150 700 1.500 1.200 775 1.225 00
Indian River ........ 125 20 120 50 25 ... 25 25
Lee ................ 700 700 500 300 325 300 475 475
Manatee ............ 500 500 825 800 900 500 750 300
Marion ............. 65 45 .15 ... 25
Martin ............. 5 70 25 ...
Okccchobee ......... 25 .. .. ... 25
Orange ............. 140 250 510 325 300 250 350 400
Osceola ............. 25 70 70 25 25 ... 25 ..
Palm Beach ......... 250 325 200 500 250 125 175 75
Pasco .............. 15 25 25 25 25 .
Polk ............... 25 75 125 50 75 50 ... 25
Putnam ............ 10 20 20 25 25 25 ...
St. Johns ........... 25 ... ... ... ...
St. Lucie ............ 75 75 50 ... ... 25 ... 25
Sarasota ............ 25 25 20 50 100 75 50
Seminole ............ 105 430 300 350 300 300 235 215
Sumter ............. 50 20 20 ... 125 350 400 200
Volusia ............. 150 50 50 50 25 25 25
Miscellaneous ........ ... 25 75 225 100 125 90 25
State Total ......... 5.650 6.550 8.200 8.100 8.050 5.000 7.575 6.450


Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties of peppers
grown in Florida are World Beater, Ruby King, Ruby Giant,
and California Wonder. Other varieties are quoted on some
markets.





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruilt


Planting.-From one-half to one pound of seed in bed, cov-
ered about 12 inch deep, should produce enough plants to set
an acre. Plants are set when 5-6 inches high about 20 inches
apart in rows 36 inches apart. It will take from 110 to 120
days for plants to reach the first picking stage. The average
yield for the State is about 228 bushels or about 152 crates
per acre, from 250-300 crates per acre are taken in the special
growing districts.

Cost.-The average cost of growing peppers in Florida,
exclusive of rental, taxes, interest, depreciation, will average
from $90 to $132.50 per acre: Preparation and cultivation $35-
50; seed $5; fertilizer $40-60; spraying and miscellaneous
$10-17.50. The cost delivered shipping point on the basis of
175 crates per acre yield averages from 93c to $1.33 per crate:
Growing 50-75c; harvesting 10-18c; crate 18-20c; hauling 5c;
grading and packing 10-15c.

Pack.-The container should be well filled, tight pack.
The pack should consist of sweet peppers having similar va-
rietal characteristics, which are green, not immature, well
shaped, firm and which are free from decay and damage
caused by any means.

Loading in Car.-Peppers in carlots are shipped under re-
frigeration. Crates are loaded full length of car, 16 stacks
long, 6 or 4-6 rows wide, 5 or 4-5 layers high, bottom layers
double stripped, top layer single stripped. The usual loading
ranges from 432 to 498 crates per car.

Florida Shipments.-The Florida pepper season is a long
one, carlots beginning in October and continuing through the
following July. The following tabulation shows the monthly
shipments, rail and boat, for the seasons 1928-29 through 1936-
37, from the State as a whole:

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
1028-29 ...... .. 8 26 78 225 415 412 524 184 7 1.870
1929-30 ........ 28 98 77 80 242 344 473 318 11 1.671
1930-31...... 18 204 263 260 282 213 272 229 370 37 2.154
1931-32 ...... 0 139 313 273 368 202 301 232 108 6 2.008
1932-33....... 2 93 119 351 389 438 515 373 101 1 2.382
1933-34....... 39 184 180 89 162 296 463 194 1 1.J08
1934-35. ...... 5 113 109 33 82 193 305 383 132 9 1.424
1935-36 ........ 39 56 87 21 127 510 731 880 24 1.981
1936-37...... 11 90 172 308 279 303 208 220 144 21 1.870


56






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 57


The table given below shows the carlot shipments, by coun-
ties, of Florida peppers for the seasons 1926-27 through
1936-37:








Brevard ...... 1 34 9 ... 1
Broward ...... 757 1.020 808 501 023 641 803 204 302 407 284
Charlotte ..... 10 77 17 7 8 13 13 18 5 2 14
Clay ......... 14 ... 14 9 15 ... 1 ... ... ... 2
Collier .......... ... 18 3 20 8 15 2 ... 1 4
Dad ........ ... ... 200 ... ... 5 4 3 12 ..
DeSoto ....... ... ... 5 12 7 1 ... ... ...
Garden .... .. .. ... 1 4 ... ..
Gllchrist ........ .... 3 .
Hardee ....... 7 ... 7 20 45 38 46 40 37 0 26
Hernando ........ ... ... ... 1 7 7 5... ...
Hendry ....... 11 9 1
Hillsborough ..... 88 203 239 230 228 381 301 279 370 164
Indian River... 50 46 19 2 22 3 3 ... 1 .
Jefferson ..... 1 . ... ... ... .
Lee .......... 00 102 67 158 162 75 53 72 33 09 76
Manatee ...... 243 249 200 165 353 323 195 271 156 80 155
Marion ....... 1 2 ... ... 7 ... 1 ... ... ...
Martin .......... 2 3 9 3
Okeechobee ... 1 ... 3 ... 1 4 1 ... 1 .
Orange ....... 190 319 22 40 61 128 59 82 57 23 128
Osceola ....... ...... ... 6 ... ... ... ... 1 ... ...
Palm Beach ... 8 149 09 64 44 57 38 10 18 64 11
Pasco ........ 1 2
Polk ......... 11 11 7 14 10 ... 12 20 1 ... 1
Putnam ...... ... ... ... ... ... ... I 1...
St. Johns ....... 3 4 ... ..
St. Lucie...... 2 2 ... 6 7 ... 1 ... ... 2 1
Sarasota ..... 3 ... 3 ... 5 18 0 9
Seminole ..... 187 127 107 145 99 15 34 05 21 20 8
Sumter ....... 2 ... 8 3 ... ... 15 27 15 30 13
Union ........ 0 ... 47
Volusia ......... 26 1 10 14 2 3

Total Rail ....1.030 2.283 1.965 1.471 1.776 1.582 1.734 1.311 948 1.178 920
By Boat ......... ... ... 200 378 428 648 207 476 803 956

Grand Total...1,030 2.283 *1.005 1.671 2.154 2.008 2,382 1.008 1.424 1,981 1.876
* Total in Season 1028-29 includes express and boat shipments allocated to different counties.

Competitive Shipments.-August and September are the
two months of the twelve in which the lightest total United
States shipments are made. The importing sections ordinarily
place no carlots of peppers on the U. S. markets until Novem-






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


ber. The Florida carlot shipping season begins with little car-
lot competition in October, California, New Jersey and Texas
shipping; in November, California, Georgia, New Jersey, and
Texas are shipping; and in December supplies are more lim-
ited, mainly from Texas. Imports begin from Cuba, Mexico
and Puerto Rico in December. Texas has few cars out in Jan-
uary, but with that exception Florida supplies the total carlot
domestic pepper shipments from January through February,
March and April, to May in which month shipments begin from
Louisiana which give Florida peppers the only domestic com-
petition in this month. In June the season is under way in sev-
eral States--Georgia, Louisiana (peak shipments), Mississippi,
North Carolina, South Carolina-which States ship in July
and the New Jersey season starts in July. The imports
increase in January, February, and reach peak in March,
then start declining in April, in May, about fade out in
June, seldom any imports in July. Thus in the first four months
of the year Florida supplies its own domestic competition, and
has only the imports to offer competition, which are timed to
meet the least competition in the Eastern markets. In the five
years 1932-36 Florida shipments averaged the heaviest in May,
in 1934, 1935, 1936 increasing March over February, April
over March and May over April. No State, nor any section
from which peppers are brought into the United States, has a
shipping season common entirely to that of Florida. The fol-
lowing table shows the total U. S. shipments by months, exclud-
ing the Florida shipments, for nine seasons:

Season Oct. Nov. Dee. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total
(10 nmo.)
1928-29...... 323 1 .. .. .. 11 240 249 833
1929-30...... 38 151 .. .. .. 4 194 243 978
1930-31...... 324 97 .. .. .. .. 1 137 227 786
1931-32...... 132 43 .. .. .... .. 55 53 283
1032-33...... 118 70 1 .. .. 6 249 146 590
1933-34..... 62 124 18 1 .. .. .. 178 89 472
1934-35....... 95 71 10 4 .. .. 5 311 140 636
1935-30...... 132 104 24 4 .. . 1 222 88 577
1936-37..... .. 138 17 7 .. 2 .. 1 54 .. 319

Since imports iare relatively of such importance, a tabula-





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 59

tion is given below of the monthly volume each source has
supplied in the seasons 1932-33 through 1936-37:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1932-33
Cuba ............ 3 3. 1 1 1 .... .... 9
Mexico .............. 12 7 18 8 13 .... 58
Others ...... I .1 ... .... .... .... .... .... 1
1933-34
Cuba ............ 1 3 17 46 20 1 .... 88
Mexico .......... 2 7 8 4 10 4 1 36
Others ..---...... ... .... ... .... .... .... .... 1"
1934-35
Cuba .....-.. .... 5 31 61 80 35 3 .... 215
Mexico .......... 3 23 51 33 31 17 7 165
Others .......... 2 .... .... .... .... ... .... 2
1935-36
Cuba ........ .... 11 66 96 96 18 1 .... 288
Mexico ........- 14 51 61 72 40 -8 2 248
Others ...... .... ..... 1 .... .... .... .... .... 1
1936-37
Cuba ........ 1 14 66 26 42 10 2 .... 161
Mexico ...... .... 24 37 51 55 32 34 6 239
Others ...... .... .... ... 1 1 1 .... .... 3
*Aggregate total of L.c.l shipments.
Distribution.-In the 1936-37 season, about 64% of the
Florida rail pepper shipments went into Eastern territory, 27 %
into Western, and 9 % into Southern territory. In the four
calendar years 1932-35 inclusive, 60% of the rail, boat and
truck shipments combined were shipped to New York City,
the largest individual market for Florida peppers.

Northern Market Prices.-When prices are high or low,
how high or low, and the uniformity of price and the con-
sistency of trends in different seasons, is indicated by the fol-
lowing twelve-season tabulation of simple average destination
prices of Florida peppers by months on the basis of No. 1 grade,
in crates:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26 ..........$3.67 $4.77 $5.12 $6.88 $8.13 $7.36 $7.35 $5.91
1926-27 .......... 3.47 4.95 4.26 6.21 4.65 3.23 4.83 3.81
1927-28 .......... 2.50 2.10 3.80 5.15 4.05 4.45 4.15 3.50
1928-29 .......... 7.25* 10.65 6.95 3.85 3.20 4.20 3.70 2.90
1929-30 .......... 6.55* 6.35 6.10 6.20 5.75 3.90 4.55 2.40
1930-31 .......... 2.26 2.39 3.06 2.96 4.77 6.04 5.09 3.66
1931-32 .......... 2.90 2.86: 2.71 2.67 3.31 4.35 3.55 4.01
1932-33 .......... 2.43 4.11 2.55 1.91 1.87 1.82 1.99 2.09
1933-34 .......... 3.59 4.10 2.76 5.06 4.84 3.60 3.02 1.94
1934-35 .......... 2.10 2.67 4.88 6.69 3.46 4.57 3.16 1.85
1935-36 .......... 3.36 4.86 4.32 4.84 4.95 2.60 2.27 1.85
1936-37 .......... 2.47 3.03 2.18 2.37 3.42 3.55 4.74 3.45
*Part month.







60 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


Florida Market Prices.-On the basis of top quote, crates,
the following Jacksonville simple average jobbing prices, will
serve an an index of home market trends of Florida peppers:

Yewr Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nr. Dcc.
1926l........ $4.48 $5.28 $0.33 $4.83 $4.04 $3.87 $1.83 $1.05 $1.70 $2.58 $2.42 $3.10
1927......... 4.31 4.07 3.51) 2.28 2.05 1.00 2.18 2.04 1.03: 1.05 1.00 1.40
19028........ 2.1) :3.5B :3.20 .71 2.52 2.21 1.00*2.51 2.75 2.65 4..23 7.21
ll2ll........ 0.17 2.80 2.00 1.10 2.27 1.58 1.01 1.00 2.17 2.78 3.24 .1.01
:130........ 4.75 4J13 4.10 3.34 2.73 2.27 1.75 1.82 1.05 1.84 1.70 2.07
1031........ 2.10 2.40 3.01 2.07 2.73 2.00 1.17 .7011 .80H 1.35 2.10 2.21
1032........ 1.88 2.08 2.37 3.3.0 .. ..1.04 1.08 1.64
13311 ...... 1.28 1.07 .83 .81 .70 .07 .33 .,2 1.07 1.60 1.47 1.82
103411...... 1.42 2.00 2.14 1.75 1.51 .83 1.11 1.09S 1.10S 1.055 1.24 1.55
10:511 ...... 2.28 3.37 1.72 2.37 1.01 .01 .61 .70 1.32 1.64 1.72 2.20
n10l3 ....... 2.38 1.78 2.1I 1.20 1.01 .81 .87 .83 1.04 1.01 1.11 1.52
11:37 ........ L.:11 1.1.1 1.01 1.062 2.11 1.70 .7,1 .83 1.011
*Part month. li-lllmipers. S--Southern offerings.

The table following shows the Florida shipments, the U. S. shipments,
imports (beginning with the 1932-33 season), the total carlot rail and boat
shipment supply, by months, and the destination jobbing monthly price
averages of Florida peppers for several seasons:

Sanon Nov. IDe. Jun. Feb. .1ar. Apr. May June July
1028-20
Fla. Shipment .......... 8 2" 78 225 415 412 524 184 7
U. S. Shipments .........0 90 6 78 225 415 412 535 433 256
Northern prices Fla. peppers $7.25 $10.05 $.05 $3.85 53.20 $4.20 $3.70 $2.90 $...
192LI-30
Fin. Shlipmnts ......... 218 08 77 80 24-2 34 41 773 :118 11
U. S. Shlipmtii ......... 171) 118 77 80 242 :44 .1 477 512 20.1
Northern prices Fin. peppers $1.55* $0.35 $0.10 $0.-0 $5.75 $3.00 $4.55 $2.40 $...
1930:1.1
Fla. Shipments .......... 204 26.3 20O 282 213 272 "22 370 37
U. S. Shipments ........ 301 203 206 282 213 272 230 513 264
Northern prices Fla. pepper $2.20 $2.39 $3.06 $2.00 $4.77 $6.04 $5.09 $3.66 $ ...
1031,11-2
Fin. Shipments .......... 1:10 313 273 368 20 301 232 108 6
U. S. Shipments ......... 18.2 313 1271 3:08 6202 :o01 '3 103 50
NoIrthem rl ricese Pai. lpopllril $2.00) $2.8H( $1.71 $12.417 $3.31 $.1.:15 $3.55 $4.01 $...
Fla. Shipments ............. : 11 351 38 438 515 373 101 1
U. S. Shipment .......... 163 120 351 380 438 515 370 350 147
Imports .................... 4 15 8 10 0 13
Total U. S. and Imports.... 113 124 3610 307 457 524 392 330 147
northernn prices Fla. peppers $2.43 $4.11 $2.55 $1.01 $1.87 $1.82 $1.99 $2.09 $...
103*:.34
Fia. Shipments ......... .. 3 181 180 80 106 201) .1403 194 1
U. S. Slhipimntl s .......... 103 202 181 80 1112 2)Il 43 :172 0
Imports ................ ... 3 10 25 50 30 5 1 ...
Total U. S. and Imports.... 163 205 101 114 212 320 488 373 00
Northern prices Fla. peppers $3.50 $.10 $2.70 $5.00 $4.84 $3.00 $3.02 $1.94 $...
1034-.35
Fla. Shipments .......... 113 100 33 82 103 305 383 132 0
U. S. Shipments ........... 184 17 37 82 103 305 388 443 140
Imports ................. ... 10 54 112 113 00 20 7 .
Total U. S. anid Imports. .. 184 1810 01 114 300 371 408 .150 110
Northern prices Fli. lpoplprs $2.10 $2.07 $4.88 $0.1)0 $3..10 $4.57 $3.10 $1.85 $...
1113 5 ,:141
Fla. Shipments .......... 30 50 87 21 127 510 731 380 24
U. S. Shipments ......... 145 80 01 21 127 510 732 008 112
Imports .................... 25 118 157 108 58 0 ..
Total U. S. and Import... 145 105 209 178 295 508 741 610 112
Northern prices Fla. peppers $3.30 $4.80 $4.32 $4.84 $4.95 $2.00 $2.27 $1.85 $...
1030.37
Fla. Shipments ......... 00 172 308 2710 303: 208 220 144 21
U. 8. Shiplllments ......... 82-8 181) 375 2711 305 1. 18 31 o118 21
Impurts ................. 1 :18 103 78 08 431 30 0
Total U. S. and Imports .... 220 227 478 357 403 311 257 304 21
Northern prices Fla. peppers $2.47 $3.03 $2.18 $2.37 $3.42 $3.55 $4.74 $3.45 ...
*Part month.





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 61

Peak Prices, When and Why.-As several States are ship-
ping peppers, and the season in other States, especially if mild,
favorable weather prevails, is drawing to a close, prices of
Florida peppers would naturally not be as high in November
as they would be in the later months of the season. As competi-
tive domestic supplies are light in December and Florida ship-
ments are moderate in volume, as are import supplies, prices
are very good in this month. In the next four months, January
through April, Florida supplies practically all the domestic
shipments, but imports continue to increase in January, Feb-
ruary, reaching top volume in March, while Florida shipments
on the average likewise increase each month in February,
March and April, and in May reach their peak. January does
not as it might appear lead in average price rank; this month
has the disadvantage of slack demand following the Christmas
holidays, along with usually a sharp increase in Florida and
import supplies. It seldom averages in price rank as high as
December, on a multiple season average. February and March
are on the average the high price months of the Florida pepper
shipping season. In April prices have ranged from the lowest
to the highest of the season, much depending on how heavy
the increase over previous months the Florida-import total
supply is in this month. Prices fall in May, not every season
(exception in 1936-37 when May was high month), but as an
average, and June is the low month. It must be understood in
connection with analyzing seasonal prices, that averages rather
than individual seasons are taken into consideration. Florida
dominating the mid-winter domestic supply of peppers, and
placing the heaviest proportion of the total market receipts,
can easily largely control, or by excessive shipments seriously
break the prevailing pepper market, even in the top-price
months. Florida shippers, however, cannot control the weather
which is a very determining factor in some seasons.






62 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


POTATOES


The per-annum farm value of the Florida potato crop, 1928
through 1936 average, was $3,571,450.

Acreage.-Where the commercial potato crop is grown in
Florida is shown by the following table of acreage by counties,
eight seasons:

County 1928-29 1929-30 1030-31 103132 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36
Hastings Dist.:
Clay .............. 000 1.900 1.250 750 400 300 350 400
Flagler ............ 2.100 3.100 2.800 2.700 2.800 3.000 3.200 3.000
Putnam ............ 1.635 3.500 2.500 2.750 1.500 3,500 2.500 2.600
St. Johns .......... 10.820 13.000 11,600 8.450 7.200 7.000 9.250 8.500
Volusia ............ 365 1.000 450 350 300 700 300 300
Total ............ 15.820 22.500 18.600 15.000 12.200 14.500 15.600 14.800
LaCrosse Dist.:
Alachua ........... 900 2.500 2.200 1.800 1,100 1.400 1.600 1.200
Bradford ........... 25 200 300 200 200 200 100 100
Union ............. 265 500 500 400 200 200 100 100
Total ............ 1.190 3,200 3.000 2.400 1,500 1,800 1.800 1.400
West Fla. Dist.:
Eseambia .......... 275 500 875 500 450 700 B00 000
Holmes ............ ... ... 25 50 ...
Santa Rosa ........ 75 ... 100 50 50
Total ............ 350 500 1.000 600 500 700 600 600
South Fla. Dist.:
Brevard ............ 50 50 50 50 ... ... 25 ...
Broward ........... 20 25 100 50 50 250 100 200
Charlotte ........... 50 100 50 50 50 20
Dade .............. 825 1.200 800 800 850 3.000 3.700 4.500
DeSoto ............ 175 200 200 150 350 300 350
Glades ............. 20 .25
Hardee ............ 200 175 300 200 150 125 100 100
Hendry ............ 100 50 50 50 ...
Hernando .......... .. 10 25 .
ITillsborough ....... 550 350 200 150 150 350 200 200
Indian River ....... 300 400 250 300 25 200 50 300
Lake .............. ... 10 ... 25
Lee ............... 300 350 800 350 400 800 650 600
Levy .............. . . .40
Manatee ........... 50 100 50 125 50 175 100 100
Marion ............ 10 10 100 100 100 230
Martin ............ 265 300 100 50 50 25 25
Okeechobee ......... 100 50 35 50 25 25 50 50
Orange ............ 25 ... ... ... 10 ... 25
Osecola ............ 60 125 40 50 50 100 50 50
Palm Beach ....... 600 6000 0 80 600 350 400 1.150 00
Pasco ........ ... 100 50 ... -
Pinellas ............ . 10
Pollk ............... 200 25 25 50 50 100 "5 50
St. Lucie ........... 700 000 300 150 25 75 25 100
Sarasota ........... 40 10 25 25 ... 50 50 50
Seminole ........... ... 50 100 50 25 100 100 100
Total ............ 4.640 4,800 4.400 3.500 2,800 6.400 6.800 7.325
Hastings Dist. ....... 15.820 22.500 18.600 15.000 12,200 14.500 15.600 14.800
LaCrosse Dist ...... 1.190 3.200 3.000 2.400 1.500 1.800 1.800 1.400
West Fla. Dist. ....... 350 500 1.000 600 500 700 600 600
South Fla. Diet. ..... 4.640 4,800 4.400 3.500 2.800 6,400 6,800 7.325
STATE TOTAL ... 22,000 31.000 27.000 21.500 17.000 23,400 24.800 24.125





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 63

Varieties.-Spaulding Rose and Red Bliss are the principal
commercial varieties of potatoes grown in Florida.
Planting.-On an acre basis a minimum of 10 bushels, or
600 to 700 lbs. of seed will be needed. The usual requirements
in North Florida are 5 bags, or about 800 lbs. Seed potatoes
are planted from 12 to 15 inches apart from 4 to 6 inches deep,
in rows from 3 to 4 feet apart. Maturity will be reached in from
75 to 85 days. The State's average yield per acre is about 110
bushels per acre, with yields running in fields in the principal
sections from 50 to 100 barrels per acre.
Cost.-The cost of growing a crop of potatoes in North
Florida will average from $60 to $80 an acre, this cost not in-
cluding taxes, interest, property depreciation or rental: Prep-
aration and cultivation of land $15-17.50; seed $16-20; fertil-
izer $25-36.50; spraying and miscellaneous $4-6. The cost
delivered shipping point will average from $2.20-2.82 per bar-
rel: Growing, basis yield of 40 barrels per acre, $1.50-2.00;
harvesting 15-20c; barrel 35-40c; hauling 5-7c; grading and
packing 15c. The cost in Dade County of growing the early
crop of potatoes is about $88.06 per acre: Cultivation $15;
seed $38.75; fertilizer $31, spraying $3.32. The cost per bushel
crate delivered at shipping point will range from 75c to 80c:
Growing (basis of 175 crates yield per acre) 50c; Harvesting
and hauling 6c; grading, packing and container 221/2c.
Container.-The double head barrel, the bushel crate, the
bushel basket, and the 100 lb. sack, are principally used in
shipping Florida potatoes, depending to some extent on the
variety and the section from which shipped.
Pack.-Potatoes packed should have similar varietal char-
acteristics, be fairly well shaped, and free from damage caused
by freezing, decay, insects, or mechanical or other means.
Loading in Car.-Potatoes are shipped under ventilation.
Double head barrels are usually loaded alternately straight
full length the car, 3 rows wide, 3 or 4 layers high, on bilge.
Average load about 200 barrels from 185 to 216 barrels. Bushel
crates are usually loaded 25 stacks long, 7 rows wide, 3 or 4
layers high, average load 550 crates, range from 518 to 644.
In 100 lb. bags, the average load is 300, loaded in each end of
car, first layer on end 7 rows wide, on top of which 3 layers
crosswise, ventilating aisle through load, irregular between
doorways.
Florida Shipments.-The Florida shipping season begins
with the South Florida crop in November and ends in the North
Florida districts in June, occasionally few cars out in July.







64 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


The following tabulation will give a good picture of the volume
of Florida potatoes shipped out each season:


Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Total

1928-29........ ..... 5 37 1,013 2,932 1,061 7 8 5,063
1929-30.... 2 .... 30 183 543 1,906 2,068 23 23 *4,781
1930-31.... 1 17 24 80 303 2,186 4,042 183 39 t6,877
1931-32.... 7 7 39 204 887 647 721 62 31 2,605
1932-33.... .... .... 11 195 751 1,927 1,107 35 8 4,034
1933-34.... .... 9 52 399 1,086 2,399 1,704 43 13 5,705
1934-35......... 41 106 386 732 923 1,718 21 5 3,932
1935-36........ 20 84 439 661 1,659 1,088 34 .... 3,985
1936-37... 4 119 372 976 1,506 2,709 1,060 24 .... 6,770
*Includes 3 cars in August. tIncludes 1 car in August, 1 in September.


The table below shows the carlot shipments of Florida po-
tatoes in the light of county volume, and will present a good
picture of the principal producing sections:


F- ? ? e e r -
County e r t r
q n a o -

Alachua ...... 298 20. 284 *17 707 85 202 205 147 214 431
Bradford ..... 31 22 4 14 93 17 50 27 17 13 15
Brevard ...... 14 7 5 7 7 .... ......
Broward ..... 1 ... 3 2 3 1 2 29 13 13 24
Charlotte ..... 1 2 0 17 3
Clay ......... 80 440 20 272 408 48 11 74 9 42 70
Collier .... ... .. .13
Dade ............ 14 44 81 77 143 228 738 820 735 1.773
DeSoto ....... 27 10 10 30 25 10 40 58 29 12 20
Duval ........ 2 ......... 4
Escambia ..... 45 115 47 710 251 128 137 140 100 80 53
Flagler ....... 347 700 390 420 514 501 556 397 287 399 026
Gadsden ..... 9. . ... ... ... ... .
Glades ....... 20 11 1 ... ... ......... 1
Hardee ....... 15 9 8 18 17 4 8 23 4 2 2
Hendry ....... 13 11 17 5 12
Hernando ..... ... 1 2 1 2
Highlands .... ... ... 5 .. .. ... .. .. ... ... 12
Hillsborough .. 20 30 30 24 15 10 18 40 0 8 7
Holmes ....... 1 ... ... ... 2 4
Indian River.. 20 13 26 50 66 30 ... 47 ... 20 31
Jackson ..... . .. ... .. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1
Lake ........ ... .. 1
Lee .......... 19 33 31 88 00 57 81 100 83 107 84
Levy ........ .229
Madison ...... ... 1 ..
Manatee ...... 5 31 15 24 8 8 2 24 20 7 11
Marion .......... 2 1 1 24 22 1 23
Martin ....... 1 27 17 43 5 ... ... 1
Okaloosa ..... 0 .. .
Okeechobee .......... 13 12 8 2 2 5 4 12
Orange ....... 1 1 1 ... ... .... .. ... 1
Osceola ...... ... 1 3 14 9 O ... 5 4
Palm Beach... 1 208 38 1 105 50 7 60 70 149 301
Pasco ...... ........... ... ... 1 5
Pinellas ...... ... ... ... 1
Polk ......... 11 17 2 3 3 ... ... 7 ... ... 1
Putnam ...... 728 020 578 500 799 141 257 308 81 238 302
St. Johns .....3.198 4.445 2.896 2.050 3.100 1.070 1.004 2.403 1.203 1.105 1.428
St. Lucie...... ... 03 70 04 39 10 ... 5 ...... 12
Santa Rosa ... .. 7 ... ... ... .... ..





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 65





Seminole ..... 5 ... ... 16 18 2 1 3 7 ... 10
County 9? V 12 9a

Sarasota ...... .... 42 5 1 4 ... ... 4 10
Seminole ..... 5 ... ... 18 18 2 1 3 7 ... 10
Union ........ 15 31 44 99 101 15 39 26 14 28 47
Volusia ...... 200 298 176 191 181 53 47 56 24 10 4
Total Rail ....5.384 7.899 5.042 4,729 0.842 2.441 3.605 5,031 2.954 3.190 5.393
By Boat ......... ... 24 52 35 164 309 674 978 795 1.377
Grand Total...5,384 7.899 5.066 4.781 6.877 2.605 4.034 5.705 3.932 3.985 6.770

Competitive Shipments.-Florida potato shippers cannot
select a period, nor in fact a month when they will have no
competition from old stock or late producing States. The two
largest shippers, Maine and Idaho, ship potatoes in carlot vol-
ume every month in the year, as do also the States of California,
Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Washington, Wisconsin and
others. New crop potatoes are shipped from Louisiana and
Texas, along with the Florida crop, November through June,
the shipments especially from Louisiana being light until April.
Alabama begins in April and South Carolina, Mississippi,
Georgia, and North Carolina are shipping in May and all these
early States named continue shipments in June. Alabama,
Louisiana and South Carolina and Texas usually reach peak
shipments in May, North Carolina in June. In the five years,
1933-1937 April was the peak month of Florida shipments with
one exception, May was first in 1935. Florida potatoes meet
severe competition therefore every month of its shipping sea-
son from old stock late States production potatoes and has also
competition from the new crop, particularly in May and June.
Potatoes comprise about one-fourth of the total carlot ship-
ments of fruits and vegetables in the United States, and this
does not include the import volume. Canadian potatoes lead in
import volume. Cuba and Bermuda imports are placed on the
markets in much the same season as the Florida crop, Hawaii,
Puerto Rico and other sources account for the remainder of
the import volume. The following tabulation is presented to
show the extent of the domestic competition in the United
States, all shipments included except those from Florida, ship-
ments by months, for eight seasons:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
(8 mo.)
1928-29.... 14.272 13,207 20.033 20.435 22.046 17.221 19.299 24.806 151.319
1929-30... 15.704 15.158 20.232 19.550 21.565 17.864 20.730 24.981 155.790
1930-31.... 16.501 15.092 20.879 19.960 23.299 18.846 19.853 26.901 161.337
1931-32... 14.301 13.259 17,728 18.719 23.989 20.789 17.664 22.033 148.542
1932-33.... 11.941 12,118 16.733 1.6323 23.480 16.279 17.098 21.344 135.310
1933-34.... 13.685 12.238 21.872 10.924 22.753 17.488 19,907 25.709 150.576
1934-35.. 14.922 12.147 18.616 20.687 20.321 17.067 14.920 21.228 139.908
1935-36... 14.027 11,426 16.890 19.244 23,877 17.248 16.250 18.593 137.555






66 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

To round out the total competition from all sources, the
following record of imports, by months of the Florida season, is
shown for the seasons 1933-34, 1934-35, and 1935-36:

Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1933-34
Bermuda .......... ...... 9 25 7 7 4 ...... ...... 52
Canada .......... 521 664 258 437 988 323 56 4 3,251
Cuba ...... .......... ... ...... 2 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 4
Others ............. ...... ...... 2 7 30 23 47 1 110
1934-35
Bermuda ........ ....... 4 2 4 3 13 4 ...... 30
Canada ............ 304 60 54 8 67 30 514 ...... 1,037
Cuba ................ ...... 16 9 1 53 ...... ...... 79
Others ............ ...... ...... ...... 10 26 7 ...... ...... 43
1935-36
Bermuda ................ 10 7 8 4 1 ...... ...... 30
Canada ........... 213 93 51 25 318 291 110 362 1,463
Cuba ................ ...... 6 4 19 31 40 ...... 6 106
Others ............. .. ................ 12 39 25 ...... 6 82

Distribution.-New York City is the largest receiver of
Florida potatoes. On the basis of official carlot unload and
shipment records of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for
the calendar years 1934, 1935, 1936, New York received one-
third of the total Florida rail and boat shipments. Philadelphia
the second largest purchaser, handled more than one-fifth the
Florida total. Together these two important market outlets
for Florida potatoes absorbed more than one-half the Florida
shipments. Chicago normally takes about 5 % ; Baltimore and
Pittsburgh each about 4 % ; Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit each
between 2 % and 3 % ; Boston about 2 % of the Florida potatoes.
About one car out of every five shipped by rail and boat moves
by boat, which naturally places a large proportion on the New
York and Philadelphia markets.
Northern Market Prices.-The following record of simple
average destination prices, by months, based on No. 1 or the
top-price quote, in container specified, will show the drift of
the market for a long period of time:


Barrels
Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1925-26........ $ ........ $ ........ $ ........ $ ........ $15.06 $10.59 *$8.12


1926-27........
1927-28........
1928-29........
1929-30........
1930-31........
1931-32.......
1932-33........


....... ........ ........ 12.32
........ ....... ........ *12.10
........ ........ ........ 9.01
........ ........ ........ 9.65
........ ........ ........ 9.11
........ ........ ........ 5.06
........ ........ ........ *4.90


7.07
11.30
6.92
8.06
S8.03
6.91
4.17


7.60
5.15
6.99
7.31
4.43
7.42
3.84


*3.75

*3.21
*3.61






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 67


Season Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1933-34....... ........ ........ 5.94 5.67 5.39 4.32 ........
1934-35........ ........ ........ ........ ....... *7.62 3.30 ........
1934-35t.... ........ 1.66 1.85 .1.84 2.69 *1.30 ........
1935-36* .... ........ ........ 1.95 1.92 2.07 *1.76 2.28
1936-371 .... *1.94 2.00 1.97 2.10 2.02 1.69 ........
* Part month, t* Bliss in bu. hampers. t* Bliss in bu. crates.
Florida Market Prices.-An index of Florida home market
prices is shown by the following tabulation of simple average
jobbing prices of potatoes, on the Jacksonville market, top
quote used, Red Bliss variety, in bushel hampers or crates, by
months, 1926-1937 inclusive:
Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. .May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1926........ ... ... $.. $... $3.34 2.50 $... $... $... ... ... $...
1927.......... *4.07 2.26 1.00 2.35 ..... ....
1928 ....... ... 2.50 3.08 3.04 2.20 1.38 ...............
1929.......... .. ... 2.92 1.89 1. 1.3 1.51 *1.75 ... ... ... *.49 2.33
1930........ 2.33 2.94 2.78 2.63 2.15 1.88 1.59 1.47 1.4 ......
1931........ 2.02 2.04 2.28 2.48 1.27 .97 .87 ... ...
1932....... 1.71 1.92 1.87 1.98 1.98 1.18 1.22 1.36 1.38 1.47S 1.2 1.35
1933....... 1.07 1.60 1.49 1.52 1.05 .99 1.698 2.33S 2.48S 1.928 1.85 1.78
1934........ 1.70 1.74 1.47 1.50 1.21 .878 .83S .86S .90S .908 1.03 1.48
1935........ 1.51 1.01 1.43 2.02 1.14 .98 .99 1.04 1.34 1.39 1.75 2.14
1936........ 2.17 1.81 1.53 1.66 1.27 1.83 1.70 ......... 2.14 1.71
1937....... 1.77 1.05 1.72 1.77 1.47 .04 1.06 1.13 1.15
*Part month. S-Southern offerings.
The following compilation gives the total United States
shipments, the destination jobbing monthly price averages of
Florida potatoes, and the Florida carlot shipments of potatoes
by months for the seasons 1928-29 through 1935-36:
Season Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June
1928-29
U. S. Shipments ........... 14,272 13.207 20.038 20.472 23.059 20.153 20,360 24.813
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. .... S .... S .... $ .... $9.01 $6.92 $6.99 $ ....
Florida Shipments .......... ........ 5 37 1.013 2.932 1.061 7
1929-30
U. S. Shipments ........... 15.706 15.158 20.202 10.733 22.108 19.770 22.804 25,004
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. $.... $ .... $ .... $ .... $9.05 $8.06 $7.31 $ ....
Florida Shipments ........ 2 .... 30 183 543 1.900 2.008 23
1930-31
U. S. Shipments .......... 16.502 15.109 20.903 20.046 23.002 21.032 23.895 27,084
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. $ .... $ .... $ .... $ .... $9.11 $8.03 $4.43 *$3.21
Florida Shipments ......... 1 17 24 80 303 2.180 4.042 183
1931-32
U. S. Shipments ........... 14.368 13.200 17.767 18,923 24.876 21.436 18.385 22.095
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. S .... S .... $ .... $ .... $5.06 $6.91 $7.42 *$3.61
Florida Shipments ......... 7 7 39 204 887 647 721 02
1932-33
U. S. Shipments ........... 11.941 12.118 10.744 16.518 24.231 18.206 18.205 21.379
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. $ .... $ .... $ .... $ .... *$4.90 $4.17 $3.84 $ ....
Florida Shipments .............. .... 11 195 751 1.927 1.107 35
1933-34
U. S. Shipments ........... 13.685 12.247 21.924 17.323 23.839 19.887 21.611 25.752
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. $ .... $ .... $ .... *$5.94 $5.07 $5.39 $4.32 $ ....
Florida Shipments ......... .... 9 52 399 1.086 2.399 1.704 43
1934-35
U. S. Shipments ........... 14.922 12.188 18.722 21.073 21.053 17.990 16.638 21.259
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. $ .... $ .... $ .... $ .... $ .... *$7.62 $3.30 $ ....
Florida Shipments .......... .... 41 100 386 732 923 1.718 21
1935-36
U. S. Shipments ........... 14.027 11.446 10.974 19.683 24.538 18.907 17.338 18.027
Northern Prices Fla. Potatoes. $.... $.... $ .... $1.95 $1.92 $2.07 *$1.76 *$2.28
Florida Shipments ............. 20 84 439 061 1.659 1.088 34
*Part month. 1935-36 prices Bliss in bushel crates.





68 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Peak Prices, When and Why.-Bliss potatoes in bushel
crates from Florida, in the months January through May, have
in the last three seasons, 1934-35, 1935-36, 1936-37, averaged
the highest prices in April, March, February, January and May
in the order named. The North Florida potatoes in barrels
have in the months March, April and May, averaged top in
March, next in order in April and May. There are seasonal
exceptions, and variations because of weather conditions, ab-
normally heavy monthly shipments of old crop potatoes, and
other factors. Considering the total U. S. supply, shipments
are very heavy in March, the month in which the North Florida
crop begins to move. As the supply of new stock increases in
latter April and May the prices on Florida barrel potatoes de-
cline, price trends corresponding more closely to the supply of
new potatoes than the total U. S. supply-as the new crop
supply increases, a number of early States reaching peak ship-
ment in May, Florida potato prices are relatively lower. The
lowest price level is reached in June.






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 69


TOMATOES

The per-annum farm value of the Florida tomato crop, 1928
through 1936, average was $6,849,225. Florida ranks first
among all States in the carlot shipments of tomatoes, and ships
an average of 28 % the United States total.

Acreage.-Where tomatoes are grown in Florida and in
what volume is shown by the following table of county acreage,
for eight seasons ending with 1935-36:


County


1928.29 1029.30 1030-31 1931-32 1932-33 193344 1934-35 1935-30


Alachua ........... 100
Brevard ............ 100
Browari ........... 3,200
Charlotte .......... 200
Citrus ............. 25
Collier ........... 350
Dade .............. 14.000
DeSoto ............ 25
Glades ............. 50
Hardce ............ 700
Hendry ........... 500
Hernando .......... 50
Highlands ..... .... ..
Hillsborough ....... 1,000
Indian River ....... 2.025
Lake .......... ... 50
Lee ............... 600
Madison ........... ...
Manatee ........... 3.500
Marion ............ 4.000
Martin ............ 750
Moonre ............ 225
Okeechobee .......... 000
Orange ........... 100
Osceola ............ 100
Palm Beach ........ 2,300
Polk .............. 200
St. Lucie .......... 1,500
Sarasota ........... 50
Seminole ........... 25
Sumter ............ 2.200
Volusia ............ 100
Miscellaneous ....... 75
STATE TOTAL ... 38.700


Varieties.-The principal commercial varieties produced
in Florida are Grothen Red Globe, Livingston Globe, Marglobe,
Break O'Day. Several other varieties are gaining in popularity
in certain shipping districts.

Planting.-An average of a half-pound of seed will be
needed to produce enough plants to set an acre. Plants are set
when about 6-8 inches high, 18 to 36 inches apart in rows 3 to
4 feet apart. Plants should bear in from 90 to 100 days after
setting. The state's average yield is about as follows: fall crop
72 bushels, South Florida 115 bushels, and other Florida 63
bushels per acre, or about 130 lugs per acre. Compared to
leading sections this yield is low, where from 225 to 275 lugs
are produced.


125
20
2,550
100
100
2.500
5,00

700
300

1.,50
250
800
4,000
3.500
400
100
250
100
2.200
200
1,340

2.500


31.260


100
30
1,675
50

7.000
200
BOO
300
40
1,000
1.560
200
900
4.025
1.500
570
125
150
100
2.600
760
125
40
2,000


20.800


25
1,200
100
1,925
5.250
50
450
300
25
50
1.500
1.050
100
300
3.575
500
175
100
200
300
4.000
200
1.050
25
25
1.000
25
200
23.700


35
1.500
100
3,350
5,300

1.500
300
50
100
1.000
100
500
50
2.400
800
150
200

50

800
25
600
25
125
25.600


175
2.500
250
100
2,800
10.900
50
1.375
250
50
50
1,425
500
175
550
50
2.350
1,500
325
50
200
125
25
2.000
400
550

1.700
50
25
30.500


2.500
300
2.550
12.100

900
200
300
150
100
450
100
1.000
3,250
500

100
50
4.750
175
1.100
75
1.200


32.500


10
2,200
100
840
7.700

1,000
600
100
525
700
1.100
2.400
1.000

100
50
10.500
50
2.200

1.000
25
32.200





70 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Cilrus Fruits

Cost.-Without taking into,'consideration allowance for
rental, taxes, interest or property investment, depreciation, the
cost of growing a crop of tomatoes in Florida will range from
$70 to $103 per acre: Preparation and cultivation of land
$20-37.50; seed $2.50-3.00; fertilizer $40-50; spraying and
miscellaneous $7.50-12.50. Cost delivered at loading station
will average from 83c-$1.12 per lug: Growing, basis 175 lugs
yield per acre, 40c-58c; picking 10c; lugs, 13-14c; hauling 5c;
grading, packing and loading 15-25c.

Container.-The principal container used in shipping car-
lots of tomatoes from Florida is the lug, the 6-basket crate used
for few shipments.

Pack.-The pack should be tight and consist of tomatoes
of similar varietal characteristics, which are mature, fairly
well formed and smooth, and free from decay or damage caused
by any means. The large size packs in lugs are 4x4, 4x5, 5x5,
5x6, 6x6; medium size 6x7, 6x6 top with 6x7 bottom, 7x7.

Loading in Car.-Lug boxes are loaded tops up, crosswise
the car, should be loaded 5 rows wide, not more than 6 layers
high. Usual loading 27 or 28 stacks long, 5 rows wide, 4 or 5
layers high, each layer double stripped, and rows well spaced
and aligned. Load ranges from 560 to 675 lugs per car, usual
load, 560 lugs. Tomatoes from Florida are shipped mostly in
ventilated refrigerator cars.

Florida Shipments.-Florida tomatoes in carlot volume
start moving out in October and continue through June. The
volume of monthly shipments, and the total each season for
the period 1928-29 through 1936-37 is shown by the following
table.

Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
1928-29 ........ 392 586 1,235 1,589 1,971 2,036 125 7,934
1929-30 .... 4 47 177 638 1,379 1,437 2,560 215 6,457
1930-31 .... 130 400 387 457 562 494 2,495 502 5,427
1931-32 .... 35 310 559 909 1,890 1,541 1,016 24 6,284
1932-33 .... 28 308 608 1,059 1,824 1,971 398 5 6,201
1933-34 .... 27 398 768 1,114 1,955 2,057 1,342 36 7,697
1934-35 4 219 314 9 16 1,119 3,732 1,748 14 7,175
1935-36. .... 75 352 249 341 961 1,008 2,918 140 6,044
1936-37 4 176 233 555 1,117 1,351 1,306 829 56 *5,630
*Includes 3 cars in July.






From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 71


The following tabulation breaks down the State's total of
tomato shipments in the light of county shipments, seasons
1926-27 through 1936-37 being included:



5 t 9 ? @ @ @
County 0 tt



Alachua ..... 25 ... 21 2 5
Bradford .... 5
Brevard ..... 30 3 12 2 ... ... 2 ... ... 1 46
Broward .... 222 560 668 550 235 443 512 619 609 846 589
Charlotte .... 11 9 17 3 1 14 10 3 25 ... 19
Citrus ...... 1 ... ... 9 ... .
Collier ......... 7 194 411 226 978 1,248 1,111 580 209 475
Dade ....... 5.701 3.69. 3,610 2.066 1.285 2.005 2.001 3.180 3.489 1,361 2,357
DeSoto ...... 24 ... ... ... 48 ... .... ... ... 11
Glades ...... 187 15 3 ... ... ... ... ... ... 15
Hardee ...... 362 158 138 166 58 130 128 127 22 50 68
Hendry ...... 264 155 43 40 21 20 10 7 10 130 36
Hernando .... 1 ... 10 1 2
Highlands.... .... ... ... ... .. ... .... ... ... ... 8
Hillsborough 172 222 173 156 49 123 7 07 34 69 78
Indian River.. 286 633 360 311 407 264 74 63 128 167 88
Jefferson .... 7 . . . . . . .
Lake .......... ... 5 18 9 2 14 ... 4
Lee ......... 28 64 75 61 106 54 j8 155 143 176 106
Levy ....... 27
Madison ..... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 3
Manatee ..... 1,412 1.298 1.181 930 1.043 795 390 890 789 1.082 528
Marion ...... 187 315 474 308 128 30 14 56 27 34 60
Martin ...... 9 9 93 44 67 18 1 1 3
Monroe ....... .. ... 3.. 30 .. ... 11 21
Okeecehobee... ... 43 73 5 22 10 31 24 42 15 ...
Orange ...... 2 7 13 33 41 14 7 ... ... 7 23
Osceola ....... ... ... 9 9 . . . . .
Okaloosa .... 7 ... .... . . .
Palm Beach .. 423 826 202 112 451 549 431 344 474 1.015 488
Polk ............ 14 1 9 ... 10 6 19 ... ... 1
Putnam ..... ... ... ... . ... 2 . ... ... ... ..
Sarasota .... 6 6 ... ... 32 3 ... ... 2
Seminole .... 39 6 ... 5 6
St. Lucie .... 9 124 200 133 153 187 151 85 207 527 389
Sumter ...... 541 221 429 325 187 52 104 101 78 98 118
Volusia ..... ... .. 8 ... ... ... ... ... 1 ..
Others ........ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 ... 1

Total Cars ...10.078 8.391 8.012 5.718 4.582 5.723 5,230 6,883 6.763 5.827 5.469
By Boat ..... ... ... .... 739 845 561 971 780 412 217 161
Express .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 34 . .

Grand Total..10,078 8.391 *8.042 6.457 5.427 6.284 6.201 7.697 7.175 6.044 5.630
* Total includes boat shipments allocated to different counties.





72 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

Competitive Shipments.-While only a few cars of toma-
toes are shipped from Florida in October, they have competi-
tion with offerings from California, New York, Ohio, Penn-
sylvania, Texas, and several other States. In November and
December, the fresh tomato competition comes mainly from
California and Texas carlot shipments. By January the do-
mestic competition has practically faded out, Texas and Cali-
fornia occasionally having but few cars in this month. In
February and March, Florida supplies the domestic tomato
shipments. In April, Texas and California are shipping fresh
tomatoes. In May, Texas shipments increase tremendously
and reach peak in June. Mississippi begins shipping in May,
reaches peak in June. Georgia, Louisiana, and South Carolina
also begin shipping in May, striking peak in June. In June,
Arkansas, California, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee
and other States are also moving out tomatoes, the total U. S.
shipments being heaviest of all months in June, next in May.

Import competition is very pronounced on tomatoes. Cuba
and Mexico are the chief sources of import competition-Ba-
hamas, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands and other countries ship-
ping in only a few cars each season. The import season runs
with that of Florida beginning in November, continuing in
each following month until the import season ends in May.
The Cuban imports are heaviest in December, January and
February, those from Mexico usually after the Cuban peak has
passed, in March and April.

The following summary will show the monthly domestic
competition Florida tomatoes must meet, total United States
with Florida shipments deducted:
Total
Season Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June (9 mo.)
9y mo.)
1928-29.. ........ 1,005 71 .... .... .... 30 2,578 7,583 11,267
1929-30.. 2,949 1,118 128 .... .... .... 9 3,247 8,548 15,999
1930-31.. 3,753 957 168 .... .... .... 43 2,808 8,654 16,383
1931-32.. 2,169 736 144 2 1 .... .... 1,114 6,868 11,034
1932-33.. 2,353 1,229 110 2 .... .... 184 2,960 6,388 13,226
1933-34.. 2,132 1,014 129 5 .... .... 43 3,106 7,114 13,543
1934-35.. 1,836 810 115 27 .... .... 2 2,653 5,929 11,372
1935-36.. 2,067 404 84 6 .... 1 57 2,203 6,664 11,486
1936-37* 2,111 601 108 3 .... 2 77 2,916 6,271 12,089
*Subject to revision.

Since imports of tomatoes provide such strong competition





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 73

to the Florida crop, a record of the monthly total by sources is
given below:
Season Nov. Ier. Jan. Mar. Apr. May June Total
10931-32
Cuba ........... 5 221 354 338 341 140 5 ... 1.413
Mexico ......... ... 04 273 407 635 1.458 1.545 109 4.581
Others .......... ... 28 46 31 2 0 3 ... 110
1032-33
Cuba ........... ... 1 427 354 226 50 2 ... 1.150
Mexico ............ 101 181 100 214 022 502 8 1.780
Others .......... 2 ... 10 .. .... ... 2 ... 14
19:33-34
Cuba ........... 1 120 395 405 295 217 7 ... 1.446
Mexico ............ 21 107 08 142 262 208 12 850
Others .......... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 1 6
1934-35
Cuba ........... 25 527 011 412 307 100 1 ... 2.082
Mexico ............ 43 187 407 405 474 109 13 1.758
Others .......... 1 2 5 7 2 ... ... ... 17
1935-30
Cuba ........... 13 559 091 489 200 103 3 ... 2.124
Mexico ............ 112 180 280 419 707 211 ... 1.981
Others .......... ... ... 1 0 3 7 ... ... 20
1930-37'
Cuba ........... 88 501 O61 479 347 48 1 1 2.141
Mexico ......... 4 187 231 144 307 1.103 090 30 2.702
Others .......... 1 2 ... ... ... 3 ... 1 7
*Preliminary, subject to revision.
Distribution.-Slightly less than one-fourth, about 23%,
of the rail and boat shipments of Florida tomatoes go to New
York City. To the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore,
Boston and Washington, more than one-half the Florida toma-
to crop is shipped. The cities of Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleve-
land, Detroit, St. Louis and Pittsburgh combined handle less
than one-fourth the Florida total shipment volume-or but
little less than New York City alone absorbs. These named
markets, to which Mexico ships so heavily, and Cuba especially
in the East, take about three-fourths of the Florida total carlot
shipments. Tomatoes shipped from Florida ports are destined
to practically the same eastern markets that receive Cuban im-
ports, and because of the heavy Cuban distribution being
limited to a few Eastern port cities, Florida boat shipments
dropped to 161 cars in 1936-37 compared to 971 cars in
1932-33.
Northern Market Prices.-The following tabulation of sim-
ple average jobbing prices of Florida tomatoes, by months, for
twelve seasons, basis No. 1 or top quotation, in crates 1925-26
through 1931-32, in lugs 1932-33 through 1936-37, will show
the high and the low market price trends:
Season Nov. Dee. Jan. eb. Mnr. Apr. May June
1925-260C ............$ .. ... *$4.02 *$5.05 '$5.78 1$6.00 $0.22 $3.20
1020-27C. .......... ... .... .59 5.77 4.43 2.88 3.00 2.70
1927-28C ............ ... '*5.50 '3.76 "4.02 6'.40 5.01 3.85 3.22
1928-29C............ 4.20 4.85 2.80 3.25 4.00 5.50 4.15 *3.50
1920-30C............. .. ... *5.25 4.70 3.47 3.32 4.52 *1.93
1930-31C ............ .2.2 3.77 2.78 4.12 4.08 4.23 3.03 1.71
1931-32C....... ... *5.53 3.32 2.78 2.52 2.51 3.04
1932-33L ............. 1.53 '2.44 2.35 2.03 1.04 2.14 2.13
193:-3:4L ............ ... ..48 2.30 1.00 1.80 2.50 2.81 *1.34
1034-35L. ............ 2.44 2.50 '2.40 ... '3.35 1.80 2.24 *1.51
1935-30L..... ..... .. 3.90 2.96 1.83 2.23 2.0 3.16 2.07 *1.47
1930-37L. ........... '2.72 2.3:1 2.30 2.24 2.03 3.08 2.94 *2.05
*Part month. C-Crates. L-Lugs.











Florida Market Prices.-For the purpose of comparing Florida home markets with northern
markets, and for reference purposes for those who ship in small lots mostly to Florida cities, the
table of Jacksonville, Florida, jobbing prices of Florida tomatoes, in crates, lugs or as other-
wise noted, top price basis, is given for a twelve-year period:

Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1926........ $5.31 $5.51 $5.25 $4.31 $4.69 $2.83 $2.24 $...... $ ...... $2.81 *$2.75 *$6.50
1927........ 5.65 3.70 3.13 2.24 2.06 1.68 2.09 2.26 1.92 1.90 ...... *3.85
1928........ 3.03 2.83 4.45 3.28 2.28 1.82 1.88 2.81 *2.68 ...... *3.25 2.92
1929........ 2.07 1.73 2.52 2.88 2.45 1.48 2.36 2.46 2.47 2.16 *3.43 *3.74
1930........ 4.26 3.65 2.89 2.62 3.13 2.35 1.91 2.00 2.59 2.20 2.19 2.98
1931....... 2.36 2.34 2.87 3.16 2.84 1.30 1.50 ...... ...... ...... 3.09 3.48 *
1932........ 2.59 1.96 1.87 1.59 2.12 2.03 t.04 t.047 .04 .04% .04 % .05 a
1933........ .05 .04 .04 1.96 1.71 1.79S 1.51S 1.64S 2.01S 2.40S 2.19S 2.37 E
1934........ 2.35 2.02 1.82 2.58 2.24 1.45S 1.72S 2.00S 1.89S 2.12S 2.75 2.69
1935........ 3.33 4.25 3.83 2.63 1.87 1.32 1.41 1.41 1.83 2.53 2.38 3.18 ?
1936........ 2.21 2.75 3.38 3.69 2.54 1.34 1.62 1.87 1.87 1.83 1.91 1.96
1937........ 1.92 1.98 2.40 2.88 2.45 2.06 1.23 1.40 2.04
*Part month. Crates 1926 through June 1932 and April 1933 through Sept. 1937. tIn lugs per lb. basis July 1932
through March 1933. S Southern offerings.






5g





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 75


Peak Prices, When and Why.-It has already been shown
that Florida ships practically the entire domestic supply of
fresh tomatoes in January, February and March, and generally
speaking in April also. Were it not for imports, therefore, and
Florida marketed its tomato crop wisely, these four months
should be those of high prices and top ranking months. The
imports exceeded the total U. S. supply however in January
and February in the 1934-35 and 1935-36 seasons, and in Jan-
uary in the 1936-37 season. Therefore, the Florida, the total
domestic and import, and the grand total of all supplies must
be taken into consideration in analysing the peak and low price
months, and the average price relation. A compilation is given
below that shows the Florida shipments by months throughout
the entire Florida shipping season, the total United States with
Florida included, the total imports, the grand total of the U. S.
domestic and import supplies, and the northern market average
jobbing prices per lug, for five seasons, 1932-33 through
1936-37:


Nov. Dec. Jan. Fell.


MaAprApr. May June


1932-33
Florida Shipments .........
Total U. S. Domestic .......
Total Imports .............
Grand Total All ...........
Northern Prices Fin. Tomatoes.
1933n:l:.:
Florida Shipments ..........
Total U. S. Domestic .......
Total Imports .............
Grand Total All ...........
Northern Prices Fla. Tomatoes.
1934-135
Florida Sllipments .........
Total U. S. Domestic .......
Total Imports .............
Grand Total All ...........
Northern Prices Fla. Tomatoes.
1035-30
Florida Shipments .........
Total U. S. Domestic ........
Total Imports ............
Grand Total All ...........
Northern Prices Fla. Tomatoes.
1930-37t
Florida Shipments .........
Total U. S. Domestic .......
Total Imports ............
Grand Total All ............
Northern Prices Fla. Tomatoes.


28 308
1.257 418
2 192
1.259 610
*$1.53 *$2.44


27 3:08
1.041 527
1 147
1.042 074
.. $2. S.48


2111
1.020
20
1.055
$2.4 4


75 352
471 430
13 071
402 1.107
*~S.00 $2.90


170
777
03
870
'$2.72


008 1.030 1.824 1.971 308 6
610 1.039 1.824 2.155 3.358 0.393
618 514 440 072 500 0
1.228 1.573 2.204 2.827 3.884 0.300
$2.35 $2.03 $1.04 52.14 $2.13


708 1.114 1.055 2.057 1.342 30
773 1.114 1.955 2.100 4.448 7.150
502 503 437 479 220 13
1.273 1.017 2.392 2.579 4.008 7.163
$2.30 $1.99 $1.89 $2.50 $2.81 *$1.34


30
80:1
839
*$2.40


249 341
255 341
878 784
1.133 1.125
$1.83 $2.23


233 555 1.117
341 558 1.117
750 847 023
1.091 1.405 1.740
'$2.34 $2.30 $2.24


1.119 3.732
1.110 3.734
804 583
1.983 4.317
*$3.35 51.80


1.748 14
4,401 5.093
170 13
4.571 5.050
$2.24 *$1.51


081 1.008 2.018 140
902 1.065 5.121 0.804
088 877 214 ...
1.050 1.042 5.335 0.804
S2.90 S3.10 $2.07 *$1.47


1.351 1.300 829 56
1.353 1.383 3.745 0.327
054 1.154 007 32
2.007 2.537 4.442 0.350
$2.03 $3.08 $2.04 *$2.05


*Part month. tShipments subject to revision.


Season





76 From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits

The reciprocal trade agreement which the United States
concluded with Cuba Sept. 3, 1934, should be taken into full
consideration in studying the above tabulation. Three seasons
have since elapsed, but two, 1935-36 and 1936-37, provide a
clearer picture since in both these seasons shippers generally
knew of the provisions of the Cuban trade agreement. (Note:
Duty on Cuban tomatoes reduced in the 3-month period Decem-
ber, January, February from 2.4 cents to 1.8 cents per pound.
During the reduced duty months Florida ships about one-
fourth its crop while about three-fourths the Cuban imports
come in during the period). It will be noted that in 1935-36
the Florida prices dropped from a $2.96 per lug range in De-
cember to $1.83 in January, and did not again reach the Decem-
ber average until March and April. Similarly in the 1936-37
season, the Florida November average of $2.72 per lug declined
to $2.30 in January, and did not rise above the November level
until latter March and April. In these two more recent sea-
sons, May was higher in average price than January or Feb-
ruary; and in November before the Cuban imports became so
heavy; and in March, April and May after the Cuban imports
declined, the Florida prices were higher on the average than
during the December-to-February period. In the 1925-26
through 1931-32 7-year average, by way of contrast November
next to June was the month of lowest prices, and May was at
the bottom next to November. Thus without duly considering
the imports, and their distribution a distorted picture of Florida
tomato prices, and the reasons therefore, will develop.












From Field to Market With Florida

Vegetables and Citrus Fruits





PART TWO




CITRUS FRUITS, STRAWBERRIES
AND WATERMELONS
ORANGES
GRAPEFRUIT
TANGERINES
STRAWBERRIES
WATERMELONS





from Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 79

ORANGES
The world's production of oranges averaged in the 1931-32
through 1935-36 seasons about 183,000,000 boxes per season,
of which about 54,000,000 boxes are summer oranges. Prac-
tically all tropical and semi-tropical countries produce oranges
to some extent. The principal producing countries are the
United States, Spain, China, Japan, Brazil, Italy and Palestine.
About two-thirds of the world's oranges are produced in the
winter season. The United States is the largest producer of
oranges in the world, Spain the most important exporter of
oranges. The relative position of the United States orange pro-
duction to that in the principal producing countries of the
world is shown by the following tabulation of the United States
Department of Agriculture:
(Note: Marketing season in Southern Hemisphere coun-
tries starts between May and July.)


Country


United States..
Spain ..............
Italy ..............
China ..............
Japan ..............
Palestine ........
Brazil ............
Union of South
Africa ........
Mexico ..........
Australia ........
Algeria ............
Uruguay ........
Greece ............
South Rhodesia
Mozambique ..
Philippines ....
Tunis ..............
Italian Aegean
Isles ............
France ............
Egypt ..........
Cyprus ............
Puerto Rico ....
Cuba ..............
Jamaica ..........
Argentina ......
Dominia, British
West Indies..
Paraguay ......
Syria ..............
Others ............


Average
1926-27 to
1930-31
1,000 bxs.


43,166
37,368
8,760
15,000
11,200
2,860
9,800

1,862
3,262
2,243
1,880
2,700
641
204
140
254
60

25
24
180
200
1,000
2,000
500
500


10
3,000
1,000
15,161


Approximate world
production .. 165,000


1931-32 1932-33 1933-34
1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs.
50,164 51,368 47,289
37,900 36,109 34,400
10,110 15,778 10,110
15,000 15,000 15,000
11,200 12,400 13,300
4,000 5,000 6,000
11,600 11,000 11,500

2,500 2,600 2,800
3,950 3,558 2,885
2,712 2,603 2,713
1,809 2,400 2,247
3,000 3,000 3,000
885 968 1,180
180 130 170
150 175 145
350 368 350
110 79 100

25 31 30
33 41 43
400 500 750
200 225 250
1,000 1,000 1,000
2,000 2,000 2,000
500 500 495
600 600 650

10 10 10
3,000 3,000 3,000
1,000 1,000 1,000
14,912 13,557 12,581

180,000 185,000 175,000


1934-35
1.000 bxs.
64,241
35,000
11,180
15,000
13,000
7,500
12,000

3,000
3,000
2,800
2,300
3,000
1,200
165
150
350
100

330
40
800
275
1,000
2,000
300
700

12
3,000
1,000
11,859

195.000


1935-36
1,000 bxs.
55,850
27,000
7,500
15,000
13,000
8,500
15,000

3,200
3,000
3,000
2,500
3,000
1,200
170
150
350
100

30
40
900
300
1,000
2,000
400
700

10
3,000
1,000
12,098

180,000






Following the above world production table, the United States production is given below by
States to show the relation of the Florida production to the United States total, census years 1889,
1899, 1909, and seasons 1919-20, to 1936-37 inclusive-source Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics:


Season

1889-90................
1899-00................
1909-10................
1919-20................
1920-21..................
1921-22................
1922-23..................
1923-24................
Average ................
1924-25..................
1925-26................
1926-27................
1927-28................
1928-29................
Average ...............
1929-30.................
1930-31................
1931-32................
1932-33................
1933-34................
Average ...............
1934-35................
1935-36................
1936-37................


Calif.
1,000 bxs.
1,245
5,882
14,440
15,528
22,547
13,921
21,286
24,324
19,521
18,535
24,200
28,167
22,737
38,994
26,527
21,483
35,470
34,900
34,265
28,439
30,911
46,086
33,049
26.764


Florida Texas Arizona Alabama Louisiana Miss.
1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs. 1,000 bxs.


3,147
273
4,888
7,533
9,457
8,871
10,897
13,262
10,004
11,639
10,344
11,512
9,933
15,116
11,709
10,304
19,211
14,220
16,200
18,100
15,607
17,600
18,000
22,000


11
9

4
6
4
12
10
41
70
115
49
261
250
520
315
390
347
560
747
2,000


11
33
80
60
80
81
86
77
60
86
75
54
99
75
137
139
145
147
143
142
170
240
140


1
20
82
82
190
225
120
2
130
75
110
85
80
212
3
80
120
3
84
140
2
56


1
152
37
42
50
60
75
53
75
100
S150
200
220
149
187
195
245
'241
212
216
293
244
333


5
31
25
30
45
55
37

27
42
50
30
30
37
2
54
80
2
35
88
1
26


Total
1,000 bxs.
4,392
6,167
19,530
23,238
32,213
23,034
32,563
38,033
29,816
30,323
34,897'
40,062
33,154
54,659
38,619
32,621
55,270
50,164
51,368
47,289
47,342
64,937
52,283
51,319


--


--





The following data, compiled by the Associated Growers and Shippers of Florida, from Re-
port of Forrest C. Graves, State Coordinator, will show the total Florida citrus plantings, by
counties, based on survey made during the late summer and early fall months of 1934:


ORANGES GI
COUNTY Early & Late Total Early &
Mid-Season Mid-Season
Tees)(Trees) (Te) (Trees) (Trees)
Alachua .................. 59,396 2,235 61,631 4,102
Brevard ................. 432,653 219,541 652,194 137,824
Broward .................. 25,348 207,203 232,551 6,631
Charlotte ............... 28,730 10,193 38,923 9,325
Citrus ...................... 44,122 4,663 48,785 5,605
Collier .................... 4,349 5,158 9,507 11,307
Dade ...................... 14,031 99,666 113,697 172,149
DeSoto .................... 274,518 109,111 383,629 76,120
Flagler .................... 10,825 3,116 13,941 698
Glades .................... 1,043 804 1,847 273
Hardee .................... 347,251 153,767 501,018 44,296
Hendry .................... 18,356 17,777 36,133 10,468
Hernando ............... 47,629 25,921 73,550 21,056
Highlands ............. 166,218 373,536 539,754 190,166
Hillsborough .......... 507,055 400,521 907,576 126,654
Indian River .......... 99,748 120,849 220,597 143,825
Lake ...................... 855,163 486,611 1,341,774 262,126
Lee .......................... 76,577 98,305 174,882 120,434
Levy ...................... 1,171 ............ 1,171 45
Manatee .................. 114,492 122,821 237,313 260,589
Marion ................... 577,672 47,794 625,466 420,203
Martin ................. 50,648 1,065 51,713 22,638
Orange .................... 1,140,527 692,349 1,832,876 151,763
Osceola .................. 133,175 57,871 191,046 35,786
Palm Beach ............ 17,631 28,130 45,761 6,003
Pasco ...................... 134,236 172,284 306,520 49,273
Pinellas ................. 175,613 212,933 388,546 312,049
(Continued on next page)


LAPEFRUIT TANGER- TOTAL
TOTAL
Late Total INES (Trees)
(Trees) (Trees) (Trees)
150 4,252 7,287 73,170
83,402 221,226 34,051 907,471
5,574 12,205 6,755 251,511
1,798 11,123 5,394 55,440
48 5,653 4,927 59,365
100 11,407 3 20,917
2,156 174,305 15,170 303,172
6,905 83,025 41,120 507,774
192 890 7,246 22,077
10 283 74 2,204
6,871 51,167 49,301 601,486
764 11,232 397 47,762
4,639 25,695 64,052 163,297
117,696 307,862 54,822 902,438
93,248 219,902 77,181 1,204,659
232,717 376,542 28,519 625,658
235,421 497,547 159,816 1,999,137
45,475 165,909 5,445 346,236
............ 45 42 1,258
62,880 323,369 6,058 566,740
13,167 55,370 47,891 728,727
589 23,227 1,574 76,514
77,635 229,398 208,161 2,270,435
11,148 46,934 30,172 268,152
15,291 21,294 6,125 73,180
41,639 90,912 33,277 430,709
206,413 518,462 37,963 944,971






The following data, compiled by the Associated Growers and Shippers of Florida, from Re-
port of Forrest C. Graves, State Coordinator, will show the total Florida citrus plantings, by
counties, based on survey made during the late summer and early fall months of 1934:

ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT TANGER. TOTAL
COUNTY Early & Late Total Early & Late Total INES TOTAL
Mid-Season Mid-Season ((Trree
(Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees) (Trees)
Polk ...................... 1,232,679 2,058,281 3,290,960 1,151,000 618,754 1,769,754 371,279 5,431,993
Putnam .................. 219,140 40,195 259,335 22,813 4,437 27,250 43,358 329,943
Sarasota ............... 55,741 86,338 142,079 27,427 38,777 66,204 688 208,971
Seminole ................ 332,763 77,846 410,609 39,861 15,571 55,432 47,982 524,023
St. Lucie.................. 130,216 232,282 362,498 91,810 149,669 241,479 57,033 661,010
St. Johns.................. 15,497 2,036 17,533 1,046 175 1,221 532 19,286
Sumter .................. 106,187 12,861 119,048 5,342 2,846 8,188 5,345 132,581
Volusia .................. 525,096 212,256 737,352 70,622 17,745 88,367 164,114 989,833
Total Trees ............ 7,975,496 6,396,319 14,371,815 3,633,230 2,113,902 5,747,132 1,633,153 21,752,100
Total Acres ............ 125,292 100,483 225,775 57,076 33,206 90,282 25,663 341,720
Estimated Boxes
Per Tree .................. 1.5 1.2 1.4 3.1 2.3 2.8 1.6 1.8
Total Grove Properties 33,201. Average No. Trees per Property 665. Average No. Acres 10.3.












FLORIDA CITRUS PLANTINGS
Showing in percentage, the relative proportion of trees of various stages of maturity.

ORANGES GRAPEFRUIT Total TOTAL
Tree Ages TANCER-
Inclusive Early& Late Total Early & Late Total INES ALL
Mid-Season Mid-Season L T


% % % % % % %
20.Yrs. & Over.......... 26.9 7.1 18.1 24.5 6.8 18.0 10.3 17.5
16 to 19 Yrs............... 11.5 15.7 13.4 29.5 14.0 23.8 11.0 15.9
11 to 15 Yrs............... 20.1 29.2 24.1 22.5 24.7 23.3 32.7 24.6
6 to 10 Yrs............... 19.1 26.4 22.3 11.1 27.7 17.2 37.3 22.1
4 to 5 Yrs............... 7.4 8.5 7.9 5.9 11.6 8.0 6.0 7.8

Bearing ...................... 85.0 86.9 85.8 93.5 84.8 90.3 97.3 87.9
Non-Bearing .............. 15.0 13.1 14.2 6.5 15.2 9.7 2.7 12.1

100% 1 10% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Not Full Bearing
10 years and younger 41.5 48.0 44.4 23.5 54.5 34.9 46.0 42.0












The following tabulation of carlot shipments of oranges from Florida, by months, for the
seasons 1920-21 through 1936-37, will show the volume of the crop shipped from the State as
a whole:

Season Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Total
1920-21.................. ... 487 3,695 4,001 3,870 3,352 2,832 1,981 620 21 .... .... 20,859
1921-22.................. 3 491 2,097 4,131 2,901 2,750 1,804 1,086 413 41 1 .... 15,718
1922-23.................. 78 1,254 2,723 4,890 4,139 3,854 2,713 1,798 1,231 309 13 4 23,006
1923-24................. 23 1,091 6,173 5,175 4,217 4,653 5,428 4,222 1,973 467 8 1 33,431
1924-25.................. .... 245 4,269 5,749 5,265 4,220 2,664 1,682 867 129 1 .... 25,091
1925-26................. .... 447 2,969 4,061 3,153 3,005 2,778 2,545 592 75 .... .... 19,625
1926-27................. .... 525 3,073 5,225 3,790 3,954 2,759 2,212 821 162 13 2 22,536
1927-28............ 6 834 2,953 4,174 3,145 1,987 1,867 1,049 410 27 1 .... 16,453
1928-29............ 5 890 3,735 5,025 5,390 4,826 4,466 4,452 2,977 762 16 6 32,550
1929-30............... 5 266 2,117 3,564 3,645 3,480 2,594 789 6 3 .... 6 16,475
1930-31............. 8 1,789 3,464 4,118 4,377 4,732 4,515 3,463 3,392 934 19 .... 30,811
1931-32.................. .... 311 2,107 3,551 3,258 3,421 2,926 2,467 1,685 267 1 .... 19,994
1932-33.................. .... 40 1,454 4,185 3,943 3,562 3,880 3,477 3,657 2,428 337. .... 26,963
1933-34............... 2 221 2,358 4,115 4,875 4,025 5,256 3,853 2,377 257 .... 9 27,348
1934-35....... ......... 1 1,203 3,914 3,923 3,194 3338 3,391 2,702 2,095 1,010 140 .... 24,911
1935-36................ 486 2,574 3,764 3,649 4,200 4,584 3,819 2,467 514 1 8 26,066
1936-37.................. 2 1,855 3,834 4,121 4,922 3,785 4,318 4,400 3,858 1,548 1 .... 32,644






The tabulation below shows the State's shipments of oranges (including proportion of mixed
cars) in the light of weekly volume, rail and boat, for the seasons 1927-28 through 1936-37, as
arranged by the Florida Citrus Exchange:


Week
Ending


1936-37 35-36


Sept. 5 .............
Sept. 12 ................
Sept. 19 ............. 0 0
Sept. 26 ............. 0 0
Oct. 3 ................ 15 0
Oct. 10 ................ 83 6
Oct. 17 ............... 323 52
Oct. 24 .............. 672 225
Oct. 31 ............... 925 336
Nov. 7 .................1,102 376
Nov. 14 ...............1,033 711
Nov. 21 ..............1,302 936
Nov 28 ............... 713 760
Dec. 5 .................1,308 986
Dec. 12 ................1,610. 1,478
Dec. 19 ...............1,665 1,330
Dec. 26 .............. 482 539
Jan. 2 ................. 571 1,054
Jan. 9 ..................1,103 1,062
Jan. 16 ...............1,340 1,038
Jan. 23 ...............1,412 900
Jan. 30 ...............1,482 847
Feb. 6 ................1,380 974
Feb. 13 ...............1,011 1,064
Feb. 20 ...............1,093 1,268
Feb. 27 ........... 968 1,274
March 6 .............1,053 1,054


34-35 33-34 32-33 31-32 30-31


0
4
12
15
104
642
992
837
956
1,248
1,025
849
1,676
1,113
594
1,128
695
827
698
917
983
1,006
897
907
871


1 0 0 3
4 0 0 5
26 1 0 8
41 1 1 59
60 8 15 393
73 44 133 855
299 73 254 1,008
547 118 256 1,140
736 788 639 1,125
849 644 1,005 1,063
797 530 643 871
1,293 1,678 819 1,520
1,728 1,660 1,443 1,910
1,021 714 1,717 1,189
662 773 465 620
1,088 751 086 1,399
1,488 1,079 1,283 1,035
1,308 1,126 869 1,122
1,319 1,187 826 1,317
1,112 948 980 1,693
1,311 774 1,085 1,687
1,372 1,161 1,133 1,529
1,133 1,234 1,108 1,564
878 1,061 834 1,526
1,414 708 856 1,222
(Continued on next page)


Ten
29-30 28-29 27-28 Year
Average


0 0
0 5
6 52
22 197
65 252
115 187
219 750
305 1,216
528 1,136
827 736
940 567
1,088 1,340
1,765 2,163
1,214 717
419 414
1,135 1,331
1,195 1,175
1,021 1,157
1,042 1,240
911 1,218
849 1,184
1,012 1,270
1,184 1,334
1,285 1,018
885 1,099


0
9
67
158
279
458
397
580
882
1,008
1,215
1,288
1,515
521
525
1,114
1,113
409
586
724
603
479
530
590
601


0
3
19
58
155
340
525
648
854
962
806
1,218
1,696
1,121
550
1,027
1,121
1,023
1,054
1,084
1,084
1,105
1,136
1,035
977






The tabulation below shows the State's shipments of oranges (including proportion of mixed g
cais) in the light of weekly volume, rail and boat, for the seasons 1927-28 through 1936-37, as
arranged by the Florida Citrus Exchange:

Ten
*Week 1936-37 35.36 34-35 33-34 32-33 31-32 30-31 29-30 28-29 27-28 Year
SEnding Average V

March 13 ...........1,048 992 869 1,488 1,003 827 1,246 819 1,171 466 994 5
March 20 ...........1,232 1,451 925 1,374 1,322 724 1,307 741 1,167 444 1,070 $
March 27 ............1,245 1,252 817 1,232 1,159 724 1,296 586 1,224 444 999
April 3. ...............1,006 1,023 793 1,051 904 734 885 579 1,190 377 855 *i
April 10 .............1,056 1,164 866 921 780 693 816 390 1,078 323 809
April 17 ............1,114 922 759 898 86i 660 906 91 820 298 733
April 24 ............1,121 849 543 1,094 977 648 963 26 1,448 273 794
May 1 ................,113 913 455 930 965 601 1,291 12 1,217 195 769 Z
May 8 ................1,139 751 593 674 1,014 474 1,058 7 878 165 675
May 15 .................1,014 589 603 576 885 396 748 0 909 128 585
May 22 ................ 824 586 452 311 720 527 800 0 885 78 519
May 29 .............. 841 392 378 271 759 356 650 4 737 41 443
June 5 ..........635 305 442 121 860 191 418 2 395 14 338
June 12. ........... 482 183 265 35 577 111 334 0 399 8 240
June 19 ............. 351 56 191 20 476 71 216 0 0 10 139
June 26 ............ 195 8 89 18 257 19 75 0 0 2 66 4
July- 3 .................. 109 0 62 0 207 0 13 0 0 0 39
July 10 ................ 54 0 71 0 123 0 7 0 0 0 26 g
July 17 ............... 0 0 23 0 25 0 1 0 0 0 5 .
July 24 ................ 0 0 14 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 ;
July 31 ............. 0 0 9 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 2
Auggst 7 ...........: :0 ; 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 ..
Totals ........37,225 29,706 28,215 31,574 30,948 24,806 38,892 21,289 35,276 18,919 29,703






The following compilation will give the carlot shipments of oranges from Florida, by coun-
ties, for the seasons 1926-27 through 1936-37:

County 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37
Alachua .......... 175 123 216 183 84 ....74 34 51 91 118
Baker ............ ........ ........ ........ 1
B ay .................. 1 ........ ........ 5 ........
Bradford .......... ....... 2
Brevard .......... 897 923 1,574 607 1,215 547 956 112 222 141 104
B row ard .......... ........ ........ ........ ........ ....... ........ ......2 1
Charlotte .......... ........ ...... 1
Citrus .............. 44 3 17 5 4 ........ 1 1 1 ........
Dade ................ ........ 23 7 12 6 13 2 10 12
DeSoto ........... 560 344 963 646 1,214 481 520 644 321 143 401
Escam bia ........ ........ ........ ........ 16 1 20 25 ........ 42 ........ 26
Flagler .............. 18 17 54 25 34 8 31 24
Hardee .............. 1,044 518 941 517 1,179 576 704 535 214 143 349
H endry ............ ... .. .... ........ 10
Hernando ........ 177 131 243 77 114 140 143 90 27 16 31
Highlands ........ 222 192 526 232 1,003 604 625 635 373 404 438
Hillsborough .... 1,552 735 1,434 920 1,444 991 955 913 457 236 592
Indian River .. 88 125 112 65 103 48 66 7 17 51 42
Jackson ............ ........ ........ ........ 34 7 65 66 28 109 ........ 26
Jefferson ......... .... ... ........ .... 1
Lake ................ 3,151 1,575 3,462 1,488 2,546 1,771 1,915 910 1,167 1,592 2,183
Lee .............. 81 88 281 217 389 270 176 258 139 37 152
Manatee .......... 434 234 581 446 548 279 204 241 93 98 188
Marion ......... 1,245 790 1,634 745 1,096 831 733 234 202 295 562
Okeechobee ...... 12 9 2 2 7 2
Orange ............ 3,856 2,984 5,781 2,410 5,193 3,509 4,580 2,102 2,726 3,712 4,877
Osceola ........... 172 129 305 94 262 153 139 84 48 9 67
Palm Beach ...... 2 ........ .... ........ 3 5 3
Pasco ............ 218 172 555 293 452 240 154 103 119 222 179
Pinellas .......... 534 524 1,078 834 1,027 589 421 393 298 370 497
(Continued on next page)






The following compilation will give the carlot shipments of oranges from Florida, by coun-
ties, for the seasons 1926-27 through 1936-37:


County


P
Pi
Si
Si
SI
St
St
Su
U
V


1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37


olk ................. 4,023
utnam ............ 696
anta Rosa........ ........
irasota ............ 6
eminole .......... 920
. Johns .......... 30
. Lucie .......... 113
imter .............. 87
nion ............. ........
olusia ............ 1,974

Total Rail .... 22,332
By Boat .... 68

Grand Total.. 22,400


4,353
309

29
474
29
190
34

1,289

16,348
102

16.450


7,024
1,088
40
1,204
59
154
131
2,578
32,045
430
32.475


4,558
347
1
22
376
33
188
84
800

16,294
181

16,475


8,634
434
83
1,008
36
332
69
1
1,284

29,812
999

30,811


5,197
182
69
798
25
157
41

714

18,325
1,670
19,995


5,792
175
3
43
1,025
38
255
76

905

20,805
6,158
26,963


4,407
115

15
1,522
18
67
4

337

13,845
13,503

27,348


3,624
53

945
7
93
1

181

11,543
13,368
24,911


4,965
152

653
84


314

13,728
12,338

26,066


6,723
71

731
25


444
18,826
13,818
32.644


. o .





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 89

The principal varieties of oranges in Florida are divided
into Early, Mid-season and Late. The early varieties are Ham-
lin, season October, November and later; Parson Brown, sea-
son October and November. The outstanding mid-season va-
rieties are Seedlings, the Pineapple and Homosassa, season
December to February. The principal late variety is the Val-
encia, season March to June.
Florida oranges are shipped in several different types of
containers. Slightly more than two-thirds of the Florida citrus
crop is shipped in the standard box 12x12x24 inside dimen-
sions. The two-bushel Bruce box, the 4/5-bushel box, the one-
bushel box, the '/ box bag, the 8-pound bag, the 5-pound bag,
are also used in shipping Florida oranges. It is estimated that
the 1936-37 Florida citrus crop was shipped in the following
containers, in about the percentage shown:
Standard 1-3/5 bushel ...----..- .--.--67.00%
Two-bu. Bruce box -----...-----..... 22.50%
4/5-bu. box ...--.------... -------.--.--.. 9.00%
Bushel box
1 strap
1 box bag ----------------... ... ----. ...---- 1.50%
8-pound bag
5-pound bag

100.00%
Considerable increase has been made in the use of some of
these containers in the last few seasons, particularly the 2-
bushel box and the 4/5-bushel box. In the 1936-37 season
about 1 car out of every 5 cars of orange shipments was packed
in 2-bushel boxes.

The cost of producing a season's orange crop in Florida on
the tree up to picking, such as cultivation, fertilizing, spraying
and pruning, not including proportionate cost of property
taxes, rental, depreciation or interest, ranges from 42c-44c per
box (1936-37 season). Delivered f.o.b. shipping point from
$1.18-1.22 per box: picking 7c-8c, hauling 6c-7c, packing house
cost 63c, box 19c, paper, etc., 9c. Labor in packing, grading,
etc., 15c; miscellaneous 20c. Selling charges 15c box (ship-





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits


ping agencies 10c, auction charges 5c)-included, $1.33-1.37
box. These charges do not include Commission assessments of
advertising, pre-cooling, color-added royalties, etc., which
would roughly speaking amount to 6c-10c per box.

Federal and Florida grades on citrus fruits provide that the
standard pack of fruit shall be fairly uniform in size and ar-
ranged in the boxes according to the approved and recognized
methods. The fruit should be tightly packed and the wrap
show at least one-half twist. Each fruit should be enclosed in
individual wrapper, except in packs of size 250 and smaller,
only fruit in top and bottom layers and fruit exposed at the
sides of the box are required to be wrapped. Each box of
oranges should show a minimum bulge of 11/4 inches. Oranges
should be within the size range given below and there should
not be excessive variation in diameters of the fruit in any con-
tainer:
Diameter in Inches
Pack Minimum Maximum
96's ............................ 3 6/16 3 11/16
126's ............................ 3 3/16 3 8/16
150's ............................ 3 3 4/16
176's ............................ 2 14/16 3 2/16
200's ............................ 2 12/16 3
216's ............................ 2 10/16 2 14/16
250's ............................ 2 8/16 2 12/16
288's ............................ 2 6/16 2 10/16
324's ............................ 2 4/16 2 8/16

Oranges in standard boxes are loaded in the car, upright
method, boxes on ends, 30 stacks long, 6 rows wide, 2 layers
high. Rows should be well spaced and aligned, double stripped
and nailed. Average load 400 boxes. The Bruce boxes are
usually loaded 14 stacks long, 7 rows wide, 4 layers high, on
sides. Average load 392 boxes per car. The usual loading on
other types of containers used in Florida orange shipments
are about as follows: Bushel Box 576; 4/5-bushel Box 800;
i/2-box Bags 800; 8-lb. bags 4,100; 5-lb. Bags 6,560. Florida
oranges are shipped in ventilated refrigerator cars, under re-
frigeration initial icing, pre-cooled, and a limited amount in
ventilated box cars. About half the oranges in rail carlots are
shipped under refrigeration.





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 91

The competition Florida oranges must meet is indicated in
the following compilation of rail and boat shipments of United
States oranges, including Satsumas and tangerines, by States
of origin, market seasons 1920-21 through 1934-35 (source
U. S. Department of Agriculture):


S n Calif. Fla. Ala.
Cars Cars Cars
1920-21................ 46,844 20,859 87
1921-22............... 28,376 15,718 145
1922-23............... 48,346 23,006 476
1923-24............... 44,905 33,431 600
1924-25............... 34,439 25,091 2
1925-26............... 47,017 19,625 338
1926-27................ 53,511 22,536 179
1927-28................ 43,693 16,453 312
1928-29............... 68,797 32,550 97
1929-30................ 43,053 16,475 485
1930-31............... 64,774 30,811 2
1931-32............... 61,615 19,994 175
1932-33............... 56,230 26,963 227
1933-34............... 53,329 27,348 ......
1934-35............... 70,977 24,911 120


Miss. La. Texas Ariz.
Cars Cars Cars Cars
...... ...... ...... 49
...... ...... ...... 78
9 ...... ...... 71
13 3 3 94
...... 2 3 45
8 1 6 96
4 1 9 73
15 251 26 33
5 264 33 66
25 278 156 90
1 155 119 90
40 84 200 66
48 85 102 106
1 45 64 126
126 53 143 143


Total
Cars
67,839
44,317
71,908
79,049
59,582
67,091
76,313
60,783
101,812
60,562
95,952
82,174
83,761
80,913
96,473


Note: The above tabulation was based on the California marketing season
from November 1st to October 31st; all other States from Septem-
ber 1st to August 31st.













The tabulation below shows the United States total orange shipments, by months, for the
seasons 1920-21 through 1934-35:

Season Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug.
1920-21.................... 1,341 1,177 5,683 7,539 7,329 7,153 8,446 8,124 6,368 5,433 3,205 2,992
1921-22...................... 2,480 3,114 4,022 7,728 6,469 4,486 6,026 4,240 3,519 2,047 1,537 1,212
1922-23...................... 1,167 2,714 5,041 8,666 7,675 8,176 8,447 7,330 7,895 5,389 3,933 2,992 .
1923-24................... 2,842 3,275 9,678 9,549 7,538 8,976 9,291 9,817 6,699 5,789 '3,162 2,717 -
1924-25...................... 2,604 2,353 8,511 8,797 8,382 6,598 7,035 5,599 4,808 3,416 2,031 1,740
1925-26.................... 1,726 1,165 7,023 7,877 6,537 6,243 7,904 8,098 5,683 4,183 4,163 3,210 :
1926-27...................... 3,044 3,183 6,342 9,877 7,978 7,602 8,990 9,296 7,172 5,168 4,084 3,666
1927-28...................... 3,265 3,296 4,751 9,971 6,396 6,085 7,296 6,229 5,554 2,895 3,064 2,812 3
1928-29.................... 2,792 2,902 8,580 9,838 10,857 9,486 10,365 11,313 10,544 8,277 5,581 6,132
1929-30...................... 4,679 5,640 6,531 8,554 6,617 6,878 7,202 6,733 4,635 3,190 3,667 3,084
1930-31.................... 2,576 3,169 8,418 9,754 10,048 9,765 12,142 9,248 10,403 6,582 6,824 4,728
1931-32.................... 4,587 5,063 7,576 8,619 7,934 8,999 9,560 8,684 7,914 5,244 5,918 4,751
1932-33...................... 4,848 4,626 7,048 8,413 8,243 8,129 8,841 8,412 9,073 8,376 5,570 4,612 g
1933-34...................... 4,921 5,345 6,755 8,564 9,119 7,288 10,830 8,882 8,223 6,474 4,873 5,185 g.
1934-35...................... 4,395 4,230 9,225 9,467 9,170 8,824 9,295 10,314 9,919 7,427 7,531 5,850






The following recapitulation of distribution of rail and boat cars of Florida oranges for the
Seasons 1926-27 through 1936-37, will show the volume shipped to the different States, and
indicate whether Florida distribution is increasing in the largest consuming States, or relatively
speaking more rapidly in the States that have in the previous seasons used the least volume:


State


1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37


Alabama ............. 638
Arkansas ............ 42
Colorado ............ 5
Connecticut ........ 239
Delaware ............ 31
Dist. Columbia.... 349
Florida ............... 62
Georgia .............. 1,509
Illinois ................ 543
Indiana ............. 263
Iowa .................. 17
Kansas ............... 10
Kentucky .......... 396
Louisiana .......... 176
Maine ................ 43
Maryland .......... 684
Massachusetts .... 1,244
Michigan .......... 317
Minnesota .......... 31
Mississippi ......... 190
Missouri ........... 211
Montana ............ 6
Nebraska ............ 7
New Hampshire.. 3
New Jersey.......... 43
New York........... 4,026
North Carolina.... 453
North Dakota...... ........


439 867 288 530 243 331 327 208 354 441
35 20 9 57 30 26 41 11 17 21
3 ........ ........ 6 6 7 5 2 2 4
266 553 442 522 374 406 133 711 748 794
19 15 46 51 31 3 19 35 10 3
289 536 386 702 450 394 291 258 111 182
58 101 42 50 *3 *1 *2 *........ *...... *........
825 **983 **357 **694 **178 **357 **199 **99 **387 **476
525 1,139 763 1,459 1,005 976 1,369 1,154 1,326 1,613
185 392 264 863 373 369 382 290 277 371
25 12 12 150 38 11 47 63 57 96
........ 11 4 37 13 3 18 7 6 11
255 501 365 434 330 383 376 370 315 425
183 334 96 370 326 462 546 410 493 385
31 74 57 94 48 48 44 20 52 20
556 1,192 836 1,035 713 839 819 756 868 1,037
900 1,703 1,220 1,777 1,502 1,961 2,273 1,545 2,806 3,280
231 315 272 864 480 541 661 560 560 854
20 19 43 53 10 21 44 40 31 101
109 166 106 103 54 79 127 96 109 167
205 299 153 351 258 231 378 351 308 362
........ 2 3 3 1 ........ ........ ........ ........ 1
7 6 3 62 13 4 54 37 24 25
3 19 6 18 8 11 12 9 7 3
60 161 214 228 234 264 335 240 293 333
2,866 6,578 4,893 8,046 5,865 7,656 11,191 10,007 9,535 11,064
468 819 317 534 221 325 365 284 414 614
........ ........ ........ 4 ........ ........ ........ 1 ........ 1
(Continued on next page)






The following recapitulation of distribution of rail and boat cars of Florida oranges for the
Seasons 1926-27 through 1936-37, will show the volume shipped to the different States, and
indicate whether Florida distribution is increasing in the largest consuming States, or relatively
speaking more rapidly in the States that have in the previous seasons used the least volume:

State 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37
Ohio .................. 1,536 1,164 1,339 816 2,047 1,450 1,538 1,704 1,522 1,650 2,025
Oklahoma ............ 4 4 2 ........ 50 18 16 32 26 3 8
Oregon .............. ........ ....2 2 ........ 1 2 ........
Pennsylvania ...... 2,893 1,781 4,332 2,763 4,339 2,680 3,953 4,450 3,917 3,807 4,672
Rhode Island........ 194 118 273 163 277 180 232 125 164 205 202
So. Carolina ........ 613 456 698 189 $260 $51 $61 $67 34 93 167
South Dakota...... ........ 2 2 2 10 8 4 2 2 ........ 2
Tennessee .......... 706 515 1,142 306 903 527 619 739 505 584 797
Texas .............. 58 54 112 ........ 43 22 49 92 83 20 29
Utah ................. ........ ..... ...... 1 ........
Vermont ............ 21 8 26 25 26 10 17 16 10 7 14
Virginia ............ 506 273 1,090 567 /910 /177 /179 /212 /109 /140 /88
W ashington ........ 5 5 ..... ........ 2 2 1 ........ ........ .....
W. Virginia ........ 127 54 144 78 207 105 91 127 71 82 63
Wisconsin ............ 55 40 39 42 84 101 50 129 72 107 148
Canada ................ 113 189 90 125 134 72 20 37 61 71 88
Total.................... 18,369 13,226 26,115 16,273 28,387 18,212 22,542 27,792 24,141 25,881 30,987
* Jacksonville not included; ** Does not include Savannah; $ Florence not included; / Petersburg and Richmond
not included.





From Field to Market With Florida Vegetables and Citrus Fruits 95

All shipments are not accounted for in the above distribu-
tions which are reported by the Federal-State Market News
Office, since shipments before the office opened and after it
closed were made on which destinations were unavailable. A
large proportion of Florida oranges move to the eastern sea-
board markets by boat, and the greater part of the total rail
and boat shipments go to the northeastern states, New York
being the largest receiver. According to data compiled by the
Florida Citrus Exchange, the following percentages of Florida
oranges moved by the methods of transportation designated
in the seasons 1932-33 to 1935-36 inclusive:

Season Season Season Season
1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36
Rail Boat Truck Rail Boat Truck Rail Boat Truck Rail Boat Truck
68.6% 17.6 13.8 47.7 36.4 15.9 38.9 40.4 20.7 46.2 36.1 17.7
By re-arranging the table, each method may be compared
for four seasons:

Shipped by Rail Shipped by Boat Shipped by Truck
1932-33; 33-34; 34-35; 35-36. 32-33; 33-34; 34-35; 35-36. 32-33; 33-34; 34-35; 35-36.
68.6% 47.7 38.9 46.2 17.6 36.4 40.4 36.1 13.8 15.9 20.7 17.7






The compilation below prepared by the Florida Citrus Exchange, but re-arranged, gives the
Florida weekly carlot shipments of oranges, by rail, boat and truck, and total all carriers, for
three seasons 1934-35 to 1936-37 inclusive, (including proportion of mixed cars):

Week Season 1934-35 Season 1935-36 Season 1936-37 Total All Carriers
Ending Rail Boat Truck Rail Boat Truck Rail Boat Truck 34-35 35-36 36-37


Sept 5 ................. 0 0
Sept. 12 ................ 0 0
Sept. 19 ............... 0 0
Sept 26 .................... 4 0
Oct. 3 .................. 11 1
Oct. 10 ................... 12 3
Oct. 17 ..................... 67 37
Oct. 24 ................... 431 211
Oct. 31 ................... 455 537
Nov. 7 ..................... 389 448
Nov. 14 ................... 510 446
Nov. 21 ................... 629 619
Nov. 28 ................... 331 694
Dec. 5 ..................... 330 519
Dec. 12 ................... 1,189 487
Dec. 19 ................... 918 195
Dec. 26 ................... 399 195
Jan. 2 ..................... 663 465
Jan 9 ..................... 324 371
Jan. 16 ................... 422 405
Jan. 23 ................... 359 339
Jan. 30 ................... 448 469
Feb. 6 .................... 523 460
Feb. 12 ................... 475 532
Feb. 20 ................... 449 448
Feb. 27 ................... 471 436
March 6 ................... 452 419
March 13 ................. 413 456
March 20 ................. 448 477
March 27 ................ 368 449


0 0
0 0
1 0
6 0
23 0
41 2
71 30
136 84
176 130
212 161
241 292
291 475
239 280
314 430
480 963
838 1,062
145 357
116 631
157 619
217 550
225 537
223 463
232 594
256 688
212 759
222 828
247 670
219 706
221 972
185 838


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 5 0
0 9 0
0 14 13
4 27 70
22 51 250
141 75 443
206 115 587
215 158 839
419 185 713
461 218 967
480 206 363
556 270 922
515 395 1,141
268 592 1,247
182 161 272
423 158 378
443 164 716
488 187 842
363 193 794
384 162 919
380 182 818
376 226 565
509 232 608
446 248 534
384 228 636
286 210 679
479 231 855
414 238 843


0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 5 1
4 10 9 4
24 35 14 39
42 56 33 125
92 175 103 415
120 778 300 792
143 1,168 451 1,068
144 1,049 534 1,240
190 1,197 896 1,223
230 1,539 1,154 1,532
169 1,264 966 882
292 1,163 1,256 1,600
350 2,156 1,873 1,960
554 1,951 1,922 2,219
300 739 700 782
147 1,244 1,212 718
167 852 1,226 1,270
201 1,044 1,225 1,541
241 923 1,093 1,653
224 1,140 1,009 1,706
236 1,215 1,156 1,616
204 1,262 1,290 1,215
193 1,109 1,500 1,286
202 1,129 1,522 1,170
212 1,118 1,282 1,265
192 1,088 1,202 1,240
168 1,146 1,682 1,400
170 1,002 1,490 1,415






Week Season 1934-35 Season 1935-36 Season 1936-37 Total All Carriers
Ending Rail Boat Truck Rail Boat Truck Rail Boat Truck 34-35 35-36 36-37
April 3 .................... 388 405 155 656 367 175 608 398 126 948 1,198 1,132
April 10 .................. 386 480 133 604 560 170 625 431 133 999 1,334 1,189
April 17 .................. 288 471 110 444 478 152 645 469 132 869 1,074 1,246
April 24 ................ 184 359 82 366 483 148 661 460 120 625 997 1,241
May 1 ...................... 169 286 71 432 481 127 607 506 129 526 1,040 1,242
May 8 .................... 216 377 67 369 382 98 588 551 128 660 849 1,267
May 15 .................... 228 375 157 229 360 85 464 550 93 760 674 1,107
May 22 .................... 154 298 114 247 339 76 395 429 85 566 662 909
May 29 .............. 115 263 100 150 242 44 426 415 78 478 436 919
June 5 ............... 130 312 108 118 187 37 272 363 54 550 342 689
June 12 ............... 70 195 69 72 111 22 209 273 46 334 205 528
June 19 ............... 43 148 50 36 20 4 126 225 40 241 60 391
June 26 ............... 12 77 24 4 4 0 55 140 17 113 8 212
July 3 ..................... 6 56 20 0 0 0 14 95 12 82 0 121
July 10 .................. 36 35 11 0 0 0 0 54 5 82 0 59
July 17 ................... 1 22 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 29 0 0
July 24 ................... 2 12 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 0
July 31 .................. 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0
August 7 .................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
August 14 ................ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
August 21 ................ 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
Totals .......... 13,920 14,297 7,227 16,848 12,858 6,278 22,709 14,516 6,411 35,444 35,984 43,636






In the 1936-37 season, Regular No. 1 oranges, all varieties, averaged at auction $3.25 per
standard box. The No. 2 grade averaged $3.11, or 14c per box less than No. is. Indian River
No. Is averaged $3.67, No. 2s $3.35, or 32c per box under No. Is. The following weekly auction
sales, on oranges, all varieties, by grades, per standard box, show the price trend for the 1936-37
season (auction sales shown in following tables compiled by the Florida Citrus Exchange) :


Week Regular No. Is Regular No. 2s Ind. R. No. Is Ind R. No. 2s
Ending Cars Average Cars Average Cars Average Cars Average


Oct. 3 .........................
Oct. 10 .......................
Oct 17 ......................
Oct. 24 .......................
Oct. 31 ......................
Nov. 7 ........................
Nov. 14 ......................
Nov. 21 ......................
Nov. 28 ....................
Dec. 5 ........................
Dec. 12 ......................
Dec. 19 ......................
Dec. 26 ......................
Jan. 2 ........................
Jan. 9 ...................
Jan. 16 ......................
Jan. 23 ......................
Jan. 30 ......................
Feb. 6 ........................
Feb. 13 ......................
Feb. 20 ......................
Feb. 27 ......................
M arch 6 .....................
M arch 13 ..................
March 20 ...................
M arch 27 ..................
April 3 .......................
April 10 ...................


$3.87
3.97
3.53
3.35
3.09
2.88
2.64
2.93
2.71
2.45
2.28
2.36
2.31
2.71
3.05
2.95
2.81
3.29
3.24
3.35
3.81
3.91
3.93
3.79
3.87
4.03
3.88
3.84


3.75
3.21
2.92
2.73
2.49
2.34
2.63
2.45
2.20
2.03
2.04
2.08
2.37
2.78
2.62
2.48
2.98
2.93
3.06
3.57
3.57
3.67
3.54
3.71
3.89
3.67
3.67


$ ......


3.26
3.29
3.24
3.64
3.37
2.87
2.65
2.79
2.78
3.19
3.62
3.34
3.05
3.46
3.41
3.66
4.08
4.13
4.33
4.20
4.27
4.35
4.10
4.11


$ ......


2.82
2.86

3.10
2.64
2.42
2.23
2.41
2.34
2.37
3.15
2.93
2.63
3.04
3.04
3.27
3.66
3.75
3.90
3.71
3.90
3.92
3.75
3.84


Combined
Cars Average
1 $3.87
21 3.89
107 3.39
211 3.14
365 2.91
413 2.69
462 2.51
514 2.81
492 2.63
492 2.41
548 2.22
493 2.29
338 2.29
265 2.65
470 2.98
576 2.84
564 2.69
508 3.17
602 3.10
535 3.25
467 3.72
471 3.75
457 3.82
438 3.70
370 3.85
406 4.00
378 3.81
405 3.80






Week Regular No. 1s
Ending Cars Average
April 17 ..................... 111 3.78
April 24 .................... 114 3.91
May 1 ........................ 126 3.90
May 8 ........................ 110 3.86
May 15 ...................... 112 3.73
May 22 ..................... 92 3.72
May 29 ..................... 121 3.76
June 5 ....................... 85 3.75
June 12 ..................... 69 3.86
June 19 ..................... 44 4.27
June 26 ..................... 35 4.34
July 3 ....................... 20 4.92
July 10 ..................... 15 5.23
July 17 ..................... 16 5.67
July 24 .................... ...... ......

Totals ............. 5,578 $3.25


Regular No. 2s
Cars Average
190 3.63
188 3.62
216 3.67
208 3.59
221 3.31
174 3.26
192 3.39
186 3.24
171 3.50
157 3.68
129 3.73
99 4.14
32 4.55
25 4.83
3 4.85

7,366 $3.11


Ind. R. No. Is Ind. R. No. 2s
Cars Average Cars Average
48 4.12 28 3.69
66 4.04 38 3.57
54 4.19 35 3.75
50 4.14 40 3.67
40 4.09 36 3.51
25 4.19 24 3.48
15 4.22 20 3.71
10 3.98 14 3.31
1 4.44 2 3.75
0 ...... ...... ......





1,482 $3.67 750 $3.35


Combined
Cars Average
377 3.74
406 3.77
431 3.81
408 3.74
409 3.52
315 3.48
348 3.57
295 3.42
243 3.61
201 3.81
164 3.86
119 4.27
47 4.77
41 5.16
3 4.85

15,176 $3.23






Weekly auction average sales of Florida oranges, all varieties, for twelve seasons, ten auc-
tions, are shown in the table below: o


Week
Ending 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28
Ending


1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37


Oct. 3......$ ......
Oct. 10...... ......
Oct. 17...... ......
Oct. 24...... 7.95
Oct. 31...... 7.43
Nov. 7...... 3.73
Nov. 14...... 3.60
Nov. 21...... 3.89
Nov. 28...... 3.97
Dec. 5...... 3.56
Dec. 12...... 4.31
Dec. 19...... 3.77
Dec. 26...... 3.68
Jan. 2...... 3.49
Jan. 9...... 3.68
Jan. 16...... 4.05
Jan. 23...... 4.35
Jan. 30...... 4.47
Feb. 6...... 4.48
Feb. 13...... 4.47
Feb. 20...... 4.59
Feb. 27...... 5.03
Mar. 6...... 5.18
Mar. 13...... 5.46
Mar. 20...... 5.71
Mar. 27...... 5.50
Apr. 3...... 5.03
Apr. 10...... 4.78
Apr. 17...... 5.17
Apr. 24...... 5.39
May ...... 6.22
May 8...... 6.21


$ ......

4.47
3.95
3.61
3.88
4.59
5.73
4.45
3.63
3.08
3.15
3.18
3.70
3.66
3.44
3.36
3.52
4.00
3.55
3.59
3.44
3.45
3.55
3.55
3.83
4.34
4.79
4.73
4.22
4.52
4.61


$ ......

3.85
4.21
3.95
3.94
4.82
6.14
6.42
5.25
4.70
5.42
5.32
5.81
5.75
4.60
4.25
4.80
4.85
4.97
5.40
6.06
6.04
6.15
6.00
6.05
5.81
5.99
5.92
6.90
.7.40
7.69


$ ......

3.38
3.73
5.30
4.25
2.99
3.15
3.10
3.05
3.23
3.42
3.58
3.64
3.28
3.18
3.50
2.92
3.05
3.23
3.03
2.92
2.85
3.13
3.11
3.35
3.00
2.95
3.39
3.59
3.48
3.34


$2.15 $ ......
5.40
2.91 5.65
3.45 5.15
3.13 4.15
3.24 3.55
3.38 3.20
4.24 3.00
4.05 3.10
3.58 2.80
4.01 2.65
4.11 2.60
4.22 2.90
4.73 3.20
4.44 2.70
4.12 2.65
4.01 2.80
3.99 2.95
4.03 2.85
4.26 2.85
4.51 3.35
4.10 3.35
4.13 3.40
4.52 3.60
5.29 3.90
5.88 3.95
6.73 3.50
6.86 3.65
6.70 3.80
7.05 3.75
7.16 4.05
6.93 3.75


$ ......

3.15
2.72
2.84
3.41
3.28
2.90
2.96
3.27
2.88
2.65
3.06
3.25
2.73
2.87
3.11
3.11
3.36
3.23
3.33
3.48
3.37
3.46
3.66
3.62
3.74
3.75
3.78
.3.61
3.45


$ ......

2.55
1.60
2.90
3.03
3.38
3.03
3.08
3.48
2.70
2.43
2.63
2.73
2.97
2.83
2.54
2.27
2.37
2.47
2.33
2.28
2.49
2.51
2.35
2.18
2.20
2.14
2.24
2.29
2.25


$2.00
2.19
2.06
2.59
2.79
2.34
2.33
2.54
2.50
2.25
2.06
2.48
2.62
2.75
2.59
2.47
2.24
2.14
2.31
2.39
2.37
2.51
2.92
2.82
2.74
2.77
2.50
2.60
2.80
3.02
3.10
3.15


$ ......
1.50
3.15
3.41
3.02
2.66
2.68
2.79
2.41
2.01
2.36
2.52
2.64
2.38
2.18
2.28
2.31
2.51
2.52
2.45
2.39
2.40
2.49
2.55
2.72
2.82
3.06
3.43
3.25
2.84
2.72
2.83


$ ...... $3.87
3.89
3.19 3.39
3.02 3.14
2.72 2.91
2.90 2.69
3.30 2.50
3.25 2.79
3.10 2.62
2.75 2.40
2.84 2.21
2.88 2.28
2.92 2.28
2.95 2.63
2.88 2.96
2.75 2.82
2.63 2.67
2.75 3.16
2.98 3.09
3.08 3.23
3.17 3.69
2.90 3.71
2.93 3.77
2.95 3.63
3.00 3.77
2.93 3.82
2.81 3.65
2.79 3.57
2.69 3.56
2.88 3.67
3.08 .. 3.69
3.15 3.56




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