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Full Text



STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
GEORGE VATHIS, Supervisor
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, Director






GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 34
PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES



PART I

NEW TERTIARY OSTRACODE FAUNA FROM
LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA

by
HENRY V. HOWE



PART II

THE ECHINOID FAUNA OF THE INGLIS MEMBER,
MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION

by
ALFRED GEORGE FISCHER


Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE, 1951








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


HONORABLE GEORGE VATHIS
Supervisor of Conservation

Sm:

I have the honor to present herewith two reports on the geology of
Florida prepared by Dr. Henry V. Howe, Director, School of Geology,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, and Dr. Alfred G. Fischer, The
University of Kansas, Department of Geology, Lawrence, and recom-
mend that they be published as Geological Bulletin 34, entitled Paleon-
tologic Studies. Both reports are detailed studies of highly specialized
fossils collected from the Eocene limestone formations so well exposed
in Citrus and Levy counties, particularly in the Withlacoochee River
region. Dr. Howe's report deals with the description and identification
of a group of micro-fossils, ostracodes, from the middle Eocene, Avon
Park limestone, the species of which are new to the Gulf Coast States.
Dr. Fischer's report deals with fossil echinoids, sea urchins, that are
found in the upper Eocene, Moodys Branch formation. These fossil
studies are important contributions and have aided materially in the
interpretation of 'the complicated geology found in Citrus and Levy
counties. We acknowledge our indebtedness to Dr. Howe for his con-
tinued interest in Florida's geological problems and also to Dr. Fischer
for his contribution to the knowledge of the echinoids in the Moodys
Branch formation, Inglis member.

Your considerate interest in the work of the geological division of
the State Board of Conservation is deeply appreciated.

HERMAN GUNTER, Director
Florida Geological Survey


Tallahassee, Florida
June 12, 1951










CONTENTS



PART I. New Tertiary Ostracode Fauna from Levy County,
Florida --------------------- Henry V. Howe



PART II. The Echinoid Fauna of the Inglis member,
Moodys Branch formation _.----._---- Alfred George Fischer












PART I



NEW TERTIARY OSTRACODE FAUNA FROM
LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA

by
HENRY V. HOWE







CONTENTS


Introduction ..- -------- ------------.
Description of species --____-.-..-.-----. - -.
Cytherella lebanonensis Howe, n. sp. .. -----
Cytherelloidea floridana Howe, n. sp. ..-------.
Bairdoppilata levyensis Howe, n. sp .. ------..
Bairdoppilata vernoni Howe, n. sp. ------------
Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe, n. sp. -----
Clithrocytheridea lebanonensis Howe, n. sp __
Aulocytheridea Howe, n. gen. __....--------
Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe, n. sp .-
Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe, n. sp ------.-


PAGE
-- ----------------- 1




.-- ----------- ------ 3
- -------------------------- ----- 4
--- ----------- 5


-- - -------------- 5
_-- 5


---------- ------ 6
----------------------- 7
- ---- ---------- -------- 8


Paracytheridea scorpiona var. permutata Howe, n. var. -. ---------..-
Paracytheridea vernoni Howe, n. sp. ..... .-------...--
Cytheretta infirma Howe, n. sp. ....- .------ -------- ------------
Brachycythere lebanonensis Howe, n. sp. ..--------------------------
Nephokirkos Howe, n. gen. ----.... ---------------------..
Nephokirkos aquaplanus Howe, n. sp. ....--. .---.------ -- ------
Hemicythere phrygionia Howe, n. sp. .--------------------------
Hemicythere lienosa Howe, n. sp. ._.....---------------- --- ---- --------
Hemicythere cribraria Howe, n. sp. -. ....---- ..----- --------------------
Hemicythere bellula Howe, n. sp. -... ..--------- ---
Hemicythere mota Howe, n. sp. __..--_..-. --------------------
Hemicythere aleatoria Howe, n. sp. ------...--------.---- .------------
Hemicythere lemniscata Howe, n. sp. _.----------------..-.- ------.
Urocythere Howe, n. gen. ... ... - ------------- ---------
Urocythere attenuata Howe, n. sp -----------------------
Spongicythere Howe, n. gen. -------_.. --------------...---
Spongicythere spissa Howe, n. sp. -...----------------------------- -----
Occultocythereis Howe, n. gen. ---.--.. ---------------.------
Occultocythereis delumbata Howe, n. sp. -.-------------------- ----
Hirsutocythere Howe, n. gen. --------. ---- -----------------
Hirsutocythere hornotina Howe, n. sp. ---_---.------- -------------- ----
Leniocythere Howe, n. gen. __. --..------------------..---------
Leniocythere lebanonensis Howe, n. sp. .......-----------------------
Cythereis Jones, 1849 -___ ---.....---- -------------
Cythereis? scutulata Howe, n. sp. -- ------- ----------------
Cythereis? lebanonensis Howe, n. sp. --..--------- .. -------- -
Cythereis? bialata Howe, n. sp. _------_------.--- ---- --- --------
Xestoleberis gunteri Howe, n. sp. __.---------------------- --------
Xestoleberis copiosa Howe, n. sp. -- ---------------



ILLUSTRATIONS

Plates 1-5 Tertiary Ostracode Fauna from Levy County, Florida


--


----33


---------- 8
---------- 9
---------- 9
-_---.------ 10
------------- 10
.------- --.. 11
...------ ----- 12
.--------.---- 12
_..--------.--- 13
-.....----.---- 14
.... .....- 14
--------- 15
-------------- 15
-....----_--- 16
.----------- 17
.------------- 17
------------- 18
--.---- 19
--_. ------ 19
------------- 20
--------- 21
-- ------------ 22
...__......... 22
----------- 23
----....-_ .... 24
_----....----- 26
.---.------ 27
-..- ------- 29
-__-------. 830
----..----- 31








NEW TERTIARY OSTRACODE FAUNA FROM
LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA

by
Henry V. Howe*


INTRODUCTION

In November, 1946, the author received for examination a large
number of slides of micro-fossils from Dr. Robert O. Vernon, Associate
State Geologist of the Florida Geological Survey. They had been ob-
tained from various localities in Citrus and Levy counties. In this material
there were practically no species which were identical to those already
described from the Gulf Coast States to the west. The faunal assemblages
had obviously lived under different ecological conditions from those
present in the region of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline. A short time later
Dr. Vernon was kind enough to send a large sample of material which
he described as: "carbonate clay 13 feet 3 inches below land surface-
below platy dolomite in the New Lebanon Quarry in the northeast
quarter of Section 12, Township 16 South, Range 16 East, near New
Lebanon, Levy County, Florida."

Vernont described the beds at New Lebanon under locality L-118,
and his description has been condensed as follows:


Locality L-118
Pleistocene
Pamlico formation
8) White to gray, quartz sand .---
Upper Eocene
Moodys Branch formation Inglis member
7) and 6) Massive dolomite ----
Unconformity


.1.5 to 4.0


___ ---- _variable to 12.1


Middle Eocene
Avon Park limestone
5) Laminated dolomite.----------- variable to 3.0
4) "Cerithium" dolomite --_ ---- ------------- 0.25 to 0.9
3) Lithographic dolomite -----_ 0.75 to 1.6
2) Brown to greenish-gray, very pure, thin-bedded,
dense, carbonate, having the texture and consistency
of clay when wet and analyzing 95 to 98 percent
carbonate. The bed is laminated by carbonized plant
* rector, School of Geology, Louisiana State University.
t Robert O. Vernon: "Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida." Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 33,
pp. 108-110, 1951.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


remains, thin peat beds in places, and a pavement-
like bryozoa. It contains an abundant and beautifully
preserved microfauna of the Avon Park limestone in-
cluding numerous ostracods, sample ---- 0.75 to 1.0
1) Brownish-gray, granular limestone, containing an
abundant Avon Park microfauna._____ ------- 3.0
Upon washing, this sample of dolomitic clay was found to contain a
large and beautifully preserved ostracode fauna in which all of the species
and several genera were new to science. Because of this, the exact
position of the fauna in the Tertiary sequence could not be determined
from the ostracodes. Dr. Vernon's studies, however, had indicated that
it lies about eighty feet below the Ocala limestone. The ostracode fauna
of the Ocala has not as yet been described. The author, however, pos-
sesses samples of Ocala material from a number of Florida localities. The
locality which bears the closest resemblance to the fauna herein described
is a road cut on U. S. Highway 19 immediately south of the bridge over
the Steinhatchee River below Clara, in Dixie County. In addition to
Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe, n. sp., which occurs in several other
Ocala samples, there are reasonably common specimens that look like
Urocythere attenuata Howe, n. sp. There are also numerous small cara-
paces belonging to the new genera Aulocytheridea and Spongicythere.
These latter species, however, are specifically distinct from those present
at New Lebanon.
Several other species described in this report are clearly related to
previously described species. Cythereis ? lebanonensis Howe n. sp. and
Leniocythere lebanonensis Howe, n. sp. are related respectively to Cy-
thereis chinsegutensis Swain and Leguminocythereis ? applinorum Swain.
Swain's species were reported from the Avon Park limestone of Florida.
Cythereis ? bialata Howe, n. sp. belongs to a group of closely related
species which includes Cythereis bursilloides Stadnichenko, from the
Claiborne of Texas, Cythereis bicarinata Swain from Ocala, and Cythereis
(?) vicksburgensis Howe and Law from the Oligocene of Mississippi,
but is specifically quite distinct. Cythereis ? scutulata Howe, n. sp. has
as its closest known relative an undescribed species present in the Chick-
asawhay of Mississippi and Alabama.
The author hopes that the description of this very distinctive ostra-
code fauna will prove of material aid in working out the structure and
stratigraphy of the Florida peninsula. Unless the clays in which it occurs
are lenticular, it should be accessible by means of shallow core holes over
a wide area.






OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES*
Order OSTRACODA Latreille
Suborder PLATYCOPA Sars, 1866
Family CYTHERELLIDAE Sars, 1866
Genus CYTHERELLA Jones, 1849
CYTHERELLA LEBANONENSIS Howe, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 11, 12
Carapace elongate, greatest length above the middle; anterior end
broadly and evenly rounded; posterior rounded toward the dorsal margin,
obliquely truncate below; dorsal and ventral margins nearly parallel, the
dorsal being sinuate, the ventral straight. Females wedge-shaped when
viewed from above, the anterior being compressed, the posterior thicken-
ed. Males lenticular in dorsal view. Sexual dimorphism evident, the fe-
males being larger and less compressed. The left valves are very distinc-
tive in having a sharp raised rim around the anterior end.
Remarks.-No other species of Cytherella has been observed by the
author which closely approaches this species. It is fairly common in the
New Lebanon Quarry material.
Types.-Holotype No. S-3247, Florida Geological Survey. Paratype
slide No. 3650, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.62 mm., height 0.41 mm.


Genus CYTHERELLOIDEA Alexander, 1929
CYTHERELLOIDEA FLORIDANA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 2, 5
Carapace elongate, greatest length above the middle; anterior end
compressed, broadly and evenly rounded; posterior obliquely truncate
and much thickened; dorsal margin strongly sinuate, with a distinct
notch above the region of the muscle-scars; ventral margin nearly
straight. In both valves a strong rim starts beneath the notch in the dorsal
margin, follows around the dorsal, anterior and ventral margins to the
point where the posterior truncation is rounded into the ventral margin.
In both valves there are two broad swellings at the posterior end, from
which two curved ridges extend almost to the anterior rim. The upper
ridge decidedly sinuous. Surface of carapace otherwise smooth.
* In the formulation of the new generic and specific names used in this report, the author was
materially assisted by Dr. Paul G. Moorhead, Head of the Department of Classical Languages,
Louisiana State University.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3248, S-3249, Florida Geological Survey.
Paratype slide No. 3651, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.60 mm., height 0.38 mm.


Suborder PODOCOPA Sars, 1866
Family BAIRDIIDAE Sars, 1887
Genus BAIRDOPPILATA Coryell, Sample and Jennings, 1935
BAIRDOPPILATA LEVYENSIS Howe, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 3, 6
Carapace large, smooth, inflated, with a distinctly angular appear-
ance. Left valve highest at the center, sloping in a nearly straight line
to the anterior, but the posterior slope is arcuate. Ventral margin nearly
straight. Both ends subangulate, the angulation at the anterior being
higher and broader than the posterior. The right valve more angulate
than the left. Dorsal margin a nearly straight line, forming distinct angu-
lations with the straight posterior and anterior dorsal slopes. Ventral
margin sinuate, incurved at the middle, and curving upwards to the
angulate anterior and posterior ends. Left valve much larger than the
right and overlapping it all the way around. The line of overlap appears
quite regular; however, the sharp edges of the right valve project farther
at the ends of the dorsal margin than elsewhere. They are finely dentate
and fit into narrow crenulate grooves in the left valve. These grooves are
so concealed beneath the overhanging edge of the left valve as to be
invisible unless the valve is turned nearly on edge. Viewed from the
inside, the valves are deep, and are fringed around the anterior, ventral
and posterior margins by the projecting flap of the inner margin. The
marginal area is not broad, but the line of concrescence lies nearer the
outer than the inner margin, and the portion inside the line of con-
crescence projects distinctly into the interior of the shells. The marginal
area of the left valve is distinctly grooved for the reception of the right.
The shell material is too thick to identify radial pore canals and the
muscle-scars are indistinct.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3250, S-3251, Florida Geological Survey. Para-
type slide No. 3652, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 1.35 mm., height 0.90 mm.





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


BAIRDOPPILATA VERNONI Howe, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 1, 4
Carapace large, elongate, graceful, sharply pointed behind, more
broadly pointed in front. Dorsal margin arched; ventral margin straight
mi the middle, curving upward in front and behind to the pointed ends.
Left valve larger than the right and overlapping strongly along the entire
dorsal margin and at the middle of the ventral margin. Viewed from the
inside the valves are moderately shallow, both valves having broad
marginal areas on the anterior and posterior, but somewhat narrower in
the middle of the venter. The line of concrescence lies near the outer
margin, and the inner portion of the marginal area projects strongly.
Raised lip-lines are present near the outer margin below the anterior
and posterior ends of the right valve, and an incised lip-line is present
along the entire dorsal margin, and the middle of the ventral margin
of the left valve. Just above the anterior and posterior ends, the lip-line
of the dorsal margin of the left is distinctly deepened to form narrow,
elongate, finely crenulate sockets. The area of muscular attachment is
almost central, but the individual scars are rather indistinct.
Named in honor of Dr. Robert O. Vernon of the Florida Geological
Survey.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3252, S-3253, Florida Geological Survey. Para-
type slide No. 3653, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 1.50 mm., height of right valve
0.75 mm., of left valve 0.89 mm.


Family CYTHERIDAE Baird, 1850
Subfamily CYTHERIDEINAE Sars, 1925
Genus CLITHROCYTHERIDEA Stephenson, 1936
CLITHROCYTHERIDEA SAGITTARIA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 5-7
Carapace small, elongate; highest at the anterior cardinal angle; dorsal
and ventral margins sub-parallel, the dorsal margin having a depression
behind the cardinal angle, the ventral margin faintly concave. Anterior
end broadly and obliquely rounded; posterior end angulate below the
middle. Viewed from above the carapace is arrow-head-shaped; with dis-
tinct notches in the sides near the posterior. Surface rather strongly
sculptured in the right valve, less so in the left. The anterior end is
flanked by a heavy marginal rim which continues narrowly along the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


ventral margin to the posterior end. Inside the marginal rim lies a deep
incised groove. From a point just above and in front of the posterior
angulation, a strong ridge extends in an arcuate manner to the posterior
angulation. A similar ridge follows sinuously inside the ventral margin
about two-thirds the distance to the anterior end. There is also a central
ridge. All three of these ridges are more prominent near the posterior
where they tend to become bulbous. The surface is covered with coarse
punctations. Viewed from the inside, the valves are rather shallow.
Marginal areas comparatively broad, with numerous radial pore canals.
The line of concrescence coincides with the inner margin except for a
short distance at the anterior. The marginal area of the right valve bears
a high carinate ridge which fits into a lip-line on the left. Hinge of the
right valve consists of heavy crenulate terminal cusps between which
extends a straight crenulate groove. In the left the dorsal margin is slight-
ly arched at the ends to accommodate the crenulate sockets. Between the
sockets there is a strong projecting crenulate bar.
The specific name is derived from Latin, Sagittarius, meaning an
archer.
Remarks.-This species bears strong resemblance in its pattern of
ornamentation to C. caldwellensis (Howe and Chambers). The orna-
mentation is much more pronounced, however, and viewed dorsally the
two species are quite distinct, as C. caldwellensis is ovate, tapering to
the rounded ends without the latteral posterior notches which charac-
terize C. sagittaria.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3254, S-3255, S-3256, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3654, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.60 mm., height 0.32 mm.,
diameter 0.29 mm.

CLITHROCYTHERIDEA LEBANONENSIS Howe, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 3, 4
Carapace small, elongate; dorsal and ventral margins subparallel;
the dorsal margin nearly straight, the ventral slightly sinuate; highest at
the anterior cardinal angle; anterior and posterior ends obliquely round-
ed; the anterior with a broad thickened rim which approximately parallels
the margin. There is a similar rim slightly removed from the ventral part
of the posterior end. Between these rims and the margin are a number
of distinct reticulations. Surface completely reticulate, the reticulations
more or less being in rows parallel to the margins. There is also a faint





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


indication of a swelling in the area of the muscle scars just in front of
the middle. Viewed from the inside the valves are shallow; marginal
areas moderately broad and traversed by numerous radial pore canals.
The line of concrescence coincides with the inner margin except for a
short distance at the anterior. The hinge is comparatively delicate, con-
sisting in the right valve of crenulate terminal cusps with a recessed
groove between them along the dorsal margin; in the left the terminal
crenulate sockets are shallow, but between them is a thin, raised, crenu-
late bar.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3257, S-3258, Florida Geological Survey. Para-
type slide No. 3655, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.61 mm., height 0.31 mm.,
diameter 0.28.

Genus AULOCYTHERIDEA Howe, n. gen.
GENOTYPE: Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe, n. sp.
Carapace rather similar to Cytheridea in lateral view. Ovate in dorsal
view, with the line of contact sinuous. In ventral view the line of con-
tact is nearly straight. Marginal areas fairly broad and regular, with
numerous radial pore canals. The line of concrescence and inner margin
coincide. The valves articulate with each other by means of furrows,
bars, and flanges. In the right valve a high flange starts at the anterior
end, but just in front of the middle it departs distinctly from the outer
margin and is separated from it by a groove which continues around
the posterior end a short distance. The flange continues up the posterior
dorsal slope to the posterior cardinal angle. Between the cardinal angles
of the right valve there is a low bar, separated from the dorsal margin
by a straight groove. In the left valve the hingement is more obvious.
Between the cardinal angles there is a high broad bar separated from
the dorsal margin by a distinct broad groove which tapers on each end.
Beneath each end of the bar is a socket-like depression for the reception
of the ends of the marginal flange of the right. From these socket-like
depressions a faint lip-line extends around the marginal area. The left
valve then overlaps the right around the front, lower and rear margins,
with the overlap being most in the postero-ventral area. In the dorsal
area, the valves interlock with each other in a manner which produces
a sinuous line of contact. The muscle-scars are obscured by the thick
shell material in most specimens, but are clear on several and consist of
a vertical row of four oval scars. In front of the uppermost is a v-shaped
scar, and in front of the lowermost is an oval scar.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


The generic name is derived from Latin, aula, meaning a court yard,
plus the old generic name Cytheridea.
Remarks.-The genotype is A. margodentata Howe, n. sp. There is a
similar but much smaller and more quadrate species in the Ocala lime-
stone at localities near Ocala, Florida.

AULOCYTHERIDEA MARGODENTATA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 11-16
Carapace plump, ovate in side and dorsal views; dorsal outline arched,
ventral straight, both ends obliquely rounded and bearing a double row
of sharp downwardly directed spines, those on the anterior being the
stronger; surface in young molts reticulate, later pustulose, and in the
adult ornamented with concentric rows of rounded nodes.
The specific name is derived from Latin, Margo, margin, and dentalus,
toothed.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3259, S-3260, S-3261, S-3262, S-3263, Florida
Geological Survey. Paratype slide No. 3656, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.70 mm., height 0.44 mm., thick-
ness 0.43.

Genus PARACYTHERIDEA Miiller, 1894
PARACYTHERIDEA SCORPIONA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 15-17
Carapace in side view elongate, highest at the anterior cardinal angle;
anterior broadly and obliquely rounded, posterior pointed with an
elongate caudal process; surface ornamented by two prominent spines,
one near the dorsal margin behind the middle, the other an elongate,
almost alaform backwardly directed spine near the middle of the ventral
area. In front of these spines, and behind the muscular-swelling, the
carapace bears a distinct sulcus which extends from the dorsal margin
to alaform spine. Behind the upper of the two major spines in the left
valve, there is another small sharp swelling. The dorsal margin of this
valve is strongly angled at the posterior socket. The right valve is similar
in ornamentation but the posterior cardinal angle is much lower. In both
valves the muscular-swelling in front of the middle bears one or two
distinct projecting knobs from which a sharp raised line extends to the
anterior cardinal angle. The surface bears a reticulate pattern of widely





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


spaced fine raised lines. Eye-spots are apparent behind and below the
anterior cardinal angle. The hinge forms a nearly straight line; in the
right valve the ends are formed by long narrow dentate cusps with a
finely crenulated groove between. In the left are terminal sockets, be-
tween which the dorsal margin is crenulate.
The specific name is derived from Latin, scorpionius, meaning be-
longing to a scorpion.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3264, S-3265, S-3266, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3657, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.72 mm., height 0.40 mm., breadth
0.60 mm.

PARACYTHERIDEA SCORPIONA var. PERMUTATA
Howe, n. var.
Plate 1, figures 13, 14
Variety differing from the typical species in the right valve only.
This valve possesses an added spine immediately below the posterior
cardinal angle. The spine varies from round and blunt to almost blade-
like, and in some specimens extends backward almost as far as the caudal
process.
The variety name is derived from Latin, permutatus, meaning altered.
Types.-Holotype No. S-3267, Florida Geological Survey. Paratype
slide No. 3658, author's collection.

PARACYTHERIDEA VERNONI Howe, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 18-20
Carapace elongate, stream-lined, broad, with a distinct ala on each
valve which ends in a backwardly directed spine; dorsal outline of both
valves sinuous, highest at the anterior cardinal angle; anterior broadly
rounded; ventral outline slightly convex; ventral surface broad, flattened
because of the alae and ribbed; posterior end drawn out into a pronounced
caudal process. Surface covered with fine raised curved lines and faint
reticulations and marked in the middle of each valve by a distinct sulcus
which extends from the dorsal margin behind the anterior cardinal angle
to the ventral ala. Eye-spots rather indistinct on the exterior, but the
sinus which leads to them is obvious beneath the hinge from the inside.
The hinge of the right valve is a straight series of crenulations, projecting
at the ends, recessed in the middle.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


Named in honor of Dr. Robert O. Vernon of the Florida Geological
Survey.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3268, S-3269, S-3270, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3659, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.73 mm., height 0.40 mm., breadth
0.43 mm.

Subfamily CYTHERINAE Dana, 1852
Genus CYTHERETTA Miller, 1894
CYTHERETTA INFIRMA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 1, 2
Carapace somewhat compressed, small for the genus, elongate, ovate,
dorsal and ventral outlines gently arcuate; anterior and posterior ends
rounded; left valve larger than right and more regular in its outline, the
right having an irregular dorsal outline. Highest at the anterior cardinal
angle which lies just in front of the middle. Surface smooth except for
the posterior slope which bears a number of irregular depressions. On the
inside, the valves show the typical broad marginal area of the genus with
the inner margin s-shaped near the anterior, with numerous long curved
radial pore canals. Hinge in the right valve consists of a high pointed
anterior tooth, behind which lies a socket, a groove along the dorsal
margin and a smaller, elongate, posterior tooth.
The specific name is derived from Latin, infirmus, meaning feeble.
Types.-Holotype No. S-3271; paratypes Nos. S-3272, S-3273, Florida
Geological Survey. Paratype slide No. 3660, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.95 mm., height 0.45 mm.

Genus BRACHYCYTHERE Alexander
BRACHYCYTHERE LEBANONENSIS Howe, n. sp.
Plate 5, figures 1-3
Carapace rather small for the genus, elongate, dorsal and ventral
margins nearly straight and parallel; anterior broadly and obliquely
rounded; posterior subangular, with the angulation below the middle;
each valve possesses a broad rounded ala, the outer edge of which is
keeled; surface practically smooth. The interior of the valves is deep; the
marginal area regular and parallel to the outer margin; the line of con-
crescence departs from the inner margin at both ends; radial pore canals






OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


numerous. The hinge is comparatively weak; in the right valve consisting
of a high sharp anterior tooth, behind which lies a deep, obliquely
rounded socket which is continuous with a groove in the dorsal margin
extending to the posterior cardinal angle where an elongate finely cren-
ulate tooth is formed parallel to the postero-dorsal slope. Eye-spots are
hard to recognize from the exterior, but the eye sockets are easily dis-
tinguished from the interior and lie below and in front of the anterior
dentition.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3274, S-3275, S-3276, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3661, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.84 mm., height 0.46 mm., breadth
0.50 mm.

Genus NEPHOKIRKOS Howe, n. gen.
GENOTYPE: Nephokirkos aquaplanus. Howe, n. sp.
Carapace Cytheropteron-like in external appearance; in side view
moderately elongate; dorsal and ventral margins sub-parallel; the ventral
margin bearing a pronounced rounded ala; anterior obliquely rounded;
posterior bearing a pronounced upwardly turned caudal process which
is open to the interior. The area of muscle attachment marked by an ex-
ternal swelling in front of the center. A distinct glassy eye-spot is present
below and in front of the anterior cardinal angle. Hinge-like straight; in
the right valve consisting of a pointed anterior tooth, in front of and
below which lies the ocular sinus and behind which is a deep socket.
From this socket a finely crenulate groove extends beneath the dorsal
margin to the posterior cardinal angle, where an elongate rounded tooth
is located on the postero-dorsal slope. In the left valve the ocular sinus
is located in front of and below a deep, ovate socket. Behind the socket
is a high knob-like tooth from which a high, minutely crenulate, straight
ridge extends to the oblique posterior socket, over which the dorsal
margin is arched. Marginal area of regular width around anterior and
posterior ends, but obscured by an infold of the ventral margin in front
of the middle; Radial pore canals few above the middle of the anterior
end, more below; very few present in the posterior.
The generic name is derived from Greek, Nepho, a cloud, and Kirkos,
a kind of hawk.
Remarks.-This genus is based on the single new species N. aquaplanus
The external form of it fits Cytheropteron; in fact its appearance is quite
close to that of a Cretaceous species described from Texas. The hinge;





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


however, bears no resemblance to Cytheropteron, and is related to
Brachycythere, differing in the crenulate groove of the right valve and
bar of the left, and in the lack of pronounced serrations on the posterior
tooth of the right valve. The smaller number of radial pore canals and
the upturned caudal process also help to separate it from Brachycythere.
The character of the hinge seems to indicate that the genus belongs in
the subfamily Cytherinae.

NEPHOKIRKOS AQUAPLANUS Howe, n. sp.
Plate 5, figures 4-6
Carapace streamlined like the cabin of a seaplane; dorsal margin
nearly straight, ventral outline obscured in side view by a broad flaring,
keeled, bluntly pointed, ala, but the margin slightly incurved in front
of the middle; anterior obliquely rounded, with a broad rim, marked on
the inside by an incised line, posterior tapering into a pronounced,
upwardly-turned, open caudal process. Surface pitted, except on the
caudal process; a fine line of pits extending the length of the ala, and
a row of coarse pits lying immediately below it. The remainder of the
ventral surface of the ala is marked by irregular longitudinal raised lines.
The pits show a definite longitudinal arrangement except in the area
of the muscular swelling in front of the center, whether they are grouped
around the small swelling. The muscle-scars, themselves, however, are
largely obscured by the ornamentation. Internal characters are given in
the preceding generic description.
The specific name is derived from Latin, Aqua, water, and plans,
flat, but referring to the fuselage of a modern seaplane.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3277, S-3278, S-3279, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3662, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.70 mm., height 0.36 mm., breadth
0.42 mm.
Genus HEMICYTHERE Sars, 1925
HEMICYTHERE PHRYGIONIA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 4, 8, 15
Carapace plump, subrectangular in side view, lenticular in dorsal
view; dorsal margin nearly straight; the posterior cardinal angle very
sharp, particularly in the right valve, ventral margin incurved just in
front of the middle, anterior broadly and obliquely rounded, posterior
pointed, concave above, bearing two distinct spines below. Surface






OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


reticulate, like fine needlework, with several high thin raised longitudinal
lines, and with a sharp ridge just below the posterior cardinal angle. The
anterior end is bordered by a low rim, behind which is a row of coarse
reticulations. The position of the muscle-scars is indicated by a small
rounded swelling near the center, and the valves show a clear, glassy
eye-spot below the anterior cardinal angle. Marginal areas of rather
uniform breadth crossed by numerous radial pore canals. The inner
margin and line of conscrescence coincide. The hinge of the right valve
consists of a high pointed anterior tooth, in front of which is a distinct
ocular sinus, and behind which is a deep, oblique socket, extending into
a groove along the dorsal margin, which ends with an ovate tooth oblique
to the hinge line.
The specific name is derived from Latin, phrygionius, meaning
wrought with a needle.

Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3280, S-3281, S-3282, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3663, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.68 mm., height 0.40 mm., breadth
0.40 mm.

HEMICYTHERE LIENOSA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 5-7
Carapace subquadrate, very plump, greatest thickness below and
behind the middle; dorsal and ventral margins nearly straight, converg-
ing slightly toward the posterior; anterior broadly and obliquely rounded
with a rim behind which is a row of coarse reticulations. Posterior sub-
acute, concave above, convex below, and bearing two ribs. Surface for
the most part pitted, though it is nearly smooth and thickened in an arc
in front of the subcentral muscular-swelling. It is also ornamented with
a very strong projecting ridge below the posterior cardinal angle, and
by two longitudinal ribs above the ventral margin, the upper of which
is bifurcate toward the rear. Ocular tubercles are present as clear raised
glassy knobs below and in front of the anterior cardinal angle. Hinge
and marginal areas similar to preceding species.

The specific name is derived from Latin, lienosus, meaning swollen.

Remarks.-This species bears considerable resemblance to H. phryg-
iona, but is much shorter, relatively plumper, with pits on the surface
instead of reticulations, and posterior bears two longitudinal ribs instead
of having three marginal spines.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3283, S-3284, S-3285, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3664, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.55 mm., height 0.38 mm., breadth
0.40 mm.

HEMICYTHERE CRIBRARIA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 9-11
Carapace subovate, highest in front of center; dorsal margin straight;
anterior broadly and obliquely rounded, and finely rimmed; ventral mar-
gin decidedly sinuous; posterior blunt to pointed, bearing two small ribs,
above which the postero-dorsal slope is concave. The surface is covered
with a fine sieve-like reticulate pattern. The ocular tubercle is very small
and lies below the anterior cardinal angle. Viewed dorsally or ventrally
the carapace is lenticular. Marginal areas regular in width and crossed
by numerous radial pore canals, except near the middle of the ventral
margin where the margin is inturned, particularly in the right valve.
Hinge typical of the genus.
The specific name is derived from Latin, cribrarius, meaning belong-
ing to a sieve.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3286, S-3287, S-3288, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3665, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.70 mm., height 0.40 mm.; thick-
ness 0.40 mm.

HEMICYTHERE BELLULA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 12-14
Carapace subovate, in side view, sublenticular in dorsal view; dorsal
margin slightly arched; ventral margin slightly concave; anterior broadly
and obliquely rounded, rimmed and minutely denticulate; posterior with
an upwardly-turned point, concave above and denticulate below. Surface
covered with rather coarse reticulations which tend to radiate from the.
muscular swelling, becoming coarser toward the anterior end. The valves
also possess a slightly raised ridge just below the posterior cardinal angle.
The eye-spot is small, glassy and situated on the anterior rim just below
and in front of the anterior cardinal angle. Marginal areas typical, with
very many radial pore canals. Hinge structure typical, but rather strong,
particularly at the anterior end.
The specific name is derived from Latin, bellulus, meaning neat.





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


Remarks.-This species at first glance resembles H. cribraria, but has
much coarser ornamentation, its lower margin is finely denticulate, the
posterior end differently shaped, the radial pore canals more numerous
and clearer, and the hinge much stronger.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3329, S-3289, S-3290, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3666, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.62 mm., height 0.40 mm., breadth
0.36 mm.

HEMICYTHERE MOTA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 16-18
Carapace in side view subovate, in dorsal view lenticular; dorsal out-
line of right valve arched, of left nearly straight; ventral margin slightly
sinuous; anterior end broadly and obliquely rounded, bearing a smooth
rim behind which is a row of reticulations; posterior end pointed, concave
above, convex below where it bears two to three ribs, the ribs tending to
project slightly as points. Surface pitted, with the pits subdued or per-
haps obscured by shell deposit in an arcuate belt which extends from
the middle of the dorsal margin forward and down past the muscular area
to near the middle of the ventral margin. There is a fine raised line near
the dorsal margin which terminates in a point just below the posterior
cardinal angle and several similar lines parallel to the ventral margin.
The eye-spot is rather obscure and is situated on the marginal rim below
the anterior cardinal angle. The internal shell characters appear normal
for the genus.
The specific name is derived from Latin, motus, meaning altered.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3291, S-3292, S-3293, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3667, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.68 mm., height 0.40 mm.,
breadth 0.40 mm.

HEMICYTHERE ALEATORIA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 20, 21

Carapace subrectangular, dorsal outline slightly arched, ventral sinu-
ous; anterior broadly and obliquely rounded with a faint sharp rim close
to the edge; posterior pointed below the middle, concave above, con-
vex below, rimmed, and finely dentate. Surface bearing a reticulate and
angular network of fine raised lines, between which the depressed areas





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


bear an irregular number of spots like those on dice. On the ventral sur-
face a longitudinal raised line starts in front, and bifurcates near the
middle. The ocular tubercles are prominent, glassy and lie below and in
front of the cardinal angles. The marginal areas are moderately broad
and are crossed by numerous radial pore canals. They are visible through
the carapace from the outside. The hinge is well developed and typical
of the genus. The ocular sinus of each valve lies in front of the dentition
and is extremely large.
The specific name is derived from Latin, aleatorius, meaning belong-
ing to dice.
Remarks.-The shell material is comparatively delicate for the size of
the carapace. It is one of the rarer species at this locality.

Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3294, S-3295, Florida Geological Survey. Para-
type slide No. 3668, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.75 mm., height 0.40 mm.

HEMICYTHERE LEMNISCATA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 19, 22
Carapace moderately elongate, subquadrate in side view, highest at
the anterior cardinal angle; dorsal and ventral outlines nearly straight
and converging gently toward the posterior; anterior broadly and oblique-
ly rounded, finely denticulate, and bearing a fine rim near the margin;
posterior pointed below the middle, concave above, convex below with
a rim and a double row of small teeth. Somewhat lens-shaped when view-
ed from above, but the rims are prominent at the ends, and the valves are
slightly contracted in the middle. Greatest thickness in the area of the
muscle attachments in front of the middle. Surface ornamented by a
series of ribbon-like longitudinal ribs, the two most prominent of which
pass irregularly over the muscular swelling. Another prominent rib more
or less parallels the ventral margin. Other ribs cross the carapace at vari-
ous angles to these main ribs so as to produce a complex reticular pattern.
Each of the depressed areas between these cross riblets in most cases
bear a prominent normal pore canal. Viewed from the inside, the dorsal
margin is gently arched, the ventral sinuous near the middle; the anterior
and posterior ends are bordered by wide regular marginal areas crossed
by numerous radial pore canals.
The specific name is derived from Latin, lemniscatus, meaning
ribboned.






OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


Types.-Cotypes S-3296, S-3297, S-3298, Florida Geological Survey.
Paratype slide No. 3669, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.73 mm., height 0.42 mm.,
breadth 0.40 mm.

Genus UROCYTHERE Howe, n. gen.
GENOTYPE: Urocythere attenuata Howe, n. sp.
Carapace subcompressed, elongate-ovate, highest at anterior cardinal
angle, rounded in front, with a pronounced caudal process in the postero-
ventral region. Lenticular in dorsal view. Surface nearly smooth but with
faint irregular longitudinal lines, appearing polished. Normal pore canals
widely spaced. Muscular swelling practically unrecognizable from the
exterior but marked by a distinct round pit on the inside. Eye-spots ap-
pearing as small glassy beads below and in front of the anterior cardinal
angle. Hinge consisting in the right valve of a high pointed anterior tooth,
below which lies the ocular sinus, and behind which is a deep obliquely
rounded socket. The posterior tooth is ovate, rounded and oblique. Both
anterior and posterior teeth lie below the dorsal margin and are separated
from it by a fine groove. The hinge of the left valve consists of a deep
anterior socket, separated from the ocular sinus by a partition. The pos-
terior cardinal angle bears an ovate socket, above which the dorsal margin
is arched. Between the sockets there is a strong projecting bar which
terminates anteriorly in a rounded tooth-like swelling. The marginal
areas are broad, the line of concrescence lying close to the inner margin
on the anterior and posterior and coinciding with it elsewhere. The
marginal area in the anterior region is crossed by about 8 to 10 widely
spaced pairs of straight radial pore canals, and in the region of the caudal
process there are 5 or 6 more, apparently unpaired.
The generic name is derived from Greek, oura, meaning a tail.
Remarks.-In the lateral view this genus has the outline of Caudites
Coryell and Fields, but lacks the surface ornamentation. It has a different
hinge structure and the radial pore canals are very different. It is more
elongate than Hemicythere, lacks its reticulate surface ornamentation,
and the radial pore canals are quite different.

UROCYTHERE ATTENUATA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 1-3
Carapace elongate, highest at the anterior cardinal angle. Lenticular
in dorsal view with the dorsal margin of each valve hearing a slightly





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


swollen rim on which are situated the very small glassy eye-spots. Dorsal
margin and hinge slightly arched; ventral margin sinuous near the middle,
faintly rimmed behind; both margins converging slightly toward the
posterior. Posterior concave above, with a pronounced caudal process
below. Anterior broadly and obliquely rounded. Surface whitish, appear-
ing to be polished, with very faint irregular longitudinal lines barely
recognizable and with a faint angular vein just below the posterior cardi-
nal angle. The shell substance, however, is thin enough to permit the line
of the inner margin to be visible from the outside, as are the widely
spaced paired radial pore canals on the anterior.
The specific name is derived from Latin, attenuatus, meaning weak-
ened.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3299, S-3300, S-3301, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3670, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.62 mm., height 0.32 mm.,
breadth 0.27 mm.

Genus SPONGICYTHERE Howe, n. gen.
GENOTYPE: Spongicythere spissa Howe, n. sp.
Carapace nearly egg-shaped, flattened slightly dorsally and ventrally;
completely enveloped by a thick, extremely porous, sponge superstruc-
ture. The superstructure is supported by numerous pillars. Dorsal and
ventral margins nearly straight and converge slightly toward the pos-
terior. Anterior and posterior ends rounded, the anterior somewhat
obliquely. Oval eye-spots are present below the anterior cardinal angle.
In inner view, the valves are deep. The marginal areas extremely broad,
with numerous radial pore canals. The inner margin and line of con-
crescence coincide and are sinuous in the antero-ventral region. The
outer margin is finely dentate around the anterior, ventral and posterior
edges. The hinge is strong. In the right valve it consists of a sharp pointed
anterior tooth, in front of which lies the ocular sinus, and behind which
is a deep socket, followed by a grooved dorsal margin and a rounded,
knob-like, oblique posterior tooth. In the left valve the ocular sinus and
anterior socket are separated by a partition. Behind the anterior socket
there is a prominent tooth, from which a straight bar extends to the
posterior cardinal area where it appears to be arched over the socket.
The oval posterior socket is largely open to the interior. The position of
the muscle attachments is marked by a small rounded pit in front of the
center, but the scars were not recognizable. The greatest thickness, how-
ever, lies behind the middle.





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


The generic name is derived from Latin, spongia, meaning a sponge,
plus the older generic name Cythere.


SPONGICYTHERE SPISSA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 7, 8, 10, 11
The above generic description covers most of the specific characters.
The coarse angular pores are arranged in longitudinal lines which are
more or less concentric to the middle of the ventral margin. The pillars
which support the superstructure are visible above the hinge of either
valve, or are easily visible when the delicate superstructure is broken.
The radial pore canals appear straight, apparently one to each marginal
crenulation.
The specific name is derived from Latin, spissa, meaning thick.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3302, S-3303, S-3304, S-3305, Florida Geologi-
cal Survey. Paratype slide No. 3671, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.84 mm., height 0.50 mm.,
breadth 0.51 mm.


Genus OCCULTOCYTHEREIS Howe, n. gen.
GENOTYPE: Occultocythereis delumbata Howe, n. sp.
Carapace very small, very compressed, angular, highest at anterior
cardinal angle; dorsal and ventral margins nearly straight and converging;
anterior end broadly and somewhat obliquely rounded with a prominent
rim and marginal teeth and dentitions; posterior end narrower, more or
less pointed when viewed on the inside, but sometimes rounded when
viewed from the outside. Prominent angular tubercles occupy the pos-
terior cardinal angles of each valve, from which a raised rim extends
along the dorsal margin in some species. Eye-spots are present at the
anterior cardinal angles. A broad muscular-swelling may usually be de-
tected below and in front of the middle. Surface smooth or obscurely
pitted. The marginal areas are rather broad and are crossed by most
peculiar radial pore canals. Along the inner margin these are few in
number, but near the middle of the marginal area they divide into two,
three or four branches and appear fairly numerous at the outer margin.
The hinge consists of a high sharp anterior tooth with a small ocular
sinus in front and a deep socket behind. The dorsal margin bears a faint
groove and there is a prominent tooth at the posterior cardinal angle.
In the left valve the ocular sinus and anterior socket are confluent in





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 84


some specimens, but in most they are separated by a septum. Behind
the socket lies a prominent, high pointed tooth and long low bar. The
posterior cardinal angle has a ovate socket. Open forward to the interior.
In the Gulf Coast this genus extends as far back as early Middle
Eocene. Occultocythereis uptonensis (Stephenson) (see Cythereis up-
tonensis Stephenson, 1944, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 18, p. 451, pl. 76, fig.
9. Stephenson, 1946, idem, vol. 20, p. 341, pl. 45, fig. 3) has been report-
ed from the Reklaw and Weches formations of Texas. Stephenson did not
describe the internal features, but specimens in the author's collection
from the Weches at Smithville, Texas, show the characteristic branching
radial pore canals. Occultocythereis undosa (Gooch) (see Cythereis un-
dosa Gooch, 1939. Jour. Paleontology, vol. 13, p. 583, pl. 67, figs. 17, 18)
from the Cook Mountain belongs here. Occultocythereis broussardi
(Howe and Chamber) (see Cythereis broussardi Howe and Chambers,
1935, La. Geol. Survey Bull. 5, p. 24, pl. 1, fig. 12, pl. 4, fig. 6) from
the Jackson Eocene of Louisiana was more or less incorrectly figured.
The branching pore canals are partially indicated on the posterior end,
and were clearly misunderstood in the figure of the anterior end. A re-
examination of Jackson Eocene specimens shows that the canals branch
on both ends. Occultocythereis kempi (Howe and Law) (see Cythereis
(?) kempi Howe and Law, 1936, La. Geol. Survey Bull. 7, p. 47, pl. 4,
fig. 13) from the Byram marl of Wayne County, Mississippi, was incom-
pletely described. However from this species, and from 0. broussardi it
appears that the genus possesses a vertical row of four oval muscle scars
in front of which lies a heart-shaped scar.
The generic name is derived from Latin, occultus, meaning hidden,
disguised, plus the generic name Cythereis.

OCCULTOCYTHEREIS DELUMBATA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 7-10
Carapace very small, very angular, emaciated, compressed, highest
at the anterior cardinal angle; dorsal and ventral margins converging
toward posterior; anterior end broadly and somewhat obliquely rounded,
with a prominent rim and strong marginal dentitions. Back of the rim
is a single row of broad shallow reticulations. The posterior end is strong-
ly angulate, slightly concave above, slightly convex below and with
several strong marginal spines. The surface is nearly smooth, but with
oblique light is seen to be pitted. The normal pore canals are widely
spaced and rather large when viewed from the interior, where they seem
to be connected by a coarse network of faint furrows. Most specimens





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


show a single small spine on the postero-dorsal slope just above the pos-
terior extremity. The radial pore canals are about 8 to 10 in number
around the anterior end, and 5 or 6 in number below the posterior angu-
lation. These canals branch to perhaps 3 times that number by the time
they reach the outer margin. In most specimens the branching is visible
only by transmitted light after the specimen is moistened.
The species is not rare in the material from the New Lebanon quarry,
but is hard to find because of its small size. Somewhat similar specimens
are present in several samples of Ocala limestone which the author has
examined, but are too poorly preserved for exact specific identification.
The specific name is derived from Latin, delumbatus, meaning want-
ing sinews, weak.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3306, S-3307, Florida Geological Survey. Para-
type slide No. 3672, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.48 mm., height 0.24 mm., thick-
ness 0.15 mm.

Genus HIRSUTOCYTHERE Howe, n. gen.
GENOTYPE: Hirsutocythere hornotina Howe, n. sp.
Carapace of medium size, elongate-ovate, and completely covered
with long prickly spines. Dorsal outline nearly straight, ventral sinuous
in middle. Anterior end broadly and obliquely rounded; posterior nar-
rower, roundly pointed near the middle, the slope nearly straight above,
convex below. Ocular tubercles are prominent near the anterior cardinal
angle. Greatest thickness near the middle. The interior of the valves
exhibits a very broad marginal area, particularly around the anterior.
The radial pore canals are long, straight, and extend into the long margi-
nal spines. Normal pore canals are not readily recognizable. The area of
muscular attachment is recognizable by a small round depression in
front of the middle. The hinge consists in the right valve of a high point-
ed tooth overlying a small ocular sinus, behind which lies a deep socket
which narrows into a groove below the dorsal margin. The groove is
scarcely evident in the middle of the dorsal margin, but becomes evident
again near the rounded knob-like posterior tooth. In the left valve a
small deep socket overlies a fairly large ocular sinus, and is separated
from it by a thin septum. Behind the socket is a high wedge-shaped tooth,
from which the dorsal margin extends as a bar to the posterior socket,
over which the dorsal margin is arched in a semicircle. The socket is
open to the interior.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


The generic name is derived from Latin, hirsutus, meaning hairy,
prickly, plus the generic name Cythere.
Remarks.-Triebel* has recently given a very detailed re-description
of the genus Cythereis, based on the genotype Cythereis ornatissima
(Reuss), whose crenulate terminal teeth and reticulate ribbed surface
are very different from the genus here described.


HIRSUTOCYTHERE HORNOTINA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 3, 6, 9, 12
The rounded, prickly surface of this species is devoid of ribs. The
spines cover the entire surface, but are most prominent around the an-
terior and postero-ventral slope. Viewed dorsally the carapace is thick-
lenticular. The long spines on the posterior project at an angle from the
line of junction of the valves. Viewed ventrally there is a single spine in
either valve situated below and behind the middle which is more promi-
nent than the rest in most specimens. The species is common in the
material from New Lebanon.
The specific name is derived from Latin, hornotinus, meaning of one
year's growth.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3308, S-3309, S-3310, S-3311, Florida Geologi-
cal Survey. Paratype slide No. 3673, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.88 mm., height 0.47 mm.,
breadth 0.44 mm.


Genus LENIOCYTHERE Howe, n. gen.
GENOTYPE: Leniocythere lebanonensis Howe, n. sp.
Carapace large, ovate in side view, somewhat compressed; dorsal
margin nearly straight, ventral margin slightly sinuous near middle, an-
terior and posterior ends rounded, the anterior more broadly. Surface
nearly smooth or with longitudinal lines or reticulations over the central
portion. The margins with or without a narrow rim. A large ovate eye-
spot below the cardinal angle, bounded posteriorly by a slight depression.
The interior exhibits marginal areas which are only moderately broad,
but are regular and crossed by straight radial pore canals. Normal pore
canals rather widely spaced and larger on the interior than the exterior.
Hinge comparatively delicate, in the right valve, overlying the ocular
* Triebel, E., Die Ostracoden der deutschen Kreide. 3. Cytherideinae und Cytherinae aus der
Unteren Kreide. Senckenbergiana, Band 22, 1945, pp. 160-227, pls. 1-10





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


sinus is a pointed anterior tooth, behind which is a rather shallow oblique
socket narrowing into a faint groove in the dorsal margin which is more
pronounced towards the ends, and an ovate tooth at the posterior cardinal
angle. In the left valve, overlying the ocular sinus is an ovate socket,
behind which is a pointed tooth, from which the dorsal margin continues
as a ridge to the posterior cardinal angle where it is arched over the open
rear socket. The muscle-scars in the genotype consist of a vertical row
of four in front of which is a heart-shaped scar, below which is an ovate
scar, sometimes divided, and a third single ovate scar is located still
lower near the ventral margin and almost below the vertical row of four.
The hinge of this genus bears some resemblance to that possessed by
species formerly referred to Cythereis. The ovate-lenticular shape, com-
parative lack of ornamentation, and character of muscle-scars, however,
are quite different. It is much larger, more compressed, less ornate than
Leguminocythereis, its nearest relative, and particularly differs from it
by the fact that its line of concrescence coincides with the inner margin
around the anterior and posterior extremities.
To this genus should probably be assigned Leguminocythereis ? ap-
plinorum Swain, (1944, Jour. Paleontology vol. 20, p. 378, pl. 54, figs.
lla-e; pl. 55, figs. 10a-b). Swain was not able to figure the internal
characters, but externally it is close to the genotype, differing largely in
more abruptly rounded extremities, which are not described or figured
as dentate, and in somewhat coarser longitudinal sculpture, apparently
lacking in cross reticulation.
The generic name is derived from Latin, lenio, meaning to polish, to
make smooth, plus the generic name Cythere.


LENIOCYTHERE LEBANONENSIS Howe, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 1, 2, 4, 5
Carapace large, ovate in side view, lenticular in dorsal view, dorsal
margin nearly straight, but with a slight depression behind the anterior
cardinal angle; ventral margin slightly concave; anterior end broadly and
obliquely rounded and finely dentate; posterior end fairly evenly round-
ed, and bearing several obscure coarse tooth-like swellings, which tend
to merge so as to form almost a rim along the postero-ventral edge. Eye-
spots rather large, ovate, but not prominent. Surface whitish in appear-
ance, with several darker areas in the anterior half, and bearing an ob-
scure reticulate pattern, in which the longitudinal elements are strongest.
The interior of the valves is ample, with pronounced pits for the normal





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


pore canals. Marginal areas regular; the line of concrescence and inner
margin coinciding. The hinge is comparatively delicate for so large a
shell.
Remarks.-Specimens similar to those figured are not abundant in the
New Lebanon material, but smaller individuals, probably the young of
this species are reasonably common. The smaller specimens have a slight-
ly more prominent reticulate pattern of ornamentation, the line of the
inner margin is more distinct, and the ventral margin is somewhat more
sinuous than the ones figured, but the features mentioned are probably
characters of youth.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3312, S-3313, Florida Geological Survey. Para-
type slide No. 3674, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 1.02 mm., height 0.53 mm.

Genus CYTHEREIS* Jones, 1849
GENOTYPE: Cytherina ciliata Reuss = Cytherina ornatissima Reuss

Jones originally proposed Cythereis as a subgenus based on 9 ostra-
code species from the Cretaceous, but without selecting a genotype. Since
that time perhaps as many as a thousand species, fossil and recent have
been assigned to the genus. So far as the author knows, it was not until
1939 that a genotype was designated (Sutton and Williams, 1939, Jour.
Paleontology, p. 562). Cytherina ciliata Reuss, one of the original species
mentioned by Jones, was placed by Jones and Hinde, 1890, in the
synonymy of Cytherina ornatissima Reuss, a species described in the
same publication, but with page preference. Cythereis ornatissima, the
species designated as genotype, was refigured by Triebel from Bohemia,
and together with a number of similar species from the Lower Cretaceous
of Germany, formed the basis for Triebel's redefinition of the genus.
According to Triebel the genus is relatively large, massive, very nearly
rectangular. The longer margins straight, but converging toward the pos-
terior end of the shell. Over the forward end of the left valve is a flat to
nearly semicircular projection (hinge-ear), which is lacking on the right
valve. The anterior end is broadly rounded; provided with small border
teeth and strengthened with a strong rim. Posterior with the sides drawn
together, more or less triangular, and similarly provided with a border
rim. The lower half of the posterior end more convex, toothed; upper half
straight or concave. Left valve larger than right, overlapping it only with
* Redefined by Triebel, E., 1940, Senckenbergiana, vol. 22, pp. 174-180, pl. 2, figs. 27-30, 2 text
figs.





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


the "hinge-ear". The shell above and below distinctly flattened, with two
long ribs which on their front ends bear a distinct relationship to the
front marginal rim. The dorsal rib begins behind or under the glassy
eye-node with which each valve is furnished. The ventral flattened area
is triangular, increasing in breadth from front to back, and breaking off
suddenly toward the compressed posterior end of the shell. It is broader
than the dorsal flattened area. The shell in cross section is therefore
trapezoidal. There is a closing-muscle-protuberance that approaches the
shape of a half-ball midway up and somewhat in front of the middle of
the shell. It bears on its inner side near the posterior edge, a vertical
row of four scars of which the upper may be double by splitting. In
front lies a single v-shaped spot. Separated from and behind the closing-
muscle-swelling and midway between the dorsal and ventral ribs, begins
a third long rib which is generally shorter than either of these. The
middle rib can coalesce with the closing-muscle-swelling. The shell sur-
face is either smooth or often ornamented with small ledges, knots, sharp
points, or dimples.
The hinge of the right valve is equipped with two terminal teeth,
and immediately behind the forward tooth is a socket, from which extends
backward a long unnotched furrow. The front tooth, seen from above,
has the outline of a quarter circle; its posterior edge is almost straight
and makes almost a right angle with the margin of the valve; the inner
and forward edges forming an arc with the hinge margin of the valve,
and bearing several notches from which 3 to 5 furrows extend diagonally
over the tooth. The posterior tooth is coarse, triangular, and likewise
furrowed.
The marginal zone at the anterior end is massive, broad. The radial
pore canals do not appear closely spaced, sometimes exposed in indis-
tinct groups, unbranched, and very nearly straight. The inner margin and
line of concrescence coincide and parallel the shell margin. Normal pore
canals, because of the sculpture, are described as difficult to recognize.
The shell of the female is described as being shorter and more com-
pact than the more elongate and somewhat larger males.
As redefined, if the limits be held to strictly, the range of the genus
Cythereis is probably quite limited. A number of the species from the
Comanche series of Texas, described by Alexander as having smooth
terminal teeth, actually do show such crenulations as Triebel describes.
They likewise are rather lacking in normal pore canals. Such crenulations
are present on species from the Upper Cretaceous Annona and Selma
chalks, but in these cases the normal pore canals are more readily recog-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


nizable. However, on such similarly shaped Tertiary species as the author
has examined, the terminal teeth of the right valve appear to be smooth.
The following species questionably assigned to Cythereis, differ from
Triebel's redefinition in having smooth terminal teeth in the right valve,
in having pronounced normal pore canals which are very conspicuous
when viewed from the inside, and which near the anterior end are ar-
ranged in a definite row parallel to the anterior margin; and in lacking
any clearly defined median rib behind the closing-muscle-swelling. How-
ever, the other characters are so similar to those Triebel describes, that
the author does not feel justified at present in setting up an new genus
for them.

CYTHEREIS? SCUTULATA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 13-16
Carapace subrectangular, moderately elongate; somewhat alate; dorsal
margin slightly flattened, nearly straight and sloping gently back; ventral
margin sinuous near the middle, flattened, rimmed; anterior end broadly
and somewhat obliquely rounded, finely dentate, with a rim, behind
which is a row of coarse reticulations; posterior end somewhat compress-
ed, narrower, rimmed, with an angulation above the middle, above which
the slope is concave, but slightly convex and spiny below. Eye-spots and
muscular area prominent. The surface covered with a cobweb-like series
of reticulations, and bearing a low curved rib close to and more or less
parallel to the dorsal margin, and a second more prominent rib which
tends to form an ala near the ventral portion. Viewed from above or
below the carapace is sagittate, the reticulations on the ventral surface
being coarser than on the sides. The marginal areas are regular with
rather numerous radial pore canals and the hinge is typical of the genus
except that the terminal teeth of the right valve are not grooved. In the
inside the normal pore canals are prominent, especially a row which
lies close to and parallels the anterior inner margins.
The specific name is derived from Latin, scutulatus, meaning wrought
like a cobweb.
Remarks.-The hinge of this species is close to Hemicythere, but the
alate character of the carapace and flattened dorsal and ventral areas
is more like Cythereis. The nearest relative of this species is an un-
described one present in many lower Chickasawhay localities in Wayne
County, Mississippi. The Chickasawhay species has almost the same
shape and alae, but has much coarser reticulations on the surface.





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3314, S-3315, S-3316, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3675, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.80 mm., height 0.40 mm.,
breadth 0.40 mm.

CYTHEREIS? LEBANONENSIS Howe, n. sp.
Plate 5, figures 10-12
Carapace fairly large, plump, subrectangular in side view. Left valve
larger than right, overlapping it at the anterior cardinal angle with a
small "hinge-ear". Dorsal and ventral margins nearly straight and con-
verging slightly toward the posterior, but the posterior portion of each
obscured in side view by the swelling of the valves, and the ventral
margin actually somewhat incurved near the middle. Anterior end
obliquely rounded, finely dentate, rimmed, with reticulations behind
the rim. Posterior concave above, pointed below the middle and bearing
several ribs which tend to form spines. Ocular tubercles prominent, with
a depressed area behind them. Greatest thickness in front of the center
at the position of the distinct muscle-swelling behind which the carapace
is somewhat contracted. Dorsal margin somewhat flattened and bearing
a rib which starts below and behind the ocular tubercles and continues
upward and back away from the dorsal margin to the posterior cardinal
area. Ventral portion considerably more flattened, and bearing a rather
pronounced rib on the outer edge of the flattened area. This rib begins
near the anterior reticulations and continues backward to the posterior
fourth of the carapace, behind which point the carapace is greatly con-
tracted. Surface strongly reticulate, with the reticulations arranged in
such a manner as to be largely concentric to the muscular-swelling, and
yet appearing also to radiate from this point.
The interior of the valves is deep with prominent large normal pore
canals, a regular row of which lies parallel to and just inside the anterior
inner margin. Marginal areas regular around the anterior and the lower
half of the posterior ends, with rather numerous straight radial pore
canals; incurved near the middle of the ventral margin. Behind the ocular
sinus, which has almost the same appearance as the normal pore canals
in the anterior row, the hinge of the right valve has a high, sharp, back-
wardly concave anterior tooth. This tooth slopes back into a deep large
anterior socket, which in turn narrows into a distinct groove along the
dorsal margin. There is a large ovate smooth tooth at the posterior cadi-
nal angle. Behind a distinct ocular sinus, the hinge of the left valve con-
sists of a large oblique socket, rounded on the bottom, behind which is





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34


an oval projecting tooth from the upper part of which a bar extends be-
low the dorsal margin and projects slightly into an oval deep, oblique
posterior socket, which is only partially separated from the interior. The
muscle-scars lie in a distinct rounded pit and are hard to distinguish, but
there appear to be four rather elongate oval scars in a vertical row near
the back of the pit, and in front of the upper end of this row, a double
scar.
Remarks.-In dorsal view the outline of the anterior tooth of the right
valve is distinctly different from that possessed by Lower Cretaceous
species of Cythereis. The normal pore canals are most distinctive and
different, particularly the anterior row, and there is no median rib be-
hind the muscle-swelling. The species is closer, however, to Cythereis
than to Hemicythere, particularly in the flattened dorsal and ventral
areas and in the character of ornamentation. The nearest relative of this
species appears to be Cythereis chinsegutensis Swain, (1946, Jour. Pal-
eontology vol. 20, p. 377, pl. 54, figs. 9a-b; pl. 55, figs. 2a-c) described
from the Avon Park limestone in a well in Hernando County, Florida.
Swain's material was limited, and only a portion of the characters avail-
able for description. From his pictures and measurements C. chinseguten-
sis is proportionately shorter and higher; with a different posterior end,
especially above the middle; and with the marginal rim closer to the
anterior margin. From the dorsal sketch, this rim appears to be strongly
reticulate on its outer face, a feature not evident on C. ? lebanonensis.
The reticulations behind the anterior rim are apparently less strongly
developed in C. chinsegutensis, and the reticulations over the surface
proper seem to be more angular and without definite pattern around
the muscle-swellings. Swain's sketch of the hinge of the left valve of C.
chinsegutensis bears more resemblance to the hinge of C. ? lebanonensis
than does his description, but the other internal characters are not avail-
able for comparison. The two species are closely related and if abundant
material were available from Swain's locality they might be found to
overlap in some of the above apparent differences. Any relationships,
however, to C. florinensis Howe and Chambers, as suggested by Swain,
are quite remote.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3317, S-3318, S-3319, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3676, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 1.20 mm., height 0.67 mm.,
breadth 0.60 mm.




OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


CYTHEREIS? BIALATA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 5, figures 7-9
Carapace in side view subrhomboidal, highest at the anterior cardinal
angle. Dorsal margin straight, ventral nearly straight, but with an infold
in front of the middle. The dorsal and ventral margins tend to converge
toward the posterior. The anterior end is broadly and obliquely rounded;
the edge finely denticulate, with a high rim, behind which lies a row of
elongate triangular reticulations. Posterior end pointed below the middle;
concave above with a single spine above the angulation; convex, with a
thickened rim and 5 or 6 marginal spines below. Two wing-like ribs are
present on either valve. The uppermost starts below and behind the
round, glassy eye-spot and continues backward with increasing elevation
so as to obscure the rear portion of the hinge line in side view. It forms
an acute point above and behind the posterior cardinal angle, where it
turns abruptly downward, thence back across the carapace to the muscu-
lar-swelling in front of the center. The longer wing-like rib leaves the
lower part of the anterior end in such a manner as to appear to be actual-
ly a continuation of the anterior rim. After leaving the anterior, it con-
tinues backward away from the ventral margin, but more or less parallel
to it in side view, to the posterior quarter of the carapace, where it forms
a high sharp point. The actual edges of these ribs are smooth, but their
sides are reticulate. Two other ribs on the surface are worthy of special
note. They extend from the muscular-swelling forward toward the an-
terior rim. The lower one is straight, but the upper one, after starting
parallel to the lower, curves upward and bifurcates.
Viewed from the inside, the marginal areas are of regular width
around the anterior and ventral margins to the tip of the posterior end,
but are sharply infolded just in front of the middle of the ventral margin.
The line of concrescence appears to coincide with the inner margin and
the radial pore canals are straight and rather numerous. Normal pore
canals are quite distinct and rather large over most of the interior surface
and there is a regular row of them parallel to the anterior end just inside
the inner margin. The muscle scars lie in a deep circular pit and are hard
to distinguish. They apparently consist of a vertical row of about four
near the back edge of the pit with two closely spaced scars near the upper
front edge of the pit. The hinge is rather massive. Behind a large ocular
sinus in the right valve there is a high pointed tooth, behind which lies
a deep socket which tapers to a groove along the dorsal margin. The
posterior tooth is high and oval and situated on the postero-dorsal edge.
In the left valve, behind the ocular sinus is a large socket; an oval tooth
which extends down and forward from the dorsal margin; a narrow,





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


sometimes faintly crenulate bar along the straight dorsal margin, and an
oval posterior socket, open to the interior, beneath an arch in the postero-
dorsal margin.
The specific name is derived from Latin, bi, meaning two, and alatus,
winged.
Relationships.-While differing in a number of details, this species
comes closer to the genus Cythereis in many of its characters than to any
other described genus. It belongs to a very distinct group of species in
the Gulf Coast Tertiary sediments which includes C. bursilloides Stad-
nichenko, C. (?) vicksburgensis Howe and Law, and C. bicarinata Swain,
as well as several additional undescribed species. It is easily the largest
of the species in this group. C. bicarinata is closest to it in ornamentation,
but can be separated easily by the non-divaricate character of the upper
of the two ribs which extend from the muscle swelling toward the anterior
margin, by its more abruptly rounded anterior margin, as well as by size.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3320, S-3321, S-3322, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 8677, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.97 mm., height 0.51 mm.,
breadth 0.47 mm.


Subfamily XESTOLEBERINAE Sars, 1928
Genus XESTOLEBERIS Sars, 1866
XESTOLEBERIS GUNTERI Howe, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 17-19
Carapace large, rather tan in color, subovate in lateral view; the
dorsal margin strongly arched, ventral flattened. Greatest thickness
slightly below the middle. Posterior end more inflated than the anterior.
Surface smooth, appearing polished. The interior of the valves is deep
with a narrow marginal area around the anterior end, where the line
of concrescence lies midway between the inner and outer margins. The
ventral margin has a flexure in both valves in front of the center. Be-
hind this flexure the ventral and posterior marginal areas of the left valve
have a distinct lip-line groove for the reception of the right. A similar
groove is present in the antero-dorsal marginal area. Pore canals appear
fairly numerous, though short in the anterior region, but are hard to
distinguish elsewhere. The muscle-scars lie in front and slightly below
the middle and consist of a vertical row of four scars in front of which
are two others, the uppermost being u-shaped. Midway between the





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


u-shaped scar and the dorsal margin is a very elongate, narrow, arcuate
scar which appears to be characteristic of the genus. The hinge is quite
delicate and consists of blade-like crenulate projections in the right
valve, between which is a narrow finely crenulate groove. In the left
valve there are terminal, narrow, finely crenulate sockets, and a narrow,
finely crenulate projecting bar between them.
Named in honor of Dr. Herman Gunter, State Geologist of Florida.
Remarks.-This species is the largest and most majestic species of
this genus that the author knows of in the Gulf Coast Tertiary. There
is some sexual dimorphism; the females being larger and more inflated
posteriorly.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3326, S-3327, S-3328, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3679, author's collections.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.85 mm., height 0.58 mm.,
breadth 0.50 mm.

XESTOLEBERIS COPIOSA Howe, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 8-10
Carapace ovate, when viewed from side or above. Dorsal outline
gently arched, ventral convex, but flattened near the middle. Both ends
rounded, the posterior more abruptly. Greatest height and greatest thick-
ness both approximately median. Surface practically smooth, except that
the posterior surface in most specimens bears from one to three very
fine pimple-like spines on either valve.
Viewed from the inside the valves are moderately deep, with regular
marginal areas around the anterior where the line of concrescence lies
about midway between the inner and outer margins. The anterior margi-
nal area of the right valve bears a distinct grooved lip-line. Radial pore
canals straight and evenly spaced in this region. Slightly in front of the
middle of the ventral margin the edge of either valve is infolded, and
behind this it bears a distinct lip-line in the left valve. The hinge of the
right valve consists of faintly crenulate terminal blades at the cardinal
angles, above which a distinct straight groove extends almost the length
of the hinge line. In the left valve there is an elongate narrow anterior
socket below the dorsal margin, and a smaller one at the posterior. The
edge of the dorsal margin is straight, and extends as a bar. In the region
between the sockets, the bar is bounded dorsally by a very faint incised
line, but the bar appears to be continuous with the edge of the dorsal





82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34

margin above the sockets. The muscle-scars on most specimens are rather
indistinct, but appear to be a vertical row of four oval spots, in front of
which are two others and above these an elongate narrow arcuate scar.
The specific name is derived from Latin, copiosus, meaning abundant.
Remarks.-This species is one of the two or three most abundant
species in the New Lebanon material.
Types.-Cotypes Nos. S-3323, S-3324, S-3325, Florida Geological Sur-
vey. Paratype slide No. 3678, author's collection.
Dimensions of adults reach: length 0.62 mm., height 0.44 mm.,
breadth 0.40 mm.






















Plates 1-5


Tertiary Ostracode Fauna from

Levy County, Florida.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34


PLATE 1
Figures
1, 4. Bairdoppilata vernoni Howe, n. sp.; 1, right valve, cotype No. S-3252; 4,
left valve, cotype No. S-3253.

2, 5. Cytherelloidea floridana Howe, n. sp.; 2, right valve, cotype No. S-3248; 5,
left valve, cotype No. S-3249.

3, 6. Bairdoppilata levyensis Howe, n. sp.; 3, right valve, cotype No. S-3250; 6,
left valve, cotype No. S-3251.

7-10. Occultocythereis delumbata Howe, n. sp.; 7, interior of left value, cotype
No. S-3307 (X45); 8, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3306; 9, side view left
valve, cotype No. S-3307; 10, side view right valve, cotype No. S-3306.

11, 12. Cytherella Lebanonensis Howe, n. sp.; 11, right valve, 12, left valve view,
holotype No. S-3247.

13, 14. Paracytheridea scorpiona var. permutata Howe, n. sp.; 13, dorsal, 14,
right valve, holotype No. S-3267.

15-17. Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe, n. sp.; 15, left valve, cotype No. S-3265;
16, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3264; 17, right valve, cotype No. S-3266.

18-20. Paracytheridea vernoni Howe, n. sp.; 18, left valve, cotype No. S-3270; 19,
dorsal view, cotype No. S-3268; 20, right valve, cotype No. S-3269.

MAGNIFICATIONS UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED




OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA 35


i^^^ H ^^^ ^ 1






H^^^W^^ *c




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34







OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


PLATE 2
Figures
1, 2. Cytheretta infirma Howe, n. sp.; 1, left valve view; 2, right valve view of
holotype No. S-3271.

3, 4. Clithrocytheridea lebanonensis Howe, n. sp.; 3, right valve, cotype No.
S-3257; 4, left valve, cotype No. S-3258.

5-7. Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe, n. sp.; 5, right valve, cotype No. S-3255;
6, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3254; 7, left valve, cotype No. S-3256.

8-10. Xestoleberis cipiosa Howe, n. sp.; 8, right valve, cotype No. S-3323; 9,
dorsal view, cotype No. S-3324; 10, left valve, cotype No. S-3325.

11-16. Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe, n. sp.; 11, right valve, cotype No.
S-3260; 12, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3259; 13, left valve, cotype No.
S-3261; 14, young left valve, cotype No. S-3262; 15, hinge, left valve,
cotype No. S-3261; 16, muscle-scar pattern, left valve (the dark spot below
the v-shaped scar is a shadow, not a scar), cotype No. S-3263.

17-19. Xestoleberis gunteri Howe, n. sp.; 17, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3326; 18,
right valve, cotype No. S-3327; 19, left valve, cotype No. S-3328.


MAGNIFICATIONS APPROXIMATELY X37





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


PLATE 3
Figures
1-3. Urocythere attenuata Howe, n. sp.; 1, left valve, cotype No. S-3299; 2,
dorsal view, cotype No. S-3300; 3, right valve, cotype No. S-3301.

4, 8, 15. Hemicythere phrygionia Howe, n. sp.; 4, left valve, cotype No. S-3281;
8, ventral view, cotype No. S-3280; 15, right valve, cotype No. S-3282.

5-7. Hemicythere lienosa Howe, n. sp.; 5, left valve, cotype No. S-3285; 6,
ventral view, cotype No. S-3283; 7, right valve, cotype No. S-3284.

9-11. Hemicythere cribraria Howe, n. sp.; 9, left valve, cotype No. S-3228; 10,
ventral view, cotype No. S-3286; 11, right valve cotype No. S-3287.

12-14. Hemicythere bellula Howe, n. sp.; 12, left valve, cotype No. S-3290; 13,
ventral view, cotype No. S-3329; 14, right valve, cotype No. S-3289.

16-18. Hemicythere mota Howe, n. sp.; 16, left valve, cotype No. S-3293; 17,
ventral view, cotype No. S-3291; 18, right valve, cotype No. S-3292.

19, 22. Hemicythere lemniscata Howe, n. sp.; 19, left valve, cotype No. S-3297;
22, right valve, cotype No. S-3296.


MAGNIFICATIONS APPROXIMATELY X37





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA





40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34




































r L..
n_ *FsJ.~"r)r





OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


PLATE 4
Figures
1, 2, 4, 5. Leniocythere lebanonensis Howe, n. sp.; 1, interior of right valve
showing hinge and muscle-scars, cotype No. S-3312; 2, interior of
left valve showing hinge and radial pore canals, cotype No. S-3313;
4, exterior right valve, cotype No. S-3312; 5, exterior left valve,
cotype No. S-3313.

3, 6, 9, 12. Hirsutocythere hornotina Howe, n. sp.; 3, interior of right valve,
cotype No. S-3309; 6, right valve, cotype No. S-3310; 9, left valve,
cotype No. S-3311; 12, ventral view, cotype No. S-3308.

7, 8, 10, 11. Spongicythere spissa Howe, n. sp.; 7, right valve, cotype No. S-3304;
8, left valve, cotype No. S-3305; 10, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3302;
11, interior of left valve, cotype No. S-3303.

13-16. Cythereis ? scutulata Howe n. sp.; 13, left valve, cotype No. S-3315;
14, 15, dorsal and ventral views, cotype No. S-3314; 16, right valve,
cotype No. S-3316.


MAGNIFICATIONS APPROXIMATELY X37






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34


PLATE 5
Figures
1-3. Brachycythere lebanonensis Howe, n. sp.; 1, left valve, cotype No. S-3276;
2, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3274; 3, right valve, cotype No. S-3275.

4-6. Nephokirkos aquaplanus Howe, n. sp.; 1, left valve, cotype No. S-3278; 5,
dorsal view, cotype No. S-3277; 6, right valve, cotype No. S-3279.

7-9. Cythereis ? bialata Howe, n. sp.; 7, left valve, cotype No. S-3322; 8, ventral
view, cotype No. S-3320; 9, right valve, cotype No. S-3321.

10-12. Cythereis ? lebanonensis Howe, n. sp.; 10, right valve, cotype No. S-3319;
11, dorsal view, cotype No. S-3317; 12, left valve, cotype No. S-3318.


MAGNIFICATIONS APPROXIMATELY X37




OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA 43







m .t I


6J^Rj^Btf

^^^^K^^^ ^^^
^iW^^i


* b










PART II

THE ECHINOID FAUNA OF THE INGLIS MEMBER,
MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION

by

ALFRED GEORGE FISCHER






OSTRACODS OF LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA


CONTENTS
PAGE
Abstract --------------------------- --. ---------- ------------- --------- 49
Introduction ---....-....-------- - - -.---- ----------- ------------------- 49
Previous work --. ---------------- ----------- 49
Present work -----__. -------------- ------- ----------- ----------- 49
Preservation and preparation _..______--------------. .--- ------ ---- 50
Collections . .. .. ...------ -------- -- 52
Stratigraphic distribution ........-------------------- --------.-------- 52
Relationships of the fauna --------------- 52
Acknowledgments ...----------- --------------------------------- 54
Descriptions _-_._.-----__ .----- ------ -----..--------------------- 54
Cidaris (Phyllacanthus) mortoni (Conrad) ------- 55
Fibularia vaughani (Twitchell) _---------------------------------- 55
Oligopygus haldemani (Conrad) ------------------------------ 56
Laganidae --.-___ ..--------------- --------------- - -.------------ --------- ---- 56
Laganum ocalanum Cooke ----------- 57
Peronella crustuloides (Morton) ---------- 57
Peronella dalli (Twitchell) ----------- 57
Peronella archerensis (Twitchell) --------- 58
Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer, n. subsp. -----------60
Cassidulus ericsoni Fischer, n. sp. ----------- 65
Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli (Conrad) -------- 69
Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus Fischer, n. sp. -------------............. 71
Agassizia floridana de Loriol ___-------------- 78
Eupatagus (Gymnopatagus) mooreanus Pilsbry ------- 74
Eupatagus clevei Cotteau --- ----- ------ 88
Eupatagus sp. ----------------- 84
Bibliography .....----------------------- 85


FIGURES
FIGURE
1. Length-height and width-height relationships of Fibularia vaughani .-- 56
2. Length-width relationships of Peronella archerensis --- 58
3. Plate analysis of Peronella archerensis (Twitchell) ---- 59
4. Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer, n. subsp. 61
5. Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer, n. subsp. ------ -- 62
6. Cassidulus ericsoni Fischer, n. sp. -------------- 66
7. Length-width relationships of Cassidulus (Cassidulus) ericsoni and
C. (C.) trojanus ---------- 67
8. Length-height relationships of Cassidulus (Cassidulus) ericsoni,
C. (C.) trojanus, C. (Paralampas) lyelli, and C. (P.) globosus _--- 67
9. Length-width relationships of Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli and
C. (P.) globosus --------- 69
10. Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli and C. (P.) globosus ----- 70
11. Length-width and length-height relationships of Agassizia floridana --. 73
12. Length-width relationships of Eupatagus mooreanus - --- --- 75
18. Length-height relationships of Eupatagus mooreanus --------------------- 76
14. Apical system of Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry ----- 77






48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


15. Aboral plates of Eupatagus mooreanus ____- -- ------- 77
16. Plate analysis of Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry -_____-- ---_ 78
17. Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry -____~_ _---_____ 79
18. Plate analysis of Eupatagus clevei Cotteau ---------- ----- 84


PLATES

Plates 1-7 Echinoid Fauna of the Inglis member. Moodys Branch formation ---- 87


TABLES
TABLE
1. Stratigraphic distribution of irregular echinoids in the
Eocene of the Florida peninsula -.._-----.~_. -___ 53
2. Dimensions of Cassidulus ericsoni ---.------------- 65
3. Morphologic comparisons of species of Cassidulus sensu strict --- 68






THE ECHINOID FAUNA OF THE INGLIS MEMBER,
MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION
by
Alfred George Fischer

ABSTRACT
The Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation, the basal part of the upper
Eocene in Florida, has yielded 16 species of echinoids. One new species is referred
to Cassidulus (Cassidulus), another to Cassidulus (Paralampas). Periarchus lyelli is
represented by a new subspecies. New morphologic data are given for Peronella
archerensis and Eupatagus mooreanus. Other genera represented are Cidaris, Fibu-
laria, Oligopygus, Laganum, and Agassizia.

INTRODUCTION
Previous work.-Descriptions of most of the Eocene echinoids of Flor-
ida are included in a monograph by Clark and Twitchell (1915) and in
two papers by Cooke (1941, 1942). Most of the species now known to
be Eocene were attributed to the Oligocene by Clark and Twitchell be-
cause the Ocala limestone, from which they were derived, was then
classified as Oligocene. Those papers provide a fine foundation for
further investigations.
Present work.-Besides the descriptions of new species, there is need
for the restudy of described forms with the aid of more and better fossil
material and with statistical methods. This need concerns particularly
the morphology (of which our knowledge is in most cases deficient),
and also morphologic changes during ontogeny (a field which has hardly
been touched), geographic distribution and its relation to morphologic
variation, and ecology as expressed in the relationships of the echinoids
to the associated fossils. Such studies are necessary in any group of fossil
organisms if the time and space relationships of the various species are
to be resolved. The development and change of organisms through time,
and the environmental relationships of these organisms are the funda-
mental problems of theoretical paleontology, and are basic to the practical
application of the science. On them primarily are based the geologist's
dating and long-range correlation of rocks, and his inferences as to con-
ditions of the past.
The echinoids described herein occur in the Inglis member, Moodys
Branch formation (Vernon, 1951), which is characterized by the presence
of a new subspecies of Periarchus lyelli (Conrad). This member is pre-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


dominately limestone, more compact and less granular than the over-
lying limestone beds, and locally altered into dolomite. The Inglis mem-
ber is best developed in Citrus and Levy counties near the Withlacoochee
River and echinoids form a conspicuous element of the fauna not only
because of the abundance of species but also because they have with-
stood weathering better than other classes of organisms. Some of the
best-preserved echinoids in Florida were collected in the Withlacoochee
region.
Preservation and preparation.-The preservation of the echinoids
varies from poor to excellent, a reflection of the diverse diagenetic pro-
cesses which have affected the limestones of the Citrus-Levy County
area. Echinoids have been found only in the massive facies (in contrast
to the laminated facies), and they occur in limestones ranging from
nearly pure calcite to nearly pure dolomite, and from highly porous to
dense. Associated fossils include algae, pollen grains, foraminifers (chief-
ly miliolids), bryozoa, pelecypods, gastropods, cephalopods (rare Aturia),
and arthropods (Calianassa).
The echinoid skeletal elements are composed of calcite. They consist
of a test or shell which encloses the body of the animal but is covered
by muscles and skin, the Aristotle's lantern or jaw apparatus (which is
absent in some forms), a multitude of spines which lie on the outer
surface of the test, and the microscopic jaws of the pedicellaria, minute
snapping organs which are likewise scattered over the surface of the
animal. The test, which is composed of numerous rigidly united polygonal
plates, is used as the chief basis for the classification of echinoids. The
Aristotle's lattern is frequently preserved in fossil tests, but spines and
pedicellaria being attached to the test by skin and muscles, are generally
separated from the test after death. The fossil material described here
consists of tests, many of which retain the Aristotle's lantern. Spines were
observed in much of the matrix, but were not studied. While no pedicel-
laria were seen, it seems safe to assume their presence in the matrix.
Each plate of the echinoid test consists of a microscopic meshwork of
calcite rods, all of which show a similar crystal orientation; each plate,
then, appears under the microscope as a very porous structure, which be-
haves optically like a single crystal of calcite, and cleaves as such. The
c-axis of this skeleton-crystal is oriented perpendicularly to the surface.
The fossil echinoid tests from the Florida Eocene have been altered
in a variety of ways. The specimens embedded in undolomitized lime-
stone have suffered a reduction in porosity by impregnation with calcite,
which has been deposited within each plate to fill more or less com-





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


pletely the microscopic passages between the original calcite rods. This
secondary calcite is usually deposited in crystal continuity with the
original calcite, so that the unity of the plate is preserved. Commonly
some indication of the original structure of the plates remains in the form
of impurities left in the calcite now filling the interspaces, and occasional-
ly the secondary calcite is not deposited in orientation with that of the
original plate. Such impregnated echinoid tests are relatively resistant
to solution because their large component crystals do not dissolve as
readily as the more finely crystalline matrix. They are, however, easily
shattered by fracturing along the cleavage planes of the calcite. In many
of these specimens the deposition of calcite has not been restricted to
the interior of the plates, but has taken place on the inner or outer sur-
faces or both, obscuring the pores, ornamentation, etc. upon which much
of the classification is based. Many of the small and delicate laganids
could not be identified as to genus or species because of such tightly ad-
hering incrustations.
The specimens found in dolomitized limestones are generally pre-
served as internal and external molds, and are commonly distorted by
compaction which evidently accompanied dolomitization. At some places,
as in the subsurface of Dixie County, dolomite replaced echinoid tests
as well as the matrix; some of these dolomitized tests have maintained
the crystallographic unity of their plates, whereas others have not.
Many specimens which have been exposed to weathering are covered
with tightly adhering matrix, apparently a result of case-hardening. Such
matrix can be softened with a minimum of injury to the chemically more
resistant test by soaking in vinegar or dilute acetic acid.
The better specimens have been derived from two different types of
material: The greatest number of echinoids, among them some ex-
ceptionally well preserved specimens, were collected from material
dredged out of bed rock in the improvement of the channel of the With-
lacoochee River between Inglis and the mouth of the river. Another
source of well-preserved material is represented by large blocks of lime-
stone lying in the borrow pits along the southwest side of U. S. Highway
19 between Gulf Hammock and Lebanon Station, in Levy County, lo-
cality L-93 (Vernon, 1951, p. 126). These limestone blocks are of a dis-
tinctive facies of the Inglis member, characterized by an abundance of
fine calcite paste in which the shells and shell fragments are embedded.
Much of the matrix can be removed from the fossils by impact, revealing
a surface unmarred by incrustations.
Unless stated otherwise, the specimens were prepared for photo-
graphing by painting with ink and then coating with ammonium chloride





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


or magnesium oxide. In some specimens the partial removal of the ink
brought out numerous sutures which had previously not been visible.
Some of the drawings were prepared from photographic prints, by tracing
the desired lines with India ink and bleaching out the photographic
image. Others were drawn directly from the specimen under the camera:
The ground glass focusing plate of the camera was replaced by a clear
plate on which was placed a sheet of tracing paper or vellum. The image
was focused on this, and the desired features were traced on the paper.
Collections.-Most of the material studied for this report was collected
in the years 1945-1947. In 1945 Mr. Joseph E. Banks and the writer
collected echinoids in the Citrus-Levy County area in the course of ex-
plorations for the Stanolind Oil and Gas Co. These specimens were de-
posited as accession 175488 at the United States National Museum, Wash-
ington, D. C. In the same year Mr. David B. Ericson made some col-
lections for the Florida Geological Survey. The greatest part of the
material was collected in the summer of 1947 by Dr. Robert O. Vernon,
the writer, and other members of the Florida Geological Survey, and is
deposited with the Survey at Tallahassee, Florida. In this paper, the
specimens deposited at the U. S. National Museum are designated by
U.S.N.M. Those belonging to the Florida Geological Survey are desig-
nated by a number being preceded by Fla. G. S. I- (Fla. Geological Sur-
vey, Invertebrate .-. ).
Stratigraphic distribution.-While some of the echinoid localities could
be precisely located within the Inglis member, the exact stratigraphic
position of most of the material has not been determined, because of the
flat terrain, and because much of the material came from loose blocks
and dredgings out of a 14-foot channel.
Periarchus lyelli floridanus is found throughout the Inglis member; it
is abundant and reaches large size in the lower and middle portions,
but is rare and small in the miliolid limestone which comprises the upper
portion of the member. Associated with this in the basal beds occur
Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus, Eupatagus sp., and Agassizia flori-
dana. Cassidulus globosus appears to be limited to the basal zone, where-
as Agassizia floridana ranges at least into the middle portion, from which
most of the echinoid fauna has come. Oligopygus haldemani seems to oc-
cur only in the upper beds.
Relationships of the fauna.-The echinoid fauna of the Inglis member
is closely related to that of the overlying Eocene limestone beds in the
Florida peninsula, with which it shares nine out of its sixteen species.
Table 1 shows the stratigraphic distribution of irregular echinoids in the





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


GENUS AND SPECIES


Moodys Branch
Form.
Wil- Ocala
Inglis lis- Ls.
Mbr. ton Res.
Mbr.


Fibularia vaughani
Oligopygus weatherbyi
Oligopygus haldemani
SAmblypygus americanus


SLaganum floridanum
Laganum ocalanum _____
Peronella crustuloides _
Peronella cube __
Peronella dalli ___
SPeronella archerensis
Peronella eldridgei
---------------------------------------------- --------------- -- - -- -.. . -.---------------



SPeriarchus lyelli floridanus
n. subsp.


-- --. -- -- -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - --- -- --- -- --- --- ---- - -----------------... -----------------------

S Cassidulus (C.) ericsoni n. sp.
SCassidulus (C.) trojanus
Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli
SCassidulus (P.) globosus n. sp.
Cassidulus (P.) conradi __
S Cassidulus (P.) carolinensis __
0A - --- --- --- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- -- --- ----.- --- -- --- --- --- --

Schizaster armiger
Schizaster beckeri
SSchizaster (Linthia) ocalanus
Agassizia floridana '




Brissopsis steinhatchee
Eupatagus mooreanus
Eupatagus ocalanus
Eupatagus sp.
4 Eupatagus clevei
SEupatagus dixie



TABLE 1 (partly after Cooke 1942)_Straratigraphic distribution of irregular echin-
oids in the Eocene of the Florida peninsula. Details of range are shown within the
Inglis member.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 84


Eocene of the Florida peninsula. Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli occurs
in a portion of the Ocala limestone of western Florida and southern
Georgia which may possibly include the Inglis member. Several forms
of Periarchus lyelli occur in basal beds of Jackson age of the near-shore
faces, from Louisiana to North Carolina. Peronella cubae, Agassizia
floridana, and Eupatagus mooreanus have been reported from Cuba (cf.
Cooke 1942), and E. clevei is known from the West Indies and Panama
(Cooke 1948). One species, Peronella dalli, abundant in a limestone in
the subsurface of central Florida which is thought to be a down-dip
facies of the Inglis member in part, extends into the subjacent Avon
Park limestone of Claiborne age. Except for the tentative occurrence of
this species, the echinoid faunas of the lower and middle Eocene lime-
stones of Florida are unknown; only the top of the Claiborne (Avon
Park limestone) is exposed, and this has yielded no echinoids. Informa-
tion on lower beds is confined to well cuttings and cores, from which no
echinoids have been described.
Of the eight genera of irregular echinoids represented in the Inglis
member, Oligopygus and Periarchus are extinct; the remainder have
living representatives, confined to tropical waters. Thus Fibularia, La-
ganum, Peronella, and Eupatagus are known from the Indo-Pacific
region, and Eupatagus also from the east coast of Africa. Cassidulus
lives in the Caribbean Sea, and Agassizia off the west coast of Central
and South America.
Acknowledgments.-Thanks are due primarily to all of those who
helped in the collecting of specimens. Dr. C. Wythe Cooke of the U. S.
Geological Survey discussed problems with the writer in field and
laboratory, loaned specimens, and furnished the illustrations on Plate 7
of this paper. Photographic equipment was furnished by Mr. Ray Maas
of the Department of Biology, and by the Department of Geology, The
University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y.


DESCRIPTIONS
Descriptions and illustrations of all but the new species are to be
found in Clarke and Twitchell (1915), and Cooke (1941, 1942, 1948).
A thorough taxonomic treatment including full synonomies of the irregu-
lar echinoids is to be found in Cooke (1942). For this reason, references
given in this paper are limited to authors of species and to papers of
particular significance.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


Order CIDAROIDA
Family CIDARIDAE
CIDARIS (PHYLLACANTHUS) MORTONI (Conrad)
Cidaris alabamensis Morton 1846
Cidaris (Phyllacanthus) mortoni Cooke 1941
The collecting in the Citrus-Levy County area has to date yielded
only one fragment of a "regular" echinoid, referred by Dr. C. Wythe
Cooke (personal communication) to the above species, the type of which
is from the Ocala limestone of Georgia, and which has been recorded in
the Florida peninsula in horizons higher than the Inglis member (Cooke,
1941). The specimen from the Inglis member was collected by Mr. Banks
and the writer on the north bank of the Crystal River, several miles west
of the town of that name, in Citrus County; it occurred in a miliolid
limestone rather barren of macrofossils, which is thought to represent
the uppermost portion of the Inglis member. The specimen is deposited
at the U. S. National Museum.


Order CLYPEASTROIDA
Family FIBULARIIDAE
FIBULARIA VAUGHANI (Twitchell)
Figure 1
Echinocyamus vaughani Twitchell 1915
Fibularia vaughani Cooke 1942
This species ranges from the base of the Inglis member through the
Ocala limestone. Because of its small size it is readily overlooked in col-
lecting macrofossils, and is probably more common than records indi-
cate. Figure 1 shows the dimensional relationships of eight specimens
from the Inglis member.
Occurrence.-Fla. G. 1-5371: Quarry in Citrus County south of
Withlacoochee River one mie west of bridge at Inglis, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5380,* core, 0.4 to 2.2 feet.
Fla. G. S. 1-5381: W-1220, core, 5.5 to 7.5 feet.
The species has also been recorded in dredgings along the Withlacoo-
chee River between Inglis and Crackertown, and in the borrow pits along
the northwest side of U. S. Highway 19 between Gulf Hammock and
Lebanon Station, Levy County.
* This number indicates a well in the Florida Geological Survey well sample library. W-1220 is a
core hole located near the center of Sec. 18, T. 17 S., R. 16 E., in Citrus County.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


I mm 2 4 5
Hi- GH T
Figure 1. Length-height and width-height relationships of Fibularia vaughani.

OLIGOPYGUS HALDEMANI (Conrad)
Discoidea haldemani Conrad 1850
Oligopygus haldermani (sic) Clark and Twitchell 1915
Oligopygus haldemani Cooke 1942
This species, abundant in the Ocala limestone, makes its appearance
in the upper portion of the Inglis member ("bed 2").
Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5377: Quarry in Citrus County south of
Withlacoochee River one mile west of bridge at Inglis, Levy County.
This species has also been recorded in dredgings along the Withla-
coochee River between Inglis and Yankeetown, Levy County, and along
the Crystal River, Citrus County.

Family LAGANIDAE
Of the irregular echinoids found in the Inglis member, the small
members of the Laganidae are the most difficult to work with, because
inner and outer surfaces of their delicate tests are generally encrusted





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


with secondary calcite. Most of the specimens cannot be definitely as-
signed to species or even genera.

LAGANUM OCALANUM Cooke
Laganum ocalanum Cooke 1942
The inflated submarginal plates distinctive of this species characterize
a number of laganids from the Inglis member. All of them are small,
reaching not half the size shown by large specimens from higher in the
Ocala limestone.
Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5369: Dredgings in Citrus County on the
south bank of the Withlacoochee River, one-quarter mile up and down
the river across from Faris landing at Crackertown in Levy County.

PERONELLA CRUSTULOIDES (Morton)
Scutella crustuloides Morton 1833
Laganum? crustuloides Clark and Twitchell 1915
Laganum johnsoni Twitchell 1915
Peronella crustuloides Cooke 1942
Two poorly preserved specimens measuring 12 and 13 mm. in length
are assigned to this species. Various juveniles and poorly preserved speci-
mens in the collection may also belong to it.
Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5370: Quarry in Citrus County south and
one mile west of the Withlacoochee River bridge at Inglis, Levy County.
U.S.N.M.: Specimens from dredgings along Withlacoochee River be-
tween Inglis and Crackertown, Levy County.

PERONELLA DALLI (Twitchell)
Laganum dalli Twitchell 1915
Laganum dalli Cole and Ponton 1932
Peronella dalli Cooke 1942
This distinctive Peronella is not known from outcrops in Citrus and
Levy counties, but is found in the Avon Park limestone in Fla. G. S.
W-501 at Gulf Hammock. Its occurrence in the subsurface of central
Florida has been discussed by Cole and Ponton (1932). Vernon (South-
eastern Geological Society, 5th field trip Guidebook) suggests that the
Peronella zone encountered in the wells of Polk and adjacent counties
is at least in its upper part equivalent to the Inglis member and may
represent a deeper-water facies.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


PERONELLA ARCHERENSIS (Twitchell)
Figures 2, 3; Plate 2, Figure 3
Laganum archerensis Twitchell 1915
Rumphia archerensis Cooke 1942
This species, sparingly represented in higher members of the Ocala
limestone, is the dominant member of the Laganidae in the Inglis mem-
ber, in size as well as abundance; it is not widely distributed, apparently
O




W










GD
C54

//



/o

I0


15 mm 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
JE_ NGT H
Figure 2. Length-width relationships of Peronella archerens:s.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


~ u/


0 5 10 Is 20 ,S
SCALE I I

SCALE mtn


Aw-


Figure 3. Plate analyses of Peronella archerensis (Twitchell).
Interambulacral plates black; ambulacral cycles of plates alternately white
and stipple.

1. Oral plate pattern. Specimen lost.
2. Oral plate pattern, Fla. G. S. 1-5383.
3. Oral plate pattern, Fla. G. S. 1-5372-1.
4. Aboral plate pattern, Fla. G. S. 1-5367-1.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


being restricted to the middle portion, and possibly to geographic patches.
The type described by Twitchell, presumably from the Ocala limestone at
Archer, Alachua County, Florida, appears to be an unusually depressed
specimen. Specimens from the Inglis member show considerable variation
in outline and in the tumidity of the margin (fig. 3). The outline of
almost all specimens shows a posterior truncation flanked on each side
by a posterio-lateral truncation (fig. 3, no. 4). The relationships of length
and width are shown in figure 2. The excellent preservation of exception-
al specimens makes it possible to illustrate details of ornamentation (Plate
2, figure 3) and something of the plate arrangements (fig. 3).
Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5335: Dredgings, north bank of Withlacoo-
chee River, one-half to three-quarters mile above Faris Landing at
Crackertown, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5366: Dredgings, north bank of Withlacoochee River,
one-half to three-quarters mile above Faris Landing at Crackertown,
Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5367: Dredgings in Citrus County on the south bank of
the Withlacoochee River, one-quarter mile up and down the river across
from Faris Landing at Crackertown in Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5372: Dredgings, both sides of Withlacoochee River, be-
tween Inglis and Yankeetown, Citrus and Levy counties.
Fla. G. S. 1-5373: Locality lost, Citrus and Levy counties.
U.S.N.M.: Specimens collected by Fischer and Banks in 1945 along
the Withlacoochee River, and in borrow pits along the Otter Creek-
Cedar Keys road.

Family SCUTELLIDAE
PERIARCHUS LYELLI FLORIDANUS Fischer, n. subsp.
Figures 4, 5; Plate 1
Conspecific with:
Scutella lyelli Conrad 1834
Sismondia alta Conrad 1865
Periarchus lyelli Clark and Twitchell 1915
Periarchus altus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Periarchus lyelli Cooke 1942
Description.-Test large, flat, subcircular, with somewhat wavy or
polygonal margin. Petaloid area slightly tumid, surrounded by a terrace
from which a gently inclined bevel leads to the sharp margin (figs. 4, 5).





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


Figure 4. Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer, n. subsp.
1. Holotype of subspecies, from mouth of Withlacoochee River. a-Oral view,
peristome enlarged by breakage. b-Left side. Aboral view on Plate 1, fig. 1,
U.S.N.M. 560418.
2. Side view of sectioned specimen illustrated on Plate 1, f g. 2, from mouth of
Withlacoochee River. U.S.N.M. 560419.


Apical system central or nearly so, apex at centrally located madreporite
or at base of anterior petal. Five genital pores. Anterior petal longest,
posterior petals intermediate, antero-lateral petals shortest. Longest petals
reach nearly halfway to margin. The petals are broadly lanceolate,
reaching maximum diameter near the midpoint. Their outer margins are
more or less regular convex arcs except distally where in contact with
the first pair of non-petaloid ambulacral plates; here the petals are
abruptly terminated by concave margins. The interporiferous zones are
broadly lanceolate at the proximal end, widen gently to one-half to
three-quarters of their length, then taper gradually to the narrow, open,
distal end. The poriferous zones begin narrow, widen for half their


Ib


2Z


0 10 20 30 40 50 mm
5CALE





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 84


Figure 5. Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer, n. subsp.
1. Specimen from mouth of Withlacoochee River.
A. Oral view. B. Side view. U.S.N.M. 560422.
2. Unusually thick specimen, side view. Fla. G. S. 1-5375.
3 Side view ol a small specimen, Fla. G. S. 1-5374-1.


length, and then maintain their width until near the end, where they
suddenly taper to produce the concave margins. The inner pores are
slightly elliptical; the outer ones form long, narrow slots.
Oral surface flat. Peristome small; position subcentral, variable.
Periproct very small, nearer to peristome than to margin. Five actinal
grooves bifurcate at angle of 30 to 350, about halfway to margin. At
the margin the interambulacral areas are slightly larger than the
ambulacral areas.
The tumid central area houses the large Aristotle's lantern, and prob-
ably contained the entire digestive system. The remainder of the test
shows a complex internal septation. Plate 1, fig. 2, illustrates a specimen





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


from which the oral wall of the test was removed. Each of the peripheral
plates may be seen to carry a system of septa. The inner plates carry a
few low septa or ridges radiating out from the peristome. The plates
just outside the petaloid area show numerous reticulate septa, deline-
ating numerous dendritic canals oblique to the plane of the section. In
the most peripheral plates, where the test is thin, the section shows the
best development of radiating septa and interseptal canals. The internal
molds illustrated in Plate 1, figs. 3 and 4 show in negative form a similar
system of septa projecting downward from the aboral plates, leaving a
system of dendritic cavities, five canals for the radial water vessels (in
ambulacral position, extending beyond the petals), and five two-pronged
cavities in interambulacral position, which presumably contained the
axial portions of the gonads. Analogy with the recent sand dollar
Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz) suggests that the dendritic canals
which occupy almost all of the peripheral region of the test also contained
,onad tissues.
Specimens studied, and dimensions. Holotype of subspecies: U.S.
N.M. 560418. Inglis member, mouth of Withlacoochee River. Diameter
135 mm, height 11.5 mm. Plate 1, fig. 1; fig. 4, no. 1.
Paratype: U.S.N.M. 560422. Inglis member, mouth of Withlacoochee
River. Diameter 117 mm, height 12 mm. Figure 5, no. 1.
Paratype: U.S.N.M. 560419. Inglis member, mouth of Withlacoochee
River. Oral surface polished off. Plate 1, fig. 2; fig. 4, no. 2.
Fla. G. S. 1-5361-1. Diameter 64 mm. Internal mold. Plate 1, fig. 4.
Fla. G. S. 1-5361-2. Diameter 66 mm. Internal mold. Plate 1, fig. 3.
Fla. G. S. 1-5374-1. Diameter 86.0 mm, height 8.5 mm. Fig. 5, no. 3.
Fla. G. S. 1-5375. Figure 5, no. 2.
Relationships.-Various species of Periarchus have been described
from basal beds of Jackson age of the near-shore facies extending from
Louisiana to the Carolinas. Cooke (1942) found three of these, P. lyelli
(Conrad), P. pileus-sinensis (Ravenel), and P. altus (Conrad) to be end
members of variation series, and included them as varieties in one species,
P. lyelli (Conrad). It appears that these near-shore forms are highly
variable, in contrast to the morphologically stable P. lyelli floridanus. In
general shape the latter compares with a variant of P. lyelli var. lyslli
from Section 28, Township 3 north, Range 29 east, Houston County,
Alabama (Fla. G. S. 1-7388), which is somewhat larger and lower than
the typical form and possesses very thin margins: As pointed out by
Cooke (1942) the Florida form differs from P. lyelli var. ly'lli and re-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34


sembles var. altus in greater width and ellipticity of the interporiferous
zones and in the concave distal taper of the petals. It differs from var. altus
in being flat, and in lacking the latter's marked apical excentricity. I here is
no danger of confusing it with the conical P. lyelli var. pileus-sinensis.
P. lyelli floridanus differs from all other forms described as variants of
this species by showing a bevelled margin, a faint suggestion of the
feature so strongly developed in P. kewi Cooke from the Cooper marl of
Georgia. Stable in morphology and characterized by an assemblage of
features not recorded in the northern specimens, it would seem to be
a geographic race, a true subspecies.
Occurrence.-The genus Periarchus has been found in the Florida
peninsula only in the Inglis member, and appears to be represented there
by a single subspecies. In the Citrus-Levy County area it occurs through-
out the Inglis member, which has come to be known as the Periarchus
zone. It reaches large size and great abundance in the lower and middle
portions of the zone where the rock is commonly crowded with broken
Periarchus tests. Flatness and internal septation make it distinctive in
well samples. The writer has found it in Dixie, Levy, Citrus, Hernando,
Marion and Orange counties, and Vernon (personal communication)
reports it in addition from Alachua, Bradford, Brevard, Columbia, Duval,
Gilchrist, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Lafayette, Lake, Nassau(?), Pinellas,
Polk, Putnam, Seminole (?), Sumter, Suwannee, Taylor and Volusia
counties.
Specimens studied for this report have come from the following
localities:
Fla. G. S. 1-5361: Massive dolomite bed four feet above laminated
dolomite of the Avon Park limestone on north bank of Withlacoochee
River, below the Florida Power Company dam, Levy County, loc. L-139,
Vernon, 1951.
Fla. G. S. 1-5364: West end of a long levee of dredgings, north of the
main channel at the mouth of the Withlacoochee River, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5375: Dredgings, levee on the north side of the Withla-
coochee River near the mouth, Levy County.
Specimens U.S.N.M. 560418, 560419, and 560422, from the mouth
cf the Withlacoochee River.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


Order CASSIDULOIDA
Family CASSIDULIDAE
CASSIDULUS ERICSONI Fischer, n. sp.
Figures 6, 7, 8; Plate 2, Figures 1, 2; Plate 3
The Inglis member has yielded four specimens of Cassidulus sensu
strict which are readily differentiated from previously described forms
and are therefore assigned to a new species.
Description.-Outline subpentagonal-subhexagonal, spatulate, wider
behind than in front. Aboral surface a rather high, inflated cone, uni-
formly covered with small scrobicules. Apex at or just forward of the
apical system, which is decidedly eccentric toward the anterior. From
some distance behind the apex a gentle rostrum leads to the upper
margin of the periproct. Below the periproct a broad shallow sulcus ex-
tends to the margin. Along the sides of the test the inflated aboral sur-
face overhangs the sharp margins. Oral surface comparatively flat, most
prominent at sides, slightly concave around peristome, rises markedly
toward posterior margin. Three specimens show a slight anterior sulcus.
Peristome directly below apical system, slightly wider than long, sur-
rounded by a large floscelle with prominent bourrelets. Oral surface
covered with large, deep scrobicules except on anterior and posterior
median bands, which are finely granulate. Posterior band inflated. Peri-
proct at about half the total height, transversely elongate, upper margin
gently arched, lower margin more or less eccentrically angular. Apical
system with four genital pores and central madreporite. Petals lanceolate,
open distally, nearly equal in length. Interporiferous zones in mid-portion
two to three times as wide as poriferous zones. On posterior petals the
anterior pore rows are longer than the posterior rows. Pores conjugate;
inner ones almost circular, outer ones tapering inward. Ridges between
pore-pairs carry one to three scrobiculate tubercles. The number of pores
in a row varies from around 40 to 46. Dimensions are shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2-Dimensions of Cassidulus ericsoni.

Length Width Height

Holotype, Fla. G.S. 1-5358-1 48 mm. 43.5 mm. 32 mm.
Paratype, Fla. G.S. 1-5358-3 42.5 40.0 deformed
Paratype, U.S.N.M. 560420 47 42.0 31
Paratype, U.S.N.M. 560421 44 40.0 28
Paratype, Fla.G.S. I-5358-2 45 40






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


0 10 20

5CALE mm


Figure 6. Cassidulus ericsoni Fischer, n. sp., from the Inglis member, 4 miles be-
low Stokes Ferry, Withlacoochee River. Paratypes also illustrated on
Plate 2, figures 1, 2.

1. a. aboral, b. right side, c. posterior view. U.S.N.M. 560420.

2. a. aboral, b. oral, c. left side, d. posterior view. U.S.N.M. 560421.






ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


Comparisons.-On the basis of shape the three species of Cassidulus
sensu strict described from the Eocene and Oligocene of Florida show
two rather widely diverging end members, C. trojanus Cooke from the
upper Eocene Ocala, and C. gouldii (Bouve) from the upper Oligocene
Suwannee, with C. alabamensis Twitchell and the new C. ericsoni oc-
cupying a somewhat intermediate position. These relationships are il-
lustrated in Table 3.

Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5358, 1- 3: Dredgings in Citrus County on
the south bank of the Withlacoochee River, one-quarter mile up and
down river across from Faris Landing at Crackertown.

U.S.N.M. 560420, 560421: Two specimens collected on south bank of
the Withlacoochee River, four miles below Stokes Ferry (Ocala-Inverness
highway), Citrus County, Florida.





/0o














20 m 0 40 50 / 0
20 m 30 4o 5 60
LENGTH -- N- GrH en/
0-2 ,pcmen-

figure 7. Length-width relationships of Cassidulus (Cassidulus) ericsoni, C. (C.)
trojanus.
Figure 8. Length-height relationships of Cassidulus (Cassidulus) ericsoni, C. (C.)
trojanus, C. (Paralampas) lyelli, and C. (P.) globosus.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34



i .3
ho











r4
m m













































4-z
I




Id I







0a a
oC ,o 0a -



o o



j 0n 0L
S~ 1~~b
0-6
0) F
KY _
0 s~@mma
-F0 )










E- 'G
0,I



00. 00
0) 0 )
00 0) 0
009 0)
0j 0; 0)







ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


CASSIDULUS (PARALAMPAS) LYELLI (Conrad)
Figures 8, 9, 10

Nucleolites lyelli Conrad 1850
Cassidulus (Rhynchopygus) lyelli Clark and Twitchell 1915
Cassidulus (Pygorhynchus) georgiensis Twitchell 1915
Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli Cooke 1942

A small cassidulid from the Inglis member agrees fairly well with C.
lyelli Conrad, described from the Ocala limestone of Georgia. As Cooke
(1942) has pointed out, the Florida specimens are more eccentrically
conical than the northern representatives, and may constitute a separate
subspecies.

One anomalous specimen (Fla. G. S. 1-5355, see fig. 10) occupies a
position intermediate between this species and C. globosus, described
below, and on figures 8 and 9 it is marked by a question mark. Its length-
height relationships (fig. 8) are directly in line with the projected growth
curve of C. lyelli, and are far from typical for C. globosus, which how-
ever shows much variation in this respect. Its length-width relationship
(fig. 9) points to closer alliance with C. globosus.




,-.-
t 'A













20 mm 30 40 50 0
LENGTHI-
k^"-----re




o 2 Spyeci'm s

Figure 9. Length-width relationships of Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli and C. (P.)
globosus.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


Figure 10. Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli and C. (P.) globosus.
A. Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli (Conrad).
1-posterior, 2-aboral, 3-left side view. Fla. G. S. 1-5357-3.
B. Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus? n. sp.
1-right side, 2-posterior, 3-aboral view. Fla. G. S. 1-5355-1.
C. Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus n. sp.
1. Paratype, Fla. G. S. 1-5344.
a-right side, b-posterior view.
2. Paratype, Fla. G. S. 1-5346-9.
a-posterior, b-left side.
3. Paratype, Fla. G. S. 1-5346-5. Anterior view. This is the pro-
portionately highest specimen in the collection.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5356: Quarry in Citrus County south of
Withlacoochee River one mile west of bridge at Inglis, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5357: Dredgings in Citrus County on the south bank of
the Withlacoochee River, one quarter mile up and down river across
from Faris Landing at Crackertown.

CASSIDULUS (PARALAMPAS) GLOBOSUS.Fischer, n. sp.
Figures 8, 9, 10; Plate 4
Description.-Test medium to large for genus, highly inflated. Apical
view nearly circular, profile four-fifths to nearly as high as long. Oral
surface moderately convex, joining sides at an ill-defined, rounded edge
of spatulate outline; widest in posterior third. Peristome and apex an-
teriorly eccentric. Peristome pentagonal, transversely elongate, with
narrow, beaded bourrelets. Periproct at half height, its arched upper
margin projecting, lower margin forming a broad "V". Test gently ros-
trate above periproct; a flat band with faint median ridge leads from
periproct to margin. Sides of test faintly divided into similar vertical
facets. The sides of the test overhang the oral wall on all sides, but
much more so in front than in the rear, to produce a forward-leaning
appearance. Top and sides of test covered with small scrobicules. On
the margins of the oral side these grade into large scrobicules which
cover the latter except on the anterior and posterior longitudinal median
bands, which are finely beaded.
Apical system with four large genital and five small ocular pores and
central madreporite. Petals slender, lanceolate, wide open at the ends.
On each antero-lateral petal the posterior row of pores is longer than the
anterior row, whereas on each of the posterior petals the anterior row of
pores is longer than the posterior row. Inner pores round to slightly
elliptical; outer pores slightly ovoid.
The dimensions of the holotype (Fla. G. S. 1-5346-1) are: length,
37.4 mm; width, 33.0 mm; height, 32.0 mm; size relationships are shown
in figs. 8 and 9.
Anomalous specimen.-An odd specimen (Fla. G. S. 1-5355) is il-
lustrated on fig. 10; its position on figs. 8 and 9 is indicated by the dot
accompanied by a question mark. This specimen shows the length-
height relationship to be expected in a C. lyelli grown to unusual size
(fig. 8), but the great variation in length-height relationships by C.
globosus would admit it into the latter species, as an extreme variant.
Its length-width relationships (fig. 9) ally it with C. globosus rather





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34


than with C. lyelli. It was not found associated with other specimens of
Cassidulus, and appears to have come from the middle or upper portions
of the Inglis member. In the absence of more material the question as
to whether it represents an aberrant C. lyelli or C. globosus, or a new
species or subspecies, is left undecided.
Relationships.-This species appears to be closely related to Para-
lampas lyelli (Conrad), from which it differs by its greater size, relative
height, and inflation (see figs. 8-10).
Stratigraphic occurrence.-With the exception of the tentatively in-
cluded Fla. G. S. 1-5355, all specimens referred to this species have come
from the basal beds of the Inglis member, where they have been found
in association with Periarchus lyelli floridanus, Agassizia floridana, and
Eupatagus sp.
Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5344: Borrow pit west of U. S. Highway 19
between Gulf Hammock and Lebanon Station, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5345: Dolomite on north bank of Wacasassa River, just
west of U. S. Highway 19, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5346: Borrow pit on west side of U. S. Highway 19, two
miles southeast of Gulf Hammock, southeast quarter of southwest
quarter of Section 34, Township 14 south, Range 16 east, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5347: Massive dolomite bed four feet above laminated
dolomite of the Avon Park limestone below Florida Power Company
dam on Withlacoochee River, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5350 (5354): Dredgings in Citrus County on the south
bank of the Withlacoochee River, one-quarter mile up and down the
river across from Faris Landing at Crackertown.
Fla. G. S. 1-5382: Basal dolomite bed of Inglis member, New Lebanon
Quarry, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5355: Cassidulus globosus ?; dredgings, north bank of
Withlacoochee River, one and one-half miles below Isaac Walton Lodge
at Yankeetown, Levy County.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION 73

Order SPATANGOIDA
Family HEMIASTERIDAE
AGASSIZIA FLORIDANA de Loriol
Figure 11; Plate 6, Figures 3, 4
Agassizia floridana de Loriol 1887
Agassizia conradi Clark and Twitchell 1915
Agassizia floridana Cooke 1942
This species occurs in the Inglis member as well as in the Ocala lime-
stone. It is most abundant in the basal beds, where it occurs with Peri-
archus lyelli, and Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus. Figure 11 shows
the length-width and length-height relationships; oral and aboral sides
of well-preserved specimens are illustrated on Plate 6, figs. 3, 4.
Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5359: Massive dolomite bed four feet above
laminated dolomite of the Avon Park limestone on north bank of Withla-
coochee River below the Florida Power Company dam, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5363: Borrow pit on west side of U. S. Highway 19, two
miles southeast of Gulf Hammock, southeast quarter of southwest quarter
of Section 34, Township 14 south, Range 16 east, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5364: Dredgings in Citrus County on the south bank of


co







15 mr 20 25 50
LE.NC-TH


LLNiTNTH


Figure 11. Length-width and length-height relationships of Agassizia floridana.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


the Withlacoochee River, one-quarter mile up and down -river across
from Faris Landing at Crackertown.
Fla. G. S. 1-5365: Quarry in Citrus County south of Withlacoochee
River one mile west of bridge at Inglis, Levy County.
This species has also been encountered in the subsurface of Dixie
County, Florida.


Family SPATANGIDAE
EUPATAGUS (GYMNOPATAGUS) MOOREANUS Pilsbry
Figures 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17; Plates 2, 5, and 6
Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry 1914
Eupatagus floridanus (part) Clark and Twitchell 1915
Eupatagus (Gymnopatagus) mooreanus Cooke 1942
Eupatagus antillarum Cotteau 1875?
Next to Periarchus lyelli floridanus the rugged Eupatagus mooreanus
is the most conspicuous macrofossil in the middle portion of the Inglis
member of the Citrus-Levy County area. In Florida the species seems to
be restricted to the Inglis member. Dr. C. W. Cooke (personal communi-
cation) states that Eupatagus mooreanus is very closely related, probably
identical with Eupatagus antillarum (Cotteau 1875) from the Eocene of
St. Bartholomew in the Antilles.
While fairly well-preserved specimens are common, those showing the
plate sutures and the finer details of surface ornamentation are rare. The
collections at hand include an ontogenetic series of E. mooreanus with
several specimens of exceptionally fine preservation.
This species is widely distributed in study collections throughout the
United States under the name E. floridanus (cf. Cooke, 1942):
Figures 12 and 13 show the length-width and length-height relation-
ships of the specimens at hand.
Shape.-The test is ovoid to almost heart shaped, broadly rounded in
front with a gently depressed anterior ambulacral area. The right an-
terior interambulacral area projects beyond the left one in all specimens
studied. Clark and Twitchell's Figure 1 a, Plate 83, appears to have been
reversed. This peculiar consistent lopsidedness seems to occur in other
spatangoids as well. The oral side is almost flat, except for a peristomal
depression and a projecting plastron of the posterior ambulacral and
interambulacral areas. The posterior end is truncated, and the postero-




ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


lateral margins tend to be straight. The test is highest behind the apical
system; relative height and the location of the summit are variable.
Apical system.-The apical system (fig. 14) is anteriorly eccentric,
and shows four large genital pores, the anterior ones closer together than
the posterior ones. The madreporite is pear-shaped; its anterior narrow
portion separates the posterior genital plates.
Peristome.-The peristome is large and transverse, anteriorly eccentric
and anterior of the apical system. The anterior margin is generally semi-
circular and the posterior margin more or less straight. Variations in
outline are common; the most unusual one found, featuring a swerving
anterior margin with subangular sides, is illustrated on Plate 5, fig. 3.
The floscelle in front of and at the sides of the peristome is depressed.
The posterior margin is formed by the edge of the prominent plastron
which rises in a gentle arch.


20 mm


50 60


70 80 90100


L. E. N G Tr "- .- /-,,
0- x / ci'emtns
3 ~,,uimts
Figure 12. Length-width relationships of Eupatagus mooreanus.


a-0




-/O
*0
**







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


20 mm nO 40 50 60 70 80 9 100/
TN G T *-- *
Srnen s
^~ -------------








Figure 13. Length-height relationships of Eupatagus mooreanus.


Periproct.-The periproct is terminally located, large, and vertically
elongate, with sharply pointed upper and lower ends.
Petals.-The anterior ambulacrum is non-petaloid. The other four
show broad petals, in which the poriferous areas are narrower than the
interporiferous bands. The pores are small and round, and are deeply
conjugate (see fig. 15).
Architecture.-Figures 16 and 17 show the arrangement of plates in
the test of Eupatagus mooreanus. The Spatangoida are characterized by
a great modification of plates on the oral side. The aboral and peripheral
/




E II


20 mm 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
L, E- N G T H -
o 2 oecm-nes

Figure 13. Length-height relationships of Eupatagus mooreanus.

Periproct.-The periproct is terminally located, large, and vertically
elongate, with sharply pointed upper and lower ends.
Petals.-The anterior ambulacrum is non-petaloid. The other four
show broad petals, in which the poriferous areas are narrower than the
interporiferous bands. The pores are small and round, and are deeply
conjugate (see fig. 15).
Architecture.-Figures 16 and 17 show the arrangement of plates in
the test of Eupatagus mooreanus. The Spatangoida are characterized by
a great modification of plates on the oral side. The aboral and peripheral





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


regions of the test are composed of double rows of interambulacral and
ambulacral plates, with no marked dissimilarities except for the narrow-
ness and non-petaloid character of the anterior ambulacrum. On the am-
bitus the interambulacral plates become crowded. The greater part of
the oral side is covered by eight large interambulacral plates, a pair in
each of the lateral interambulacral areas. Between each of these pairs
and the peristome lies a single, smaller interambulacral plate. The fifth,
posterior interambulacral area shows a markedly different development,
in that it is nearly or completely interrupted and joints with the adjacent
ambulacral areas to form a symmetrical escutcheon and plastron. Below
the five pairs of anal plates (fig. 16 no. 1 b) around the periproct lies a


Figure 14. Apical system of Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry. Diagrammatic sketch.


Figure 15. Aboral plates of Eupatagus mooreanus: an interambulacral plate and
four adjacent ambulacral plates. Sketch.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


0 o 20 30 40
SCALE mm


Figure 16. Plate analyses of Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry.
1. Fla. G. S. 1-5349-10. A-aboral, B-posterior, C-right side, D-left
side, E-oral views.

The various plates are labeled as follows:
L-labrum, S-sternals, E-episternals, PA-postanals, A-anals.
2. Fla. G. S. 1-5338-3. Oral view of anterior portion of test.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


Figure 17. Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry.
1. Oral view, Fla. G. S. 1-5338-4.
2. Oral view, Fla. G. S. 1-5338-6.
3. Left side view, Fla. G. S. 1-5349-7, a specimen of unusual relative
height.
4. Left side view, Fla. G. S. 1-5338-5, a large rostrate specimen.
5. Oblique (escutcheon) view of Fla. G. S. 1-5342-3. (see also Plate 6).
The various plates are labeled as follows:
L-labrum, S-sternals, E-episternals, PA-postanals, A-anals.
6. Right side view of Fla. G. S. 1-5340-1.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- BULLETIN 34


pair of symmetrical triangular pre-anals, which blend in ornamentation
with the adjacent halves of the crowded plates of the inner row of the
ambulacral areas, and with the following pair of interambulacral plates
(the episternals) to form what Cooke has described as a "spread-wings-
shaped escutcheon". This is followed by two long scalenoid plates, the
sternals, the left one of which is slightly longer than the right and may
or may not meet the labrum, a long narrow sliver extending to the peri-
stome. The ambulacral double rows of plates which flank the labrum
and sternals are smooth, and rise above the lateral interambulacral areas
to form the sides of the plastron.
The anterior and antero-lateral ambulacral areas are narrow on the
oral side, but do not diminish near the peristome where they almost
crowd out the interambulacral plates. Here they become depressed, and
show elaborate floscelles (Plate 2, fig. 4).
Floscelle.-Around the peristome (Plate 2, fig. 4), the anterior and
antero-lateral ambulacral areas are depressed, and between them the
solitary inner interambulacral plates are inflated. The innermost four
or five plate-pairs of each ambulacrum are small, and are highly dis-
tinctive because of their large pore scrobicules.
The pores of these plates are of two types: scrobiculate and plain.
The former consist of a pit in which lies a gentle mound upon which the
pore is eccentrically situated.
Of the innermost cycle of ambulacral plates, one of each pair carries
three pores; two are scrobiculate, and the distal one of these is accom-
panied on the inner side by a plain pore. The other plate of the pair,
and the plates of the succeeding three or four pairs each carry two pores,
one scrobiculate and one plains The scrobiculate pores are located at or
near the mouthward margins. In the small, proximal plates the plain
pores lie at the margins of the scrobicules, but in the longer, more distal
plates, they come to lie near the distal ends.
Ornamentation.-Various regions of the test; the petals, the interam-
bulacral areas within the peripetalous fasciole, the peripheral area,
escutcheon, the lateral areas of the oral side, the peristomal area, the
ambulacral areas of the plastron, the sternum, and the labrum, show dif-
ferent types of ornamentation.
The entire aboral surface appears to be densely covered with fine
military granules. These form the only ornamentation of the peripetalous
fasciole, a narrow slightly depressed band which encircles the petals and
follows the ambitus in the anterior portion.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


The interporiferous zones of the petals show a scattering of small
tubercles grading into medium-sized and large ones, with perforations
and broad shallow scrobicules (fig. 15).
Each interambulacral plate within the fasciole shows two regions;
an upper, more or less depressed one, bearing a row of medium to large
perforate tubercles and largely covered by their broad flat scrobicules,
and a lower, inflated one covered with small tubercles (fig. 15).
The peripheral regions are thickly beset with small tubercles, which
grade downward into the scale type described below.
On the oral side, plate-pairs of the paired interambulacra are covered
with a striking ornamentation, consisting of staggered rows of evenly
spaced, prominent, crenlate tubercles. Each tubercle is eccentrically
placed upon a smooth, scalelike ellipsoidal base which is gently inclined
with respect to the surface of the test, to which it descends with a sharp
though low margin on the sides nearest the tubercle (see Plate 2, fig. 4).
In the posterior interambulacra the eccentric placement of the tubercles
on their scalelike bases is toward the peristome. In the anterior inter-
ambulacra the eccentricity is toward the center of the anterior margin
of the shell. The small areas between the scalelike tubercle bases are
covered with military granules.
The peristomal area, including the labrum and other interambulacral
plates and the plates of the anterior ambulacrum outside of the floscelle,
is covered with dome-shaped tubercles ranging from small to medium-
sized. The large ones are placed upon small rings and grade into the
large scale-based tubercles on the adjoining plates. The floscelles bear
only military granules and a few very small tubercles.
The ambulacral plates of the plastron are conspicuous by their smooth
"calloused" appearance; they carry only small and widely scattered
military granules.

The sternum shows the eccentric scale-and-tubercle type of orna-
mentation found on the large lateral interambulacral plates; tubercles
and scales are smaller and eccentric, the tubercles being located on the
central and anterior margins of the scales.
The escutcheon is bounded by a fasciole which cuts across the middle
of the inner ambulacral plates, where it is divided from the smooth
halves belonging to the plastron by a single row of small tubercles. The
area within the escutcheon is characterized by the scale-and-tubercle
type of ornamentation with posterior eccentricity and small scales. The





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34


tubercles are very small at the inner posterior corner of the pre-anal
plates and largest (medium-sized) at the antero-lateral margins of the
same. The included portions of the narrow ambulacral plates carry a
single row of medium-sized scale-tubercles, which decrease in size toward
the margin and give way to a double row of small ones.
Ontogenetic changes.-All of the small specimens which have been
examined are comparatively flat; figure 13 shows how variability in this
respect increases with size. Juveniles in contrast to adults show practical-
ly no depression of the anterior ambulacral area on the aboral side and
frontal margin. They also show a slight aboral inclination of the periproct,
which stands vertical in adults. The most marked changes, however,
occur in the architecture and ornamentation of the oral wall of the test.
Unfortunately the smallest specimens are not well enough preserved to
yield information of this type. The smallest specimen which lends itself
to this analysis is Fla. G. S. 1-5349-1, illustrated on Plate 6, fig. 2, with
a length of 34 mm, width 27 mm, and height 15 mm.
This specimen shows a continuous posterior interambulacral area,
i.e. a joined labrum and sternum. The outer rows of the postero-lateral
ambulacra are swollen, so that the margins of the plastron rise above
the interambulacra, but in contrast with older specimens the inner rows
of ambulacral plates and the intervening labrum are depressed, pro-
ducing a concave plastron with raised edges. The scales and tubercles
are of the same size as those of adults, but are less numerous. The
bilateral symmetry of the plastron is almost perfect.
Fla. G. S. 1-5342-3, illustrated in Plate 6, fig. 1, is a somewhat larger
specimen (length 43 mm, width 36 mm, height 20 mm) of more nearly
adult character. The symmetry of plastron and escutcheon is still nearly
perfect. The labrum and sternum have become slightly separated, so
that the interambulacral area has been interrupted. The entire plastron
is moderately inflated.
In very large specimens such as illustrated in fig. 6, no. 1, the sym-
metry of the plastron is largely lost. Pre-anals, episternals, sternals, and
ambulacral plates are unevenly developed, and the labrum is separated
from the sternum by a large gap in which the postero-lateral ambulacrals
are in contact.
Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5333: Dredgings, north bank of Withlacoo-
chee River, one-half to three-quarters mile above Faris Landing at
Crackertown, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5334: Dredgings in Citrus County on the south bank of





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


the Withlacoochee River, one-quarter mile up and down river across
from Faris Landing at Crackertown.
Fla. G. S. 1-5338: Quarry in Citrus County, south and one mile west
of Withlacoochee River bridge at Inglis, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5339: Dredgings, north bank of the Withlacoochee River,
about one mile below the Florida Power Company plant at Inglis, Levy
County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5340: Dredgings, north bank of the Withlacoochee River,
200 yards below the Isaac Walton Lodge, Yankeetown, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5341: Dredgings, north bank of the Withlacoochee River,
one and one-half miles below Isaac Walton Lodge at Yankeetown, Levy
County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5342: Dredgings, levee on north side of Withlacoochee
River near mouth, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5348: West end of long levee of dredgings, north of main
channel of Withlacoochee River at mouth, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5349: Dredgings on levee, north side of Withlacoochee
River near mouth, Levy County.
Fla. G. S. 1-5362: Dredgings on both sides of Withlacoochee River,
between Inglis and Crackertown, Levy and Citrus counties.
Various specimens are in the collections of the U. S. National Museum,
including some from pits along the Otter Creek-Cedar Keys road, Levy
County, and the Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Company pit in the south-
west quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 10, Township 18 south,
Range 19 east, Citrus County.

EUPATAGUS CLEVEI Cotteau
Figure 18; Plate 7
Eupatagus clevei Cotteau 1875
Eupatagus clevei Cooke 1948
A single specimen referred to this species was found by the writer
in dredgings from the Inglis member, out of the Withlacoochee River,
near Inglis. This has been deposited at the U. S. National Museum,
(U.S.N.M. 104175), and was mentioned by Cooke (1948). To date this
appears to be the only record of this species from the United States. It
is readily distinguished from E. mooreanus by its greater rotundity, the
great width of the interporiferous zones of the petals, the protruding lip





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


Figure 18. Plate analysis of Eupatagus clevei Cotteau, anterior portion of oral side.
From a photograph by Mr. N. W. Shupe, of the U. S. Geological Survey.
U.S.N.M. 104175 (see Plate 7, fig. 3).

of the peristome, the irregular distribution of tubercles on the aboral
plates, and the shape of the interambulacral plates on the oral side.
The latter is illustrated on fig. 18, to be compared with E. mooreanus
shown on fig. 16, nos. 1 E and 2, and fig. 17, no. 1. The antero-lateral
interambulacrum is composed on the oral side of three plates: a pair of
very large ones (B1 and B2) adjoining a smaller one (A) which extends
to the peristome. In E. mooreanus this smaller plate shows a short suture
with the anterior (B) and a long suture with the posterior plate (B2)
of the adjacent pair. In E. clevei the A-B suture is longer than the A-B1
suture.

EUPATAGUS sp.
Plate 5, Figure 5
The basal beds of the Inglis member have yielded a single crushed
mold of a Eupatagus which is clearly neither E. clevei nor E. mooreanus.
This form is evidently large, elongate, and low. The petals are long and
curved, and show narrow interporiferous areas. The aboral portions of
the test show an irregular scattering of large tubercles. The position of
the anterior ambulacral area is occupied by a flat facet with sharply
defined shoulders and covered with small tubercles. The species appears
to be closely related to E. curvus Cooke from the Ocala limestone at
Marianna. It differs from this by its greater size, the longer posterior
petals, narrower interporiferous areas in the antero-lateral petals, and
the afore-mentioned anterior facet.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


Occurrence.-Fla. G. S. 1-5360: Massive dolomite bed 4 feet above
laminated dolomite of the Avon Park limestone on north bank of Withla-
coochee River, below the Florida Power Company dam, Levy County,
loc. L-139, Vernon, 1951.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

CLARK, W. B., and TWITCHELL. M. W., 1915. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic
Echinodermata of the United States: U. S. Geol. Surv. Monograph 54.
COLE, W. S. and PONTON, G. M., 1932. Variations of Laganum dalli Twitchell:
Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 5, vol. 24, pp. 23-27.
CONRAD, T. A., 1884. Descriptions of new Tertiary fossils from the Southern States:
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour. vol. 7, pp 180-157.
CONRAD, T. A., 1850. Descriptions of one new Cretaceous and seven new Eocene
fossils: Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., 2nd ser., vol. 2, pp. 39-41.
CONRAD, T. A., 1865. Catalogue of the Eocene Echinodermata of the United States:
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., ser. 2, vol. 9, pp. 73-75.
COOKE, C. W., 1941. Cenozoic regular echinoids of Eastern United States: Jour.
Paleontology, vol. 15, pp. 1-20.
COOKE, C. W., 1942. Cenozoic irregular echinoids of Eastern United States: Jour.
Paleontology, vol. 16, pp. 1-62.
COOKE, C. W., 1948. Eocene echinoids from Panama: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22,
no. 1, pp. 91-93.
COTTEAU, G., 1875. Descriptions des 6chinides tertiaires des iles St. Barthelemy et
Anguilla: K. svenska vetensk.-akad. Handl., Bd. 13, no. 6, 47pp, 8 pls.
LORIOL, P. de, 1887. Notes pour service A 1'6tude des 6chinodermes: Recueil Zool.
Suisse, vol. 4, pp. 365-407.
MORTENSEN, Theodor, 1948. Monograph of the echinoidea: Copenhagen, Den-
mark, C. A. Reitzel, Vol. 4, pt. 2.
MORTON, S. G., 1833. Supplement to Synopsis of the organic remains of the Fer-
ruginous sand formation of the United States contained in vol. 17 and 18 of
this journal: Am. Jour. Sci., 1st ser., vol. 23, pp. 288-294; vol. 24, pp. 128-132.
PILSBRY, H. A., 1914. Description of a new echinoderm: Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia Proc., vol. 66, pp. 206-207.
TWITCHELL, M. W., 1915. See CLARK AND TWITCHELL, 1915.
VERNON, Robert O., 1947. Tertiary formations cropping out in Citrus and Levy
counties. Guidebook, Fifth Field Trip, Southeastern Geological Society, pp. 2-54.
VERNON, Robert O., 1951. Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Fla.
Geol. Survey Bulletin 33.
WEISBORD, N. E., 1934. Some Cretaceous and Tertiary echinoids from Cuba: Bull.
Am. Paleontology, vol. 20, no. 70 C, pp. 165-270.





















Plates 1-7

Echinoid Fauna of the Inglis

Member, Moodys Branch Formation






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 84


PLATE 1

Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer, n. subsp.

Figures
1. Type of subspecies, x,'. Inglis member, mouth of Withlacoochee River.
U.S.N.M. 560418.

2. Polished section of interior, oral side, x 1. Inglis member, mouth of Withla-
coochee River. Matrix stained wvvt- ecs.n,. U.o.N.Mv. 5-0419.

3. Internal mold, x 1. From dolomite facies of Inglis member, Florida Power
Company dam. Fla. G. S. 1-5361-2. Xo>e radial canals. and interambulacral
sinuses.

4. Internal mold, x 1. From dolomite facies of Inglis member, Florida Power
Company dam. Fla. G. S. 1-5361-1. Note radial canals and interambulacral
sinuses.




ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION 89


Ip,
.1h





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


PLATE 2


Figures
1, 2. Cassidulus ericsoni Fischer, n. sp., aboral view x 1.
below Stokes Ferry, Withlacoochee River, Citrus
U.S.N.M. 560420. 2: U.S.N.M. 560421.


Inglis member, 4 miles
County, Paratypes. 1:


3. Peronella archerensis (Twitchell), oral view, x 2. Note cycle of plates surround-
ing peristome, with ambulacral plates showing simple actinal grooves bearing
a median ridge. Cf. figure 3. Inglis member, dredgings along Withlacoochee
River between Inglis and Yankeetown, sec. 3, T. 17 S., R. 16 E. U.S.N.M.
175488.

4. Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry. Peristomal region, x 4.6. Fla. G. S. 1-5342-3.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 34


PLATE 3

Cassidulus ericsoni Fischer, n. sp.
Figures
1. Holotype, x 1. Fla. G. S. 1-5358-1.
a-anterior, b-right side, c-posterior, d-aboral, e-oral views.

2. Paratype, x 2. Fla. G. S. 1-5358-3. Oral view.

3. Paratype, x 1. Apical region deformed.
Fla. G. S. 1-5358-2. Posterior view.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION





94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34

la lb.







ic

2a

2b 2








3





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


PLATE 4

Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus Fischer, n. sp.
Figures
1. Holotype. Fla. G. S. 1-5346-1.
a-anterior, x 0.9, b-left side, x 1, c-aboral view, x 1.4, d-posterior, x 0.9.

2. Paratype. Fla. G. S. 1-5346-2.
a-aboral view, x 1.4, b-left side, x 1, c-front, x 0.9.

3. Aboral view of an internal mold from the dolomite faces of the Inglis member.
Fla. G. S. 1-5345, x 1.

4. Oral side of an external mold; dolomite facies of the Inglis member. Fla. G. S.
1-5347-1.

5. Oral view, x 2. Paratype, Fla. G. S. 1-5346-3. Note anterior and posterior
sternal bands.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 84


PLATE 5
Figures
1. Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry. Large specimen, aboral view, x 1. For plate
analysis, see figure 16, no. 1. Fla. G. S. 1-5349-10.

2. Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry, aboral view, x 1. Fla. G. S. 1-5342-15.

3. Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry, oral view, x 1. Fla. G. S. 1-5339-3. Note
aberrant shape of peristome (cf. fig. 4).

4. Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry, oral view, x 1. Fla. G. S. 1-5342-12.

5. Eupatagus sp., aboral view of cast of external mold, x 1. Note small relative
width of interporiferous zones, flat anterior facet of test, and curves of petals.
Fla. G. S. 1-5360-1.





ECHINOIDS OF THE MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION 97


1


3




5




98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -BULLETIN 34











3









la