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HIDE
 Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Introduction
 History and Indians
 Climate
 The physiographic regions,...
 Geology
 Soils, introduction
 Topography and water conditions,...
 The vegetation and Florida,...
 Fish and wildlife, introductio...
 The Everglades, introduction
 Over-all resources
 Index














Natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation, and the Everglades ( FGS: Bulletin 25 )
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 Material Information
Title: Natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation, and the Everglades ( FGS: Bulletin 25 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Bulletin 25 )
Physical Description: Book
Creator: DAVIS, J. H.
Publication Date: 1943
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA1655
ltuf - ACP9802
System ID: UF00000488:00001

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 5
    Foreword
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Acknowledgement
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Table of Contents
        Page 13
    List of Illustrations
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Introduction
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    History and Indians
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Climate
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    The physiographic regions, introduction
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
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        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Geology
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
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        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Soils, introduction
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Topography and water conditions, introduction
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    The vegetation and Florida, introduction
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
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        Page 213
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    Fish and wildlife, introduction
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
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        Page 239
    The Everglades, introduction
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
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        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Over-all resources
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
    Index
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
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        plate 1
Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION Florida Geological Survey S. E. RICE, Supervisor of Conservation HERMAN GUNTER, Director, Geological Survey
GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 23
THE NATURAL FEATURES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
ESPECIALLY THE VEGETATION, AND THE EVERGLADES
By
JOHN H. JJiAVlS, JR., Ph.D
Research Assistant Florida Geological Survey
Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, 1943


Published October 20, 194.J
THE E. O. PAINTER PRINTING COMPANY deLand, Florida


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Honorable S. E. Rice, Supervisor Florida State Board of Conservation
Sir:
I have the honor to transmit a report of one of our investigations entitled "THE NATURAL FEATURES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA, especially the Vegetation, and the Everglades" by Dr. John H. Davis, Jr., Research Assistant, Florida Geological Survey, and recommend that it be published as Geological Bulletin No. 25.
This bulletin describes and discusses some of the cultural history, Seminole Indians, and the main physical and biological features of that part of Florida south of the northern border areas of Lake Okeechobee. It includes five maps, some diagrams, and many photographs which illustrate a few of these features. The Everglades region of this part of the State although well known is little understood. It is a region of such great potential value that it is described in most detail. The vegetational features are stressed because the conditions of plant life reflect many of the conditions of the soils, water, topography and climate. The vegetation map will prove useful because it is drawn from many field surveys of the author and a large number of aerial photographs, and the distribution of the types of vegetation can be correlated with numbers of other features. The climate, geology, soils, topography, water conditions and animal life are all considered and their interrelations with each other are pointed out.
This over-all manner of describing the natural features and showing their interrelations will prove useful to many persons, and government agencies, because some of the problems of land utilization, conservation, and recreation can be solved better if the natural features are correlated with each other. For these reasons this publication should prove of interest to the layman as well as the scientist.
Respectfully submitted,
Herman Gunter, Director Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida June 23, 1943
213793


FOREWORD
Southern Florida is the southernmost part of the continental United States and the end of a long, low peninsula that projects down into tropical waters. As such, it has many physical and biological features that are different from other sections of this country. Some of these features have attracted many persons to this part of the State and caused the development of some areas for recreational, commercial, agricultural, and industrial purposes. The unique character of many of the natural features as compared to the relative uniformity of those in many other parts of the United States has been one of the main reasons why this section is now developing rapidly. For a long time the cultural development of southern Florida was retarded because of the very nature of some of the natural conditions, such as certain features of the climate and the large areas of swamps and marshes. The main cause was, however, difficulty of travel which to a great extent was due to the prevalence of poorly drained areas and other physical features. Now that there is adequate control of malaria, yellow fever, and other diseases which were promoted by the climate, and now since travel has become easy, this section of Florida is beginning to take advantage of its natural features and is using most of them for its own benefit rather than letting them hamper its development as was formerly the case. The purpose of this survey and description is to furnish a better understanding of these natural features and to offer suggestions for their proper use for the long term development of this potentially rich part of the State.
The equitable climate, which is nearly tropical, has attracted many of the people who have settled or visited here in recent years. The long coast line and many islands, particularly the Florida Keys, have proved good for fishing, commerce and other industries since the days of the first Spanish explorers. The nearly "unspoiled" Seminole Indians are an attraction. The sub-tropical and tropical plants, both native and introduced, add beauty to the landscape, residences, and parks. A great variety of fruits and winter season vegetables are now grown here and furnish a good income to many persons. The other native plant life is of interest to the


layman as well as the scientist who finds it very different in many ways from that of other parts of the State. The animal life is also varied and numerous. Large and often showy wading and water birds abound in some areas and there are many varieties of food and game fish. Reptiles are numerous and some rare mammals are still to be found because large parts of this section have remained a nearly natural wilderness.
Most of the other natural features of southern Florida are physical and their importance in influencing the effects of climate and determining many of the biological conditions is apt to be overlooked. Some of the most important of these features are; the general low relief and poor drainage of large areas, particularly the Everglades; the prevalence of little or no soil over large areas of rockland; and the great deposits of organic soils, peats and mucks, in the Everglades and some other regions. The topography of the surface and the drainage patterns influence many of these conditions, and even the nature of the rock and marl strata are very important.
Each of these features have been considered separately, or a few have been considered together, by many persons and there is much information available about them. But the most important things to consider here are the interrelationships of these natural features because it is difficult if not impossible to understand properly the significance of any one feature without knowing something of how the other conditions affect it. Thus, it is difficult to understand the native vegetation or crops without knowledge of the soil, drainage, and climatic conditions. Similarly, it is difficult to understand the Everglades and properly plan for the development of parts of it without understanding the way this marsh and swamp region was formed, and such knowledge involves the geologic history, soil development, vegetation, and climate, as well as the topography and drainage conditions.
Most important of all, it is necessary to evaluate the relative worth of one area as compared to another in planning for improvements in use of the land and developing new areas. To do this the over-all conditions in each area should be well known.
In a sense each of these natural features is a natural resource if properly used and developed in conjunction with the other natural features. To promote a better understand-


ing of these natural features, or resources, this investigation was undertaken under the very helpful direction and support of the Florida Geological Survey.
The Everglades, embracing the largest undeveloped part of southern Florida, is the most important part of this description, but the adjacent regions are not neglected because without considering them even an understanding of the main features of the Everglades would be impossible. This survey and description, therefore, includes the whole or nearly the whole of Monroe, Dade, Broward, Collier, Lee, Hendry, Palm Beach, Martin, Glades, Charlotte, and DeSoto counties; and the southern parts of St. Lucie, Okeechobee, Highlands, and Hardee counties, as shown in figure 1.
All the natural features of this area of approximately 13,000 square miles could hardly be thoroughly surveyed and studied in the space of two years and by one investigator. For these reasons those natural features with which the author was most familiar and most capable of studying were stressed. In this investigation the plant ecology (which means the many conditions of the environment that influence the vegetation) was particularly studied. This approach proved useful in estimating and understanding many of the other natural features of-the wildlife, soils, drainage, climate, and even rock and marl strata as related to the plant life. The very descriptive names of the larger regions of this section are the Everglades, Big Cypress, and Flatwoods, all of which signify certain definite types of vegetation.
Certain features of the geology, drainage, soils, wildlife, and agricultural uses of the land might have been considered in more detail had they not been better studied and better treated elsewhere. At the time of this investigation certain more detailed investigation'? were being conducted by other agencies and persons. The United States Soil Conservation Service was making an engineering, soils, and over-?'l scientific study of the lands in the Everglades Drainage District; the United States Geological Survey was investigating the ground and surface water features and some of the structure, lithology, and paleontology of most of this section; and a soil survey of Collier County was conducted by the United States Bureau of Plant Industry and the University of Florida. These agencies intend to prepare and publish reports which will present more details than can possibly be given here. Fortunately for the author, some information obtained by
8


these agencies was given to the author and parts of it are incorporated in this report.
Because of the relatively flat topography of most of southern Florida, the thinness or lack of soils over large areas, and a lack of good conditions for heavy timber growth, a large percentage of this section of the State will probably continue to be useless or of marginal value for agricultural and other pursuits of commercial value. The expressions "Leave it to the Indians" or "Give it back to the Indians" fit large areas. Although this investigation did not wish to prove that much of the land was relatively useless for agriculture it became obvious that that was the case. It might prove the best policy if large areas were kept in their present undeveloped state and their natural features used for recreational and wildlife purposes, as by the establishment of the Proposed Everglades National Park.
The ordinary citizen, the visitors to southern Florida, the nature lovers, sportmen, cattlemen, agriculturists, scientists, some engineers, and real estate promoters will each find certain specific interests in the natural features of southern Florida. With this description goes the hope that what is written and shown here will in some measure prove useful to most of these persons. An approach not too strictly scientific is attempted so that more than one class of people may benefit from it. The map of the vegetation will probably prove of interest and use for many purposes. It is much more accurate than past ones because it is based on numerous aerial photographs, as shown in figure 2, made for the United States Soil Conservation Service. With the map alone it should be possible to learn of many other natural features as well as the vegetation. (See map in pocket.)
Very seldom does a person have the opportunity to travel n and investigate the natural features of such a large and >artly "unspoiled" region. Modern facilities made it possible or me to visit places where only a few persons ever before lad gone and to leave only a very few areas unvisited. At he same time I was most fortunate in being able to enlist .he aid of many persons and government agencies as well as ;he Florida Geological Survey who knew far more about jertain of these natural conditions than I did, and this aid nade possible the inclusion of numerous details of features ;hat would otherwise have been omitted.
If this work helps the non-scientists and scientists to


understand better what nature created in this our most southern part of the continental United States it will have served its purpose. And if a better understanding of these features should lead to better planning for the use and development of this part of Florida I shall feel most gratified.
J. H. D. 1943
Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida.
Figure 2.Vertical aerial photograph of area NW. of town of Immokalee, about 5.5 x 5.5 miles square. Many hundred similar photographs were used to make the Vegetation and other maps. Ponds arranged in rows in NE. corner (dark areas) and the ridges (light areas) parallel to the diagonal road are probably old shore line features of the Talbot sea.
Courtesy U. S. Soil Conservation Service.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am particularly indebted to Herman Gunter, Director, Florida Geological Survey, for his constant aid in promoting and directing this investigation, and for the facilities of the Survey which he made available. I am also indebted to all the members of the Survey Staff for their aid in many ways, particularly, William Dean Wilson, Draftsman, for the great care he used in preparation of the maps, and Mrs. A. J. Rogers in preparation of the manuscript.
So many State and Federal agencies and persons associated with them have aided in this investigation that it is difficult to single out and credit particular organizations or persons. The staff of the United States Soil Conservation Service at Fort Lauderdale was most helpful, particularly John C. Stephens and Albert Stephens. The United States Geological Survey staff at Miami, particularly Garald G. Parker, and also G. E. Ferguson of the Ocala office of the same Survey, aided in a better understanding of the geology, ground water and surface water conditions.
Most of the botanical aid was rendered by Erdman West and Lillian Arnold of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station who identified most of the plants, and who have stored many of those collected in the Herbarium at Gainesville. Walter S. Buswell of the University of Miami was of particular aid in the identification of plants in the Miami area.
A number of soil scientists, especially Dr. R. V. Allison, J. R. Henderson, and Richard A. Carrigan of the University of Florida, and Milton Marco of the United States Bureau of Plant Industry, aided in some field work and gave very helpful advice concerning the soils.
Dr. J. R. Neller and other members of the Everglades Experiment Station staff at Belle Glade assisted in many ways. The former Chief Drainage Engineer of the Everglades District, F. C. Elliot, and many of the present officers of the Drainage District furnished information, advice, and encouragement.
The National Park Service, through C. Ray Vinton of St. Augustine, took a keen interest in the investigation and gave much helpful information and advice. John H. Baker of the


National Audubon Society and other men of that Society gave valuable data about the bird life and other wildlife.
The United States Army Air Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard were very helpful by furnishing airplane trips which made possible most of the aerial reconnaissance and some of the aerial photographs.
Professor W. L. Porter of Davidson College aided by reading part of the proof and giving suggestions.
My wife, Emma A. Davis, was not only a generous source of encouragement but helped in the field work and preparation of the manuscript.


CONTENTS
Page
Foreword ...................................................................................................... 6
Acknowledgments ........................................................................................ 11
Introduction .................................................................................................. 17
History and Indians .................................................................................... 20
Climate .......................................................................................................... 32
Physiographic Regions, Introduction ...................................................... 40
Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin ................................................ 41
Flatlands Regions .................................................................................. 43
Eastern Flatlands .................................................................................. 45
Western Flatlands ................................................................................ 45
Big Cypress ............................................................................................ 48
Lake Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin ................................................ 49
Highlands Ridge .................................................................................... 50
Atlantic Coast Strip and Miami Rock Ridge.................................... 51
Southern Coast and Islands ................................................................ 53
Southwest Coast and Ten Thousand Islands .................................... 55
Florida Keys ............................................................................................ 57
Geology .......................................................................................................... 58
Soils, Introduction ...................................................................................... 75
Geology and Soils .................................................................................. 77
Soil Characteristics and Types .......................................................... 82
Soils and Vegetation............................................................................. 91
Immokalee area ...................................................................................... 100
Soil water ................................................................................................ 103
Soil reactions .......................................................................................... Ill
Topography and Water conditions, Introduction .................................. 116
Topography and Surface drainage .................................................... 117
Ground water and Underground drainage ........................................ 124
Surface water levels and Soil water table ...................................... 125
Vegetation and Flora, Introduction ........................................................ 131
Flora ........................................................................................................ 132
Vegetation, Introduction ...................................................................... 141
Areas covered by types of vegetation ........................................ 153
Descriptions of main types of vegetation .................................. 156
High Pine forests, and Scrub forests .................................... 156
Pine flatwoods, Rockland Pine forests, and Saw-palmetto
prairies ........................................................................................ 160
Hammock forests ...................................................................... 166
Inland Swamp forests, Cypress forests, and Bay Tree
forests .......................................................................................... 175
Mangrove swamps, and Salt-water marshes .................... 187
Fresh-water marshes, and Wet-prairies ............................ 195
Coastal Beach and Dune vegetation .................................... 199
Ecological considerations of the vegetation ............................ 205
Fish and Wildlife, Introduction .............................................................. 215
Fish .......................................................................................................... 220
Reptiles and Amphibia ........................................................................ 224
Birds ........................................................................................................ 229
Mammals ................................................................................................ 236
Everglades, Introduction .......................................................................... 240
Mode of development and original conditions ................................ 244
Vegetation .............................................................................................. 254
Effects of canals and dikes ................................................................ 273
Probable former water conditions .............................................. 278
Subsidence and loss of soils .......................................................... 279
Summary and conclusions ............................................................ 283
Land Utilization and possible future ................................................ 284


ILLUSTRATIONS
FrontispieceBorder of the Everglades and Big Cypress
Figure Figures Page
1 Cultural and Regional map of southern Florida ............opposite 8
2 Aerial photograph of area near Immokalee .................................. 10
3 Big Cypress region .............................................................................. 19
4 Dugout boats used by Seminole Indians ...................................... 25
5 Indian camp home "chickees" .......................................................... 29
6 Indian maid and her brother .......................................................... 30
7 Stranded fishing boat ........................................................................ 39
8 Lake Okeechobee and the Kissimmee River ................................ 42
9 Scene in the Western Flatlands region ............................................ 44
10 Kissimmee River and its valley near Fort Bassinger ................ 46
11 Old shore line escarpment ................................................................ 50
12 Aerial view of inland dune and swale topography ........................ 51
13 Miami Beach .......................................................................................... 52
14 Ten Thousand Islands........................................................................ 54
15 Lagoon on Man Key .......................................................................... 58
16 Map of the Geology of southern Florida ........................................ 60
17 Layers of the Fort Thompson formation ...................................... 62
18 Fort Thompson formation ................................................................ 62
19 Upper Fort Thompson formation, and Recent sands and marls 66
20 Miami oolitic limestone .................................................................... 71
21 Rockland resulting from fires .......................................................... 80
22 Profile of peat soils .......................................................................... 85
23 Hiler peat auger ................................................................................ 86
24 Soil profile diagrams .......................................................................... 90
25 Map of soils and vegetation of the Immokalee area .................. 101
26 Topographic and drainage map of southern Florida ...opposite 120
27 Cypress buttresses showing marks of water levels...................... 126
28 Slender thatch-palm .......................................................................... 134
29 Pink muhly-grass ................................................................................ 135
30 Air-plant on scrub oak ........................................................................ 136
31 Native vanilla vine ............................................................................ 138
32 Sand-pine Scrub .................................................................................. 158
33 Saw-palmetto and wire-grass ............................................................ 161
34 Pine flatwoods ...................................................................................... 163
35 Hammocks and prairie ...................................................................... 167
36 Young strangler-fig ............................................................................ 168
37 Mature strangler-fig .......................................................................... 170
38 Native royal-palms ............................................................................ 174
39 Interior of a cypress-head .................................................................. 180
40 Scrub cypress forest ............................................................................ 182
41 Bay tree forests of the Istokpoga region .................................... 187
42 Interior of a red mangrove swamp ................................................ 189
43 Transition area in Southern Coast region .................................... 190
44 Marsh and low hammock ................................................................ 192
Page
Over-all Resources ...................................................................................... 295
Climate and Recreation ...................................................................... 295
Forests ...................................................................................................... 296
Cropland and Pasturage ...................................................................... 298
Mineral resources .................................................................................. 300
Water resources .................................................................................... 301
Commerce ................................................................................................ 301
Index .............................................................................................................. 303


Figure Figures Page
45 Wet weather pond .............................................................................. 197
46 Fore dunes near Jupiter .................................................................... 200
47 Near-shore dunes near Jupiter ........................................................ 201
48 Profile of dunes near Jupiter ............................................................ 204
49 Marine fish ............................................................................................ 221
50 Canal bank fishing, sugar cane .......................................................... 222
51 Dead fish in drying pool .................................................................... 223
52 Alligator ................................................................................................ 225
53 Crocodile ................................................................................................ 226
54 Wood ibises .......................................................................................... 228
55 Snowy egret or little plume bird .................................................... 230
56 Snowy egret or little plume bird ...................................................... 230
57 Nesting sooty terns at the Tortugas Keys .................................. 231
58 Roseate spoonbill ................................................................................ 234
59 Florida cougar ...................................................................................... 237
60 Profile cross-section of the Everglades ........................................ 249
61 Tractor with extended treads ............................................................ 255
62 Tamiami slough and tree-island area .............................................. 258
63 Tractor trail through saw-grass marsh............................................ 264
64 Air-boat in Hillsborough Lake area ................................................ 267
65 Southern Everglades rockland .......................................................... 269
66 Drainage canal across the Everglades ............................................ 273
67 Fire in the Everglades ........................................................................ 283
68 Canal Point and sugar cane fields .................................................... 287
69 Cattle .................................................................................................... 298
70 Quarry of Miami oolitic limestone .................................................. 300
71 Vegetation map of southern Florida ...................................... in pocket
MAPS
Figure Page
1 Cultural and Regional map of southern Florida ............opposite 8
16 Map of the Geology of southern Florida ........................................ 60
25 Map of soils and vegetation of the Immokalee area ................ 101
26 Topographic and Drainage map of southern Florida ..opposite 120 71 Vegetation map of southern Florida ........................................in pocket
TABLES
Table Tables Page
1 Correlations between vegetation and soil types ............................ 92
2 Characteristic plants associated with certain soil types ........ 96
3 Vegetation and soil type correlated with soil water under field conditions .............................................................................................. 106
4 Soil reaction of some soil types and vegetation .......................... 112
5 Common and showy orchids of southern Florida ........................ 140
6 List of types of vegetation recognized by three botanists ........ 145
7 Types of vegetation of southern Florida .................................... 147
8 Approximate areas covered by different types of vegetation 154
9 Ecological classification of the plant communities of southern Florida .................................................................................................... 206
10 Characteristic plants of the Everglades .......................................... 271




THE NATURAL FEATURES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA,
ESPECIALLY THE VEGETATION, AND THE EVERGLADES
John H. Davis, Jr.
INTRODUCTION
Southern Florida is the end of the peninsula that is an extension of the Southeastern Coastal Plain Province of the United States and as such has many physical features that are common to the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Some of these features are: (1) a prevailingly flat and partly terraced topography that has resulted from marine terraces built by former sea levels; (2)) many coastal features such as dunes, tidal rivers, lagoons, bays, sounds, barrier islands, and reefs and bars; (3) numerous coastal and inland lakes, swamps and marshlands; and (4) sand soils, mostly derived from the marine terraces, which form large areas of flat pinelands known as the "fiatwoods," and gently undulating hills known as the "sandhills."
The sandhills are common down the central backbone of Florida but extend only a short distance into the Highlands County part of southern Florida. The flatlands flank both sides of this sandhill ridge and in southern Florida cover large areas. The coastal features are developed especially well here because the tip of the peninsula is very indented and there are hundreds of islands. There is one large lake, Lake Okeechobee, and there are many swamps and the great marshland region known as the Everglades. The most outstanding feature is this Everglades Lake Okeechobee basin which covers over 3,000,000 acres and is of such low relief that a grade of only one foot in seven or eight miles is common. (See figure 26.)
All of Florida is built on sedimentary rock, mostly limestones, with no igneous or metamorphic rocks closer to the surface than about 4,000 feet. None of these sedimentary rocks close to or at the surface are older than the Eocene epoch. The greater part of the peninsula is covered by a mantle of marine sands over these rocks, and many different types of soils are in many places relatively shallow.
In southern Florida none of the surface or near surface sedimentary rocks are older than the late Miocene epoch, the


last of which includes the glacial stages which immediately preceded the modern or Recent time. Some of these hard rock strata are very thinly covered by sand or marl, and large areas are covered by muck and peat soils developed in marshes and swamps, particularly in the Everglades. There are large areas of rocklands with little or no soil covering. These rock-lands, the thin mineral soils, and the large areas of organic soils are among the chief characteristics of southern Florida.
The most distinctive feature of all southern Florida is the great Everglades-Lake Okeechobee basin. This basin is the remains of a shallow sea that existed during the last part of the glacial stages; the present Lake Okeechobee being probably the small remains of a much larger lake that formerly filled a large part of the entire basin. Most of this nearly flat basin is now a marshland with deep to thin peat soils and a rank to sparse growth of the saw-grass and other sedges, grasses, and herbs. Some swamps and island-like groups of trees are in this basin, but the main pine and cypress forests are along both sides of the Everglades. The term "glades" means grasslands flanked by forests, which is true here, the prefix "Ever" probably was added to signify that these marshlands continue green throughout the year, or it was used to indicate the vast extent of the region seeming to the first settlers to extend forever.
Due to the fact that the Florida peninsula extends into tropical waters and almost to the Tropic of Cancer this southern part has a warm and humid climate which is one of its main attributes. This mild climate has greatly affected its plant and animal life causing some of the flora and fauna to be among the most unusual in the United States. There are sub-tropical and a few tropical plants and there are some animals of tropical affinities. These biological features are also greatly influenced by the prevalence of coastal conditions and the large areas of flooded marshes and swamps. Besides the great Everglades marshes there are great mangrove swamps along the low-lying coasts, and there is a large area of cypress forests, pinelands, and prairies in Collier County and adjacent areas that is known as the Big Cypress, figure 3.
Many of these regions have been only partly developed and some areas still remain in a relatively undisturbed natural state so that the wildlife and vegetation have not been


Figure 3.Eastern part of the Big Cypress region in Collier County, here composed of hammocks (dark foreground areas), scrub cypress forests with domes of taller cypress trees.
A brief outline of the history and Seminole Indians will be given first, followed by a brief description of the essential features of the climate, and a preliminary description of the physiographic regions. The geology, soils, and some features of the topography and drainage will then be considered in more detail. Then the vegetation and wildlife will be described in considerable detail. These factors such as the soils, climate, drainage, and fires which most directly influence the development and maintenance of the different types of vegetation and support the different kinds of wildlife will be stressed. Most of all the features of the Everglades as a unit, including its probable history, will be particularly described. Other interesting regions will be considered more briefly and a discussion of land utilization will attempt to bring out some of the agricultural, wildlife, and recreational possibilities.
greatly changed. These more or less wilderness areas constitute one of the main natural features of southern Florida.
For these reasons both the physical and biological features of this section of Florida are important. It is necessary to understand most of the physical features, such as topography, soils, and drainage, to properly understand the biological conditions, and in this description a consideration of all these is attempted.


HISTORY AND INDIANS
The islands and coastal regions of Florida were visited by the early Spanish and other explorers and many parts of southern Florida became well known before other parts of North America had been settled. In spite of these early explorations and small settlements the southern part of Florida remained only sparsely settled for a long time after the American colonies further north had become well populated. Even until after the period of the Seminole Indian Wars, during the first half of the Nineteenth Century, much of this section remained unsettled, and only since the beginning of the Twentieth Century have areas in the Everglades and along the Atlantic coast been well developed. Even now large areas are relatively unexplored and poorly mapped, and many future cultural improvements are possible.
This delay in the settlement of southern Florida was due in large measure to the nature of the climate and general difficulty of travel in the interior. The Everglades, Big Cypress, and other marsh and swamp regions made settlement difficult and communication between the Atlantic and Gulf coasts almost impossible except by boat. Not until the Tamiami Trail, the road between Fort Myers and Miami, was completed in 1928 was there a good highway across the Everglades.
There are many accounts of the explorations and early settlements that throw light on the natural conditions and Indians. From these and numerous maps it is possible to learn of some of the early conditions of this country as far back as the Sixteenth Century.
Juan Ponce de Leon 1 and other early explorers soon made contacts with the aborigines who were in southern Florida. They were mainly the group now referred to as the Caloosa, or as the Calos or Carlos Indians, deriving their name from the chief or Cacique whose name was Carlos and after whom San Carlos Bay, the mouth of Charlotte Harbor, is named. The Caloosahatchee is the river named after these Indians, hatchee meaning river in the Seminole language.
Other early Indians of southern Florida were the Ays and
i Who according to Dovell attempted to land near Fort Myers in 1513. See Dovell, J. E., A brief History of the Florida Everglades, Proc. Soil Science Soc. Fla. 4: p. 132, 1942.


Tequesta along the Atlantic coast. The Carlos or Caloosa Indians were the largest tribe and controlled these smaller groups. They were liguistically distinct from the Timucuan group who lived further north in Florida. Most of these Caloosa people may have died from epidemic diseases by about 1617, or have migrated to Cuba, and their cultures were not contemporary with the present Seminole Indians who were forced south into Florida much later.
Fortunately these pre-Seminole Indians built domicile and burial mounds and traveled mainly by canoes, so that now we can interpret much of their past life from the artifacts and human remains left in their mounds, and the locations of these mounds indicate the canoe routes followed by them. Many studies have been made of these mounds by Cushing," Moore,:i Hrdlicka,' and persons now living in Florida. Of these latter Mr. Montague Tallant of Manatee, Florida, has made extensive studies of mounds in southern Florida, and some of the information given here was furnished by him.
A series of canoe routes these peoples then traveled began in the Ten Thousand Islands and extended northward through the Big Cypress probably along the Fakahatchee Swamp route. One branch route led from this swamp to Lake Trafford where a number of mounds are located. Another branch route went up the Okaloacoochee Slough to the Caloosahatchee River, then into Lake Okeechobee, and from it up to the Kissimmee River, or by the Allapattah marsh and other low areas north of it into the St. Johns River. The route south from the St. Johns River is described in the following account of the travels of Pedro Menandez.5 "The guide and interpreter the Adelantado brought with him had been a slave of a Cacique of Ays whom they called Perucho, who lived 20 leagues up the river (St. Johns) and knew this Macoya; he told the Adelantado that he ought to return, for there were many and very warlike Indians in that land, and that they
2 Cushing, F. H., Preliminary report of the exploration of ancient Key-Dweller remains of the Gulf-Coast of Florida. Proc. Amer. Philo. Soc, Vol. 35, No. 153, 1897 (and other publications).
3 Moore, Clarence B., Many publications mostly in the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.
* Hrdlicka, Ales, The Anthropology of Florida, Florida State Historical Society, Pub. No. 1, 1922.
5 Conner, Jeannette T., Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Florida State Historical Society, Pub. No. 4, p. 205, 1923.


e D'Escalente Fontanedo, Hernando, "Memoir" in French, B. F., Historical Collections of Louisiana and Florida, Second Series, pp. 234-292, New York, 1875.
t Conner, Jeannette T., op. cit., p. 219.
s Rotz, East Coast of North America. Original in British Museum, Royal Library. MS 20 E IX, 1542.
a Ruesta, Sebastian de, Carte nautica del Mar Costo y Islas de las Indias Occidentales. Original in British Museum. Add. MS 5027, folio 45, 1662.
10 Vaugondy, Robert de, La Florida divisee en Floride et Caroline. Gilles Atlas Portatif, 1748-1749.
11 Romans, Bernard, Map of Florida, 1774.
told him that the river became very narrow from there inland for more than 30 leagues, until it emptied into a large lagoon they call the Maymi (or Mayaimi), which they say has a circuit of more than 30 leagues, and which gathers into itself many streams from the hill range; and that this lagoon discharged itself in the country of Cacique Carlos, which is on the coast of New Spain, and that another branch drained the land of Tequesta, which is at Los Martires."
This "lagoon" is Lake Okeechobee, then known as Maymi, and it "discharged itself in the country ofCarlos"; that is the Caloosahatchee River to the Gulf of Mexico. The reference "drained the land of Tequesta" referred to drainage south from the lake, probably across the Everglades to the Atlantic coast where the Tequesta lived. D'Escalente Fon-tanedo 6 the interpreter for Menendez noted that Mayaimi was "thus named on account of its great size," and his memoir gives a good account of the various Indians living in Florida during the Sixteenth Century.
The possibilities of trade and communication through the Caloosahatchee River Lake Okeechobee St. Johns River route so intrigued Menendez that he attempted to establish a colony among the Caloosa Indians but failed.7
Other accounts of the piles of marine shells, conchs, oysters, and similar materials found far inland along these routes indicate the ease of travel by many waterways. It is possible now to travel parts of some of these routes, but in general the water levels are so low that long portages would be necessary. This evidence of drier conditions, some due to artificial drainage and some to less natural surface water, is not conclusive but may be considered significant.
The early maps,slt from one dated 1542 by Rotz to Bernard


Romans Map of Florida in 1774, show a number of interesting features. The Everglades region was named the Agua la Labne on the Rotz map and the Grand Marsh on the Roman Map. Coastal features were stressed on most of these maps. Cape Sable was named Muspa and Ponce de Leon Bay was frequently shown. Names of many of the Florida Keys were given and some were referred to as the Martyr Islands. Names of some of the rivers were given. On the Vaugondy map the Daip River was shown connecting an inland lake with the Gulf of Mexico. This lake was probably Lake Okeechobee and the Daip River was the Caloosahatchee River. The Everglades is indicated on many of these maps as a large inland water area with islands. However, the term Everglades was not often used for this region until later than the Eighteenth Century, most of the early accounts and maps referring to it as the Glade or Grand Marsh, and the Semi-noles called it the Pay-hah-o-kee meaning grass-water.
The best information about natural features and the Seminole Indians in southern Florida comes from a number of accounts of the war activities and explorations during and after the Seminole Wars. As the Indians and Negro slaves were pushed farther and farther south and into the interior during the first part of the Nineteenth Century military trails and forts were established. Also certain officers were delegated the task of exploring the Everglades and adjacent regions. The accounts of these various activities give in many instances good details of the country. Of the many publications about this period of development and the Seminoles of southern Florida some of the better known are:1-10 "The Exiles of Florida," by Giddings; "Life and Adventures in South Florida," by Canova; "The Seminole Indians of Florida," by Nash; and "Everglades of Florida," Senate Document No. 89, 1911.
12 Giddings, Joshua R.. The Exiles of Florida. Columbus, Ohio. Follet, Foster and Co., 1858.
13 Canova, Andrew P., Life and Adventures in South Florida. Tampa, Florida. Tribune Printing Co., 1906.
MacCauley, Clay, The Seminole Indians of Florida, Fifth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, 1887.
is Nash, Roy, Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida. Senate Document No. 314, 71s't Congress, 3d Session, 1931.
is Everglades of Florida, Senate Document No. 89, 62nd Congress, 1st Session, 1911.


i s Giddings, Joshua R., op. cit.
Among the best of these descriptions of the Seminoles is by Nash, and a good official source of information about early explorations across the Everglades is Senate Document No. 89.
The Seminole Indians and escaped slaves, known as the Exiles, and the cross breeds of the two had nearly all emigrated or been killed by 1841 when chief Tigertail and a few other incorrigibles were the only ones left. (In reality there had been no recognized chief of the Seminoles since the death of Osceola in 1838.) The long series of events that was called the Seminole War terminated, according to Giddings in 1843 when the last battle was fought in the great Wahoo swamp (place not located). However, Mr. Stanley Hanson of Fort Myers told the author that the last battle was probably a skirmish fought in 1856 near Welch Grove west of the present town of Deep Lake in Collier County. Hanson also thinks that at this time there were probably less than 80 Indians left in southern Florida. Since then this group of scattered families has increased to over 600 persons.
Many of the forts and depots of this war have become towns or cities, such as Fort Myers, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami on the site of former Fort Dallas. Other locations of forts have been abandoned so long that some of them have not been accurately located. Some of the other forts are small towns or the locations are well known and marked even if no present settlements are there. From these forts and depots many roads and trails led to different places, and some of these are well known or still in use.
The routes across the Everglades and through parts of the Big Cypress region during this period were mostly boat routes, figure 4. A number of the tree-islands or hammock forests used along these routes were landings or temporary camps. At the usual termini of these routes there were some well known landings or military or trading posts some of which have been located. Of these the site of Brown's store, near the present Big Cypress Indian Reservation, is well known. One landing, Asuyoe mound of the Caloosa Indians and located 16 miles south of Clewiston, is now known as Tony's mound. Another landing to the south of Brown's


store on the western edge of the Everglades was known as Prophet's landing, but its location has not been accurately determined.
Figure 4.Two boats, dugouts, hewn from cypress logs by a Seminole Indian and shaped especially to go through shallow water and marsh grasses. These boats were the only mode of transportation for centuries. The man is not an Indian.
Many of the exploring parties traveled in boats across the central and southern parts of the Everglades from Fort Lauderdale or Fort Dallas (Miami) to one of the landings on the western side, or traveled from the west toward the east side. Some explorations were made by entering the rivers of the southwest coast traveling northward either to


Fort Dallas or to one of the landings on the west side of the Everglades. A number of these routes are shown on the map in Senate Document No. 89. Furthermore, the accounts of trips in this publication tell much about early conditions.
One of the rivers of the southwest coast is named after Colonel William S. Harney who explored the route from either Harney River or Shark River or both to Fort Dallas on the Miami River. This old route could be followed until recent years but it is seldom if at all used now because there is not sufficient water since the drainage canals were dug. In April 1943 a part of this route was so dry a truck "glade buggy" could travel along it.
Even the earliest routes did not cross the northern part of the Everglades where dense saw-grass marshes then and even now make passage very difficult. The routes then followed across the Everglades seldom went very far north of the present Tamiami Trail, most of them going south of it. Formerly the conditions of water varied so greatly that some years the routes were easy to follow whereas during other years passage was difficult. Conditions during this time are well illustrated by accounts in Senate Document No. 89 of trips by Captain Dawson and Major Childs.
From the account of Captain Dawson's trip in 1855 leaving Fort Dallas and going west toward the Big Cypress we find: "The general direction was west, though the route was extremely winding and circuitous . the usual course to the western side was impracticable, . long mud banks were encountered, .... The course through the intervening ponds was greatly obstructed by fungi (Algae and floating aquatic vegetation) clumps of trees, and bushes, and innumerable keys (island-like groups of trees, hammocks and bay-heads) could be seen in all directions, .... The third day the water became in many places too shoal to float the canoes, the breaks (thick growth of saw grass) between the ponds were of greater extent, and the men were annoyed by the saw grass cutting their feet and limbs while forcing their way along." At other times passage was much less difficult, for in 1841 Major Childs crossed in 4 days the route later traversed by Captain Dawson. From Childs' account we find: "The first line passed over was undoubtedly the same as that traversed (later) by Captain Dawson, but no such obstacles were en-


countered as experienced by the latter. . The Indian guide who accompanied Capt. Dawson stated that the country was greatly changed since he had crossed it 16 years before, and that the keys (groups of trees) were larger and more numerous. Settlers, who had resided upon the Miami River for 10 to 12 years, assert that the gradual filling up (or drying up) of the Everglades has been very perceptible." Thus, it seems possible that changes were taking place then perhaps as rapidly or even more rapidly than now although there were then no canals to alter the natural conditions. It is entirely probable that there were cycles of high and low water and that the "keys," which are the tree islands (hammocks and bay-heads) in the marshes, increased during some years and then later many were either burned over or drowned out. The present evidence from many sources shows that these tree-islands in the marsh are increasing and that the water levels, even in the parts of the Everglades not directly drained by canals, are lower than formerly.
One of the most vivid descriptions of the Everglades is by Buckingham Smith 17 who described this region as follows:
"The appearance of the interior of the Ever Glades is unlike that of any other region of which I have ever heard, and certainly it is, in some respects the most remarkable on this continent.
Imagine a vast lake of fresh water, extending, in every direction, . studded with thousands of islands, of various sizes, . and which are generally covered with dense thickets of shrubbery and vines. . The surrounding waters, . are covered with the tall saw-grass, . The water is pure and limpid, and almost imperceptibly moves, not in partial currents, but as it seems, in a mass, silently and slowly to the southward. The bottom of the lake, at a distance of from three to six feet, is covered with a deposit of decayed vegetable substance, (the peat and muck soils) the accumulated product of ages, . No human being, civilized or savage, inhabits the secluded interior of the glades. The Seminoles reside in the region between them and the gulf. . The
1T Smith, Buckingham, Report on Reconnaissance of the Everglades made to the Secretary of the Treasury, June 1848. Thirtieth Congress, 1st Session, Senate Rep. Com. No. 242, p. 28-29, 44, Aug. 12, 1848.


bottom of the Ever Glades, below the deposit I have mentioned, is of lime-rock."
This description should be kept in mind when we later consider the features of the Everglades for it gives a good idea of conditions then prevailing. The prevalence of water over the surface of most of the marsh, the slow mass movement of this water toward the south, and the peat deposits over the limestone floor are very important considerations in a proper understanding of the Everglades.
Many other items of historical interest could be cited to show something of former conditions, but only a few of these bear directly on the vegetation, drainage, and other natural features. Parts of the Everglades have changed most, especially the areas from the upper part of the Caloosahatchee valley to the lake and around its southern shore. The saw-grass marshes were formerly very tall and dense around Lake Hicpochee, and the custard-apple swamps formed a dense forest near Lake Okeechobee. These latter areas were changed to agricultural lands and in some cases they are now without a muck covering over the sand or rock where formerly the muck was deep.
Some descriptions of the pinelands, cypress forests, and many ponds and swamps in the areas to the west of the Everglades picture them very similar to present conditions. The changes in the Big Cypress region have been very few. North of the Everglades and Big Cypress regions the Flatwoods pine-lands and dry prairies seem to have been very similar to present conditions except that most of the pines have now been cut and fires are more common. Some persons explain the origin of the treeless palmetto or dry prairies from the pine forests of the flatlands regions by the influence of the many fires set by the Indians and early settlers. This explanation is, however, doubtful as the earliest accounts found refer to these prairies as a natural type of vegetation which then extended over about the same areas as at present.
The Seminole Indians lived on the country and to some extent still do. Senate Document No. 89 describes the manner in which the Indians cultivated the higher lands on the tree-islands, mostly hammocks, in the Everglades and Big Cypress Regions. "In their fields they plant corn, pumpkins, tobacco, squashes, melons, and lima beans in


abundance. Coconuts, plantains, bananas, and sweet potatoes are found on some islands." Certain hammocks were cultivated by particular families for long periods. Even now some of the Indian families have small plantings on hammock islands in the Everglades and Big Cypress. It seems, how-
Figure 5.Indian camp home in the Big Cypress Reservation. The palm leaved, thatched roof dwellings are known as "chickees," and they are often built in cabbage-palm hammocks, as shown here.
ever, from the small number of different kinds of food plants raised, that the Indians are much less agricultural than formerly.
The camps of the Indians, figure 5, are still primitive consisting of a group of shelters made with a thatched roof of palmetto fronds (leaves) with little or no protection on the sides. A raised platform serves as a floor and sleeping place. These buildings are called "chickees." There are usually two or more for each family, one serving as an eating place and one or more being used for sleeping. Much of the work is done in the open and they have adopted only a little of the white man's culture. From the time of MacCauley's description until the present their dress has changed some, figure 6, and the automobile has become a part of nearly every camp.
In 1880 MacCauley gave five main locations for groups of these Indians, but now most of them center about the two Indian Reservations which are the Big Cypress Reservation


Figure 6.Indian maid and her brother. The long, full, and intricately designed skirt she is wearing is a recent fashion among the Seminoles. Some persons suggest that the designs are an interpretation of the Scotch kilt.
dialect and the Big Cypress group speak the Miccosukee dialect and they are often referred to as the Miccosukee Indians. At present about 125 Indians live in or near the Glades Reservation and about the same number in or near the Big Cypress Reservation. Most of the remainder of the more than 600 live in the Big Cypress region and have camps along the Tamiami Trail.
The advent of the automobile, particularly the "T" and "A" model Fords, and the tourists caused many of the families of Indians to establish camps along the road and trade in hand made articles of many kinds, some animal skins and trinkets. Some families have temporarily located as far
in southeast Hendry County and the Glades County Reservation south of Brighton. The Seminole Indians are in reality made up of two distinct groups, the Cow Creek Indians who live in Glades County and the others who live in the Big Cypress area. The Cow Creek group speak the Muskhogean


is Nash, Roy, op. cit. pp. 35-36.
north as Silver Springs. Only a few are now to be found living off of the country for they prefer to live near the tourist roads or on the reservations. They do less hunting, fishing, and agriculture than formerly. On the reservations they have schools and some are learning cattle raising, but there is not much agriculture. Frog hunting on a commercial scale and work in the truck farm areas are now supplementary sources of income.
This change in the Seminoles from their former hunting and agricultural habits without a consistent policy of rehabilitation and education is to be lamented. As Nash 18 pointed out they formerly hunted, trapped, and did enough trading in furs, skins, and plume feathers to have a source of annual income amounting to about $25,000 during the years near 1930. Venison was their staple meat and they sold it in and out of season. Wild turkey, many other birds, cougar, raccoons, and rabbits were killed in such abundance that they gradually became more scarce. The recent program for the extermination of the deer and the over hunting of other animals have still further reduced the game. It would probably be impossible now to find $25,000 worth of skins in the whole Big Cypress region if all the game animals were killed.
These Seminoles are now governed by three tribal councils and most of the Indians belong to one or the other of these. Most of them formerly attended one of their council meetings known as the "Green Corn Dance," but now this habit is gradually being discarded. The site of one of these "Green Corn Dances" is nearly on the line between Collier and Broward counties just about two miles north of the northern Dade County line.
The Seminole Indian has become a part of the wilderness areas of this section and the advent of civilization has done him little good. Also there are large areas still untouched and of little value for other than wildlife that could be protected and restocked with game to provide for these Indians something which they like most to live on and to do. If these wilderness areas were recognized and properly handled as game preserves and Indian reservations both the Indians and wildlife would benefit.


The Indian names for places have persisted in much of southern Florida and the meanings of some of these names are interesting because they are often very descriptive. Thus, Okaloacoochee means boggy slough; Okeechobeebig water; Immokaleemy home; Ochopeebig field; Payhahokee, their name for the Everglades, means grass-water; and Loxa-hatcheeriver of liesbecause near it a treaty made during the Seminole War was broken by United States Army officers. Some of the names have been much corrupted by white men, thus the Calefonee slough south of the Big Cypress Indian Reservation is often pronounced California slough. The Indian word Calefonee means camp home.
There are also many Seminole names for plants and animals which are interesting, of which the following are a few.
E-cho....................deer
Pen-na-waw........turkey
O-so-waw.............bird
Wood-ko...............raccoon
Sar-sho.................fish
E-faw...................dog
Al-la-pat-tah.......alligator
Tchit-tah..............snake
Chu-lee.................pine
Ah-sa-wee............cypress
Ty-cho-bee...........cabbage-palm
To-pin-tee............fern
To-lee....................red-bay
Ok-ka-sis-kee......oak
Aw-wan-aw.........willow
To-ta-wee............custard-apple
CLIMATE
The climate of southern Florida is of an insular rather than a continental type because it is more affected by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico than by the cyclonic weather conditions which prevail over most of the continental United States. As the peninsula extends at Key West to within less than a degree of latitude of the Tropic of Cancer, much of its southernmost part is of a sub-tropical climate. Some persons are inclined to consider the climate tropical, but this is not the case because low temperatures, even killing frosts, frequently occur on an average of about once in five years as far south as Miami. Only the lower Florida Keys, Key West, and possibly the Cape Sable region, have been exempt from these frosts as long as weather records have been kept. It is, therefore, best to consider the climate and vegetation in the Miami region as sub-tropical and not tropical because here there are some temperate zone plants associated with tropical plants.


The most characteristic feature of the climate is the great seasonal differences in rainfall. There is a dry season of six months, usually from November through April, and a wet season of six months, usually from May through October. In general there is usually three to four times as much rainfall during the wet season as during the dry season. This condition of dry and wet seasons coupled with the conditions of poor drainage and sand soils in many regions has caused the extensive development of the marshes, swamps, and wet-prairies on the one hand and dry prairies, dry pinelands, and scrub forest on the other.
In contrast with the distinctly seasonal condition of rainfall the temperature conditions are only slightly seasonal. Over most of southern Florida the mean summer temperatures average only 12 F. higher than the mean winter temperatures. Even the extreme range of mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures of the hottest and coldest months is seldom over 30 F. There may be frosts during any part of the four coldest months, but the highest temperatures seldom exceed 94 F. during the summer months. These temperature extremes, like the extremes of rainfall, affect the vegetation, but the average temperature conditions have little effect.
Although the average conditions of rainfall and temperature are of less significance than the extremes there are certain features that should be pointed out. There is some zonation of both the rainfall and temperature conditions. The wettest part of the State is a zone along the Atlantic coast from just south of Miami to West Palm Beach where the mean annual rainfall is above 60 inches and often exceeds 65 inches. Back from this east coast section the rainfall decreases until it averages about 55 inches over Lake Okeechobee, and most of the northern and central Everglades, and at Homestead. Southwest from Homestead rainfall decreases still further until the mean annual rainfall at Key West is less than 40 inches and along the southwest coast probably less than 50 inches. From Moore Haven, on the southwest side of Lake Okeechobee, to Fort Myers and Arcadia the average annual rainfall is between 50 and 55 inches.
Mean annual temperatures are about 73 F. just north of Lake Okeechobee increasing about one degree F. about every


45 miles south until it averages 770 F. on the lower Florida Keys.
Such small average temperature and rainfall differences in themselves would not account for the great differences in vegetation, flooded conditions, and some other features of southern Florida. It is the extreme conditions of low temperatures and the seasons of abundant and scarce rainfall that are most affective and should be considered in some detail.
Along the Atlantic coast the summer season rainfall is often over 40 inches and during some seasons has been over 30 inches in two months. Over 24 inches of rainfall occurred near Belle Glade during June 1942. Out of season rains may occur as those between April 15 and 22, 1942, when some areas along the Atlantic coast had over 15 inches during that week. As much as 15 inches have fallen in 24 hours at some places. These Atlantic coast rains are mostly trade-wind rains. Farther inland and on the Gulf coast heat thunderstorms produce the locally abundant rains.
At almost any time between March and December the farms and pastures on low lying soils may be flooded by these torrential rains. For a number of months or even years the rainfall may be so much above the average that large areas become flooded. The large watersheds into Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades may accumulate great quantities of surface water which take a long time to drain off. This condition of seasonal flooding has caused the development of the marsh Everglades vegetation and the numerous swamps near it.
There have been intensely dry seasons, wet seasons of little rainfall and years of light rainfall. The dry seasons may be very dry. In the pine flatwoods region (data from Fort Myers, Arcadia, and Moore Haven) some dry seasons, such as that of 1923, had less than 5.12 inches in 6 months and three of these months, November through January, had less than 1.2 inches. Even in the Fort Lauderdale area, where the wet season rainfall is normally greatest, there have been years with less than 10 inches of rainfall during the six wet season months. From 1912 to 1920 the rainfall over most of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades regions was less than average. Thus, seasonal, yearly, and even long period conditions of low rainfall must be considered in estimating the effects of climate on the other conditions.


The dry conditions during the winter months in the flat-woods regions probably affect the vegetation more than do the cold temperatures. Many of the grasses and shrubs with shallow root systems in sand soils find it difficult to survive and many of those plants that do survive have drought-resistant adaptations such as tough and curled leaves, succulent leaves and stems, and underground stems. Most of the sand soils are very porous, at least down to the hardpan layer, and the soils hold very little water. The scrub forests on the well drained and coarse St. Lucie white sands must withstand very dry conditions.
The most notable effects of dry and wet seasons have been in the Everglades where the control of water levels is so important for farming and control of fires. Excessively wet years or series of years now do less harm than formerly because the dikes around parts of Lake Okeechobee and the controlled diversion of water to the sea retard the effects of floods. On the other hand, the excessively dry years have become more and more serious. This is because the surface and soil water levels are now usually lower than formerly and the lack of the usual amount of rain for even a short season may be markedly felt. The season of 1942-43 was an excessively dry one and the canal water levels, ground water levels, and surface or soil water levels became very low. These low water conditions harmfully affected farming, promoted fires, probably increased peat soil subsidence, and lessened the water available to Miami and other East Coast cities that use wells which derive water from the Everglades.
The alternately wet and dry conditions are so extensive that few areas are not directly affected by them. Those most affected are the areas of intermediate levels and of low relief. Such large areas exist in the Everglades and occur throughout parts of the pineland, rockland, and marl or sand prairie areas. Many semi-marshes or wet-prairies get very dry during the winter months rapidly becoming flooded when the rains begin and then remain wet far into the next dry season. When these prairies are flooded many plants sprout up or renew growth causing a lush, green vegetation, but when dry the prairie grasses and other herbs dry up. The saw-grass Everglades marshes are characteristically dry in the winter although some sections may remain flooded during


all the year. These alternating conditions distinctly affect the water table which fluctuates widely and will be discussed later in more detail.
Low temperatures may have locally as much or more effect on plant and animal life as the extremes of rainfall, but the effect is not as general because there are only a few places where frosts prove disastrous to plant and animal life. This is due to the fact that both the fauna, flora, and most of the crops are mainly the types associated with the temperate zone. Only the lower Florida Keys and possibly the southwest coast and Cape Sable area are entirely free from frosts. As pointed out by Mitchell and Ensign 19 in their "The Climate of Florida" the average date of the first and last killing frosts extend much further south in the interior than along the coast of the peninsula because of the ameliorating effects of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. The large lakes, particularly Lake Okeechobee, help to reduce the intensity of the_ temperature changes. Thus, the southeast shore areas of Lake Okeechobee seldom suffer from as severe frosts as other areas around the lake because most of the cold waves are accompanied by winds from the northwest which are warmed as they cross the lake.
The open Everglades marshes may become cold during some of the cold waves, some temperatures as low as 10 F. having been observed. It is probable that drainage of the Everglades has increased the number of low temperatures because more sudden drops in temperature are apt to occur when there is less surface water. It is probably true that the removal of the custard-apple swamp around part of Lake Okeechobee has made that section colder.
The interior, open, pine flatwoods or prairie areas are colder than the swamps or hammock forests. Although the mean winter temperature in the Fort Lauderdale to Cape Sable region is about 59 F. temperatures as low as 27 F. have occurred. The sub-tropical and tropical plants growing mainly in hammocks could not have withstood such low temperatures had the interior of these forests become that cold. Although no records of temperatures inside these forests have been kept to compare with those outside them
"'Mitchell, A. J., and M. R. Ensign, The Climate of Florida, University of Florida Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. No. 200, 1928.


it is probably true that the temperatures are usually much higher inside the hammock forests during these cold spells because the trees act as wind-brakes and the forests hold heat.
High temperatures have little effect for they occur during the rainy season and do not cause much drying. Although the mean maximum temperature may be as much as 88 F. during some months a temperature above 92 F. in this section is not common. Excessively hot weather is therefore of little importance.
Other climatic factors of some importance are the humidity and evaporation, the direction and intensity of the winds, and storms.
Humidity is in general high especially during the rainy season, but in spite of this there is intense evaporation in some areas and during some seasons. In the Everglades this high evaporation rate, coupled with the transpiration of water from the marsh plants, is at times greater than the rainfall. Long records of evaporation rates around Lake Okeechobee have been kept and they show that as much as 50 to 55 inches of water a year are lost in this manner. This amount is usually equal to the average rainfall. This loss of water by evaporation and transpiration is highest during those years of least rainfall so that dry conditions during such years are exaggerated by the action of both these factors. Only until recently has there been enough data to show that this loss of water by evaporation and transpiration greatly affects the water reserve in Lake Okeechobee and the surface water and height of the water levels in the Everglades. Since rainfall does not always compensate for this loss some inflow into the lake and some overflow from the lake onto the Everglades is needed to maintain water levels.
Most of data on Evaporation have been obtained by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Weather Bureau through the use of open pans and for the purpose of analysis of the hydrologic conditions. This method has proved useful in estimating the water lost from lakes, ponds, rivers, and other open bodies of water, but it leaves much to be desired in estimating the water lost into the air from the soils and vegetation of marshes, swamps, pinelands and other types of vegetation because most of this water is lost through the


life activities of the plants, mainly by transpiration from their leaves. The vegetation is therefore a very important hydrologic factor. When water lost through plants is high the water levels are materially affected, and this activity of the plants may be considered as equal in importance to rainfall and other climatic conditions in many ways.
Unfortunately, only a few estimates 20 of water loss from vegetation have been made, but these have shown a rate of loss from the saw-grass in some cases 21 130 per cent of the amount of rainfall in the Everglades during the same year. Further studies are needed to give even an approximate idea of the soil water lost by plant transpiration in southern Florida, but there is little doubt that these losses are very effective in controlling the soil and surface water levels. An example of the effect of soil water levels is the fact that the soil water level sank below sea level in parts of the Miami limestone pinelands during the spring of 1943,2- and this unusually low level was probably brought about through the loss of water from the pine forests.
For these reasons the very delicate balances of water conditions over large areas in this section are the results of vegetation as well as climate. Furthermore, the nature of the soils is also a factor in water supply and the soils should be associated with climatological effects.
In addition to these numerous interrelationships of climate, water conditions, vegetation and soils, some persons 22a now consider the ratio between evaporation rates and rainfall a possible way to predict hurricanes.
Trade winds from the east and southeast are common along the southeast coast during the summer months and these have both a drying and cooling effect. Often these winds are high and there are occasional hurricanes, figure 7. In all parts of Florida there are frequent heat thunderstorms and local winds of high intensity. These storms, particularly
20 a few significant studies by Clayton, B. S., and others, published mainly in recent Annual Report, Univ. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. 1938, 39, 40, 41.
21 Clayton, B. S., and A. Daane, Possibilities of the Everglades State of Fla. Dept. Agri. Bull. No. 61, new series p. 21, 1938.
22 Observation by U. S. Geological Survey at Miami, transmitted by G. G. Parker.
22a Mr. C. C. Schrontz of the U. S. Engineer office, Jacksonville, Florida, has advanced this theory.


the hurricanes, have done local harm. Some of the mangrove swamps and other forests along the coasts have been completely or partly destroyed by the most violent hurricanes. Crops, boats, homes, and many other buildings have been damaged or destroyed. Fish and wildlife have suffered dur-
Figure 7.Fishing boats and storms lend color and adventure to the Florida scene. This Cuban smack was washed ashore on Marco Island beach, near Cape Romano, during the small hurricane of October 1941.
ing these storms. But most of the damage has been local and the storms are not frequent enough to cause much damage. One of the interesting effects of hurricanes is that they aid in the dispersal of plant and animal life because the strong winds transport some species to Florida from the West Indies and other regions near by.
Climate is very important as an over-all and prevailing feature. It is a factor that influences the development of vegetation, soils, drainage conditions, wildlife, and even geologic strata, and as such it should be considered in estimating any one of these. The present conditions of climate are fairly well known and their effects can be estimated, as has been briefly outlined above, but the past conditions of climate must remain something of a mystery.


23 Cooke, C. Wythe, Scenery of Florida, interpreted by a geologist. Florida Geological Survey Bull. 17, 1939.
Some calculations of past climatic conditions may be gained from interpretations of past vegetation and soils. Thus, it is probable that the climatic conditions which made the growth of the Everglades marshes possible have persisted for a long time as the deep peat soils built up by the growth of the marsh plants must have taken at least a few thousand years to develop. Similarly there are deep organic soils in the mangrove swamps along the coasts and as these trees and bushes do not survive hard frosts a long period of mild climate is indicated. The climate may be slightly warmer or more tropical now than a few hundred or thousand years ago, but there is no good evidence of any great changes within modern time. No doubt the period immediately following the last glacier, which covered the northern part of the United States, was colder than the present, but this cold period was many thousands of years ago and at most affected the rock and marl strata and perhaps a few of the soils.
THE PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS
INTRODUCTION
Most of southern Florida is part of the Coastal Lowlands as the Lake Region or Highlands Ridge of central Florida projects only a short distance south into this section. The most outstanding feature of these lowlands is the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee which lie in a very shallow and nearly flat basin. Around this basin and to the north of it are the other physiographic regions. The largest of these are the Flatlands plains, which are mostly the remains of three marine terraces built up by former seas of the glacial stages which occurred during the Ice Age or Pleistocene. The other parts of the Coastal Lowlands are of more recent origin than the Ice Age, or they are low areas below the levels of the last terrace of the Ice Age. These sea terraces have been described by Cooke 2:) and other geologic features will be described later.
Besides the Flatlands plains and the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee basin, other distinctive regions and physical features of this section of the State are: large areas of rock-


land not covered by sea terrace sands of which the Miami oolitic limestone ridge is the highest and roughest; numerous barrier and shoal water islands, particularly the long chain of Florida Keys; many shore ridges and swales, lagoons, bays, sounds and estuaries along the much indented coasts; and an area in Collier County and parts of adjacent counties known as the Big Cypress which is of confused topography that is low and poorly drained.
It is possible, therefore, with such a variety of physiographic conditions to divide southern Florida into a number of fairly distinct physiographic regions which are: (1) the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin; (2) the Eastern Flat-lands; (3) the Western Flatlands; (4) the Big Cypress; (5) the Lake Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin; (6) the Highlands Ridge or Lake Region; (7) the Atlantic Coast Strip and Miami Rock Ridge; (8) the Southern Coast and Islands; (9) the Southwest Coast and Ten Thousand Islands; and (10) the Florida Keys.
These regions are shown in figure 1. Each has a number of distinct physical features, such as, particular conditions of topography and drainage, figure 26, rock or marl strata, figure 16, soils, and even climate. In addition to these features some are also distinct vegetational regions with particular types of plant cover. Thus, the terms Everglades and Big Cypress signify particular botanical features. For these reasons both biological and physical features are considered in distinguishing each region and certain areas of each region. Also in each region there are some fairly distinct combinations of the physical and biological conditions which working together have made that region distinct. Here we plan to consider not just a few of these features but all that give character to southern Florida as a whole and those that are most characteristic of each particular region.
THE EVERGLADES-LAKE OKEECHOBEE BASIN
Lake Okeechobee, figure 8, is the water filled head of this large, nearly flat basin. It is the second largest inland, freshwater lake wholly within the United States covering about 725 square miles at the average surface elevation of 15 feet above


Figure 8.Lake Okeechobee (in the distant background) and the meandering Kissimmee River flowing into it. The two parallel features are the protecting levee and borrow pit canal constructed to aid water control in the lake.
glades basin is 40 miles and approximately 80 per cent of the total area of 3,600 square miles is marshland with a few slough, swamp, and hammock areas. Elevations of the soil surface decrease from 16 to 17 feet in the north central part to about 8 feet at the Tamiami Trail and nearly sea level at the southwestern end of the basin. This means an average slope of about one foot every six miles. A few rivers drain out from this basin through gaps in the Atlantic Coast Strip and Miami Rock Ridge, and a number of estuary rivers drain from it across the Southwest Coast region. Most of this nearly flat basin is poorly drained and this poor drainage is one of its chief features. Most of it was formerly flooded during the rainy season but man-made canals and dikes reduced the seasonal flooded conditions over large areas.
The second main feature, and a consequence of the nearly
sea level. It is shallow as only a few parts are 16 feet deep, most of its floor being above sea level.
The marsh and swamp Everglades extends south from this lake a distance of over 90 miles to the Southern and Southwest Coast regions. The average width of the Ever-


flat topography, is the great marshes, mostly of saw-grass, and the deep to shallow peat and muck soils which have developed in this basin as a consequence of the poor drainage, heavy seasonal rains, and dense growth of marsh plants. These organic soils average about 7 feet deep over large areas in the northern part of the Everglades, thinning to an average depth of about 2 to 3 feet near the Tamiami Trail, and to a feather edge, or occurring in pockets and valleys of the rock-lands, from a few miles south of this road to the coasts. These peats and mucks lie almost directly upon limestone rock strata or marl which form most of the floor of the Everglades basin. This rock and marl floor is, therefore, of a more even elevation than the surface of the soil, and its nearly level condition has been one of the main causes of the development of the Everglades marshes.
In recent yearssince the first canal was dug near the end of the Nineteenth Centuryparts of the Everglades have been drained by canals, and most of the excess water that normally overflowed onto the Everglades from Lake Okeechobee has been diverted directly to the sea. The direct results of this drainage program has been on the whole beneficial to agriculture as over 100,000 acres of muck and peat soils have been used for crops and cattle pasturage. The canals and other drainage construction have, however, caused notable changes in water, soil, and vegetational conditions of large areas in the Everglades. For these reasons we will particularly consider the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin not only because of its natural features but also because of the effects of canal drainage in altering many of these natural conditions. The proper use of these Everglades lands still remains one of Florida's greatest problems of land utilization. Some features of the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin to be especially considered are; its probable origin and development, the drainage conditions past and present, the vegetation, and land utilization. (See section about the Everglades.)
THE FLATLANDS REGIONS
The relatively level, partly altered remains of the old sea terraces form two plains to the east and west sides of the northern part of the Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades


Figure 9.Typical scene in the low pinelands of the Western Flat-lands region. Ponds (wet one in center background and drained one on left border surrounded by bushes) are characteristic of the flatlands.
dissecting the plains. There are many small ponds, sloughs, and other depressions, figure 9.
The soils are mostly sands, and the characteristic vegetation is either open pine forests with grasses and saw-palmettoes or grasslands without pines. These grasslands without pines or other trees are known as prairies, some wet, some dry, and the pinelands are known as flatwoods. A Flat-lands region, however, includes these and many other types of vegetation such as cypress and bay tree forests, and pond marshes and hammocks.
The Eastern and Western Flatlands in this section are separated by the southernmost tip of the Highlands Ridge, and by the lowland of the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie region which is slightly different from the Fatlands areas. The range in elevations of both Flatlands regions is slightly different. The Western Flatlands region extends from sea-level up to 90 feet and the Eastern Flatlands extends from a few feet above sea level to about 45 feet. This difference
basin. These two regions are the southern extension of similar regions that flank both sides of the Central Highlands Ridge of peninsular Florida. Each of these has a characteristic topography and other features consisting mainly of low, nearly flat to gently rolling land with some rivers


in elevation is due mainly to the fact that the Western Flat-lands partly circles the end of the Highlands Ridge, which is of higher elevation, and includes the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico coast, whereas the Eastern Flatlands do not include the Atlantic Coast Strip or abut the Highlands Ridge.
THE EASTERN FLATLANDS
The Eastern Flatlands region is triangular shaped and covers about 1,275 square miles. It extends north and northwest from a blunt southern tip on the West Palm Beach Canal around the settlement of Loxahatchee. The southern part of its western border forms the northeastern boundary of the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin. The parts of this plain that skirt around the northern end of Lake Okeechobee are dissected by a number of rivers, particularly the Kissimmee River, figure 10, and Taylor Creek. Its northwest boundary flanks the Istokpoga marshes and Indian Prairie.
A long slough area, the Allapattah Marsh, extends in a northwest-southeast direction across the eastern part of this region that lies in Martin and St. Lucie counties. The Loxahatchee slough, the main branches of the Jupiter River, and the north and south forks of the St. Lucie River form its eastern boundary. The St. Lucie Canal was dug across this flatlands region but did not effectively drain much of it because the canal is mainly a spillway from Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean and few side canals lead into it.
There are many shallow, usually just seasonally wet ponds and long narrow sloughs in these flatlands. A particularly level, poorly drained, marshy and wet prairie area in the northern part of this region is generally known as the Allapattah Flats. A number of low sand ridges occur to the west of the Allapattah Marsh at the approximate boundary between the plains of the Pamlico and Talbot sea terrace (see Geology), but they are not as high or distinct as the hills that mark the terrace escarpments in some other Flatlands regions.
THE WESTERN FLATLANDS
This region includes all the areas north of the Big Cypress and west of the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin that lie below the hills of the Highlands Ridge, and southwest of the Istokpoga Marshes and Indian Prairie. As it is difficult to


Figure 10.The Kissimmee River and its valley near Fort Bassinger. This watershed supplies most of the water flowing into Lake Okeechobee. Much of the valley is prairie land.


define the exact northern boundary of the Big Cypress region only an arbitrary line between these two regions can be drawn. The coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico as far south as Gordon Pass, leading from Naples Bay, are included in this flatlands region as they do not form a distinct region of their own as is the case of the Atlantic Coast Strip. This region covers about 3,500 square miles and is as large as the Everglades marshlands.
This flatlands region is divided into a northern and southern part by the Caloosahatchee River and its valley. The southern part is mainly in Lee, Hendry, and the northern and western parts of Collier County. It is less well drained than the northern part and of lower elevation. There is a small area above 40 feet elevation near the town of Immokalee but most of it is below 30 feet elevation.
The soils are mainly derived from the Pamlico terrace sands that cover the areas below 25 feet elevation and the Talbot terrace sands that cover those areas above that elevation, with the exception in both cases of the sand ridges and dunes along the Gulf Coast which are of Recent origin. Most of these sand soils of marine origin are thin and lie directly over marls and limestone or calcareous sandstone strata. This condition of thin soils underlain by calcareous materials markedly affects the nature of the soils and vegetation of this southern part of this region, on the whole promoting the growth of the cabbage-palm hammocks and other plants that prefer nearly neutral or alkaline soil conditions.
Another feature of this southern part is the great number of marsh, swamp, and open water depressions. Lake Trafford and the Corkscrew marsh near it, the Okaloacoochee Slough, Twelve Mile Slough, and the Green River Swamp are some of these.
The northern part of this region, mainly in Charlotte, DeSoto, Glades, and the lower portions of Highlands County is of higher general elevation than the southern part, much of it being above 40 feet elevation. This part is well dissected and fairly well drained by a number of branches from the Caloosahatchee River, by Fisheating Creek, and the lower part of Peace Creek and some of its branches. These streams have not, however, cut back sufficiently deep into these terrace plains to drain them thoroughly so that many ponds,


sloughs, and other usually seasonally water filled depressions still remain.
The remnants of the Penholoway terrace, above 42 feet, and of the Talbot terrace between 25 and 42 feet form most of this northern part. Those areas above 42 feet elevation are particularly flat in DeSoto, Charlotte, and Glades counties. Large areas are not forested and some of these are the dry or palmetto prairies, or the wet-prairies, both being used extensively for cattle.
The coastal part of this region along the Gulf of Mexico has numerous embayments, rivers, creeks, and lagoons, and the characteristic coastal ridges and barrier islands. Because of the great number of bays, inlets, and islands south of Naples Bay the coast from that bay to Cape Romano is considered part of the Southwest Coast and Ten Thousand Islands region.
THE BIG CYPRESS
No one has definitely defined or circumscribed this region which the Seminole Indians call the Atseenahoofa, and where about a third of them still reside. Its chief characteristics are vegetational with an abundance of the cypress and mixed swamps of large trees, open elongated forests of cypress of medium sized trees, and large areas of scrubby stunted cypress trees growing in marsh-like seasonally wet prairies. The topography is very confused and of low relief, most of the region being less than 15 feet elevation. The sand soils are thin or absent. Large areas are rocklands or thin marl soils. Small depressions with no surface drainage abound. The creeks, rivers, and swamps in general trend in a north-south direction. Some of the larger of the cypress and swamp areas bear distinctive names such as the Fathahatchee Swamp, (pronounced Fick ah hat chee) and the Lucky Lake, Kissimmee Billy, Lard Can, and Wilson Strand cypress areas.
The Big Cypress region covers about 1,200 square miles mostly in Collier County with small areas in southeastern Hendry County and the northern part of the mainland part of Monroe County. The eastern boundary of the Big Cypress extends over into the Everglades basin, but these cypress forest areas, even if in the Everglades basin, are not considered a part of the Everglades. The term Big Cypress does not mean swamp forests of large cypress trees but rather


large areas with mostly small to medium sized cypress trees where swamps of tall trees may occur. Moreover, cypress forests do not cover the whole region as pine forests and marl soil wet-prairies cover large areas.
The region has been known for a long time as many forts and military depots of the Seminole Wars were established here. Little development has taken place, however, and parts of it have remained a wilderness. Wildlife abounds in many areas and it is still difficult to travel to some of the most isolated parts.
THE LAKE ISTOKPOGA INDIAN PRAIRIE BASIN
This is a small region of about 250 square miles that lies between the Eastern and Western Flatlands regions and borders the eastern side of the escarpment of Highlands Ridge. It is distinct from any of these because it is more nearly flat, more poorly drained, and is a basin very similar in many ways to the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin into which it drains. At the head of this small basin is Lake Istokpoga which overflows onto a small, deep peat and muck soil marsh, swamp, and prairie area to the south of it. The swamps and marshes near the lake give way toward the south of the basin to wet-prairies, some pinelands, and the Indian Prairie area of many cabbage-palm hammocks, scattered about in prairies. All these features, except the few pine forest areas, are very similar to the Everglades but are on a smaller scale. This region might well be called the "Little Everglades." An old name for the marsh south of the lake swamps and bay-galls is the Flathlopopkahatchee Marsh, Hashberger,24 but this marsh is known now as the Istokpoga Marsh. The Indian Prairie and Harney's Pond Canals have been dug to partly drain this marsh and wet-prairie region.
An abrupt rise in the land separates this basin from the Highlands Ridge to the west of it. This escarpment rises from about the 40 foot elevation up to 70 feet or slightly higher. It is the old shore line between the Talbot and Penholoway sea terraces, Lake Istokpoga and the plain south
24 Hashberger, John W., The vegetation of south Florida south of 27 30' north, exclusive of the Florida Keys. Trans. Wagner Free Institute Science. Vol. 7, Part 3, Map, 1914.


Figure 11.The old shore line escarpment between the Talbot and Penholoway terraces as it appears across the road leading east from DeSoto City. This ridge is of white St. Lucie fine sand and rises from about 45 feet elevation to 65 feet elevation. Characteristic of these inland dunes are the sand pines on the horizon.
THE HIGHLANDS RIDGE
The tapering southern tip of the Highlands Ridge of central Florida projects only a short distance, about 20 miles, into southern Florida and covers only about 145 square miles. At this southern extremity of its range it tapers from elevations slightly above 130 feet to about 40 feet along its eastern border and about 80 feet around its southern end and western border. The whole is a confused area of knolls, ridges, and lake or pond filled depressions, Lake Stearns and Lake Childs being two of the largest lakes.
Most of this region is of dune-like hills separated by small swale depressions, figure 12, having the same appearance as shore dunes and swales. The ridges are composed mainly of
of it are on the Talbot sea terrace, whereas the Highlands Ridge is composed of the Penholoway and higher terraces. This escarpment, figure 11, between the two is the most abrupt in southern Florida. At the base of the slope are large elongated swamp forests known as bay-galls which often occur in depressions at the base of escarpments in this and many other parts of Florida.


deep sands of the St. Lucie and Lakewood types of soils. These inland dunes and sandhills are not typical of south Florida and are included only to furnish a contrast with the other regions of this section of the State. The scrub type of vegetation with many small oaks, Florida hickory, and the sand-pine predominates, and the typical long-leaf forests of the high pine sandhills do not extend into this section.
Figure 12.Aerial view of the inland dune and swale topography of the Highlands Ridge region. A scrub forest grows on the dune ridges and the swales become wet season ponds.
THE ATLANTIC COAST STRIP AND MIAMI ROCK RIDGE
From the West Palm Beach Canal northward this coastal strip is arbitrarily separated from the Eastern Flatlands. It is those areas along the Atlantic Coast which have the tidal rivers, lagoons, shore ridges, beaches, and islands typical of coastal areas. The north and south forks of the St. Lucie River, and the main branches of the Jupiter River and the Loxahatchee Slough, are the boundaries between the Eastern Flatlands and this northern part of the Atlantic Coast Strip.
The southern part of this region is the well defined strip of land higher than the adjacent Everglades. It forms a long south, then southwest trending arcef-sand and rock ridges which are transversely dissected by valleys leading out




from the Everglades basin. The southernmost part of this strip is without a deep sand mantle over the rock and is known as the Miami Rock Ridge composed of Miami oolitic limestone, which in places is over 20 feet above sea level.
"This coastal strip is the well known "Lower East Coast" of Florida. On it are the many resort cities and towns of southern Florida and some important agricultural centers. The cultural developments and population of this region exceed that of any region of similar size in Florida, figure 13. The equitable climate, favorable topography, good beaches, and good soils in or near this region have made these developments possible.
The whole southern part of this region is a barrier ridge between the Everglades basin and the sea. There are some flat areas similar to the Flatlands regions, but most of the strip is sand ridges, and elongated depressions, or in the southern part rough rocklands. The flatlands parts, sand ridges, and near-coastal flats extend south to Fort Lauderdale. South of Fort Lauderdale the upland areas have only thin or no sand over the Miami oolite rock, and the lowland parts are predominantly marl soils. The rock ridge then extends south of Miami curving west and inland from the coast projecting as a number of elevated rock islands in the southern part of the Everglades basin. These slightly elevated rock islands across the southern part of the Everglades are generally known as the "Everglades Keys" because they are islands of pine or hammock forests often surrounded by water during wet seasons.
THE SOUTHERN COAST AND ISLANDS
Beginning a few miles south of Miami there is a distinct coastal plain of very low relief which extends in an arc southwest then west to and including Cape Sable and Whitewater Bay. The Miami Rock Ridge and Everglades Keys form the western and northern boundaries of this plain. The coast is low-lying with tide flats extending a mile or more inland and there are very few beach areas. On these low coastal areas are many mangrove swamps and salt to brackish-water marshes. Not only is the coast indented and irregular, but there are many creeks, ponds, lakes, and nearby landlocked bays. The largest of these is the shallow White-




water Bay lying inland from Cape Sable. West Lake, Cuthbert Lake, and Coot Bay are a few others. Mangrove swamps, salt water marshes, and tropical hammock forests cover most of the areas between these small bodies of water.
Nearly all of this plain has shallow to deep marl and muck soils underlain by Miami oolite rock. Parts of the southern areas of the Everglades drain out over this plain to the many bays and sounds east and south of it, but this plain is not here considered a part of the Everglades.
The shallow bays and sounds between the mainland and the Florida Keys and the islands in them are a part of this region. The largest of these shoal water areas is Florida Bay, and some others are Blackwater, Barnes and Card Sounds, and the southern part of Biscayne Bay. The islands are low, non-rocky, and mostly mangrove covered, having in many instances been built up by marl sediments, and mucks or peats developing in these swamps. This island and coastal building process has been recently described by the author.25
Cape Sable and the land back of and near it are one of the chief features of this part of southern Florida. The swamp and hammock areas near the cape are relatively unspoiled wilderness areas that have been of interest to many nature lovers and scientists. The sand beaches of this cape and the marl ridges along parts of this coast are constructional features with deposition of land building materials well above the high tide level. The parts of the coast thus built up have acted as dams causing the development of the brackish-water lakes and bays, as Whitewater Bay, and Cuthbert Lake. The fringing mangrove swamps have aided in these constructional processes causing a gradual extension of this whole southern coast further and further out into the shoal waters.
THE SOUTHWEST COAST AND TEN THOUSAND ISLANDS
From Cape Sable to Cape Romano, and even about 20 miles north of it to Naples Bay, there is a very low-lying coastal region of many tidal rivers, bays, sounds, and lakes with thousands of small shoal-water islands that have been aptly named the Ten Thousand Islands, figure 14. It is one of
25 Davis, John H., The ecology and geologic role of mangroves in Florida. Carnegie Insti. Wash. Pub. No. 517, pp. 303-412, 1940.


the most dissected coastal regions of Florida and one of the least accurately known for much of it is dense mangrove swamps that are difficult to penetrate.
These mangrove swamps and salt-water marshes are among the largest in the World. The relatively high tidal range, up to 4 feet in some instances, causes the tidal inundation of large areas far inland and forces salt water far up most of the estuary rivers. Some of these rivers, particularly the Shark, Harney, Broad, Rogers, and Lostmans Rivers, drain some of the southern Everglades. Some of these rivers, together with other short rivers draining the Big Cypress region, are in many cases connected by bays inland from the Gulf. A few of the largest of these bays are Tarpon, Rogers, Lostmans, Alligator, Chevelier, Houston, and Sunday Bays. Chokoloskee Island, which is mostly an ancient shell mound made by pre-Columbian Indians, is one of the most noted of the Ten Thousand Islands. Pavilion Key, Duck Rock, and Marco Island are other well known islands.
The maze of water courses, numerous islands, and mangrove swamps form a very complex region that is almost entirely a wilderness, the town of Everglades being the only settlement of any size along this coast.
Most of the small mangrove clad islands are stretched out end to end in somewhat parallel rows nearly all trending in a southeasterly direction. They are mainly shell-fish bars on which mangrove swamps have developed.
Before the submergence, mostly by a rise in sea level, that initiated the Recent epoch, this region, and the Southern Coast and Islands, were probably much more regular in shape and less severely dissected by bays, sounds, rivers, and creeks. The present features with numerous water ways indicate flooded conditions. The rivers have the features of drowned rivers.
The mangrove swamps along the rivers are dense forests of tall trees growing on deep peat and muck soils that in some areas average over 10 feet deep. Such great deposits of organic materials, shells, and sediments indicate a long period of development of these swamps. The shore may be gradually extending outward, mainly by the coalescence of the islands aided mainly by the growth of the mangrove trees in the shoal waters. Most of this region is a "drowned" shore


that is being built up and outward, mainly through the agency of the mangrove swamps.
There are, however, a number of islands and parts of the mainland which are being built up by constructional processes due primarily to sea currents and the movement of sediments. These are mainly the islands from Naples Bay to Cape Romano. On one of these, Marco Island, the sand dunes have been built up to elevations above 50 feet which are the highest coastal elevations in southern Florida.
THE FLORIDA KEYS
The long chain of islands from Biscayne Bay to Key West and even beyond it to the Dry Tortugas Keys has long been known and partly settled. They extend in a great arc about 220 miles long forming a barrier between the shoal waters of the Southern Coast and Gulf of Mexico and the deep water of the Strait of Florida through which flows the Gulf Stream. The northern and eastern islands of this chain from Soldier Key near Miami to Bahia Honda Channel near No Name Key are of coral rock known as the Key Largo limestone. These islands are narrow, but some of them are of 15 feet elevation. The present coral reefs, which are common offshore from them, did not form these islands because this Key Largo limestone is derived from former coral reefs that probably grew in the Pamlico Sea, and which was 25 feet higher than the present sea level.
The lower Florida Keys from Bahia Honda to Key West, and the Sand Keys from Key West to and including the Dry Tortugas Keys over 60 miles west of Key West, are not based on coral rock limestone. From Bahia Honda channel to the atoll shaped Marquesas Keys the islands are elevated parts of the same Miami oolitic limestone plain, figure 15, which forms the Southern Coast and floors Florida Bay. The Dry Tortugas Keys are based on present day coral reefs which are abundant in that area.
The author -'' has recently described the Sand Keys and some features of the other Florida Keys. These are the most
26 Davis, John H., The ecology of the vegetation and topography of the Sand Keys of Florida. Carnegie Institution of Washington. Pub. No. 524, pp. 113-195, 1942.


Figure 15.Lagoon on Man Key, west of Key West, showing slabs of Miami oolitic limestone and the red mangroves, with their arching roots, bordering the lagoon.
GEOLOGY
From a test boring for oil completed in 1939 at a depth of 10,006 feet it is shown that sedimentary rocks more than 10,000 feet thick underlie all of southern Florida and in a number of large areas some of the upper strata appear near or at the surface where the soil mantle is thin or absent. The surface and near-surface strata are mostly limestones, marls, and calcareous sandstones, none of them older than the Miocene epoch of the Cenozoic period. Most of them belong to the Pleistocene epoch commonly known as the Ice Age. During these ice or glacial stages a number of glaciers formed and then melted in the northern United States. These alternate stages of continental ice caps resulted in changes in the sea levels, there being high sea levels during the times
tropical areas of the United States with coral reefs near some of them and some tropical vegetation. These islands and the mangrove swamp areas will not be considered in great detail here as the author's former descriptions of them are in much more detail than can be presented here.


of melting ice and low sea levels during the time of ice formation. These different levels of the sea had marked effects upon coastal regions of the southeastern United States forming sea terraces. The different levels and positions of these sea terraces in Florida that were formed during the glacial stages have been described recently by Cooke 27 in his "Scenery of Florida." These terraces are so important in understanding southern Florida topography and soils that they will be considered in some detail.
Marine sands, and to a less extent marls and shells, form most of the mineral soils of this section and overlie the harder rock strata. There are also large areas, particularly in the Everglades basin, where great deposits of organic soils have formed directly upon the top of the rock strata. In other large areas, particularly south and southwest of Miami, the much eroded, hard limestone is at the surface or covered only by shallow marl and muck of very recent origin.
This means that most of the topography and rock strata are young, and nearly all of the mineral and organic soils are very young. These conditions might seem to indicate that it would be relatively easy to determine the stratigraphic and areal geology of this section, but this is not the case because the strata are often so thin, so overlapping, and in places so greatly eroded that it is difficult to determine either the vertical or horizontal limits of any one stratum or formation from another. Until current studies were made, mostly by Parker,2S there have been only the vaguest differentiations between some of these strata, and the areal limits of each were not well known. Even now, until studies by Parker and Cooke 29 are completed, the exact limits of some of these will not be known. The accompanying map figure 16, of the surface rock formations and marine sand mantles is based on Parker's findings. From these studies it appears that the present strata at or near the surface in this section of Florida are seven: (1) the Buckingham marls, possibly of lower
27 Cooke, C. Wythe, Scenery of Florida, interpreted by a geologist. Florida Geological Survey Bull. 17, 1939.
28 Parker, Garald G., Notes on the geology and ground water of the Everglades in southern Florida, Proc. Soil Science Society 4: pp. 47-76, 1942.
29 Parker, Garald G, and C. Wythe Cooke, The geology of Southern Fiorida, 1943. (Manuscript to be published.)


E XPL ANAT10 N
Lake Flirt marl
Key Largo limestone
Tamiami sandstone
Pomhco Terrace
& RECENT



TOCEI \xX \
- 8

cl
Penholowoy Terrace
Artastasio Coquina
Caloosahatchee formation
Buckingham marl
8 4 0 5 10 15
Ft Thompson formation
25 Miles 3
Figure 16.Map of the Geology of southern Florida, showing distribution of formations and strata, and the approximate areas covered by the old sea terraces.
After Gai-ald G. Parker.


so Campbell, Robert B., Outline of the geographical history of peninsular Florida. Proc. Fla. Acad. Science 4: pp. 87-105, 1939.
3i Cole, W. Storrs, Stratigraphic and Paleontologic studies of wells in Florida. Florida Geloogical Survey Bull. No. 19, 1941.
3ia Depths of strata from Cole, W. Storrs, ibid.
Pliocene age or perhaps of upper Miocene age; (2) the Caloosahatchee formation of the Pliocene; (3) the Tamiami formation of sandstone or limestone which varies from an arenaceous limestone to a calcareous sandstone and is also of the Pliocene being contemporaneous of the Caloosahatchee formation; (4) the Port Thompson formation of the Pleistocene, composed of alternate layers of fresh water and marine sediments, and shown in figures 17 and 18; (5) the Miami oolitic limestone, which with (6) the Anastasia coquina were both formed during the Pleistocene, Sangamon inter-glacial stage; and (7) the Key Largo limestone formed from coral reefs, also of the late Pleistocene. There is besides these a soft to hardened, indurated fresh water marl known as the Lake Flirt, figure 19, which is of Recent age and covers most of the Fort Thompson formation in the Everglades. There are also other fresh water marls and marine marls of very recent formation of which the Cape Sable area marl is a good example of the marine marls.
The total thicknes of these Pliocene and Pleistocene strata is only about 100 feet, yet these thin layers, plus their soil mantles, account for most of the topographical features and some of the hydrologic and vegetational features as well.
Older strata underlie these surface strata and we should briefly outline them before returning to a further consideration of the later ones. Below the Caloosahatchee and Tamiami formations are: (1) the Hawthorn, Choctaw-hatchee, and Tampa formations of the Miocene; (2) the Suwannee limestone of the Oligocene, and (3) the Ocala limestone of the Eocene. A deep well dug at Pinecrest in the mainland part of Monroe County and described by Campbell,5" and Cole :il showed that these strata were in order: (1) Pliocene from the surface to 90 feet;318 (2) the Miocene from 90 to 900 feet; (3) Oligocene from 900 to 1,220 feet; (4) Eocene from 1,220 to a questionable level between 3,350 and 5,750 feet and; (5) Cretaceous below that questionable level to about 10,000 feet, the bottom of the well.


Figure 17.Layers of the Fort Thompson formation along the Caloosahatchee River east of LaBelle. Below the upper fresh-water limestone layer the softer marine shell marl layer has partly weathered out leaving cavities. Below the marine layer another fresh-water layer occurs.
Figure 18.Fort Thompson formation. Marine shell marl layer with Pecten shells (middle layer covered by pick) with fresh-water limestone layers above and below it.
Courtesy of Garald G. Parker.


In the peninsula part of Florida these sedimentary strata form a broad, elongated arch that trends in a southeasterly direction and dips downward toward the southeast in southern Florida. In the central part of the peninsula this dome has rocks of Eocene age exposed at the surface, but in southern Florida only strata of much younger formations are at or near the surface. The present exposed land of the peninsula is only a part of a much broader rock plateau, the Floridian plateau, which extends much further out into the Gulf of Mexico, but is limited on the south by the Straits of Florida and only extends a short way out into the Atlantic Ocean.
As suggested above, the changes in sea levels during the Ice Age caused most of the development of the topography and other land form features of Florida and the Southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States. A number of cycles of high and low sea level stages occurred which have been variously determined, described, and interpreted by different geologists. These sea level changes may have been eustatic, without any appreciable changes in elevation of the land surfaces, or isostatic, accompanied by changes in elevation or depression of the land. It seems, however, that these sea level changes were so rapid with respect to any land level changes that these cycles of high and low sea levels were in general eustatic and that land levels have changed very little during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.
During each cycle of sea level changes there were de-positional and erosional stages. The nearly level former sea bottoms, now remaining as terraces, are mainly the results of deposition, and the escarpments or abrupt slopes between these terraces are mainly erosional features. In general the nearly flat terraces are bounded by two escarpments one rising above the terrace level and the other descending from it. The base of the escarpment rising from a particular ter-rac area marks the approximate boundary of the old shore line of the sea which formed the particular terrace below it.
The levels of the old shore lines of many terraces have been determined in Florida, and the boundaries of the terraces traced. All these old sea terraces have been named. Cooke 32 has described at least eight for the whole state, Vernon 33
32 Cooke, C. Wythe, op. cit.
33 Vernon, Robert O., Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida. Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 21, p. 5, 1942.


five in western Florida, and Parker and Cooke !4 three significant ones in southern Florida.
The three main terraces recognized in southern Florida are: (in order from the most recent to the oldest, and with their range of elevation above the present sea level) (1) the Pamlico from about sea level to 25 feet; (2) the Talbot from 25 feet to about 42 feet; and (3) the Penholoway from 42 feet to 70 feet. A less well defined terrace in this section, the Wicomico, occurs from 70 to 100 feet, and extends into southern Florida as part of the Highlands Ridge.
The upper surfaces of these terraces are mainly flat to gently undulating sand soil plains which have been variously changed into the present topography since the time of the seas which formed them. In general they form the flatlands plains which are the large areas of the Eastern and Western Flatlands regions.
The marine sands left by these seas form the main sand soils of southern Florida. These sands are also often referred to as the Pamlico, Talbot, and Penholoway sands and will be discussed in detail with the soil conditions.
The zones of junctions between each of these terraces are not often easily recognized escarpments. Where well defined they usually consist of hills and ridges of sand, mostly of the St. Lucie, Lakewood, and Blanton soil types, which in some instances may have been old beaches or dunes. Other features of these old shore lines between terraces are elongated depressions which are sloughs and ponds, cypress and bay swamps, and marshes.
The seas that formed both the Talbot and Penholoway terraces occurred during the Sangamon interglacial stage, and the terraces and escarpments left by them have become variously altered. Both of these seas deposited marine sands directly over parts of the Caloosahatchee marl and the Buckingham marl but do not seem to have deposited materials over the strata of younger age than these. The Miami oolitic limestone, the Anastasia coquina and the upper layer of the Fort Thompson formation were developing at this time and only a few sands of the Talbot sea overlie these


contemporary strata. The Talbot and Penholoway terrace sands are usually thicker and less calcareous than the younger Pamlico terrace sands. The old shore lines between the Talbot and Pamlico terraces are difficult to trace except between the Istokpoga Basin and Highlands Ridge. It is also difficult to determine the shore line features between the Talbot and Pamlico terraces. In mapping, figure 16, the distribution of these terraces the known 25, 42, and 70 foot contour lines were used to delimit them (figure 26). This method of determining terraces is not as accurate or as desirable as it might be were these terraces better understood, and the areas shown are no doubt only the roughest approximations in some places. It is fairly certain, however, that the Caloosahatchee River valley was flooded by the Pamlico sea and that an island of land existed south of it in Hendry, Lee, and Collier counties during that time.
Moreover, it now seems possible to relate the general areas covered by these three terraces to certain general features of the soils, drainage, and vegetation. Such correlations between the geologic age of certain sands and the type of soil may be made in some instances. The intimate interrelations between geology, soils, and vegetation, which are so characteristic of these natural features of southern Florida, will become more obvious when the soils and vegetation are considered later.
The latest and lowest of these terraces, the Pamlico, was laid down during the Peorian interglacial stage and before the last ice stage, the Wisconsin. This Pamlico or Peorian sea covered all of southern Florida up to the 25-foot level. During this Peorian time the Fort Thompson formation, that floors most of the Lake Okeechobee and the northern part of the Everglades; the Miami oolitic limestone, which floors most of the southern Everglades and forms the Miami Rock Ridge; and the Anastasia coquina, which forms most of the northern part of the Atlantic Coast Strip, had all been formed. This means that this Peorian sea did much to alter these strata and soils and form the present land features of southern Florida. Particularly did it initiate the conditions which formed the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin. It reshaped the early rock and marl strata and the older sand terraces as well as depositing materials of its own. Many of these Pam-


Figure 19.Upper layer of the Fort Thompson formation overlain by Recent sands and marls. DCoffee Mill Hammock shell marl member of the Fort Thompson formation; CMarly phase of the Lake Flirt marl; BCarbonaceous sandy phase of the Lake Flirt marl; ASpoil from dredging operations.
lico sands and marls are, however, so intermingled with Recent ones that they are difficult to distinguish, figure 19.
After the Peorian interglacial the Pamlico sea receded and a low sea level stage occurred during the Wisconsin ice period which was probably 25 feet lower 35 than present sea
35 Vaughan, T. Wayland, Building of the Marquesas and Tortugas atolls and a sketch of the geologic history of the Florida Reef Tract. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub No. 182, 1914.


level. This low sea level caused the erosion and solution of the bare rock and shifting of the marine sands. The Pamlico sands were probably spread over wider areas than they originally occupied. The exposed Miami oolite, Anastasia coquina, Fort Thompson formation, and Tamiami limestones or sandstones were variously corroded and eroded, forming many of the uneven surface features, figure 65, which now exist. Among these solution features are many rounded depressions known as "potholes" and other sharp sided depressions that vary greatly in size and depth. Stubbs36 points out that rain water accumulated in these holes and plant growth hastened the formation of these depressions.
One of the most distinctive of these erosional features that were formed following the periods of high sea levels was the cutting of channels out of the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin to the sea. Most of these channels were cut through the Miami oolite ridge that flanks the eastern and southern parts of this basin. Some channels were cut deeply, down through the Miami oolite and into the Tamiami sandstone underlying it, while others were shallow. Most of these channels have been partly filled with sands and marls, but many still remained sufficiently low to act as drainage channels from the Everglades, and some are now rivers, canals, and transverse glades.
Erosion and solution in the Everglades basin and in many adjacent thin soil regions produced fairly definite patterns of drainage in some areas and very confused patterns in other areas, both of which will be considered in more detail later, (see the Everglades).
During Recent time the sea level has probably fluctuated some but in general is rising more than falling. It is probably rising slowly at the present time. Evidences of the very recent rise in sea level were obtained by the author37 in studies of deep peat soils in the mangrove swamps along parts of these coasts; and also by Cooke 38 describing the North Carolina Coastal Plain.
36 Stubbs, Sidney A., Solution a dominant factor in the Geomorphol-cgy of Peninsular Florida. Proc. Fla. Acad. Science 5: p. 167, 1940.
3" Davis, John H., The ecology and geologic role of mangroves in Florida. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. No. 517, pp. 402-405, 1940.
38 Cooke, C. Wythe, The tentative ages of Pleistocene shore lines. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 25, pp. 331-333, 1935.


Another important event of Recent time was the formation of a fresh water marl layer over a great part of the floor of the Everglades and some adjacent regions. This marl is the Lake Flirt marl the type locality being Lake Flirt on the Caloosahatchee River east of the town of LaBelle, figure 19. In this place, and other small areas, it rests on top of the Pamlico sands, but in the central and northern parts of the Everglades it is a thin deposit directly on top of those limestones that are not covered by Pamlico or Recent sands. This Lake Flirt marl is important because it is relatively impervious and retards the seepage of water into the rock strata over which it lies, figure 22. It thus prevents most of the underground drainage of water from the peat and marl soils into the rock strata which floor a great part of the Everglades. It is doubtful if the Everglades marshes would have developed without a marl layer over the rock floor as surface and soil water would have drained off rapidly through some of the underlying porous rock strata. Some of the drainage canals have been cut through this marl and into the more pervious layer of rock increasing underground drainage locally and markedly affecting the surface and ground water levels.
The distribution of sand and other materials of the marine terraces were altered by the general leveling of the surface which seems to have been more prevalent than increases in degree of relief. Along with these processes the Recent sands, marls, and organic soils were deposited and accumulated over large areas, some of which were formerly bare of soils. Most of the present shore line beaches, dunes, ridges, swales, lagoons, bays, islands, and other characteristic features were formed, and the present soil and topographic conditions were established. Most notably, the organic and marl soils were formed and the present drainage conditions which make possible the Everglades marshes and swamps were established by alterations in topography. The Recent sands so often overlie or are mixed with sands of the Pamlico sea that it is impossible to determine in all instances from which any particular soil type or soil horizon is derived.
In contrast with other regions of deep residual soil mantles the thin sand, marl, and organic soils of southern Florida have had little time for the development of the characteristic profiles of normal soils. As a consequence


of this many of the subsoil layers, particularly the marls, are in reality parts of the geological formation; as for instance in the case of some Parkwood and Palmdale sand soils underlain by Caloosahatchee formation marls.
We may now return to the description of the character and development of those surface and near surface strata which are not usually considered soils. Details of lithography and stratigraphy should be obtained from other sources as this paper cannot attempt to deal with them.
The oldest of these strata that appear at the surface is the Buckingham marl which may be a member of the lower Caloosahatchee formation of the Pliocene epoch, or possibly a part of the Miocene epoch. These marls occur over nearly all of Lee County and adjacent parts of Charlotte, Hendry, and Collier counties, figure 16. Pamlico terrace sands and some Talbot sands above the 25 foot level cover these marls. Along the Caloosahatchee River some of this marl is exposed but over most of the area the sand cover is deep.
The next oldest stratum is the Caloosahatchee formation of marl, shells, and sand which extends over nearly all of Charlotte, DeSoto, Glades, Highlands, and Okeechobee counties and extends around the eastern side of Lake Okeechobee, covering western Martin County and a part of Palm Beach County. From the town of LaBelle it projects southeast across most of Hendry County. It is exposed at the surface along the Caloosahatchee River, and it is only shal-lowly buried under much of the Everglades by either the Fort Thompson formation or the Tamiami sandstone. The overlying materials are mostly sand of the three terraces, Pamlico, Talbot, and Penholoway. The Penholoway sands are very deep where they cover the Caloosahatchee, but the other sands are from moderate depth to very shallow.
The Tamiami formation, which consists of calcareous sandstones, sandy limestones, and beds and pockets of quartz sand, is associated with the Caloosahatchee formation and is considered to be a member contemporaneous with it. It has been recently recognized and its range determined by Parker.39 As now recognized it covers nearly all of Collier County, extending south along the west coast to Shark River


in Monroe County. From eastern Collier County it projects eastward, occurring at the surface in the southwestern part of Broward County. This sandstone then extends eastward under the Miami oolitic limestone and Fort Thompson formation, but the limits of its extent are not yet known. It may underlie the surface rocks of nearly all the central and northern parts of the Everglades basin and the southern part of the Atlantic Coast Strip. Near Fort Lauderdale it is below Recent sands that have filled the old rivers that drained the Everglades basin. It is thicker where located below the Miami oolite and the Fort Thompson formation near the Atlantic coast than where exposed in Collier and Monroe counties. These thick beds are the chief aquifer for the water supplies of Miami and some other East Coast cities.
The next oldest stratum is the Fort Thompson formation which consists of a series of thin layers of alternating marine and brackish shells, fresh-water marls and limestones, figures 17, 18. It was probably laid down during several interglacial and glacial stages beginning with the Aftonian interglacial and ending with the Sangamon interglacial period, its last layer being contemporary with the time of formation of the Miami oolite, Anastasia coquina, and Key Largo limestone. This formation is largely the rock floor of Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades as far south as the South New River Canal. Its upper layer is a fresh water limestone, over most of the Everglades basin, that is hard and seems to be almost impervious to water. Therefore, the Fort Thompson limestone that floors Lake Okeechobee and nearly all the deep peat soil parts of the Everglades is capable of holding at the surface of this rock basin nearly all the water that drains into or falls as rain onto this region. This fact is important in considering the mode of origin of the Everglades, which will be discussed later. (See the Everglades and figure 60.)
During the Sangamon stage of the Pleistocene there developed, besides the upper part of the Fort Thompson formation, three other strata that are contemporary with each other,"' these are: (1) the Miami oolitic limestone; (2) the Anastasia coquina; and (3) the Key Largo Limestone.
The Miami oolitic limestone is easily recognized by its


oolitic (fish roe-like) character, white to yellow color, and relative softness. It forms a rock ridge which is at the surface from Miami, figure 20, south westward across the southern part of the Everglades. Some of this ridge is over 20 feet above sea level, and it has become traversely dissected
Figure 20.Miami oolitic limestone as exposed by a cut made for a street in the city of Miami. Note cross-bedding and the soil filled solution hole (dark center).
Courtesy Garald G. Parker.
by channels, known as the transverse glades, which in a number of instances were spillways to the Pamlico sea and other seas from lakes that occurred in the Everglades basin. This rock is rough on the surface and full of many vertical solution cavities, "potholes," which in some instances have cut through to the underlying Tamiami formation.41
This Miami oolitic limestone floors nearly all the lower parts of the Everglades basin in Dade County and projects northward under some of the Pamlico and Recent sands as far north as Boca Raton in the Atlantic Coast Strip region. South of Dade County it extends across the floor of Florida Bay and forms the Lower Florida Keys which extend from the Bahia Honda Channel westward beyond Key West to include the elliptic group of islands known as the Marquesas Keys.
During Recent times this oolitic limestone was eroded
4t Parker, Gerald G, and C. Wythe Cooke, op. cit.


Cooke, C. Wythe, Geology of the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, U. S. Geological Survey Bull. 867, p. 157, 1936.
through along several transverse troughs in three areas near the North and South New Rivers, leaving the Tamiami sandstone and sands directly underneath the Recent sand mantle.
The Anastasia coquina, formerly known as the Anastasia formation, is a mixture of limestones, marls and coquina rock that extends far north from Boca Raton along the Atlantic Coast and averages about 18 miles wide. Over this area Recent sands and those of the Pamlico terrace have formed the ridges and the plains of the Flatlands and Atlantic Coast regions.
The Key Largo limestone is largely coral rock that forms the long southwest trending arc of the Upper Florida Keys from just north of Elliott Key to Knight Key. This coral rock is the remains of coral reefs that probably developed in the Peorian interglacial Talbot sea.
Thus, we see that the alternating high and low sea levels of the interglacial and glacial stages, respectively, account for most of the geology and topography of southern Florida, particularly the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades Basin, and the ridges between it and the Atlantic Ocean. This almost entirely rock-floored Everglades basin now varies in elevation from sea level in the deep parts of Lake Okeechobee to 10 or 11 feet in the central part of the Everglades. At one stage, known as the Waipo 42 in the Pacific, the sea level was about 60 feet below its present height, and at another stage, the Wicomico during the Sangamon interglacial, the sea was 100 feet above its present level. In contrast to these high water stages the Pamlico sea was 25 feet above the present sea level. Thus, a vertical range in sea levels of about 125 teet occurred during the time the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades Basin was being formed.
From the foregoing it can be seen that the younger formations were laid down in these seas and in some basins of fresh water that persisted between them and after them. The Everglades basin is probably floored over most of its northern and central part by the Lake Flirt marl on top of the upper Fort Thompson stratum and some of the Miami oolitic limestone. The upper Fort Thompson stratum is a fresh water limestone member formed during the Illinoian glacial stage


and the Miami oolite was formed mainly during the Sangamon interglacial time in the Talbot sea. Flanking this Everglades basin on the east are the sand ridges formed on top of the Anastasia formation and the high, near coastal ridge of the Miami oolite, both forming the present Atlantic Coast Strip. The last sea to flood this basin before Recent time was the Pamlico sea of the Wisconsin ice stage. Water, however, remained in this basin after the sea levels were lowered during the present post glacial time and in this basin developed Lake Okeechobee and the peat and muck soil Everglades. (See figure 60.)
From these interpretations of the strata and terraces we may conclude that the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee, the largest physiographic region of this section, is the freshwater and marsh vestige of a former inland sea or lake that was in turn probably preceded by other similar stages of salt-water seas and fresh-water lakes.
The marl and rock floor of this Everglades basin was formerly more uneven than the present topography of the soil surface. As the marshes developed the peat and muck deposits, the floor of the basin was covered deeply in some places and thinly in other places tending to make the soil surface of the basin more and more level. Drainage of the Everglades and loss of soils from some areas are now tending to make the Everglades less level than before drainage. If too much of the peat and muck soils are lost the Everglades will become even less level and drainage more and more difficult.
Moreover, it is probable that during the time of the Pamlico sea all the Caloosahatchee valley was sea flooded, and when high sea levels were reached during the Penholoway stage only the present Highlands sandhills and adjacent areas above the 70 foot contour were not flooded.
Since the Pamlico sea existed near the end of the Wisconsin glacial stage it probably occurred not over 50,000 years ago. After this Pamlico stage the sea level probably receded to levels 20 or more feet below the present one. This level was then followed by a slow rise in sea level which seems to be taking place at the present time.
Probably during some of the glacial stages, the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee Basin was alternately drained out


into the sea then filled up by the rising sea. Both actions caused the cutting of transverse valleys across the Miami oolitic limestone ridge, the scars of which now remain as the transverse glades. The waters flooding from this basin as the sea levels lowered cut channels over 50 feet deep in a few places. Three such channels, near the present New Rivers, cut through the 25 foot thick Miami oolite rock into the Tamiami sands and sandstones. Much of this overflowing water must have drained, as at present, toward the southwest but remains of such former channels have not been sufficiently determined to prove this. More of the history of the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee will be considered later in connection with the development of the peat, muck, and marl soils.
Conjectures about the trends of ocean currents in the latest of these Pleistocene seas, the Pamlico, have been recently advanced by Dickerson i:i who interprets them from the same U. S. Soil Conservation Service aerial photographs that were used in this survey. His conclusion that the present surface features of the Everglades and adjacent areas to the west of it indicate the trend of currents of many thousands of years ago may be justified in the shallow peat and marl soil areas of the Everglades and some adjacent regions, but there is little evidence of old drainage patterns in the deep peat areas and most of the sand soil areas. In the southern parts of the Everglades and in parts of the Big Cypress region the arrangement of the present day sloughs, strands of saw-grass marsh, tree-islands, cypress-heads and domes, hammocks on rockland, ponds and water courses are often in a definite pattern. Moreover, a number of these patterns, that are shown in the map of the vegetation, conform to the surface configuration of the rock strata although these strata are now covered by shallow to medium deep soils. The ponds, cypress-heads, sloughs, and other water courses are in the depressions. Most of the hammocks and many of the other tree-islands, such as the bay-heads, are often on mounds or ridges. Organic soils filling in parts of the depressions, and to a less extent accumulating on the mounds and ridges, have
Dickerson, Roy E., Trends of Pleistocene ocean currents across the Florida Everglades. Geographical Review, Vol. 32, pp. 135-139,


in many instances almost leveled off the surface topography. It is true that some aerial photographs, as shown here in the configuration of the vegetation, indicate the old configurations of the surface which Dickerson considers the results of current trends during the time of the Pleistocene seas, but the author considers most of these patterns of drainage the results of more recent solution and erosion.
Since the groovings, solution holes, other pitted features, and irregular topography of the Miami oolite, Tamiami sandstone, and a few parts of other rock strata are a very characteristic feature of south Florida, and since these features are reflected in the patterns of vegetation, patterns of drainage, and patterns of soil types in some areas, therefore, the areal distribution of different types of vegetation conforms somewhat to the soils, drainage, and surface rock strata features in certain areas. Such close correlations between natural features is of primary interest here and more consideration of many of these features will be given later. The geology ties in particularly well with the soil conditions and drainage, and these two markedly influence the development of the distinct types of vegetation. Thus, geologic features cannot be considered entirely apart from the other features but are an integral part of the sum of all the natural features of southern Florida. A comparison of the maps of vegetation, geology, topography and drainage given here will show some of the correlations between these different features.
SOILS
INTRODUCTION
There are in southern Florida not only a great number of kinds of sand soils but also a variety of organic soils and marl soils. The prevalence and great variety of organic soils, especially in the Everglades, and the presence of many kinds of marl soils over large areas are the outstanding soil features of this part of the State.
The sand soils cover most of the two Flatlands regions, the Highlands Ridge, and the Atlantic Coast Strip as far south as Miami. In fact, the areas covered by these sands, whether or not they are actually the upper levels now, are mainly those areas once covered by the old sea terraces, Pamlico,


Talbot, Penholoway, and Wicomico that were outlined in the discussion of the geology. Nearly all these sands are of marine origin and the present soils are the results of alterations in these marine sands due mainly to the soil water conditions and type of vegetation. Compared to other parts of Florida these sand soils are in general shallow and with little or no profile developed.
The organic soils are very important because many of them are the soils of the best agricultural areas. They were developed as the consequence of the growth of marsh and swamp plants under certain favorable water conditions, particularly in the Everglades where over 2,000,000 acres of land are deep to thinly surfaced by various mucks and peats. Many ponds and sloughs have also developed organic soils and along some of the low-lying coasts organic soils have developed in the mangrove swamps and salt-water marshes.
Soper and Osbon 4,11 believed that Florida contained more peat than any other State except Minnesota and Wisconsin, and that the State was capable of producing 2,000,000,000 short tons of air-dried peat, of which about 1,000,000,000 short tons occurs in the Everglades. These estimates give some idea of the great abundance of these organic soils, which are not only soils but a possible fuel as peat is often used for heating and similar purposes.
Moreover, peat and the high organic content mucks are essentially the partly decomposed remnant of vegetable matter produced from the arrested decomposition of plants in situations that were covered or saturated with water, and some fibrous peats retain the plant structures sufficiently to show the types of plants that form them. Because of this the history of the development of certain peats may be interpreted from the nature of the peat.
The marl soils are widespread covering large areas in the southern Everglades region, along the Southern Coast and Islands, the Southwest Coast and Ten Thousand Islands, and over parts of the Big Cypress region. Most of these surface marls are fresh-water marl of Recent origin. Some of the subsoil marls are of Pleistocene origin or older.
Of these three main kinds of soils, sand, organic, and
*s Soper, E. K., and C. C. Osbon, The occurrence and use of peat in the United States, U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 728, 207pp., 1922.


marl, there are many soil types some of which have been distinguished only recently by the men conducting the soil surveys for the United States Soil Conservation Service in the Everglades Drainage District, and the United States Bureau of Plant Industry and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in Collier County. Most of the following information about soil types was gained from contacts with the men in these soil surveys and the soil classification should be credited to them.* Since all of these Federal and State agencies which have been making soil maps of parts of southern Florida plan to publish their findings this account of the soils in this section will be brief. The main purpose here is to show the intimate relationships between some of the main soil types and the vegetation, and some of the soil water conditions and the soil reaction of some soils. For our purposes we will consider mainly: (1) the geology and soils; (2) the general soil characteristics and some of the soil types; (3) the soils and vegetation; (4) the soil water conditions; and (5) the soil reaction, which is the condition of soil acidity, neutrality, and alkalinity.
GEOLOGY AND SOILS
As pointed out in the discussion of geology, the mineral soil mantles that cover the harder rock, marl, and shell strata are mainly marine sands laid down during the Pleistocene epoch. In order from the most recent to the oldest these were sands resulting from deposits of the Pamlico, Talbot, and Penholoway stages of high sea levels, figure 16. With the recession of each of these glacial stage seas the layer of sand left behind became modified to form the present day soils. On top of some of these sands were laid down other sands, some marls, and some peat deposits during Recent time. Some of these Recent soils have developed on bare rock, notably the marls and the peat and muck deposits in the Everglades.
The present characteristics of many of the sand soils are due mainly to the character of the materials laid down and partly to the aging of these marine sands under the influences of the climatic conditions and the plant cover, bringing about
* Particularly Mr. Henderson of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


in some instances the development of distinct soil profiles. Before and at the same time that these processes were taking place the sands were shifted about by water and winds causing the areal distribution of the different soil types to be very confused in some regions. Differential sorting of the sands in the shallow seas first caused some of this dissimilarity. Later erosion, sedimentation, transfer from place to place, additions of humus materials, and other agencies of soil building increased these dissimilarities until now it is frequently impossible to distinguish the soils of one geologic time from those of another. The final results of all these changes has been the creation of a great number of soil types many of which were of similar origin from marine sands of the same age.
The sand mantle of the most recent terrace stage, the Pamlico sea, is in general the most shallow and often occurs in conjunction with some Recent sands. These Recent and Pamlico sands extend farthest south and farthest out into the Everglades basin, figure 16, and they are prevailingly underlain by calcareous materials relatively close to the surface. From them has developed such soils as the Broward,* Davie, Dade, Matmon, Copeland, and some Parkwood soils.
The soils of the Pamlico sea extend up to the 25 foot elevation where the Talbot sands start. There is, however, usually no sharp escarpment between the Pamlico and Talbot sands in southern Florida, but in a number of places the old shore line may be inferred from the presence of the St. Lucie fine sand and other dry sand ridges that were probably once sea beaches. Swales often lie between these elongated ridges of sand which are all now more or less leveled off and were probably of much greater relief in the past.
The Talbot sands in general seem to be deeper than the Pamlico sands and not as often underlain by calcareous materials near enough to the surface to affect the soil characteristics. Some of the soils of this Talbot stage are the Immokalee and Leon ground-water podzols of the flatwoods, but these two soils are not restricted to the Talbot sands being also common at higher and lower levels.
The highest sand terrace of large areas in southern
* Names given to these soil types to be explained more fully later.


Florida is the Penholoway occurring above the 42 foot elevation. In a number of places, notably along the eastern edge of the Highlands Ridge between it and the Istokpoga Marshes, there is an abrupt escarpment, figure 11, with ridges and dunes that mark the edge of the Penholoway sands. On this edge of the Highlands Ridge the St. Lucie and Lakewood sands are deep and piled high most of them forming dune-like ridges, figure 12, which are derived from the old beach sands by the agency of winds. These are the high inland dunes of the sandhills regions. Many of the Penholoway sands are deep, well drained, fine sands that are seldom if ever calcareous, the Blanton, St. Lucie, and Lakewood sands being common types. The other, more low-lying Penholoway sands are, however, similar to Talbot sands and include the groundwater podzols, particularly the Leon and Immokalee fine sands.
Sands of Recent origin cover parts of all three of these older terrace soils. Along the coasts such Recent sands are common forming many of the coastal ridges and dunes. They cover particularly parts of the Anastasia coquina and the Miami oolite of the Atlantic coast, and the Coastal parts of the Buckingham marl on the Gulf of Mexico coast. The most widespread of the soils of Recent origin are: (1) the thin marls now being formed over large areas of the Southern and Southwestern Coastal regions, parts of the Big Cypress region, and the southern Everglades; (2) the organic soils over a great part of the Everglades and spotted about in ponds and sloughs of other regions; and (3) the softer beds of Lake Flirt marl mostly underlying organic soils in the Everglades. The organic soils are the most distinct soil feature of southern Florida, and their mode of development will be considered in much more detail later. (See the Everglades.)
An important feature of the areas covered by the Pamlico sea and other seas of the Pleistocene epoch was that they failed to cover all areas of southern Florida. This resulted in large areas of rockland which were left without any soils when the last seas receded. Therefore, all the soil materials now on top of these former rocklands have developed recently. Most of the deep peat soils of the Everglades have developed in the last few thousand years over the marl and rock floor


Figure 21.Rockland resulting from fires that have destroyed the shallow organic soils. The Miami oolitic limestone is very rough due to solution type of weathering. Many areas of shallow peat in the southern Everglades are becoming rocklands.
Courtesy Gerald G. Parker.
there are, however, large areas which still remain without any soil covering or where the soils are so thin the areas are essentially rocklands, figure 21. Fortunately much of this rock is porous and variously pitted and pocketed and some soil materials collect in these cavities so that plants are able to grow over most of the rocklands. The highest rocklands are the Miami Rock Ridge of Miami oolitic limestone which has developed in some areas a Lithosol soil known as the Rockdale, that is in some instances red and lateritic, particularly in the Redland area north of Homestead.
** DacknowskiStokes, A. P. and R. V. Allison, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. Vol. 18, No. 17, pp. 476-480, 1928.
of that basin by the abundant growth of marsh plants. The marls have developed from sediments washed in over the rocks and by the solution and redeposition of the calcareous materials which have often taken place through the agency of calcareous algae." In spite of these soil building agencies


There are still remaining some areas with so little soil in the rock crevices or pockets, or with such thin soil over the surface, that a good growth of vegetation is greatly inhibited. Moreover, the prevalent fires often reduce the shallow organic soils to ashes over rock, figure 21, causing a very definite setback in the development of some of the forests and prairies. Excessive artificial drainage has recently created drier conditions promoting these fires and also causing the shallow organic soils to become oxidized and subside until now some areas once soil covered are returning to rockland conditions.
Another feature of these soils is the fact that many of them are directly influenced by the nature of the underlying rock strata. In some cases the shallow sands rest on limestones or marls which by their calcareous nature affect the soil solutions tending to make them less acid or even alkaline. Some of these soft rock and marl strata are considered part of the soil profile. However, most of the soils are without either the B or C horizons,4"' the A horizon resting directly upon the rock strata without in any way being directly derived from them.
Finally, there are peat, muck, and marl soils in the coastal mangrove swamp areas which in some instances are over 14 feet deep and in many places average 7 to 10 feet deep. These organic soils along the coasts have been interpreted by the author 411 as developing in conjunction with the growth of the mangrove swamps which require certain tide level conditions. From an interpretation of the tide levels and the depth of the peat soils it was concluded that these deep soils are evidence of a recently rising sea level.
From the foregoing we see that southern Florida has large areas bare of soil or so thinly covered by soil that the topography is essentially the results of the configuration of the surface rocks. Moreover, the types of vegetation conform in many instances to this topography and are related to the physiographic features of the rocklands and thin soil areas. It is, therefore, possible in many instances to correlate vegeta-
ns For description of soil horizons see Henderson, J. R., The Soils of Florida; University of Florida, Agricultural Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 334, 1939.
is Davis, John H., The ecology and geologic role of mangroves in Florida, Carnegie Institution of Wash. Pub. No. 517, p. 387-394, 1940.


tion with topography, soils, and rock strata. Even more important it is possible to interpret something of the development of the organic and marl soils during the past few thousand years, particularly in the Everglades.
SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES
Since Henderson 17 has well described the system of soil classification and the main soil series and soil types in Florida there is little need to give here the various details of the soil categories or to outline them except in a general manner.
The classification of soil types is based upon the presence or absence of layers or horizons in the soil profiles and the color, texture, structure, and consistence of the materials that compose the soil body. In a sense only those well developed soils with distinct horizons in their profiles may be considered true or normal soils. In the conventional profiles of normal soils the A horizon is the surface and subsurface layers usually with organic matter and subject to leaching processes having lost some of their mineral constituents. The B horizon is the zone of accumulation of minerals and other materials leached from the A horizon and is generally known as the subsoil. The C horizon is the parent material from which the two upper layers of the soil body have been derived. In southern Florida most of the soils are without these three distinct horizons and some of them, particularly the organic soils and some of the marls, may not properly be considered profile soils, or even true soils. They are, however, the substratum upon which vegetation depends for sustenance and as such are here considered soils.
Many of the sand, as well as organic soils, lack horizons being simple almost undifferentiated sand resting uncon-formably upon a rock or marl stratum. Both the B and C horizons are probably lacking in all these southern Florida soils except the Leon and Immokalee fine sands. Most of the sand soils are subject to leaching all the way down to .the rock and marl strata upon which they rest, the hardpan of the Leon and stained layer of the Immokalee soils being the only well defined B horizons with accumulation of mineral and other constituents.
*< Henderson, J. R., op. cit.


The main things that influence the soil classification here are: (1) the drainage, as excessive, good, intermediate, poor, and very poor; (2) the color of the different layers; (3) the organic content of the layers; (4) the vegetation; and (5) the nature of the underlying rock or marl (which are seldom the parent material.) )
The topography is very important because very slight differences in elevation cause distinct differences in soil types and soil water conditions. The ground-water podzols, half-bog, and bog soils are all most intimately associated with certain specific soil and surface water conditions caused mainly by the nature of the topography. The manner of drainage, which is affected by the topography, underground water, and rainfall conditions, are also very important as large areas have relatively poor drainage.
This medium to poor drainage and the seasonal character of the rainfall have aided the development of the widespread ground-water podzols, which are Leon and Immokalee soils, because the rise and descent of the soil water table is effective in causing "hardpan" and "stained-layer" development. The half-bog soils, such as the Plummer, Arzell, Charlotte, and Broward are usually sands that are covered by water part of the year. And the bog soils, which are mainly organic, develop as a direct consequence of flooded soils and very poor drainage with or without fluctuations in the water levels.
The plant cover or vegetation affects the development of many of these soils, particularly the bog soils, and the upper layers of the half-bog soils. Organic content and color are usually related to the present vegetation. In and near the Everglades, and in the many small depressions of the flat-woods and Big Cypress regions, organic bog soils are developing rapidly from the partly decomposed remains of the marsh and swamp vegetation.
The development of some of the organic soils reflects the history of the development of that particular area, especially the succession of different types of vegetation. Studies of the different layers of the organic soils aid in the interpretation of past conditions of topography and drainage, and in some instances climate. The course of development of the soils and vegetation are, therefore, often closely related. Some


details of this developmental history will be discussed later as it particularly applies to parts of the Everglades.
In general, the mineral soils and rocklands are now in the primary stages of soil development many of the marine sands having been altered only to a small degree by vegetational growth, soil organisms, and climate. The rocklands with their thin soils, or soils only in solution cavities, are just beginning the development of residual soils, that is those that are directly derived from rock. Humus added by plant growth and mixed with the decomposing rock form the chief soils of many hammocks.
In some cases the original vegetation has been removed or altered and the drainage conditions so changed that instead of developing organic soils some areas are being depleted of them. This is particularly true of many peat and muck soils in and near the Everglades. Along the eastern arid some northwestern parts of the Everglades the mucks and peats over sand have been oxidized, burned, or washed off leaving what are now known as Davie and Clewiston fine sands which were formerly mucks or peats with sand subsoils.
Thus, nearly all of the southern Florida soils are intra-zonal being mainly the consequence of such local factors as topography, drainage, plant cover, and age, and they are not as much affected by climate and parent materials as more normal soils. These soils are relatively young and their course of development has been a series of alternating conditions, wet then dry, erosion then deposition, and similar processes.
Following the Henderson 18 classification we find that there are in southern Florida, one soil of the red and yellow group, the Blanton; four dry sands, the Lakewood, St. Lucie, Dade, and Palm Beach all usually occurring along the coasts or along the old coastal terraces where some of them form the inland dunes; two widespread ground-water podzols, the Leon and Immokalee; and many half-bog and bog soils. Both the ground-water podzols and half-bog soils are prevalent throughout the Flatlands regions the half-bog soils usually occurring at lower elevations than the ground-water podzols and with poorer drainage the rule. Both these soils are


GANDY PEAT
I.S'
SAW-GRASS PEAT
Figure 22.Profile of the organic soils and marl and rock strata from a bay tree-island in the Hillsborough Lake area of the Everglades. These organic soil layers developed in a sequence due to the water conditions and type of vegetation. The Lake Flirt marl, of Recent origin, acted as an impervious layer over the Fort Thompson formation limestone.
4.5'
LOXAHATCHEE PEAT
8.5'
LAKE FLIRT MARL
10
FT THOMPSON FM-
(fsol)


Figure 23.Hiler peat auger which was used to obtain samples of organic soils at different levels. On this bay tree-island the profile of figure 22 was obtained.


frequently mildly acid to strongly acid in the upper parts of their profiles, but because they are often underlain by calcareous materials many of the half-bog soils are alkaline in the lower parts of their profiles. It is practical, therefore, to recognize two groups of the half-bog soils; (1) those that are non-calcareous; and (2) those that have calcareous subsoils. Common soils of the non-calcareous group are the Plummer, Portsmouth, and Arzell series. Some of those soils with calcareous subsoils or lying on calcareous materials are the Parkwood, Palmdale, Broward, Copeland, and Keri. Most of these latter soils have been recognized and described only recently for they are mainly limited to parts of southern Florida. The names here used for these soil types and the differentiations into types are preliminary and incomplete until the results of the various soil surveys in these regions have been published.
The chief feature of the soils of southern Florida is the \ great abundance of the bog soils of which there are a number of types. A profile showing some of these and the sampler used for getting them are shown in figures 22 and 23. The Everglades and Brighton peats, derived mostly from the dense growth of saw-grass, cover a total area of about 1,750,000 acres most of which are in the Everglades and the Istokpoga marshes. In the Everglades this peat varies in depth from over 8 feet to a few inches and averages about 4 feet deep. Other Everglades and adjacent region bog soils are; (1) the Loxahatchee peat which develops in the most flooded parts of the Everglades where water covers the surface most of the time and succulent aquatic plants grow and contribute their parts to this loose textured peat; (2) the Okeechobee muck developed from the rank growth of the custard-apple and some other swamp trees in a belt around the southern shore of Lake Okeechobee, and one of the most fertile soils in Florida; (3) the Okeelanta peaty-muck derived mainly from the growth of willows and elderberry bushes growing with saw-grass and forming a zone between the custard-apple Okeechobee muck and the saw-grass Everglades peat; (4) a reddish, fibrous, woody peat, the Gandy peat, which occurs in many of the bay-heads of the Everglades and some other marsh regions; and (5) a similar but more acid woody peat, the Istokpoga peat, of the bay-galls in the Lake Istokpoga


49 Davis, John H., op. cit, pp. 387-394.
region. There are also various peats and mucks in the many ponds and sloughs that are similar to these. Of these latter there are mucks in many pond marshes that have broad-leaved plants known as "flags," and mucks developed in the pop-ash ponds, but these organic soils and others of freshwater swamps have not been classified and named. The saltwater and brackish-water mangrove swamps and marshes have built up a number of marl, muck, and peat soils most of which are as yet unclassified. The author 111 recognized mangrove peats as being of two main types; (1) those derived mainly from the growth of red mangroves; and (2) those derived mainly from the growth of black mangroves and salt-marsh plants.
Besides the sand soils and organic soils there are a number of marl soils and a few soils derived from rock which are known as Lithosols. Of the rock soils the Rockdale series of soils of Dade County are derived from oolitic limestone. The best known of these are valuable for agriculture. The marl soils are very varied. Some of them are sediments washed in from the sea and deposited on the shore, as the Flamingo marl of the Cape Sable area, while others are freshwater marls developing over the rocklands by the agency of calcareous algae. Both of these types of marls may be mixed with various quantities of organic materials or sands forming marly mucks, or sandy marls. One of these latter is the Perrine marl that covers large areas of the Southern Coast region and is a very valuable agricultural soil near Homestead. The Ochopee and Tucker marls are common along the Southwest Coast and into the interior of the Big Cypress region, and a Tamiami marly muck occurs in the southern part of the Everglades.
From the above it may be seen that over twenty soil types have been at least temporarily recognized in southern Florida. A detailed description of each of these types is impractical here. But to characterize a few of them that will illustrate common characteristics of most of them nine have been selected and their main characteristics are given in the following outline, and some profiles are given in figure 24.


(1) St. Lucie fine sand. A dry sand. Surface 2 to 5 inches of grayish white incoherent fine sand containing a minute quantity of decomposed woody fragments. This is underlain by pure white incoherent fine sand to great depths. These soils are of extremely low organic and mineral nutrient content. The Lakewood fine sand is much like the St. Lucie, differing mainly in the presence of a yellow subsoil starting at 24 to 36 inches below the surface.
(2) Immokalee fine sand. A ground-water podzol. Light gray to medium gray fine sand 6 to 8 inches underlain by very light gray to white splotched fine sand, with a dark brown organic stained layer 4 to 6 inches thick at 26 to 46 inches, but this layer is not a "hardpan." Below this stained layer is brownish or yellowish fine sand grading into white sand. The Leon fine sand, with which this Immokalee was formerly classified has a more definite "hardpan" usually much nearer the surface than the stained-layer of the Immokalee soil.
(3) Arzell fine sand. A half-bog soil. Almost pure white incoherent fine sand in very poorly drained areas usually light gray to a depth of 3 or 4 inches and often with an organic scum layer on the surface or a thin top layer of muck. The Plummer fine sand is similar but with organic matter and darker color at the surface grading into white incoherent sands much like the Arzell. The Charlotte fine sand is similar to Plummer but with a bright yellow ("ochrus") subsoil.
(4) Broward fine sand. A half bog-soil with calcareous substratum. Gray to medium gray and occasionally brownish fine sands resting on limestone, and often shallow. The upper layer is underlain by white splotched, streaked and sometimes yellow sand. There may be a thin clay layer over the limestone. Matmon fine sand and fine sandy loam are similar but are better drained with a predominantly brown profile. The Keri fine sand is similar to Broward but with marl subsoil.
(5) Sunniland loamy fine sand. A half-bog soil with calcareous substratum. Medium gray loamy fine sand 8 to 10 inches succeeded by very light gray slightly splotched fine sand often yellowish, underlain by a mottled calcareous clay.
(6) Parkwood loamy fine sand. A half-bog soil with a marl substratum. Surface to 2 to 5 inches of partly decomposed organic matter underlain by dark gray to gray loamy fine sand averaging about 6 inches deep, succeeded by brownish gray fine sand resting on marl or rock. Many types and thicknesses. Manatee loamy fine sand similar, but of heavier texture, and with a cream colored marl substrata.
(7) Ochopee marl and Ochopee marly fine sand. A marly sand or marly muck. Steel gray marl to sandy marl underlain by incoherent fine sand streaked with yellow and reddish brown, often overlying limestone or calcareous sandstone and of various depths, some very shallow. Often mucky and when dry of a very light gray color. Tucker marl is similar but has less sand and more clay.
(8) Everglades peat. A bog soil. A heavy peat close in texture and greasy to the touch when wet. Top few inches, especially when dry, black to dark brown loose fibrous to granular, downward becoming


IMMOKALEE
FINE SAND
light to PARKWOOD
ucoiuvgkay LOAMY FINE SAND
BROWARD FINE SAND
light gray to white
splotched i' '
ARZELL
EZJOq I organic scum light *J
B
E X P L A N A T ION
OCHOPEE MARL
EVERGLADES PEAT
gray s tre4 xe d with yellow, incoherent
PLASTIC AND FINE* FIBROUS
limestone or white incoherent g- \ sand
MA co A use fibrous
lake flirt marl
Organic matter p with sand U
increase in wid'h of line indicates increase in ratio of organic ma t ten
Marl
m
VERTICAL SCALE
Cloy
A Average high water level
B Average low water level
r- 0 I i- 3
fort Thompson limestone
inches from surface indicated to left of each profile
Figure 24. Soil profile diagrams showing their relation to water conditions.
5445


browner and more fibrous, matted and mottled with a matrix of fine grained materials that increase in abundance with depth. Often at about 2 or 3 feet the peat is intermediate between fibrous and plastic. Layers of closely matted highly fibrous brown to straw colored materials alternating with layers of more plastic finer materials are the usual profile. Directly above the rock the plastic or fibrous peat often lies on a marl or sandy marl which is between the peat and the rock Everglades peat may overlie a shallow to deep layer of Loxahatchee peat which is lighter in color, spongy, soft, and felty and is derived from more succulent aquatic plants, figure 22. (Both these organic soils and others will be described more fully later together with their probable mode of development in the Everglades.)
(9) Okeechobee muck. A bog soil. On top usually black, granular, cloddy and lumpy with amorphous materials common, changing below to more fibrous browner materials which often overlie or intergrade into saw-grass Everglades peat. This muck is derived from the custard-apple swamps.
SOILS AND VEGETATION
The natural plant cover of these many soil types is directly influenced by the soil characteristics, water and drainage conditions of the soils, the soil reaction, and the mode of development of the soils, particularly the bog soils. For these, and a few other reasons, the types of vegetation in many instances are so closely related to the soil types that specific soil areas are covered by specific types of vegetation. The pattern of distribution of many of the types of vegetation is often closely similar to the pattern of soil type distribution, as is shown in figure 25 of the Immokalee area. There are few, if any other, large regions in the Southeastern United States where there are such intimate relations between the soil types and the kind of vegetation as occur here.
These correlations between soils and vegetation are not, however, completely intimate as regards an exact soil type and an exact type of vegetation; rather the relations are that of an allied group of soil types with a general type of vegetation. Thus, many of the widespread types of vegetation, such as those of the pine flatwoods and the dry prairies, characteristically grow upon three main sand soil types, namely; the Leon, Immokalee, and Plummer soils. It is possible to assign to each major type of vegetation a number of soil types with which the particular vegetation is commonly associated. Moreover, there are a number of very specific types of vegetation almost constantly associated with specific soils, and some


of the sub-types of variants of the more general types of vegetation are also closely related to specific soils. After extensive field studies of the vegetation and soils upon which certain types occur the relations between most of these were determined, and they are given in outline in table 1.
TABLE 1
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VEGETATION AND SOIL TYPES
General Type of Vegetation I. Pine Forests
A. Pine flatwoods with saw-palmetto and wire grasses common, many heath shrubs, few or no cabbage-palms.
B. Grassy pine flatwoods with few or no saw-palmetto, grasses and non-heath shrubs more common than in I-A.
C. Pine and cabbage-palm forests, with saw-palmetto and other shrubs very similar to I-A. Too sparse a growth of palms to be considered hammock forests.
D. Pine and low palm forests with sub-tropical shrubs and trees common, mostly south and southwest of Miami.
II. Pine and Oak Forests and Scrub
A. Scrub vegetation composed mainly of sand-pine, scrub-oaks, saw-palmetto, and a few grasses. Also some coastal dune thickets.
B. Sandhill or high pine forests with oaks common. Some with scrubby tree growth, grasses and saw-palmetto.
III. Hammock Forests
A. Hardwood and cabbage-palm hammock forests dominated by temperature zone trees, some are low hammocks or semi-swamps, many types.
B. Hardwood and palm hammock forests with many
Soil Types Commonly Associated
with this Particular Vegetation Mostly ground-water podzols, as the Leon and Immokalee fine sands, and in some places Broward and Dade fine sands.
Mostly half-bog soils, often poorly drained, as the Plummer, Arzell, and Charlotte fine sands, and occasionally Davie fine sand.
Mostly sand soils with calcareous substrata as Sunniland, Broward, Matmon, Keri, some Parkwood fine sands, and some Ochopee marl.
Miami oolite rocklands and Rockdale soils, some on Dade fine sand but not typical.
Characteristically deep, dry, well drained sands as the St. Lucie, Lakewood, Dade ,and undifferentiated dune sands.
Blanton fine sand, and in adjacent areas Norfolk fine sand, all well drained.
Prevailingly fine sands and fine sandy loams with calcareous substrata as the Palmdale, Parkwood, and Manatee soils.
Copeland and Manatee fine sands and fine sandy loams and Palm


trees and shrubs of tropical affinities. Numerous types.
IV. Swamp Forests
A. Including open cypress, bay tree forests, and mangrove swamps with a great variety of trees, some of the high swamps are like low hammocks.
B. Swamps dominated by tall cypress trees, cypress-heads, cypress-domes, etc.
C. Open cypress forests of intermediate sized cypress trees known as cypress "strands" and dwarfed cypress open forests of scrubby or "stumpy" cypress trees.
D. Bay-gall swamps, bay-heads, and many of the tree-islands in the Everglades.
E. Swamps dominated by one or a few characteristic trees.
1. Custard-apple swamps.
2. Willow and elderberry marshy swamps.
F. Salt and brackish-water swamps of mangrove trees and bushes.
V. Marshes
(The Everglades and many other poorly drained wet soil areas dominated by herbaceous plants many of which are sedges and rushes.)
A. Dense to medium dense saw-grass marshes of the Everglades and a few other marshes.
B. Medium dense to sparse saw-grass marshes often with wax-myrtle and bay trees associated.
C. Aquatic marshes of sloughs, ponds and lakes, some large areas in the Everglades.
D. Saw-grass with other sedges and grasses forming marshes. Some are dominated by needle-grasses, Eleocharis, common in the southern Everglades.
Beach sands, Flamingo marl, and the rockland solution holes, mounds, knolls, in Miami oolite, Tamiami sandstone, Key Largo limestone areas.
Several unclassified soils, many of them mucks and other organic soils. In this section there are many calcareous swamp soils as yet unclassified.
Plummer fine sand and other unclassified soils.
Arzell, Charlotte, and Plummer fine sands, Ochopee and Perrine marls, and some rocklands.
Plummer fine sands, Gandy and Istokpoga peats, and other bog soils.
Okeechobee muck. Okeelanta peaty-muck.
A variety of peats, mucks, and marls, nearly all unclassified.
Deep to medium deep Everglades peat usually over marl and limestone.
Medium deep to shallow Everglades peat over marl and limestone, or sand. Brighton peat and other peats or mucks usually over sand.
Loxahatchee peat and other unclassified peats derived from succulent aquatic plants.
Mostly marls as Perrine, Ochopee, and other unclassified marls, also rocklands.


V. Marshes(continued)
E. Flatwoods ponds and slough often dominated by aquatic plants.
F. Salty and brackish-water marshes.
VI. Prairies
(Treeless grasslands with short and tall grasses, but soils not wet enough to be marshlands, and usually with fewer sedges and aquatic plants than the marshes. Many prairies in Flatwoods regions.)
A. Saw-palmetto or flatwoods dry prairies, heath shrubs and wire-grasses common.
B. Short grass, seasonally wet, prairies with few or no saw-palmetto, a variety of grasses and herbs some are of the marsh type.
C. Tall, switch, or bunch-grass prairies, often as borders around ponds, some on marl soils and known as marl prairies.
D. Salt-flats and other coastal, saline soil prairies with characteristic sal t-loving plants.
Mostly unclassified, some saw-grass peats and other peats and mucks.
A variety of unclassified marls, mucks, and peats.
Ground-water podzols mostly the Leon and Immokalee fine sands, some half-bog soils as the Sunni-land and Broward fine sands. Prairie phases of Plummer, Arzell, Charlotte, and Broward fine sands, and some Davie fine and Clewis-ton fine sands.
Prairie phases of Plummer, Charlotte, and Arzell fine sands, some Davie and Clewiston fine sands, a number of marl soils as the Ochopee, Tucker, Perrine, Dania, and Flamingo marls and rocklands.
Many marls as the Flamingo, Perrine, and unclassified marls, also rocklands.
As may be seen from the table most soils characteristically support more than one type of vegetation having pineland phases or prairie phases, others have pineland, cypress, and prairie phases, while still others are low hammock or swamp soils. It is often practical, however, to consider one type of vegetation as the most characteristic of a certain type of soil. This has been done here because it enables both the botanist and the soil surveyor better to plot out the distribution of either the soils from the nature of the plant cover or express the type of soil in terms of its plant cover. For instance, the most widespread pine flatwoods soils are the Immokalee, Leon, and Plummer fine sands, and the most widespread wet-prairie or short grass prairie soils are the Arzell, Charlotte, Broward, Ochopee, and Plummer fine sands. Cypress phases of many prairie soils exist, and it is difficult to assign any


particular soil as being the most common low hammock type. Other factors such as drainage, fires, competition among the plants, logging operations, and soil depth to rock frequently have a great deal to do with the nature of the vegetational cover.
For the purpose of finding the most prevalent plant cover of some of the most widespread southern Florida soils many localities were visited and the lists of plants of each locality were compared. Thus, the relative abundance at each place of the most characteristic of the plants on a particular soil type were determined. The following list in table 2 is prepared from these observations and should prove useful to soil surveyors, farmers, and botanists. The plants given in the lists are a combination of those usually found most abundant on the particular soil together with some not necessarily abundant in any locality but occurring at nearly every locality where the soil is found. These latter are called the species of high constancy. The most abundant plants are usually the dominant or co-dominant species. Scientific names and some of the more often used common names are given to facilitate identification. A complete list of all the characteristic plants of some soils could not be given conveniently in this section of this paper for some of the soils, as for instance the tropical hammocks and pine flatwoods, support a very great variety of plants. Additional information about the characteristic plants and types of vegetation may be obtained from the much more extensive descriptions of the various types of vegetation to follow.
Only eight soils were selected for these lists. Each of these soils is closely related to other soils which often have nearly identical vegetation so that the plants of one particular soil may be found on other similar soils. The soils selected for this table represent most of the major groups of soils found here and from the entire list a general idea of the great range in vegetational relations may be gained. A very brief description of the vegetation prefaces each list. For a more detailed description see the Types of Vegetation.


TABLE 2
CHARACTERISTIC PLANTS ASSOCIATED WITH CERTAIN SOIL TYPES
* Throughout this table scientific names in left column, common names in right column.
I. St. Lucie fine sand, and some Lakewood and Blanton fine sands. Typical Vegetation: Scrub forests and thickets with or without sand-pine, usually two or three species of scrub oaks, saw-palmetto, many other small trees and shrubs, only a few grasses and other herbs, lichens frequent on the gray or white sand. Very variable in kinds of plants as some areas have a number of species.
Scientific Name Common Name *
Generally Abundant
Pinus clausa (Engelm.) Vasey........................sand-pine
Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small........................saw-palmetto
Ceratiola ericoides Michx...................................rosemary
Quercus myrtifolia Willd...................................myrtle-oak
Quercus chapmani Sarg.....................................Chapman oak
Quercus virginiana geminata (Small) Sarg. scrub live-oak
Carya floridana Sarg.........................................scrub hickory
Garberia fruticosa (Nutt.) A. Gray................
Aristida gyrans Chapm.......................................poverty-grass
Rynchaspora dodocandra Baldw.......................beak-rush
Cladonia (3 species)............................................lichens
Some locally abundant plants
Bumelia lacuum Small........................................buckthorn
Per sea humilis Nash............................................dune-bay
Osmanthus americana (L.) B. & H.................wild-olive
Ilex cumulicola Small..........................................scrub-holly
Palafoxia feayi A. Gray......................................
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius Michx.................gopher-apple
Opuntia floridana Small....................................prickly-pear cactus
Chrysopsis floridana Small................................golden-aster
Seymeria pectinata Pursh.................................
Siphonychia diffusa Chapm...............................
Dentoceras myriophylla Small..........................wire-weed
Bulbostylis ciliatifolius (Ell.) Fernald............sedge
Juncus scirpoides Lam.......................................rush
Dicranum condensatum Hedw.........................moss
II. Immokalee fine sand, and some areas of Leon fine sand.
Typical Vegetation: Flatwoods pine forests or saw-palmetto Prairies, both long-leaf pine and swamp-pine in the forested areas, saw-palmetto, many heath and other shrubs, and numerous grasses in both the pineland and prairie areas. Wire-grass, broom-grass, and some carpet-grasses with many different species of herbs are common, and only a few are listed here.
Trees and Shrubs
Pinus elliotti Engelm...........................................swamp-pine
Pinus palustris Mill.............................................long-leaf pine
Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small........................saw-palmetto
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray....................................gallberry
Quercus pumila Walt.........................................running-oak
Lyonia nitida (Bartr.) Fernald........................fetter-bush
Lyonia fruticosa (G. S. Torr.) B. L.
Robinson ........................................................stagger-bush


Asimina reticulata Chapm.................................pawpaw
Hypericum aspalathoides Willd.......................low sand-weed
Pycnothamnus rigidus (Bartr.) Small............pennyroyal mint
Myrica cerifera L.................................................wax-myrtle
Grasses and Herbs
Aristida stricta Michx.......................................wire-grass
Aristida spiciformis Ell.....................................spike wire-grass
Andropogon virginicus L...................................broom-grass
Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv...............carpet grass
Chamaecrista brachiata Pollard......................partridge-pea
Sabattia elliotti Steud.........................................white marshpink
Buchnera floridana Gandoger..........................blueheart
Hyptis radiata Willd...........................................tall mint
Drosera capillaris Poir.......................................sundew
Solidago chapmani T. & G.................................goldenrod
Liatris laxa Small................................................blazing-star
III. Arzell fine sand, and some other non-calcareous half-bog sands such as the Plummer and Charlotte fine sands. Typical Vegetation: Low lying, often flooded, grassy pine forests or prairies in or near the flatlands. Some areas with cypress, and some wet prairies with switch-grasses, or with water shrubs and aquatic herbs. Forested, prairie, cypress, and pond phases of most of these soils. A great variety of grasses and herbs.
Trees and Shrubs
Pinus ellioti Engelm...........................................swamp-pine
Taxodium ascendens Brongn.............................pond-cypress
Stillingia aquatica Chapm.................................corkwood
Hypericum fasciculatum Lam...........................tall sand-weed
Myrica cerifera L.................................................wax-myrtle
Cephalanthus occidentalis L.............................buttonbush
Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small........................saw-palmetto
Asimina reticulata Chapm.................................pawpaw
Grasses and Herbs
Aristida purpurascens Poir...............................three-awn grass
Aristida affinis (Schult.) Kunth......................poverty-grass
Aristida virgata Trin.........................................switch grass
Andropogon virginicus L...................................broom-grass
Andropogon hirtiflorus (Nees) Kunth............beard-grass
Paspalum ciliatifolium Michx...........................carpet-grass
Panicum hemitomon Schult...............................maiden-cane
Rynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray....horned-rush
Rynchospora fllifolia Torr.................................beak-rush
Dichromena colorata (L.) A. Hitchc.............white-top sedge
Websteria submersa (Sauv.) Britton..............thread-rush
Xyris elliotti Chapm...........................................yellow-eyed grass
Oxypolis filiformis (Walt.) Britton................water-carrot
Centella repanda (Pers.) Small........................half-penny
Hydrotrida caroliniana (Walt.) Small............scented-leaf
Pontederia lanceolata Nutt...............................pickeral-weed
Sagittaria lancifolia L.........................................arrow-head
Lachnocaulon anceps (Walt.) Morong............pipewort
Utricularia juncea Vahl.....................................small bladderwort
Flavaria linearis Lag.........................................yellow-top
Pluchea purpurascens (Sw.) DC.....................marsh-fleabane
Coreopsis lanceolata L.......................................tickweed


IV. Broward fine sand, and other calcareous subsoil, half-bog sands, such as Keri, Sunniland, and Matmon.
Typical Vegetation: Pine and cabbage-palm foresis, saw-palmetto usually present in dense groups. Grasses and herbs common in some areas. Some areas without trees like saw-palmetto prairies. Pine, cypress, and prairie phases of these soils.
Trees and Shrubs
Pinus caribaea Morelet.........................
Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Todd..............
Taxodium ascendens Brongn................
Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small...........
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray.......................
Lyonia nitida (Bartr.) Fernald...........
Lyonia fruticosa (G. S. Torr.) B. L.
Robinson ...........................................
Vaccinium myrsinites Lam..................
Pycnothymus rigidus (Bartr.) Small.
Jacquemontia curtissi Peter................
Myrica cerifera L....................................
Quercus virginiana Mill........................
Rhus copallina leucantha (Jacq.) DC
Grasses and Herbs
Aristida spiciformis Ell.....................................spike wire-grass
Aristida patula Chapm.......................................switch-grass
Andropogon elliotti Chapm...............................beard-grass
Blyonurus tripsacoides H. & B.........................roll-tail grass
Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin.............pink muhly-grass
Paspalum monostachyum Vasey......................
Panicum erectifolium Nash................................panic-grass
Panicum lancearum Trin...................................panic-grass
Sorghastrum secundum (Ell.) Nash..............plume-grass
Mariscus jamaicensis (Crantz.) Britton........saw-grass
Rynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray....horned-rush
Rynchospora torreyana A. Gray......................Torrey's beak-rush
Fuirena breviseta Coville..................................umbrella-grass
Eriocaulon raveneli Chapm.............................button-rod
Eupatorium recurvans Small............................
Eupatorium mikanioides Chapm.....................
Solidago fistulosa Mill.........................................goldenrod
Chaptalia tomentosa Vent.................................pineland daisy
Riedlea hirsuta (Cav.) DC...............................
Hyptis radiata Willd...........................................tall mint
V. Ochopee marl, and some other marl or marly muck soils such as the Tucker and Perrine marls.
Typical Vegetation: Prairies or marshes of short to tall grasses, sedges, and rushes, soils usually wet and often shallow, or rocklands. Some areas have open cypress and bay forests.
Generally Abundant
Taxodium ascendens Brongn.............................pond-cypress
Myrica cerifera L.................................................wax-myrtle
Aristida virgata Trin.........................................switch-grass
Aristida affinis (Schult.) Kunth....................poverty-grass
Aristida patula Chapm.....................................switch-grass
Spartina bakeri Merr.........................................bunch switch-grass
Phragmites communis Trin...............................common-reed
Maricus jamaicensis (Crantz.) Britt...............saw-grass
Rynchospora torreyana A. Gray......................Torrey's beak-rush
slash-pine
cabbage-palm
pond-cypress
saw-palmetto
gallberry
fetter-bush
stagger-bush blueberry pennyroyal mint woods morning-glory wax-myrtle live-oak
Southern sumac


Rynchospora tracyi Britt.................................Tracy's beak-rush
Eleocharis cellulosa Torr...................................needle-grass
Schoenus nigricans L.........................................black-sedge
Crinum americanum L.......................................swamp-lily
Oxypolis filiformis (Walt.) Britton................water-carrot
Lobelia glandulosa Walt.....................................lobelia
Stillingia aquatica Chapm...............................corkwood
Helenium nuttalli A. Gray................................~neezeweed
VI. Everglades peat, and some of the related bog soils of many marsh areas such as Loxahatchee and Brighton peats. Typical Vegetation: Marshes varying from a dense growth of saw-grass and other sedges with grasses, rushes, ferns, and other herbs to open water aquatic vegetation, or to wax-myrtle thickets and bay and hammock forest.
Generally Abundant
Mariscus jamaicensis (Crantz.) Britton........saw-grass
Sagittaria lancifolia L.........................................arrow-head
Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunth........................arum
Panicum hemitomon Schult.............................maiden-cane
Dryopteris thelypteris (L.) A. Gray..............marsji-fern
Typha latifolia L.................................................cat-tail
Phragmites communis Trin...............................common-reed
Nymphaea odorata Ait.......................................white water-lily
Pontederia lanceolata Nutt...............................pickeral-weed
Crinum americanum L.......................................swamp-lily
Utricularia foliosa L...........................................large bladder-wort
Panicum paludivagum H. & C........................slough-grass
Polygonum acre H. B. K.....................................swartweed
Pluchea purpurascens (Sw.) DC.....................marsh-fleabane
Myrica cerifera L.................................................wax-myrtle
VII. Unclassified swamp soils, some half-bog and some bog soils, similar to Portsmouth fine sands of other sections.
Typical Vegetation: Mixed fresh-water swamp forests with bald-cypress usually present and many hardwood trees. Some swamps dominated by cypress or bay trees, other dominated by custard-apple or pop-ash, or willow. Ferns usually abundant. Some swamps like low hammocks with cabbage-palms.
Trees and Shrubs
Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Rich..............bald-cypress
Acer rubrum L.....................................................red-maple
Quercus laurifolia Michx...................................laurel-oak
Salix amphibia Small..........................................willow
Nyssa sylvatica biflora (Walt.) Sarg.............swamp black-gum
Annona glabra L.................................................custard-apple
Fraxinus caroliniana Mill.................................pop-ash
Persea borbonia (L.) Pax.................................red-bay
Magnolia virginiana L.......................................sweet-bay
Ilex cassine L.......................................................dahoon holly
Myrica cerifera L.................................................wax-myrtle
Chrysobalanus icaco L.......................................cocoa-plum
Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Todd...........................cabbage-palm
Cephanlanthus occidentalis L...........................buttonbush
Ferns and Herbs
Dryopteris normalis C. Chr...............................wood-fern
Blechnum serrulatum L. C. Rich....................swamp-fern
Osmunda cinnamomea L...................................cinnamon-fern
Saururus cernuus L.............................................lizard's-tail
Tillandsia utriculata L.......................................air-plant


VIII. Parkwood loamy sand, and a great variety of sands, loams, and even rocklands that support hammock vegetation. Some of these soils are the Harker, Manatee, and Rockdale.
Typical Vegetation: Temperate to sub-tropical hammock forests of palms and many broad-leaved evergreen trees in thick stands. Many shrubs, vines, ferns, and epiphytes are usually present.
Trees and Shrubs
Salbal palmetto (Walt.) Todd.........................gumbo limDo
Quercus virginiana Mill....................................cabbage-palm
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.............................mastic
Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq.......................live-oak
Ficus aurea Nutt.................................................strangler-fig
Lysiloma bahamensis Benth.............................wild-tamarind
Roystonea regia (H. B. D.) O. F. Cook........royal-palm
Ocotea catesbyana (Michx.) Sarg...................lancewood
Eugenia dicrana Berg.........................................naked-wood
Ximenia americana L.........................................hog-plum
Coccolobis laurifolia Jacq.................................pigeon-plum
Ardisia escallanioides Cham. & Schlecht......marlberry
Zanthoxylum fagara (L.) Sarg.......................wild-lime
Psychotria nervosa Sw.......................................wild-coffee
Hamelia patens Jacq...........................................hamelia
Callicarpa americana L.....................................beauty-berry
Vitis munsoniana Simpson................................bullace-grape
Berchemia scandens (Hill) Trelease..............rattan vine
Ferns and Herbs
Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott.....................wild Boston-fern
Dryopteris normalis C. Chr...............................woods-fern
Polypodium heterphyllum L.............................vine-fern
Tillandsia fasciculata Sw.................................air-plant
Epidendrum tampense Lindl.............................common orchid
IMMOKALEE AREA
To illustrate the close correlations between soil types and types of vegetation an area around the town of Immokalee in northern Collier County was chosen and is shown in figure 25. This area is part of the region surveyed by the U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in their preparation of a soil type map of this county. The vegetation of the soil types was determined by the author. The map displays the manner in which certain types of vegetation, such as pine flatwoods or prairies, cover certain soil types. Moreover, the soil types are related to the topography.
In and near the town of Immokalee are two of the dry, well drained, deep soils, the St. Lucie and Blanton fine sands. These soils are at higher levels (mostly above 35 feet elevation) than the soils around them the two forming low ridges or knolls, the St. Lucie fine sands forming the highest