Corals from the Chipola and Jackson Bluff Formations of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 53)


Material Information

Corals from the Chipola and Jackson Bluff Formations of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 53)
Series Title:
Geological bulletin - Florida Bureau of Geology ; no. 53
Physical Description:
v, 100 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Weisbord, Norman Edward
unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
State of Florida, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Corals, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Miocene   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida -- Calhoun Co   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida -- Leon Co   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 93-100.
General Note:
"... in cooperation with the Department of Geology, Florida State University."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Norman E. Weisbord.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1844
notis - AED9173
alephbibnum - 000843186
oclc - 00960040
lccn - 73623534
System ID:

Table of Contents
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Full Text


Robert O. Vernon, Chief





Norman E. Weisbord
Department of Geology, Florida State University

in cooperation with the




INTRODUCTION ........... ....... ..... ...... ....... 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................... ................. 2

CHIPOLA FORMATION ............ .................... 3

Coral species ........... .. . ........................ 3

Collection localities and geologic notes ................... ...... 3

Stratigraphic notes .......... ..... . ................ 6

Age of the Chipola Formation .............................. 7

JACKSON BLUFF FORMATION ............... .. .............. .. 9

Coral species ..... .... . ................. .. ........... 9

Type locality ..... .... ............ ........ .......... 9

Geologic section at Jackson Bluff ................... ........ 9

Age of the Jackson Bluff Formation ................... ...... 11

DESCRIPTION OF CHIPOLA CORALS ............ ..... ....... . 13


PLATES .............. ...................... ..........61

REFERENCES ................... ........... ............ 93

INDEX .................................... ........ 101



Secretary of State


Commissioner of Education

Attorney General


Commissioner of Agriculture

Executive Director


Bureau of Geology
November 1, 1971

Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Dear Governor Askew:

The Bureau of Geology, under the Division of Interior, Department of Natural
Resources, is directed by Chapter 373 of the Florida Statutes to publish data
which the Bureau gathers in the various studies that it undertakes from time to

We are indeed pleased and privileged to have participated in a study with the
Department of Geology of the Florida State University through Professor
Norman-E. Weisbord.

Professor Weisbord is a recognized international authority on corals and under-
took a study of the corals which we had in our collection and he supplemented
them with his own collection to develop a very comprehensive knowledge of
these animals which make up so much of the matrix of some of these for-

The determinations of these species, together with the itemization of the loca-
tion from which the remains of the animals come, will be extremely helpful to
scientists visiting Florida and also to our own students.

We are publishing the paper as Geology Bulletin No. 53, and it is entitled,
"Corals From The Chipola And Jackson Bluff Formations Of Florida".

Respectfully yours,

R. O. Vernon, Chief

Completed manuscript received
May 31, 1971

Published for
Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
Designers Press of Orlando, Inc.




Norman E. Weisbord
Department of Geology, Florida State University


For the last several years the author has been engaged in a study
of the Neogene corals of Florida, primarily of specimens contained in
the collections at Florida State University and the Florida Bureau of
Geology. This particular contribution deals with the corals occurring
in the Chipola Formation of Calhoun County and the Jackson Bluff
Formation of Leon County, the type localities of which are 30 miles
apart. These formations are richly fossiliferous, particularly in Mol-
lusca and Foraminiferida, but other hierarchies are also represented,
among them the stony corals of the order Scleractinia. In our collec-
tions there are 13 species of corals from the Chipola Formation, of
which 7 have not been previously recognized, and 7 from the Jack-
son Bluff Formation, of which 4 seem to be new.
In my visits to the U. S. National Museum and the Academy of
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for the purpose of examining types
and comparing specimens, I noted several Chipola species with names
given them by the late Thomas Wayland Vaughan in his own hand-
writing. Unable to trace the source of these taxa in the literature I
inquired of Dr. Donald F. Squires, formerly with the U. S. National
Museum, who wrote that many species were described by Vaughan in
a manuscript which remains unpublished to this day. "There are also
in the collections of the USNM a whole series of Vaughan's manu-
script types. In specific reference to Chipola I believe that you will
find that the manuscript deals with all of the Gulf Coast corals from
the Eocene upwards. This was intended, I would guess as an adden-
dum to his 1899 work and as I mentioned above a more detailed
statement than his compilation in the Canal Zone paper. Therefore
the Chipola corals are undoubtedly covered in it." I have not seen
the Vaughan manuscript, but in deference to, and respect for the
then dean of American corals, the names given by Vaughan are re-
tained in this work where they are applicable.
Except for the papers of Dr. John W. Wells of Cornell Univer-
sity, little has been written on the Tertiary corals of Florida since the
days of Gane and Vaughan, and it is in an attempt to fill the void
that the present writer ventures to submit this effort.


The types and other specimens illustrated in this work are pres-
ently filed in the Department of Geology, Florida State University.
Duplicate material is to be deposited in the Florida Bureau of Geolo-
gy, also on the FSU campus in Tallahassee.


Particularly helpful to me in the pursuance of this study was the
comparing of the Florida corals with the corals contained in the
collection at the U. S. National Museum, and I am indebted to Dr.
David L. Pawson of the Museum for placing the collection complete-
ly at my disposal, and for providing the literature I needed during my
stay there. Numerous references to the corals in the USNM collection
are made in this work. Similarly I wish to express my thanks to Dr.
Horace G. Richards and Dr. Ray Givens for facilitating my compara-
tive studies at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. To
geologists Noel Andress, Joseph E. Banks, Paul F. Huddlestun,
Harbans S. Puri, Frank Stapor, Mike Strong, Vernon A. Taylor,
Steven R. Windham, Charles Woolheater, and others who have do-
nated corals and contributed valuable stratigraphic data, I express my
sincere appreciation. I wish especially to thank the Chief Geologist of
the Florida Bureau of Geology, Dr. Robert O. Vernon, not only for
his considerable interest in the coral project but also for enlisting the
support of the Bureau in providing the photographs and approving
the publication of this report in the Geological Bulletin series. The
photographs were taken and processed by Gerrit Mulders of Tal-



The species of Chipola corals described in the present paper are
the following:
Stylocoenia cf. C. pumpellyi (Vaughan)
Stephanocoenia ? decaseptata, new species
Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan
Stylophora undata, new species
Goniopora calhounensis, new species
Porites chipolanum, new species
Thysanus vaughani, new species
Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus)
Montastrea cf. M. costata (Duncan)
Antiguastrea cf. A. cellulosa silicensis Vaughan
Antillophyllia chipolana, new name
Astrangia calhounensis, new species
Flabellum chipolanum, new species


The outcrops from which the above-listed corals were obtained
are in the Chipola River or tributaries thereto, in Calhoun County,
Florida. The designation CH refers to the Florida State University
collection from the Chipola Formation.
CH1. North bank of Tenmile Creek below bridge on Florida
state road 73 (Clarksville to Marianna) 4.7 miles north of
Clarksville, on the line between Sections 11 and 12, T 1 N,
R 10 W. "In 1914, there was a 12-foot exposure of fossil-
iferous calcareous sand. The lower part was bluish-gray to
yellowish and contained beautifully preserved marine
shells. The upper part consisted of light-gray to white mi-
caceous, argillaceous sand like that in the corresponding
position at Alum Bluff. The fossils in it were preserved
only as impressions. When revisited in 1921 and 1922 the
upper half was covered by Recent sand." (Cooke, 1945,p.
When Woolheater and I visited the same locality on
26 December 1969, some two feet or so of the fine bluish-
gray fossiliferous sand were exposed above the water line
of the creek, and the sand overlain by a mottled brown
and gray silty clay about six feet in thickness, and the clay


in turn covered by reworked material. Along the south side
of Tenmile Creek from the bridge downstream there is a
high escarpment so steep and overgrown that it is difficult
of access.
CH2. In Tenmile Creek about 700 feet downstream from
bridge on Florida state road 73, W /2 Sec. 12, T 1 N
R 10 W. The exposure is at the first major curve below the
bridge in a small but sharp V-shaped bend of the north
bank. Exposed is a foot or two of the same bluish-gray
fossiliferous sand grading upward into a few feet of gray
and tan silty clay which is also fossiliferous. On 5 May
1957, Dr. Lyman D. Toulmin and I collected numerous
fossils in the field north of the creek, near CH2.
CH3. In Tenmile Creek about one mile southeast of the bridge
on Florida state road 73, SE 1 SE 1 Sec. 12, T 1 N,
R 10 W. The outcrop in the Creek is directly under the
high, power transmission lines and consists of about four
feet of fine weathered brown fossiliferious sand lying on a
weathered limestone just below the water level. This site
was found by Charles Woolheater in the summer of 1967.
CH4. West bank of Chipola River, mile downstream from the
mouth of Tenmile Creek, NW 4 SW / Sec. 17, T 1 N,
R 9 W (Clarksville Quadrangle), Calhoun County, Florida.
CH4 is probably the same as station 2564 of the U.S.
Geological Survey and 1-1228 of the Florida Bureau of
This is the type locality of the Chipola Formation.
When visited 24 May 1970 by Noel Andress, Paul F. Hud-
dlestun, and the writer, the Chipola River was very low,
and the section exposed corresponded to that described by
Cooke (1945, p. 163) as follows: "About 10 feet of fine
blue-gray to yellow sand, loaded with firm, perfectly pre-
served shells, crop out in the bank of the river and is
turned up by the plow in nearby fields. The shell marl lies
directly on yellowish sandy Tampa limestone which is visi-
ble only at low water. The first collector to visit this place
was Frank Burns (1889) who described the relationship as
apparently conformable."
The upper surface of the Tampa Limestone at CH4 is
somewhat irregular due in part to corrosion and solution,
and although the Chipola does indeed seem to be generally
conformable on the Tampa, the true relationship is proba-


bly one of slight, but significant unconformity. The ex-
posed thickness of the Tampa was only about 2 feet when
we were there, but the Limestone was seen below water
for perhaps as much as 10 feet or so to the bed qf the
river. The top of the Tampa Limestone (the limestone is
dolomitic and dips gently to the south) disappears below
water level a short distance downstream from CH4 and was
not observed on the banks beneath the power transmission
lines crossing the Chipola River some 850 feet or so down-
stream from CH4. The Tampa Limestone disappears below
the bed of the Chipola River about 1/ of a mile down-
stream from the power lines.
CH5. East bank of Chipola River about 900 feet upstream from
the mouth of Fourmile Creek (west side of the Chipola
River), SW 1 Sec. 29, T 1 N, R 9 W. Exposed here are
about 2 feet of soft, light tan, highly fossiliferous sand-
stone. The matrix is a shell hash mixed with quartz grains.
The outcrop continues along the river bank for a short
distance and can be seen under water; above it is obscured
by a considerable height of overburden. Collections were
made at the locality on 23 April 1969 by Frank Stapor,
Charles Woolheater, and the writer.
CH6. In Farley Creek under bridge on Florida state road 275,
about .2 of a mile north of Red Oak church, Calhoun
County, SW 1 Sec. 21, T 1 N, R 9 W. Collectors Paul F.
Huddlestun and Norman E. Weisbord, 18 April 1970. The
bed of the creek is made up of highly fossiliferous calcar-
eous sand.
CH7. In Farley Creek about 350 feet downstream from bridge.
Light tan to whitish highly fossiliferous calcareous sand.
CH8. In Farley Creek about 1500 feet downstream from
bridge. Light tan to whitish highly fossiliferous calcareous
1-1228. This is the acquisition number of the Florida Bureau of
Geology, the locality of which is given as follows: "Chip-
ola Marl, Miocene. McClelland Farm, 1 mile below Bailey
Ferry, Chipola River, Calhoun County. Collected by
Cooke and Mossom 8/14/26." This locality is the same as
or very close to our CH4 and to the U.S. Geological Survey
stations 2213,2564, and 3419 which are given in Gardner
(1926-1950) as "1 mile below Baileys Ferry, Chipola
River, Calhoun County, Fla."


There has been some confusion about the location of
Bailey's Ferry, and some references to it as a landmark
may be misleading. That it may well have been at the
mouth of Tenmile Creek is indicated in the following state-
ment by Dr. Emily H. Vokes (1965, p. 205). "Bailey's
Ferry, a classic locality in the geological literature was lo-
cated at the mouth of Ten Mile Creek where a hard bed of
the Tampa Limestone, which underlies the Chipola, is ex-
posed just at river level. Here it was possible to drive a
wagon down to the river without sinking up to the axles in
Chipola mud. The cuts for the ferry approach are still
visible, although overgrown."
FLX. Specimens prefixed by the letters FLX were found with-
out labels in the Florida State University collections, and
their localities, other than in the state of Florida are not
known. It is not unlikely, however, that some of the FLX
specimens were collected from the Chipola Formation, and
if there is indirect evidence to support the assumption, it is
so indicated in the text.


The Chipola Formation at the type locality in the Chipola River
lies disconformably on a hard dolomitic limestone believed to be the
Tampa. The contact, or base of the Chipola has an elevation of
approximately 30 feet above sea level. The lower part of the Chipola
Formation consists of soft, in places bluish-gray, but generally yel-
lowish or whitish calcareous sand which is highly fossiliferous. Within
this interval of the lower Chipola there is a foot or two of moderate-
ly coarse, compact flaggy sandstone which is exposed on the east
bank of the Chipola River at the bend about a half mile upstream
from the mouth of Farley Creek and at the sharp "U" bend in the
River about a half mile below the mouth of Farley Creek. The upper
part of the Chipola Formation as revealed in Tenmile Creek below
the bridge on Florida state road 73 consists of fine bluish-gray to
yellowish sand containing well preserved marine shells, many of them
delicate and retaining the original color pattern, grading above into
light gray to white sand with shell impressions, the whole section
about 12 feet thick. The top of the Chipola here has an elevation of
about 60 feet, so that based on map elevations the total thickness of
the exposed Chipola is only 30 feet or so. Down dip the section
thickens, and according to Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 103) "A


well drilled half a mile northwest of Clarksville, Calhoun County,
penetrated 70 feet (at a depth of 111-180 feet) of sandy fossiliferous
Chipola marl." A stratigraphic well drilled by the Florida Bureau of
Geology in Liberty County, 2 miles north of Bristol encountered 62
feet (from 76 to 137 feet) of fossiliferous Chipola according to Paul
F. Huddlestun (personal communication). The well was drilled in
Sec. 30, T 1 N, R 7 W, Bristol Quadrangle, at the southwest corner of
the dam in Kelley Branch at the base of a dark gray bluff.


The Chipola Formation today is generally considered to be late
Lower Miocene. The Chipola overlies, probably with unconformity,
the Tampa Limestone which is itself regarded as early Lower Mio-
cene. Overlying the Chipola is the Oak Grove Sand of Middle Mio-
cene age.
At the turn of the century the Chipola Formation was placed
by Dall (1880-1903) in the "Older Miocene" or Oligocene, but since
then the position of the Chipola has tended to move upward. The
history of the change in age concept is traced by E. H. Vokes (1965)
who herself suggests a Helvetian (early Middle Miocene age) for it.
Generally speaking the Mollusca, benthonic Foraminiferida, and cor-
als point to a late Oligocene-early Miocene age, whereas the plank-
tonic Foraminiferida and radiometric dating point to an early Middle
Miocene age. That there is a measure of logic in all of the not too
diverse age determinations is indicated in the following considera-
1. Influenced by Dall, Maury (1902) correlated the Chipola
(and Tampa) Formations with the upper Aquitanian stage
of Germany, Belgium, and France, and regarded the Aqui-
tanian as late Oligocene in age, relying principally on the
Mollusca and their position in type sections.
2. In their paper which deals with the molluscan fauna of
Mayer's Aquitanian stratotype section in southwest
France, Eames and Clarke (1967) list 397 species, of
which, according to a letter written to me by Eames, 27 to
31 (or 7 to 8 per cent) are found in the Recent fauna. This
means that 92 per cent of the Aquitanian mollusks are
extinct, and on this criterion the Aquitanian Stage might
well be considered Oligocene.
3. Of the 477 mollusks described from the Chipola Forma-
tion by Gardner (1926-1950) only 26 or 5 per cent are


living today. If one subscribes to Lyell's extinction theory
for subdividing the Tertiary, the Chipola should be Oligo-
4. Most of the Chipola corals described in this paper are close
to, and two or three are the same as those in the Emperad-
or Limestone of the Panama Canal Zone and the Antigua
Formation of Antigua. The Emperador is at the base of the
Miocene in the Canal Zone and the Antigua Formation is
5. Cushman and Ponton (1932) placed the Chipola in the
Lower Miocene on the basis of Foraminiferida, most of
them benthonic, some planktonic.
6. At this stage of his research, Paul F. Huddlestun (personal
communication) brackets the Chipola between Zones N 7
and N 9 in the biostratigraphic zonation of planktonic
Foraminiferida provided by Blow (1969); these Zones
comprise the Burdigalian and basal Langhian Stages (late
Lower Miocene to early Middle Miocene) of Europe.
7. Bender (1971) states that "Ten upper lower Miocene
[coral] samples from the Chipola formation (Fla.) give
concordant ages of 14-18 MYR." If the base of the Mio-
cene is 25 million years old as given in the Holmes scale,
the He/U radiometric age of Bender would put the Chipola
in the early Middle Miocene or late Lower Miocene.




The corals described herein from the Jackson Bluff Formation
are the following:
Astrangia leonensis, new species
Astrangia talquinensis, new species
Phyllangia blakei Wells
Septastrea marylandica (Conrad)
Oculina diffusa Lamarck
Oculina sarasotana new species
Paracyathus paughani Gane


The Jackson Bluff Formation is a local Florida name introduced
by the Florida Bureau of Geology for the isolated and richly fossil-
iferous deposit at the top of Jackson Bluff, a short distance south-
west of Talquin Dam in Leon County (see Puri and Vernon, 1964, p.
208). Jackson Bluff forms a nearly vertical scarp on the south bank
of the Ochlockonee River at the intersection of Sections 16, 20, and
21, T 1 S, R 4 W (Lake Talquin Quadrangle), a mile or so west of
Bloxham and about 24 miles by Florida state road 20 west of Talla-
hassee. The Formation has been dug into extensively for road metal
and fill, and at the river edge the contact with the underlying Haw-
thorn Formation has been laid bare. Although only exposed here and
there, the Jackson Bluff Formation extends southwest along the
south bank of the Ochlockonee River in a narrow swath from just
below the Talquin Dam for a distance of 700 meters (2310 feet) to
near the bridge on Florida state road 20.


The Jackson Bluff Formation at Jackson Bluff is a highly fossil-
iferous deposit with a maximum thickness of 16.5 feet (Cooke and
Mossom, 1929, p. 124) lying unconformably below barren Quater-
nary sand and lying disconformably on the Hawthorn Formation.
The following section at Jackson Bluff was measured a number of
years ago by my colleague Dr. Lyman D. Toulmin, and I am indebted
to him for providing me with the following, slightly modified, de-


scriptions of the two principal formations, the Jackson Bluff and the

Quaternary Feet
8. Loose, unfossiliferous, rather coarse sand and silt, in
places with slightly carbonized roots. . . . . . 2 15

Jackson Bluff Formation
Cancellaria Zone
7. Sand, light gray, medium-grained, quartz, packed
with shells of mollusks, small corals, barnacles ... 5+
Ecphora Zone
6. Marl (calcareous clay, greenish blue when damp),
weathered reddish brown, quartz granules, glauconite,
uneven-grained, packed with mollusk shells. ..... . 10+

Hawthorn Formation
5. Clay (Fuller's earth), greenish brown, shaly . .. 3
4. Sand, like bed 2. .................... 2
3. Clay (Fuller's earth), greenish brown, shaly, with sand. 3
2. Sand, light greenish gray, massive, fine- to medium-
grained, quartz, many fossil prints (mollusks) ..... 4
1. Limestone, grayish white, massive, very sandy (med-
ium-grained quartz), fossil prints. Contains at the top
very irregular solution-resistant masses of calcareous
sandstone up to 3 feet long, and 6 feet below the top
grades downward into sand, white, medium-grained,
quartz. The lower part of this sand is undercut by the
current, and consists of bright blue fine-grained quartz
with manatee rib bones. Below the blue sand is a shelf
of limestone, white, very sandy (coarse-grained, quartz),
rare Pecten prints. The lower limestone of bed 1 varies
in thickness with the sand.
Total exposed thickness of bed 1 to water level at low-
est stage of river .......... ........... 21



The Jackson Bluff Formation which includes the Ecphora and
Cancellaria faunizones (Puri, 1953) has generally been regarded as
late Miocene in age, a determination based largely on the mollusks,
benthonic foraminifers, and ostracods. Mansfield (1930, 1932) de-
scribed 192 species of mollusks from what is now called the Jackson
Bluff Formation: 80 gastropods, 5 scaphopods, and 107 bivalves. Of
the 80 gastropods, 16 are living today; of the 5 scaphopods, 1 is
living; and of the 107 bivalves or pelecypods, 20-22 are living. On
these figures, 20 per cent of the Jackson Bluff mollusks have survived
to the present, and by this standard a late Miocene age is a reasonable
determination. On the basis of the Foraminiferida, Cushman and
Ponton (1932) placed the Ecphora zone in the lower part of the
Upper Miocene and the Cancellaria zone in the upper part of the
Upper Miocene. On the basis of Foraminiferida and Ostracoda, Puri
(1953) also considered the Ecphora and Cancellaria faunizones to be
late Miocene in age.
The corals are not particularly diagnostic but seem to me to
bracket the age of the Jackson Bluff Formation between the late
Miocene and early Pliocene:
Astrangia leonensis, n. sp. resembles the Mio-Pliocene Astrangia
floridana Gane.
Astrangia talquinensis, n. sp. is close to the Recent Astrangia
costata Verrill from off the west coast of Panama and Baja
Phyllangia blakei Wells is endemic.
Septastrea marylandica (Conrad) and Pdracyathus vaughani
Gane are late Miocene species ranging from Virginia to
Oculina diffusa Lamarck-ranges from Mio-Pliocene to Recent.
Oculina sarasotana, n. sp. is reminiscent of Oculina robusta
Pourtales, a species living in Florida waters.

I am informed by Paul F. Huddlestun that the planktonic For-
aminiferida of the Jackson Bluff Formation seem to be equivalent to
those in Zone N 19 of the standard section proposed by Blow (1969,
pp. 254-257). According to Blow, Zone N 19 is in the Zanclian Stage
(Lower Pliocene) and is represented in Jamaica by the Bowden For-
mation at Buff Bay. Of the 485 named species of mollusks from the
type locality of the Bowden, 12 per cent or so are still living (Wood-


ring, 1928, p. 106) and on this ratio the Bowden was considered to
be late Middle Miocene to early Upper Miocene or several million
years older than the Jackson Bluff Formation. If the planktonic
forams of both the Jackson Bluff and Bowden Formations are equat-
ed with Zone N 19, and if Zone N 19 is indeed early Pliocene, it
would seem that the planktonic foraminifers indicate somewhat
younger ages than do the benthic mollusks.



Stylocoenia cf. S. pumpellyi (Vaughan) P1. 1, figs. 1-8
1900. Astrocoenia pumpellyi Vaughan, U. S. Geol. Sur.,
Mon. 39, p. 149, pl. 17, figs. 7, 7a.
1919. Stylocoenia ? pumpellyi (Vaughan), Vaughan, U. S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, No. 9, pp. 200, 205, 328, 351,
1925. Stylocoeniapumpellyi (Vaughan), Felix, Fossilium
Catalogus I. Animalia, pars. 28, p. 249.

This species is described from several branch-like fragments bro-
ken off from larger coralla. The branches are more or less cyclindri-
cal, rounded to compressed-oval in cross section, and cerioid. The
corallites are generally hexagonal in outline, joined directly by their
walls, and about 1.5 mm in diameter. The calices are circular to
subcircular, with an average diameter of 1.1 mm. The margins of the
calices are notably thickened, and are united to each other either
directly or by the coenosteum between them; the thickness of the
margin of the individual calice averages 0.12 mm. Normally the calic-
ular margins are coarsely beaded to nodulose although they are
smoothed down in most places due to weathering. Within, the walls
of the calice are nearly vertical, and the depth of the calicular cavity
in the best preserved example is about 0.6 mm.
There are six prominent primary septa which reach the columel-
la and six secondary septa which do not. The primaries are sturdily
laminar, thickened at the calicular margin, coarsely denticulate on
the free margin, and granulose to spiny on the sides. The secondary
septa are considerably reduced, protrude slightly from the wall and
are seen under high magnification to be built up in a narrow column
by a few spines or granules or tubules. The inner wall between the
septa is also microscopically spinose. The columella, arising from the
inner ends of the primary septa, is a low thickened boss with a
rounded or oval tip well below the level of the calicular margin, as
manifested in the unweathered calice. The endothecal dissipiments
are finely laminar and subregularly disposed, with perhaps four or
five of them in one millimeter of length.
Measurements Specimen FLX-7a: corallum length 16 mm,
width 11 mm, diameter or thickness 9 mm; diameter of average
corallite 1.4 mm, of average calice 1.15 mm. Specimen FLX-7b:
corallum length 16 mm, width 9.5 mm, diameter or thickness 11
mm; diameter of average corallite 1.57 mm, of calice 1.15 mm, depth


of calice to tip of columella 0.45 mm. Specimen FLX-7c: corallum
length 21 mm, width 10 mm, diameter or thickness 8 mm; diameter
of average corallite 1.3 mm, of calice 1.05 mm.
Localities and Formation The locality of the three FLX-7
specimens in the collection is not known. However, in view of the
occurrence of Stylocoenia cf. S. pumpellyi at locality CH8, it is
reasonably certain that the FLX-7 specimens are Chipola in age and
that they were collected in the Chipola River drainage area. Also
CH-8a, one specimen from the Chipola Formation in Farley Creek.
Remarks In his original description, Vaughan did not indicate
the presence of, or illustrate any intercorallite pillars on this species,
and as Astrocoenia is distinguished from Stylocoenia by lacking such
pillars, the Floridan form discussed herein is referred to the genus
Stylococenia. So far as comparison can be made between the type of
S. pumpellyi, which is not so well preserved as the FLX-7 specimens,
the Floridan form seems to be the same species or closely related to
it. The principal diagnostic characters of S. pumpellyi are the six
major and six minor septa and the styliform columella. (Most of the
species of Astrocoenia from the Middle Tertiary of the Americas
described by Vaughan have eight principal septa).
In his 1919 work, Vaughan (p. 351) stated that "This species
[Astrocoenia pumpellyi] seems to belong to the genus Stylocoenia,
as it has intercorallite pillars; but as some septa show dentations on
their margins, the original generic identification may be correct."
There may be a slight tendency for the granulations to bunch togeth-
er at the comers of the calicular margins but no true intercorallite
pillars are present on the FLX-7 examples.
Range and Distribution Stylocoenia pumpellyi (Vaughan) oc-
curs in the Chattachoochee Formation (Lower Miocene) of Georgia
in the Flint River below Bainbridge, and was also collected by
Vaughan in the Antigua Formation (Oligocene) of Antigua. The spe-
cies is recorded here for the first time from Florida, in the Chipola

Stephanocoenia ? decaseptata, new species Pl. 2, figs. 1-4
The single specimen available is a massive-ramose corallum, with
an irregularly swollen stock from which extends a short thick taper-
ing branch more or less oval in cross section. The corallum is cerioid,
the walls of the corallites tightly appressed. The calices are relatively
shallow, generally hexagonal or pentagonal in outline, but also quad-
rilateral here and there. The long diameter of the calices ranges from


2 mm to 3 mm. The calicular margins are low and nodulose. With
rare exceptions there are 10 well developed septa, all of them reach-
ing the columella. These septa are nearly equal in size, irregularly
denticulate along the free margin, and provided with projecting gran-
ulations or tubules on the sides. Around the columella, at the inner
end of each of the principal septa, there is a small paliform nodula-
tion. Intercalated between a few of the principal septa there may be
a minor process in the form of a column of spines protruding from
the wall, or rarely as a pseudolamina; more often than not, however,
the wall between the principal septa is smooth. The columella is
dense, thick, stubby and oval, the top not reaching the level of the
calicular margin. The endothecal dissepiments are delicate and undu-
latory, and there are about 6 of them in 5 mm of length within the
older part of the corallum.
Measurements Specimen FLX-9a: corallum length 36 mm,
width at base 24 mm, thickness at base 19 mm; long diameter of
average calice 2.7 mm, approximate depth 2.2 mm.
Locality and Formation As no label was found with the speci-
men in the Florida State University collection, neither the locality
nor formation is known. Judging from its general appearance, the
possibility that the specimen was originally collected from the Chip-
ola Formation in North Florida is not excluded.
Remarks This species is characterized by the cerioid corallum,
the 10 strong subequal septa each of which is provided with a pali-
form nodule just before the columella, the rather strongly denticu-
late septal margins, and the occurrence of pointed granules or tubules
on the sides of the septa. The genus Stephanocoenia is differentiated
from other genera of the subfamily Astrocoeniinae by possessing pali
before the first two cycles and for this reason the Floridan species is
referred to it rather than to Astrocoenia which, though lacking pali
does have a cerioid corallum and well marked dentations on the free
margins of the septa.
Comparison The Miocene to Recent Stephanocoenia inter-
septa (Esper) (see Vaughan, 1919, pp. 356-360) differs from S. deca-
septata n. sp. in having more numerous principal septa, subentire or
finely dentate septal margins, and short but prominent costae.

Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan P1. 2, figs. 5-7; P1. 3, figs. 1-5

1919. Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 103, No. 9, pp. 208, 209, 210, 228, 334, 335,
336, 338, 508, pl. 74, figs. 1-5.


1925. Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium
Catalogus I: Animalia, pars. 28, pp. 233, 234.
1926. Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan, Vaughan and Hoff-
meister, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. No. 344,
Papers Dept. Marine Biol., vol. 23, pp. 110, 111, 115,
116, pl. 1, figs. 5-7; pl. 2, fig. 1.
1927. Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium
Catalogus I: Animalia, pars. 35, p. 457.

The corallum is frondose to branching to massively ramose.
Large coralla are trifurcate, with three subparallel branches diverging
upward from the main trunk at a slight angle with it. The largest
corallum a broken one is 68 mm in length, the trunk (elliptical
in cross section) about 18 mm in greatest width, and the branches
(subcircular in cross section near the crotch) about 14 mm in diame-
ter. Specimen CH5-3a is frondose, some 44 mm in length, with a
flattish digitate or undulatory expansion arising from a trunk 9 mm
in diameter. The description which follows is based on this specimen
as it is unusually well preserved.
The calices are small, subequally distributed, and generally sepa-
rated on the adult corallum; on small branches, however, some of the
calices are arranged in regular rows or columns, with the calicular
margins abutting each other. On uncorroded specimens, the calices
are seen to be subcircular to suboval, slightly elevated; and with
rounded and heavily costate calicular margins. The coenosteum is
solid and finely granulose, the pointed granules or papillae either
slightly separated or merged, and disposed around each calice in
polygonal plan as a single file or ridge; generally this ridge forms a
common boundary between adjacent corallites, but in places the
polygons are a little separated. Between the ridges and the calicular
margins, where the height of the calice permits, there are scattered
granules, and on the calicular margin itself there is a single circlet of
strong elongated nodulations or pseudocostae.
There are 6 strong, laminar septa of the first cycle, their free
margins serrated and concave upward, their sides finely spinose. Nor-
mally there are 24 nodulations or costaee" on the rim of the calice,
the largest forming an exsert lobe which hooks over the calicular
margin and merges with each of the 6 primary septa. The higher
orders of septa are confined to the upper part of the calice and are
reduced to hardly visible laminae or spines. Notwithstanding there is
a fairly prominent costa for each septum however reduced, so that in
all there are three cycles of septa, each with its corresponding cycle


of nodulated costae. The main septa unite to produce an elongated,
pointed, and bladelike columella which is provided with minute
spines at the base. The calices are deep within, the walls vertical.
As the majority of specimens are weathered, the finer details of
ornamentation may not be visible. For example, the coenosteum of a
weathered corallum is often smooth and the corallites more widely
separated and worn down than they are on the well preserved coral-
lum. On one example the surface of the corallum is porous or cellular
and this is due to the solution of the granules and costae leaving the
surface pitted with holes arrayed in the same pattern as the original
Measurements Specimen CH5-3a: height of corallum 44 mm,
width of frond 27 mm, thickness of frond 5 mm, greatest diameter
of trunk 9 mm; diameters of average calice 1.3 mm X 1.2 mm,
elevation above surface 0.5 mm, depth 0.9 mm.
Locality and Formation CH5, east bank of Chipola River be-
tween the mouths of Fourmile Creek and Taylor Lake Branch, Chip-
ola Formation. Also FLX-1, location not known but most probably
from the Chipola Formation in the Chipola River region.
Remarks I have compared the Chipola form with the Trinidad
types of Stylophora imperatoris in the U. S. National Museum, and
can detect no significant differences. The granules on the coenos-
teum of CH5-3a are more pointed than on the specimen represented
by Vaughan and Hoffmeister (1926) on their Plate 1, figures 5 and
5a, but such pointed granules are present on the two Trinidad speci-
mens represented on Vaughan and Hoffmeister's Plate 1, figures 6
and 7. The pointedness or the roundness of the granules and the
prominence or subdued nature of the polygon structures in the inter-
corallite area seemingly depend on the state of preservation of the
Range and Distribution -Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan has
been reported by Vaughan from the Lower Miocene of the Panama
Canal Zone, Anguilla, and Trinidad.

Stylophora undata, new species P1. 4, figs. 1-4
The corallum is massive, undulatory to ridged, and probably
large when fully grown. The calices are small (1.5 mm), polygonal in
outline, generally contiguous and disposed in rows, the rows them-
selves abutting or separated; the polygonal outline of the calices is
not apparent on a fresh surface but clearly so on a weathered one.
The calices are circular to subcircular, of moderate depth, 1.0 mm to


1.3 mm in diameter; the margins of the calices are thickened, not
elevated, and rendered nodulose at the intercepts of the septa. There
are 12 septa in two cycles, the 6 primary ones much larger and more
fully developed than the 6 secondaries, although the latter are dis-
tinct. The primary septa extend to the columella, are provided with
arborescent denticles along the free margin, and bear elongated
spines and tubules on the sides. The secondary septa are similarly
denticulated but project only slightly from the wall. The columella
arises from the complex of denticles at the inner ends of the primary
septa, the base thickened, the tip small and rounded and not rising to
the level of the rim of the calice. The coenosteum is completely
tuberculated by small regular granules which where weathered appear
perforated or cellular. The endothecal dissepiments are finely lami-
nar, and there are about five of them to one millimeter.
Measurements Specimen FLX-2a: Corallum length 23 mm,
width 19.5 mm, height 14.5 mm; average diameter of corallite 1.5
mm, average diameter of calice 1.2 mm, depth of calice about 0.5
mm. Specimen FLX-2b: corallum length 62 mm, width 41 mm,
height 40 mm.
Locality and Formation The locality of the FLX-2 corals is
not known. However, from their general appearance and lithologic
character, it is suggested they were originally collected from the
Chipola Formation of North Florida.
Comparisons This coral resembles at least three species de-
scribed from the Emperador Limestone (Lower Miocene) of the Pan-
ama Canal Zone: Stylophora panamensis Vaughan (1919, pp. 335,
336, pl. 75, figs. 1, la); Stylophora macdonaldi Vaughan (1919, pp.
339, 340, pl. 75, figs. 5-7a); and Stylophora canalis Vaughan (1919,
pp. 341, 342, pl. 76, figs 2, 2a). It seems to differ from all three of
the foregoing in its slightly larger and more crowded calices with
many of them contiguous on S. undata but more widely separated in
the Canal Zone forms. The distribution of the calices is similar to
those of S. macdonaldi, but the form of the corallum of the type of
S. macdonaldi is branch-like whereas the corallum of S. undata is

Goniopora calhounensis, new species P1. 4, figs. 5, 6

This form is described from a number of fragments in the Flor-
ida State University collection and from a few specimens in the U. S.
National Museum and the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila-


delphia. All of the examples are weathered, porous, and light in
weight. The largest and most typical corallum seen was that in the
ANSP collection, No. 10933 from "near Bailey's Ferry, Chipola
River, Florida." This is a conical corallum, gently convex on top and
tapering below, with diameters of 90 mm X 40 mm above and a
height of 65 mm. From this it is inferred that the complete corallum
is broader than tall, somewhat tapering to the base, and massive in
The type specimen, CH3-3a, is a tabular segment broken off 9
mm below the well preserved surface. The calices are subcircular to
subpolygonal in outline, slightly to moderately sunken below the
collins separating them. The diameter of the calices between the
marginal summits ranges from 3.9 to 4.8 mm, or an average of 4.2
mm. The columellar tangle is large, flat on top, circular in outline, its
diameter about half that of the calice.
The normal number of septa is 24, although in some calices
there may be a few less, in others a few more. The septa are thin, and
all of them are nearly the same size; the free margin is coarsely
dentate, with four or five compound denticles in a millimeter of
length, and the sides are generously studded with conspicuous point-
ed granulations and tubules. At the inner ends of the septa there are
compound paliform lobes in three concentric rings around the col-
umella At the margin of some of the calices a minor septum or two
unites with a longer septum before the latter reaches the palar ring.
The columella is a circular trabecular tangle formed by the paliform
lobes, and there is no central tubercle in the center of it.
The intercorallite reticulum is highly porous and forms a low
colline between the calices where the wall separating the corallites is
Measurements Type (CH3-3a): Corallum length 27.5 mm,
width 21.5 mm, thickness 9 mm; diameter of largest calice between
calicular summits 4.8 mm.
Localities Type from Tenmile Creek, one mile southeast of
bridge on state road 73, Calhoun County, Florida. Chipola Forma-
tion. Collector Charles Woolheater, summer of 1967. The other local-
ities are "near Bailey's Ferry, Chipola River, Florida" and "Chipola
marl member of Alum Bluff formation, Chipola River, Florida."
Comparisons A distinguishing character, perhaps, of Goniopo-
ra calhounensis n. sp. is the relatively large size (4.2 mm average) of
the calices, for in none of the 13 species of Goniopora described by
Vaughan (1919, pp. 488-498) are the calices as large. However, a-


mong those 13 species is Goniopora jacobiana Vaughan (1919, pp.
492, 493) which G. calhounensis resembles in many respects, particu-
larly the form of G. jacobiana from the Alum Bluff Formation at
White Springs, Florida, illustrated on Vaughan's plate 144 under fig-
ures 2, 2a and 3. According to Vaughan, G. jacobiana does not have a
conspicuous palar crown whereas G. calhounensis does, and "appar-
ently a central tubercle was present in a number of calices" whereas
no such columellar tubercle is present on G. calhounensis n. sp.
In his discussion of Goniopora jacobiana, the type of which is
from the Miocene La Cruz Marl of Cuba, Vaughan wrote the follow-
ing: "There are two undescribed species of Goniopora that are near-
ly related to G. jacobiana. One of them is from the Chipola marl
member of the Alum Bluff formation, Chipola River, Florida. Its
calices are of the same size and its septa are as fragile as in G.
jacobiana, but the intercorallite reticulum is a more curly network in
which the radial skeletal elements are obscure or are less conspicuous
than in G. jacobiana. This difference in the reticulum seems to con-
stitute a valid specific distinction." The undescribed species from the
Chipola Marl Member mentioned by Vaughan is probably represen-
ted by the specimen in the U. S. National Museum labeled Goniopora
calhounensis Vaughan (No. 2213 USGS), and that, though consider-
ably more weathered than my CH3-3a, is identical with it and oc-
curs not far from the Tenmile Creek locality. Vaughan's taxon, Goni-
opora calhounensis, is a nomen nudum, not having been published,
but in deference to Dr. Vaughan the name is retained and the species
described and figured in this work. Goniopora jacobiana Vaughan
from White Springs, Columbia County, as represented in the U.S.
National Museum by specimen No. 6775 USGS, is stained a deep
reddish brown and is also considerably weathered. As stated by
Vaughan the White Springs G. jacobiana is close to G. calhounensis
though it seems to me the calices are deeper and somewhat smaller
than on the Tenmile Creek species. Furthermore, I am not altogether
satisfied that the White Springs G. jacobiana Vaughan is the same as
the type G. jacobiana Vaughan from Cuba. On the other hand, the
unlabeled specimen No. 10933 in the Academy of Natural Sciences
from near Bailey's Ferry, which I believe to be Goniopora calhoun-
ensis, is also close to the White Springs Goniopora jacobiana of
Vaughan though there is no evidence that "apparently a central tu-
bercle was present in a number of calices" as in the Cuban type of G.

Porites chipolanum, new species P1. 4, figs, 7, 8; pl. 5, figs 1, 2
The corallum is a massive, irregularly cylindrical and compress-


ed trunk, with a hummocky and broadly ridged surface, from which
there arises a smaller cylindrical branch, broken near the crotch. The
walls, the septa, and the basal plate of the calices are broadly perfor-
ate or fenestrate, imparting to the corallites in vertical section a
reticulate and echinulate appearance. The calices are polygonal in
outline, 1.1 mm to 1.7 mm in diameter, somewhat sunken, the walls
uniting them dense and thick, the calicular margins strongly nodu-
lated. Normally there are 12 septa in two cycles, the septa thick and
subequal, the sides with pointed and tubular granulations, the free
margins provided with up to three coarse denticulations and a few
minor ones. Just before the columella, a pair of septa are often
united, and at the union there is present a prominent arborescent
palus; generally there are five pali, rarely six, and they form a strong
palar ring around the columella. The columella itself is represented
by a directive lamrina from which is produced, depending on the stage
of development, a styliform columella, the apex of which is a com-
pressed and compound tubercle always lower than the pali. In longi-
tudinal section there are about 15 synapticulae in 5 mm of length,
the spaces between them larger than the horizontal rods of which the
synapticulae are composed; these rods are a little thinner in the
middle than at their ends. There are also about 15 vertical trabecular
columns in 5 mm of width, and traversing those at more or less
regular intervals are very thin, slightly wavy connective laminae,
about two of them in one millimeter of length.
Measurements Type (CH5a): corallum length 46 mm, width
31.5 mm, thickness 23 mm; length of main trunk 46 mm, maximum
width 27 mm, thickness 17 mm; length of branch 22 mm, maximum
diameter 10 mm.
Localities and Formation CH-3; CH-5; FLX-11. Chipola For-
Remarks Attached to the type specimen is a Spirorbis-like
annelid, and imbedded in the corallum is the bivalve Gastrochaena
rotunda Dall.

Comparisons This species is characterized by its relatively
small calices and large pali, by its prominent and ubiquitous perfora-
tions, and by the nodosity of the calicular margins. It partakes of the
Porites porites group in the development of its pali, and the Porites
astraeoides group in the hummocky surface of the corallum and the
perforate septa. It differs from the P. porites forms in having perfor-
ated septa, and from P. astraeoides Lamarck in having prominent
pali. The Chipola species, here named Porites chipolanum, is reminis-
cent of the Lower Miocene P. anguillensis Vaughan (1919, pp. 504,


505, pl. 149, figs. 1, la, lb;pl. 150, fig. 5) from the Anguilla Forma-
tion of Anguilla and Emperador Limestone of the Panama Canal
Zone. However, the calices of P. dnguillensis are shallower, more
circular, and larger than those of P. chipolanum, and there are usual-
ly six pali instead of five as in P. chipolanum.
Note Tentatively referred to Porites chipolanum, n. sp. is a
large weathered specimen, broken in two, the locality (FLX-11) of
which is not known but suspected to have been the Chipola Forma-
tion in or near the Chipola River. The corallum is massive and block-
like, with an undulatory surface and invaded by numerous organisms
like CH5-3a but whose calices are so corroded and porous that their
original structure is difficult to reconstruct. Nevertheless certain de-
tails noted here and there, such as the character of the columella, the
size and configurations of the calices, and the arrangement of the
synapticulae in longitudinal section are so similar to the type that it
may well be the same species despite the different form of the coral-
lum and obliteration of the thick nodular margin of the calices. The
larger of the two halves (FLX-1la) measures 98 mm in length, 73
mm in width, and 60 mm in height.

Thysanus vaughani, new species P1. 5, figs. 3-5; pl. 6, figs. 1-3
The two specimens from locality CH4 are small, worn, and
rather delicate. Imbedded along the columella of both specimens is
the gastropod Uzita, ventral side down, with the septa of the coral
grown against and over the Uzita. Also on both specimens of the
coral the base of the coralla has been invaded by a boring organism
leaving a deep cavity some 2 mm in diameter situated on the midline
of the base but away from the center, nearer one end where the
pedicel was located. The corallum is boat-shaped, with a broad un-
keeled slightly convex bottom, relatively high sides and rounded
ends, one end probably being a little more tapered than the other.
The pedicel, which has been bored into, is inferred to have been very
small and situated nearer the posterior end of the corallum. One side
of the paratype (CH4-lb) is offset and indented at the boring.
There are 44 alternating larger and smaller costae, correspond-
ing in number to the septa. The costae are well developed, dentate
along the crest, the dentations pointed and aligned in a single column
on the smaller costae, and pointed to transversely compressed on the
larger costae where there are often two columns of them. There is
some suggestion of a faint epithecal veneer on the base of the coral-


The septa are conterminous with the costae and occur in four
cycles, those of the first two cycles the larger and nearly equal in
size, the tertiary and quarternary septa much smaller but also nearly
equal in size. The septa are thin, and most of them appear to reach
the columella. The margins of all of the septa are denticulate and the
sides granulated by relatively few but distinct, pointed papillae. The
margins of the principal septa are lobate within, and the sides are
garnished by coarse granulations which are also pointed and rarely
The character of the columella cannot be clearly made out due
to the gastropod imbedded in it, but it seems to be linear and lamel-
lar at the ends.
Measurements Type (CH4-la): corallum length 8.3 mm,
width 4.0 mm, height 3 mm; calice length 8.2, width 3.6 mm, depth
to columella about 2 mm. Paratype (CH4-lb): broken corallum
length 6.5 mm, width 3.8 mm, height about 4.0 mm.
Locality and Formation CH4 and station 2564 U. S. Geologi-
cal Survey. Chipola Formation at or near its type locality.
Remarks The specimens described above are identical with
those in the U. S. National Museum labeled "Heterophyllia chipolana
Vaughan, U.S.G.S. 2564." Locality 2564 of the United State Geolog-
ical Survey was given by Julia Gardner (1926, p. 3) as "McClelland
farm, 1 mile below Bailey's Ferry, Calhoun Co., Fla." That site is
probably the same as our CH4 which is the type locality of the
Chipola Formation, on the west bank of the Chipola River, about
one-half mile downstream from the mouth of Tenmile Creek (Bail-
ey's Ferry). Heterophyllia chipolana is a nomen nudum which I am
pleased to re-name Thysanus vaughani after the dean of American
corals, Thomas Wayland Vaughan.
Comparison The nearest related species is Thysanus hayesi
Vaughan (1919, p. 424, pl. 77, figs. 3, 3a, 3b) from the Lower
Miocene of Cuba but that, among other differences, is a more robust
form with widely spaced costae of equal size.

Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus) PI. 6, figs. 4-9
1758. [in] Seba, Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri ...
vol. 3, pl. 112, figs. 15, 19, 22. [Fide Vaughan 1901, p.
1766. Madrepora astroites Pallas, Elenchus Zoophytorum, p. 320
(not Madrepora astroites Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, ed.
10, p. 796,fide Vaughan 1901, p. 27).


1766. Madrepora cavernosa Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, ed. 12,
vol. 1, p. 1276.
1786. Madrepora radiata Ellis and Solander, The Natural History
of ... Zoophytes, p. 169, pl. 47, fig. 8 [Fide Vaughan
1901, p. 27].
-1791. Madrepora cavernosa Linnaeus, Gmelin, Systema Naturae,
ed. 13, vol. 1, pt. 6, p. 3767.
1797. Madrepora cavernosa Linnaeus, Esper, Fortzetzungen
Pflanzenthiere, vol. 1, p. 18, pl. 37.
1797. Madrepora cavernosa Linnaeus, Humphrey, Museum Co-
lonnianum Specifications, p. 66.
1807. Favites cavernosus (Linnaeus), Link, Beschreibung Natural-
ium Sammlungen der Universitat zu Rostock, p. 162.
1815. Favia cavernosa seu astroites Oken, Lehrbuch der Natur-
geschichte, Theil 3, Abt. 1, p. 67.
1816. Astrea radiata and Astrea argus Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim.
sans Vert., vol. 2, pp. 258, 259.
1820. Astrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Schweigger, Handbuch der
Naturgeschichte der Skelettlosen Ungegliederten Thiere, p.
1821. Astrea radiata (Ellis and Solander), Lamouroux, Exposi-
tion M6thodique des ... Polypiers, p. 57, pl. 47, fig. 8.
1824. Astrea argus and Astrea radiata Lamouroux, Encyclop6die
M6thodique, vol. 2, pp. 131, 132.
1829. Astrea argus Eichwald, Zoologia Specialis, p. 183.
1830. Astrea radiata and Astrea argus Blainville, Dictionnaire des
Sciences Naturelles, vol. 60, p. 334.
1834. Explanaria argus and E. radiata Ehrenberg, K. Akad. Wiss.
Berlin, Phys. Abhandl. 1832, p. 307.
1834. Astrea radiata and Astrea argus Blainville, Manuel d'Actin-
ologie ou de Zoophytologie, p. 368.
1836. Astrea argus Michelotti, Specimen Zoophytologiae Diluvi-
anae, p. 131.
1836. Astrea radiata and Astrea argus Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim.
sans Vert., ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 296.
1846. Astrea (Orbicella) argus and Astrea (Orbicella) radiata
Dana, U. S. Exploring Exped. 1838-1842, vol. 7, Zoo-
phytes, pp. 206, 207, pl. 10, figs. la, lb.
1847. Astrea argus Duchassaing, Soc. Geol. France, Bull., s6r. 2,
vol. 4, p. 1095.
1848. Astrea argus Edwards and Haime, Acad. Sci. Paris, C. R.,
vol. 27, p. 494.


1848. Astrea radiata and Astrea argus Schomburgk, History of
Barbados, p. 562.
1850. Astrea cavernosa (Esper), Edwards and Haime, Ann. Sci.
Nat. Paris, s6r. 3, Zoologie, vol. 12, pp. 97, 98, pl. 9, figs 1,
la; also Astrea radiata, p. 101 and Astrea conferta, p. 102.
[Fide Vaughan, 1901, p. 28].
1850. Astrea cavernosa (Ellis and Solander), Edwards and Haime,
Palaeontogr. Soc. London, p. xxxix.
1850. Astrea argus Lamarck, Duchassaing, Animaux Radiaires
des Antilles, p. 15.
1851. Astrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Edwards and Haime, Mus.
Nat. Hist. nat. Paris, Arch., vol. 5, p. 97.
1855. Astrea argus Duchassaing, Soc. G6ol. France, Bull., s6r. 2,
vol. 12, pp. 754, 756.
1857. Heliastraea conferta, p. 460; Heliastraea cavernosa (Ellis
and Solander), p. 463; and Heliastraea radiata (Lamarck),
Edwards and Haime, Histoire Naturelle des Coralliaires ou
Polypes proprement dits, pp. 460, 463, 470.
1861. Heliastraea radiata (Ellis and Solander) and Heliastraea ca-
vernosa (Esper), Duchassaing and Michelotti, R. Accad.
Sci. Torino, Mem., ser. 2, vol. 19, p. 352.
1863. ? Astraea antiguensis Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart.
Jour., vol. 19, p. 419, pl. 13, fig. 8. [Fide Vaughan, 1901,
p. 28. ]
1863. ? Astraea endothecata Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart,
Jour., vol. 19, pp. 419, 420, pl. 14, fig. 9. [Fide Vaughan,
1901, p. 28.]
1863. Astraea radiata Lamarck, Duncan, Geol. Soc. London,
Quart. Jour., vol. 19, pp. 421, 422.
1863. ? Astraea antillarum Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart.
Jour., vol. 19, p. 443. [Fide Vaughan, 1901, p. 28. ]
1864. Astraea brevis Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart Jour.,
vol. 20, p. 37, pl. 4, figs. 3a, 3b. [Fide Vaughan, 1901, p.
1864. Orbicella caverosa (Esper) Agassiz, Verrill, Mus. Comp.
Zool., Bull., vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 47, 48.
1864. Orbicella caverosa Verrill, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Proc.,
vol. 10, p. 323.
1866. Heliastraea cavernosa (Esper) and Heliastraea radiata (Ellis
and Solander), Ducahassaing and Michelotti, R. Accad. Sci.
Torino, Mem., ser. 2, vol. 23, p. 179.
1868. ? Heliastraea antiguensis Duncan; Heliastraea endo thecata
Duncan; Heliastraea radiata (Ellis and Solander); Heli-


astraea cylindrica Duncan; ?Heliastraea antillarum Dun-
can; Heliastraea brevis Duncan; and Heliastraea cavernosa
(Esper), Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart, Jour., vol. 24,
p. 24. [Fide Vaughan, 1901, p. 29. ]
1868. Heliastraea caverosa (Esper), Duncan, Geol. Soc. London,
Quart. Jour., vol. 24, pp. 12, 24.
1870. Heliastraea cavernosa, radiata, ? antiguensis, endothecata,
cylindrica, brevis and ? antillarum Duchassaing, Revue des
Zoophytes et des Spongiaires de Antilles, p. 30. [Fide
Vaughan, 1901, p. 29. ]
1871. Orbicella cavernosa (Verrill), Pourtales, Mus. Comp. Zool.,
Mem., vol. 2, No. 4, p. 76.
1871. Orbicella cavernosa Dana, Pourtales, [in] Gabb. Geol.
Mag., decade 2, vol. 2, p. 545.
1877. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Lindstrom, K. Svenska Ve-
tensk.-Akad., Handl., vol. 14, No. 6, p. 23.
1877. Orbicella cavernosa (Esper), Arango y Molina, R. Acad.
Cienc. M6dicas, Ffsicas y Nat. Habana, An., vol. 14, p. 278.
1881. Astraea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Quenstedt, Petrefacten-
kunde Deutschlands, vol. 6, Korallen, p. 777, pl. 173, fig.
1886. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Quelch, Voyage H.M.S.
Challenger, Rept. Sci. Results, Zoology, vol. 16, pt. 46, pp.
12, 106.
1890. ? Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Heilprin, Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia, Proc., vol. 42, p. 306.
1895. Orbicella radiata (Ellis and Solander), Geol. Soc. London,
Quart. Jour., vol. 51, pp. 270, 271.
1899. Heliastraea cavernosa (Esper), Duerden, Inst. Jamaica,
Jour., vol. 2, No. 6, p. 621.
1899. Orbicella radiata (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, Mus.
Comp. Zool., Bull., vol. 34, p. 156.
1900. Orbicella cavernosa (Esper), Verrill, Connecticut Acad.
Arts and Sci., Trans., vol. 10, pp. 552, 553.
1901. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Vaughan, Rijksmus. Geol.
Min., ser. 2, vol. 2, No. 1,pp. 9, 11, 12, 27-33.
1901. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Verrill, Connecticut Acad.
Arts and Sci., Trans., vol. 11, pt. 1, pp. 82, 102, 103, 171,
1904. Heliastraea (Orbicella) cavernosa Edwards and Haime,
Greely, [in] Branner, Mus. Comp. Zool., Bull., vol. 44, p.


1915. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Vaughan, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Yearbook No. 13, pp. 224, 225.
1916. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Vaughan, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Yearbook No. 14, p. 227.
1919. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Vaughan, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 103, No. 9, pp. 217, 223, 230, 337, 359, 362, 363,
377, 380-384, 386, pl. 87, figs. 1-1b; pl. 88, figs 1-3b.
1920. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnnaeus), Coryell and Ohlsen, New
York Acad. Sci., Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the
Virgin Islands, vol. 3, pt. 3, pp. 195, 196, pl. 29, fig. 1.
1930. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Yonge, Great Barrier Reef
Exped. 1928-29, Sci. Rept., vol. 1, p. 25.
1932. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Wells, Carnegie Inst. Wash-
ington, Yearbook No. 31, p. 291.
1937. Orbicella cavernosa (Linnaeus), Yonge, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Publ. No. 475, Papers Torguas Lab., vol. 31,
No. 9, p. 211.
1944. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Wells, Jour. Paleont.,
vol. 15, No. 5, p. 446.
1948. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Smith, Atlantic Reef
Corals, pp. 61, 71, 72, 90, pl. 27.
1954. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus) = radiata (Ellis and Solan-
der), Fontaine, Inst. Jamaica, Ann. Rept. 1953-1954, p.
1954. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Smith, U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Serv., Fish. Bull., vol. 55, No. 89, p. 293.
1955. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Newell, Imbrie, Purdy
and Thurber, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 117, art. 4,
p. 213.
1958. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Zans, Geol. Sur. Dept.
Jamaica, Bull., No. 3, p. 32.
1958. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Squires, Amer. Mus.
Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 115, art. 4, pp. 227, 228, 232, 237,
238, 255, 256, pl. 40, figs. 1, 2.
1958. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Moore, Inst. Marine Sci.
Univ. Texas, Publ., vol. 5, pp. 152, 154.
1959. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Zans, Geonotes, vol. 2,
No. 1,pp. 29, 32.
1960. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Lewis, Canadian Jour.
Zool., vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 1134, 1137, 1138, 1140, 1142,
1960. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Lewis, Barbados Mus.
and Nat. Hist. Soc.,Jour., vol. 28, No. 1, p. 11.


1961. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus) Duarte Bello, Acuario
Nac. Marianao [Cuba], ser. Educacional, No. 2, pp. 4, 52,
53, figs. 41, 42.
1961. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Westermann and Kiel,
Natuurwetensch. Studiekring Suriname en de Nederlandse
Antillen, No. 24, pp. 131, 136.
1962. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Stoddart, Atoll Res.
Bull., No. 87, pp. 14, 17, 19, 26. fig. 12-F4.
1963. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Jones, Bull. Marine Sci.
Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 13, No. 2, p. 282.
1963. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Almy and Carrion-Tor-
res, Caribbean Jour. Sci., vol 3, Nos. 2-3, pp. 141, 142,
154, 155, 162, pl. 14, fig. b.
1964. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Roos, Studies on the
Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, vol. 20,
No. 81, pp. 11, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 35, 39, 40, 48.
1965. Montastrea cai,.e riost (Linnaeus), Storr, Geol. Soc. Amer.
Special Pap., No. 78, pp. 72, 74, 86, 87.
1967. Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus), Goreau and Wells, Bull.
Marine, Sci., vol. 17, No. 2, p. 448.
1969. Montastrea caverosa (Linnaeus), Logan, Amer. Assoc.
Petrol. Geol., Mem. 11, p. 149, pl. 10, fig. 3.

The fossil specimens of Montastrea caverosa (Linnaeus) de-
scribed below are so close in every way to those in the U. S. National
Museum labeled "Fossil corals, Pleistocene, Key Bacca Knight's
Key, Fla." that they are believed to be from the same locality. Mont-
astrea cavernosa is a well known, widespread, and long-ranged spe-
cies, but these particular examples, which are weathered in such
unusual fashion that their inner structure is faithfully revealed, are
deemed worthy of description.
The corallum is large and tall, with an irregular but flattish
surface and tapering sides. The corallites are tall, stout, irregularly
cylindrical for most of their length, conical at the base of the col-
umn. In addition to the fine unilaminar dissepiments between the
costae, there are numerous large projecting exotheca extending be-
yond the costae and uniting neighboring corallites. These prominent
exothecal structures are extensions of the coenosteum, particularly
at the base of individual calices, and are distributed subregularly
along the entire columnar corallite, with 12 to 16 of them in 5 cm of
The calices are large, subcircular, and moderately shallow, with


steep walls, a broad fossa, and narrow margins; the margins may be
contiguous but more often they are separated, the separation ranging
from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. The diameter of the calices is 8 mm to 13
mm, the height 1.5 mm to 4.0 mm, the depth to the top of the
columella about 1.5 mm to 2.5 mm. Depending somewhat on the
size of the calice there are 40 to 54 septa in four cycles and a few in
the fifth. Except at the calicular margin where they are somewhat
thickened, the septa are relatively thin, unequal in size, and much
smaller than their corresponding costae. The primary septa are a little
larger than the others, the size diminishing slightly in response to the
higher order of insertion. All of the septa are serrate or lacerate on
the free margin and granulose on the sides; the 24 septa of the first
three cycles are somewhat exsert and rounded at the calicular mar-
gin; farther within they unite in pairs just before the columella. The
endothecal lamellae connecting the septa within the calice are well
developed and are 0.75 mm to 2.0 mm apart.
The costae at the margin of the calice are prominent, subequal,
granulated at the crest, and separated by deep interspaces about the
same width as the costae themselves; farther down the wall they may
alternate in width, and at the boundary between the corallites the
ends of the costae generally abut those of its neighbor. The flaring
out of the coenosteum in the space between adjoining individuals
produces the exothecal structures that are so prominent around the
columns of the corallites. The endothecal dissepiments within the
columns are nearly straight to undulatory, and there are about 14 of
them in one centimeter of length.
The columella is trabecular and tangled into a small, conical,
upraised peak not reaching the level of the calicular margin.
Measurements Specimen FLX-3b: Corallum length 132 mm,
width 75 mm, height 75 mm.; average calice diameter 10 mm, height
4 mm, depth to top of columella from calicular margin 2 mm, num-
ber of septa 46. Specimen FLX-3a: Corallum length 90 mm, width
67 mm, height 91 mm; average diameter 10.5 mm, height 3.0 mm,
depth to top of columella from calicular margin 2.0 mm, number of
septa 48. Specimen CH3-3a: Corallum length 46 mm, height 41 mm,
width 26 mm.
Range and distribution Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus) and
the numerous species synonymized with it range from Oligocene to
The Oligocene occurrences are in the San Sebastian Shale and
Ponce Formation of Puerto Rico; in the Antigua Formation of Antig-
ua; and in the Antigua Formation at Serro Colorado, Aruba.


The Miocene occurrences are in the Chipola Formation of Flor-
ida and (as Astraea brevis Duncan) in the Nivaje Shale of the Domini-
can Republic.
Pleistocene occurrences are the following: Bermuda (Devon-
shire Formation); Florida (in the Key Largo Limestone or Miami
Oolite at Key West; Stock Island; Key West Naval Station; Knight
Key; Key Vaca; Matecumbe Key; Key Largo; Port Everglades); Do-
minca (near Rousseau, elevation 1000 feet); Guadeloupe (Formation
Madreporique Tuf Blanc); St. Eustatius (Sugar Loaf); St. Kitts
(Brimstone Hill); Montserrat; Antigua (as Astraea antiguensis Duncan
in the marls of the Friar's Hill Series); Barbados (low level reefs at
Bridgetown; high level reefs at Locust Hill, Spring Estate, Bissex Hill,
Farmer's Shaft No. 3, Welsh Town Gully, Mt. Hillaby (780 feet);
Dominican Republic; Curagao (Hato); Panama (Isthmus of Darien).
The Recent Montastrea cavernosa is found in the Western Atlan-
tic and Caribbean Sea from Bermuda to Brazil. Bermuda (North
Rocks); Bahamas (Great Bahama Bank, Bimini, Turtle Rocks, Rabbit
Cay, Andros Island, Coconut Point); Florida (Patch reef tract on
southeast coast; east side of Virginia Key; Tortugas, 10-15 fathoms);
Cuba; Jamaica (north coast, 0.3- 95 meters; Bluefields; Pedro
Cays); Puerto Rico (La Parguera); Mexico (Yucatan Shelf; Blanquilla
Reef; Alacran; Vera Cruz); St. Thomas; St. Croix; Guadeloupe; Bar-
bados (west coast); Curagao (Playa Kalki 3.5 meters; Westpunt
Baai shoreline to 7 meters; Playa. Abau shoreline to 8 meters;
Lagun cavities in cliff face along shore; Playa Chikita sandy bot-
tom along shore; Sta Martha Baai 15 to 45 meters; Vaersen Baai -
8 meters; St. Michiels Baai 10 to 15 meters; Piscadera Baai 3 to
45 meters; Spaansche Water 17 to 30 meters; Klein Curagao 4 to
6 meters; Trinidad; Venezuela (Puerto La Cruz); British Honduras
(Rendezvous Cay, Turneffe, Lighthouse Reef, Glover's Reef, Pedro
Bank, St. George's Cay); Panama (Colon); Brazil (Barra Brande, 30
fathoms; north coast; Pernambuco; Lag6a de Camamfi; Bahia).

Comments- The locality of the FLX specimens illustrated
herein is unknown, but as stated above is inferred to have been
obtained from the Key Largo Limestone (Pleistocene) at Key Vaca
or thereabout. The specimen CH3-3a, collected by Charles Woolheat-
er in Tenmile Creek, one mile downstream from the bridge on Flor-
ida State highway 73, Calhoun County, is more highly weathered
than the FLX specimens but is also identified as Montastrea


Montastrea cf. M. costata (Duncan) P1. 7, figs. 1-4

1863. Astraea costata Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour.,
vol. 19, p. 422, pl. 13, fig. 9.
1867. Heliastraea costata (Duncan), Geol. Soc. London, Quart.
Jour., vol. 24, p. 24.
1919. Orbicella costata (Duncan), Vaughan, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 103, No. 9, pp. 200, 204, 208, 210, 230, 362, 363,
387-389, 390, 393, 394, 460, 512, pls. 91-93.
1920. Orbicella costata (Duncan), Coryell and Ohlsen, New York
Acad. Sci.,, Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin
Islands, vol. 3, pt. 1, pp. 168, 173, 196, pl. 29, fig. 2.
1925. Orbicella costata (Duncan), Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Animalia, pars 28, pp. 63, 64.
The specimen described and illustrated herein as Montastrea
costata (Duncan) is a segment of an originally hemispherical or head-
shaped form.
The corallum is relatively large, massive, and suplocoid. The
corallites are vaguely polygonal in outline on the surface of the coral-
lum but subcyclindrical within where they are gently swollen at in-
tervals along their length. The calices are subcircular to rarely sub-
oval, moderately elevated, the margins separated by as little as 2 mm
to as much as 10 mm. The diameters of the calices range from 6 mm
to 8.5 mm, and the number of septa, depending somewhat on the
size of the calice, varies from 36 to 46, in four cycles. The primary
septa are larger than the secondaries, the secondaries larger than the
tertiaries, and the quarternaries by far the smallest and thinnest. The
primaries and some or all of secondaries and a few tertiary septa
reach the columella. All of the septa are thickest at the wall, denticu-
late along the free margin, granulate on the sides, and probably more
or less exsert, with the height above the calicular margin varying
according to size. Because of imperfect preservation the true configu-
ration of the septa cannot be ascertained; however, one nearly com-
plete septum has been observed, and this is broad and rounded a-
bove, the broadness continuing within to just before the columella
where there is an acute excavation in the margin, followed by a large
paliform tooth at the columella; the septum is a little over 2 mm in
width, and on the sides there are eight or more radiating columns of
very fine granules. It is inferred from this that the principal septa are
provided with a paliform tooth at their inner ends.
The margin of the calice is nodulous at the intercepts of the
septa, and for each septum there is a corresponding costa, the crest


of which is beaded. The costae are in two sizes, the larger alternating
with the smaller. The latter are present only for a short distance
below the calicular margin; the larger costae are prominent, narrow,
and elevated, extending down to, and abutting against the termini of
the costae of the neighboring calice. The columella is a relatively
large subcircular to suboval tangle formed by the fusion of the inner
ends of the principal septa. The exotheca are well developed and
cellular, the cells squarish to oblong, with 6 or 7 of them in a column
5 mm long. The endothecal dissepiments are lamellar, with about 8
of them in 5 mm of length.
Measurements Specimen FLX-5a: corallum length 79 mm,
height 49 mm; average calice diameter 6.2 mm, height 3.6 mm, num-
ber of septa 40.
Locality and Formation Although specimen FLX-5a is known
to be from Florida, there is no information concerning its locality or
geologic occurrence. From the identity and relationship of the spe-
cies, however, it is inferred to have been collected in the outcrop area
of the Chipola Formation in North Florida. The general appearance
and light color of another specimen, FLX-5b (not illustrated), also
identified as M. costata, so closely resembles lithologically other
Chipola corals from the Chipola River area, that it may well have
come from that region.

Remarks FLX 5a closely resembles specimens in the U. S.
National Museum identified by Vaughan (1919) as Orbicella costata
(Duncan) from the Antigua Formation (Oligocene) of Antigua, as
shown on his plate 91, figures 3 and 3a, and from the Lares Lime-
stone (Oligocene) of Puerto Rico, as shown on his plate 92, figure 1.
However, the Florida specimen also resembles Orbicella tampaensis
Vaughan (1919, p. 390, pl. 95) from the Tampa Limestone (Lower
Miocene) of Florida and Orbicella canalis Vaughan (1919, pp. 389,
390, pl. 94) from the Emperador Limestone (basal Miocene) of the
Panama Canal Zone. Both of the latter, as Vaughan himself per-
ceived, are difficult to distinguish from the paratypes of Montastrea
costata (Duncan) although M. tampiensis lacks the alternating costae
of M. costata and the columella of M. canalis is smaller than that of
M. costata. Montastrea costata (Duncan) does seem to exhibit consid-
erable variation, but inasmuch as our FLX-5a is virtually identical
with it, and as the specific name costata is the oldest among its
congeners, the Florida form is referred to that taxon.
Range and Distribution -Montastrea costata (Duncan) has
been reported previously from the Oligocene of Antigua and Puerto
Rico and from the Lower Miocene of the Panama Canal Zone, An-


guilla, and Puerto Rico. The present notice of its occurrence in the
Middle Tertiary of Florida is the first.

Antiguastrea cf. A. cellulosa silicensis Vaughan P1. 7, figs. 5-7

1919. Antiguastrea cellulosa var. silicensis Vaughan, U. S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 103, No. 9, pp. 205, 206, 230, 408, 409, 514,
pl. 101, figs. 1, la.
1925. Antiguastrea cellulosa Duncan var. silicensis Vaughan,
Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, pars 28, p. 74.

This species is represented by two examples, FLX-6a and
CH5-4. The location of FLX-6a is not known with certainty. How-
ever, the three fragments comprising CH5-4 are identical with
FLX-6a and were collected from the Chipola Formation on the east
bank of the Chipola River between Taylor Lake Branch and Four-
mile Creek, Calhoun County. It is surmised therefore that FLX-6a
was also found in the Chipola Formation.
The corallum of specimen FLX-6a is relatively large, massive,
subcerioid, and more or less flattened on the upper surface. The coral-
lites are long, cyclindrical, parallel, generally circular in cross section,
not crowded, subequal in size. The calices are slightly to moderately
elevated (1 mm to 4 mm), subcircular to suboval in outline, 4.5 mm
to 6 mm in diameter, not regularly distributed but close to each
other (1 mm to 4 mm) though rarely touching. The spaces between
the calices on the upper surface of the corallum have the char-
acteristic "cellular" or vesicular appearance of Antiguastrea and is
produced by the thick, smooth, concave exotheca connecting one
calice with the other; in places the surface exotheca is perforated
through corrosion. On nearly all of the calices there are 16 to 18
major costae, representing the continuation of the first two cycles of
septa and part of the third. These costae are prominent, elevated and
narrow, beaded along the crest, subequal in size, subregular in spa-
cing, and separated by deep interspaces in which there may be a
minor intercalary or two; normally there is one costa for each sep-
tum but the full complement is often revealed only at the calicular
margin. From the margin of the calice, which is thin but nodulous at
the intercepts, the principal costae descend outward, generally to
join the termini of the costae of the neighboring calice in the narrow
area between them.

The septa vary from 28 to 38 in number in four cycles, the
fourth cycle generally about half complete. As most of the septa
have been worn or calcified in greater or lesser degree, their true


configuration is not knot known; however, as seen on a few pre-
served septa of FLX-6a and CH5-4, the principal ones are strongly
denticulated by elongated teeth and their margins acutely notched to
form one or two paliform lobes at the inner end, the lobes high and
narrow and pointed; additionally the sides of septa are finely granu-
late, the granulations arrayed in a few fine columns. The primary
septa are notably longer and larger than the secondaries, and are so
straight that the upper part of the calice appears stellate; the secon-
dary septa are somewhat larger than the tertiaries, and the tertiaries
more prominent than those of the fourth cycle. The columella is
small, lamellar, and polygonal in outline, and is produced from the
inner ends of the primary septa which bend abruptly to form the
The exotheca is well developed and cellular, the cells squarish,
with five or six of them in a column 5 mm in length. The endothecal
dissepiments are finer but also prominent, with six or seven of them
in 5 mm of length.
Measurements Specimen FLX-6a; corallum length 63 mm,
width 42 mm, height 41 mm; average diameter of calice 4.9 mm,
height 2.2 mm, depth 3.3 mm.
Localities and Formation FLX-6; CH5. Chipola Formation.
Discussion -Allowing for differences in preservation, the Chip-
ola specimen FLX-6a is identical with Antiguastrea cellulosa silicensis
from the type locality in Georgia, as exemplified by the paratype No.
324934 in the U. S. National Museum, identified by Vaughan himself
as follows: "Antiguastrea cellulosa var. silicensis No. 324934. Oligo-
cene. Flint River, 7 mi. below Bainbridge, Ga. Vaughan." According
to Vaughan (1919, pp. 408, 409, pl. 101, figs. 1, la), Antiguastrea
cellulosa silicensis was found in the basal part of the Chattahoochee
Formation at Hales Landing, in the Flint River; the "Chattahoochee"
or its equivalent is considered to be Lower Miocene. On the geologic
map of the Tertiary and Quaternary formations of Georgia compiled
by F. Stearns MacNeil (1947), the formation exposed in the Flint
River at Hales Landing is the Suwannee Limestone (Upper Oligo-
cene). A blanket of residuum covers much of the Flint River valley
but in a small tributary flowing northwest into the Chipola River
from the scarp along the south bank below Hales Landing, the beds
uncomformably overlying the Suwannee Limestone are referred to
by MacNeil as the Chipola Formation and Tampa Limestone (Lower
In Vaughan's original account of the Flint River localities (Sci-
ence, 1900, pp. 873-875), he noted the occurrence of a Tertiary


coral reef at Russel or Blue Spring about four miles below Bain-
bridge, Georgia. Antiguastrea cellulosa silicensis was found both at
Blue Spring and Hales Landing in what I take to be Vaughan's Zone
2 which lies unconformably above his "Vicksburgian Oligocene."
Concerning this relationship, Vaughan wrote the following: "The bed
of the greatest interest is No. 2. The corals from it belong to the
basal portion of the Chattahoochee and not, as I once supposed, to
the Vicksburg."
Comparison This species is not dissimilar to Montastrea tam-
paensis (Vaughan) (1919, p. 390, pl. 95) from the Tampa Limestone
of Florida. However, on Antiguastrea cellulosa silicensis the mature
calices are smaller and bear correspondingly fewer costae, the col-
umella is considerably smaller and lamellar rather than tangled and
loose, and the upper surface of the corallum between the calices has
a more cellular appearance than that of Montastrea tampaensis.
Range and distribution Chipola Formation of north Florida
and Tampa Formation of west Florida. According to Vaughan
"Specimens obtained about three-quarters of a mile south of the
Cathedral St. John, Antigua, and at station 6893, Crocus Bay, An-
guilla, and one specimen from hill 4 miles south of San Rafael,
Tamaulipas, Mexico, are referable to this variety."

Antillophyllia chipolana, new name P1. 8, figs. 1-8

1895. Antillia biloba [= bilobata] (Duchassaing), Gane, Johns
Hopkins Univ. Circ., vol. 15, No. 121, p. 9.
1900. Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing and Michelotti), Gane, U. S.
Nat. Mus., Proc., vol 22, No. 1193, pp. 186, 187, 196.

Antillophyllia chipolana, which is moderately abundant in, and
a guide fossil of the Chipola Formation, is certainly the species refer-
red to as Antillia biloba by Gane in 1895, and later described by that
author in 1900 under the name of Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing and
Michelotti). As will be discussed below, it is probable that Gane's
Antillia guesdesi from the Chipola Formation of Florida is not the
same as the species originally described and illustrated as Montli-
vaultia guesdesii by Duchassaing and Michelotti (1861, p. 345, pl. 5,
fig. 13). The latter, subsequently called Antillia guesdesii by Duchas-
saing and Michelotti (1866, p. 172) occurs in the tuf blanc of Guade-
loupe. According to Hoffstetter (1956, p. 208) the tufblanc is found
at the base of the Calcaire de Grande-Terre, the age of which is given
as Lower Miocene.


In the type collection of Tertiary corals at the U. S. National
Museum there are two specimens from the Chipola River (Nos. 2213
and 2564 U.S.G.S.) that are identical to the ones in the Florida State
University collection discussed herein. The U.S.G.S. specimens are
labeled Antillia chipolana Vaughan in Dr. Vaughan's handwriting,
and it is my understanding they were described and illustrated by
Vaughan in a manuscript which remains unpublished to this day.
Vaughan's specific name of A. chipolana suggests he regarded the
Chipola species distinct from the Guadeloupean A. guesdesi of
Duchassaing and Michelotti. Following Vaughan, the specific name
of A. chipolana is retained for the Chipola species in this work,
recognizing however, that Antillia chipolana Vaughan (MS) is the
same as the "Antillia guesdesi" of Gane but not the Antillia guesdesi
of Duchassaing and Michelotti. The generic name for the Chipola
coral, however, is now believed to be Antillophyllia, a taxon erected
by Vaughan in 1932.
Antillophyllia chipolana, n. sp., which is rather abundant at the
type locality of the Chipola Formation on the west bank of the
Chipola River about one-half mile downstream from the mouth of
the Tenmile Creek (Bailey's Ferry), was adequately described but not
figured by Gane under the name of Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing
and Michelotti). The following remarks supplement the description
by Gane:
The corallum is generally solitary, but rarely two corallites may
be attached to each other near the base and at the pedicel. The form
of the individual corallite is diverse, varying from sharply turbinate
to cuneiform; usually, however, it is appressed-conical, tapering
acutely at the base to a short mammilate pedicel. The calice may be
regularly -oval, but more often it is subelliptical, with the longer sides
very gently constricted to approximate a slender figure eight. The
calicular area is curved inward a little so that the diameter of the
corallite is slightly less at the margin of the calice than it is a short
distance below where the diameter of the calice is greatest.
On fully grown adults there are five cycles of septa. The largest
specimen in the collection, with a calicular length of 58 mm, has 102
septa in five full cycles and part of the sixth; on a corallite with a
calicular length of 14 mm, there are 49 septa in four full cycles and
part of the fifth. The septa are moderately crowded, exsert, thinly
laminar, straight to occasionally undulatory, a little thicker at the
wall than elsewhere, the larger ones arched prominently over the
calicular margin, the arch in the form of an inverted "U"; below the
arch the margins descend rather steeply, and a little over half way to


the columella they become gently indented, forming a large lobe
above and one or two smaller lobes below just before joining the
columella to which they are fused. The smallest septa, on the other
hand, are narrow and extend only part way down the wall. All of the
septa are serrated or denticulate on the free margin, and bear radi-
ating rows of small pointed granulations on the sides; on the princi-
pal septa these granulations develop into smaller striae as they ap-
proach the free inner margin, extending from near the apex to near
the columella. The costae, which correspond with the septa, are cov-
ered by a well developed, membraniform epitheca reaching to near
the calicular margin, but where the epitheca is worn off they stand
out prominently. Like the septa, the costae are serrated or granulose
at the crest and papillate along the sides. The endothecal dissepi-
ments are moderately abundant. Exotheca are prominent and form
elongated cells. The columella is deep, elliptical tooval, and spongy.
Measurements Specimen I-1228d (average adult): height 42
mm, length 42 mm, maximum width 26 mm, width of constricted
area 24 mm; columella length 15 mm, width 2.4 mm, depth of calice
to columella 12 mm; number of septa 94. Specimen I-1228c (juven-
ile): height 15 mm, length 17 mm, maximum width 15 mm, width
of constricted area 14 mm; columella length 6 mm, width 1 mm;
depth of calice to columella 6 mm; number of septa 74. Largest
specimen in FSU collection: height 58 mm, maximum width 43
mm, width of constricted area 39 mm; columella length 21 mm,
width 5 mm; depth of calice to columella 13 mm; number of septa
102. Specimen I-1228b: height 39 mm, length 40.5 mm, maximum
width 23 mm, width of constricted area 21 mm; number of septa 94.
Specimen I-1228a: height 55 mm, length 46 mm, maximum width
32 mm, width of constricted area 32 mm; length of columella 14
mm, width 3.4 mm; depth of calice to columella 15 mm; number of
septa 84. Specimen CH8-la; corallum (consisting of two corallites
fused at base) height 31.5 mm, overall width 41 mm; length of larger
calice 34 mm; depth to columella 14 mm; number of septa 86.
A specimen of Antillophyllia chipolana selected at random was
determined by Dr. H. G. Goodell to be 98 per cent aragonite.
Localities CH3; CH4; CH5; 1-1228 (Florida Bureau of Geo-
logy. )
Remarks -Although Gane did not illustrate his Antillia
guesdesi, his description of it and its occurrence in the Chipola River
leave no doubt that our species is the same as Gane's A. guesdesi.
Whether the A. guesdesi of Gane, however, is the same as the type A.
guesdesii of Duchassaing and Michelotti from Guadeloupe, and


whether A. bilobata Duncan from the Dominican Republic is synon-
ymous with A. guesdesii (Duchassaing and Michelotti) is a matter
requiring comparison with the types, which I have not seen. There is
indeed a general resemblance of the Chipola A. guesdesi with Duchas-
saing and Michelotti's A. guesdesii and with Duncan's drawing of A.
bilobata, but then, too, there seem to be some differences. For exam-
ple, the drawing of A. guesdesii (Duchassaing and Michelotti) sug-
gests that the calicular margin of the corallite above the epitheca is
swollen and ring-like, whereas that of the Chipola A. guesdesi is flush
with the sides of the corallite; also the denticulation or serration of
the septal margins is closer and finer on the Guadeloupe form. Con-
cerning the relationship of A. guesdesi (Duchassaing and Michelotti)
and A. bilobata Duncan, Vaughan (1919, p. 592) had the following
to say: "A guesdesi is so similar to A. bilobata that Duchassaing and
Michelotti placed the latter in its snynonymy. As I have seen no
speciments of A. guesdesi, I must base my opinions concerning it
upon its author's figures and descriptions. It seem to me different
from A. bilobata, but as the distinction between the two consists in
the relative number of teeth within 1 centimeter on the septal mar-
gins, and as the details of the figures of A. guesdesi may be inaccu-
rate, it would be improper to insist that they are different.
References to "Antillia" guesdesi (Duchassaing and Michelotti)
are listed below. The citations between 1850 and 1900 are by Gane
(1900, p. 186).

1850. Turbinolia bilobata Duchassaing, Animaux Radiaires des
Antilles, p. 14. (not Michelin). [see Michelin, 1840-47,
Iconograhie Zoophytologique, p. 269, pl. 61, fig. 7; pl. 62,
fig. 1. T. bilobata Michelin is an Eocene ("Nummulitique")
1854. (?) Circophyllia, species 3 Lonsdale, manuscript.
1861. Montlivaultia guesdesii Duchassaing and Michelotti, Mem.
Acad. Sci. Torino, XIX, p. 345, pl. V, fig. 13. [Fossil in the
tufblanc of Guadeloupe.]
1864. Antillia bilobata Duncan, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., XX, p.
31, pl. III, fig.3.
1866. Antillia guesdesii Duchassaing and Michelotti, Mem. Acad.
Sci. Torino, XXIII, p. 172.
1868. Antillia bilobata Duncan, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., XXIV,
p. 23.
1870. Antillia guesdesii Duchassaing, Revue des Zoophytes et des
Spongiaires des Antilles, p. 29.


1875. Antillia bilobata Pourtales, Geol. Mag., new ser., 2d De-
cade, II, [p. 545.]
1895. Antillia biloba Gane, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., XV, No.
121, p. 9 [From Chipola Formation.]
1900. Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing and Michelotti), Gane, U. S.
Nat. Mus., Proc., vol. 22, No. 1193, pp. 186, 187, 196.
[From Chipola Formation.]
1919. Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing and Michelotti), Vaughan,
U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, No. 11, p. 592.
1927. Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing and Michelotti), Felix, Fos-
.silium Calatalogus. I: Animalia, pars 35, p. 309.
1956. Antillia [guesdesi] (Duchassaing and Michelotti), Hoffstet-
ter, Lexique Stratigraphique, vol. 5, Am6rique Latine, fasc.
2b, Guadeloupe, p. 208.

If Gane was correct in identifying the Chipola Antillophyllia as
Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing and Michelotti), and in placing Antil-
lophyllia bilobata (Duncan) in its synonymy, the correct name of the
Chipola coral should be Antillophyllia guesdesi (Duchassaing and
Michelotti). In all likelihood, however, the Chipola and Guadeloupe
species are distinct; and, since Vaughan, in his unpublished manu-
script, which must have been written after Gane's well known paper
of 1900, gave the Chipola coral the specific name of chipolana, it
would be appropriate to perpetuate Vaughan's name as Antillophyl-
lia chipolana. The description of the "type" would be the one given
by Gane in 1900 under his "Antillia guesdesi (Duchassaing and Mich-
elotti)"; the figures and supplemental description would be those in
the present work by me; and the type locality would be designated as
the west bank of the Chipola River, .5 miles downstream from the
mouth of the Tenmile Creek (or Bailey's Ferry of Gane), Calhoun
County, Florida. This locality, incidentally, is the type locality of the
Chipola Formation, and is the one from which many specimens of
Antillophyllia chipolana were collected as far back as 1889 by Frank
Bums (Cooke, 1945, p. 163).
Comparisons In addition to its similarity to A. guesdesi
(Duchassaing and Michelotti), Antillophyllia chipolana resembles A.
bilobata (Duncan) (1864, pp. 31, 32, pl. 3, fig. 3) and A. bullbrooki
(Hoffmeister) (in Vaughan and Hoffmeister, 1926, pp. 119, 120, pl.
2, figs. 7-8a). A. bilobata occurs in the Nivaje Shale of the Dominican
Republic, a member included in the Mao Adentro Limestone for
which a Middle Miocene age is assigned by some, an Upper Miocene
age by others. The specimens I have seen of A. bilobata in the Acad-
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia are plumper, much more


deeply indented on the sides, and bear more numerous septa per
unit of length than A. chipolana. On the other hand, A. bullbrooki,
an early Miocene coral from Trinidad, is not indented even slightly
on the sides, and in this respect differs from A. chipolana on which
the calice resembles a very gentle figure eight.

Astrangia calhounensis, new species P1. 9, figs. 1-3
The corallum is encrusting and plocoid, consisting of a clump of
short cylindrical corallites. Individuals are widely divergent and free
above, but loosely united at their base by the thick coenosteum; the
sides of the trunk of the corallite are subparallel without welts or
swellings. The walls are thin at the calicular margin, thicker below.
The costae are subequal, moderately elevated, and narrow at the
crest from which they slope gently into the shallow interspaces. Both
the costae and coenosteum are minutely granulated. The calices are
suboval to subcircular, 4 mm to 5 mm in diameter, widely open, and
moderately deep. Within, and around the margin, the calices are
reddish brown in color, this contrasting with the whiteness of the
coenosteum. There are three complete cycles of septa, with a few
septa in the fourth cycle of larger calices. The primary septa are
slightly more exsert, thicker, and broader than the secondaries, and
the secondaries more so than the tertiaries; the quarternaries, where
present, are the least exsert, the thinnest, and the narrowest. Well
within the calice, third-cycle septa curve into and join second-cycle
septa, and therefore only the primary and secondary septa join the
columella. The principal septa are rounded superiorly, the margins
descending steeply and then becoming shallowly concave well before
the columella. The sides of all septa are granulated by fine projecting
tubercles, and the margins are serrate above and denticulate below
where there are three to five large compound or arborescent denticles
between which the margin is so excavated that they resemble pali-
form lobes. The columella is small and papillary, the papillae resem-
bling, and difficult to distinguish from, the lowest tooth of the septal
The corallum of the type and only specimen is attached to
Ostrea rugifera Dall.
Measurements Type (CH5-2a): corallum length 17 mm, width
14 mm, height approximately 7 mm; largest corallite height 4.5 mm,
diameter of calice 4.5 mm, number of septa 28.
Locality and Formation CH5, east bank of Chipola River be-
tween the mouths of Fourmile Creek and Taylor Lake Branch, Cal-
houn County, Florida. Chipola formation (Lower Miocene).


Comparison This species is characterized by its reddish brown
calice, short subcylindrical corallites, and uncrowded septa. It resem-
bles Astrangia leonensis, n. sp. from the Jackson Bluff Formation of
north Florida, differing from that, however, by the more intense
coloration of the calices, the fewer septa per unit diameter of the
calice, the more serrate or lacerate appearance of the septal margins,
and the shorter corallites of A. calhounensis.

Flabellum chipolanum, new species P1. 9, figs. 4-9

The corallum is solitary, compressed turbinate in shape (the
ends diverging at an angle of about 80 degrees), subelliptical in cross
section, attached by a short papilliform pedicel, and coated by a
totally enveloping epitheca. The epitheca is fairly heavy, and extends
from the pedicel to the margin of the calice. Fine concentric growth
lines are not apparent on the epitheca although it is girdled by several
faint, widely spaced, concentric ridges and sulci related to the growth
process. The wall is thick throughout. The calice is shallow, subovate,
angulate at one end, subangulate or subrounded at the other, the
sides parallel. The costae are reflected under the epitheca as slightly
wavy ridges, their size more or less consonant with that of the septa
except for the costa on each end of the corallum where that one is
the most pronounced and forms a narrow carina. At the rim of the
calice where the epitheca is wor off it is seen that the costae are
granulose on the crest and sides similar to the septa. The septa are
slightly projecting, the margins entire, the sides granulated by small
pointed papillae. There are 88 septa in a calice measuring 25 mm X
14.5 mm, and 56 septa in a calice measuring 20 mm X 11.5 mm.
There is not much difference in the principal septa save for a slight
successive decrease in size from cycle one to cycle four; the septa of
the fifth cycle are the smallest and thinnest, extending straight down
the wall for a short distance and not joining any of the other septa.
As for the larger septa, the general configuration is that of a modified
candelabra, with higher order septa joining lower order ones before
reaching the columella. The columella is thin, irregular, and lamellar,
formed by the fusion of the septal trabeculae.
Measurements Holotype (CH3-2a): height 20 mm, length
22.5 mm, width 13.5 mm. Paratype (I-1228-2a): height 18.5 mm,
length 22 mm, width 14.5 mm. Specimen I-1228-2b: height 14 mm,
length 22 mm, width 11.5 mm.
Localities, and Formation -CH3 (collector Charles Wool-
heater); I-1228; CH7 (collector Paul F. Huddlestun). Chipola.
Remarks This species is characterized by its thick walls, heavy


epitheca, and narrow earina along both ends of the corallum. It is
somewhat reminiscent of the Upper Eocene to Oligocene Flabellum
cuneiforme wailesi Conrad as portrayed by Vaughan (1900, pl. 4, fig.
1) but that is higher and more acutely conical in shape, and has a
thinner epitheca than the Chipola form here described.



Astrangia leonensis, new species P1. 10, figs. 1-6

The corallum is encrusting, plocoid, and colonial, consisting of
subcylindrical to subturbinate corallites arising from the basal expan-
sion, the corallites projecting upward at various heights to about 6
mm. Individuals are rather widely divergent and free above, united
loosely or at some distance from each other at the base by the
coenosteum which is everywhere finely granulated. The corallites are
generally widest at or just below the margin of the calice from which
they taper gently to the base, the trunk usually even but also with
slight swellings here and there on some individuals. The calices are
slightly expanded, subcircular to suboval, widely open, rather thin at
the margin, and moderately deep; the average diameter of the calice
is 4.5 to 5 mm, the largest 6.5 mm. The costae are low, broad, equal
to subequal in width, and separated by narrow interspaces. On the
broader costae there are two to three (and rarely four) columns of
small tubercles, on the narrower costae one to two columns. There
are four cycles of septa, the number varying from 34 in a calice 4.5
mm in diameter to 44 in a calice 6.4 mm in diameter. The primary
septa are more exsert, thicker and broader than the septa of the
following cycles, the quarternary septa the thinnest, narrowest, and
least exsert. In the upper part of the calice, all septa are straight, but
deep within, just before the columella the septa of the third cycle
join both sides of the neighboring second-cycle septum; thus it is
only the septa of the first two cycles which join the columella. The
sides of all septa are granulated by small pointed tubercles, the tuber-
cles joined and aligned in rays on some of the primaries. The free
margin of the septa is denticulate. On the principal septa the den-
ticles are obtuse and rounded on the upper margin, but large, pali-
form, and arborescent farther down where there are three or four
such denticles, each separated from the other along the margin. The
columella is papillary and small in circumference.
A persistent character of the species is the light chocolate
brown color within the calice. Another is the proclivity of attaching
itself to various other shells, among which are the following, as deter-
mined from Mansfield (1930, 1932) and Weisbord (1965):

Petaloconchus sculpturatus H. C. Lea
Tegula (Omphalius) exoleta Conrad



Arca (Anadara) callicestosa ? (Dall)
Arca (Anadara) idonea harveyensis Mansfield
Arca (Anadara) lienosa Say
Arca (Anadara) sellardsi ? Mansfield
Cardium (Trachycardium) stiriatum leonense Mansfield
Chlamys (Plagioctenium) eboreus darlingtonensis Dall
Chlamys (Plagioctenium) comparilis jacksonensis Mansfield
Ostrea sculpturata Conrad
Ostrea disparilis Conrad
Plicatula marginata Say
Chama congregate Conrad
Balanus (Balanus) ochlockoneensis Weisbord.
(This is attached to the type of Astrangia leonensis)
Balanus (Balanus) talquinensis Weisbord
Measurements Type (JBC-6a): corallum length 17 mm, width
15 mm, height 10 mm; largest corallite height 6.5 mm, diameter of
calice 6.8 mm, number of septa 44. Paratype (JBC-6b): corallum
length 26 mm, height and width 10 mm; largest corallite height 4
mm, diameter of calice 5.2 mm, number of septa 38.
Comparison This coral rather closely resembles Astrangia flor-
idana (Gane) from the Tamiami Formation (Upper Miocene) and
Caloosahatchee Marl (Lower Pliocene?) of South Florida. There are
certain differences, however, between the Jackson Bluff and South
Florida species, and these are that on the Jackson Bluff form the
calicular margin is thinner and the calice not so deep as on A. flor-
idana; that the lower paliform denticles are separated on A. leonensis
but merged on A. floridana; that the costae are lower and more
uniformly broad, without the fine interstial ones of A. floridana; and
that there is a light brown color in the calice not present in A.

Astrangia talquinensis, new species Pl. 11, figs. 1, 2

The corallum is attached to shells or shell fragments from which
it develops upward into a variety of shapes: subcylindrical, broadly
ovate, domal, or hemispherical. The corallites are uniformly very low


(height about 1 mm), surrounded by a dense granular mural expan-
sion of coenosteum. The surface outline of the corallites is visible
only here and there, but where seen it is hexagonal, the wall separa-
ting them very thin and zigzag. The calices are subcircular and shal-
low with an average diameter of 3 mm. The calicular margins are
thickened and strongly nodulated, with one nodulation at the inter-
cept of each septum; in some areas of the surface the calicular mar-
gins of neighboring calices touch each other, but elsewhere on the
same corallum they are distant, the separation varying to as much as
2.1 mm.
Generally there are 24 septa in three complete cycles, all of the
septa slightly exsert, sharply and closely denticulate or serrate along
the free margins, and granulate on the sides, the granulations relative-
ly large and often solid and pointed, but also tubular in places. The
septa of the first two cycles are large and nearly equal and reach the
columella; the tertiary septa are smaller, and deep within the calice
curve toward and unite with a secondary septum to form a trident.
The costae are conterminous with the septa, the 12 larger ones
subequal, the 12 corresponding with the tertiary septa only slightly
smaller. The costae extend down the calice in diminishing strength to
the intercorallite valley where they become confluent with or abut
against the termini of the costae of adjacent calices. The costae are
prominent but low, the interspaces narrow, both covered with promi-
nent granules.
The columella is small and composed of the inner ends of the
principal septa; it is usually calcified in the center where it is papil-
Measurements Holotype (JBC-lla): corallum height 6 mm,
diameter near apex 12.5 mm, diameter just above base 11 mm, long-
er diameter at base 16 mm. Paratype (JBC-11b): corallum height
16.8 mm, length of head 30.5 mm, maximum width of head 20 mm.
A dome shaped corallum in the Tulane University collection is
attached to the bivalve Chlamys (Plagioctenium) comparilisljackso-
nensis Mansfield. The base of the coral is thinly spread on the dor-
sum of the right valve of the Chlamys. The corallum rises therefrom
into a dome 10 mm in height, 19.5 mm in length, and 13 mm in
Comparison The nearest species I have seen in the literature
with which Astrangia talquinensis may be compared is the Recent
Eastern Pacific Astrangia costata Verrill (see Durham, 1947, pp. 27,
28, pl. 5, figs. 5, 7) from Panama and the Gulf of California. The


main differences appear to be the higher corallites (2 mm 2.5 mm)
and the nearly equal V-shaped costae on the Pacific species.

Phyllangia blakei Wells P1. 11, figs. 3-6

1947. Phyllangia blakei Wells, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 31, No.
123, pp. 168, 169 (6, 7), pl. 11 (2), figs. 4, 5.
Wells' original description is as follows:
"Corallites large (9-18 mm diam.), forming small subceri-
oid or subplocoid colonies by extratentacular budding be-
tween calices or from edge-zone just over walls. All struc-
tures thin. Corallites, where free laterally, costate, slightly
compressed, nonepithecate; the costae subequal, rounded,
minutely granulated. Peritheca occasionally developed
where corallite walls are separated, faintly costate. Endo-
theca very thin but well developed, forming the calicular
floor, subtabular. Calices deep, with very feebly developed
parietal columella; mature calices ranging in diameter from
9 to 15 mm., usually 9 or 10 but large ones up to 18 mm.
Septa in three complete cycles, with very thin short septa
of the fourth cycle in some systems in larger calices; those
of the first cycle highly exsert; those of the second cycle
less exsert, the remainder scarcely reaching the top of the
calice rim. Septa laterally finely granulated, all very thin,
with practically smooth margins, or in places with very
small transverse dentations. Septa of first two cycles (12)
with inner edges dropped abruptly to level of columella
which is formed by a trabecular tangle from their inner
edges in the center of a broad axial fossa. Remaining septa
free along inner margins extending less than one-third the
distance from wall to columella.
Holotype U.S.N.M., No. 560156.
Paratypes U.S.N.M., No. 560157.
Occurrence Upper Miocene (Duplin marl), borrow
pit. Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Flor-
ida. (Coll. by S. F. Blake, 1936)."

Eighteen examples of this species are contained in the collection
at Florida State University, all of th-m from Jackson Bluff, and most
of them collected in situ in the Cancellaria zone of what is now
named the Jackson Bluff Formation.


The corallum is an attached, clumpy rosette consisting of a
number of thin subcerioid corallites which are conical in form, ex-
panding rapidly upward from the base. The calices are deep, and are
subcircular, oval or obtusely polygonal in outline. The largest calice
measured is 23 mm in diameter and bears about 50 septa in four
complete cycles plus 2 or so in the fifth cycle. Other mature calices 8
mm or more in diameter normally bear 48 septa in four cycles where-
as smaller calices have three complete cycles with a varying number
of short thin septa of the fourth cycle. The primary septa are the
largest and most exsert, those of the second cycle less exsert, both
descending steeply and merging with the columella. Third cycle septa
are thin and narrow, and when fully developed extend nearly to the
base of the calice but do not quite reach the columella. Fourth cycle
septa extend about half way down the wall from the margin of the
calice. The principal septa are arcuate and wide above, descending
abruptly and narrowing below where the margin becomes a little
concave just before the columella. All septa are thin and are finely
granulated on the sides and dentate along the free margin. The inner
walls of the calice, the coenosteum, and the costae are finely granu-
lose. The costae are subdued, subequal, and gently rounded. The
columella is relatively small and is formed by the mingling and fusion
of the principal septa.
Measurements Specimen JBC-9a: corallum (consisting of 11
corallites) height 20 mm, width 23 mm, breadth 16 mm; largest
corallite height 11 mm, depth to top of columella 7 mm, diameters
of oval calice 7.5 mm X 6.5 mm; septa 48. Specimen JBC-9b: coral-
lum (consisting of 17 corallites) height 29 mm, width 37.5 mm,
breadth 34 mm; largest corallite height about 14 mm, depth to top
of columella 9 mm, diameters of polygonal calice 16.5 mm X 15
Locality -Jackson Bluff, Leon County. Fourteen specimens
donated by Charles Woolheater, October 1968.
Distribution and Range So far as is known Jackson Bluff is
the only locality recorded for this species.

Septastrea marylandica (Conrad) PI. 12, figs. 1-7
1837. Astrea sp. W. B. and H. D. Rogers, Amer. Philos. Soc.,
Trans., n.s., vol. 5, art. 14, pp. 338, 339, footnote.
1841. Astrea Marylandica Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
Proc., vol. 1, p. 33.


1842. Astrea marylandica Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,
Jour., ser. 1, vol. 8, pt. 2, p. 189.
1845. Columnaria (?) sex-radiata Lonsdale, Lyell, Geol. Soc.
London, Quart, Jour., vol. 1, pp. 416, 424.
1845. Astrea hirtolamellata ? Michelin, Lyell, Geol. Soc. London,
Quart. Jour., vol. 1, p. 424.
1845. Columnaria (?) sex-radiata Lonsdale, Geol. Soc. London,
Quart. Jour., vol. 1, pp. 497-499, figs. a, b.
1845. Astrea hirtolamellata Michelin ?, Lonsdale, Geol. Soc. Lon-
don, Quart. Jour., vol. 1, pp. 499, 500, fig. on p. 500.
1846. Astrea hirtolamellata Michelin, Conrad, Amer. Jour. Sci.,
ser. 2, vol. 1 (51), art. VII, p. 220.
1846. Astrea marylandica Conrad, Conrad, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser.
2, vol. 1 (51), art. VII, p. 220.
1846. Columnaria (Astroitis ?) sexradiata Lonsdale, Conrad,
Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 1 (51), art. VII, p. 221.
1846. Pleiadia or Astroitis ,hirto-lamellata. Michelin, Conrad,
Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 1 (51), p. 221.
1846. Astroitis sexradiata Lonsdale, Dana, U. S. Exploring Ex-
ped. 1838-1842, vol. 7, Zoophytes, p. 722.
1847. Columnaria ? sexradiata Lonsdale, Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2,
vol. 4 (54), art. XXX, p. 358.
1847. Astraea hirto-lamellata ? Michelin, Lonsdale, Amer. Jour.
Sci., ser. 2, vol. 4 (54), art. XXX, p. 359.
1847. Astraea Marylandica Conrad, Lonsdale, Amer. Jour. Sci.,
ser. 2, vol. 4 (54), art. XXX, p. 359.
1847. Columnaria ? sexradiata Lonsdale, Dana, Amer. Jour. Sci.,
ser. 2, vol. 4 (54), art. XXXI, pp. 361, 362.
1847. Astraea hirto-lamellata Michelin, Dana, Amer. Jour. Sci.,
ser. 2, vol. 4 (54), art, XXXI, pp. 361, 362.
1848. ? Astrea marylandica Conrad, Tuomey, Report on the Ge-
ology of South Carolina, pp. 182, 208.
1848. Dipsastraea hirtolamellata (Michelin), Bronn, Handbuch
einer Geschichte der Natur, Index Palaeont., vol. 3, p. 126.
1848. Columnaria (?) sexradiata Lonsdale, Bronn, Handbuch
einer Geschichte der Natur, Index Palaeont., vol. 3, p. 321.
1849. Septastraea subramosa (nomen nudum) d'Orbigny, Note
sur des polypiers fossiles, p. 9.
1849. Septastrea forbesi Edwards and Haime, Ann. Sci. Nat.
Paris, s&r. 2, Zoologie, vol. 12, p. 164.
1851. Septastrea forbesi Edwards and Haime, Mus. Nat. Hist. nat.
Paris, Arch., vol. 5, p. 115.


1852. Septastrea subramosa d'Orbigny, Prodrome de Paleonto-
logie Stratigraphique, vol. 3, p. 146.
1857. Astrea marylandica Conrad, Tuomey and Holmes, Pleio-
cene fossils of South Carolina, p. 2, pl. 1, figs. 2, 2a.
1857. Septastraea forbesi Edwards and Haime, Histoire naturelle
des Coralliaires ou polypes proprement dits, vol. 2, p. 450.
1857. Astrangia (?) marylandica (Conrad), Edwards and Haime,
Op. cit., p. 615.
1857. Astrangia (?) bella (Conrad), pars, Edwards and Haime,
Op. cit., p. 615.
1861. Astrangia (?) bella (Conrad) pars, Fromentel, Introduction
a l'etude des polypiers fossiles, p. 237.
1864. Astrea (?) Marylandica Conrad, Meek, Smithsonian Misc.
Coll., vol. 7, No. 7, p. 1.
1864. Septastrea (?) sexradiata (Lonsdale), Meek, Op. cit., p. 1.
1870. Astrangia (Coenangia) Marylandica (Conrad), Verrill, Con-
necticut Acad. Arts and Sci., Trans., vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 530,
1886. Glyphastraea Forbesi (Edwards and Haime), Duncan, Geol.
Soc. London, Proc., No. 495, p. 18.
1887. Glyphastraea Forbesi (Edwards and Haime), Duncan, Geol.
Soc. London, Quart. Jour., vol. 43, pp. 29-31, pl. 3.
1887. Glyphastraea sexradiata (Lonsdale), Duncan, Geol. Soc.
London, Quart. Jour., vol. 43, p. 30.
1888. Septastraea Forbesi Edwards and Haime, Hinde, Geol. Soc.
London, Quart. Jour., vol. 44, pp. 218, 219, pl. 9, figs.
1-5, 7-15, 17.
1888. Septastraea sexradiata (Lonsdale), Hinde, Geol. Soc. Lon-
don, Quart. Jour., vol. 44, pp. 219-222, pl. 9, figs. 6, 16.
1895. Coenangia marylandica (Conrad), Gane, Johns Hopkins
Univ. Circ., vol. 15, No. 121, p. 9.
1895. Septastraea sexradiata (Lonsdale), Gane, Op. cit., p. 10.
1900. Coenangia marylandica (Conrad), Gane, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Proc. vol. 22, No. 1193, pp. 190, 191.
1900. Septastraea sexradiata (Lonsdale), Gane, Op. cit., pp.
1902. Astrangia (Coenangia) marylandica (Conrad) and Sept-
astraea sexradiata (Lonsdale), Vaughan, U. S. Fish Comm.,
Bull., vol. 20 for 1900, pt. 2, p. 299.
1904. Septastraea marylandica (Conrad), Vaughan, Maryland
Geol. Sur., Miocene, Syst. Paleont., pp. 444-447, pl. 126,


figs. la, lb, 2; pl. 127, figs. 1-3; pl. 128, figs. 1, 2?; pl.
1909. Septastraea marylandica (Conrad), Grabau and Shimer,
North American Index Fossils, vol. 1, p. 101, text-fig. 163.
1919. Septastraea marylandica (Conrad), Vaughan, U. S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 103, No. 9, pp. 220,222,411,412.
1927. Septastrea marylandica (Conrad), Felix, Fossilium Cata-
logus I: Animalia, pars 35, pp. 339,340.
1932. Septastrea marylandica (Conrad), Roberts, Virginia Geol.
Sur., Bull. 37, Educ. Ser. No. 2, pp. 31, 32, pl. 16, fig. 1.
1933. Astrangia marylandica (Conrad), Pilsbry and Harbison,
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Proc., vol. 65, p. 120.
1936. Astraea crassa Holmes (A. marylandica Conrad), Richards,
Geol. Soc. Amer., Bull., vol. 47, pt. 2, p. 1647.
1942. Astrangia marylandica (Conrad), Richards and Harbison,
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Proc., vol. 94, pp. 178, 224.
1944. Septastrea marylandica (Conrad), Shimer and Shrock, In-
dex Fossils of North America, p. 121, pl. 44, figs. 17, 18.
1956. Septastrea marylandica (Conrad), Wells, in Moore, Treatise
on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. F (Coelenterata), p.
The coralla of the Jackson Bluff specimens are cerioid and near-
ly always found encrusted on, or enveloping shells.
The calices are widely open, moderately deep on well preserved
examples, and pentagonal, hexagonal, quadrangular, tetragonal, trian-
gular, or suboval in outline. The diameters range from 1.5 mm to 5.7
mm, and the depth of the calices to the top of the columella on
unweathered specimens averages about 2 mm. The wall is thin and
sharp above, thicker below; where the calice is weathered down, the
calicular margin is relatively wide and nodulous.
Generally there are 12 large subequal septa, a primary alter-
nating with a secondary, each extending inward from the wall to
meet at the columella. Tertiary septa are small, narrow, and relatively
scarce, with one septum of the third cycle occurring between a pair
of the principal septa. There may be one to four or more such
tertiaries, but in many calices on the same corallum there are no
minor septa whatsoever. Rarely a pair of small third-cycle septa curve
toward and join a larger septum of the second cycle. The sides of the
septa are garnished with small pointed papillae, and the free margins
provided with four or five projecting granulations, each granulation
erect and arborescent, with a few acute serrulations or simple spic-
ules between them.


The columella is formed by the fusion of the principal septa in
the axial area.
In his paper discussing the twenty-six new species of fossil shells
from the Medial Tertiary deposits of Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, Conrad
(1841, p. 33) described the type of Astrea Marylandica as follows:
"Incrusting, very thin; cells unequal, subpentagonal, mar-
gin acute and prominent; radiating lamellae distant, about
12 in number. Frequently incrusting the Pecten Madison-
ius on James River, Virginia."

Measurements Specimen JBC-8a: corallum length 14 mm,
width 11.5 mm, breadth 9.5 mm; largest calice 4.3 mm, depth 2.2
mm. Envelops nearly completely a globular gastropod. Specimen
JBC-8b: corallum length 28 mm, width 13.5 mm, thickness 4.5 mm;
average calice 3.4 mm X 3.2 mm. Incrusted on a pectinid. Specimen
JBC-8c: corallum height 28 mm, width 20.5 mm, breadthl2.5 mm;
diameters of small calice 2.3 mm X 2.1 mm, of large calice 5.7 mm X
4.7 mm. Incrusted on and enveloping the gastropod Muricidea flor-
dana libertiensis Mansfield.
Remarks Septastrea marylandica (Conrad) at Jackson Bluff is
incrusted on the following shells:

Balanus talquinensis Weisbord
Dentalium carolinense Conrad
Conus adversarius Conrad
Oliva sayana Ravenel
Turritella alumensis Mansfield
Cymatosyrinx lunata (H. C. Lea)
Muricidea floridana libertiensis Mansfield
Chlamys comparilis ? Tuomey and Holmes

Comparison This species closely resembles, has the same geo-
logic range as, and often occurs together with Septastrea crassa
(Holmes). Many authors consider the two species synonymous, and
indeed where the specimens are heavily calcified it is difficult to
distinguish them except by their mode of occurrence. The type of
Septastrea marylandica is thin and encrusting whereas, according to


Holmes (1858, p. 2, pl. 1, figs. 3, 3a), Septastrea crassa is "thick and
not incrusting".
Range and Distribution Septastrea marylandica (Conrad) is
reported from New Jersey to Florida and Louisiana in sediments of
Miocene, Mio-Pliocene, and Pleistocene age.
Miocene or Mio-Pliocene:
New Jersey Sea Isle City well at Fiftieth St., 600-700 ft.
Maryland Calvert Cliffs; St. Mary's Formation, St.
Mary's River.
Virginia James Peninsula; Yorktown Formation at Belle-
field, Yorktown, arid many places on James River;
Petersburg ?, Williamsburg, Evergreen. Urbana, Rap-
pahannock River (No. 3915 USNM).
North Carolina See Richards, 1942.
South Carolina See Richards, 1942. Also Darlington Dis-
trict; No. 4000 in USNM, 5 miles south of Mayesville,
Sumter County; No. 4400 (USNM), Tilly Lake, Wac-
camaw River, Horry County (Grahamville, Nixonville
Florida Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River.
This probably should be referred to Septastrea crassa
Heavily calcified specimens of Septastrea marylandica
enveloping naticoid and turbinate gastropods were
collected by Joseph E. Banks at the following locali-
ties in the Pinecrest Formation:
Spoil bank at pump station 65D near Ft. Bas-
singer, Highlands County. Collected 1 July
Warren Brothers Pits, 4 miles east of Sarasota,
Sarasota County. Collected 28 October 1969.
Brighton, Highlands County, and USNM No.
243222, J. E. Ayers Collection, Sarasota, Sara-
sota County, in U. S. National Museum.
Louisiana In well at 2600 ft., 5 miles south of Montegut
(USNM). Probably Miocene according to Paul Hud-
North Carolina See Richards, 1942.


Oculina cf. 0. diffusa Lamarck P1. 12, fig. 8; pl. 13, fig. 1

1816. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim. sans Vert., vol.
2, p. 285.
1850. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Edwards and Haime, Ann. Sci.
Nat. Paris, s6r. 3, Zoologie, vol. 13, p. 68.
1880. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Pourtales, in L. Agassiz, Mus.
Comp. Zool., Mem., vol. 7, No. 1, pl. 3, figs. 10-12.
1902. Oculina diffusa Lamarck var., Vaughan, U. S. Fish Comm.,
,Bull., vol. 20 for 1900, pt. 2, pp. 291, 294, pl. 1, figs. 5,
1902. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Duerden, Nat. Acad. Sci., Wash-
ington, Mem., vol. 8, pp. 585-588.
1943. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Vaughan and Wells, Geol. Soc.
Amer., Spec. Papers, No. 44, pp. 180, 181, 325, pl. 33, fig.
1948. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Smith, Atlantic Reef Corals, pp.
8, 62, 66, 91, 112, pl. 28.
1958. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Squires, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
Bull., vol. 115, art. 4, pp. 229, 232, 238, 256, 257, pl. 38,
fig. 4.
1963. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Almy and Carri6n Torres, Carib-
bean Jour. Sci., vol. 3, nos. 2-3, pp. 143, 156, 162, pl. 16a.
1967. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Goreau and Wells, Bull. Marine
Sci., vol. 17, No. 2, p. 448.
1968. Oculina diffusa Lamarck, Weisbord, Bull. Amer. Paleont.,
vol. 55, No. 246, pp. 62-65, pl. 8, figs. 1-3. [Numerous
references, 1816 to 1967.]

This species is rare in the Jackson Bluff Formation and is repre-
sented in our collection by two specimens, JBC-7a and JBC-7b. The
former although broken and badly corroded, appears to have been
branching, with the main branch subcircular in cross section and 12.5
mm in diameter. The coenosteum is finely and profusely granulated.
The calices are small (2.3 mm to 2.9 mm), subcircular, a few of them
touching, but most of them separated, the separation varying to as
much as 2.5 mm. The calicular margins are rounded, slightly ele-
vated, and nodulose at the intercepts of the costae and septa. On
specimen JBC-7b, which seems to be a relict from the base of the
original corallum, the costae are low, subequal, and minutely granu-
lated, extending down from the calicular margin to the intercorallite
areas where they abut against the costal termini of neighboring cal-


There is one costa for each septum. The septa are arranged in
three, generally complete, cycles, the number varying from 22 to 24.
The septa of the first two cycles are about equal in size, and reach
the columella; third cycle septa are considerably smaller, and project
but slightly from the wall. All of the septa are exsert in varying
degree, serrulated along the free margin, and finely spinulose on the
sides. Small pali are present at the inner ends of the larger septa. The
columella is papillose, somewhat sunken, and flattish at the top.,
Measurements Specimen JBC-7a: corallum fragment, height
22 mm, width 14.5 mm, maximum thickness of main branch 12.5
mm. Specimen JBC-7b: two-branched corallum, height 44 mm,
width above crotch 28 mm, maximum diameter of main trunk 23
mm; average diameter of calices on trunk 3.0 mm.
Locality and Formation -Jackson Bluff Formation at Jackson
Bluff, Leon County. From Cancellaria Zone.
Range and Distribution Oculina diffusa Lamarck ranges from
Mio-Pliocene (Cubagua Island, Venezuela) to Recent. In the Pleisto-
cene the species occurs in the Abisinia Formation of Venezuela, in
Barbados, in the Panama Canal Zone, and in the Bahamas. The living
0. diffusa ranges from Florida to Venezuela.
In collections at Florida State University and the Florida Bu-
reau of Geology, the writer has identified Oculina diffusa from the
following localities in Florida.
St. Andrews Bay, near Panama City, Bay County dredged
Wayside park, one mile south of Bald Point, Gulf County
washed up on beach
Alligator Point, Franklin County
Breakwater, Ft. Taylor, Key West, Monroe County

Pit at South Bay water plant, South Bay, Palm Beach County
Lower Caloosahatchee
1-11561. North St. Petersburg, Pinellas County, 900 feet east of
9th Street and a short distance south of 70th Avenue -


Caloosahatchee River, 2-5 miles west of La Belle, Hendry
County. Collected by Mike Strong, 2 Dec. 1969.
Caloosahatchee River, 1 mile below Huggett's Landing, Hendry
County. Collected by E. H. Sellards, 17 Nov. 1914. Hug-
gett's Landing also known as Rope Bend, is about 3 miles
west of La Belle.

Oculina sarasotana, new species P1. 13, figs. 2-5; pl. 14, figs. 1-4
The corallum is large, robust, and branching, the branches aris-
ing from'a spreading base which itself is encrusted on oyster shells.
The branches develop from clusters or from a main trunk on the
base, growing more or less erect and producing their own divaricating
branches above. The branches are circular to oval in cross section,
and are alternately constricted and swollen in their course.
On well preserved portions of the corallum only, the corallites
are seen to be relatively small (the average 3.4 mm X 3.8 mm on the
surface), variously pentagonal and hexagonal in outline, and tightly
appressed to each other, the line of separation marked by a faint
incision. The calices are small (the average measuring 2.3 mm X 2.4
mm), rather shallow, subcircular in outline, and generally aligned in
oblique rows along the Branch. The spacing of the calices is subregu-
lar, the distance averaging about 1.4 mm. The margin of the calices is
slightly elevated and is nodulous or costate. The costae are nearly
equal in size, with one costa for each septum, all of them thicker
than the septa from which they are prolonged. The costae (and coen-
osteum in general) are profusely and very finely granulated, and
continue from the calicular margin to the boundary of the adjacent
corallite in dimished strength as flattenened, often curved, fillets.
Normally there are 24 septa in three complete cycles. The pri-
mary and secondary septa are about equal and reach the columella;
the 12 septa of the third cycle are considerably smaller and project
only part way to the columella. All of the septa are slightly exsert,
dentate along the free margin, and papillate on the sides. At the inner
ends of the principal septa are papillate pali which become part of
the columella. The columella is small, fused, and papillate.
In section the endothecal dissepiments are seen to be laminar
and prominent, and on the main stem close to the base of specimen
SP-lb, they are 0.7 mm to 0.8 mm apart.

Measurements Holotype (SP-la): corallum height 225 mm,
overall width 56 mm, diameter at middle of stem 30 mm. Paratype
(SP-lb): corallum diameter at base 100 mm X 91 mm, overall height


76 mm, diameter of main stem 23 mm. Paratype (SP-lc): corallum
height 141 mm, diameter at base 66 mm X 51.5 mm, diameter of
main trunk 37 mm X 27 mm. Specimen JBC-12B: corallum frag-
ment height 26 mm, maximum diameter of branch 28.5 mm.

Localities Warren Brothers Pits, 4 miles east of U. S. 301,
Sarasota, Sarasota County. Collected by Harbans S. Puri, 29 January
1970 from the lower part of Bed 1, an oyster biostrome. (Pinecrest
Formation). Also the Jackson Bluff Formation at Jackson Bluff, and
about 2300 feet to the southwest on Florida State road 20 at bridge
over the Ochlockonee River, Leon County.
The following information locality, stratigraphic section, and
fossils in the Warren Brothers Pits has been transmitted to me by
Dr. Harbans S. Puri who was one of the first geologists to examine
the excavations:

4.5 miles east off U. S. 301, 17th Street, dead end, turn left on
paved road [Newburn Rd.], go 0.4 miles, pits on right.

4 Pleistocene Sand +15

3 Oyster biostrome, as bed 1 4
(delicate) Pecten sp., Ostrea haitensis (Sowerby)
mostly articulated valves, Conus sp.

2 Shell hash, sandy with few complete mollusks; top of 1
the bed marked with Mytiloconcha sp. oriented as in
life. Can be traced laterally around the pits.

1 Oyster biostrome 3
Light gray to green shell hash, quartz sand with
Ostrea haitensis (Sowerby), Pecten eboreus darling-.
tonensis Dall, Cancellaria propevenusta Mansfield,
Murex globosus Emmons, Conus adversarius Conrad.

Comparison This species, which attains a very large size and
thickness of branches, resembles the Recent Oculina robusta Pour-
tales (1871, p. 66; 1880, pls. 2, figs. 1, 2) from Florida, but differs


from that in its smaller, less elevated, and more regularly distributed
calices, and in having tertiary septa much smaller than the principal
ones; in 0. robusta the tertiary septa are nearly as large as those of
the first and second cycles.

Range and Distribution Pinecrest Formation, Sarasota Coun-
ty and Jackson Bluff Formation, Leon County; the distance between
these two localities is 250 miles.

Paracyathus vaughani Gane P1. 14, figs. 5; pl. 15, figs. 1-8
1895. Paracycathus vaughani Gane, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ.,
vol. 15, No. 121, p. 9.
1900. Paracyathus vaughani Gane, U. S. National Mus., Proc. vol.
22, No. 1193, p. 185, pl. 15, figs. 4-6.
1904. Paracyathus vaughani Gane, Vaughan, Maryland Geol.
Sur., Miocene, Systematic Paleontology, pp. 438, 439, pl.
122, figs. 1-3.
1919. Paracyathus vaughani Gane, Vaughan, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. No. 9, p. 220.
1936. Paracyathus vaughani Gane, Cooke, U. S. Geol. Sur., Bull.
867, p. 116.
1964. Paracythus vaughani Gane, Darby and Hoyt, Jour. Pale-
ont., vol. 38, No. 1, p. 70.
1968. Paracyathus vaughani Gane, Weisbord, Bull. Amer. Pale-
ont., vol. 55, No. 246, p. 73.

The description of this species by Gane in 1900 was the follow-

"Corallum small, broad and low, with the calice about
the same diameter as the base, above which the wall is
somewhat constricted. Wall thin, costulate to its base.
Costae low, unequal, finely granular, more prominent near
the calicular margin where they are considerably thicker
than their corresponding septa. Calice cicular in the young,
slightly oval in the adult individual; fossa broad, moderate-
ly deep. Septa is six systems of five cycles lacking part of
the sixth order of the last cycle; in forms of medium size,
only four cycles are present. Primaries and secondaries sub-
equal, thick and stout, with summits more broadly round-
ed and more strongly exsert than those of the remaining
thin and slender septa; sides coarsely granulated, edges of
the higher cycles regularly crenately dentate. Pali granular,


present before all the septa but those of the last cycle,
excepting in the most mature forms, where they may be
lacking before a part of the fourth as well as before all of
the fifth cycle of septa. Columella papillose, well devel-
In polishing down the base of the coral, the rings
marking the existence of previous outer walls are clearly
seen. In one specimen no less than eight appear, showing
the growth of the coral and its relation to the development
of its septa.
The individuals of this generally occur along attached
to some shell, but occasionally they are found in clusters,
being in close contact with one another at their sides or
the outer edge of their bases.
Dimensions -Height of largest specimen, 4 mm;
breadth of calice 11 mm.
Geological horizon Miocene, "Chesapeake forma-
The forms from Jackson Bluff and this is the first report of
Paracythus vaughani from that locality are attached to a variety of
shells, and all of the coralla I have seen are solitary. The corallites are
low, generally subcyclindrical or tympanoid, and rarely a little elon-
gated and subtrochoid. The wall is thin, often spread in the area of
attachment, and costulate, the costae extending from the rim of the
calice to the base which is expanded. The costae are low, unequal,
and finely granular. The calice is circular to suboval and very shallow.
The largest calice, with a diameter of 10.7 mm, has 88 septa in five
full cycles and most of the sixth; a calice 6.4 mm in diameter has 78
septa in five full cycles and a few in the sixth; and a calice 7.5 mm in
diameter has 56 septa in four full cycles and a number in the fifth.
The primary and secondary septa are subequal, exsert, conspicuous,
and stout, with summits more broadly rounded than those of the
other systems. The sides of the larger septa are coarsely granulated,
most of the granulations large and solid but a few pustulose; the sides
of the smaller septa are also granulated, the granulations relatively
long and rod-like. The margins of the septa are indented into several
paliforn lobes, the pali thereon arborescent and compact and becom-
ing confused with the papillae of the columella; such pali are present
before all of the septa save those of the last cycle or two. The
columella is circular and papillose, the diameter small to medium
depending on the number of pali involved.
Measurements Specimen JBC-lOa: corallum height 5.5 mm,


diameter at base 13 mm; calice diameter 10.7 mm, number of septa
88. Specimen JBC-1Ob: corallum height 3.7 mm, diameter at base
11 mm; calice diameter 7.5 mm, number of septa 74. Specimen
JBC-lOc: corallum height 4.3 mm, diameter at base 7 mm; calice
diameter 6.8 mm, number of septa 80. Specimen JBC-lOd (subtro-
choid): corallum height 8.6 mm, diameter at base 4.6 mm; calice
diameter 7.5 mm, number of septa 56.
Paracyathus vaughani Gane at Jackson Bluff is attached to the
following mollusks as determined from Mansfield (1930, 1932).
Petaloconchus sculpturatus H. C. Lea
Arca (Anadara) lienosa Say
Ostrea sculpturata Conrad
Ostrea disparilis Conrad
Chlamys (Plagioctenium) eboreus(Conrad)
Chlamys (Plagioctenium) comparilis jacksonensis Mansfield
Plicatula marginata Say
Chama congregate Conrad
Glycimeris americana (DeFrance)
Chione (Lirophora) ulocyma leonensis Mansfield
Range and Distribution This coral is now known from the
Upper Miocene of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
and Florida. In Virginia it occurs in the Chesapeake Group at Carter's
Landing, James River, and at Yorktown; in North Carolina at Wilm-
ington; in South Carolina near Rayser Bridge, Colleton County (Ray-
sor Marl); in Georgia it has been dredged from tide channels along
the coast; and in Florida it is common in the Jackson Bluff Forma-
tion at Jackson Bluff.



Explanation of Plate 1
Chipola Corals

Stylocoenia cf. S. pumpellyi (Vaughan) ...... 13,14
1. Specimen FLX-7a, side view, X2
2. Enlargement of central area of figure 1, X10
3. Specimen FLX-7a, end view, X3
4. Specimen FLX-7b, side view, X2
5. Enlargement of left half of figure 4, X8
6. Specimen FLX-7b, end view, X2.5
7. Specimen FLX-7c, side view, X2
8. Enlargement of central area of figure 7, X6



VA 4D VAY'*. *LCr T




Explanation of Plate 2
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1-4 Stephanocoenia ?decaseptata, new species . . 14,15
1. Holotype (FLX-9a), X1
2. Holotype, left area of figure 1 enlarged, X3
3. Holotype, enlargement of figure 2, X7
4. Holotype, end view, X2
5-7 Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan . . . . ... 15-17
5. Specimen CH5-3a, frondose form, X0.8
6. Same as figure 5, X2
7. Surface of figure 5 enlarged, X7


(~ j

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Explanation of Plate 3
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1-5 Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan . . . ... 15-17
1. Specimen CH5-3b, side view of club-shaped corallum,
2. Central area of figure 1, X7
3. Specimen CH5-3c, side view, X1.5
4. Same, reverse side, X1.5
5. Central area of figure 4, X8


T,~ P ~


1I X~ :a
," . 1 ~c~:' :.;.4~



Explanation of Plate 4
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1-4 Stylophora undata, new species . . . ... 17,18
1. Holotype (FLX-2a), X2.3
2. Holotype, central area of figure 1, X8
3. Paratype (FLX-2b), X1.6
4. Paratype, reverse side of figure 3 enlarged, X6
5,6 Goniopora calhounensis, new species . . ... 18-20
5. Holotype (CH3-3a), view of upper surface, X1.6
6. Holotype, side view, X1.6. The height of this species
is considerably greater on the unbroken coral-
7,8 Porites chipolanum, new species . . . ... 20-22
7. Paratype (FLX-1 la), view of upper surface, X0.4
8. Paratype, view of side, X0.4



Explanation of Plate 5
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1,2 Porites chipolanum, new species . . . ... 20-22
1. Holotype (CH5-5a), view of upper surface, X1.5
2. Holotype, enlargement of upper left area of figure 1,
3-5 Thysanus vaughani, new species . . . . ... 22-23
3. Holotype (CH4-la), view of base, X7.6
4. Holotype, view of calice with embedded gastropod,
5. Holotype, view of side, X7.6





Explanation of Plate 6
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1-3 Thysanus vaughani, new species . . . ... 22,23
1. Paratype (CH4-lb), X7.7, view of calice
2. Same, view of sides
3. Same, view of base
4-9 Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus) . . . ... 23-30
4. Specimen FLX-3a, side view, X0.6
5. Individual corallite from FLX-3a, X1
6. Specimen FLX-3b, head of corallum, XO.45
7. Same, side view, XO.45
8. Specimen CH3-3a, view of upper surface, X1.5
9. Same, side view, X1.5



..~ ---~-a
. ;


Explanation of Plate 7
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1-4 Montastrea cf. M. costata (Duncan) . . . . 31-33
1. Specimen FLX-5a, X0.66
2. Same, opposite side of corallum, X0.63
3. Same, view of interior, XO.73
4. Same, detail of figure 2 above, X3
5-7 Antiguastrea cf. A. cellulosa silicensis Vaughan .33-35
5. Specimen FLX-6a, upper surface of corallum, X0.8
6. Same, side view of corallum, X0.8
7. Same, detail of upper surface shown on figure 5, X2



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ih~~ - :'"


Explanation of Plate 8
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1-8 Antillophyllia chipolana, new name . . . . 35-40
1. Specimen I-1228a, side view, X1
2. Same, view of calice, X0.9
3. Specimen I-1228b, detail of septum, X2.2
4. Specimen I-1228c, immature example, X2
5. Same, view of calice, X2
6. Specimen I-1228d, side and upper view, X1
7. Same, view of calice, X1
8. Specimen CH8-la showing bud attached to parent,




Explanation of Plate 9
Chipola Corals

Figures Pages
1-3 Astrangia calhounensis, new species . . . ... 40-41
1. Holotype, CH5-2a, X1.7
2. Holotype, X2.5
3. Holotype, X6
4-9 Flabellum chipolanum, new species . . . ... 41,42
4. Holotype, CH3-2a view of calice, X2
5. Holotype, side view, X2
6. Holotype, upper view, X2
7. Holotype, view of septa, X6
8. Paratype, I-1228-2a, side view, X2
9. Paratype, view of calice, X2


^t-^ ^-^,^"^-t..


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-- ^ n
t t-t

I~ :

'1 ^
*. ^ ,

.4 it


Explanation of Plate 10
Jackson Bluff Corals

Figures Pages
1-6 Astrangia leonensis, new species . . . .... 43,44
1. Holotype, JBC-6a, upper view, X2.3
2. Holotype, back view, X3.4
3. Holotype, side view, X5
4. Paratype,JBC-6b, X2
5. Paratype, X2.5
6. Paratype, view of calice, X10


rst 4r1 4
J A- 3


5 ; ~

I .

& I *




\ F


Explanation of Plate 11
Jackson Bluff Corals


1,2 Astrangia talquinensis, new species
1. Holotype,JBC-lla, X3.1
2. Paratype,JBC-llb, X2.1
3-6 Phyllangia blakei Wells . . .
3. Specimen JBC-9a, X2
4. Another view of JBC-9a, X2
5. Specimen JBC-9b, X1
6. Another view of JBC-9b, X2

. . . . 44-46

. . . . 46,47



Ir~~ k


Explanation of Plate 12
Jackson Bluff Corals

Septastrea marylandica (Conrad) . . . ... 47-52
1. Specimen JBC-8a, X2
2. Specimen JBC-8b, X2
3. Same, reverse side, X2
4. Specimen JBC-8c, coral coating aperture of gastro-
pod, X2

5. Same, reverse side, X2
6. Specimen SP-2a; Pinecrest Formation in Warren
Brothers Pits, 4 miles east of Sarasota, Sarasota
County. Coral coating gastropod, X2
7. Same, reverse side, X2.6
8 Oculina cf. 0. diffusa Lamarck . . . . ... 53-55
8. Specimen JBC-7a, X2



3 L


Explanation of Plate 13
Jackson Bluff Corals

Figures Pages
1 Oculina cf. 0. diffusa Lamarck . . . . ... 53-55
1. Specimen JBC-7b, side view, X3.2
2-5 Oculina sarasotana, new species . . . .... 55-57
2. Holotype (SP-la), general view greatly reduced,
3. Surface of holotype near top of branch, X1
4. Same, X2.6
5. Specimen JBC-12b, fragment from an originally large
example, X1



." -/


Explanation of Plate 14
Jackson Bluff Corals

Figures Pages
1-4 Oculina sarasotana, new species . . . ... 55-57
1. Paratype (SP-lb), upper surface of base from which
branches grow upward, X0.5
2. Same, under surface of base showing attachment to
Ostrea, X0.5
3. Paratype (SP-lc), side view, X0.5
5 Paracyathus vaughani Gane . . . . . . . 57-59
5. Specimen JBC-1Oa, view of calice, X2


S-" -.- 4

~~. 4

I,, ~


-~.~~`'il"~ "





Explanation of Plate 15
Jackson Bluff Corals

Figures Pages
1-8 Paracyathus vaughani Gane . . .... . .. 57-59
1. Specimen JBC-1Ob, view of calice, X2
2. Same, X4
3. Specimen JBC-lOb, side view, X2
4. Same, X5
5. Specimen JBC-1 Ob, view of calice, X2.5
6. Specimen JBC-1Od, side view, X2.5
7. Same, X4
8. Specimen JBC-1Od, view of calice, X3


4: ;A ~ ~~ ~7
" -* ; .*:. |..




Agassiz, A.
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