Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Hydrology and water needs
 Water problems
 Aims and objectives
 Cooperation and support
 Present program
 Planning for future needs
 Back Cover


The water mapping, monitoring and research program in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000483/00001
 Material Information
Title: The water mapping, monitoring and research program in Florida
Series Title: Florida Geological Survey. Special publication
Physical Description: vi, 41 p. : illus., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Clyde Stuart, 1916-
MacKichan, Kenneth Allen, 1911- ( joint author )
Pride, R. W. ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1965
Copyright Date: 1965
Subjects / Keywords: Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water resources development -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: At head of title: State of Florida, State Board of Conservation. Division of Geology.
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Geology and the Division of Water Resources and Conservation, Florida Board of Conservation."
Statement of Responsibility: by C.S. Conover, K.A. MacKichan, and R.W. Pride.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: notis - ADY0147
alephbibnum - 000786223
oclc - 00414878
lccn - a 66007410
lccn - a 66007410
System ID: UF00000483:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page 1
    Hydrology and water needs
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Water problems
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Aims and objectives
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Cooperation and support
        Page 17
    Present program
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Planning for future needs
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Back Cover
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text









F, ; '
'I '


Robert 0. Vernon, Director



C. S. Conover, K. A. MacKichan, and R. W. Pride

Prepared by the
in cooperation with the
and the


Completed manuscript received
April 30, 1965
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey



Special acknowledgment is due the following agencies whose
financial support in the 1965 fiscal year contributed to the overall
water resources program in Florida:
Florida Geological Survey
Florida State Road Department
Florida Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials
Florida Aqueduct Commission
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District
Oklawaha Basin Recreation and Water Control and Conservation
Southwest Florida Water Management District
Suwannee River Authority
Tsala Apopka Basin Recreation and Water Conservation Control
West Orange Water Conservation Association
Winter Haven Lake Region Boat Course District
County of Broward
County of Collier
County of Dade
County of Duval
County of Escambia
County of Highlands
County of Hillsborough
County of Manatee
County of Marion
County of Orange
County of Polk
County of Santa Rosa
County of Sarasota
County of Volusia
City of Boca Raton
City of Cocoa
City of Deerfield Beach
City of Fort Lauderdale
City of Jacksonville
City of Miami
City of Miami Beach
City of Naples
City of Pensacola
City of Perry
City of Sarasota


City of Tallahassee
City of Tampa
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior
National Park Service, Department of the Interior
Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army
U. S. Air Force
U. S. Navy


A cknow ledgm ents ................................. ................................. ............. iii
Introd u c tio n ....................................... ................ ........................ .......... 1
Hydrology and water needs ............................................................. 2
W ater problem s ................................. .................................................. 4
Inadequate quantity and quality ................................. ........... 5
V ariability w ith tim e .......................................................... .......... 7
G geographic variability ......................................................... ......... 9
Effects of man's development...................................................... 11
Depletion of the supply ........................................................... 11
P o llutio n .................................. ...................................... ........... 1 1
Salt-water encroachment ............................................... ......... 12
L a n d u s e .................................. ....................................... .......... 13
C conflict of interest ....................... ........................................ 13
A im s and objectives ......................... ................ .................................. 14
Cooperation and support ..................................................... ......... 17
Present program ............................................................... .......... 18
Hydrologic records ...................................................................... 18
P rim ary netw ork .......................................................................... 18
Secondary network ................................................................. 20
Water-management network ...................................................... 20
Investigations ..................................................................... 26
D es criptiv e ........................................................................................ .. 2 6
Interpretive ......................................................................... ... 29
Water-management ................................................................. 29
Planning for future needs ................................................. ... ....... 31
H ydrologic records ................................................................ ......... 3 1
D ata processing ............................................................ 33
Investigations .................................................................... 3 4
D escriptive ........................................... .............. 34
Interpre tive ..................................... ......................................... 3 6
W ater-m anagem ent ............................................................. ......... 37
Hydrologic principles and techniques ................... ... ........ 38
Prognosis ................................................................... .............. 40


Figure Page

1 Change in population in Florida by counties, 1950-1962 ...... 3
2 Problems of water management ............................................... 6
3 Concentration of dissolved solids in the Peace River at
Arcadia, October 1963 to September 1964 ......................... 8
4 Type of water in Floridan aquifer ........................................ 10
5 Water problems and needed hydrologic information ................ 16
6 Categories of water resources investigations ......................... 16
7 Classification of water resources program and publication
outlets .................................... ................... .............. ........... 19
8 Number of ground-water analyses by counties ..................... 21
9 Streamflow measuring stations, November 1964 .................... 22

10 Stream, lake, and estuary stage measuring stations, November
196 4 ....................................................... ......................... ...... 2 3
11 Recording conductivity stations and daily sampling sites for
surface water quality, November 1964............................... 24
12 Observation wells and chloride sampling wells, June 1964.... 25
13 Areal studies of water resources completed ........................... 27
14 Areal studies of water resources in progress ......................... 28


Table Page

1 Selected water-management studies completed or in pro-
g re s s .................................................................... ......... ....... 3 0
2 Number of existing and needed hydrologic network sites
in F lorida ....................... .......... .............. .... .... ............ 33


C. S. Conover, K. A. MacKichan, and R. W. Pride


"Till taught by pain, men really know not what
good water's worth."- Byron

People and water go together. Where there are people there
is a demand for water and water problems soon follow. Floods
damage cities because they are built on flood plains. Water levels
decline and salt water encroaches because man overdrains his
land or overpumps his well fields. Man disturbs the soil in cul-
tivating the land and increases the sediment load of the streams.
His factories, homes, and automobiles pour impurities into the
air only to be washed to the ground and into the water supply.
His wastes must be disposed of, too often by dumping them into
streams. His desires to maintain a natural environment for fish
and wildlife conflict with his needs for water to serve his modern
civilization. Simply using the water generally reduces the supply
and almost always causes a deterioration of quality.
In essence, the natural hydrologic environment is being upset
by man. His demand for water and the effects of his developments
on the water supply are in conflict. Increasingly man needs to
know better the hydrologic facts and the physical interrelations
of the hydrologic system in order that he may make better deci-
sions with respect to his use of water. A program to obtain the
facts about the water resources of the state is needed if the infor-
mation is to be readily available for effective development, man-
agement, and control of the resources in Florida. Such a program
is described herewith.
This program provides a broad framework into which future
investigations may be fitted. It provides information on which
water studies in Florida can he justified and recognizes the long-
standing technical and financial cooperation between the U.S.
Geological Survey and the Florida Board of Conservation, and
with many other State and local agencies. Owing to the rapid
growth in population and industrialization and the consequent
continued shift and change in water problems in many parts of


the State, the program will need to be supplemented from time to
time with more specific plans which will provide for scheduling
and implementation of elements of the program.

Florida, though one of the few states abundantly supplied
with water, has many water problems because of its hydrologic
environment and because of its rapid increase in population.
The water features of Florida are a prime factor in promoting
the large influx of tourists and residents. The population increased
about 80 percent, from nearly 3 million to 5 million, in the decade
from 1950 to 1960. The population is projected to nearly 8 million
in 1970. The rate of increase is one of the greatest in the nation.
The unprecedented growth in population with the commensurate
increase in irrigation and industry has caused the use of water
to increase rapidly. Water use is expected to increase from about
4 billion gallons a day in 1956 to about 8 billion gallons a day
in 1970. Additional water demands for recreation and wildlife are
envisioned. Water problems tend to be accentuated in the areas of
heaviest growth which are in the southern coastal areas and in
some parts of the northeast and the western panhandle, as shown
in figure 1. Conversely, much of the northern part of the State has
not experienced an inordinate gain in population. The main water
problem in these areas may be a lack of knowledge of the occur-
rence and potential of a resource which could contribute to growth.
Florida is an area of low relief with much of the state being
less than 50 feet above sea level. The flat topography results in
many watersheds being poorly defined. Most of the well-defined
streams and drainage basins lie in the northern part of the state.
Many of these are interstate streams. In the southern part, canals
and drains have changed drainage patterns and removed water
that once stood in shallow sheets or moved slowly through swamps
and the Everglades.
Rainfall generally ranges from 46 to 64 inches and averages
53 inches a year. Florida has the greatest number of thunder-
storms of any state and is in the prevailing path of hurricanes.
Thus, rainfall is variable in amount and intensity. Heavy rains
and the flat topography result in large areas of frequently flooded
or swampy land. Conversely, the sub-tropical climate with its
high rate of evaporation and transpiration and periods of low
rainfall result in droughts of varying degree.




Increase greater than 50 percent

- \ Increase 25 to 50 percent

SIncrease less than 25 percent

I Decrease less than 30 percent f
12 Relative order of percentage change
from greatest increase to greatest

0 0 20 30 40 50 mles

Figure 1. Change in population in Florida by counties, 1950-1962.


Florida, bounded almost entirely by the oceans, has the
longest seacoast of any state. The many estuaries and bays con-
tain waters of a quality varying between brackish and saline and
which receive the wastes of the cities and industries. Population
is concentrated along the seacoasts. The consequent development
of water supply wells, finger canals, and drainage and flood con-
trol canals result in salt-water encroachment and eventual deteri-
oration of fresh-water supplies. Large springs and related scenic
attractions are threatened by man's desire to be in close proximity
to such features and to develop his water supplies and dispose
of his wastes conveniently.
Florida is underlain almost entirely by permeable limestone.
These limestones are responsible for the "sinkhole" topography
of the state and contribute to the existence of the many lakes
and ponds. The creviced limestone is solution-riddled and forms
the Floridan aquifer, one of the most productive aquifers in the
count. he many large springs for which Florida is noted, such
as Silver, Rainbow, Weekiwachee, and Wakulla Springs, issue
from this aquifer. The aquifer receives its recharge from numerous
lakes and streams and overlying formations. Drainage of swamps
and lakes tends to change recharge to the aquifer.
Most public water supplies in the northern half of the state
are from the Floridan aquifer. Development of water from the
aquifer tends to lower the water pressure and thus to induce salt-
water encroachment along the coast. In much of southern Florida,
the Floridan aquifer contains non-potable water. Water supply is
developed from overlying aquifers of varying thickness and lateral
extent which contain variable qualities of water. These aquifers.
except for the Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida, are large-
ly unmapped and their water potential and characteristics are not
known in detail.
Thus, though Florida on a broad basis has abundant water,
water problems arise from its variability in quantity and quality
with time and from place to place and from man's desire or need
to impose his water demands and his will upon the hydrologic
The overall water problem essentially is to meet all man's
needs for water of a specific quantity and quality at a specific
place and time. Fundamentally, water problems are the result of
man's desire to utilize, control, and modify not only the water


but the water courses, the land surface, and the underground reser-
voirs. Water problems are due to the incompatibility of the activi-
ties of man with nature, or to inadequate knowledge. Man, in his
effort to capture, control, and use the water not only may deplete
the supply, but may create new water problems such as salt-water
encroachment, pollution, and reduced ground-water recharge. Fur-
thermore, he may encroach on flood plains of streams and he may
overdrain wet lands -- both of which create water-related problems.
Competition for water is a problem which is progressively
increasing. Competition arises not only from multiple needs for
available water but also from opposing demands for water manage-
ment and control. How can floods be controlled and at the same
time water be conserved? How can land be drained for agriculture
and urban development but at the same time provide for salinity
control, water supply, wildlife, and the preservation of Florida's
water environment? How can quantities of water be provided for
dilution of wastes and at the same time for water supply? How
can lake levels, stream flow, and wet lands be maintained if other
needs are met? Competition for the same water is the chief problem
of those concerned with managing and regulating the available
water supplies. Some of the problems of water management brought
about by the competing needs are illustrated in figure 2.
Inadequate Quantity and Quality
Probably the most commonly recognized water supply problems
occur when the demand exceeds the supply either locally or areal-
ly. The problem may be either inordinate demands related to
existing supply, to inadequate supply, or to inadequate quality.
The problem of inadequate quantity and quality is caused
at times by lack of knowledge of the availability of water; that is,
development not related to hydrologic conditions. For instance,
overpumping of well fields may cause deterioration in supply even
though the water supply may be adequate to meet lesser demands.
Also, the general existence of the prolific Floridan aquifer tends
to obscure the fact that small supplies of water of satisfactory
quality may exist in lesser aquifers where the Floridan aquifer
does not contain potable water.
Water supply may at times become inadequate by virtue of
natural variation with time or by gradually increasing demand until
the available supply is exceeded. These problems are discussed
under variability with time and development by man.




Figure 2. Problems of water management.


Some constituents in water make it unsatisfactory for an
intended use. Water that is satisfactory for one use may be unsat-
isfactory for another. Water that is satisfactory for drinking is
generally satisfactory for most other uses. Water which is gene-
rally potable may not be satisfactory for all people. For instance,
water high in sodium may be harmful to people suffering from
cardiac and circulatory diseases. Water that would otherwise be
classed as generally satisfactory may contain minor elements
such as fluoride in amounts that make it undesirable or harmful
Some ground water and some contaminated surface waters in
Florida contain excessive fluorides. Water with excessive iron
is undesirable because it stains clothing, plumbing fixtures, and
manufactured products. Some ground water in Florida, particularly
that in the surficial formations, tends to be high in iron. Water
which is acidic is corrosive and causes excessive maintenance
in industry and public supply systems. Color in water is undesir-
able. Water in most streams in Florida tends to be acidic and to
have a high color.
Variability With Time
The natural quantity and quality of the water supply of Florida
are ever-changing because rainfall is variable. Hurricanes and
thunderstorms may precipitate large quantities of water in a short
time resulting in floods. On the other hand, long periods of defi-
cient rainfall result in droughts and higher concentrations of
dissolved minerals in some water supplies.
Floods are a major problem in Florida as well as in other
parts of the country. Floods occur naturally as the result of heavy
rainfall which contributes a flow temporarily in excess of that
which can be carried away by the river channel or drainage sys-
tem. Flood plains, lakes, and surface depressions were formed
naturally to dispose of the drainage from the land during periods
of excess rainfall. Because flood plains and waterfront locations
have many attractive features, man overlooks or ignores the threat
of flood damage and uses these locations for homes, industry, and
agriculture. Floods cause severe damage to buildings, roads,
bridges, water impounding dams and levees, and sewage systems.
Flood damages in Florida frequently run into millions of dollars.
Erosion of topsoil in agricultural areas is magnified during flood
runoff. Poorly developed drainage systems and lack of stream
channels contribute to flooding in some areas. High water tables
and the concentration of surface water in sinkholes and depres-
sions cause trouble during periods of intense rainfall.


Droughts occur in Florida as in other parts of the country.
Long periods of little or no rainfall may cause streams to go dry,
lake and ground-water levels to decline, and water shortages
to occur in some areas. Unfortunately, the needs for water are
greatest when rainfall is the smallest. For example, large quanti-
ties of water are used in Florida for irrigation during the dry sea-
son. The quantity of water used for irrigation increases with the
severity of the drought. Though Florida receives a bountiful rain-
fall every year, there are periods even during wet years when crops
suffer from lack of water. The practice of irrigation is gradually
increasing. Irrigation from lakes and streams creates problems
because of deficient supplies when rainfall is lacking, because
of multiple ownership of lakes and the desire of some owners
for stable lake levels, or because of inconvenience or inaccessi-
bility to the place of need. Increased attention is being given to
the development of ground water for irrigation, with increased
danger of overdrafts during dry seasons.

The natural quality of the water in streams or lakes changes
more rapidly and ranges between wider extremes than ground water.
Figure 3 shows the variability of dissolved solids in the Peace
River during the 1964 water year. Most significant changes in
quality of ground water with time are caused by man's activities.
Almost all natural water requires some treatment before use for
some purposes. It is more difficult and expensive to treat a vari-
able water.

300 300

320C --- -- ----2-- -- -- -- -- ---- -- -- 00

1 250 --- 50

50 50
0 \ V 1 00A;

0 50-- --- ----50


Figure 3. Concentration of dissolved solids in the Peace River at
Arcadia, October 1963 to September 1964.


Geographic Variability
The ability of the soil and rocks to store and to transmit water
determines the year-round availability of the water; the character
of the soil and rocks affect the water quality. The character of
the soil and rock materials varies aquifers from place to place
and with distance below the surface; therefore, the amount and
character of the contained ground water is also variable from
place to place and with depth. Where the ground is porous, rain
quickly penetrates the surface and, if the pores are connected,
the water recharges the aquifers. Large quantities of water are
stored in porous rocks. Where the pores are interconnected, wells
yield large quantities of water even though the water may be
transmitted through the rocks for long distances. On the other
hand, where the rocks are dense, precipitation does not pene-
trate the surface readily. If these areas are flat, water stands
on the surface for long periods and may cause flooding. If they
have well-defined channels and sufficient gradients, the water
runs off rapidly and may cause flooding in the lower reaches of
the streams and wastage of water unless it is impounded in re-
Because of these variable conditions, there is a problem
of determining the quantity and quality of ground water that may
be produced in various locations. Mapping of the geology at depth
to develop an understanding of its lithologic character, its strati-
graphic relations, and its hydrologic character is a prelude to
evaluating the ground-water resources and to understanding the
functioning of the ground-water reservoir. Some aquifers yield
soft water, low in mineral content and with no undesirable con-
stituents. Water from other aquifers may be hard, highly mineral-
ized, and contain undesirable constituents. Figure 4 shows the
varying types of water that occur in a single aquifer, the Floridan
The kind and amount of matter dissolved and suspended in
water depends on the environmental history of the water. For
example, water from streams and lakes generally contain more
suspended matter than water from wells and springs. On the other
hand, water from wells and springs generally contains more dis-
solved mineral than water from nearby streams and lakes; and
water from wells tapping sand, gravel, and sandstone aquifers
is generally less mineralized and may be more acidic than water
from wells tapping limestone aquifers. The Oklawaha and With-
lacoochee rivers in the central part of the state drain limestone




I I Calcium and carbonate
"M Sodium and carbonate
I Sodium and chloride
N Calcium, magnesium,and sulfate

0 KD 2 30 40 50 miln

I P'- -~
,-' /

~ /



Figure 4. Type of water in Floridan aquifer.


and contain water of the calcium carbonate type. Silica is the
predominant cation in water in the Perdido River which drains
a sandy area in western Florida.
Effects of Man's Development
Water problems result from development, control, and manage-
ment of water resources by man. Man-made problems are infinitely
more complex than natural hydrologic problems. This is especially
so as man continually changes the hydrology; in effect, he imposes
a dynamic change upon a dynamic system. At the risk of over-
simplification, man-made problems may be categorized as depletion
of supply, pollution, salt-water encroachment, land use, and con-
flict of interest.
Most uses of water deplete the supply; some more than others.
Irrigation is the greatest user as a large part of the irrigation
water is evaporated and therefore does not return to a stream or
aquifer. Most of the water used by industries and cities is dis-
charged to streams or the aquifers. Unless the water is discharged
directly into an ocean or salt-water bay, it generally may be used
again. In special situations, treated waste water may be used to
prevent salt-water encroachment. Use of water for recreation or
navigation may cause added evaporative losses if the water surface
area is increased by dams or levees.
Use of water from an artesian aquifer normally results in
essentially a complete loss from the aquifer. In some areas pump-
age of ground water lowers lake levels or decreases the flow in
streams or canals. Conversely, pumpage of ground water may
significantly increase the usable water supply by drying up wet
lands and thus reducing water lost by evaporation and transpira-
tion. The net effect of development of water upon the available
water supply must be evaluated for each particular situation of
Water is polluted if it contains man-made, or man-induced,
substances in concentrations that are objectionable for the intend-
ed use. In order to detect and measure pollution, the natural water
quality must first be known. Differentiation between natural quality
and pollution is the first and important step in determining the
cause of pollution.


The effect of man's activities on water quality depends on
the use he makes of the water and upon the waste disposal and
treatment facilities he provides. The wastes may be primarily
organic or mineral or a mixture. Most pollutants are discharged
directly into streams or lakes. Some aquifers and streams are
contaminated by water from unplugged or leaky wells tapping an
artesian aquifer that contains water of inferior quality. This kind
of pollution occurs in some areas in the lower Gulf Coast. Pollu-
tion of aquifers by this method is a slow process but it persists
for a long time.
Wastes are an inherent by-product of civilization and must
be treated or disposed of. Disposal of industrial wastes into the
potable ground-water supplies may cause an unseen long-term
deterioration of the supply. Unplanned and unknown seepage of
wastes underground, such as occur from disposal ponds, is an
insidious problem. Florida is endowed with a vast underground
reservoir of saline water, generally at depths, which offers pro-
mise for the deep disposal of highly concentrated wastes of rela-
tively small volume. However, deep underground waste disposal
raises questions as to how much can the formation take, what are
the chemical reactions, and where will the wastes go? Will they
move upward or horizontally to pollute fresh-water aquifers or
emerge as coastal or offshore springs? Underground disposal of
wastes near the surface is hazardous.
Steam-electric power plants and many industries discharge
enormous quantities of heat into the streams. This heat is a form
of pollution because it reduces the usefulness of the water for
cooling until the heat dissipates. Heat reduces the ability of the
water to hold dissolved oxygen and thereby reduces its capacity
to absorb organic substances by the process called "self-purifica-
tion." Considerable difference in temperatures above and below
the inflowing hot water may kill vegetation and animal life, thus
adding to the organic pollution of the stream. Under other condi-
tions, increased temperatures may cause an algae bloom which
is often undesirable.
Salt-water encroachment has occurred in some areas such as
southeast Florida, and it is a problem of great concern in most
areas where water levels are lowered by heavy ground-water with-
drawals or by over-drainage. Salt-water encroachment is most
common in coastal areas where the sea is the salt-water supply.


Encroachment may also occur in inland areas where salt water
underlies fresh water. If an aquifer becomes salty, many years
may be required for it to freshen.
Cities, towns, industries, and rural habitations are often
located in the flood plain of streams or below the high water lines
of lakes. Such developments may be flooded infrequently but the
damage may be great when they are flooded.
Roads and buildings reduce the permeable land surface avail-
able to soak up precipitation and cause the water to run off more
rapidly. Drainage of land for agriculture or homesites may increase
the rate of runoff and cause floods downstream. It may also reduce
local recharge because this water will drain off before it has an
opportunity to infiltrate. On the other hand, drainage may some-
times increase the total water supply by decreasing evapo-trans-
Use of water often leads to a conflict of interest which in
itself is a problem. For example, most riparian land owners on
a lake would like to have the lake level stabilized. Farmers and
ranchers might prefer a low lake level whereas conservationists
and recreationists might prefer a high lake level.
Salt-water encroachment in some areas is the result of a
conflict of interest. Canals dug by land developers to provide
water access to the sea or to drain wet lands may cause encroach-
ment of salt water which destroys or threatens to destroy the
usefulness of individual wells and well fields. Drainage may
benefit agriculture and the land developer but may cause flooding
downstream and it may reduce ground-water recharge.
Wastes are an inherent by-product of civilization. Their dis-
posal in a stream or in an aquifer often conflicts with the use of
the stream or aquifer for water supply and recreation.
Competition for water is a specialized type of conflict of
interest and leads to a variety of problems. Competition is rela-
tively unimportant if the supply is abundant and if the quality of
the water is not changed. Conflicts develop when the supply
becomes inadequate for all uses or perhaps more often when
demands increase beyond the limits of the supply. Holding water
in lakes or swamps for wildlife preservation may conflict with


water supply needs downstream. Flood control may conflict with
water supply because flood control usually depends on quick
disposal of excess water, whereas, water supply may require
holding the water until needed during a subsequent dry period.
Conflict of interest develops when the drawdown from one person's
well causes a significant lowering of water level at a neighbor's
well. Conflict of interest may also develop when pumping of a
well field lowers a lake or depletes a stream resulting in compe-
tition for the total water supply available.
Effective development, management, and regulation of the
water supply requires specific knowledge of the quantity and
quality available and an understanding of the natural laws con-
trolling its occurrence, movement, and its capacity to transport
dissolved and suspended material.
The objectives of the water resources program in Florida
are: (1) to determine and evaluate the quantity and quality of
water on the surface and underground; (2) to determine the
effects of present or potential development and use by man; and
(3) to improve the understanding of physical laws, processes,
and mechanics of various phases of the hydrologic cycle. These
objectives are met by recognizing water problems, by systemati-
cally collecting, analyzing, and interpreting hydrologic data and
by conducting research needed to solve the problems. Figure 5
portrays the water problems and needed hydrologic information.
Hydrologic information secured to resolve the water problems is
not unique to the problem of concern but forms the base for the
solution of many problems. Figure 6 portrays the categories of
investigations and related hydrologic environments and facts.
The U. S. Geological Survey was established in 1879 as :in
unbiased research and fact-finding agency. It does not promote,
build, operate, or control water development or management pro-
jects. Its role is to provide the action and reviewing agencies
with comprehensive, factual information that is scientifically
sound as a basis for decision. Much of its work is done in cooper-
ation with the states and subdivisions thereof.
Included in the broad objectives of its water resources work
(a) comprehensive, continual accounting of the sources,
movement, amount, storage, quality, and use of water supplies;



Evaluate water resources
Determine effects of development
Improve understanding of physical laws

Municipal supply Variation in streamflow
Industrial supply Variation in quality
Irrigation supply Deterioration in quality
Floods and droughts Competition for water
Drainage effects Relation of surface and ground water
Salt-water encroachment Water control and management
Effects of large scale ground- Water occurrence
water pumpage Waste disposal
Depletion of supply Evaporation and transpiration


Lithology, stratigraphy, thickness, real extent, mineral
character, hydraulic property, structure and depositional
environment of water-bearing and non water- bearing

Records of flow and stage of streams, drains and canals
Levels of lakes and water in wells
Yield, character, and location of wells
Use of water and points of diversion and disposal
Character and variation in quality of surface and ground
Records of precipitation and variation in climate
Knowledge of water developments
Knowledge and development of geological, physical,and che-
mical principals

Figure 5. Water problems and needed hydrologic information.


Rivers and Streams Lakes and Reservoirs Springs
Canals and Drains Estuaries Aquifers

Streamflows and lake levels
Physical character of drainage basins
Chemical quality of water
Sediment loads
Occurrence and movement of ground water
Hydraulic character of geologic framework
Minerologic character of geologic framework
Water use and disposition

River basins
Ground-water provinces
Water districts

Hydrologic budget and the general hydrologic cycle
Interchange between atmosphere and continents
Land phase of the hydrologic cycle
Storage and flow phenomena in channels, lakes, and the ground
Sediment and mineral load transport phenomena
Effects of activities of man

Figure 6. Categories of water resources investigations.


(b) investigations of floods and droughts, their magnitude,
frequency and relation to climatic and physiographic factors;
(c) appraisal and evaluation of available waters in river
basins and ground-water provinces;
(d) determination of the water requirements for industrial,
domestic and agricultural purposes;
(e) determination of the chemical and physical quality of
water resources and the relation of water quality and suspended
sediment load to various parts of the hydrologic cycle;
(f) hydrologic studies of the effects of development upon
the quantity and quality of water;
(g) special hydrologic studies in the water supply; and
(h) research to improve the scientific basis of investigations
and techniques.
Funds for water resources investigations are obtained from
federal, state, and local agencies. The state and local funds are
usually matched with federal funds and support the cooperative
program which is a major segment of the work of the Survey. The
state or local agencies have professional competence in many
aspects of water studies, control and management and assist in
planning cooperative projects that are performed by the U.S. Geo-
logical Survey. Work financed with federal-state funds must serve
both national and local needs.

The size and scope of the cooperative program clearly re-
flect the interest of all levels of government. The Florida Geolo-
gical Survey, a division of the Board of Conservation, is responsi-
ble for developing the facts on the natural resources of the state,
and, consequently, is the principal cooperating agency in Florida.
The Division of Water Resources and Conservation, also in ihe
Board of Conservation, is the principal coordinating agency.
These two agencies keep abreast of the water problems and needs
of Florida and jointly contribute to studying the resource and to
planning and supporting the cooperative program. About 40 state.
regional, and local agencies in Florida are sharing in the planning
and financing of water resources investigations during 1965 fiscal

Federal funds appropriated directly to the U.S. Geological
Survey or transferred from other federal agencies are used to sup-
port a partof the nationwide network of streamflow stations as well
as investigations of water problems and water supplies directly


affecting the activities of the interested federal agencies con-
cerned. A number of such stations and investigations are located
in Florida and help to define the overall water resources of the

The plans for water resources investigations take into account
the needs of all water development organizations. If critical future
needs are to be anticipated and met, close coordination is essen-
tial. Joint participation in program planning activities by federal,
state, and local agencies and interagency coordinating units will
produce the best long-range results. The Survey will continue
its vigorous effort to effectively provide the hydrologic informa-
tion required for wise decisions and well designed developments
by state and local agencies and other federal agencies.

The program to date has developed in response to the many
and varied water problems and is not susceptible to rigorous
classifications. However, for the purposes of general planning,
the water resources program is classified into three broad cate-
gories: (1) hydrologic records, (2) investigations, and (3) hydrolo-
gic principles and techniques. The classification of the program
and the publication outlets are portrayed in figure 7.
Hydrologic Records
One of the objectives of the water resources program is to
provide a continual source of the basic facts necessary to under-
stand water in its natural and man-made environment and to deter-
mine the influence of all factors on the long-term trends. This
phase of the program consists primarily of collection, evaluation,
and publication of long-term records of lake and stream stages,
stream and spring discharge, ground-water levels, and chemical
and physical quality of surface and ground waters. Supplemental
information includes records of wells, quantities of water used,
and permeability, thickness, depth, and areal extent of aquifers.

The hydrologic records phase is classified into three main
surveillance networks: primary, secondary, and water manage-
The primary network consists of water-data collection stations
maintained permanently to obtain a long-range sample of the hydro-
logy of the area in which located. Records generally are continuous
rather than intermittent. Insofar as feasible, these stations are



Primary Secondary Water Management

Surface Water Ground Water

Quality of Water

Water Management



Water Supply Papers
Reports of Investigations
Information Circulars
Professional Papers
Scientific Journal Articles
Annual Reports of Water Records
Current News Items
Information Requests

Figure 7. Classification of water resources program and publication


selected to reflect hydrologic conditions in large typical areas
rather than to reflect localized influences such as pollution,
water use, pumping, or water-control structures. These stations
provide the basis for extending and interpreting short-term records
obtained under the secondary and water-management networks and
as part of investigations.
A special category of the primary network program is the
hydrologic bench-mark station located in an area where water
resources have not been affected by the works of man and where
such influence is not expected for many years. The purpose of a
bench-mark station is to provide a basis for comparison with
areas where water resources are influenced by man's activities and
for identification and evaluation of the effects of these activities.
In 1964, the only hydrologic bench-mark station in southeastern
United States was established in the Sopchoppy River basin in
northwest Florida.
The secondary network consists of semi-permanent data
collection stations. Records from these stations may be contin-
uous or intermittent and when correlated with records from the
primary network define the hydrology of local areas in greater
detail than that of the broad primary network.
Figure 8 is an example of supplementary data collected under
the secondary network. As the quality of ground water changes
very slowly, most wells are sampled only once and such informa-
tion forms a base level of knowledge.
The water-management network is composed of data-collection
stations used to record the effects of man on the resource and to
provide information on which to make current management deci-
sions. Typical decisions to be made are: when to store or release
water for flood control; how, when, and where to regulate water
levels to prevent or reduce salt-water encroachment in streams
and aquifers; how to regulate pumping and spacing of wells to
prevent or reduce salt-water encroachment; and when can a stream
safely dilute waste material. Water management data-collection
may be continuous or intermittent.
The density and distribution of the overall hydrologic records
networks are shown by figures 9, 10, 11, and 12. The number of
current data-collection sites in the network are shown on page 33.




S Less than 10
I 10 to 49
EX 50 to 100
More than 100

0 10 20 30 40 50 mdes

Figure 8. Number of ground-water analyses by counties.



* Streomflow measuring station

a / >~

/ a. a

0 10 20 30 40 50 mlIn

Figure 9. Streamflow measuring stations, November 1964



a Stage measuring station
on stream, lake,or estuary

0 0 20 30 40 50 ms

Figure 10. Stream, lake, and estuary measuring stations, November 1964.



^ 4

/r y r

o 0 20 30 40 50 m.I

Bose taken from 1933 edition of mop of
Florida by U S Geolosical Survey
Figure 11. Recording conductivity stations and daily sampling sites
for surface water quality, November 1964.



Observation well
Chloride sample
J Sand- ond-grovel

[ Floridon

SFlondon and/or others


- --Approximote oquiler boundary


L- Number of chloride wells

Central and Southern Florido
Flood Control Project

Southwest Florida
Water Monogement District

0 10 20 30 40 50 mile

Figure 12. Observation wells and chloride sampling wells, June 1964.


Hydrologic investigations have a specific objective and
terminal date and are usually limited to a definite area or water
problem. Hydrologic investigations are variable as to scope,
intensity, and size of area investigated. They may be classified
roughly as descriptive, interpretive, or water management.
The types of investigations needed in a given area depend
upon (1) the status of hydrologic knowledge and (2) the intensity
of present and projected water needs and problems. Where water
developments are small as compared with the water resources,
a lower order of study may be adequate. Ideally, study areas should
be hydrologic entities and the study should be one in which all
hydrologic elements in the system can be defined, their variations
established and their interrelations analyzed. In Florida, studies
of hydrologic entities are difficult because surface drainage di-
vides in some areas are indefinite and particularly because most
aquifer systems do not coincide with the surface drainage.
Descriptive investigations are general in nature and define
the occurrence and quality of water in a particular area. They
provide information on one or more facets of the hydrologic system.
Typical facets are: streamflow, chemical and physical character
of stream water, lake stages, ground-water levels, chemical and
physical character of ground water, and areal extent, thickness,
and water-bearing characteristics of one or more aquifers. Des-
criptive investigations do not attempt to explain how water occurs
or why the quantity and quality varies really or with time but do
describe the water resource at the time of the investigation.
Descriptive investigations usually provide sufficient under-
standing of the hydrologic system to successfully locate small
water supplies. They help define the water problems of an area
and form a foundation on which to start interpretive investigations.
In many areas of Florida where population density is low and
water problems are minor, descriptive investigations are adequate
for the present for most water resource needs. Descriptive inves-
tigations have been completed since 1951 or are in progress for
about 50 percent of the counties, as shown in figures 13 and 14.
However, only about half the investigations were concerned with
both surface-water and ground-water resources.



Studies completed since 1951

Water management
(continuing )

November 1964
Note. Some studies contain information on
only ground water or surface water.

0 ID 20 30 40 50 -We


Figure 13. Areal studies of water resources completed.



Field work in progress

Report in preparation

Field work in progress
report in preparation
November 1964
Nowt: Doe not inctode sotat ds ad oe pedal studish
O I 0 32 0 3 OO 5O mil

- eSR

Figure 14. Areal studies of water resources in progress.


As development of the water resources of an area proceeds,
the effects manifest themselves on the hydrologic system by
changes in the quantity and quality of the water. These effects
multiply and merge to affect major segments of the system. Inter-
pretive investigations go beyond descriptive studies in that they
consider the dynamics and interrelations of the system.
Interpretive investigations are needed by planners for large-
scale water development such as for locating and designing well
fields for municipalities or industry and for storage and flood-
control reservoirs and drainage systems. They provide information
and principles related to many problems such as probable salt-
water encroachment, changes in yield and quality of surface and
ground water, magnitude and frequency of floods and droughts,
and changes in quantity and quality of water brought about by
present and planned developments.
The number of interpretive studies that have been completed
to date or are currently underway in Florida is relatively small
but, more will he needed as water developments and problems
become more intense. Examples of interpretive studies to date
are: the hydrology of the Green Swamp area in central Florida,
the hydrology of the Everglades National Park, the possibility
of salt-water encroachment from the intracoastal waterway near
Venice, the hydrology of the Deadening area in southeastern
Washington County with reference to a recreation plan, and water
resources of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties. Some of these
studies are shown in figures 13 and 14.
Water management studies are designed to evaluate effects
of the development and control of water resources and to provide
information useful for regulation and management of the resources.
These studies are normally needed in areas where man is continu-
ally modifying the hydrology and therefore are in or near areas
of concentrated population and highly developed agricultural areas.
Most water management studies are concerned with a particular
problem and have a specific objective.
Typical water management studies are concerned with effects
of proposed or existing canals and drains and water regulation
upon the quantity and quality of the water, the effects of water
development upon salt-water encroachment, the effects of water


development and waste disposal on the quantity and quality of
surface and ground waters, and the effects of flood control, deten-
tion, and various conservation measures upon the quantity and
quality of water. Because of the nature of such problems, water
management studies constitute a continuing assessment. Ideally
they should be preceded by areal interpretive studies so they
will be based upon a good understanding of the hydrologic system
and geologic controls.

At present only along the lower southeast coast (see fig. 14)
does the program in Florida meet the general criteria of water-
management studies. Water management studies there are coopera-
tion studies between the U. S. Geological Survey and the Florida
Geological Survey, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Con-
trol District, Dade and Broward counties, and the cities of Miami,
Miami Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Pompano Beach, Boca Raton, and
Deerfield Beach. The newly initiated program with the Southwest
Florida Water Management District provides the basis for emerging
water management studies in the west-central part of peninsular

Some current and completed water management studies are
given in table 1.

Table 1. Selected water management studies completed or in progress.

Determination of a hydrologic base for ground-water
management in Dade County P
Measurement of canal and pump station discharge by
deflection meter P
Salt-water problems in coastal canals and well fields,
Broward County P
Water management and water supply in Broward County P
Effects of flood control In Area B on the hydrology of
Dade County P
Levee underseepage south of Lake Okeechobee P
Effects of water management in southeast Florida P
Probable effect of tidal barge canal on salt-water
encroachment, southern Dade County P
Evaluation of recharge conditions, Volusia County P
Hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of Levee 80,
northern Dade County C
Hydrologic studies in the Snapper Creek Canal area,
Dade County C
Hydrologic studies in the Snake Creek Canal area,
Dade County C
Salt-water movement caused by control-dam operations
in the Snake Creek Canal, Miami, Florida C
Salinity conditions in lower Miami River P
C Completed
P In progress


Current water resources investigations are meeting many
needs; however, the program is inadequate in several respects.
Furthermore, as Florida's population and industry grow, water
demands and water problems also grow. Hydrologic records and
investigations will be needed in areas where water problems are
now of little concern. The fast growing population in some areas
will place heavier demands on the water supply and additional
management records and projects will be required to solve the
water problems of the future.
Hydrologic Records
The present stream gaging, lake level, and observation well
networks are to some extent inadequate for current needs and
expansion is needed in order to keep abreast of water demands
caused by phenomenal growth. Expansion of the secondary basic
records network is particularly needed to establish the "average
minimum flow of streams", "average minimum levels of lakes",
and "average minimum elevation of ground water" as defined
by Section 373.081 of the Florida Water Resources Law enacted
in 1961.
The surface-water quality network is inadequate. Daily records
have not been collected in some important river basins. A daily
station representative of each basin needs to be established and
most current stations need to be continued to establish the varia-
bility of water quality with time. Very little information is availa-
ble on the occurrence of minor elements such as strontium, alum-
inum, copper, and lithium. These elements may affect the useful-
ness of the water, so sufficient analyses should be made to iden-
tify potential problem areas.
On a broad basis, the present observation-well network
in the Floridan aquifer is generally adequate to show overall
natural and artificial effects. Additional observation wells are
needed in the Floridan aquifer to determine annual changes in
storage, particularly changes resulting from pumpage such as in
western Duval and Nassau counties and northern Clay and Brad-
ford counties and in other areas where pumpage is increasing.
A few additional observation wells in the Floridan aquifer are
needed in the southern part of the State where the water is of
marginal quality but nevertheless a potential resource.


The observation-well network in the water-table aquifers is
generally deficient. Although the water-table aquifers presently
are little used in much of the northern part of the State, they form
the reservoir that recharges the Floridan aquifer. Additional water-
table observation wells will aid in forecasting recharge to the
Floridan aquifer and documenting changes in storage in the water-
table aquifer resulting from pumping in the Floridan aquifer. The
shallow aquifers are the principal source of water in the lower
southwestern coast and additional observation wells are needed
The number of complete ground-water analyses needed to
portray the areal and vertical variation in character of water by
aquifers is adequate for only about a third of the counties. The
number of complete analyses available is shown in figure 8. Water
quality from all major aquifers should be mapped. Areas of excess-
ive iron and hydrogen sulfide should be identified. In addition
to the usual constituents, sufficient determinations should be
made of minor elements and radiologic elements to detect potential
problem areas.
Deep aquifers are often a source of contamination of shallow
usable aquifers. The chemical character of water from deep aqui-
fers should be determined in enough detail to detect contamination,
to estimate its effect, and to permit regulatory agencies to control
it where feasible.
The present salinity observation well network (see fig. 12)
needs to be intensified in some coastal areas, and networks need
to be established in areas of potential salt-water encroachment.
The amount of water used is an important factor in changing
hydrologic conditions. Knowledge of water use is a prime requisite
to evaluating water supply. Additional effort is needed to determine
water use on a continuing basis and in a consistent manner.
Hydrologic records should be collected in advance of water
developments and water resource investigations and should con-
tinue during and after studies are completed to document the chan-
ging conditions. The intensity and character of records needed
depends upon the water problems.
Table 2 shows the data-collection stations in the three main
classifications of the hydrologic network in Florida in November
1964 and the estimated number of stations needed by 1975.


Table 2. Number of existing and needed hydrologic network sites in

Operating in Estimated
November 1964 needs by 1975

Primary network (long term)
Stream stage and discharge 65 90
Lake, stream, and estuary stage 27 50
Stream and lake temperature and
water quality 35 70
Water-level observation wells 181 250
Water quality observation wells
(chloride) 16 30
(chemical complete) 13 25
Bench mark 1 2
Secondary network (short term)
Stream stage and discharge 124 300
Lake, stream, and estuary stage 29 150
Stream and lake temperature and
water quality 8 50
Water-level observation wells 219 800
Water quality observation wells
(chloride) 26 60
Water management stations
Stream stage and discharge 112 150
Lake, stream, and estuary stage 166 200
Stream and lake temperature and
water quality 23 35
Water-level observation wells 562 1,000
Water quality observation wells
,.hi.oride) 122 300


The gradual increase in the number of hydrologic records,
both current and accumulated, necessitates that more considera-
tion be given to automatic data processing. Three aspects of
special concern are: automatic recording and processing, storage,
and retrieval, and analysis of data. Manpower savings are impor-
tant, but other advantages are more important. Accuracy is in-
creased, compilation and publication of data are accelerated, and
the data are readily available and can be analyzed and compiled
in various ways that would be impractical and prohibitive in cost
with manual methods.

Basic components of the record collection system are a
digital recorder, a translator, and a digital computer. At present,
relative stream velocity, water stage, water temperature, and
specific conductance are being recorded on digital instruments
on streams in Florida. Almost any characteristic that can be ex-
pressed as or converted to an electric current can be measured


and recorded. Dissolved oxygen, pH (acidity-alkalinity), and turbi-
dity are other characteristics that could be measured.
One of the big problems facing the hydrologist is the storage
and retrieval of the masses of data required for the solution of
hydrologic problems. In order to be satisfactory, the system must
be accurate, simple, and quick. Currently, data of several kinds
are being stored on tapes and punched cards. Tables for publica-
tion and study can be prepared directly from the tapes or cards.
The tapes and cards can be used as input to an electronic com-
puter that will correlate two or more factors and compile the data
in several ways.
The storage and retrieval of various characteristics of wells
on punch cards are being tried. The system depends on assignment
of a unique location number to each point source of information.
The cards will contain geologic, hydrologic, and physical charac-
teristics of the wells. In addition to retrieval of information, it
will provide for broad correlations and will involve a full data
system including water levels, water quality, well logs, and water
All important hydrologic data should be stored on magnetic
tapes, on punched cards or in some other manner suitable for
automatic data processing. New methods of storing and using
the information need to be exploded.
The need for areal investigations and special problem or
topic studies depends to a great degree on the demands for water
in relation to the quantity and quality of the supply. The need
for investigations will be greater in rapidly growing areas and
areas where water problems develop. Political boundaries are
satisfactory for descriptive investigations but hydrologic units
are desirable for interpretive investigations.
Descriptive investigations have been made or are in progress
in about half the State (see figs. 13 and 14). A descriptive study
of each county is desirable. A definite time schedule cannot be
set though complete coverage of the State by 1980 seems desirable.
Though water demands and water problems may be minor in the
less populous and slower growing counties (see fig. 1), knowledge
of the water resources as developed by descriptive studies will
provide the support for industrial and municipal development.
Descriptive investigations form the foundation for more intensive


interpretive and water management studies and provide the means
of recognizing and defining water problems. Therefore, descriptive
investigations need to be completed also in the fast-growing
counties. Descriptive investigations usually have been fully or
partially locally financed and as a consequence the rate of pro-
gress and priority order for completion have not been definitely
scheduled. Completion of descriptive studies on a schedule in an
orderly manner can be best accomplished by support with adequate
funds from the Florida Geological Survey.
In addition to the areal descriptive investigations, many
other descriptive investigations are needed. Some are statewide;
others are directed toward a particular subject or topic. State-wide
inventory of water use every 5 years is needed. The quantity of
water used and the rate of increase in the use is a good indicator
of places of potential water shortages and problems and is a key
element in water resources accounting. Water used and water
consumed should be compiled, taking into account quality and
The saline surface and ground water of the State should be
inventoried. Florida has a large quantity of saline water and as
competition for water increases, the usefulness of this resource
Water is a necessity of life and a small supply of good quality
may be necessary immediately after a major disaster. Sources of
emergency water supply for major cities should be mapped.
The slopes and depths of the major streams should be mea-
sured. Time-of-travel studies needed for investigation of dilution
of wastes should be made in various streams. Salinity profiles
and the patterns of water movement should be surveyed in the
tidal reaches.
Maps should be prepared showing record high and low ground-
water levels in some low lying areas of potential development.
Additional maps should be prepared in the hydrologic atlas series
showing water occurrence and quality.
Additional effort is needed on producing articles, pamphlets,
maps, and almanacs such as water availability maps of counties
or other areas and pamphlets on sources of water supply for various
cities. Informative articles on various hydrologic topics such as
climate and recharge, depth of active solution in the artesian
aquifer, source of saline water in the artesian aquifer, physical


aspects of ground-water temperature, and quality of Florida's
streams are needed.
Water demands and water developments continue to increase
so that interpretive investigations will be needed in all areas of
large population influx as shown in figure 1. Indian River, Palm
Beach, and St. Lucie counties and the entire southwest coastal
area are examples of current need for investigations. Water from
some streams and from the shallow aquifer along the southeast
coast may be of acceptable quality, but the quantity and quality
of these sources are not adequately known and should be inves-
In the southwest coastal area, Manatee County to Monroe
County, water in the Floridan aquifer is mineralized and has a
high percentage of sulfate. Shallow ground water is subject to
salt-water encroachment near the coast and the quantity and qual-
ity are not well defined. Streams have a very low dry-season
flow and a rather poor chemical quality. Local streams and the
shallow aquifers constitute the source of potable water and need
to be investigated.
The Yellow and Shoal River basins in the panhandle, some
metropolitan areas, and some offshore islands, are other examples
of areas that need or will soon need interpretive investigations
to appraise their water resources.
Some chemical and hydrologic problems need investigating.
For example, some waters are quite corrosive and the consti-
tuents that cause the corrosion need to be identified and their
source determined.
Surface water and ground water in Florida in most areas are
closely related. This relation is particularly evident in the south-
eastern coastal areas where the problems of salt-water control,
flood control, drainage, and municipal water supply cannot be
resolved independently. In other areas of the State, this relation
is not so evident nor of concern with limited developments. In-
creased development of ground water may lower the levels of
streams, lakes, and swamps. Increased drainage of land may
reduce the recharge to the aquifer system. Studies of the various
facets of interrelation of surface and ground water should be


Many areas in Florida are rapidly becoming urbanized. The
effects of urbanization on the hydrology of selected areas should
be investigated.
The sinkhole drainage system of many areas devoid of streams
are ineffective following intense rainfalls and considerable damage
occurs. Investigations are needed to determine the feasibility of
providing drainage for these areas without endangering the ground-
water supply.
Flood and low-flow frequency studies need to be expanded
to include small drainage areas, generally less than 10 square
miles. Many of the parameters affecting floods on streams draining
small areas should be evaluated. Some of these parameters are:
size, shape, and slope of the basin; surficial geology and vegeta-
tive cover; storage capacity of lakes, swamps, and reservoirs in
the basin; and intensity and distribution of rainfall on the basin.
Significant declines in artesian pressure have occurred in a
number of areas of intense development of ground water. Special
effort to evaluate the long-term potential of the aquifers in these
areas is needed.
Except along the lower southeast coast, Florida is just be-
ginning to regulate and manage its water resources on an integrated
basis and only a few water management investigations have been
made. More management-type investigations will be needed as;
development and competition become more intense.
One important need for water regulation and management is
the prevention of salt-water encroachment in the coastal areas of
the State. Well fields and fresh water in canals can be protected by
controlled withdrawal of water from canals and aquifers, by main- _
training high canal stages, by augmenting low flow in canals, and
by use of salinity control structures. Electrical analog model
studies of the aquifer and canal systems are needed to provide
information as to hydrologic effects of alternate plans to develop
and manage the ground-water supplies.
Many water-control structures are being built or planned. The
effect on the quality and quantity of the water supply resulting
from alternative methods of operating these structures need to
be investigated. For example, the St. Johns River is highly miner-
alized at times. What effect will the planned water management


structures have on water quality? Can the water quality be im-
proved by alternate methods of operation?
Hydrologic Principles and Techniques
Investigations are needed to increase knowledge of basic
principles and to improve methods, techniques, and equipment
which will ultimately reduce costs and improve the results of
studies. Such investigations to date have not been formally pro-
grammed but rather have been a by-product of the program. Where
appropriate they should be formally programmed.
Information is needed on a wide variety of hydrologic pro-
blems in Florida. In particular, knowledge is needed on the broad
topics of hydrology of limestone and of lakes and of the mechanics
of recharge.
Knowledge is lacking on the relation of mineralogy, texture,
bedding, joints, stratigraphy, structure, physiography, exposure,
and carbonate chemistry of limestones to the hydrologic charac-
teristics of the limestones. Why, where, and what govern the loca-
tion, areal extent, and interconnection of solutional zones in
the limestones?
The role of the hydrology of wet lands needs investigating.
Florida has many areas that are normally wet. Some of this land
is being drained and some is used for storage of water in shallow
ponds. Information is needed on the effect of land drainage or
inundation on the amount of evaporation, ground-water recharge,
and water quality. Of fundamental importance is the question of
how much water now lost to the atmosphere can be salvaged for
man's use and what will be the resultant effects upon the ecology.
The role of lakes in the hydrology of Florida needs to be
investigated further. An increasing number of lakes are being
developed and modified by man. Answers are needed to a number
of questions. How do lakes relate to the artesian and other aqui-
fers and to the flow of streams? What are the effects of lake modi-
fication and control upon the hydrology? What can be learned
from a comprehensive hydrologic study of a lake or lake system
with a particular geologic and hydrologic environment? Can the
ordinary high water level of a lake be determined from the geology,
ecology, and physical aspects of the shoreline? Can lakes be
classified hydrologically?


The sources and occurrence of saline water in the artesian
aquifer must be better understood. Is it connate water and is it
being flushed in areas removed from the sea? Can the character
of the water be improved in the aquifer and how? What uses can
be found for the saline water--can the saline water be used in
lieu of fresh water for maintaining a ground-water barrier against
intrusion of salt water in some areas of Florida? What is the rela-
tion of geologic structure to the flow and occurrence of salt springs
such as occur along the St. Johns River?
The geochemical aspects of ground water in the various aqui-
fers need to be better understood. What causes variation in quality
of water from an aquifer? What are the chemical reactions between
ground water and the aquifers in removal of contaminates, natural
softening, hardening, oxidation reduction, and occurrence of iron?
What is the effect of organic material on quality of water and
chemical reactions in the aquifers?
A better understanding of the ground-water circulation patterns
in the limestone is needed. What are the rates of movement, and
what are the degrees of interconnection between the various per-
meable zones? Are the deeper saline waters effectively separated
from the potable zones? What are the connections of the Floridan
aquifer with the ocean such as off the northeast, southeast, and
western coasts of Florida? Are the large springs fed by specific
cavernous zones? Is the occurrence of good quality water in areas
of poor quality related to preferential flow paths related to buried
reefs or other geologic conditions?
The principal geologic and hydrologic factors that govern
recharge to the Floridan aquifer are imperfectly understood. What
changes in recharge result from changes in land practices such
as drainage, conservation, cropping, urbanization, and stream
modification, and from large-scale development of the aquifer by
municipalities and industries? What are the variations in recharge
between perennially wet areas and relatively dry areas?
Additional investigations are needed to determine how bore-
hole geophysics, electronic modeling, and remote sensing can
be better applied to solution of hydrologic problems. Can consis-
tent application of borehole geophysics contribute to a better
understanding and correlation of flow patterns, and the definition
and interconnection of permeable and impermeable zones? Can
infra-red sensing be used to delineate areas of ground-water dis-
charge to the lakes, streams, and oceans? Can three dimensional


electronic modeling contribute to a better understanding of the
operation of hydrologic systems and consequently to improve
water management?
Improved techniques are needed to evaluate tidal flow in
coastal streams. Can the present gaging techniques be improved?
Can the usefulness of the tidal streams be increased by better
knowledge of the characteristics of the flow? What are the rela-
tions of tidal flow and quality variations to the existence of fish
and other aquatic populations?
Water problems and the need for water information and inves-
tigations are allied with population. However, water problems
increase at a rate greater than population. As civilization becomes
more diversified, water problems become more complex and the
intensity of effort needed to provide answers increases. Thus,
a gradual increased program of water resources investigations
in Florida is necessary if the facts needed for future decisions
are to be met.
The nature of the program of investigations is expected to
slowly shift from descriptive studies of counties to interpretive
studies of hydrologic systems such as drainage basins. Also,
the need for water management studies will increase as man modi-
fies the hydrology by the development of the water resources.
Concomitant with these more complex investigations will be the
need to expand the time-dependent hydrologic networks. Also,
as the limit of water resources is approached, a greater amount
of effort must be devoted to an improved understanding of hydro-
logic principles that will provide the foundation for the more com-
plex solutions that will emerge.
Financing of the program in the past has been arranged gene-
rally as water problems were recognized. The need for a sustaining
program of data collection and evaluation has been recognized
and financed in some areas where water problems are prevalent.
However, in some areas funds have been made available for only
the period of an investigation. Further, in some areas, particu-
larly where population is sparse, but including areas of expanding
population, funds have not been available to support a program.
Water problems which were generally local in nature have gradually


expanded and merged as the population increased. Thus, the need
has gradually developed for a broader support of the program at
State level.
The projected demand for cooperative water resources net-
works and investigations in Florida is such that by 1975 funds
in the amount of 30 cents per individual per year are estimated
as needed. The annual cost for each individual to provide the
information needed to effectively develop Florida's water supply
is essentially equal to the cost of a quart of milk, or a gallon of
gasoline, or a can of beer, or a pack of cigarettes.
The problems of the future are near and a long-range program
adequately financed on a sustained basis is requisite to providing
the information that will be needed to avoid costly mistakes.