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 Front Cover
 Errata
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Exploration
 Land
 Geophysics
 Rules and regulations
 Production
 Brine
 Prospects
 Bibliography
 Appendix 1: Exploratory well information,...
 Appendix 2: Summary of reservoir...
 Appendix 3: Offshore drilling
 Glossary
 Back Cover


FGS



Florida petroleum exploration, production, and prospects
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 Material Information
Title: Florida petroleum exploration, production, and prospects
Physical Description: 79 p. : maps (part fold.) fold. diagr., ta ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Babcock, Clarence L ( Clarence Lloyd ), 1904-
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1962
Copyright Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Petroleum -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Petroleum -- Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Florida Geological Survey special publication 9
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: notis - ADV5123
alephbibnum - 000761902
oclc - 00415149
lccn - a 63007208
System ID: UF00000480:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Errata
        Errata
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page 1
    Exploration
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Land
        Page 7
    Geophysics
        Page 8
        Page 8a
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Rules and regulations
        Page 11
    Production
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Brine
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Prospects
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Bibliography
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Appendix 1: Exploratory well information, 1961
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Appendix 2: Summary of reservoir data, Sunniland field, Collier County, Florida
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Appendix 3: Offshore drilling
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Glossary
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Back Cover
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text

STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9






FLORIDA PETROLEUM EXPLORATION,

PRODUCTION, AND PROSPECTS



By
Clarence Babcock, Geologist


40o.

F636
No.?


TALLAHASSEE


1962














ERRATA

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9
FLORIDA PETROLEUM EXPLORATION,
PRODUCTION, AND PROSPECTS



Page 3 (1st paragraph, 2nd line) 1 to 10, not 1 to 4.

Page 8 (Table at top of page, heading of 2nd column) Florida offshore acreage
under lease at the end of 1961, not Florida mainland acreage undbr
lease in 1960.

Figure 3, facing page 8 Legend at bottom of figure should read 1961, not 1962.

Page 13 (Figure 4) Well "4" is an abandoned oil well, not a producer.
(Figure 4) Dry hole spotted in sec. 24, T.48 S., R.29 E.,at the
center of southeast quarter, add the figure "9".

Page 15 (Table 2) GCRC 1, under heading "Present Status",add Abnd oil well.
S(Table 2) GCRC 4, under same heading, Abnd oil well, not P & A.

Page 25 (Table 4) South Florida Embayment, under column "Total thickness"
a(418), not 418; also next column move 57+ up one line.

Page 31 (Table 5) Footnote 2, 3rd line from bottom, 1 to 10, not 1 to 4.


ENERRBa~










STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9








FLORIDA PETROLEUM EXPLORATION,

PRODUCTION, AND PROSPECTS



By
Clarence Babcock, Geologist














TALLAHASSEE






Z oo, 7l



AGRI-
CULTVRAL
LIBRARy









































Completed manuscript received
May 28, 1962
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee











TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgments .......... ... ........................ 1
Exploration ................... ....................... 2
Land .............................................. 7
Geophysics ................. .... ....... ...... ......... 8
Rules and regulations ............................ ..... 11
Production .......................................... 12
Brine ...................................... ........ 19
Prospects .. ............ ..................... ... . 22
Bibliography .................... ........... ........ .. 53
Appendices:
I Exploratory well information, 1961 . . . . . . . . . . 57
II Summary of reservoir data, Sunniland field, Collier County, Florida .. 67
III Offshore drilling ............................ ..... 71
Glossary ............... ......................... 75



ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
1 Florida petroleum exploration and production . . . . . .facing 2
2 Marquesas area wells ......... ........... ........... 6
3 Offshore Florida State leases, December 31, 1961 ......... facing 8
4 Sunniland oil field and nearby prospects, Collier County, Florida. .. 13
5 Production statistics, Sunniland oil field, Collier County,
Florida ....................................facing 18
6 Oil and gas provinces of Florida . . . . . . ... .. facing 24
7 Correlation of the Atkinson Formation . . . . . . ...... . 35
Table
1 Crew weeks of geophysical activity in Florida, 1941 to 1960,
inclusive ....................................... 9
2 Completion data on Humble Oil and Refining Company wells,
Sunniland field, Collier County, Florida . . . . . . . .. 15
3 Analyses of brines from the Humble Oil and Refining Company,
Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. 1, the discovery well for
the Sunniland field ................................ 20
4 A tabulation by provinces of depths and thicknesses of important
sections, and probable number of wells deep enough to test them. .. 25
5 Sunniland field outpost wells .......................... . 30
6 Forty-Mile Bend field outpost wells . . . . . . . . . .. 33
7 Thicknesses, porosities, and permeabilities of productive sands
in the Pollard field .... ...................... ... .. 338
8 Depth and thickness to Lower Cretaceous plastic section in the
Osceola Low Intermediate Province . . . . . . . . . .... 44
9 Thicknesses of the Atkinson Formation in the Ocala Uplift
Province ... . ... ...... .. .. .. ........... ..... 47
















FLORIDA PETROLEUM EXPLORATION,


PRODUCTION, AND PROSPECTS


By
Clarence Babcock, Geologist





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Sincere appreciation is expressed to Robert O. Vernon, Director
of the Florida Geological Survey, for his guidance and suggestions,
received throughout the preparation of this report. Several members
of the staff of the Florida Geological Survey read the report and offered
constructive criticism, which considerably improved the report. The
writer wishes especially to acknowledge the help of C.W. Hendry, Jr.,
assistant state geologist, and S.R. Windham, geologist, who clarified
and improved various parts of the report, primarily those dealing with
"Exploration."

Discussions with the following oil company geologists were of
great assistance: Mr. Joseph E. Banks and Mr. Wendell L. Roberts,
of the Coastal Petroleum Company; Mr. E. L. Russell and Mr. J. F.
Schindler, of the California Company; Mr. Robert Martin of the Gulf
Oil Corporation, and Mr. Edward P. Riker, of the Sinclair Oil and Gas
Company.










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


EXPLORATION

In 1961, eight exploratory wells were completed and all of these
have been plugged and abandoned. A ninth exploratory test, the Cali-
fornia Company, Florida State Lease 1011, No. 3 well was coring on
December 31, 1961, at 12,390 feet with no shows reported. Data on
these wells are given in appendix 1, and the wells are spotted onfigure 1.

During the year, 87,737 feet of exploratory drilling was done in
these nine wells. This is considerably more than the exploratory footage
drilled in 1960 (53,866 feet).

A summary by counties of highlights of exploratory drilling in
Florida in 1961 follows:


COLLIER COUNTY

The Humble Oil and Refining Company, Miles Collier No. 1 well,
located about 6 miles southeast of the Sunniland oil field, was drilled
to a total depth of 11,737 feet in the original hole, and 11,646 feet in a
sidetrack hole. An oil show was reached at 11,634 feet in the sidetrack
hole, the operator coring 2 feet into the show. Apparently an additional
10 feet of hole was cored, the last 11Y feet of the core being a gray,
porous, rudistid rubble or very fine carbonate gravel which carried salt
water.

Tests in the Sunniland pay interval of this well were as follows:

1. DST (drill stem test) open hole: 11,631-11,636 feet (according
to the Microlog, the lower part of the tested interval occurs in
the top of a 90-foot zone of good porosity).

Choke : Y inch
Duration : 3 hours 53 minutes
Recovery : 4 barrels oil
41 barrels water 156,000 ppm (parts per million)
Pressures : BHF (bottom hole flowing) 2,740 pounds
BHSI (bottom hole shut-in) 5,165 pounds
2. The rock at the tested depth was swabbed, and during more than
33 hours of swabbing over a period of about 2 weeks, approxi-
mately 50 barrels of oil and 3,000 barrels of salt water were
recovered.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


This test information showed that whereas the oil-to-water ratio
was 1 to 4 in the drill stem test, it was 1 to 60 in the swabbing test.
This unsuccessful completion is considered to be the most promising
oil show in the past few years.

At the base of an anhydrite immediately overlying the limestone
containing the Sunniland producing zones, this well lies at a structural
elevation of about -11,555 feet, which is the same as that of the 1954
oil-water contact in the Sunniland field (Raasch, 1954, p. 30).

The Fredericksburg Limestone of late Lower Cretaceous age
was swabbed at 9,812 to 9,822 feet, but recovered only salt water
(117,000 ppm).
This was a seismic location.

The Humble Oil and Refining Company, Miles Collier No. 2 well
was located slightly less than 1 mile northeast of the Miles Collier No. 1
well, and reached a total depth of 12,961 feet. The Sunniland limestone
in this well was tested as follows:

Depth : 11,745-11,757 feet
Choke : 4 inch
Duration : 2 hours 28 minutes
Recovery : 1 pint oil
9 gallons water
Pressures : BHF 415 pounds
BHSI 485 pounds

The Sunniland zone tested in the Miles Collier No. 2 well is
separate and distinct from that tested in the No. 1 well; it occurs about
107 feet lower in the Sunniland limestone interval.

At the base of an anhydrite immediately overlying the limestone
containing the Sunniland producing zones, the Miles Collier No. 2 well
is about flat with the No. 1 well.

Cores of the Fredericksburg section at 9,750 to 9,754 feet and
9,802 to 9,828 feet contained oil saturation. A subsequent open hole
test of the interval 9,735 to 9,829 feet recovered 3 gallonsof brackish
water containing a slight oil emulsion; pressures were very low.


This was a seismic location.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


COLUMBIA COUNTY

The Barton, Strahan, and Anderson, W.M. Davidson No. 1 well
bottomed at 160 feet in beds of Eocene Age. The operators originally
proposed to drill this well to a depth of 3,000 feet to test the updip
pinchout of Upper Cretaceous sediments on the west side of the Penin-
sular Arch. Wells previously drilled in the vicinity of the W.M. Davidson
No. 1 well found Early Ordovician (Beekmantown) sands, shales, and
quartzites at about 3,000 feet.

This location was based on subsurface information.


ESCAMBIA COUNTY

The Emmette F. Gathright, State Lease 833, No. 1 well was drilled
to a total depth of 7,043 feet, terminating in the Lower Tuscaloosa
section of Upper Cretaceous Age. This test was located about 10 miles
northeast of Pensacola. Though the Gathright well was permitted for
12,500 feet (which probably would have tested the deeper Lower Creta-
ceous section) it is reported that the intention was to abandon after
testing the Lower Tuscaloosa section if the well was normal.

This was a gravity location.


FRANKLIN COUNTY- OFFSHORE

The California Company and Coastal Petroleum Company, State
Lease 224-A, No. 2 well was drilled to a total depth of 10,566 feet,
about 13 miles offshore from Carrabelle. This general area is high,
according to regional gravity and magnetic surveys. A core taken at
10,324Y2 feet consisted of quartzite with coal inclusions containing
pollen of probable Jurassic Age. There previously has not been such
strong evidence that the Jurassic sea reached this far north and west
in Florida and it is hoped that paleontology will provide information
that will allow the subdivision of the thick Mesozoic carbonate and
evaporate section of south Florida. It was postulated by Robert B.
Campbell (unpublished report, 1934) that at least part of Florida was
underlain by Jurassic rocks, which extended northward from the known
Jurassic of Cuba. Campbell's 1934 paper refers to an opinion of J. Whit-
ney Lewis (stated in Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 16,







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


p. 537) that the Jurassic of Cuba is the source of most of the oil and
asphalt that occurs in the seeps and pools of Cuba.

This was a seismic location.


LEE COUNTY OFFSHORE

The California Company and Coastal Petroleum Company, State
Lease 224-B, No. 2 well reached a total depth of 12,600 feet in rock of
Lower Cretaceous (Coahuila ? ) Age. This well was located offshore
and about 26 miles west of Fort Myers. It also lies about 3 miles north-
east of California's offshore State Lease 224-B, No. 1 well, a dry hole
that was plugged and abandoned in November 1960, at a total depth of
14,000 feet in lime and dolomite of undesignated age. In the No. 2 well
the massive anhydrite was topped at 11,520 feet; on this marker the
No. 2 well is 47 feet higher than the No. 1 well.

Two drill stem tests were run on State Lease 224-B, No. 2 well.
The first tested a section of lower Upper Cretaceous age at 8,212 to
8,235 feet and recovered 2,439 feet of salt water. The second tested
the Sunniland limestone of Lower Cretaceous (Glen Rose) Age at 11,285
to 11,355 feet and recovered 8,534 feet of salt water, analyzing 260,000
ppm total dissolved solids. For comparison, the total dissolved solids
of the salt water produced in the Sunniland field from this formation,
in the Humble Oil and Refining Company, Gulf Coast Realties Corporation
No. 1 well, was 240,600 ppm.

This location was made on subsurface information.


MONROE COUNTY OFFSHORE

In the Marquesas area four wells were drilled. The locations,
drilling data, and the locations and data on other Marquesas area wells
drilled in prior years, are shown on figure 2.

The California Company, Outer Continental Shelf, Lease 0672,
Block 44, No. 1 well bottomed at a depth of 4,687 feet in sediments
of Eocene Age when the drill pipe twisted off and could not be recovered.
Originally the California Company proposed to drill this well to 7,500
feet because information from other Marquesas area wells indicated
that this depth probably would have revealed the top of the Lower
Cretaceous section.










6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY




0 b






I I II
41




i 0" / :S
'-24 4 0=











I 40 i-
0a i < "

,/ / L 4


CL



/ / \\ \ \ /



/ )...r 5 /




0- / I \
C







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


This was a seismic location.

The California Company, State Lease 1011, No. 2 well reached
a total depth of 7,722 feet.

This location was based on seismic information and was drilled
to fulfill a lease obligation.

The California Company, State Lease 1011, No. 3 well was located
790 feet southeast of the California Company No. 2 well. The No. 3
well was planned as a Lower Cretaceous test with a proposed depth of
12,800 feet. As of December 31, 1961, the terminal date of this report,
this well was coring at 12,390 feet. No shows had been recorded.

The Gulf Oil Corporation-California Company, Outer Continental
Shelf Block 46, No. I well reached a total depth of 7,871 feet. Originally
it was proposed that this well would be drilled to 13,000 feet, but drilling
was discontinued when the drill pipe twisted off. Despite the fact that
the fish was recovered, drilling was never resumed. This well penetrated
sediments of Upper Cretaceous Age.

This was a seismic location.

LAND

FLORIDA MAINLAND

The latest detailed leasing information available to the Division
of Geology pertains to 1960, and is from the International Oil and Gas
Development Year Book of 1961, part 1, volume 31, page 63. This
source, as supplemented by information from the State Land Office
relative to offshore acreage, reveals that 12 companies in 1960 held
oil and gas leases on undeveloped mainland acreage in 57 of Florida's
67 counties, as follows:
Florida mainland acreage
Company under lease in 1960
Coastal 643,969
Continental 297,055
Gulf 76,830
Humble 1,437,792
Mobil 290,129
Shell 136,337
Sinclair 199,160
Sun 192,626
Texaco 222,545
Tidewater 24,849
Union 15,742
3,537,034








8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLORIDA OFFSHORE

At the end of 1961, Florida acreage offshore from the west coast of
Florida, according to information from the State Land Office, was held by
three companies under oil and gas lease as tabulated below:


Company
California
Coastal
Gulf


Florida mainland acreage
under lease in 1960
734,760
3,910,460
979,160
5,624,380


An additional area of approximately 2,500,000 acres offshore from
the Gulf Coast of Florida a distance of 3 leagues (10.36 miles) were
available for lease at the end of 1961. These consist of water bottoms
leased under the provision of State leases 833 and 826 (Blocks A-J and
O-U). Furthermore, the offshore Atlantic Coast of Florida, out to a
distance of 3 miles, is available for oil and gas leasing except where
beaches not owned by the State are located.
The lessor, approximate locations and outlines of State leases
located offshore from the west coast of Florida, acreage contained
in each lease, and bonuses and annual rentals paid are shown onfigure 3.
All leases provide that the State's share of production shall be one-
eighth of the value of the oil at the wellhead.



GEOPHYSICS

Summary of geophysical activity in Florida in 1961:


County and company
Collier
Humble Oil and Refining Co.
Hendry
Sinclair Oil and Gas Co.

Sun Oil Co.

Santa Rosa
Olin Oil Company
Plymouth Oil Company

Texaco Company


Method


Deep core drill

Experimental
seismograph
Experimental
seismograph

Seismograph
Seismograph

Gravity


Total
crew weeks


1

6 (est.)

5

5
(latter part
1961)
2 (continued
working area
In 1962)
















The area of lease 833, N
formerly leased to Commonwealth
Oil Company, reverted to the State pC
on December 6, 1961. Now available
for lease.

SThis area (extending to shore
and including bays and sounds) now
available for lease.






FLORIDA OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS LEASES


BONUS ANNUAL
PAID RENTAL


STATE'S SHARE
OF ANY
PRODUCTION


The California Co.
1011 Tr. I 489,000
1011 Tr. 2 245,760
TOTAL 734,760


Coastal Petroleum
224-A,Blks. -5
224-B,Blks.6-8
TOTAL

Commonwealth
Oil Corp.
833 (expired)


1,936,100
1,974,360
3,910,460


375,147.


$1,069,262,00 5C/acre



$ 500./block $ 22,566.40
$500./block $27,048.00*


Offshore It/acre
$ 10,500.00 Bays 8
Sounds : 2C/acre


Gulf Oil Co.
826 Blks. A-J a
O-U(expired) 1,914,246
826 BIks. K,L,M,
N,V,W,X,Y,Z 979,160
TOTAL 2,893,406


$ 500./block IC/acre"

$ 500./block I/acre'


This area,formerly included
in lease 826 held by the Gulf Oil
Corporation, reverted to the State
on September 26,1961. Now available
for lease.


State offshore acreage held under oil and gas lease: 5,624,380 Acres
Gulf Coast offshore acreage open for oil and gas lease: 2,500,00OAcres
Rental increasing annually after first two years at rate of 5% of the
original amount.


ano R7 86R 85 8


LEASE OUTLINES APPROXIMATE ONLY 23-


Q 20 40 80 120 160


APPROXIMATE SCALE


220-


Figure 3. Offshore Florida State leases, December 31, 1962.


COMPANY
AND
LEASE


ACRES


1/8


1/8


26-







25*-


I









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9 9

There was much more geophysical activity in Florida during the
preceding year of 1960, for which period 89 crew weeks are recorded
by Vernon and Hendry (1960, p. 7).

Crew weeks of geophysical activity in Florida, by counties, over
the 20-year interval, 1941-1960, inclusive, were obtained from the Oil
and Gas Year Book pertaining to each of the included years, and are
shown in table 1.

Table 1. Crew Weeks of Geophysical Activity in Florida,
1941 to 1960, Inclusive

Air Core
County Gravity Mag. Mag. Resist drill seismic Total
Alachua 42 14 0.33 7 63. 33
Baker 26.66 16.33 .33 43.32
Bay 60.25 15 1.33 11 18 105.58
Bradford 12.33 3 .33 15.66
Brevard 13.66 4.75 14 32.41
Broward 6 0.5 2 2 10.50
Calhoun 67 3 .33 17 14 101.33
Charlotte 25 3.5 1 13 70 112. 50
Citrus 28 10 .5 38. 50
Clay 13.33 13.33 3.5' 30.16
Collier 33.5 7.5 4 313.5 158 516. 50
Columbia 41.5 5 3 7.16 56.66
Dade 21 4.25 53 78.25
DeSoto 31 1.5 17 60 109.50
Dixie 31.5 19.5 71 12 134.00
Duval 17.5 17.66 3.25 38.41
Escambia 64 11 3 95 62 235.00
Flagler 28 4 2 34.00
Franklin 26.33 .33 12 31 69.66
Gadsden 37.5 17 .33 27 21 102.83
Gilchrist 26. 5 4.5 .33 31. 33
Glades 25 2.5 16 27 70. 50
Gulf 60.75 8 .33 12 61 142.08
Hamilton 20.83 4 .33 18 43. 16
Hardee 42.5 3 35.5 19 100.00
Hendry 21 1.5 63 68 153.50
Hernando 33.5 13.25 46.5 93.25
Highlands 38.5 6.25 16 56 116.75
Hillsborough 59 2 16 21 98.00
Indian River 9 2.33 29 40.33
Holmes 67. 83 29 1 47 144. 83
Jackson 73.33 27 .33 52 31 183.66
Jefferson 38.33 15 .33 53.66
Lafayette 35. 5 6. 5 .33 43 12 97. 33
Lake 34.33 9.25 6 49.58










10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



Table 1. (Continued)


County Gravity
Lee 11
Leon 45
Levy 45
Liberty 30.33
Madison 49
Manatee 23
Marion 36
Martin 4
Monroe 69. 5
Nassau 15.5
Okaloosa 77. 3
Okeechobee 25
Orange 17.83
Osceola 23. 5
Palm Beach 41
Pasco 58
Pinellas 18. 5
Polk 100.5
Putnam 14.66
Santa Rosa 82. 5
St. Johns 20
St. Lucie 6
Sarasota 12
Seminole 18
Sumter 18
Suwannee 46. 33
Taylor 53
Union 12
Volusia 29. 33
Wakulla 23.66
Walton 100. 83
Washington 72
Total 2410.23
Activity not
broken down
by counties,
for 1951,'52,
'53, and '58
(with percent
of Grand Total) 82(3/


Grand Total 2492.23


Air Core
Mag. Mag. Resist.I drill Seismic Total


3. 5
13.75
22.91
10
10
9
28.25
1.33
17.25
13.66
14
6.25
8.75
7. 33
10
4
1
12
10.5
11
6. 5
6.75
5. 5
4. 75
6.75
6.66
7
7
2
4
22
23. 5
621.79


0. 33
.33
.33
.33






5










6






.33
.33


.33
4
2. 33
28. 93


4
11.00


27
6
14.5
6
6


3


26
30
23
28. 5
20
60

66. 5

167


28


46
31




58
16. 5
1563.00


16
3
40
2
10
116
4
22
60
1
45
45


17

104
2
20
13


1. 5




6
112
34. 5
1642.91


97. 50
65.08
82.74
62.66
68. 33
72.00
66.25
18. 33
202. 75
33. 16
144.30
121.25
50. 58
104.33
116.00
122.00
19. 50
196.00
25. 16
370. 50
28. 50
32. 75
58. 50
22. 75
24. 75
100. 82
91. 33
19.00
31. 33
33. 99
296.83
152.83
6277.86


250(104I 1214(42%)I 1546gOy)


621.79 28.93! 11.00 181 3.01~ 2856.91 7823.86


621.79


7823.86


28.93' 11.00


181100 2856. 91








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


In 1959 there was an additional 17 crew weeks of seismic activity
over water bottom acreage which lies beyond the jurisdiction of the
State of Florida (further offshore than 3 leagues or 10.36 statute miles).


RULES AND REGULATIONS

The rules and regulations by which Florida's oil and gas law
(Florida Statutes, chapter 377, 1961) is administered, are implemented
by the twelve I-page forms listed below which are self-explanatory:
Form
1 Organization Report
2 Notice of Intention to Drill or Deepen
3 Bond for Plugging a Single Well
4 Blanket Bond for Plugging
5 Notice of Intention to Abandon and Plug Well
6 Monthly Producer's Report
7 Producer's Report of Condensate . .
8 Monthly Producer's Natural Gas Report
9 Well record
10 First Production or Retest Report
11 Producer's Certificate of Compliance and Authorization to Transport Oil
from Lease
12 Affidavit on Plugging Completion

The following forms are given special consideration:

Form 2 Notice of Intention to Drill or Deepen: To obtain a permit
to drill, this form, accompanied by a fee of $50.00, shall be presented
to the Administrator, Oil and Gas Section, State Board of Conservation,
P.O. Box 631, Tallahassee, Florida.

To obtain a permit to deepen, the same procedure is followed,
but the $50.00 fee is not required. No permit is required for workover
operations as long as the well remains completed in the same reservoir.

Form 5 Notice of Intention to Abandon and Plug Well: To obtain
a permit to abandon, this form, accompanied by a fee of $15.00, shall
be presented to the Administrator, Oil and Gas Section, who may elect
to send a representative to supervise the plugging of the well. All
abandoned wells shall be plugged within 30 days of abandonment.

A primary objective of regulations regarding the plugging of
oil tests is to avoid contamination of fresh water supplies.

Form9 Well Record: This form ". . shall describe progressively
the strata, water, oil or gas encountered in drilling a well with such








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


additional information as to gas volumes, pressures, rate of fill-up,
water depths, caving strata, casing record, shooting, perforating, chemi-
cal treatment, etc., as are usually recorded in the normal procedure of
drilling. Any electrical logging or surveying of the well shall also be
recorded.. ."

It is stipulated that the operator supply the Oil and Gas Section,
Division of Geology, the following items within the time limit (following
completion of the well) specified:

Item Time limit
Form 9 30 days
Well samples 90 days
Electrical logs (or other surveys) 6 months

Florida's oil and gas law is administered in accordance with the
rules and regulations set out in a pamphlet designated as "General
Rules and Regulations Governing the Conservation of Oil and Gas in
Florida." The law, the rules and regulations pamphlet, and oil and
gas forms 1 through 12 (discussed previously) conform closely with
the pattern suggested by the Interstate Oil Compact Commission. This
material may be obtained without charge by writing to the following:

Administrator, Oil and Gas Section
Division of Geology
P. O. Box 631
Tallahassee, Florida


PRODUCTION

Florida's only current production is from the Sunniland oil field,
which is located in Collier County in southern Florida. The locations
of specific wells in the field, as well as of the 15 dry outposts to the
field, are shown on figure 4.

The field was discovered in September 1943 by the Humble Oil
and Refining Company. The discovery well, the Gulf Coast Realties
Corporation No. 1, was drilled on the strength of core-drill information
supported by a seismic and gravity anomaly. The field now produces
from 11 wells, all pumpers. It has had 13 productive wells, most of
which flowed initially. The oil lifting cost in the field is low because
an efficient water drive permits the wells to be pumped from a depth
of only 3,500 to 4,000 feet. Most of the wells are open-hole completions.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9 13


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and
SUNNILAND FIELD


Figure 4. Sunniland oil field and nearby prospects, Collier County, Florida.


'*^









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Completion data on the 20 Sunniland field wells, including dry as well
as productive tests, are shown in table 2.

At the present time the Sunniland field produces about 1,000
barrels of oil per day. Production figures for 1961 are:

Month Barrels
January 33,324
February 29,977
March 32,093
April 29,513
May 30,550
June 29,359
July 30,195
August 30,400
September 31,718
October 28,520
November 30,719
December 37,872
Total 374,240

The cumulative production of the field during its 18-year history to
January 1,1962, is 6,852,620 barrels of oil. The monthly production
of oil and water for the field during its 18-year life is shown as a graph
in figure 5.

The best wells in the Sunniland field are the Gulf Coast Realties
Corporation No. 6 and No. 13, which, up to January 1, 1960, produced
1,148,792 and 731,883 barrels, respectively (Banks, 1960, p. 1738).

The Sunniland crude oil is black and medium in weight (190-260
API [American Petroleum Institute] gravity; table 2). It is associated
with little gas (gas-oil ratios are about 100 to 1; table 2). This crude
oil is suitable principally for fuel products. According to Schweyer
(1949, p. 12, 13) it is a mixed base oil possessing properties inter-
mediate between those of the "paraffinic" base oils of Pennsylvania
and those of the "naphtenic" base oils of Texas; the Sunniland crude
oil is comparable to the high sulphur asphaltic crude oils from California.


DISTRIBUTION

At the present time Sunniland crude oil sells for $2.39Y2 per barrel
at the wellhead. It is moved by tank trucks from the field to Port Ever-
glades just south of Fort Lauderdale, where tankers ship it to the
refinery located at Bay Way, New Jersey.













SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


RESERVOIR

Geologically, the Sunniland structure is a northwest-southeast
dome about 2 miles wide and 4Y miles long. Puri's and Banks' paper
of 1959 showed that the domal structure has a maximum vertical relief
of about 154 feet, but that tilting to the northeast has reduced vertical
closure to about 36 feet. An unpublished master's thesis submitted
to the graduate faculty of Florida State University in 1954 by Albert C.
Raasch, Jr., page 3 (written after 13 oil wells and 7 dry holes had been
drilled in the Sunniland field) stated that the field was estimated to
contain 2,356 productive acres. Also, Raasch (1954, p. 30) stated that
that the oil-water contact occurred at a subsea depth of approximately
11,555 feet.

There are two adjoining Sunniland pay zones and they are in
Lower Cretaceous limestone of Glen Rose Age. The more productive
of the two zones is the lower one which consists of a porous Chamid
or rudistid reef. It is probable that the two Sunniland pay zones form
a single reservoir. They have a combined thickness in the Sunniland
field ranging from 5 to 45 feet, and are found at an approximate depth
of 11,550 feet. A description of the reservoir rock in the Humble Oil and
Refining Company, Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. 2 well, used as
the type section of the Sunniland field, is quoted from Raasch (1954,
p. 29,30), with underlining by the present writer for emphasis:

"Two zones of porosity in the upper part of the middle
member of the Sunniland formation produce all the oil at
Sunniland. These are in the 'upper producing' zone and the
underlying 'Chamid' zone. The upper zone . is composed
of a maximum of fifteen feet of light to dark brown, hard,
dense to porous, microfossiliferous limestone. Porosity
ranges from 5 per cent to 22 per cent with an average porosity
of 10 oer cent.
"The main production is located in the top part of the
'Chamid* zone just below the 'upper producing' zone. The
'Chamid' zone at Sunniland is made up of fossil fragments
(caprinids) and chalky cement . . When both the cement
and the caprinids are recrystallized, the resulting inter-
crystalline porosity is at its highest with little remaining
of the original shell fragments except brown outlines from
which minute calcite crystals project.
"The main producing zone has a maximum thickness of
thirty feet . . Porosity ranges from 11 to 33 per cent with
an average porosity of 18 per cent.
"Permeability determinations are not available on all
wells in the field because of poor core recovery. Permeability
is very poor, both horizontally and vertically, in the south
and southeast parts of the field. In the northwestern part of
the field, the permeability is considerably better, but the
porosity is not as good."









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Pressler (1947, p. 1862) stated that the producing zone in the
Sunniland field has an average permeability of 312 millidarcys parallel
with the bedding and 84 millidarcys perpendicular to the bedding.

Sunniland has had a low decline rate, the production of 1960 being
less than that of 1950 by about 25 percent. The essential absence of
free gas, low gas-oil ratios, small decrease in bottom-hole pressures,
and the general pattern of continued increase in water production show
that reservoir energy is primarily from water drive. A summary of reservoir
data is provided in appendix 2, which itemizes specific information on
the following reservoir parameters: bottom-hole reservoir pressure,
present producing pressure differentials, and gas-oil ratios. Production
statistics, by months, for the field during its 18-year life are shown on
figure 5.

In an endeavor to estimate the additional oil which may be produced
from the Sunniland field, consideration must be given to the following
three factors;

(1) Figure 5 shows that over the past 7 years there has been a
gradual increase in the percentage of salt water production as compared
to oil production. At the present time the field produces slightly more
than 60 percent salt water, whereas early in 1955 it produced only about
50 percent salt water. Figure 5 also shows that in 1956 and 1957 the
percentage of salt water production as compared to total production fell
sharply to about 43 percent. Beginning with January 1958, however,
the salt water percentage returned to about the value which would have
been expected had there been no decline in 1956 and 1957. The decline
may have been due to some production practice which has been dis-
continued. It is not known what policy relative to salt water control the
operator plans to follow in the future.

(2) During the last 10 years the annual percentage of production
decline for the field has been in the neighborhood of 5 to 10 percent.
Within this approximate range it has fluctuated rather sharply (determined
from the production statistics shown in figure 5).

(3) At the present time the Division of Geology has no information
on the production figure at which the economic limit of the field will be
reached. The element of lifting cost, however, should not be unduly high
since an efficient water drive permits the wells to be pumped from a
depth of only 3,500 to 4,000 feet.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


In view of these considerations, a close estimate of the additional
economically recoverable reserves of the field is not ventured. However,
it appears reasonable to assume that the field has a good chance of being
commercially exploitable for another 20 years, even though salt water
incursion probably will have become very advanced within that period
of time. If the Sunniland field produces another 20 years, and the per-
centage of production decline is about 5 to 10 percent per year, about
3 to 4Y2 million additional barrels of oil will be produced.


DRILLING PRACTICES

The casing program used in drilling the Sunniland field wells was
was described by Pressler (1947, p. 1862) as follows:

"Typical drilling procedure at Sunniland is to start with a
24-inch hole that is drilled to approximately 80 feet in depth
where 20-inch conductor pipe is set. A 17%-inch hole is
carried to approximately 1,000 feet where 13 3/8-inch casing
is set and cemented to the surface. This setting cases off
the surface sand, gravel, and sandy limestone, and protects
the Ocala limestone water zone from contamination. From
this depth, a 12'4-inch hole is drilled to the total depth of
5,700 feet. Between the depths of 1,600 and 3,000 feet,
complete circulation is lost in the cavernous limestones and
dolomites of the middle and lower Eocene. At 5,700 feet, or
near the top of the Upper Cretaceous chalky limestone, 9 5/8-
incn casing is set. This setting restores circulc.:on, and
the wells are completed with 8 5/8-inch bits."

Most of the Sunniland wells were drilled with water to a depth of
several hundred feet above the producing horizons, at which point drilling
mud was added to prevent blowouts (Raasch, 1954, p. 31).

Raasch (1954, p. 31) stated that the time required to drill the
Sunniland wells ". . to a total depth of approximately 11,600 feet ranged
from over seven months for the first well drilled (in 1943) to slightly
over two months for the last well drilled (in 1949) . .


BRINE

The Humble Oil and Refining Company, Gulf Coast Realties Corpo-
ration No. 1, which was the discovery well for the Sunniland field, was
converted to a salt water disposal well in 1947. This well originally
was completed December 2, 1943, at a total depth of 11,626 feet. Since
it was unable to flow, pumping equipment was installed. Production














FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


during the test conducted December 6, 1943, was 111 barrels of oil and
475 barrels of salt water. The well was operated until June 16, 1946, at
which time the oil production had decreased to 10 barrels per day and
the salt water had increased to 600 barrels per day. The well produced
a cumulative total of 20,550 barrels of oil prior to being converted to
salt water disposal.

The chemical analyses of the brine from the Sunniland field indi-
cates it might be commercially exploited. Two analyses of brine produced
from the Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. 1 well are presented:




Table 3. Analyses of Brines from the Humble Oil and Refining Company,
Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. 1, the Discovery Well for
the Sunniland Field

Florida State U. S. Bureau
Chemist Laboratory of Mines
Radicals (milligrams per liter) (milligrams per lite

Silica (SiO ) 30. 0 0.0
Iron (Fe) 75. 0 (+Al) 0
Calcium (Ca) 28, 100.0 25, 204.0
Magnesium (Mg) 4,000.0 3,110.0
Sodium (Na) 51,000. 0 (est. ) 58,491.0
Fluoride (F) .0 .0
Potassium (K) 4, 700. 0 Not tested
Carbonate radical (CO3) 0 .0
Bicarbonate radical (HCO ) .0 146. 0
Sulphate radical (SO4) 260.0 275.0
Chloride radical (Cl) 145, 000. 0 143,601.0
Nitrate (NO3) .0 .0
Bromide radical (B ) 600. 0 Not tested
Iodide radical (I) .0 .0
Hydrogen sulphide (H S) .0 .0
Total hardness as (CaCO3) .0 .0
Specific conductance
(Kxl0. 5 at 25C.) .0 .0
Total dissolved solids 240,600.0 (at 180'C) 230,827.0
Suspended matter 20.0 ---
Specific gravity 1. 159 1. 162








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


By calculation, the radicals determined by the Florida State Chemist
Laboratory would form the quantities of salt compounds shown below:

Compounds formed from
Sunniland brine
(milligrams per liter)
NaSO4KCI 897
KCI
NaCI 137,453
NaBr
CaSO4" 2 H 20
CaCI2 77,817
CaCO3
MgSO4 328
MgCI2 15,398
Fe203
231.893

Comparison of the Sunniland brine with sea water, as analysed by
Igelsrud (1932, p. 188) indicates that the brine contains nine times more
bromine, almost three times more magnesium, and six times more total
salts.

Of the elements contained in this brine, most are commercially ex-
tracted from sea water, or from salt such as that present in the Permian
Basin of southeastern New Mexico. Two elements, however, are produced
to an important extent from salt wells. Information on these two elements
is:

(1) Bromine: The Michigan Chemical Corporation recovers bromine
from oil well brines at El Dorado, Arkansas, and in 1960 this company
expanded its El Dorado facilities. Also Arkansas Chemicals, Incor-
porated, a new company formed by the Great Lakes Chemical Corporation
and the Houston Chemical Corporation, plans to extract bromine from
well brines at a new plant to be constructed near El Dorado. (Information
source: Stipp and Roman, Minerals Yearbook, 1960, p. 283-284.)

Bromine is also extracted from brine produced from wells in Michigan
and West Virginia. (Information source: Stipp and Roman, op.cit., p. 283).


(2) Magnesium: Of the magnesium produced in the United States
70 percent comes from brines. The source of these brines is specified
as "well brines, raw sea water, and sea water bitterns." (Comstock and
Baker, Minerals Yearbook, 1960, p. 749-750.)









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Sunniland brine could be delivered to an extraction plant
from the oil separator at relatively low cost. There are few oil field
brines as saline as the Sunniland brine, which is concentrated suf-
ficiently to cause some of the dissolved solids to precipitate upon
standing.

It appears that these brines might be commercially exploitable
for their high bromine and magnesium content; also, the extraction of
other radicals may be feasible. It is interesting to note that, according
to the Geological and Economic Survey of the State of West Virginia,
a large chemical plant in South Charleston, West Virginia, has operated
on a brine containing about 9 percent sodium chloride and 12 percent
total salt. For comparison, the Sunniland brine contains calculated
percentages of 13.7 percent sodium chloride and 23.2 percent total salt.
In 1960 the Sunniland field produced 619,000 barrels of brine, or about
1,700 barrels per day. This brine production is the equivalent of about
80 tons of total salts daily.


PROSPECTS

The subsurface axis of the Florida Peninsula (and of the Florida
Plateau) is the Peninsular Arch (Applin, 1951, p. 3). Information from
wells showed that on the pre-Mesozoic surface the crest of this feature
is in the center of northern peninsular Florida, in Columbia County,
and that on this surface the feature has a south-southeast trend which
extends from southeastern Georgia into central Florida with a regional
southeasterly dip of about 50 feet per mile (Applin, 1951, fig.2). Further-
more, the structural configuration and trend of Upper Cretaceous rocks
at the base of beds of Austin Age, according to the Tectonic Map of
1961 (U.S. Geological Survey and American Association of Petroleum
Geologists), on which the area of Florida was contoured by Paul L.
Applin, is very similar to that of the pre-Mesozoic surface. Regional
gravity control (Lyons, 1950) indicates, however, the existence of ex-
tensive gravity anomalies with predominantly northeast-southwest trend
approximately at right angles to the pre-Mesozoic and Upper Cretaceous
Peninsular Arch. Some of these gravity anomalies may reflect uplifted
Ordovician and Silurian lithology deposited in a northeast-southwest
trending Early Paleozoic "basin" as tentatively interpretated by Applin
(1951, p. 12, fig. 5; p. 17). These gravity anomalies in some cases
also may reflect certain Tertiary features of northeast-southwest align-
ment as contoured by Vernon (1951, pl. 2) from close well control on









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


top of the Inglis Formation of the Ocala Group of Eocene Jackson Age.
In the general area of the Peninsular Arch 25 wells penetrated Upper
or Lower Cretaceous beds overlying Early Ordovician sandstone and
quartzite (Puri and Vernon, 1959, pl. 1). These are the oldest rocks
to be drilled in the State, and lie at depths from 2,813 feet, in the Sun
Oil Company, Ruth M. Bishop No. 1 well, located in central Columbia
County, to 7,720 feet, in the Ohio Oil Company, Hernasco Corporation
No. 1 well, located in southwestern Hernando County.

These Early Ordovician rocks were laid down on a continental
shelf under shallow water marine conditions (Gunter and Vernon, 1954).
In general, similar conditions of deposition have controlled the character
of sediments laid down subsequently.

Sedimentary rocks of the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic eras,
with a cumulative thickness of 18,000tfeet, underlie Florida (Roberts
and Vernon, 1961). This column is relatively thin over the Peninsular
Arch, and thick in southern Florida and in the Florida Panhandle. The
upper part of this column, consisting of rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous
ages, has a thickness as great as 15,000- feet. These sediments under-
lie the entire State and are primarily carbonates and evaporates in
southern Florida and clastics in western Florida. In general, the lime.
stones spread northward in successively younger stages and encroach
upon the clastics (Applin, 1944, p. 1679, 1680).

The limestones and sands of the Cretaceous System are important
as oil and gas prospects. On the Florida mainland they vary in thickness
from 1,000 to about 10,000 feet. In the Florida Panhandle, the Upper
Cretaceous stratigraphy (exclusive of that laid down in Taylor time) has
been described in cross sections, maps, and text by Applin and Applin
(1947). For the eastern part of the Florida Panhandle, as well as the
remainder of the State, Upper and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy has
been published in a series of cross sections designated as "Mesozoic
Cross Sections A-A', B-B', C-C', D.D', and E-E'," prepared by the
Southeastern Geological Society (1949).

Florida contains about 40 million mainland acres underlain by
thick sequences of sedimentary rocks. Only 369 oil tests have been
drilled but not more than three-fourths of these wells were deep enough
to reach the Cretaceous horizons which present information indicates
are the primary oil objectives.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The oil and gas provinces of Florida, as discussed in this report,
are outlined on figure 6. The Offshore Province encompasses the area
extending from shore to a water depth of 200 feet, mostly off the west
coast of Florida. The Osceola Low Intermediate Province, in which
postulated pinchout of deeper Lower Cretaceous sands against base-
ment rocks is the most attractive possibility, mainly is delineated to
conform with the possible outline of a basement feature as indicated
by regional gravity control. The other provinces are based primarily
on stratigraphy, and are intended to enclose depositional areas in which
the conditions of oil and gas occurrence and exploration would be similar.
Accordingly, the South Florida Embayment Province is outlined as it
probably existed during Trinity Age when Lower Cretaceous reservoir
and oil source rocks were deposited. Similarly, other province outlines
for the remainder of the State are shown as they probably existed during
important parts of the Eagle Ford-Woodbine (or Eutaw-Tuscaloosa) Age
when Upper Cretaceous rocks were laid down,

A tabulation by province of depths and thicknesses of important
sections, and approximate number of wells deep enough to test them,
is presented in table 4.


OFFSHORE PROVINCE

Water bottom acreage under various depths of water from shore
to 200 feet (considered the economic limit of water depth for commercial
drilling operations on the basis of information presented in appendix 3)
is shown on figure 6. This province provides an area for prospective
offshore drilling slightly greater than that of the Florida mainland.

Of the 11 offshore wells which were probably deep enough to
have reached Lower Cretaceous beds, 5 are located in the Marquesas
area. Data on these wells are shown on figure 2. On the Sunniland
marker, the Marquesas area lies at a structural elevation about 800 feet
lower than that of the Sunniland field, located 130 miles to the north-
northeast. Also, the Lower Cretaceous section down to the Sunniland
marker is about 1,800 feet thicker in the Marquesas area than it is in
the Sunniland field.

In general, seismic records of southern Florida contain much
background interference making interpretations difficult. It would
be helpful in interpretations if seismic records over water bottom acreage
were found to have a relatively minor amount of background interference.





SOUTHWEST GEORGIA
EMBAYMENT PROVINCE


OIL EXPLORATION PROVINCES

(also see Table 4, p.25)
PRIMARY
OBJECTIVE

Offshore Prob. Cret.
South Florida Embayment Province L.Cret. Is.
Gulf Embayment Province U.Cret. sd.
Apalachicola Embayment Province U. Cret. sd.
Osceola Low Intermediate Province L. Cret. sd.
Ocala Uplift Province U. Cret. sd.
Peninsular Arch Province U.Cret. sd.
Southeast Georgia Embayment Province U. Cret. sd.

tI Applin and Applin ,1947, show that missing members
of the Atkinson Formation (Woodbine and Eagle
Ford Ages),which thins from NW to SE,are:

In Area 'A": Middle members
In Area 'B: Middle and lower members
In Area "C" The entire Atkinson Formation
is thin or absent.
In Area "D" per Joseph E. Banks (personal
communication): The Atkinson
Formation is present but not
divided into members




WATER BOTTOM AREAS
(Water depths taken from U S C and G S Maps 1003,
1111 and 1112):

From shore to Approximate acres
60 feet 14,382,000
120 feet 31,119,000
200 feet 41,227,000
To facilitate comparison: Florida's mainland contains
about 40,000,000 acres.


24-


Information compiled from many sources,
including Applin and Applin,1947; Mesozoic Cross-
section A-A' by the Mesozoic Committee of the
Southeastern Geological Society, 1949 ; Regional
Gravity Map of Florida (after Lyons, 1950 ); 23_
Vernon (1951); Paul L. Applin (1951); Jordan (1952);
and Vernon and Puri (1959).


0 20 40


80 120 160


22 -


APPROX. SCALE

82* 81*
I I


Figure 6. Oil and gas provinces of Florida.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9 25





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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TESTS AND SHOWS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

The Gulf Oil Corporation, State Lease 826-Y well, the most north-
ward and eastward of the Marquesas area wells, recovered from the
calcareous Lower Cretaceous Sunniland interval 14.1 barrels of black
salt water with strong sulphur odor, and 15 barrels of oil (fig. 2). This
well probably could have been developed as a producer if it had been
located on land and the oil present at shallow depth.

A deeper section initially appeared promising in the State Lease
826-Y well; core recovery from this section revealed good staining.
Results of a drill stem test of this interval, which occurs below the top
of the Lower Cretaceous massive anhydrite, were negative, as shown:

Depth : 14,642.14,702 feet
Chokes : 1-inch bottom and '4-inch top
Duration : hours 18 minutes
Recovery : 106 barrels salt water
21.3 barrels sea water cushion
No show
Pressures : Packers were stuck in the hole,
and the pressure recorders
could not be recovered

A section of alternating carbonates and anhydrites below the top
of the Lower Cretaceous massive anhydrite also contained shows in
another Gulf Oil Corporation test, State Lease 373 (Big Pine Key),
which was located about 44 miles east of the State Lease 826-Y well.
This test was structurally about 1,700 feet the higher of the two wells
on the top of the Sunniland marker. In the test a 2-foot recovery from
a cored interval of 5 feet (12,752 to 12,757 feet) had slight intermittent
oil staining in hard limestone. Cores of a deeper calcareous and anhy-
dritic section 224 feet thick (14,470 to 14,694 feet) had several zones
of slight porosity and very slight oil stain. Apparently none of the
shows were tested.


SOUTH FLORIDA EMBAYMENT PROVINCE

The South Florida Embayment, as contoured by J. E. Banks (1960)
on an anhydrite near the Sunniland pay interval, is a large basin, has a
gentle regional southwest dip of about 20 feet per mile, and has low
relief features (Banks, 1960, p. 1743). The contoured anhydrite lies
unconformably beneath about 10,000 to 12,400 feet of sediment.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


The Sunniland formation extends north of the South Florida Embay-
ment Province perhaps halfway into the Osceola Low Intermediate
Province. The boundary which separates these provinces, as they are
delineated on figure 6, is based on well control; it also conforms in
general with the alignment of a broad regionally high trend depicted
on gravity maps. Generally the area north of this boundary contains
dense carbonate development in the stratigraphic equivalent of the
section of Trinity Age, whereas to the south the Trinity section is
characterized by the more favorable Chamid reefal development. This
accounts for the fact that north of this boundary few oil and gas shows
have been reported from the Sunniland pay interval, whereas to the south
most of the 57 wells drilled deep enough to test this zone have recorded
good shows.

Though well control in the South Florida Embayment Province has
revealed that oil occurrence is common, it is inadequate to supply more
than very regional structural information. Furthermore, geophysical
techniques have been unsuccessful in providing detailed information
on structures. The difficulties connected with reflection seismology
were summarized in 1946 by John D. Todd, who stated:

"The seismograph . has encountered almost overwhelming
difficulties in this province (South Florida). The cavernous
surface, ground roll, absence of deeper reflection changes,
(and) acute lateral velocity variations . have combined to
hold reliable reflection seismograph results to a bare minimum."

Despite its limited effectiveness, Todd (1946) concluded:

". . by using a shallow reflection, the Petty Company was
able to do mapping in the southern part of the state. And by
refractions the position of the basement can be located, and the
top of the Selma often can be mapped." (Editor's note: The
Selma Group comprises the uppermost of the beds of Upper
Cretaceous Age in peninsular Florida, according to Puri and
Vernon, 1959, fig. 3.)

During the past year the Seismograph Service Corporation has been
working in areas of Hendry and Collier counties using the new vibration
system in connection with their seismic prospecting. Operations are
particularly difficult here. Because the subsurface sediments consist
predominantly of carbonates, there are relatively few deep refraction and
reflection changes. Furthermore, the sandy crust in parts of the area tends
to obscure the record. However, the vibration system, which produces
continuous vibrations, should yield more conclusive and characteristic
records than the isolated tremors produced by dynamite, and there should








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


be less distortion on records made by the vibration system than on those
made by dynamite.

There are large regional and many untested local gravity anomalies
in southern Florida. It is unlikely that these are due entirely to lithology
changes, and some structures must be present, although wells in Florida
are too sparse to verify this.


THE MIDDLE MEMBER OF THE SUNNILAND FORMATION

The most prospective horizon in this province is the middle member
of the Sunniland formation, of Lower Cretaceous (Trinity Glen Rose)
Age, as defined in Raasch's type section (1954, p. 11). This member
is 250 feet thick and consists predominantly of limestone. Its top occurs
at the base of a prominent anhydrite that produces a characteristic
electrical log marker. There are two pay zones in this member. The
"upper producing" zone, the production of which is of secondary im-
portance, occurs at the very top of the member and consists of 36 feet
of hard limestone interbedded with anhydrite and dolomite. Immediately
underlying this is a more productive zone which consists of 41 feet of
Chamid reefal carbonates.

A third zone, occurring from 109 to 131 feet below the Chamid
reef, was productive on test in the Commonwealth Oil Company, et al.,
M. B. Wisehart and State Board of Education No. 1 well, located in
western Dade County in the abandoned Forty Mile Bend field. This
zone was acidized through perforations (11,464 to 11,486 feet) and
during a pumping test it yielded 20 barrels of oil per day plus considerable
salt water.

In the areas that have been productive, the Sunniland pay zones
contain dolomite. In some Sunniland field wells, production is obtained
from a dolomitic section as thin as 5 feet, occurring somewhere within
the interval of the upper two pay zones described above. Completion
operations must be handled with great care and precision to avoid salt
water incursion.

The middle member of the Sunniland formation is reached near
the northern boundary of the province at about 10,000 feet; in the Sunni-
land field at about 11,550 feet, and offshore to the south in the Marquesas
Keys area, which is in the deepest part of the basin drilled to date, at
about 12,400 feet.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


The Sunniland pay zones are the source of all of the oil produced
in the approximately 10-million barrel Sunniland field, already described
in this report under "Production." Structurally, the Sunniland field lies
in a saddle between two gravity maxima, with seismic, gravity, and core
drill results contributing to its discovery (Baum, 1953, p. 351).

All of the production of the 2-well Forty Mile Bend field, amounting
to 33,888 barrels of oil before the field was abandoned for technical
reasons, also is from the Sunniland pay zones. Figure 1 locates this
field about 48 miles southeast of the Sunniland field. In the Forty Mile
Bend area there is overwhelming evidence that petroleum source beds
are present in the part of J.E. Banks' cyclothem (1960) which corresponds
to the middle member of Raasch's (1954, p. 11) Sunniland formation.
Banks (1960, p. 1743) stated that ". . more than 15,000 barrels per
acre of solid bitumen and 5,000 barrels of petroleum are indicated by
physical and chemical tests of limestone cores." The discovery well
for the field was the Commonwealth Oil Company, M. B. Wisehart State
Board of Education No. 1, which was acidized through perforations
11,322 to 11,339 feet), and during a pumping test yielded 60 barrelsof
oil and 90 barrels of salt water. The Chamid reef of the Sunniland pay
section in most south Florida producing wells was not present in the
discovery well of the Forty Mile Bend field (Banks, 1960, p. 1740, fig. 3).
In this well the producing zone was a thin dolomite with 19 to 22 milli-
darcys of permeability and 19 percent porosity, which produced 14,742
barrels of oil during about 15 months in 1954 and 1955 (Banks, 1960,
p. 1741, 1742).

An analysis is presented in table 5 of the 10 dry outpost wells
located from 4j/ to 11Y2 miles from Sunniland field production. In these
wells the top of the middle member of the Sunniland formation is com-
pared with the oil-water contact of the Sunniland field, which stood in
1954 at a datum of -11,555 feet according to Raasch (1954, p. 30). This
comparison shows that the datum in nine of these outposts ranged from
0 to 261 feet lower than the oil-water contact specified. Included in this
group is the Humble Oil and Refining Company, Miles Collier No. 1 well,
completed in 1961, in which the Sunniland marker occurs at the same
structural elevation as the 1954 oil-water contact of the Sunniland field.
This test had an excellent oil show from Sunniland reservoir rock and,
according to the Microlog, good porosity. Only one of the dry outpost
wells was structurally high on the basis described. This well is the
Humble Oil and Refining Company, Collier Corporation B-1, which was
75 feet higher than the 1954 oil-water contact; large fluid recovery from









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 5. Sunniland Field Outpost Wells1


Wells


Comment


LTCL Co. No. 3
(West Harker Prospect)
Sec. 28, T. 47 S., R. 29 E.
-4- mi. NW of production

LTCL Co. No. C-l
(West Sunniland Prospect)
Sec. 7, T. 48 S., R. 29 E.
-5 mi. W of production

GCRC No. B-1
(West Sunniland Prospect)
Sec. 23, T. 48 S., R. 28 E.
-7 mi. W of production

GCRC No. D-1
(NW Sunniland Prospect)
Sec. 3, T. 48 S., R. 28 E.
-8- mi. WNW of production

GCRC No. C-1
(SW L. Trafford Prospect)
Sec. 21, T. 47 S., R. 28 E.
-10 mi. WNW of production


GCRC No. E-1
(SW L. Trafford Prospect)
Sec. 19, T. 47 S., R. 28 E.
-11i mi. WNW of production



Curry No. 1
(West Lake Trafford Prospect)
Sec. 8, T. 47 S., R. 29 E.
-8 mi. NW of production



Collier Corporation B-1
(NE Sunniland Prospect)
Sec. 14, T. 47 S., R. 31 E.
-114 mi. NE of production


69' low. Completed in 1947.
T.D. 11,943'.




261' low. Completed in 1949.
T. D. 11,894'.




152' low. Completed in 1948.
T. D. 12,220'.




264' low. Completed in 1949.
T. D. 11,900'.




167' low. Completed in 1948.
T. D. 12,120'.





178' low. Completed in 1949.
T. D. 12,210'. It is understood
that this well had a good test. The
Division of Geology has no record
of it, however.


12' low. Completed in 1955.
T. D. 11,937'. DST in Sunniland
pay interval recovered salt water
(150,000 ppm.), no oil.



75' high. Completed in 1952.
T. D. 11,796'.
DST: 11,549-585'
Choke: 5/8"
Duration: 7 hrs. 40 min.
Recovery: 10,205' salt water










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9

Table 5. (Continued


Wells


Comment


Miles Collier No. 2
(SE Sunniland Prospect)
Sec. 18, T. 49 S., R. 31 E.
-6 mi. SE of production










Miles Collier No. 12
(SE Sunniland Prospect
Sec. 18, T. 49 S., R. 31 E.
-6 mi. SE of production


O' low.
Test: 11,745-757'
Choke: "
Duration: 2 hrs. 28 min.
Recovery: 1 pint. oil, 9 gal. water
Pressures: BHF, 415 pounds
BHSI, 485 pounds
According to the Microlog, this
test was made in the upper 5 feet
of a 90-foot interval of good
porosity.

0' low. The Sunniland formation
was drill stem tested in the open
hole as follows:
Depth: 11,631-11,636'
Choke: "
Duration: 3 hrs. 53 min.
Recovery: 4 bbls. oil
41 bbls. water
(156, 000 ppm. )
Pressures: BHF, 2,740 pounds
BHSI, 5,165 pounds


A brief summary of structural and drilling data for
the 10 dry outpost wells located at distances ranging
from 41 to 111 miles from Sunniland field production,
and all drilled by the Humble Oil and Refining Company.
Structural data at the base of an anhydrite immediately
overlying the Sunniland pay interval in the dry wells
are compared with Raasch's 1954 oil-water contact in
the Sunniland field of -11, 555 feet.

2Several swabbing tests are reported to have recovered
a total of about 50 barrels of oil and 3, 000 barrels of
salt water.

A comparison of the drill stem test recovery with the
reported total recovery of the swabbing tests shows that
whereas the oil-to-water ratio in the drill stem test
was I to 4, it was 1 to 60 in the swabbing tests. This
unsuccessful completion is considered to be the most
promising oil show in the past few years.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the Sunniland pay zones, though consisting entirely of salt water, indi-
cated the presence of good porosity and permeability.

A similar analysis of the five dry outpost wells of the Forty Mile
Bend field is summarized in table 6. The McCord Oil Company, Damoco
No. 1 well is very low on Trinity Age Lower Cretaceous horizons as
compared with all of the other wells in the Forty Mile Bend area. Cor-
relating on the top of Banks' Lower Cretaceous Comanche interval Dade
Unit D-4, this well is 270 feet lower than the Gulf Oil Corporation, State
Lease 340 No. 1 producer. In the McCord Oil Company, Damoco No. 1
well the Sunniland Chamid reef appears to be absent. The remainder
of the dry outposts to the Forty Mile Bend field ranged from 3 feet to
about 54 feet low on the top of the middle member of the Sunniland
formation as compared with the Gulf State Lease 340 No. 1 producer.

A paper by Roberts and Vernon (1961) stated that there is a trend
of porosity in the Sunniland pay interval about 200 miles long and 30 to
50 miles wide trending through Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier,
Broward and Dade counties. Probably several factors contributed to the
formation of porosity traps. There are cases in which porosity in carbon-
ates is formed where shoal areas pinchout against the denser carbonates
and anhydrites that were deposited in deeper waters) Roberts and Vernon,
1961). Banks (1958, p. 7) stated that the pay section which trends
across Florida is a very porous reef limestone that abuts against dense
anhydrite on one side and is covered by anhydrite. Also, according to
Gunter and Vernon (1954) "Much of the porosity . is formed as bio-
strome and bioherm reefs, with porosity pinchouts in the inner reef areas
and where pores have been filled with secondary anhydrite."
Porosity in carbonate rocks also might result from wave action
over shallow areas during regressions and transgressions of the sea,
whereby the fine rock particles are removed and the coarser particles
remain as conglomerates. Regressions could produce "summit" con-
glomerates at the top of a formation just as naturally as transgressions
could produce basal conglomerates at the base of a formation (Banks,
1958, p. 7). "Summit" conglomerates especially would occur at the top
of a marine cycle when wave energy had a chance to act on reefs or other
carbonate rocks. According to Banks, such conglomerates are present
in the Sunniland pay interval.
OTHER POSSIBLE PAYS

Both above and below the middle member of the Sunnilandformation,
porous limestones and dolomites have carried shows of oil which oc-
casionally have been tested.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9

Table 6. Forty Mile Bend Field Outpost Wells


Wells


Comment


Commonwealth, et al.
State Lease 1055 No. 1
Sec. 11, T. 54 S., R. 35 E.
(About 2 mi. NE of production)








McCord Oil Company
Damoco No. 1
Sec. 31, T. 53 S. R. 35 E.
(About 4 mi. NW of production)


Gulf Oil Corporation
State Lease 340 No. 2
Sec. 19, T. 54 S., R. 36 E.
(About 1 mi. S of production)




Gulf Oil Corporation
State Lease 340 No. 3
Sec. 19, T. 54 S., R. 36 E.
(About 3/4 mi. S of production)









Humble Oil & Refining Co.
State Lease No. 1
Sec. 30, T. 55 S., R. 36 E.
(About 8 mi. S of production)


Low (54'?). Completed in 1959.
T. D. 11,676'.
DST: 11,395-456'
Choke: 5/8"
Duration: 1 hr. 45 min.
Recovery: 6 bbls. mud and
salt water
Pressures: BHF, 3,212 pounds
BHSI, 5,220 pounds


About 270' low. The reef does
not appear to be developed in
this well. Completed in 1951.
Corr. T.D. 11,690'.


5' low. The reef is probably
present, but poorly developed
in this well. Microlog not
legible above salt water level.
Completed in 1954.
T. D. 11,597'.

3' low. The reef is probably
present but poorly developed
in this well. Completed in 1955.
T. D. 11,625'.
DST: 11,342-346'
Chokes: 3/8" and 1/4"
Duration: 9 hrs.
Recovery: 30' oil and 2, 370'
salt water
Pressures: BHF, 221 pounds

3' low. Completed in 1945.
T. D. 11,794'.


A brief summary of the five dry outpost wells located within an 8-mile
radius of the field. Structural elevation of the electrical log marker
occurring at the base of an anhydrite immediately overlying the Sunni-
land pay interval in the dry wells are compared with the datum of this
marker (-11,312 feet) in the Gulf Oil Corporation, et al., State Lease
340No. 1 producer (sec. 19, T. 54 S., R. 36 E., Dade County).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Relatively few shows have been reported from the Tertiary section.
A show was encountered in the Coastal Petroleum Company, John Tiedtke
No. 1 well, located in southeastern Glades County and in the northern
part of the province, at a depth from 3,567 to 3,587 feet. This is in the
upper part of the Cedar Keys Limestone of Paleocene Midway Age (the
interval of the show in the Tiedtke well is porous dolomite with thin
interbedded black shale). The rate of penetration through this interval
was 1 to 2 minutes per foot. A layer of stratified anhydrite, 28 feet
thick, lies upon the dolomite. The show is described by the Coastal
Petroleum Company as "orange brown, sticky hydrocarbon spotted in
porosity. Black shale is oily. Good cut with CCI4." Throughout the
province, porosity is well developed above the Cedar Keys Limestone
in the Oldsmar Limestone of Lower Eocene and Upper Paleocene Wilcox
Age. In fact, much of the Oldsmar Limestone is a zone of "lost circu-
lation" which must be cased off before drilling to deeper depths;
unfortunately, this zone is commonly flooded with salt water.

The Upper Cretaceous section in most wells in the South Florida
Embayment Province has contained no sand. A few wells have had
from 10 to 20 feet of very calcareous, tight, shaly sand with glauconite
inclusions in the lowermost part of the Upper Cretaceous section.

Oil shows are persistently reported in the Fredericksburg Lime-
stone of Lower Cretaceous Age, which is penetrated at a depth of about
9,800 feet in the Sunniland field. Contours by Paul L. Applin of the top
of Lower Cretaceous beds of Washita Age are shown on the Tectonic
Map of 1961 (U. S. Geological Survey and the American Association of
Petroleum Geologists) to enclose a basin which is generally similar in
configuration to a deeper basin contoured by Banks (1960, p. 1739) on
an anhydrite near the Sunniland pay zone. As compared with the strati-
graphically deeper basin, the upper basin is somewhat shallower, the
main part of the basin plunges to the west rather than to the southwest,
and its axis is about 40 miles further north. The structural markers
used to define these two basins are separated by an interval of 3,200
feet in the Sunniland field; the top of the Fredericksburg Limestone
is approximately midway between these markers.

GULF EMBAYMENT PROVINCE

This province consists of the Florida Panhandle westward from the
Chattahoochee Arch, and includes the structural depression known as the
Apalachicola Basin, a syncline that widens and plunges to the southwest
(Gunter, 1944), off the flank of the Chattahoochee Arch.













SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


UPPER CRETACEOUS


The age and stratigraphic correlation of the Atkinson Formation

(mainly with the Tuscaloosa Group of Mississippi and Alabama), which

is an important Upper Cretaceous target in this province as well as in

other provinces dealt with in this report, are shown in figure 7, a cor-

relation chart.



MISSISSIPP SURFACE SECTION I SOUTHERN ALABAMA

NORTHWEST TEXAS MISSISSIPPI GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY and EAGLE
SURFACE SECTION CRETACEOUS COMMITTEE RE-SELMA UPPER CRETACEOUS and POLLARD FIEID.1954
CRETACEOUS CORRELATION CHART STRATIGRAPHY OF WESTERN NORTH FLORIDA
ALABAMA I SUBSURFACE I
FEBRUARY.1946 A A PG BULL
VOL 30. p 187-212.1946


AUSTIN CHALK and
EQUIVALENT
FORMATIONS















EAGLE FORD SHALE


WOODBINE
FORMATION


MOOREVILIE


UPPER EUTAW


LOWER EUTAW


UPPER TUSCALOOSA


MIDDLE TUSCALOOSA


LOWER TUSCALOOSA


SELMA GROUP
I Lower aorll


EUTAW FORMATION


McSHAN FORMATION


GORDO FORMATION


COKER FORMATION


EOLINE FORMATION


COTTONDALE
FORMATION


-- a


<
EUTAW FM IN
W CENTRAL (
ALABAMA (


Y 'K



<2>


1 1.-'- I


S MARINE BEDS

0 MARINE
So FACES
3: IW FLORIDA,

IO SWA L FACI

LITTORAL FAC1E5


E MOOREViLE




EUTAW


UPPER TUSCALOOSA










MILLER SAND


MARINE TUSCALOOSA

0
< MOYE PIloll SAND


MASSIVE SAND
0


t T O LOWER CRETACEOUS TOWER CRETACEOUS
IOWER CRETACEOUS COMANCHEAN PALEOZOIC ROCKS I UNDIFFERENTIATEDI IUNDIFFERENTIATEDI


Aftlr APLIN nd APLIN. 1947


After WINTER,1954


Figure 7. Correlation of the Atkinson Formation.


I








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


As proposed by the Applins in 1947, the Atkinson Formation is
divided into three members which are lithologically and ecologically
distinctive over extensive areas of northern Florida. In Panhandle
Florida the upper member contains deposits designated as shallow-
water marine (updip) and deeper-water marine (downdip); whereas the
middle member contains marine beds (Applin and Applin, 1947). The
lower member grades southward from the unfossiliferous littoral deposits
of Alabama and Georgia into a fossiliferous marine facies (Esther R.
Applin, 1955, p. 187). Joseph E. Banks (personal communication) thinks
that oil may be present in this lower member in areas where there is a
gradation from a littoral to a marine facies. Exploration concentrated on
the marine-littoral gradational trend of this lower member may find oil
in northwestern Florida.

The validity, significance, and usefulness of the division of the
Atkinson Formation into three members were not nullified nor questioned
when Esther R. Applin (1955, p. 187), in order"To clarify the correlation
of the Atkinson formation of the subsurface in the southeastern Gulf
region with the Eagle Ford and Woodbine formations of Texas," redefined
the Atkinson Formation "to consist of two members, an upper member
of Eagle Ford age as formerly used, and a lower member of Woodbine
age consisting of the former lower and middle members."

Applin and Applin in 1947 considered the lower sediments of
their Atkinson Formation, which they designated as belonging to the
Woodbine Stage, to have been deposited in the early part of the Upper
Cretaceous Epoch (fig. 7). This assignment of an Upper Cretaceous
Age to these sediments received support in 1952 from Cobban and
Reeside (chart 10b, facing p. 1011) who would include the Woodbine
Stage of the Gulf Coastal Plain, as well as the upper part of the under-
lying Washita Stage, in the Upper Cretaceous Series. These Cretaceous
correlations by Cobban and Reeside are followed by the U. S. Geological
Survey (1959, Wilson, et al., p. 410, 422). It should be noted, however,
that the Mesozoic Cross Section Committee of 1949 of the Southeastern
Geological Society considered the lower part of the Atkinson Formation
to be of Lower Cretaceous Age.

It is possible that the correlations shown on figure 7 need further
study, since Loeblich and Tappan (1961, p. 263) stated that planktonic
and benthonic Foraminifera point to an Eagle Ford Age for a part of
the section which Esther R. Applin (1955, p. 187) considered to be of
Woodbine Age. The fossils cited by Loeblich and Tappan are a part









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


of the "Barlow fauna" described by Esther R. Applin (1955, p. 190),
which occurs below the upper member of the Atkinson Formation in
sections ranging from 3 to 60 feet in thickness in 13 wells located in
Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.

In the Gulf Embayment Province the most prospected horizon to
date consists of the Atkinson Formation, which is shown to have a
thickness from about 800 to 1,400 feet in Applin and Applin's Cross
Sections C-C' and D.D'.

The sands of the middle and lower members of the Atkinson Forma-
tion make up the productive intervals in the Pollard field, located just
4 miles north of the Florida State line in Escambia County, Alabama.

The Pollard field was discovered in 1952 by the Humble Oil and
Refining Company. The cumulative production of this field up to Janu-
ary 1, 1961, was 6,665,531 barrels of 260 to 290 gravity oil. In 1960,
a total of 35 wells produced in the field, all by artificial lift (Oil and
Gas Year Book of 1961, pt. 2, p. 22). The petroleum accumulation is
controlled by closure against a northwest-southeast fault, downthrown
to the northeast. A paper by C. Victor Winter (1954, p. 121) showed
that production is from the Miller sand of the Upper Tuscaloosa Forma-
tion (Eagle Ford Age) on the downthrown side of the fault, and from
the Moye (Pilot) and Massive sands of the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation
(Woodbine Age) on the upthrown side. Depths to production from these
sections range from 5,624 to 5,905 feet. Thicknesses, porosities, and
permeabilities of productive sands in the Pollard field are shown in
table 7.

The Miller sand is included in the lowest part of the upper member,
and the Moye (Pilot), which is the most prolific section in the Pollard
field, and Massive sands are included in the lower member of the At-
kinson Formation as defined by Applin and Applin (1947; correlation
based especially on well No. 23 of Cross Section D-D').

The Oil and Gas Year Book of 1961 (pt. 2, p. 22) showed that the
Pollard field also produced from the "Eagle Ford" sand, which is reached
at an average depth of 5,196 feet and had an average thickness of 6 feet.
No permeability or porosity figures are given for this sand.

Exploration with the core drill appears to have contributed to the
discovery of the Pollard field (Baum, 1953, p. 355).








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 7. Thicknesses, Porosities, and Permeabilities of
Productive Sands in the Pollard Field

Thickness (feet)1
Net
Gross Effective Permeabilities2 Porosities2
Sand Av. Rge. Max. Av. (millidarcys) (percent)

Miller -- 15-30 18 13 600 32
Moye 91 -- 40 -- -- 30
(Pilot)
Massive 240 -- 23 -- 495 29
2Winter, 1954
Oil and Gas Year Book of 1961, pt. 2, p. 22


Two additional Alabama fields which produce from Upper Creta-
ceous sands are present in this province. They are South Carlton (13
wells pumping from the Lower Tuscaloosa section), and Gilbertown
(59 wells pumping from the Selma Chalk and Eutaw sections), located
50 to 85 miles, respectively, northwest of the Pollard field.


LOWER CRETACEOUS PROSPECTS

In this province the stratigraphic column also contains the sands
of the Rodessa-Pine Island section of Glen Rose Age, which produce
in the Citronelle field of Mobile County, Alabama, located about 36
miles west of the Florida Panhandle. The Citronelle field was dis-
covered in October 1955, and to January 1, 1961, 254 wells had been
drilled in the field and cumulative production was 21,072,619 barrels
of 400 to 450 (API) oil. Depths to the tops of producing formations
range from 10,870 to 11,399 feet, with all wells producing by artificial
lift. In the Citronelle field the productive structure is anticlinal, and
production is from a sand of 19 millidarcys permeability and an estimated
porosity of 13 percent (Oil and Gas Year Book of 1961, pt. 2, p. 22).

In the Gulf Embayment Province of Florida only two tests definitely
have reached the Rodessa Formation. These wells were the Socony,








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


St. Regis No. 1 well in northwestern Santa Rosa County, and the Zach
Brooks, Caldwell No. 1 well in southern Escambia County. Depths to
the top of this formation in these wells were 10,218 and 12,120 feet,
respectively. The Rodessa Formation as drilled in the St. Regis well
was 1,072 feet thick, but no porosity logs are available to the Division
of Geology on this well. A Microlog over a 390-foot interval (12,120-
12,510 feet) occurring in the upper part of the Rodessa Formation in
the Caldwell well indicates that the interval is relatively tight. Ac-
cording to a Hycalog, no oil or gas shows were found in this 390-foot
section.

The Hosston Formation of Lower Cretaceous Age was reached
at a depth of 11,290 feet in the Socony, St. Regis well, and the well
was terminated in these sediments at 12,525 feet.

Both the St. Regis and Caldwell wells were about normal to the
regional strike, based on the top of both the Selma Formation and the
Eutaw Formation of Upper Cretaceous Age. Several oil companies are
known to be studying the possibility of further testing of the Rodessa-
Pine Island and Hosston sections.


STRUCTURES

Structures in the Gulf Embayment Province are considered to be
narrow, limited, and hard to find. Some of the gravity maxima, however,
may .e caused by faults (Todd, 1946).

Four probably related, essentially northwest-southeast faults cut
beds of Upper Cretaceous Age and extend a distance of possibly 40
miles or more from the area of Pollard field, Alabama, into the northern
half of Santa Rosa County, Florida. Included in this group of faults is
a regional graben; this structurally negative feature embraces several
subordinate essentially northwest-southeast faults, all downthrown to
the northeast, one of which is the Pollard Fault which traps the oil
accumulated in the Pollard field. With the exception of the area em-
braced by this graben, the major regional faults which belong to this
system in Florida are downthrown to the southwest. The more east-
wardly of these movements appear to be almost strike faults, whereas
the most southwestwardly fault cuts the strike of Upper Cretaceous
beds at almost 450. In Florida, this fault system has produced as much
as 470 feet of vertical displacement (between the Sunniland Contracting
Company, T. J. Nicholas No. 1 well, and the Gulf Oil Corporation,








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Cleveland H. Bray, et al., unit No. 1 well. Both of these wells are
located in northern Santa Rosa County, with the second well being
1 1/3 miles northeast of the first) in Upper Cretaceous beds on top of
a high resistivity curve in the Eutaw Formation. Distorted Upper Creta-
ceous beds, as contoured from relatively close well control in Florida,
indicates that there has been some horizontal fault movement whereby
blocks originally in Florida have moved in the direction of Alabama,
(Puri and Vernon, 1959, p. 22, fig. 6; Winter, 1954, p. 128, fig. 4).


DRILLING COSTS

Drilling costs over most of this province are low, and for this
reason quite a lot of the drilling has been done by independents. Be-
tween 8 and 13 rock bits will usually cut an average hole to test lower
Upper Cretaceous sands (Jeffreys, 1953). Gunter and Vernon (1953)
reported that at the date of their writing it cost from $18,000 to $150,000
to drill a well in the Florida Panhandle.


APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT PROVINCE

This province is bounded on the west by the Chattahoochee Arch,
a gentle regional uplift on the flanks of which oil may be trapped. On
the east the Apalachicola Embayment Province is bounded by the east-
ward limit of the middle member of the Atkinson Formation of Upper
Cretaceous Age as drawn by the Applins (1947, map 2,3). This eastern
boundary lies about 5 to 40 miles east of the synclinal axis of the
Suwannee strait as contoured by the Applins. In its southerly part the
Applins depict the Suwannee strait as widening and becoming fanlike
so that it covers a large part of the lower half of the province. As this
feature widens and deepens toward the south it progressively loses
much of its identity and significance as a strait, until it becomes an
embayment.

The Suwannee strait appears to have an important bearing on the
petroleum prospects of this area. Paul L. Applin (1952, p. 1162) stated
that this feature is ". . probably partly structural and partly topo-
graphic in origin." Hull (1962, p. 120) suggested that it may have been
formed as an area of nondeposition. In any event, the late Upper Creta-
ceous beds of Navarro Age and the upper part of the underlying beds of
Taylor Age (Paul L. Applin, 1952, p. 1162) are not present. Hull (1962,
p. 119) recorded that the strait is as narrow as 20 to 30 miles, is more








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


than 200 miles long, and has relief on top of the Cretaceous of more
than 800 feet. In Pressler's Florida Cross Section A-B (1947, p. 1855,
fig. 2), the general area in which the Suwannee strait is located is shown
to lie at a depth of 3,000 feet, as referred to the top of the Selma Forma-
tion of Upper Cretaceous Age. The Suwannee strait is the boundary
between two distinct facies of Upper Cretaceous rocks. Hull (1962,
p. 119) noted that, "North of the strait is a sandy calcareous shale
Af the coastal plain. Just south of the strait are the Florida reef and
bank deposits of the Florida Peninsula."


UPPER CRETACEOUS

In the Apalachicola Embayment province there are a variety of
Upper Cretaceous prospects. Thinning of the middle member of the
Atkinson Formation may produce on updip stratigraphic porosity pinchout.
Unconformities which overlie sections from which Upper Cretaceous
rock sequences are missing may serve as oil traps. The relationships
of plastic to carbonate facies, which characterizes beds of Upper Creta-
::ous Age may produce traps. Oil accumulation may be present in the
Upper Cretaceous carbonate reef which, according to Hull, is present
just south of the Suwannee strait. If the Suwannee strait is partly struc-
tural in origin, as suggested by Paul L. Applin, structural traps may be
present.

To date the Upper Cretaceous sediments of the Atkinson Formation
(Eagle Ford and Woodbine ages) have been the most highly regarded
section in the Apalachicola Embayment Province. The combined thick-
ness of the Applins' upper and middle members of this formation over
most of the province ranges from about 400 to 630 feet (Applin and
Applin, 1947, map 3). Inclusion of the lower member, the base of which
is very difficult to pick, increases the above thickness figures by about
one-third (Applin and Applin, 1947, Cross Section D-D', wells 46 and 50).

The J. R. Sealy, Fee No. 1 well, located in southwestern Decatur
County, Georgia, and in the northwestern part of the Apalachicola Embay-
ment Province about 5 miles north of Florida, recovered gas (and salt
water) from the Eutaw section at 3,005 feet. A sample of the gas analyzed
by the U. S. Bureau of Mines contained 74 percent methane. Wellhead
pressure was above 30 pounds per square inch, and was probably due
to water pressure primarily. R. O. Vernon (personal communication)
is of the opinion that storable quantities of gas such as were present
in this show are commonly associated with, and can be separated from,
subterranean salt water.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Robert B. Campbell (1940, p. 3) stated that the Central Florida
Oil and Gas Company, G. W. Rhodes No. 1 well, located in southern
Leon County, was reported to have a good show in the Selma Chalk
Formation of Upper Cretaceous Age from depths beginning at 3,000 feet.
The well drilled through the Selma Chalk Formation at 3,465 feet. At a
total depth of 3,755 feet, at which point the well was abandoned (prob-
ably still in Upper Cretaceous sediments), considerable free oil was
reported to have been bailed from the hole, but this report has never
been substantiated.


OTHER POSSIBLE PAYS

The files of the Division of Geology record reports of shows in the
Tertiary section which were even better than those described above.
These were recorded by promoters and associates as being present in
in the Bonheur Development Company, B. M. Cates No. 1 well, located
in northeastern Wakulla County, about 8 miles south-southwest of the
Rhodes well. The Cates well is structurally 85 feet higher than the
Rhodes well on top of the Lituonella zone, as correlated on the basis
of a paleontological examination by Paul L. Applin. The Cates well
was reported to have encountered a 32-foot section of oil sand at 2,!37
feet continuing to the total depth of the well at 2,169 feet. The interval
in which the shows occurred is included in the Avon Park Lituonella
zone of Eocene Claiborne Age. Subsequently, a third well, the Revlin-
Brown Trustees, Phillips No. 1, located about 2 miles east of the Rhodes
well, was drilled to a sufficient depth to test the zones in which oil
shows were reported in the Rhodes and the Cates wells. The Phillips
well was a dry hole and was plugged and abandoned when the shows
reported in the Rhodes and Cates wells were not encountered.

"Possible first red Rodessa sand" (early Glen Rose age) was
found in the Gulf Coast Drilling and Exploration Company, U.S.A. Forest
Service No. 1 well, located in the southwestern part of the Apalachicola
Embayment Province and in southwestern Liberty County. The top of
this formation was reached at 7,580 feet in this well, and from this
point to the total depth at 10,010 feet the section is predominantly
arenaceous. Seven sidewall cores taken at depths of 8,486, 8,880,
8,986, 9,058, 9,252, 9,263, and 9,510 feet, respectively, recovered
primarily reddish brown sand, with occasional silty and slightly mica-
ceous, or glauconitic sands; no shows were reported. These sands,
though cored, were not tested and they appear to carry salt water. Ac-
cording to the Microlog, the 2,430-foot interval from 7,580 to 10,010 feet








SPECIAL PUBLICATION-NO. 9


contains 55 zones of good porosity (calculated porosity of a typical
interval, 9,414 to 9,418 feet, is 24 percent) varying from 3 to 42 feet
in thickness and having a combined thickness of about 584 feet. This
well is regionally about normal on both the Selma and Eutaw formations
of Upper Cretaceous Age. These seemingly porous "possible first red
Rodessa sands" could be made to produce if they carried hydrocarbons
further updip, or on structure.


BASEMENT

LeGrand (1961, p. 1558, fig. 2) using the Tectonic Map of the
United States (1961), showed that "basement" in the northeastern corner
of the province lies at about 6,000 to 7,000 feet, and probably dips rather
steeply toward the southwest.


PROBABLE JURASSIC

A core taken at 10,324Y2 feet in the California Company and
Coastal Petroleum Company, State Lease 224-A, No. 2 well, located
about 13 miles offshore from Carrabelle, contains pollen of probable
Jurassic Age. This well is located in an area which regional gra'.ity
and magnetic control shows to be high.


DRILLING PROBLEMS

J. E. Banks (1950) stated that "East and south of Tallahassee...
unusual drilling problems start at the surface and continue until the
widespread zone of lost circulation or water flow is completely penetrated
and cased."

OSCEOLA LOW INTERMEDIATE PROVINCE

This is designed as an intermediate province because both the
Tertiary and Cretaceous sediments grade into sediments that characterize
the adjoining provinces.

The postulated pinchout of Lower Cretaceous clastics against
the pre-Cretaceous basement appears to be the most attractive possibility
in this province. Therefore, the province boundaries are drawn to con-
form with the possible configuration of a large, generally negative








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


basement feature as indicated by gravity control. The boundaries also
enclose the locations of wells in which questionable pre-Cambrian
(Applin, 1951, p. 2, fig. 1) crystalline rocks were penetrated by wells
drilled on structural highs, including uplifted fault blocks (Vernon,
1951, pl. 2). These relatively high structural areas lie in the north-
eastern part of the province. The quantity of disseminated particles
of igneous material variously described as arkose and feldspar increases
in the direction of these highs, which thus are indicated to have served
as a source area of the Lower Cretaceous clastics. This material is
especially prevalent in the Humble Oil and Refining Company, N. Ray
Carroll No. 1 well, located in northeastern Osceola County, which reached
weathered granite at the relatively shallow depth of 8,030 feet.

The Lower Cretaceous plastic section is comparatively thin in
the southern part of the province, where it occurs at greatest depth,
and appears to be farthest from the source areas of the clastics probably
toward the north. The plastic sediments thicken in the northwestern
part of the province where they are penetrated at comparatively shallow
depths, and appear to have been deposited near a source area. The
depth to the top of this Lower Cretaceous plastic section, and its thick-
ness, in selected wells are presented in table 8.


Table 8. Depth and Thickness to Lower Cretaceous Clastic
Section in the Osceola Low Intermediate -Province


Depth to top Thickness of
Well of section section

Humble
C. C. Carlton No. 1
(Southwestern Highlands County) 12,200 485

Amerada
Swenson No. I
(Western Okeechobee County) 10, 550 200

Humble
N. Ray Carroll No. 1
(Northeastern Osceola County) 7, 525 505

Ohio
Hernasco No. 1
(Southwestern Hernando County) 6,360 1, 340










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


In the Osceola Low Intermediate Province the Lower Cretaceous
plastic section consists of terrestrial-marine clastics and red and green
terrestrial clastics interbedded with evaporites.

E. H. Rainwater, in a well study made in 1946, designated these
Lower Cretaceous rocks as "possible" Hosston sediments (Coahuilan
Series) in the Humble Oil and Refining Company, C. C. Carlton No. 1
well, located near the southern boundary of the province. The Lower
Cretaceous sediments in this well carried salt water and the section
was not tested. However, a Microlog of a correlative section in the
Continental Oil Company, C. C. Carlton, et al., No. 1 well, located
1Y miles to the west-northwest, indicates fair porosity. Rainwater has
stated, also in the 1946 well study, that the sediments in the Carlton
well that underlie the Lower Cretaceous section are of "possible"
Jurassic Age. Lewis (1932, p. 537) is of the opinion that the Jurassic
section of Cuba is the source of most of the oil and asphalt that occurs
in the seeps and pools of Cuba.

The Hosston Formation is productive in Mississippi, Louisiana,
Arkansas, and Tesas (Murray, 1957, p. 112). According to Jordan (1954,
p. 375) oil shows have been found in the Hosston Formation in southern
Florida. Dead oil stains in the Lower Cretaceous section from 8,110 to
8,150 feet were found in the Humble Oil and Refining Company, Hayman
No. 1 well, located in southern Osceola County.


OTHER SECTIONS

The Upper Cretaceous section contains relatively little quartz
sand in most of the province, but it becomes more arenaceous to the west
and northwest. The prospects in this area will be discussed in the part
of this report devoted to the Ocala Uplift Province, which overlaps the
western portion of the Osceola Low Intermediate Province.

The interval corresponding to the Sunniland field pay zone of
Lower Cretaceous (Glen Rose) Age changes characteristics almost
entirely in this province. Dense carbonates, with the percentage of
dolomite increasing toward the north, replace the Chamid reefal develop-
ment which occurs further to the south in the South Florida Embayment
Province.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


OCALA UPLIFT PROVINCE

Deposition of the Atkinson Formation of Upper Cretaceous Age,
appears to be incomplete in all parts of the Ocala Uplift Province as
delineated on figure 6. This condition prevails in Area A, Area B, and
Area C (after Applin and Applin, 1947, map 3, 6), which embrace most
of the province. It also appears to exist in the southern part of the
province, designated as Area D on figure 6, in which the thinness of
the Atkinson Formation suggests deposition of only part of the section.
In Area D the Atkinson Formation, though present, has not been divided
into members (Joseph E. Banks, personal communication).

The Ocala Uplift Province includes most of the structures referred
to the Ocala Uplift, which was formed in Tertiary beds, probably during
Early Miocene Age (Vernon, 1951, p. 53). Vertical dip slip faults paral-
leling the crest of the Ocala Uplift have flattened its crest and lengthened
its cross section (Vernon, 1951, p. 56). Small domes also give gentle
reversal of dip (Vernon, 1951, fig. 13, section C-C'). This information
is based on control which extends into the Avon Park Limestone of
Eocene Claiborne Age. Such control is a better guide to Tertiary petro-
leum prospects than is the shallower control of the extensively outcropping
and eroded Ocala Group of Upper Eocene Age, which in the past was
widely used as a structural key. It is unlikely, however, that Tertiary
structures reflect, in most cases, the deeper highs. In connection with
this, Vernon (1951, p. 53) stated that ". . on the crest of the Ocala
Uplift . Tertiary beds which are structurally high overlie Mesozoic
beds which are structurally low. . ."


UPPER CRETACEOUS

Drilling experience to datehas shownthat the sandsof the Atkinson
Formation (Eagle Ford and Woodbine ages) provide the most promising
section in this province. These sands thin from north to the south in
this province, as shown by the thicknesses tabulated for selected wells
in table 9.

All of the Atkinson section is considered prospective, and areas
of pinchout are especially interesting. See Area A, Area B, Area C
(after Applin and Applin, 1947, map 3, 6), and Area D, all drawn on
figure 6.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


Table 9. Thicknesses of the Atkinson Formation
in the Ocala Uplift Province


Thickness
of the
Atkinson
Formation


Well


Stanolind
St. Joe Paper Co. No. 1
(Leon County)

Coastal
Larsh No. 1
(Jefferson County)

Stanolind-Sun
Perpetual Forest No. 1
(Dixie County)


790'



420'



190'


Coastal
Wright No. 1
(Pinellas County)

Socony
Manatee No. 1
(Pinellas County)


Thickness of
individual members
of the formation
Upper Middle Lower


412'



220'


200'


Not differentiated



Not differentiated


The basal shales of Austin Age which overlie the Atkinson Forma-
tion or that lie upon eroded Paleozoic rocks, are reported by Jordan
(1954) often to have a petroliferous odor in the area of the Peninsular
Arch.

All of the exposed sediments in this province, the oldest being
the Avon Park Limestone, carry fresh water.

Gas shows were reported in the Eutaw (?) Formation of Eagle Ford
Age at -3,672 feet in the Florida Oil and Gas Company, Cedar Keys No. 2
well, located near the west coast in Levy County (Todd, 1946). This
gas was similar to that produced in Georgia by J. R. Sealy and was
separated from flowing, gas-saturated, salt water.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


OTHER SECTIONS

The Lower Cretaceous clastics penetrated at depth in the Ocala
Uplift Province are generally red to variegated, calcareous sandstones.
To the south the upper third of the section, which is included in the
Comanche Series, is a tight dolomite with thin beds of limestone and
anhydrite.

In the Ohio Oil Company, Hernasco No. 1 well, located in south-
western Hernando County and toward the southern part of the Ocala
Uplift Province, Lower Cretaceous terrestrial-marine clastics and red
and green terrestrial clastics are interbedded with evaporites.

The investigation of the prospects of these Lower Cretaceous
rocks was presented inthe preceding section which dealt with the Osceola
Low Intermediate Province, the western part of which overlaps the Ocala
Uplift Province.

A thickness of 2,285 feet of Paleozoic sediments, which appear to
be mostly quartzitic sandstone, was drilled in the Stanolind Oil and Gas
Company, Perpetual Forest No. 1 well, located in western Dixie County.
This test bottomed in Paleozoic sandstone at a depth of 7,510 feet but
no porosity log is available.


OTHER PROVINCES

The two remaining provinces of Florida are considered to be of
secondary significance as oil and gas prospects at the present time.
They are designated as the Peninsular Arch Province and the Southeast
Georgia Embayment Province. The primary targets in both were the sands
of Upper Cretaceous Age. These provinces lie on the eastern flank of
the Peninsular Arch as contoured by Jordan (1952, fig. 8) on the base
of the Upper Cretaceous section. The northwestern boundary of the
Peninsular Arch Province, as shown on figure 6, encompasses an area,
covering a large part of the province, in which the Upper Cretaceous
section rests upon Paleozoics (Jordan's dashed area, 1954). The bound-
ary between these two remaining provinces mainly is based on subsurface
information from one well (St. Mary's River Oil Corporation, Hilliard
Turpentine Company No. 1, located in northwestern Nassau County),
and hence is very indefinite, especially to the south and away from the
control well.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


PENINSULAR ARCH PROVINCE

A well with an encouraging Upper Cretaceous interval is the Sun
Oil Company, Powell Land Company No. 1 well, located in northern
Volusia County, which cored 140 feet of Atkinson clastics. Core re-
covery revealed this plastic section to contain thick sequences of black
shale. The upper 35 feet of this section, penetrated at a depth of 4,955
feet, is a fine grained, glauconitic sand or silt, with associated shale,
about 8 feet from the top of which, according to the operator's core
description, occurs 2 feet of "green, glauconitic, salt and pepper sand
with black shale partings (and) kerosene odor."

The Lower Cretaceous sediments deposited to the south within
the province immediately downflank from the Paleozoic subcrop into
Upper Cretaceous rocks is a red sandstone of the Comanche Series.
Further to the southeast in the province and toward the east coast, the
Lower Cretaceous section thickens to a maximum of about 700 feet, and
the upper two-thirds of the section becomes an alternating sequence of
limestone, dolomite, and anhydrite.

Pre-Cretaceous sediments or igneous rocks of undetermined ages
for the most part lie at depths ranging from about 3,000 to 6,000 feet,
with the column being thickest toward the south.

Much of the sediment of the Peninsular Arch Province are saturated
with fresh water which may have flushed out oil accumulations. Baker
County, located in the north central part of the province, is saturated
with fresh water to depths of about 3,000 feet (Gunter and Vernon, 1954).
The Hunt Oil Company, H. L. Hunt No. 1 well, which bottomed at 3,349
feet, and which is selected as representative of the subsurface section
of Baker County, reached the tops of the formations underlying this area
at the following depths: Taylor (late Upper Cretaceous age) 2,393 feet;
Austin (late Upper Cretaceous age) 3,038 feet; and Paleozoics, 3,339
feet.

SOUTHEAST GEORGIA EMBAYMENT PROVINCE

Only one deep well has been drilled in this province, and therefore
little can be said about its petroleum prospects. The stratigraphic
column here should be somewhat thicker than it is in the westwardly
adjoining Peninsular Arch Province.













FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The sole deep well drilled here is the St. Mary's River Oil Corpo-
ration, Hilliard Turpentine Company No. 1, located in the northwestern
part of the province in Nassau County. The total depth of this test was
4,824 feet. The Cretaceous and pre-Cretaceous sections drilled in
this well, according to Mesozoic Cross Section D-D' prepared by the
Southeastern Geological Society in 1949, are:

Thickness
(feet)
Navarro-Taylor-Austin 1,505
Atkinson 305
Comanche 30
Paleozoic 210
Basic igneous 24

Campbell (1940, p. 7) stated that he and R. S. Bassler considered the
Paleozoics in the St. Mary's well to be of Chattanooga (Lower Missis-
sippian) Age. Bassler's opinion is based on the presence in these
sediments, which include black shales, of an ostracod cf. Amphissites
(Campbell, 1940, p. 7). This specimen was lost after identification
and cannot be checked. Bridge and Berdan (1950, fig. 6) show this
material to be of Silurian or Ordovican Age.

W. Storrs Cole (1944, p. 94) is of the opinion that the St. Mary's
well bottomed in 16 feet of igneous dike, which he tentatively classified
as Triassic in age. Bridge and Berdan (1950, fig. 6) stated that this
well terminated in "diabase," which was post-Paleozoic, and probably
Triassic, in age.

In most of this province Upper Cretaceous prospects probably lie
below the zone of fresh water saturation. The section in Duval County,
which is located in the middle of the province as drawn on figure 6, is
saturated with fresh water to a depth of about 2,400 feet (Gunter and
Vernon, 1954). The top of sediments of Upper Cretaceous Navarro Age
in the St. Mary's well, according to Mesozoic Cross Section D-D', lies
at a depth of 2,750 feet.






















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


CONCLUSIONS

Florida's oil and gas prospects primarily are in Cretaceous rocks.
In northern Florida the Upper Cretaceous is the most promising section,
whereas in southern Florida the Lower Cretaceous section is the most
attractive.

In figure 6, Florida is divided into seven provinces intended to
enclose depositional areas in which conditions of oil and gas occurrences
and exploration would be similar. On the basis of present information,
the most promising provinces appear to be the South Florida Embayment
Province, the Gulf Embayment Province, and the Apalachicola Embay-
ment Province. The Offshore Province, though as yet hardly tested,
contains a thick sedimentary section and provides an area slightly larger
than mainland Florida for prospective drilling. In table 4 is a tabulation
by provinces of the depths and thicknesses of important sections, and
probable number of wells deep enough to test them.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9 53


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Anonymous
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p. 2-5, 8 photographs.
Applin, Esther R. (also see Applin, Paul L.
1955 A biofacies of Woodbine age in southeastern Gulf Coast region:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 264.1, 11 p.,1 fig.
Applin, Paul L.
1944 (and Applin, Esther R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and
structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753, 30 fig., 5 pl.
1947 (and Applin, Esther R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy, struc-
ture, and correlation of Middle Cretaceous rocks in Alabama,
Georgia, and north Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Oil and Gas Investi-
gations Preliminary Chart 26 (in 3 sheets). Price: 904 a set from
U. S. Geological Survey, Washington 25, D.C.
1951 Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and
adjacent states: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 91, p. 1-28, 5 fig.,
5 tables.
1952 Sedimentary volumes in Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States
and Mexico: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 63, no. 7-12, p. 1159-
1164, 3 fig.
Atwater, Gordon I.
1959 Geology and petroleum development of the continental shelf of the
Gulf of Mexico: 5th World Petroleum Congress, Sec. 1, paper 21,
25 p., 17 fig.
Baker, Jeanette I. (see Comstock, H. B.)
Banks, J. E. (also see Puri, Harbans S.)
1950 Wildcatting in Florida: The Oil and Gas Journal, June 22 issue,
4 p.
1960 Petroleum in Comanche (Cretaceous) section, Bend Area, Florida:
Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 44, no. 11, p. 1737-
1748, 5 fig., 4 tables.
Boscom, Willard
1961 A hole in the bottom of the sea: Doubleday and Company, Garden
City, New York.
Baum, Robert B.
1953 Oil and gas exploration in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida: Geo-
physics, v. 18, no. 2, p. 340-359, 20 fig.
Berdan, Jean M. (see Bridge, Josiah)
Bridge, Josiah
1952 (and Berdan, Jean M.) Preliminary correlation of the Paleozoic
rocks from test wells in Florida and adjacent parts of Georgia and
Alabama: in Florida Geol. Survey, Guidebook, Am. Assoc. State
Geologists 44th Ann. Meeting, Field Trip, April 1952, p. 29-38,
1 table, 1 fig.










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Bramlette, M. N. (see W. R.)
Campbell, Robert C.
1940 Status of oil exploration in Florida, v. 1, p. 1-79, 34 fig., 14 photo-
graphs. Closed file report of The Peninsular Oil and Refining
Company, April 4.
Cobban, W. A.
1952 (and Reeside, J.B. Jr.) Correlation of the Cretaceous formations
of the western interior of the United States: Geol. Soc. of America,
v. 63, no. 10, p. 1011-1043, 1 correlation chart, 1 fig.
Cole, W. Storrs
1938 Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two deep wells in Florida:
F;orida Geol. Survey Bull. 16, 73 p., 12 pl., 2 fig., 1 table.
Comstock, H. B.
1960 (and Baker, Jeannette I.) Magnesium compounds: Minerals Year-
book, p. 74 9-758.
Gunter, Herman
1944 Florida geology and petroleum: Interstate Oil Compact Commission
Quarterly Bull., December issue, 6 p.
1950 Exploration for oil and gas in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf.
Circ. No. 1 (1949 Supplement) revised, 38 p., 2 fig., 3 tables.
1954 (and Vernon, Robert 0.) Florida U. S. Oil Frontiers: Petroleum
Engineers, February issue, 4 p.
Hanson, Blanche E. (see Wilson, Druid)
Hendry, Charles W. (see Vernon, Robert 0.)
Hull, Joseph P. D., Jr.
1962 Cretaceous Suwannee Strait, Georgia and Florida: Am. Assoc.
Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 46, no. 1, p. 118-122, 3 fig.
Igelsrud, Iver
1932 Formation of Oceanic salt deposits (part of a paper entitled
"Chemistry of the Sea," by Thompson, Thomas G., and Robinson,
Rex J.): Nat. Research Council Bull. No. 81, June issue, p. 188.
Jeffreys, E. G.
1953 Northwestern Florida . a new oil province: World Oil, August
issue, 4 p., 2 fig.
Jordan, Louise
1952 Preliminary notes on the Mesozoic rocks of Florida: A summary
of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the Cenozoic expo-
sures of a portion of the State (prepared for the field trip of the
44th annual meeting of the Assoc. American State Geologists)
p. 39-45, 2 fig.
1954 A critical appraisal of oil possibilities in Florida: The Oil and
Gas Journal, November issue, p. 370-375, 4 fig.
Keroher, Grace C. (see Wilson, Druid)









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


Ladd, H. S. (see Riedel, W. R.)
LeGrand, H. E.
1961 Summary of geology of Atlantic Coastal Plain: Am. Assoc. Petro-
leum Geologists Bull., v. 45, no. 9, p. 1557-1571, 8 fig., 3 tables.
Lewis, J. Whitney
1932 Geology of Cuba: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 16,
no. 6, p. 533-555, 1 map, 1 fig.
Loeblich, Alfred R.
1961 (and Tappan, Helen) Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera, part 1 -
Cenomanian: Micropaleontology, v. 7, no. 3, p. 257-304, 8 pls.

Lyons, Paul L.
1950 A gravity map of the United States: Tulsa Geol. Soc. Digest.
Describes and shows a regional Bouguer anamoly gravity map
of the United States based on previously published sources and
data supplied by the Carter Oil Company.
Murray, Grover E.
1957 The Gulf Coastal Province . how and where its oil and gas
occur: The Oil and Gas Journal, November issue, p. 109-116,
13 fig., 1 table.

Pressler, E. D.
1947 Geology and occurrence of oil in Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., v. 31, no. 10, p. 1851-1862, 3 fig.
Puri, Harbans S.
1959 (and Banks, Joseph E.) Structural features of the Sunniland oil
field, Collier County, Florida: Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc.
Trans., v. 9, p. 121.126, 21 fig.
1959 (and Vernon, Robert 0.) Summary of the geology of Florida and
a guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geol. Survey Spec.
Pub. No. 5, 255 p.
Raasch, Albert C., Jr.
1954 The Sunniland oil field of Collier County, Florida. Unpublished
Master Thesis, Florida State University, p. 1-33. Florida State
University Strozier Library file no. 553.28 R 111 s.
1955 Sunniland oil field of Collier County, Florida (abst.): Meeting
Program of Eastern Section, Geol. Soc. America Bull., p. 17.
Reeside, J. B. Jr. (see Cobban, W. A.)
Riedel, W. R.
1961 (and Ladd, H. S., Tracey, J. I., Jr., and Bramlette, M. N.) Pre-
liminary drilling phase of Mohole project part 2 (summary of
coring operations, Guadalupe site): Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geolo-
gists Bull., v. 45, no. 11, p. 1793-1798, 1 fig. 1 table.
Roberts, Wendell L.
1961 (and Vernon, Robert 0.) Florida . more extensive drilling
might discover big oil and gas producing areas: The Oil and Gas
Journal, March issue, 6 p. 3 fig.














FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Roman, Victoria M. (see Stipp, Henry E.)
Schweyer,H. E.
1949 Some notes on Florida crude petroleum: Florida Engineering and
and Industrial Experiment Station, Leaflet no. 11, 22 p.
Southeastern Geological Society
1949 Mesozoic cross sections A-A', B-B', C-C', D-D', and E-E', pre-
pared by the Mesozoic Committee of the Southeastern Geological
Society. (Members: Louise Jordan, Chairman; Esther Applin,
Eleanor Caldwell, L. C. Kirby, J. Law, E. H. Rainwater, T. D.
Rodgers and H. A. Sellin.) Price: $10.00 per set from South-
eastern Geological Society, P. O. Box 1634,Tallahassee, Florida.

Stipp, Henry E.
1960 (and Roman, Victoria M.) Bromine: Minerals Yearbook, p. 283-288.
Tappan, Helen (see Loeblich, Alfred R.)
Todd, John D.
1946 North Florida Province is geologically attractive: World Petroleum,
March issue, 6 p.
Tracy, J. I., Jr. (see Riedel, W. R.)
Tectonic Map of the United States
1961 (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii) Prepared by a committee of the
United States Geological Survey and the American Association of
Petroleum Geologists (George V. Cohee, Committee Chairman;
work on "Upper Mississippi Valley Embayment, Gulf and Atlantic
coastal plains," by Paul L. Applin). Scale 1:2,500,000.
Vernon, Robert 0. (also see Gunter, Herman; Puri, Harbans S.; Roberts, Wendell)
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33, 256 p.
1961 (and Hendry, Charles W., Jr.) Exploration for oil and gas in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey 1960 Supplement to Information Circular No. 1
(revised), 16 p., 1 fig., 4 tables, 1 photograph.
Wilson, Druid
1959 (and Keroher, Grace C., and Hansen, Blanche E.) Index to the
geologic names of North America: U. S. Geological Survey Bull.
1056-B.
Winter, Victor C.
1954 Pollard field, Escambia County, Alabama: Gulf Coast Assoc.
Geol. Soc. Trans., v. 4, p. 121-141, 14 fig.




















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


APPENDIX I


EXPLORATORY WELL INFORMATION, 1961


















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


















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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


APPENDIX II


SUMMARY OF RESERVOIR DATA

SUNNILAND FIELD, COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


SUMMARY OF RESERVOIR DATA
SUNNILAND FIELD, COLLIER COUNTY FLORIDA

Structural trap: NW-SE dome (2 miles wide and 4Y miles long)with a maximum
vertical relief of about 154 feet, but which has been tilted to the NE so
that vertical closure is reduced to about 36 feet.l
Oil-water contact: About -11,5552 feet.
Productive area: Estimated to be 2,356 acres.2
Producing formation: Though they probably form a single reservoir, there are
two adjoining pay zones which occur in Lower Cretaceous limestone of
Glen Rose Age. The main pay zone is a Chamid or rudistid reef.
The total thickness of the producing interval ranges from 5 to 45 feet.
Average porosities range from 18 percent, for the reefal limestone, to
10 percent for that which is nonreefal. The average permeability is 312
millidarcys parallel with the bedding and 84 millidarcys perpendicular to
the bedding. In the northwestern part of the field the permeability is
considerably better, but the porosity is not as good.

Production: During its approximately 18-year life the field has produced 6,852,620
barrels of oil (up to January 1, 1962). There has been initial production
from 13 wells, most of which flowed initially. The field now produces about
1,000 barrels per day from 11 pumping wells. The 1960 production was
less than that of 1950 by about 25 percent.
In 1961 salt water production has been slightly more than 60 percent of
total production. Early in 1955, or about 7 years ago, the field produced
only 50 percent salt water.
Crude: 190-260 API, high sulphur asphaltic base.
Drive: Water drive.
Bottom hole pressures: In March 1958, the reservoir pressure, at a depth of
reference of -11,548 feet, was 4,638 PSIG (pounds per square inch per
gauge), and had declined an average of 654 PSIG from its original value
(5,292 PSIG).
Present producing pressure differential: Since all of the Sunniland wells are
pumpers, there is no specific information on this point. However, in March
1958, production tests on these pumpers showed that the difference be-
tween shutin pressures and the estimated bottom hole flowing pressures,
at a depth of reference of -11,548 feet, ranged from 58 to 1,533 PSIG.
Gas-oil ratios: Gas-oil ratios have not been measured in recent years. How-
ever, due to the level of pressure maintenance it is believed to have


2Puri and Banks, 1959.
3Unpublished thesis by Albert C. Raasch, Jr., 1954
Pressler, 1947.

































70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


remained essentially constant at about 100 cubic feet per barrel. Thus it appears
that the reservoir has not suffered a loss of gas energy since the discovery of
the field.
The Division of Geology estimates that if Sunniland produces another
20 years, and the percentage of production decline is about 5 to 10 percent per
year, about 3,000,000 to 4,500,000 additional barrels of oil will be produced.





















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


APPENDIX III


OFFSHORE DRILLING









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


OFFSHORE DRILLING


WATER AND DRILLING DEPTHS
(A presentation of several points of information,
with sources to indicate present capacities.)


A. OF IMMEDIATE ECONOMIC INTEREST:
(1) Atwater, Gordon I., Geology and Petroleum Development of the
Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico, 1959, sec. 1, paper 21, of the
1959 Fifth World Congress, p. 6), states:
"A maximum water depth of 200 feet is considered as marking
the limit of economic accessibility for petroleum exploration of
the continental shelf under present conditions of production costs
and product prices."
This quotation applies to the water bottom acreage offshore from Florida.
(2) "Big Stride in the Gulf," Service (a publication of the Cities Service
Oil Company), October 1961, p. 6, states:
"The latest big stride in the march from shore was a drilling
effort in water 180 feet deep and at the fartherest offshore site -
70 miles out in the history of drilling off Louisiana. The struc-
ture designed for this type of exploration is as tall, from Gulf
bottom to derrick top, as a 33-story building. This unique platform
represents a technological breakthrough in offshore drilling, and
its different design prepares the way for operations in deeper and
deeper water."
(3) Wilson, Howard, "Giant Sale Should Guarantee Offshore Activityin
Gulf for 5 years," The Oil and Gas Journal, January 22, 1962, v. 60, no. 4,
p. 36, states:
". . this week Shell is starting to drill (one of the tracts in the
south extensions of Grand Isle and South Timbalier areas, located
offshore from Louisiana). It will use a floating drilling barge
operating in 287 ft. of water, the deepest ever tried in the Gulf
of Mexico."
This article also states (p. 34) that, as a result of the March 16, 1962, sale of
acreage offshore from Louisiana, there will be an "increased (d) demand for
floating drilling equipment. Many of the tracts are in waters deeper than 200
ft. and some are close to 600 ft."

B. OF SCIENTIFIC INTEREST PRIMARILY
(1) Bascom, Willard, A Hole in the Bottom of the Sea, 1961 (the story
of the Mohole project to date), page 15, states, in effect, that:
The Mohole will be drilled 31,000 feet beneath the sea, and in
water about 13,000 feet deep.


































74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

(2) Riedel, W. R., Ladd, H. D., Tracey, J. I., Jr., and Bramlette, M. N.,
"Preliminary Drilling Phase of Mohole Project (II. Summary of Coring Opera-
tions)," AAPG, v. 45, no. 11, p. 1793-1798, discloses, in effect that:
Experimental Mohole 7 drilled in water 11,706 feet deep and re-
covered a basalt core from a depth of 595 feet.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


GLOSSARY OF OPERATING TERMS AND PHRASES

USED IN THE OIL INDUSTRY
(from Ira Rinehart's and others)


A/, acidized with
A, Abstract (example: A-10)
abnd, abandoned
ac, acres
addl, additional
alg, along
amt, amount
AOF, absolute open flow
AW, acid water
B/, base
BAW, barrels of acid water
bbl, barrel
BCPD, barrels of condensate per day
BCPH, barrels of condensate per hour
BDPD, barrels of distillate per day
BDPH, barrels of distillate per hour
BFPH, barrels of fluid per hour
BHC, bottom hole choke
BHFP, bottom hole flowing pressure
BHP, bottom hole pressure
BHSIP, bottom hole shutin pressure
bid, bailed
bldg, building
big, bailing
Blk, Block
BLO, barrels of load oil
bir, bailer
BNO, barrels of new oil
BO, barrels oil
BOPD, barrels oil per day
BOPH, barrels oil per hour
BP, back pressure
BPD, barrels per day
BPH, barrels per hour
brkn, broken
BS&W, basic sediment and water
btm, bottom


btm ch, bottom choke
BW, barrels water
BWPD, barrels water per day
BWPH, barrels water per hour
C, center
C/, contractor (example: C/John Doe)
calc, calcareous
CD, contract depth
CFG, cubic feet gas
CFGPD, cubic feet gas per day
ch, choke
CHG, choke
cht, chert
circ, circulate or circulation
clng, cleaning
cmt (ed), cement (ed)
CO, cleaning or cleaned out
COF, calculated open flow
comb, combination
comp, completed or completion
cond, condensate
conn, connection
cor, corner
corr, corrected
C&P, cellar and pits
CP, casing pressure
CPSI, casing pressure shut in
crd, cored
crg, coring
crk, creek
csg, casing
cse gr, coarse grained
CSL, County School Lands
CT, cable tools
D&A, dry and abandoned
DC, drill collar
DD, drilling (ed) deeper







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


decr, decrease or decreasing
deg, degrees
DF, derrick floor
dim, diminish or diminishing
dispel, displaced or displacement
dist, distillate
DO, drilled out
DP, drill pipe
D/P, drill plug or drill(ed)(ing) plug
DPM, drill pipe measurement
drk, derrick
drid, drilled
drlg, drilling
DRLR, Drlr, driller
DST, drill stem test
DT, drillers tops
E, east
EL, electric log
ELEV, elevation
EL/T, electric log tops
Est, estate
est, estimate or estimated
et al, "and others"
et ux, "and wife"
et vir, "and husband"
E/BL, East boundary line
E of W/L, east of west line
FEL, from east line
FNL, from north line
FSL, from south line
FWL, from west line
FNEL, from northeast line
FNWL, from northwest line
FSEL, from southeast line
FSWL, from southwest line
FS & WLs, from south and ,est lines
f-gr, fine gained
FIH, fluid in hole
fld, field
fluor, fluorescence
flw (d) (g), flowed or fie
foss, fossiliferous
FP, flowing pressure
FQG, frosted quartz gra
fr, from


frac, fractured, used for Hydrafrac,
Sandfrac, Stratafrac
fract, fractures
fsg, fishing
ft or ', foot or feet
GA, gallons acid
gal (s), gallon or gallons
GC, gas cut
GCM, gas cut mud
GCR, gas condensate ratio
gd o&t, good odor and taste
GDR, gas distillate ratio
GLR, gas liquid ratio
ggd, gauged
gge, gauge
G&O, gas and oil
G&OCM, gas and oil cut mud
GO, gas odor
GOR, gas-oil ratio
grad, gradual or gradually
grd, ground
grn, green
gray, gravity
hd, hard
HFO, hole full oil
HFW, hole full water
HGOR, high gas oil ratio
HO&GCM, heavily oil and gas-cut
mud
HP, hydrostatic pressure
hr (s), hour or hours
hvly, heavily

hvy oil, heavy oil

incl, included or inclusions
irr sec, irregular section
IP, initial production or
initial potential

IPF, initial potential flowed
IPP, initial potential pumped
J&A, junked and abandoned
KB, kelly bushing
KO, kicked off
L, line
Lab, Labor
lam, laminated








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


Id (s), land or lands
Lge, League
li, lime or limestone
Ioc, location or located
Ise, lease
MCF, thousand cubic feet
med gr, medium grained
mi, miles
MI, moving in
mic, micaceous
MICT, moving in cable tools
MID, moving in derrick
MIM, moving in materials
min, minutes
MIR, moving in rig
MIRT, moving in rotary tools
MIST, moving in standard tools
MIT, moving in tools
mid, milled
mig, milling
MO, moving out
N, north
not, natural
NCT, non-contigJous tract
NE, northeast
NF, no fluorescence




OAW, old abandoned well
OC, oil cut
OCM, oil cut mud
OF, open flow
O&G, oil and gas
O&GCM, oil and gas cut mud
OH, open hole
OIH, oil in hole
00, oil odor
op, open (ed)
orig, originally
0 sd, oil sand
OS&W, oil and salt water
OTD, old total depth
OWDD, old well drilled (ing) deeper
OWPB, old well plugged back


OWWO, old well worked over
P&A, plugged and abandoned
PB, plugged back
PBTD, plugged back total depth
PD, per day
perf, perforated (example: perf 23/2900
-20', means perforated with 23
snots from 2900.2920')

perf csg, perforated casing
perm, permeable or permeability
pkr, packer
PL, pipeline
pid, pulled
pig, pulling
PLO, pipeline oil
POP, putting on pump
Porc, Porcion
por, porosity or porous
pot'/, potential
P/, pumped
ppp, pinpoint porosity
prep, preparing
press, pressure
prod, produced or producing
PSI, pounds per square inch
PSIG, pounds per square inch
per gauge
PSL, Public School Lands
PT, potential test
qts, quarts
R, range
RA, right angles
RB, rotary bushing
rds, roads
rec, recovered
redrid, redrilled
rep, repairs or repairing
ret, retainer
rmg, reaming
rng, running
RP,rock pressure
RT, rotary tools; or rotary table
when used after elevation










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


RU, rigging up
RUCT, rigging upcable tools
RUP, rigging up pump
RUR, rigging up rotary
RUST, rigging up standard tools
5, south
sat, saturated or saturation
SC, show condensate
SCHL, Schlumberger
SD, shut down
SDO, shut down for orders
SDR, shut down for repairs
SE, southeast
Sec, section
SG, show gas
SGSC, show gas and condensate
SG&D, show gas and distillate
sh, shale
shly, shaley
shis, shells
SI, shut in
SIBHP, shut in bottom hole pressure
SICP, shut in casing pressure
SIP, shut in pressure
SITP, shut in tubing pressure
sli, slight
sly OCM, slightly oil cut mud
SLM, steel line measurement
sd, sand or sandstone
sdy, sandy
sd w/SG, sand with shows
gas
sd w/SO, sand with show oil
SLM, steel line measurement
sits, siltstone
SMPL, smpl, sample
SO, show oil
SO&G, show oil and gas
SO&W, show oil and water
spud, spudded
sqzd, squeezed
SSG, 'light show gas
SSO, slight show oil


S/T, sample top
stds, stands
stdy, steady
STH, sidetracked hole
stk, stuck
strks, streaks
strgr, stringer
subd, subdivision
sul, sulphur
sul wtr, sulphur water
Sur, survey
surf, surface
SW, salt water or southwest
swb (d) (g), swabbed or swabbing
SWC, sidewall cores
SWS, sidewall samples
sx, sacks
T/, top
T-, township (example: T-4S)
T-A, Temporarily Abandoned
TC, top choke
tbg, tubing
tbg ch, tubing choke
TD, total depth
temp, temporary
th, thence
TP, tubing pressure
TOP, testing on pump
/"T/"B, top and bottom choke measur-
ment
T/pay, top pay
TPSI, tubing pressure shut in
tr, tract, trace
T/sd, top sand
tstg, testing
twp, township
U/, upper (i.e., U/Laramie)
U/rmg, underreaming
vert, vertical
VHOCM, very heavily oil cut mud
W, west
w/, with
WB, water blanket
























SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 9


WC, wildcat or water cushion when
used in DST
W'ly, westerly
WI, washing in
WO, waiting on, work over
WOC, waiting on cement
WOCT, waiting on cable tools
WOO, waiting on orders
WOPT, waiting on potential test


WOR, waiting on rig
WORT, waiting on rotary tools
WOST, waiting on standard tools
WOT, waiting on test
WP, working pressure
WS, whipstock
wtr, water
WW, wash water
XIn, crystalline


SYMBOLS:


@ . at, seated
. core
' .. feet after number (or minutes when used in giving directions: S 45030' W)
" .. inches after number (or seconds when used in giving directions:
S 4 530'22" W)
o. . degrees
S... pounds after a number (and stands for number before a number,i.e., #1)
5%"-5779'/800 sx . means 5Y" casing cemented at 5779 feet with 800
sacks of cement.
SW . salt water




































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