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 The age of mammals
 Directions to vertebrate fossil...














Fossil mammals of Florida ( FGS: Special publication 6 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000478/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fossil mammals of Florida ( FGS: Special publication 6 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Special publication 6 )
Physical Description: iv, 74 p. : illus., maps, diagrs. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Olsen, Stanley John, 1919-
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mammals, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000864961
notis - AEG1736
lccn - a 60009015
System ID: UF00000478:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Florida's oldest vertebrate
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Fossilization and the study of fossils
        Page 5
        How fossils are formed
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Paleontology
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Collecting and identification
            Page 16
    The age of mammals
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Eocene
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Oligocene
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Mio-pliocene
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Pleistocene
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
        Pleistocene or recent
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
    Directions to vertebrate fossil localities
        Page 74
        Page 75
Full Text







STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6







FOSSIL MAMMALS OF FLORIDA







By
Stanley J. Olsen







Tallahassee, Florida
1959
(Corrected copy)








TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction................................... .. 1
Florida's oldest vertebrate ...................... 3
Fossilization and the study of fossils ............. 5
How fossils are formed........................ 5
Paleontology ................. .............. 13
Collecting and identification. ................... 16
The age of mammals ............................ 17
Eocene .................................... 19
Oligocene... ............................... 24
M iocene ..................................... 27
Mio-Pliocene................................... 40
Pleistocene .................................. 56
Pleistocene or Recent ........................ 69
Directions to vertebrate fossil localities .......... 74



ILLUSTRATIONS

Plate
1 Why there are no dinosaurs in Florida....... 6
TI Common vertebrate fossils found in Florida.. 8
III Common vertebrate fossils found in Florida.. 10
IV Dating fossils by carbon 14 method .......... 14
V Eocene whale Basilosaurus or "Zeuglodon" .. 20
VI Miocene horse Parahippus and dog-like carni-
vore Tomarctus............................. 30
VII Pliocene four-tusked mastodon Serridentinus
and aquatic rhinoceros Teleoceras .......... 38
VIII Pleistocene mammoth ....................... 46
IX Pleistocene mastodon....................... 48
K Florida saber-tooth tiger and Pleistocene
horses ................................... 50
KI Giant sloth Megatherium and Glyptodont ..... 52
CII Pleistocene camel Tanupolama and wolf
Aenocyon ................................. 54
KIII Reintroduction of the horse into North America
by the Spaniards .......................... 58
KIV Pleistocene Vero man and cave bear Tre-
m arcto .................................. 60








Text figure


1 Geologic periods .........................
2 African big game herd, similar to herds of
animals occurring in Florida during the
Pleistocene ........ .....................
3 Map of Eocene localities ..................
4 Age correlation chart of Florida Eocene with
that of North American provincial stages ..
5 Map of Oligocene locality .................
6 Map of Miocene localities ................
7 Age correlation chart of Florida Miocene with
that of North American provincial stages ...
8 Map of Pliocene localities ................
9 Phosphate mining operations using 25-yard
dragline bucket and hydraulic sump pit gun..
10 Age correlation chart of Florida Pliocene with
that of North American provincial stages...
11 Map of better known Pleistocene localities..
12 Age correlation chart of Florida Pleistocene
with that of North American provincial stages
13 Aqua lung prospecting and collecting .......














FOSSIL MAMMALS OF FLORIDA


By
Stanley J. Olsen


INTRODUCTION

In 1928 Dr. G. G. Simpson's account of "The Extinct
Land Mammals of Florida" was published as a part of the
Twentieth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey.
This report has proven to be one of the most popular and
widely circulated of all the publications issuedbythe Florida
Geological Survey. Due to the tremendous demand, over the
past three decades, this report has gone out of print. How-
ever, recent requests and inquiries pertaining to this type
of account have indicated that a publication similar to Simp-
son's is now requiredto fill this growing need for information
concerning Florida's first inhabitants.

To simply reprint Simpson's excellent original work
would not be enough as many new localities and their verte-
brate forms have beendiscovered and described subsequent
to his research and these must be included if an up-to-date
account is to be compiled. Several of Florida's classic
vertebrate localities (i.e., Thomas Farm Miocene quarry
and Itchtucknee River Pleistocene deposit) have been discov-
ered and recorded in detail during the time that has elapsed
since the Twentieth Annual Report was first circulated.

In order that this may be regarded as a wholly new
work, allof the illustrations have been designed and executed
for this paper in original form. These excellent and accu-
rately detailed drawings are the productions of Andrew Jan-
son, Scientific Artist for the Florida Geological Survey, and
in some cases situations for these drawings were taken from
the published illustrations of Charles Knight and Robert B.

1


70351






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Horsefall, artists whose works need no further comment.
Full credit for the original layouts is here acknowledged to
these two master artists of North America's past prehistoric
life. The detailed faunal lists are due to the careful work of
Clayton Ray of Harvard University's Museum of Comparative
Zoology.

To give a complete bibliography or to refer to all
publications that give detailed citations of Florida fossils is
not the purpose of this account. Those readers who require
material of this nature are referred to the more complete
bibliography contained in Florida Geological Survey Special
Publication No. 3, "A List, Bibliography and Index of the
Fossil Vertebrates of Florida. "

The occurrences of fossil vertebrates in Florida arf
so numerous and scattered that it has never been possible
for one worker to study or even examine all of the know
materials. Under these circumstances, the published identi!
fications are undoubtedly less comparable than if they were
all made by one student; however, they have been accepted(
(with some changes in nomenclature) except where persona
knowledge or unpublished notes has permitted a few correc.
tions. The classification used by Simpson' is general)
accepted by students of past mammalianlife and has been th(
basis for the classification used throughout this summary,
I also wish to acknowledge and give credit to Dr. G. G.
Simpson for those portions of his writings that are used in thi:
report.

The great difficulty in the deciphering of these fauna!
is inherent in the geologic conditions which prevail in Florida,.
None of the fully exposed sections as seen in the western r
United States, where the faunal sequence is frequently sf
clearly displayed, occur in the low-lying peninsular State,
The fossils have usually been found in mining, dredging
realigning roadcuts or other operations which disturb th


iSimpson, G. G., 1945, The Principles of Classificai
tion and a Classification of Mammals: Am. Mus. Nat. Histon
Bull. v. 85, p. 1-350.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


original deposit and usually damage any articulated animal
remains that they may contain. Field records, particularly
those relating to stratigraphy, were usually quite inexact or
nonexistent in the earlier days of collecting so that some
locality records have not been carried over from earlier
publications which cite localities and faunas falling into this
category. Many of the fossils were collected from stream
deposits which were from eroded beds of several different
ages and these mingled remains were redeposited into a single
bed from which the collections were takenand in a few cases
several different age determinations were given to the same
strata, depending on which fauna was being interpreted.
Luckily, there are goodtest faunas now known and these have
been collected from areas where they occur under conditions
and in such way as to afford reasonable assurance that they
were actually contemporaneous and lived in the same region.
Faunas occurring or collected under conditions which could
readily give rise to mixture can then be checked by compar-
ison of their species with those of the test faunas.

It wouldbe nearly impossible to give all of the localities
in which vertebrate remains occur, particularly those of the
Pleistocene, so that the maps referring to localities of differ-
ent ages list only the better known areas and particularly those
from which more than just an isolated specimen has been
collected.


/ FLORIDA'S OLDEST VERTEBRATE

Although this contribution is primarily concerned with
Florida's past mammal life, enough interest has been shown
in regardtothe occurrence of dinosaurs in Florida towarrant
an explanation of why their remains are not present in the
Sunshine State.

Vertebrate remains are known to have existed on the
earth as far back as the Ordovician period. However, only
the Cenozoic, or Age of Mammals, is represented in the
surface outcrops that occur within the boundaries of the State
(text fig. 1). Dinosaur bones occur in sediments as old as
the Triassic period, but these interesting reptiles became
extinct at the close of the Cretaceous, some 80 millionyears





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2 PERIOD VERTEBRATE BEGINNINGS
w
RECENT ~ i_
PLEISTOCENE
MILLION YEARS AGO C
O PLIOCENE
S7 MILLION YEARS AGO ONLY THESE BEDS
i MIOCENE .. M OCCUR AS SURFACE
N 20MILLION'YEARS AGO FORMATIONS IN
0 OLIGOCENE s FLORIDA.
Z 35 MILLION YEARS AGO
WL EOCENE
60 MILLION YEARS AGO
-PALEOCENE w
80 MILLION YEARS AGO
.!iii ..........


CRETACEOUS
120 MILLION YEARS AGC



JURASSIC
155 MILLION YEARS AGO


- TRIASSIC I
190MILLION YEARS AG <


PERMIAN
215 MILLION YEARS AGO
PENNSYLVANIAN
250 MILLION
YEARS AGO
MISSISSIPPIAN


DEVONIAN o ,.
350MILLION YEARS AGO ______


SILURIAN
390 MILLION YEARS AGO
ORDOVICIAN
480 MILLION YEARS AGO


CAMBRIAN
550 MILLION YEARS AGO


NO VERTEBRATES KNOWN FROM
DEPOSITS OLDER THAN THESE.


Text figure 1. Geologic periods.


0


N
0


CL
<.
0.


...- ...i-i"*! n .." a ------ -





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


ago. In order to come in contact with beds of an age that
might produce dinosaur bones, it is necessary in Florida
to drill down through the earth's crust to a depth of several
thousand feet (pl. I). The closest surface outcrop to Florida,
of Cretaceous age, from which dinosaurs have been recov-
ered, is from near Selma, Alabama, and Tupelo, Mississippi.
This area is about 100 air miles from the North Florida
border.

Florida's oldest vertebrate was recovered during the
,summer of 1955 by the Amerada Petroleum Corporation,
during the course of drilling operations near Lake Okee-
chobee. A well core, containing a partial skeleton of an
aquatic turtle was brought up from a depth of 9,210 feet from
the Glen Rose formation of the early Cretaceous. The explo-
ration hole just happened to be in a position to penetrate the
spot in which the remains of a fossil turtle were embedded.
:t is possible, but not very probable, that dinosaur remains,
eeth or partial vertebrae, could be recovered from Creta-
-eous beds in Florida under similar conditions.


FOSSILIZATION AND THE STUDY OF FOSSILS

How Fossils Are Formed

In very simple words, a fossil is anything of organic
,origin which has been preserved in the earth's crust by
natural causes. (Organisms which have been buried in the
earth during historic times are usually not included in this
categoryy) Some strata, as coal or limestone, are made up
.wholly of fossils, but are popularly termed "rocks" rather
than fossils. Fossils are found in various states of preser-
Vation, from those such as the Mammoth of Siberia, which
retains most of the original flesh, skin, hair and bones, to
inere tracks which retain no part of the animal itself. Some
fossils have been turned to stone, or petrified; many others
re preserved, without any change other than the loss of soft
issues. Except under the most unusual conditions, as in
e natural cold storage of the far north, or preservation in
ones, teeth and hard parts behind to fossilize.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


ago. In order to come in contact with beds of an age that
might produce dinosaur bones, it is necessary in Florida
to drill down through the earth's crust to a depth of several
thousand feet (pl. I). The closest surface outcrop to Florida,
of Cretaceous age, from which dinosaurs have been recov-
ered, is from near Selma, Alabama, and Tupelo, Mississippi.
This area is about 100 air miles from the North Florida
border.

Florida's oldest vertebrate was recovered during the
,summer of 1955 by the Amerada Petroleum Corporation,
during the course of drilling operations near Lake Okee-
chobee. A well core, containing a partial skeleton of an
aquatic turtle was brought up from a depth of 9,210 feet from
the Glen Rose formation of the early Cretaceous. The explo-
ration hole just happened to be in a position to penetrate the
spot in which the remains of a fossil turtle were embedded.
:t is possible, but not very probable, that dinosaur remains,
eeth or partial vertebrae, could be recovered from Creta-
-eous beds in Florida under similar conditions.


FOSSILIZATION AND THE STUDY OF FOSSILS

How Fossils Are Formed

In very simple words, a fossil is anything of organic
,origin which has been preserved in the earth's crust by
natural causes. (Organisms which have been buried in the
earth during historic times are usually not included in this
categoryy) Some strata, as coal or limestone, are made up
.wholly of fossils, but are popularly termed "rocks" rather
than fossils. Fossils are found in various states of preser-
Vation, from those such as the Mammoth of Siberia, which
retains most of the original flesh, skin, hair and bones, to
inere tracks which retain no part of the animal itself. Some
fossils have been turned to stone, or petrified; many others
re preserved, without any change other than the loss of soft
issues. Except under the most unusual conditions, as in
e natural cold storage of the far north, or preservation in
ones, teeth and hard parts behind to fossilize.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate I. Why there are no dinosaurs in Florida.





/<--.---.,^--7
CLOSEST SURFACE FORMATION TO
FLORIDA IN WHICH DINOSAUR.
BONES NAVE BEEN FOUND

" LGJEORGIA


WHY THERE ARE NO DINOSAURS
FOUND IN FLORIDA
iaksoY-i (GNE REALIZED DIGRAMMATIC SECTION)


0 o e 0 -< E'Io
" o '.,L
^ -G i


western Uni/ed Sfafes
particularly in Mon ta,
Wyoming and Utah


f LO RI G E LO I(AL ISUtRVEY
OLI E N 6 J AN ON
F E B 1 5 7


Large vertebrate remains which are
frequently sent to the Florida ',oPC.
SGeological Jurvey as "dinosaur"bones mLII
S're'"'tacous
*000'dapth
here is a remote posiility fha
WHALE MASTODON -BASILOSAURUS- dinosaur remains could be recovered
Recent Plaisftcene Eocene in a Iell core


TENN.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate II. Common vertebrate fossils found in Florida.





I


Atl%






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate III. Common vertebrate fossils found in Florida.







-------------"


1-4
E-4


L ###
.-- C.
I~
'0


6 ~

z aa~ ~ s





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Most of the remains of fossil animals which are found
in Florida, are petrified. That is to say, the structure of
original bones or teeth have been completely replaced by
mineral substances. This mineral replacement or substi-
tution has been effected molecule by molecule, over a great
period of time, usually by mineral matter that is carried in
solution by the waters covering the entombed animal. Only
the smallest percentage of all the animals that die are ever
fossilized (pl. II, III). Ideal conditions must exist for these
animals to be preserved or mineralized as we find them
today. The body must be covered with silt or sand almost
immediately upon dying so that rapid decay or scattering by
predatory animals or the elements will not destroy the re-
mains before they begin their fossilization. Percolating
waters, carrying the mineral matter plus heat and pressure
of the overlying segments over a long span of time, will then
do their workto preserve these animals inthe same skeletal
form that they exhibited when they were first covered by the
flood-borne silts.

The important thing to remember is that vertebrate
fossils truly represent life. They are not just dry bones
but are animals that ate, drank, fought, and reproduced much
in the same manner as similar animals are doing today. By
the form of the teeth and bones these remains can be inter-
preted, analyzed and compared with animals that are familiar
to all of us as inhabitants of the present day world. A person
who studies and interprets the remains of animals of the past
is called a paleontologist. In order that he may do an accurate
and thorough job,the paleontologist must possess a working
knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and the ecology of living
animals, as well as an understanding of the geology of the
area in which he is working. Much of the interpretation of
vertebrate fossil remains is gained by a study of the teeth.
This is due inpart tothe fact that these structures are dense
andhard and are more likelytobe preservedthan are the more
spongy parts of the ribs, vertebrae and long bone s of the skel-
eton. Also, the teeth of an animal are adapted to the diet of
the animal sothat a true herbivore or "plant eater" is rarely
misidentified for a carnivore or "meat eater" when such an
identification is based on the dentition. It is not true that an
entire animal can be reconstructed from a single bone. It
is true that a pretty fair knowledge of an animal's form, and





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


hence his habits, can be gained from very little in the way
of actual remains, but almost never is an animal's skeleton
restored for museum exhibition unless the skeletal remains
of the animal are well represented. Usuallywhen an individual
animal has the missing parts of its skeleton restored in plas-
ter, the measurements and form of these restored parts were
taken from another individual in which these bones were
completely known.

The age of the various strata, in which animal remains
are found, can be interpreted from evidence based on the
rate at which radioactive minerals undergo chemical changes
:hat can be detected and measured as to the amount of change
;hat has taken place since these minerals became a part of
;he strata which is being dated (pl. 4).


Paleontology

Why devote time, energy and money to a science that
is as far removed from our everyday world as is the study
of fossils? In these days of great world-shaking events, why
concern ourselves with the remains of animals of another
age? These are questions commonly asked a paleontologist.
In our modern world of economic problems and threats of
atomic war, the study of fossils seems distantly removed
from the realities of everyday life, and it is true that much
of paleontologyhas little bearing on direct economy. Paleon-
tology is a cultural science, one of the few "pure" fields of
science today which is not primarily concerned with an eco-
nomic return. Man does not read the newspaper or history
texts, or visit a museum of art or a national park, for eco-
nomic gain. Emerson has said, "Man loves to wonder, and
that is the seed of his science." We have arisento the heights
of our mental development, and proportionally to our status
iri this world, through the human characteristic of wanting to
know something about everything. We wish to know something
of the past, partly for pure pleasure, and partly for an
increased understanding of life today as based on life as it
existed in the past.

The study of microscopic fossils has led to an interpre-
tation of the layers of the earth's crust that is of the most





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate IV. Dating fossils by carbon 14 method.





HOW OLD ?
DATING FOSSILS CARBON-14 METHOD


All plants, as they absorb carbon dioxide
from the air, take in with it minute
quantities of a radioactive form of
carbon known to scientists as Carbon-14.
Since all animals depend directly
or indirectly on plants for their food,
it follows that every living thing
contains Carbon-14. But when an
organism,whether animal or vegetable,
dies, it normally takes in no further
carbon. Instead, its radioactive carbon
begins to decay.
In dead organisms the proportion of
Carbon-14 decreases at a fixed rate
which does not vary under any known
physical conditions. After 5,568years,
half the Carbon-14 content is lost; in
the next 5,568 years half the remain-
der disappears, and so on.


n this FIRSTsfaqe.
NITROGEN
in the atmosphere
is beinq constantly
bombarde-d by -
COSMIC RADIATION
producing Carbon-14 which E

as shown in fhe 2ndsta. o
The wigqqly ele+ron
0 oo 0beinq ami+ted is de-
0 tect+e by+he Geiqer r
0 couner.*


S All organic matter;
"Ilivinq or once living ,
- qives off beta particles:
S- MORE WIGGLY ELECTRONS-
-but +he, lonqar such .
S matter has been dead
the s o w er- the
() \ -,process becomes.
MORE LESS '
-" i ,


By comparing the amount left in any
dead organic matter with the amount
in living matter, scientists can estimate
when the organism died.
Samples are first burned to form carbon-
dioxide gas. In one method,the gas,
S after further chemical treatment,is
S then treated with magnesium to pro-
S duce pure carbon. Finally the carbon,
in the form of a paste, is fed to a Geiger
counter. The older the sample is,the
less Carbon-14 it contains and the
slower is the pulse of the Geiger
counter. Carbon-14 content in material
over 50 thousand years is too small
to measure.
Wood, bone, horn and shell have been
used in dating.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


vital economic importance to the petroleum industry. Without
the help of these minute organisms, or index fossils, the
bulk of oil prospecting would revert to "blind guessing" rather
than to the well organized interpretation of the geologic struck -
tures as we know it today. In some cases, vertebrate and
plant fossils can be used for guides or index fossils and give
us a clue to the age of the sediments that contain them. If,
for example, a formation were found in which the remains
of a flowering plant were preserved, this formation would not
be older than the Cretaceous as these plants have their
beginnings in the Cretaceous. If, in these same beds iden-
tifiable dinosaur bones, however scrappy, were found the
sediments could not be younger than Cretaceous as the dino-
saurs had died out by the end of this period. Likewise, if
beds are knownto contain the remains of the early dawn horse
"Eohippus," these beds can be dated, with complete confi-
dence, as Eocene, as the remains of this well known mammal
are found only in deposits of Eocene age.


Collecting and Identification

Hardly a roadcut or realignment of a ditch is made in
Florida without some fossil being turned up. Many of the
fossils are common enough and well known, but many more
need identification by a qualified and experienced person
in order that a specimen of scientific importance may not be
lost or set aside as a "curio" to gather dust in a forgotten
corner of some private dwelling. Samples of fossils will be
gladly received by the Florida Geological Survey and reported
upon. It is most important that all material collected, if it
is to have any scientific importance, should have accurate
locality data accompanying it so that adequate comparisons
with faunas of a similar age can be undertaken. Attention to
inquiries and general correspondence is animportantpart of
the duties of the paleontologist, andaffords means through
which the Survey may, in many ways, be of service to the
citizens of the State.

The State Legislative Act of the General Assembly of
1907 (Chapter 5681, Section 4) empowered and directed the
Florida Geological Survey to collect and display Florida'





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


fossil plant and animal remains. To fulfill this objective,
:he Survey continues to enrich its collections with material
secured by Survey collection and by gifts from its friends.
To adequately display and care for these treasures, a suitable
building is needed and it is hoped that this need will be fulfilled
in the near future.

It cannot be stressed too strongly that anyone contem-
l0ating collecting fossils within the State should first secure
permission from the owners of the land on which anypros-
secting is to be done. The days of unchallenged roaming are
it an endand in most cases permission for collectingwill be
granted by the owners if the courtesy of requesting this
permissionn is extended to them.

Although most quarries are fenced and posted, there
is the personal danger of entering, without permission, an
area in which blasting is going on. Abandoned water-filled
quarry holes offer a hazard to any small children or non-
swimmers who maybe in a party engaged inprospecting areas
of this sort and adequate precautions should be taken to avoid
preventable accidents.


THE AGE OF MAMMALS

Although mammals had their beginning during the Age
of Reptiles they were insignificant, rat-sized creatures,
hardly noticeable among the large ruling reptiles that domi-
nated the earth 150 million years ago. These beady-eyed
ancestors of all mammals to follow mayhave contributed in
a small way to the downfall of the dinosaurs by robbing their
nests and destroying the eggs. Insignificant as hewas in the
Cretaceous, the mammal was already better adapted for an
active life on this planet thanwas his neighbor, the dinosaur.
The mammal, due to his physiological mechanism, could
maintain a nearly constant body temperature and thereby
remain active regardless of the weather conditions not so
with the reptile. The activity of this cold blooded animal is
regulated by the outside weather conditions and temperature.
If the weather is too cold, he is sluggish or even completely
inactive; if the weather is too hot, he simulates a form of







































Photo: American Museum Natural History
Text figure 2. African big game herd, similar to herds of animals occurring in Florida
during the Pleistnr-~n


r'~*-A





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


:unstroke and may even die. The mammal in all respects
vas capable of a faster, more continuous mode of existence.

This changeover of mammalian dominance did not take
lace at once, but was a gradual change over millions of years
ind by Eocene time the mammals were here to stay. By
Miocene time, the many groups of mammals had adapted
themselvess to nearly all environments from an existence in
water to the airborne travel of the bats. During the Pleisto-
:ene much of Florida must have representedthe great Seren-
Jetti Game Plains of East Africa during the late 1800's, with
rast herds of browsing and grazing herbivores congregating
around water holes to be preyed uponbythe many carnivores
hat existed at that time (text fig. 2).

With all of us familiar with the many mammals that
!xist today (including man), it is difficult to visualize world
devoid of these animals as it was in the early days of the Age
if Reptiles. Probably the most apparent difference would
ave been the quietness of this "silent world" lacking the
nammal and bird noises which we take for granted, unless
these early reptiles were capable of making bellowing sounds
similar to those of the Florida alligator.


Eocene

The limestone of the Crystal River formation has
preserved the remains of the extinct whalelike form of
Basilosaurus or Zeuglodon in several widely scattered local-
ities throughout the northern portion of the State. This marine
mammal attained a length of over 40 feet and had a body
form that was well adapted to speed and maneuverability in
water (pl. V). The true whales are found in the later marine
deposits and their remains are commonfinds inthe Pleisto-
cene deposits of the southern peninsula that are worked by
iraglines for their roadbed material.

The vertebrae of Basilosaurus differ noticeably from
those of other large mammals in that they are proportionally
much longer when compared to the diameter of the centrum
which may exceed a measurement of eight inches (pl. I).





20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate V. Eocene whale Basilosaurus or "Zeuglodon. "































::d- -ip
-~ ~


-aI


~af;l.. -4aBLPBj~Z -. I'


-U*:-~
-i. !%
~4 ~rC
''~*l-d;~':,snia~ ~c~ rr~ ,_
typ~S--
E9-~

"
-i~S-~h~-

.~f''
-R~_ ~~~


.L'

isAI~


,---





--


-rir~
-~--CiB?;

-~-~-~-~~~ ~-~-"-


~Y~~-r


--------


T




a-~ -~
~ "~~?~~ '~bs~~;
...,.8,
T~


~iB~i~i~i~ ;--4




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


4
4
S.-




( .
^^o 4d ',../
c2
"'"'-..//q: / J -

2 sr-. ,








EOCENE /
VERTEBRATE FOSSIL
LOCALITIES



Sco ,
2-MAYO
3BRANFORD

4-BUDA /


Text figure 3. Map of Eocene localities.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


These vertebrae are usually a blue-black in color when found,
and stand out against the white or cream colored matrix of
the entombing limestone. The premolars and molars are
characteristically serrate-edged along the margin of the
cutting surface and are readily distinguished from the teeth
of the large Tertiary shark Carcharodon (pl. III). The inci-
sors and canines are simple, recurved, cone-shaped struc-
tures which have a single pointed root to secure them inthe
socket or alveolus of the jaws.

Remains of this large mammal have been found in
various limestone quarries throughout the State and in parti-
cular in the Buda pit of The Williston Shell Rock Company
near Buda, Alachua County, and from.a pit of the Dell Mine
near Mayo, Lafayette County. Remains are also known from
the quarry of the Suwaniee Lime Rock Company near
Branford, Suwannee County (text fig. 3).


Text figure 4. Age correlation chart of Florida Eocene with
that of North American provincial stages.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Eocene beds of Florida are all of marine origin and
none of the interesting terrestrial or landmammals as found
in Wyoming and the adjacent areas have been reported as
occurring within the boundaries of Florida.




Eocene Faunal List


Cetacea: Whales and porpoises
Basilosauridae: Archaic whales
Basilosaurus: Harlan 1834 sp. indet.
Basilosaurus cetoides (Owen) 1845






Oligocene

As with most of the beds of Eocene age, all of the
Oligocene deposits are of marine origin and are represented
by the cream colored Marianna limestone which outcrops
mainly in Jackson County (text fig. 5).

No mammals have been reported from the Oligocene
strata and only one or two teleost fish of the snapper family
have been collected and described. However, this isolated
locality is recorded here inthe hope that additional prospec-
ting in this area may turn up mammalian remains.


Both the Eocene and Oligocene deposits of the western
United States have vast faunal assemblages of mammals
whose scientific descriptions fill many volumes. It is regret-
table that terrestrial deposits of these two periods are
unknown among Florida's surface outcrops and that important
comparisons cannot be made between eastern Eocene faunas
and those of the west as they are with the vertebrate fossils
of the Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene periods.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


( o,'o / / C ,
ON.4
Q. (' % >4 /




"I.












VERTEBRATE FOSSIL i J
LOCALITY "
MARIANNA (MAINE, FISH ONLY)


Text figure 5. Map of Oligocene locality.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


4


3
I \ .. ,

C / .- .



IMIOCENE
VERTEBRATE FOSSIL ,
LOCALITIES






4PIT No.2, FRANKLIN PHOSPHATE CO.> .
2QUINCY,FULLERS EARTH MINE -



5FTALLAHASSEE WATERWORKS /


6'THOMAS FARM QUARRY
7-COLCLOUGH HILL \ /.
8-POLK CO. PHOSPHATE PITS
C ioo ooo,


Text figure 6. Map of Miocene localities





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


Miocene

The Tertiary deposits of the western United States have
yielded a remarkably complete story of the history of land
mammals throughout the entire extent of the Age of Mammals.
Although the Pleistocene, and the last phase of the Tertiary,
are well represented in the eastern United States and a few
marine deposits of Miocene age are known, only one early
.terrestrial deposit of any consequence is present in the known
sedimentaryrocks east of the Mississippi River. The reason
forthis lackof a fossil record, in this part of NorthAmerica,
is due to the early Tertiary sediments being dominantly ma-
rine in nature and hence containing no land mammals. The
one exception to this barren record lies in north central
Florida. This deposit, the richestbonebed of Miocene age in
eastern North America, is located in Gilchrist County in a
most unpromising-appearing setting of low, sandyflatwoods
having none of the "usual" surface outcrops visible with which
vertebrate fossils are associated. The circumstances that
led to the discovery, purchase and development of the now
famous Thomas Farm quarry are worthy of relating here in
some detail.

In September 1931, Mr. J. Clarence Simpson, of the
Florida Geological Survey, was investigating a reported
Indian graveyard that had turned up while plowing through a
depression in an abandoned field of the old Raeford Thomas
Farm located between Bell and Ft. White. Mr. Clarence
Simpson determined correctly that these bones were not of
human origin but represented, instead, the remains of the
smallthree-toed horse Parahippus andwere similar to those
obtained from the fuller's earth pit at Midway, Florida, in
Gadsden County. A small collection of fragments from those
that littered the surface of the shallow depression which
marked the original site, were sent back to the Geological
Survey office in Tallahassee. The Survey Director at that
time, Dr. Herman Gunter, forwarded these scraps to Dr.
G. G. Simpson at the American Museum of Natural History
in New York City. Dr. Simpson, a recognized authority on
fossil mammals, of course recognized the scientific impor-
tance of this find and urged that more material be collected
if possible.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Dr. Gunter secured permission to excavate and several.
more trips were made to the farm bypersonnel of the Florida
Geological Surveybetween 1931 and 1932. Apublished account
of the first material obtained at this dig was released by the
Florida Survey in 1932 (Simpson, G. G., Miocene Land
Mammals from Florida, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 10,
58 p.).

In 1939, Dr. Thomas Barbour, Director of the Museum
of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, made one of his
frequent trips to the Sunshine State to obtain fossils for the
Harvard Museum and stopped for a visit at the office of the
Florida Geological Survey. During the course of his stay in
Tallahassee, Barbour had occasion to examine the fossils
that had been obtained from the newly-opened deposits at the
Thomas Farm.

The result of this visit was a desire, on Barbour's
part, to purchase the forty acres of land that contained the
fossil quarry so that it would be protected for future scien-
tific excavations. Dr. Gunter located the owners, a loan
and trust company in Georgia, and undertook the initial nego-
tiations for the purchase of the desired land. The property
was purchased and deeded over to the present owner, the
University of Florida, with the verbal understanding that
Harvard Universityand the Florida Geological Survey would
also enjoy the privilege of collecting fossils from the Thomas
Farm quarry, for scientific study or display. The Florida
Geological Survey has received the cooperation of both uni-
versities in its endeavor to obtain a series of vertebrates
from this locality for the state collections that are housed
in the Survey's present quarters in the State capitol at Talla-
hassee.

The nature of this locality, as it appeared in Miocene
time, has not been solvedto the satisfaction of all concerned.
Indications point to a partially filled sinkhole or to a cavern
or rock shelter having considerable depth, located perhaps
at the edge of a stream. That a cavern of some sort was
present is attested to by the numerous bat remains that are
found in the rubble of a boulder bar or breakdown of a long
collapsed cave roof. That this cavity was at times water fed
is indicated by the various amphibian, aquatic turtle and






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


alligator remains that are present in the sediments. However,
no reliable or identifiable fish bones have turned up in the
nearly three decades of digging since the quarry was first
discovered. Another indication that this deposit was stream
fed at one time or another, while the animals were being
entombed, is substantiated by the waterworn scraps of bone
and by the evidence that noarticulated or individually asso-
ciated skeletons have been found. Instead, it is not unusual
to find five or six horse skulls nesting together or half a
dozen or so femora, of the same side of the animals repre-
sented, lying inclose contact. Although quite a few complete
skeletons are known of the small horse Parahippus (pl. VI),
the different elements composing these complete skeletons
may represent several individuals rather than belonging to
one animal as is usually the case in most vertebrate fossil
quarries from which complete mammal skeletons are known.

Among the animals, represented in the known collec-
tions from this site, are the remains of the large bear-like
carnivore Amphicyon, which rivaled the Kodiak bear in bulk
and in having a similar batteryofpowerfulteeth. Also pres-
ent are the smaller coyote-sized dogs Cynodesmus and
Tomarctus (pl. VI), as well as a badger Leptarctus and a
small skunk Miomustela. A few long-snouted camels known
as Floridatragulus as well as the small dik-dik sized artio-
dactyl Blastomeryx were also dwellers of the Thomas Farm
area in Miocene time. The remains of two different sized
hornless rhinoceros have occasionally turned up in the exca-
vations.

One of the interesting things concerning this Florida
locality, as compared with those of similar age found in the
western United States (text fig. 7), is the total lack of the
remains of either felids or Oreodonts. Both of these groups
of animals are well represented in similar quarries through-
out the western United States and the latter animals are so
numerous in some areas that certain layers that contain their
bones have been dubbed "Oreodonbeds" by the paleontologists
hat work these beds. No positive statements can be made,
)ased on our present knowledge of these forms, as to why
hey would occur in great abundance in one area and be totally
bsent in another.






30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


























Plate VI. Miocene horse Parahippus and dog-like carnivore
Tomarctus.






-. ,o r.
', '. ",,;" "

.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The present limits of the excavation, that contain the
most productive collecting area, measures approximately 30
by 60 feet and reaches a depth of 15 feet below the surrounding
terrain. Test borings made by the Florida Geological Survey
indicate that the bone-bearing beds extend to a depth of about
30 feet below the present bottom of the pit andbecome barren
of bone about 100 feet out from the present center of opera-
tions.

This quarry has actively been worked by one party or
another from each of the three institutions concerned since
1941. Dr. A. S. Romer of Harvard University, and present
Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, has postu-
lated that the pit would not be completely excavated until
approximately 2000 man-years of labor had been expended.


It must be stressed that anyone contemplating visiting
the Thomas Farm quarrywill have to have written permits sion
from the head of the Biology Department of the University of
Florida. This precaution is to prevent uncontrolled wandering
over the bone deposit, whichwould destroy scientific material
that could not be replaced.


The Griscom Plantation, or Luna Plantation, as it is
generally known today, is located about 15 miles north of
Tallahassee in Leon County. This plantation is the site of an
early Miocene vertebrate locality that was accidental discov-
ered in 1916 during the course of digging a shaft for a water
well. This shaft, having a diameter of six or eight feet, was
dug to a depth of 50 feetbefore it had to be abandoned due to
encountering poisonous gases. The workmen had struck
bone-bearing layer, just before the pit was vacated, which
has produced the types of the Miocene horse Parahippus
leonensis and the dog-like Cynodesmus iamonensis. The well
was completed by the use of a mobile drill rig and the larger
hand dug opening was filled in around the well casing, no
additional bone fragments being collected. This bone-bearing
layer does not outcrop on the surface in the vicinity of the
plantation and, since the originalwell is now in the landscaped
area of the plantation headquarters, it is improbable in the





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


foreseeable future that additional material will be collected
from this locality. All of the animals obtained from this well,
with the exception of the carnivore Temnocyon, are also
known from the Thomas Farm quarry. This last named form
has been recorded from a small bone-bearing pocket situated
in Pit No. 2 of the Franklin Phosphate Company's mine near
Newberry in Alachua County. This pit is now abandoned and
a good deal of the exposures are covered with redeposited
surface soil or vegetation so that the possibilities of getting
good additional material from this locality are poor indeed.

As in the case of the Griscom Plantation, the digging
of apumppitbythe Tallahassee waterworks was responsible
for some very tantalizing fragments of the Miocene rhino-
ceros Aphelops and a camel Nothokemus. These meager
scraps were collected in 1930 and here again, as in the
Griscom Plantation locality, the bone-bearing layer is no
longer available for further exploration.

The most recent locality of Miocene age to come to
light was exposed by a road cut through Colclough Hill, south
of Gainesville in Alachua County. This layer, judging by
the fauna, was laid down as a marine or brackish water
deposit. The animals from this layer have been identified as
the small Miocene horse Parahippus blackbergi, a squirrel-
like rodent and numerous shark and ray teeth. Although this
site will most surelynever be developed as a quarry, enough
materialhas been collectedas surface scrap to warrant future
investigation, particularly after heavy rains.

Only two good Miocene localities have been reported
from the Florida panhandle. Both of these are located in
Gadsden County and were located in the fuller's earth mines
of this area. The first of these localities, at Quincy, pro-
duced Florida's first identifiable material of the Miocene
horse Merychippus. From the second locality, at Midway,
were recorded scraps of Parahippus and Nothokemus as well
is Merychippus. Both of these sites are now in abandoned
water-filled pits. The surrounding country is covered by
)rush so that little hope is held for any additional fossils being






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


obtained from the original locations.

The fossil beds of Polk Countywill be discussed in some
detail in the following section on the Pliocene beds of the Bone
Valley, but a note is in order in this section pointing out tha'
vertebrate remains, found only in the Miocene in other parts
of thewesternhemisphere, have beentaken up from the Bone
Valley deposits.

These "true" Miocene forms are the badger Leptarctus,
the tapir Tapiravus, and the cetacean Hoplocetus.


Text figure 7. Age correlation chart of Florida Miocene wi
that of North American provincial stages.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


Miocene Faunal List

Chiroptera: Bats
Vespertilionidae: Little brown bats, big brown
bats, etc.
Suaptenos white Lawrence 1943
Miomyotis floridanus Lawrence 1943
Gen. et sp. indet.: Eptesicus-like
vespertilionid
Rodentia: Rodents
Mylagaulidae: Extinct family
Mesogaulus Riggs 1899, sp. nov.
Heteromyidae: Pocket mice, kangaroo rats
Proheteromys magnus A. E. Wood 1932
Proheteromys floridanus A.E. Wood 1932
Gen. et sp. indet.
Cricetidae: Native rats and mice (rice rats,
cotton rats, white-footed mice, etc.)
Gen. et. sp. indet.
Cetacea: Whales and porpoises
Physeteridae: Sperm whales
Hoplocetus Gervais 1848-52
Acrodelphidae: Long-beaked porpoises
Schizodelphis bobengi Case 1934
Schizodelphis depressus G.M. Allen 1921
Pomatodelphis inaequalis G. M. Allen 1921
Delphinidae: Dolphins, killer whales, blackfish,
etc.
Megalodelphis magnidens Kellogg 1944
Cetotheriidae: Whale-bone whales in part
?Isocetus Van Beneden 1880, sp. indet.
?Mesocetus Van Beneden 1880, sp. indet.
Carnivora: Carnivores
Canidae: Dogs, wolves, foxes, etc.
Cynodesmus iamonensis (Sellards) 1916
Tomarctus canavus (Simpson) 1932
Temnocyon Cope 1878, sp. indet.
Enhydrocyon spissidens(White) 1947
Amphicyon longiramus White 1942
Absonodaphoenus bathygenus Olsen 195E
?Aelurodon johnhenryi White 1947
Mustelidae: Badgers, skunks, weasels, otters,
etc.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Oligobunis floridanus White 1947
?Miomustela Hall 1930, sp. indet.
Leptarctus ancipidens (White) 1941
Leptarctus progressus Simpson 1930
Sirenia: Sea cows, manatees, and dugongs
Dugongidae: Dugongs
Hesperosiren crataegensis Simpson 1932
Perissodactyla: Odd-toed ungulates
Equidae: Horses
Anchitherium clarencei Simpspn 1932
Parahippus blackbergi (Hay) 1924
Parahippus leonensis Sellards 1916
Merychippus westoni Simpson 1930
Tapiridae: Tapirs
?Tapiravus Marsh 1877, sp. indet.
Rhinocerotidae: Rhinoceroses
Caenopus cf. platycephalus (Osborn and
Wortman) 1894
Gen. et. sp. nov. H. E. Wood (ms. ): Large
rhinoceros
Diceratherium (Menoceras) Marsh 1875,
sp. nov., H.E. Wood (ms.): Small
rhinoceros
Diceratherium Marsh 1875 or Caenopus
Cope 1880, sp. indet.
Aphelops Cope 1873, sp. indet.
Artiodactyla: Even-toed ungulates
Entelodontidae: Extinct pig-like ungulates
Daeodon (Dinohyus) (Cope) 1879, sp. indet.
Tayassuidae: Peccaries
Desmathyus olsepi (White) 1941
?Oreodontidae: Extinct family
?Camelidae: Camels, guanacos, and vicunas
Floridatragulus dolichanthereus White 1940
Nothokemas floridanus (Simpson) 1932
Camelid cf. Miolabis tenuis Matthew 1924
Protoceratidae: Extinct family
Synthetoceras (Prosynthetoceras) australis
(White) 1940
Cervidae: Deer
Blastomeryx (Parablastomeryx) floridanus
(White) 1940
Blastomeryx cf. marshi Lull 1920
Machaeromeryx gilchristensis White 1941
?Dromomeryx cf. americanus Douglass 1903




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


S /- / "-.'

Io

o '. / I



PLIOCENE I
VERTEBRATE FOSSIL -
LOCALITIES .} .
1- MULBERRY AREA ,
2-WILLISTON /
3HAILE ~ 0 /
3.HAILE IS


Text figure 8. Map of Pliocene localities.





38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


























Plate VII. Pliocene four-tusked mastodon Serridentinus and
aquatic rhinoceros Teleoceras.













w&A S;-F


7;


,I.20'


... ~ --.


-'^


~~5

.1-


L





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Mio Pliocene

Perhaps no area in Florida has caused the concern, in
regard to dating the vertebrate fauna it contains, as has the
Bone Valley of Polk County. The term "Bone Valley" should
be used to define a geographic boundary, rather than a strati-
graphic unit, as beds ranging from upper Miocene through the
lower Pleistocene are known to occur in the "Bone Valley" as
definedbyearlierworkers. Thesebeds, in some cases, show
a lithologic change but are not clearly mapable units.

Terrestrial vertebrates, known elsewhere only from
the Pliocene have been recorded as occurring in the Bone
Valley beds of Polk County. These animals are the bear-
like carnivore Agriotherium, the huge sloth Megatherium
(also recorded into the Pleistocene), the horses Hipparion,
Nannipus and Neohipparion, the artiodactyls Megatylopus and
Hexamerys, the sirenian Felsinotherium, and the cetaceans
Kogiopsis and Balaenoptera. Animals that are present in the
Pliocene and into the Miocene in other fossil areas of North
America are the hyena-like Osteoborus, the proboscideans
Serridentinus (pl. VII), Rhynchotherium and Mammut (this
last named form continues into the Pleistocene), the rhinos
Teleoceras andAphelops (pl. VII), along with the artiodactyls
Prosthenops and Procamelus.

There has been considerable confusion and even altered
opinions among previous workers as to the age determinations
of these beds. A report by E. W. Bishop and H. Stewart on
the geology of Polk County will clarify some of these strati-
graphic problems.

The vertebrate remains that were collected from the
Polk County phosphate pits, during the early days of mining,
were more complete than the scraps that are now recovered
from the sump pits surrounding the hydraulic guns. This
difference is due entirely to the method or mode of mining
used today as compared with that used several decades ago.
Originally, the hydraulic guns were placed in the quarries
and the phosphate matrixwas cut away to be processed. Thus,
when a specimen was uncovered by the jet of water, it was
possible to divert the stream to another area until the fossil




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


remains could be collected. The mining method used today
consists of employing a huge dragline power shovel, having
a bucket with a 25-yard capacity, bite into the phosphate layer
from which the matrix is lifted and swung over a water-filled


Photo: Florida State News Bureau
Text figure 9. Phosphate mining operations using 25-yard
dragline bucket and hydraulic sump pit gun.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


sump pitand dumped. This material is then broken downby
a manually operated hydraulic gun (text fig. 9) and the re-
sulting mud is pumped through metal pipes to the washing
plant. Obviously, only the most resistant vertebrate remains
can withstand such treatment so that today's collectors,
working the Bone Valley beds must be content with teeth or
bone scraps rather than the more complete skulls and skele-
tons of yesterday's prospector. Here, again, it must be
emphasized that nearly all of the fossil-collecting areas in
Polk County are on private lands so that permission should
be obtained before venturing into any pit, abandoned or other-
wise.

The small community of Haile in Alachua County, has
been the scene of some collecting activity during the last few
years. Mr. J. Clarence Simpson, shortly before his death,
collected some Pliocene horse teeth and bone fragments along
with a few amphibianand reptile remains whose descriptions
have been.published in several technical papers, establishing
this pocket as Pliocene in age.


Text figure 10. Age correlation chart of Florida Pliocene
with that of North American provincial
stages.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


One locality from which a great quantity of Pliocene
vertebrates were recovered is in Levy County, northeast of
Williston. This quarry known as Mixon's Bone Bed has not
been worked in recent years but the following forms were
identified as coming from this site during the initial stages
of working this dig. The proboscidean Serridentinus, and
the rhinoceros Teleoceras (pl. VII), the horse Hipparion
and the Pliocene camel Procamelus. This deposit is also
on private land and permission must be granted before any
collecting can be done.

There are many redeposited surface finds, particu-
larly in the peninsular part of the State from which Plio-
Pleistocene forms have been collected, but as with any
transitional mammal not collected from a known horizon it
is nearly impossible to be sure whether they are "true"
Pliocene forms or "true" Pleistocene forms.


Pliocene Faunal List


Cetacea: Whales and porpoises
Platanistidae: River dolphins
Goniodelphis hudsoni G. M. Allen 1941
Physeteridae: Sperm whales
Kogiopsis Kellogg 1929
Balaenopteridae: Whale-bone whales in part
Balaenoptera floridana Kellogg 1944: Extinct
rorqual
Carnivora: Carnivores
Canidae: Dogs, wolves, foxes, etc.
Osteoborus crassapineatus Olsen 1956
Pliogula dudleyi White 1941
Ursidae: Bears
Agriotherium schneideri Sellards 1916
Proboscidea: Elephants, mastodonts, etc.
Gomphotheriidae: Serrate-toothed mastodonts






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Serridentinus (Ocalientinus) floridanus
(Leidy) 1887
Serridentinus (Ocalientinus) floridanus leidii
(Frick) 1926
Serridentinus (Ocalientinus) bifoliatus
(Osborn) 1929
Serridentinus (Serbelodon) brewsterensis
Osborn 1926
Gomphotherium simplicidens (Osborn) 1923
Gomphotherium Burmeister 1837, sp. indet.
Rhynchotherium simpsoni Olsen 1957
Mammutidae: Mastodonts
Mammut sellardsi (Simpson) 1930
Sirenina: Sea cows, manatees, and dugongs
Dugongidae: Dugongs
Felsinotherium floridanum (Hay) 1922
Felsinotherium ossivallense Simpson 1932
Perissodactyla: Odd-toed ungulates
Equidae: Horses
Hipparion plicatile (Leidy) 1888
Neohipparion phosphorum Simpson 1930
Nannipus ingenuum (Leidy) 1886
Nannipus minor (Sellards) 1916
Rhinocerotidae: Rhinoceroses
Aphelops longipes (Leidy) 1891
Teleoceras proterus (Leidy) 1886
Artiodactyla: Even-toed ungulates
Tayassuidae: Peccaries
Prosthennops elmorei White 1942
Camelidae: Camels, guanacos, and vicunas
?Procamelus minimus (Leidy) 1887
?Procamelus minor (Leidy) 1887
? Megathylopus major (Leidy) 1887
Antilocapridae: Pronghorned "antelopes"
Hexameryx elmorei White 1942
Hexameryx simpsoni White 1941




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


IPLEISTOCENE'
VERTEBRATE FOSSIL
LOCALITIES I
1.SEMINOLE FIELD
2*VERO
3-MELBOURNE
4-HAILE
5-ARREDONDO
*'REDDICK
7 ST.PETERSBURG DRAGLINE
8*BRADENTON ) PITS
RIVERS AND SPRINGS 7
9*ST. JOHNS (SPOIL BANKS)(
10-PEACE CREEK
11-WAKULLA SPRINGS
12*ITCHTUCKNEE RIVER AND S
13-AUCILLA RIVER
14-HORNSBY SPRING
CAVES
15-EICHLEBERGER
6-SABER-TOOTH
7-IRON LADDER
8-MARIANNA AREA


Text figure 11. Map of better known Pleistocene localities.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate VIII. Pleistocene mammoth.




























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-wr-


-,I R a





FLORIDA GFOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate IX. Pleistocene mastodon.





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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate X. Florida saber-tooth tiger and Pleistocene horses.








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1.1 (i





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate XI. Giant sloth Megatherium and Glyptodont.














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1. -, r...:.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate XII. Pleistocene camel Tanupolama andwolfAenocyon.














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Vt


te~~-h


IC,





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Pleistocene

It is only natural that the most recent fossil mammals,
those of the Pleistocene, or Ice age, should be the mostwidely
distributed in the State and the best known. The stream and
swamp deposits in which their remains are preserved have
not yet been so deeplyburied as to be inaccessible nor, like
most of the older beds, so long attacked by rivers and oceans
as to have been largely eroded away and their contents lost
or redeposited.

The abundance of mammals in Florida at this time was
extraordinary. It can only be compared with that of the big
game region of Africa (text fig. 2). Most, perhaps all, of the
recent mammals or their immediate ancestors were already
present but there was a host of other stranger animals be-
sides. Mammoths (pl. X), mastodons (pl. IX), saber-tooth
tigers and horses (pl. X), giant sloths and armadillos (pl. XI),
as well as llama-like camels and wolves (pl. XII), populated
the peninsula of Florida in great numbers.

Even among the less spectacular animals there were
many that no longer inhabit Florida, or that have entirely
vanished from the face of the earth. Thus there were at least
two species of capybaras, so-called "water hogs" relatively
large rodents of a groupwhich now lives only in SouthAmerica;
there was a small rodent, the bog lemming, which ranges
many miles north of Florida today, and a giant beaver, now
extinct, beside which the living beaver is a dwarf.

Flesh-eaters were not lackingtoprey onthis abundant
life. In addition to the black bear, there was a short-faced
bear (Tremarctos floridanus, pl. XIV) allied to the strange
spectacled bear of South America. There was a dire-wolf
(Canis or Aenocyon ayersi, pl. XII), larger than the recent
wolf, and a smaller coyote (Canis latrans) which has been
extirpated from Florida. The remains of the saber-tooth
tiger (Smilodon floridanus, pl. X) have turned up in several
localities on both coasts of central Florida andthe best known
remains are from a sinkhole cave in Citrus County, known
and recorded as Saber-Tooth Cave.

Remains of the ground sloths and the various armadillos






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


(pl. XI) are common finds and the bony outer scutes of the
latter (pl. III) turn up inalmost every localityof Pleistocene
age.

One of the great mysteries of the Pleistocene concerns
the horse. This animal, if we are to judge by his abundant
fossilized remains, was present in great numbers on this
continent from the Eocene to within some 10, 000 years ago.
Then, for sqme now unknown reason, possibly disease, or
a change of climate, this noble animal died out and became
extinct on this continent. In February 1519, Cortes sailed
from Havana for the conquest of Mexico, and took with him
16 horses, the first to set foot on this continent since the
last Ice age horse died out. Actually, 17 horses arrived on
the Mexican shore, for one of the mares foaled during the
journey. These horses (pl. XIII) and the other horses that
came after them made and changed history. The conquest
would have failed without them.

Mammoths and mastodons were so abundant that their
teeth are the most commonly found fossil mammalian remains
in the State (pl. II). The mastodons (pl. IX) were not true
elephants and differed from the mammoth (pl. VIII) inhaving
straighter tusks, higher cusped teeth withfewer ridges than
those found in the mammoth and in having all of the cheek teeth
in place simultaneously rather thanhaving the next replace-
ment tooth already crowding against the back face of the
functional tooth as is evidenced in the mammoth and his living
relative, the elephant. Although the Pleistocene is generally
termed the Ice age, the ice cap did not reach as far south as
Florida and the woolly mammothwas never a resident of the
peninsula. The remains of the Imperial and Columbian
mammoths are among the more common fossil finds in
Florida today.

The fauna of Florida in the Pleistocene bore a great
resemblance to the fauna of South America. Capybaras,
short-faced bears, sloths, armadillos, tapirs, camels
(llamas, etc. ), and peccaries are allanimals which we asso-
ciate with the southern continent at present. This resem-
blance is due to two causes: some of the animals did come
from South America, others originated in the North but





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate XIII. Reintroduction of the horse into North America
by the Spaniards.

















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03

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-- -,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Plate XIV. Pleistocene Vero man and cave bear Tremarctos.

















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b+~ r:.l

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I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


survive only in the South. At about the beginning of the Plio-
cene, South America, which for a very long time had been
isolated from all other continents by the oceans, was reunited
with North America. Over this new Central American land-
bridge came members of groups which had been evolving in
isolation in the southern continent: the capybaras, porcu-
pines, ground sloths, armadillos and glyptodonts. The short-
faced bears, tapirs, camels and peccaries, on the contrary,
then entered South America for the first time (along with deer,
wolves, horses, mastodons, and other animals) but survived
longer in their new homes than they did in North America.

The localities that have yielded Pleistocene fossils are
many and varied in nature so that only some of the better
known deposits are discussed below. Chances are very good
that nearly every major excavation within the State of Florida
will.yield up an identifiable fossil.


Seminole Field, on the outskirts of St. Petersburg has
the importance of giving us one of the few radiocarbon dates
for the State. This date is based on a charcoal fragment,
associated with the bones of extinct animals, and placed the
material as being here in a live state about 3, 000 or 4, 000
years ago. The collecting area that has inpastyears been
most productive has now been destroyed by a new housing
development so that fossil collecting inSeminole Field today
is most limited.


On the east coast of peninsular Florida are two local-
ities that perhaps have been the cause of more discussion
among scientific personnel than has any other Pleistocene
localities in the eastern United States. These localities at
the Vero Canaland the Melbourne golf course were the sub-
ject of much discussion, during World War I times, due to
the finding of human fragments in association with an extinct
animal fauna. This area has also produced the type material
of the huge Canis (or Aenocyon) ayersi as well as that of the
extinct tapir Tapirus veroensis.


The small sinkhole deposits at Haile and Arredondo





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


have produced some fine tapir and peccary bones along with
a series of "micro-vertebrates" that are unknown from other
Pleistocene localities.


Anyone who has ever dug for Pleistocene vertebrates
in Florida and has stopped for a brief rest, to lean back and
contemplate amid the surrounding lush vegetation and warm
sunshine, cannot helpbutwonder about the appearance of this
first "winter resort" when it was inhabited by the animals
that now lie buried beneath the rich soil of nearly every part
of the State.


A now abandoned quarrynear Reddick has been respon-
sible for perhaps the largest collection of rodents to have
ever been collected from the Pleistocene deposits of Florida.
These small bones are undoubtedly due to a long abandoned
owl roost and the bones are the last remnants of owl pellets
that must have littered the cave floor. A nearly complete
skeleton of a cave bear, some horse and camel remains and
a few scraps of Smilodonhave also turned up at this locality.


The deposit is no longer recognizable as a cave floor
due to the limestone cave having beenmined away leaving the
once dark interior floor exposed to the open air and sunshine.
Here again, as with so manyof Florida's localities, permis-
sion must be obtained before one can collect in this area.


The many shell marl dragline pits of the St. Petersburg
and Bradenton areas have been listed as good spots to obtain
fragmentary remains of most of the Pleistocene animals that
were present in Florida. Due to the methods of mining only
the smaller bones are ever recovered in a complete condition
and nothing associated or more complete can be added to the
tantalizing scraps that turn up. The material is dredged
up from a water-filled pit and dumped on a spoil heap from
which it can be recovered. But, to get additional material
from the exact spot from which a spoil bank scrap was obtained
is nearly impossible.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Text figure 12. Age correlation chart of Florida Pleistocene
with that of North American provincial
stages.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


Pleistocene Faunal List

Marsupialia: Opossums only in North America
Didelphidae: Opossums
Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus 1758:
Virginia opossum
Insectivora: Moles, shrews, hedgehogs, etc.
Talpidae: Moles
Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus) 1758:
Eastern mole
Soricidae: Shrews
Blarina brevicauda (Say) 1823: Short-tailed
shrew
Cryptotis floridana (Merriam) 1895: Florida
short-tailed shrew
Chiroptera: Bats
Vespertilionidae: Little brown bats, big brown
bats, etc.
Myotis Kaup 1829, sp. indet.
Myotis cf. austroriparius (Rhoads) 1897
Molossidae: Free-tailed bats
Molossides floridanus G.M. Allen 1932:
Extinct free-tailed bat
Primates: Lemurs, monkeys, apes, man, etc.
Hominidae: Man
Homo sapiens Linnaeus 1758: Man
Edentata: Armadillos, anteaters, and sloths
Megalonychidae: Megalonychid ground sloths
Megalonyx jeffersonii (Desmarest) 1822:
Jeffersonian ground sloth
Megalonyx cf. wheatleyi Cope 1871: cf.
Wheatley's ground sloth
Megatheriidae: Megatheriid ground sloths
Megatherium hudsoni White 1941
Megatherium mirabile Leidy 1854
Mylodontidae: Mylodont ground sloths
Paramylodon harlani (Owen) 1840: Harlan's
ground sloth
Thinobadistes segnis Hay 1919
Dasypodidae: Armadillos
Chlamytherium septentrionalis (Leidy) 1890:
Extinct giant "armadillo"






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Dasypus bellus (Simpson) 1929: Extinct
armadillo
Glyptodontidae: Glyptodonts
Boreostracon floridanus Simpson 1929
Lagbmorpha: Rabbits, hares, and pikas
Leporidae: Hares and rabbits
Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen) 1890:
Florida cottontail
Sylvilagus palustrellus Gazin 1950: Pigmy
marsh rabbit
Sylvilagus palustris (Brachman) 1837:
Marsh rabbit
Rodentia: Rodents
Sciuridae: Squirrels
Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin 1788: Gray
squirrel
Geomyidae: Pocket gophers
Plesiothomomys orientalis (Simpson) 1928:
Extinct pocket gopher
Geomys pinetis Rafinesque 1817: Pocket
gopher
Castoridae: Beavers
Castor canadensis Kuhl 1820: Beaver
Castortoides ohioensis Foster 1838: Extinct
giant beaver
Cricetidae: Native rats and mice (rice rats,
cotton rats, white-footed mice, etc.)
Oryzomys palustris (Harlan) 1837: Rice rat
Reithrodontomys humulis (Audubon and
Bachman) 1841: Harvest mouse
Peromyscus floridanus (Chapman) 1889:
Florida white-footed mouse
Peromyscus gossypinus (LeConte) 1853:
Cotton mouse
Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord 1825:
Cotton rat
Neotoma floridana (Ord) 1818: Wood rat
Synaptomys (Synaptomys) australis Simpson
1928: Extinct bog lemming
Ondatra zibethicus (Linnaeus) 1766: Muskrat
Ondatra zibethicus floridanus Lawrence
1942: Extinct subspecies of muskrat






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


Neofiber alleni True 1884: Florida water
rat or round-tailed muskrat
Pitymys pinetorum (LeConte) 1830: Pine
mouse
Erethizontidae: New world porcupines
Erethizon dorsatum (Linnaeus) 1758: North
American porcupine
Hydrochoeridae: Capybaras
Neochoerus pickneyi (Hay) 1923: Extinct
giant capybara
Hydrochoerus holmesi Simpson 1928:
Extinct capybara
Cetacea: Whales and porpoises
Cetacea indet.
Delphinidae: Dolphins, killer whales, blackfish,
etc.
Globicephala ?baereckeii Sellards 1916:
Extinct blackfish
?Balaenopteridae: Whale-bone whales in part
?Balaenoptera Lacepede 1804, sp. indet.:
? Rorqual
Carnivora: Carnivores
Canidae: Dogs, wolves, foxes, etc.
Aenocyon ayersi (Sellards) 1916
Canis latrans Say 1823: Coyote
Canis cf. lupus Linnaeus 1758: Wolf
Vulpes ?palmaria Hay 1917: Extinct (?)red
fox
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber) 1775:
Gray fox
Urocyon seminolensis Simpson 1929:
Extinct gray fox
Ursidae: Bears
?Tremarctos floridanus (Gidley) 1928:
Extinct spectacled (?) bear
Ursus americanus Pallas 1780: Black bear
Ursus Linnaeus 1758, sp. nov. ?: "True"
Ursus (not black bear)
Procyonidae: Raccoons
Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) 1758: Raccoon
Procyon nanus Simpson 1929: Extinct
raccoon
Mustelidae: Badgers, skunks, weasels, otters,
etc.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Mustela frenata Lichtenstein 1831: Bridled
weasel
Mephitis mephitis (Schreber) 1776: Striped
skunk
Spilogale ambarvalis Bangs 1898: Little
spotted skunk
Lutra canadensis (Schreber) 1776: River
otter
Felidae: Cats
Felis (Lynx) rufus Schreber 1777: Bobcat
Felis (Noctifelis or Herpailurus) Severtzov
1858, sp. indet. : Margay or jaguarundi-
type cat
Felis (Puma) inexpectataa (Cope) 1896:
Extinct (?) puma
Panthera (Jaguarius) ?augusta (Leidy) 1872:
Extinct (?) species of jaguar
Smilodon floridanus (Leidy) 1889: Florida
saber-tooth cat
Phocidae: True or earlesss" seals
Monachus tropicalis (Gray) 1850: West
Indian monk seal
Proboscidea: Elephants, mastodonts, etc.
Mammutidae: Mastodonts
Mammut americanum (Kerr) 1792:
American mastodon
Elephantidae: Elephants
Mammuthus (Parelephas) columbi (Falconer)
1857: Columbian mammoth
Mammuthus (Parelephas) floridanus (Osborr)
1929: Florida mammoth
Mammuthus (Archidiskodon) imperator
(Leidy) 1859: Imperial mammoth
Sirenia: Sea cows, manatees, and dugongs
Trichechidae: Manatees
Trichechus Linnaeus 1758, sp. indet.:
Manatee
Perissodactyla: Odd-toed ungulates
Equidae: Horses
Equus Linnaeus 1758, sp. indet.: Horses
Tapiridae: Tapirs
Tapirus veroensis Sellards 1918: Florida
tapir





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


STapirus Brisson 1762, sp. indet. : Large
tapir
Artiodactyla: Even-toed ungulates
Tayassuidae: Peccaries
Mylohyus gidleyi Simpson 1929: Extinct
peccary
Platygonus LeConte 1848, sp. indet.:
Extinct peccary
?Tayassu Fischer 1814, sp. indet.
Camelidae: Camels, guanacos, and vicunas
Camelidae indet., cf. Camelops Leidy 1854
Camelidae indet. cf. Tanupolama
americana (Wortman) 1898
Tanupolama mirifica Simpson 1929: Extinct
camel
Cervidae: Deer
?Cervus Linnaeus 1758, sp. indet.:
Medium-sized cervid
Odocoileus virginianus (Boddaert) 1784:
Virginia deer
Bovidae: Bison, cattle, sheep, goats, etc.
Bison latifrons (Harlan) 325: Extinct bison
Bison H. Smith 1827, sp. indet.



Pleistocene or Recent

The final chapter in the history of the animal life of
lorida, that of transition from Pleistocene to Recent times,
; adisasterous one, as it has been almost everywhere. The
resent fauna of the State, although it possesses some unique
thabitants, is only a poor and colorless remnant of what it
ace supported. Half, or perhaps even two-thirds, of the
leistocene mammals are now extinct and those of their com-
inions which still survive are not only relatively few in
imbers but are also generally the smaller and less striking
rms. The rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice, some of the
irnivores, and one of the deer, have survived, but the many
oths, horses, tapirs, camels, mastodons, mammoths and
any others no longer exist. It is not possible to assign a
finite cause to this decimation, but if present conjectures
; to the antiquity of man prove to be correct, it will seem
iite probable that the destruction of animal life by man, still





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


going on, startedwithhis victory over some of the Pleistocene
mammals, a victory for which one must now feel some regret.

But what of man? Was he associated with some of the
great extinct animals as he was in Europe? If so, does this
indicate the great antiquity of man on this continent or the
recent extinction of these mammals? These are questions
which have long been asked andwhich can not be fully answered
even now. At severalplaces in Florida, especiallyVero and
Melbourne, humanbones and the products of human hands
have been found inapparent association with the extinct ani-
mals mentioned above (pl. XIV).

If further discoveries confirm these and if they can
eventually survive the severe scientific criticism to which
they're now properlybeing subjected, it will appear that man
has been in Florida for some thousands of years and the first
arrivals in this region disputed the ground withmammoths,
mastodons and the other great beasts of the glacial epoch.
This evidence will have to be in a form beyond reproach, such
as a mastodon vertebra with an arrow point embedded in the
bone, and the bone growing around the point. Association
alone is not sufficient proof of man's antiquity in Florida.

Most of the localities termed "Pleistocene-Recent" are
to be foundas spring or stream deposits or as floor deposits
of caves. Almost every spring or riverbedhas produced some
bone scraps that can be identified as belonging to animals that
lived during Pleistocene times. Springs and streambeds also
contain a generous admixture of Recent as well as Pleistocene
material so that care must be exercised in determining to
which of these epochs the bones belong. Also some of the
animals recorded as living during Pleistocene times, have
only recently disappeared from Florida scenes. This fauna
includes the great auk, the beaver, flat-tailed muskrat, bog
lemming, bison, spectacled bear, jaguar and a few others.
Just where to draw the line between Pleistocene and Recent
is a matter of taste rather than of fact and a few people believe
that we are still living in the Pleistocene.

Since the invention of the self-contained diving appara-
tus (text fig. 13) many underwater localities have yielded up
their secrets to the modern prospector who can now enter





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


Photo: W. Jenkins
Text figure 13. Aqua lung prospecting and collecting.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the element of the fish and the frog in order to continue his
search for fossil bones. However, too much emphasis cannot
be placed on the danger of improperly using the self-contained
diving apparatus. All persons wishing to indulge in this fast-
growing sport should be checked out by an expert before
attempting to dive in Florida's swifter rivers or deeper
springheads. Close attention should be paid to the decom-
pression charts and to the time that must be spent at the
different depths during the ascension from a deep dive. That
the last cautionary comments are not idle pessimism is borne
out by the recorded diving accidents that have occurred in
recent years. Many of these accidents were due to careless
handling of good equipment which, in itself, was not directly
responsible for these accidents.

Some of the more attractive water covered deposits
are the St. Johns River in the Jacksonville-Mayport area
(although the spoil banks above the river's edge are the most
productive collecting), the Peace Creek area from which
many of Florida's first described fossils were obtained, and
the Itchtucknee River. This last named river is perhaps the
best general collecting in the State. Located as a natural
boundary between Columbia and Suwannee counties in north
central Florida, this river flows for about five miles from
its main spring to where it joins the Santa Fe River. Good
material has been obtained from the Blue Hole (termed Jug
Spring by later collectors) just below the main spring and
also from the clay flats of the Mill Pond area which begins
a mile downstream from the main boil. The best method of
collecting in the mill pond area is by the use of a steel rod
or probe which is shoved into the clay, just beneath the water.
If a bone is struck, it is felt through the metal rod and can
then be gently excavated, the swift running water carrying
away the excavated mud. Many of the fragile muskrat skulls
and antlered deer skulls were obtained by Mr. Clarence
Simpson in this way. Most rivers in Florida have pockets in
the limestone bottoms which are natural collecting traps so
that good specimens can be obtained from among the residue
that has collected over the years. This residue also includes
present day animals along with the soft drink bottles and beer
cans so thoughtfully deposited by the fishermen. Wakulla
Spring, near Tallahassee, is the localityfromwhich a nearly
complete mastodon skeleton was obtained by the Florida





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 6


Geological Survey. This area has also produced many archaic
weapon points and some early pottery. No proof of man's
association with the early mammals found here has been put
forth. Recent dives by the Florida State University students
(text fig. 13) have been successful in penetrating the spring
shaft for a distance of over 1, 100 feetand a verticaldepth of
250 feet.

Much of this distance is littered with bones of long
extinct animals, many of them proboscideans. The reason
for this abundance of vertebrate material is yet to be ex-
plained.

Caves, the realm of the speleologist or "spelunker"
offer another field of fossil collecting that has barely been
touched. Many of the limestone caves, situated in the cen-
tral peninsula and the western panhandle, have been worked
with some degree of success by bone hunters who prefer this
medium to the hot sunnyquarries that one usuallyassociates
with vertebrate paleontology. Although many of these caves
have been explored, few have been excavated to the degree of
that found in Saber-Tooth Cave in Citrus County. Eichleberger
Cave, south of Ocala, penetrates the limestone for hundreds
of feet, yet the best collecting area was discovered beneath
the cave floor just inside the main entrance. There the re-
mains of Canis ayersi were recovered along with some frag-
ments of horse and camel. Also present were the remains
of rodents, rabbits and a few peccary teeth.

Iron Ladder Cave north of Saber-Tooth Cave, was
named for the metal windmill ladder that gives access to the
underground crypt through a hole in the cave ceiling. The
bone-bearing layerwas the most lucrative just below the 60-
foot high opening in the ceiling. This accumulation of bones
was undoubtedly due to the animals falling through the hole
and being killed on impact on the rocks below. One human
skeleton, probably Indian, is known from this bone pile, below
one of nature's natural traps. One can but wonder how this
early hunter met his death.

The Florida Panhandle, particularly the Marianna
area, is honeycombed with caves and it is safe to state that





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the best fossil cave localities are yet to be discovered in
Florida.

Perhaps Florida is the only state in which vertebrate
fossils can be collected within easy access to cool shade and
clear running spring water, and one in which a successful
field trip can be conducted within a few hours drive rather
than a trip of several days, which has been the experience
of the majority of collectors setting forth from Eastern States
to obtain a collection of Tertiary vertebrates.





DIRECTIONS TO VERTEBRATE FOSSIL LOCALITIES

Eocene

Ma o Dell mine of the Williston Shell Rock Company
NE-NWSsec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., Lafayette County (inquire
at mine office for permission to enter). Reached from U. S.
Highway 27 at Mayo.

Miocene

Thomas Farm NWiSW- sec. 20, T.7 S., R. 15 E.,
Gilchrist County (written permission is needed from head o:
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville).
Reached from State Highway 49. Quarry at east of road,
between Santa Fe River Bridge and town of Bell.

Polk County Phosphate Pits Pits of American Agri-
cultural Chemical Company at Pierce and Brewster. Spoi.
banks of many abandoned pits contain vertebrate remains ol
Miocene age. (Permission neededto enter property inquire
at company office in Pierce.)


Pliocene

Haile Limestone quarry, SW sec. 24, R. 17 E.,
T. 9 S., Alachua County. Haile can be reached by going east
from Newberry on State Highway 235. Quarry lies to the
south of Haile.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Pleistocene

Vero Spoil banks of the drainage canal one -half mile
north of Vero and starting approximately 500 feet west of
bridge of U. S. Highway 1. Permission neededto excavate on
canal banks.

Reddick Mine of Dixie Lime Products Corporation,
one mile southeast of Reddick, southwest corner NW- sec. 14,
T. 13 S., R.21 E., Marion County. Permission needed to
enter area.

St. Petersburg and Bradenton Localities in this area
are subject to such rapid change that it would be nearly
useless to list the current collecting sites. However, many
dragline operations, such as are underway for constructing
yacht basins or housing sites (island or lagoon sites) are
well worth visiting in order to prospect over the dredged fill
for vertebrate remains. Permission shouldbe obtained from
owners or contractors before entering construction areas.

Itchtucknee River This stream forms the northeast
boundary of Suwannee County and the northwest boundary of
Columbia County. Better collecting areas of this river are
located in main stream bed between bridge for U. S. High-
way 27 and main spring. Property owned by Loncala Phos-
phate Company of Ocala, Florida. Permission needed to
collect.

Aucilla River River bed south of bridge on U. S.
Highway 98 to the Gulf. Deeper holes in limestone stream
bottom are better collecting basins. This stream forms the
boundary between Jefferson and Taylor counties.

Saber- Tooth Cave Approximately 1 miles northwest
of Lecanto, Citrus County, on the property of Mr. Austin
Allen. Turnoff to property 1 miles west of Lecanto on
State Highway 44. Permission needed to visit this sinkhole
'ave.

Iron Ladder Cave Approximately 2 miles northwest
of Lecanto, Citrus County. Cave on property of Mr. Gene
Maynard. Turnoff to property 1- miles west of Lecanto on
State Highway 44. Permission needed to visit this.cave.