Florida : the new uranium producer (FGS: Special publication 22)

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Title:
Florida : the new uranium producer (FGS: Special publication 22)
Physical Description:
13 p. : map ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Sweeney, John W
Windham, Steve R. ( joint author )
Publisher:
Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, in cooperation with U. S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1979

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Subjects / Keywords:
Uranium ores -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Phosphate rock -- Florida   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Florida Geological Survey special publication 22
General Note:
"From a presentation at the 1979 AIME annual meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, Feb. 18-22, 1979."
Statement of Responsibility:
by John W. Sweeney and Steve R. Windham.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - NOT FOU
notis - AAL1512
alephbibnum - 000096080
oclc - 06384453
System ID:
UF00000470:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Back Cover
        Page 15
        Back Cover 2
Full Text





STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director





DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Jack Woodard, Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief


Special Publication No. 22

FLORIDA:
THE NEW URANIUM PRODUCER
By
John W. Sweeney and Steve R. Windham

Published by
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
in cooperation with
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF MINES
From a presentation at the 1979 AIME Annual Meeting,
New Orleans, Louisiana, February 18-22, 1979.

TALLAHASSEE
1979


35-11

3s


22


~tFLAA H'iTO;














STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director






DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Jack Woodard, Director





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief





Special Publication No. 22

FLORIDA:
THE NEW URANIUM PRODUCER
By
John W. Sweeney and Steve R. Windham


Published by
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
in cooperation with
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF MINES

From a presentation at the 1979 AIME Annual Meeting,
New Orleans, Louisiana, February 18-22, 1979.

TALLAHASSEE


1979


















DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES



BOB GRAHAM
Governor


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State


BILL GUNTER
Treasurer



RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


JIM SMITH
Attorney General


GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director




















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
October 12, 1979



Governor Bob Graham, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Dear Governor Graham:

The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Department of
Natural Resources, is publishing as its Special Publication No. 22, "Florida, The
New Uranium Producer."

The data presented indicate that Florida may soon produce approximately
15 percent of the United States' domestic requirements for uranium. This
information should be of substantial interest to agencies or individuals involved
with energy planning or assessment.
Respectfully yours,

Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology

























CONTENTS


Page


A abstract .......................................
Introduction .....................................
Geology of Florida Phosphate .........................
Resources and Reserves .............................
Present Activity ..................................
R eferences .....................................

ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure


1 Geologic time scale for the Cenozoic Era ................. 3
2 Distribution of phosphate in Florida .................... s


TABLES

Table

1 Wet-process phosphoric acid production capacity .......... .11
2 Total identified resources of phosphate rock in recoverable product tons
by grade and cost ................. .............. 12
3 Announced uranium recovery from Florida ores ............. 13











FLORIDA:
THE NEW URANIUM PRODUCER

by
John W. Sweeney and Steve R. Windham

Abstract

Florida is usually thought of as a vacation State, not a mining State, yet Florida has
been the leading producer of phosphate rock in the United States for 85 consecutive
years and in 1978 supplied over 80 percent of the national output and over 30 percent
of the world's output. It is estimated that the Central and South Florida phosphates
contain 412,800 short tons (374,000 metric tons) of U308, that 115,000 short tons
(104,000 metric tons) of U308 will be contained in the wet-process phosphoric acid
processed in the United States through the year 2000, and that 54,000 short tons
(49,000 metric tons) of U308 will be available from Florida. In 1978, two companies in
Florida and one in Louisiana went on-stream recovering uranium oxide from wet-process
phosphoric acid and three others started construction of U308 extraction facilities.
These six companies will have the capacity to recover 2,137 short tons (1,900 metric
tons) of U308 annually in 1980, which will account for about 15 percent of our
domestic requirements.


Introduction

Florida is usually thought of as a vacation State, not a mining State, yet
Florida is the leading producer of phosphate rock in the United States and in
1978 supplied over 80 percent of the national output and over 30 percent of
the world's output. These phosphates contain a significant amount of
uranium.
The potential for Florida to become a major uranium producer is great
since very large resources of uranium are contained in Florida's phosphate
resources, and the spot market price of uranium oxide $40+ per pound -
makes extraction from wet-process phosphoric acid economically attractive.
In this paper we will briefly discuss the geology of occurrence of uranium
in Florida phosphate, the reserves and resources, and the potential for Florida
to become a major uranium producer.


Geology of Florida Phosphate

Most phosphate rocks are uraniferous, and their uranium content
generally increases with the phosphate content. Marine phosphate is the
dominant source of phosphate and constitutes a very large resource of
uranium (1). Therefore, we must look to the occurrence of marine phosphate
for the origin of Florida's uranium.
Sixty-five million years ago, the Florida peninsula existed as a part of a
much broader plateau, the Floridan Plateau, which consists of the present
peninsula and a broad shelf, now submerged, of equivalent size extending the
length of the State and out into the Gulf of Mexico. This Plateau was
separated from the mainland United States by the Suwannee Straits, which
trended northeast from the Gulf (Apalachicola River delta area) through
south Georgia to the Atlantic. To the south of the Suwannee Straits existed









an environment similar to today's Bahama Banks with calcium and
magnesium carbonates and associated evaporites being deposited. Shallow
warm waters prevailed over the Floridan Plateau. Where circulation and
oxygenation occurred, teeming numbers of marine organisms lived and pure
carbonates were deposited. Where circulation was restricted, evaporation
caused supersaturation of saline waters, which resulted in meager faunal
assemblages and deposition of evaporites. There was little encroachment of
other geologic environments into the Florida Plateau except during the
Oligocene and Lower Miocene time (see Figure 1) when longshore currents
transported progressively increasing amounts of fine quartz sands from the
northern Gulf and intermixed these clastics with the carbonates along the
western half of the present peninsula. Additionally, traces of phosphate were
deposited through the Lower Miocene, signaling more profound changes to
come.
At the end of the Lower Miocene Epoch, significant geologic changes
occurred. The Suwannee Straits ceased to exist, and the continuity of the
Florida Peninsula with the mainland United States was reestablished.
Sediment-laden streams, developed from higher elevations to the north,
transgressed southward over the Florida Peninsula, shifting laterally back and
forth as their deltas developed and matured. The long shore current from the
northern Gulf developed much transport energy since currents were diverted
from entering the Suwannee Straits and thus moved southward along and
over the Peninsula, transporting quartz sands and clays.
This commingling of two major geologic sedimentary environments
(carbonate and clastic) resulted in the deposition of a geologic unit, the
Hawthorn Formation; this is characterized by its heterogeneity. The Lower
Hawthorn is generally dominated by carbonates, although all are impure,
having varying amounts of insoluble silts and clays intermixed with occasional
sand or clay lenses. Very rare fossil material signifies the near-total extinction
of the prolific faunas that existed earlier in the purer carbonate environment.
The Upper Hawthorn becomes sporadically more clastic with a resulting maze
of intertonguing lensoidal units of limestones, sands, and clays typically
intermixed, but with occasional pure clay units representing isolated
low-energy depositional systems.
Faunally the Hawthorn is quite sparse; however, there occur scattered
fossil oyster bars, attesting to the lower salinities of the fresh water-marine
water interface.
In contrast to the heterogeneity of the Hawthorn Formation is the
persistent occurrence of one chemical component phosphate. Throughout
the Hawthorn, with rare exceptions, phosphate occurs as small, rounded,
tan-to-black grains, commonly referred to as phosphorite, intermixed with all
the other sediment types in the Hawthorn. The chemistry of the Hawthorn
phosphorite is similar to that of the Bone Valley phosphate; however, the
P2 O content is generally lower. Percentages of phosphorite occurrence are
highly variable; however, 2 to 10 percent would be common, 10 to 30
percent uncommon, and over 30 percent rare. This variability is encountered
both vertically and laterally, not only between lithologic units but also within
a single lithologic unit. It is generally true, however, that the higher










Era Period Epoch Approximate Dates
(Years Before Present)


Cenozoic


Quaternary


Tertiary


Recent
Pleistocene


Pliocene
Miocene
Oligocene
Eocene
Paleocene


12,000
2,000,000


12,000,000
25,000,000
38,000,000
55,000,000
65,000,000


I I


Figure 1. Geologic time scale for the Cenozoic Era.


i









phosphorite percentages occur rarely in the carbonate matrix, occasionally in
the clays, and commonly in the quartz sands.
The origin of phosphate in the Hawthorn is not well known. The
precipitation from marine waters is the accepted hypothesis. Investigators
have attributed this reaction to the upwelling of cold phosphorus-rich waters
from depth spilling over the shallow warm continental shelf with the resulting
chemical reaction precipitating phosphate. Where there is no direct evidence
of the causal mechanism for the upwelling of deeper marine waters, the
Middle Miocene sedimentary and faunal record strongly suggests crustal
movement and changes in current regimes that could accommodate the
companion deep-water upwelling.
Whatever the origin of the phosphate, the mechanism has distributed
phosphate throughout the Hawthorn Formation, which occurs over three-
quarters of peninsular Florida (Figure 2) with an average thickness of
approximately 200 feet.
Following the Middle Miocene Epoch, much of peninsular Florida was in
an emergent condition during the Late Miocene and Pliocene.
From the standpoint of phosphate occurrence, the Upper Miocene-
Pliocene was probably not a time of primary phosphate formation, but rather
a time of redistribution and concentration of phosphate. Marine sedimentary
units deposited around the margins of the emergent plateau in east, south,
and northwest Florida during Upper Miocene-Pliocene time do not record any
continuation of the phosphate deposition characteristic of the Middle
Miocene.
The Bone Valley Formation overlies the Hawthorn Formation and
consists of quartz sands, clays, phosphate "pebbles," phosphorite, and a
prolific and diverse assemblage of marine and terrestrial vertebrate fossils. The
concentration of phosphate in the Bone Valley Formation probably took
place due to a variety of circumstances that may or may not be related to the
Ocala Uplift to the north. The Ocala Uplift area is a positive area exposing
carbonate rocks of Eocene and Oligocene age (1).
The richest of the marine deposits have been concentrated or enriched by
secondary processes. The Bone Valley Formation was formed by submarine
reworking of a phosphate-rich residuum. Leaching related to Pleistocene and
modern weathering has further upgraded the deposits.
Phosphorite in the Bone Valley Formation of Florida ranges from 6 to 7
feet in thickness over several hundred square miles and averages 0.012 to
0.024 percent U308 and 20 to 30 percent P205s (2). To the south of the
Ocala Uplift is the Upper Miocene-Pliocene Bone Valley Formation. The high
concentrations of phosphate in this unit are ascribed not to the continuation
of phosphate deposition past the Middle Miocene, but to the reworking and
concentration of preexisting phosphate. It is believed this basin received
phosphates derived from partial erosion of the emergent Hawthorn
Formation, from erosion of the Ocala Uplift to the north, and from the
reworking of the Hawthorn in situ by wave action in the basin. Within the
Bone Valley Formation, the P20s content is higher in the northern areas
(Polk-Hillsborough counties) and diminishes to the south (Manatee-Hardee-
DeSoto counties), indicating an enrichment from the north.


























































- OCALA UPLIFT

SALACHUA FOR

m BONE VALLEY

HAWTHORN FC


MATION


FORMATION


IRMATION


0 I0 20 30 40 50 MILES


Figure 2. Distribution of phosphate in Florida.
















These four geologic occurrences, the Hawthorn Formation, the Bone
Valley Formation, the hardrock phosphate along the Ocala Uplift, and the
Alachua Formation or residual Hawthorn Formation, as the case may be,
account for the occurrence of commercial deposits of phosphate in Florida.

Resources and Reserves

Uranium is associated with the phosphorite and occurs in minerals of the
Apatite group, Cal o(P04CO3)6(F,OH,CI)2. The structure of apatite is such
that small quantities of V04, AsO4, and SO4 substitute for P04; Na, Sr, U,
Th, and the rare earths may substitute for Ca (3).
It is the uranium content of these phosphorites that we are interested in.
The Florida land pebble marine phosphate deposits contain from 0.012
percent U308 and average 0.015 percent (4). As of this writing, we do not
have extensive data on specific deposits. An assessment of this type is
currently being conducted by a contractor to the Department of Energy to
assess the reserve and resources of uranium by specific deposit. It is
anticipated that the study will be completed in 1979. The phosphate deposits
from the Hawthorn Formation of North Florida contain lesser amounts of
uranium and average 0.006 percent. These deposits are probably too low
grade to currently be considered for uranium extraction from wet-process
phosphoric acid. For the purpose of this paper, we will consider only the
phosphate from Central and South Florida as containing sufficient uranium
oxide to be economically recoverable.
Uranium oxide is recovered from Florida phosphates as a byproduct of
wet-process phosphoric acid production. Therefore, to determine uranium
oxide production potentials we should also look at the production capacity
of wet-process phosphoric acid and the current trend to increase production
of wet-process phosphoric acid. Table 1 lists those companies in Florida
manufacturing wet-process phsophoric acid, with a forecast to 1980 (5).
However, let's first look at the theoretical availability of uranium oxide
from Florida phosphates in the Central and South Florida area. How much
U308 is contained in the phosphate rock?
We have established that the Central and South Florida phosphorites
contain an average of 0.015 percent U308 or 0.3 pound/short ton (0.33
pound/metric ton) of phosphate rock. The current phosphate reserve figures
for Central Florida are 1,499 million short tons (1,400 million metric tons)
recoverable at $15 to $20 per short ton (6). In broad terms, 224,850 short
tons (204,000 metric tons) of uranium oxide are contained in the Central and
South Florida phosphate reserves. If we include the additional 1,253 million
short tons (1,100 million metric tons) of identified subeconomic resources,
this would add an additional 187,950 short tons (171,000 metric tons) of
uranium oxide, for a total of 412,800 short tons (374,000 metric tons)
theoretically available from the Central and South Florida phosphate
deposits.
By present technology and economics, however, only the uranium oxide
contained in the phosphate rock that is processed into wet-process
















phosphoric acid is economically recoverable. Table 1 lists twelve (12)
companies and their capacities to produce wet-process phosphoric acid in
Florida and Louisiana. As a rule of thumb, for our purposes, a pound of
U308 is recoverable per ton of P205 occurring in phosphates of the Central
and South Florida area. Table 1 shows a capacity to produce wet-process
phosphoric acid of 4,710,000 short tons (4,273,000 metric tons) P205s in
1978 less the North Florida capacity; therefore, 2,355 short tons (2,100
metric tons) of U30s would theoretically be available for recovery (excluding
recovery loss).
The Department of Energy estimates that approximately 115,000 short
tons (104,000 metric tons) of U308 will be contained in the wet-process
phosphoric acid processed through the year 2000 (7). This figure includes all
the wet-process phosphoric acid plants in the county, whereas we estimate
that approximately 54,000 short tons (49,000 metric tons) of U308 will be
available from Florida through the year 2000 based on Table 1 production
capacities. If the capacity to produce wet-process phosphoric acid increases in
the period 1980-2000, then additional U308 would be available for recovery.
There are indications that this will be the trend (8).

Present Activity

To date, byproduct uranium oxide production in the United States has
been modest, amounting to less than 1,000 short tons (907 metric tons). With
projected increasing demand for uranium and correspondingly higher prices,
byproduct sources of uranium oxide, especially that from phosphates, are
receiving increased attention, particularly in Florida.
The recovery of uranium oxide from wet-process phosphoric acid has
become more attractive as the price of uranium oxide increases and as
technology improves. As we have pointed out, the Central and South Florida
phosphate deposits contain more uranium oxide than other domestic
phosphate rock; therefore, the wet-process phosphoric acid made from this
phosphate rock is an attractive source of uranium oxide. The Uranium
Recovery Corp. (URC) completed in 1976 an $8 million complex at
Mulberry, Florida, to extract uranium using its own solvent extraction
process from wet-process phosphoric acid. The URC concept is to split the
process into two phases, with only the initial solvent extraction and stripping
operation at the phosphoric acid plant site. The stripped uranium oxide
solution from the first phase is transported by truck to a central processing
plant where the second solvent extraction and stripping step produces
specification-grade uranium oxide concentrate. This approach has the
advantage of requiring simplified "modules" at phosphoric acid plants; the
more complex but smaller scale downstream processing is accomplished at a
single centrally located facility (2). The first shipment of 19 short tons (17.2
metric tons) of U308 was made in 1978, and URC plans to construct
additional modules at other wet-process phosphoric acid plants. The present
recovery capacity of URC from the W. R. Grace module is 300,000 pounds
(136,000 kilograms) of U30s annually.
















During 1978, several additional companies announced plans to recover
uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid and to build facilities.
International Minerals and Chemicals Corp. (IMC) has received permits to
build a uranium recovery facility at its New Wales chemical plant in Polk
County and has started construction. The company announced that it plans
to recover 625,000 pounds (284,000 kilograms) of uranium annually, with
the plant going onstream in 1980. In addition, IMC will recover 1.2 million
pounds (545,000 kilograms) of uranium annually from C. F. Industries' two
wet-process phosphoric acid plants in Polk and Hillsborough counties in
Florida. IMC will recover "crude yellow cake" from the wet-process
phosphoric acid stream and ship it to its New Wales facility for refining into
yellow cake. The two C. F. Industries' "feeder" plants, costing $20 million,
are scheduled to go onstream in late 1980, about one year after IMC's New
Wales plant will be completed. With the new feeder plants, IMC's production
capacity of uranium yellow cake from Florida phosphate will be about 2
million pounds (909,000 kilograms) annually.
The sales end has also been bright. IMC has entered into a long-term
contract with Florida Power and Light Co. (FPL) to supply about one-third
of its uranium fuel needs through 1992. IMC will recover the uranium as
yellow cake from its New Wales chemical complex near Mulberry. The yellow
cake will be refined to uranium hexafluoride by Kerr-McGee in Oklahoma
and Allied Chemicals in Illinois. The FPL agreement with IMC calls for a
minimum of 400,000 pounds (182,000 kilograms) of uranium oxide
annually, worth over $200 million over the life of the contract.
In addition, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed two long-term
contracts with IMC for about 10 percent of TVA's total uranium needs
through 1992. The agreements involve about 850,000 pounds (386,325
kilograms) of uranium oxide annually, with a total value over $400 million.
Wyoming Minerals Corp., a subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corp.,
has constructed a uranium oxide recovery facility at Farmland Industries'
phosphoric acid complex near Bartow. Plans are to recover about 450,000
pounds (205,000 kilograms) of U3 08s. The plant went onstream in August
1978.
Gardinier, Inc., announced plans to build its own uranium oxide recovery
plant at its East Tampa operations. The $15 million plant will produce
425,000 pounds (193,000 kilograms) of uranium oxide annually and is
scheduled to begin operations in March 1979.
In addition, Freeport Chemical Co., which ships phosphate rock to its
phosphoric acid facility in Louisiana, announced it will recover 690,000
pounds (313,605 kilograms) of uranium oxide annually at its Uncle Sam, La.,
facility.
Agrico Chemical Co. also ships Florida phosphate rock to its wet-process
phosphoric acid facility at Donaldsonville, La., and has entered into an
agreement with Freeport Chemical Co. to make a primary uranium oxide
extraction from the Donaldsonville facility and then ship it to its Uncle Sam,
La., facility for secondary refining into yellow cake. About 400,000 pounds
(182,000 kilograms) of uranium oxide will be recovered, and the recovery
unit is expected to go onstream in 1980.
















Agrico is evaluating uranium oxide recovery technology at its South
Pierce, Fla., facility and expects to make a decision in early 1979 as to
recovery plans. Capacity of the facility is 300,000 short tons (272,000 metric
tons) of P2 0s per year.
The remaining uncommitted wet-process phosphoric acid operations are
all evaluating uranium recovery technology and are expected to announce
their commitments.
To date, reserve and resource data on all uranium oxide from Florida
phosphate have been based on published estimates of phosphate rock and the
industry's capacity to produce wet-process phosphoric acid. In 1977-78, the
Bureau of Mines, under its Minerals Availability System (MAS), contracted to
develop data on each known phosphate deposit in Florida. This study for the
first time has assembled reserve and/or resource data on 108 specific deposits.
Table 2 presents the data developed under this program.
Let's summarize what we have been talking about and assess Florida's
potential as a uranium producer:
1) There are 1,499 million short tons (1,400 million metric tons) of
phosphate reserves, which contain 224,850 short tons (204,000 metric tons)
of U308. In addition, there are 1,253 million short tons (1,100 million
metric tons) of identified resources containing 187,956 short tons (171,000
metric tons) of U30s for a total reserve and/or resource from Central and
South Florida of 412,800 short tons (374,000 metric tons) of U30s
theoretically available. Considering present technology, only the uranium
oxide contained in the phosphate rock going into wet-process phosphoric acid
will be available for recovery.
2) The Department of Energy estimates that 115,000 short tons
(104,000 metric tons) of U308 will be contained in the wet-process
phosphoric acid processed in the United States through the year 2000. Of this
amount, it is estimated that 54,000 short tons (49,000 metric tons) will be
available from Central and South Florida; much of the remainder will come
from Florida phosphate ores processed at other locations.
3) We can estimate the annual potential availability of uranium oxide
from Florida in two ways. First, let's look at the wet-process phosphoric acid
production of 4,710,000 short tons (4,273,000 metric tons) P2Os in 1978
(Table 1); since we have established that 1 pound U30s/ton P20s was
recoverable, 2355 tons (2,100 metric tons) of U38O is recoverable from
wet-process phosphoric acid in Central and South Florida.
Another approach would be to look at the phosphate rock going into
wet-process phosphoric acid from Florida in 1977. This was 22.4 million tons
(20.2 million metric tons). All of this rock was not processed in Florida,
however; some went to Louisiana, where there is also uranium oxide
extraction. Therefore, 3,360 short tons (3,000 metric tons) of U308 is
available from Florida phosphate rock converted to wet-process phosphoric
acid. Subtracting the phosphate rock used in North Florida, 2,355 short tons
(2,100 metric tons) is available from Central and South Florida.
We have now looked at availability in two ways in terms of the
wet-process phosphoric acid production capacity and in terms of the amount



















of Florida phosphate rock going into wet-process phosphoric acid and have
come up with the same figure 2,355 short tons (2,100 metric tons).
We have been dealing in theoretical amounts. What we must look at is
who is doing what or who plans to do what. Table 3 lists those companies
that have announced their intentions to recover uranium oxide from
wet-process phosphoric acid, either in Florida or outside Florida, but from
Florida ores. We see that in the early 1980's Florida will be producing 1,593
short tons (1,400 metric tons) of uranium oxide, and if we include those ores
going to Louisiana, a total of 2,137 short tons (1,900 metric tons) will be
produced, leaving about 218 short tons (198 metric tons) available for
recovery.
If we assume that our national consumption of uranium oxide will be
about 14,000 short tons (1,270 metric tons) in 1980, then Florida will supply
over 11 percent of the national demand. If we look at the broader picture of
the uranium recovered from Florida rock, then Florida would supply 15
percent, a significant contribution to our Nation's energy requirements.


References

1. Cathcart, James B., and R. A. Gulbrandsen. United States Mineral Resources,
Phosphate Deposits. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 820, 1973, pp. 515-525.
2. Finch, Warren I., Arthur P. Butler, Jr., Frank C. Armstrong, and Albert E.
Weissenborn. United States Mineral Resources, Uranium. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 820,
1973, pp. 456-467.
3. Work cited in reference 2.
4. Woodmansee, Walter C. Minerals Facts and Problems, Uranium. BuMines
Bulletin 667, 1975, pp. 1177-1199.
5. Harre, E. A., M. N. Goodson, and J. D. Bridges. Fertilizer Trends, 1976.
Tennessee Valley Authority, Bull. Y-111, March 1977, 44 pp.
6. Zellars-Williams, Inc. Evaluation of the Phosphate Deposits of Florida Using the
Minerals Availability System. BuMines Open File Report 112-78, June 1978, 196 pp.
7. U.S. Department of Energy. Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry. GJO-100
(78), January 1, 1978, 91 pp.
8. Stowasser, W. F. Phosphate Rock 1977. Mineral Industry Survey, March 15,
1978.






















TABLE 1.-Wet-process phosphoric acid production capacity
(thousand metric tons P2 Os, followed by thousand short tons P2 Os)


Agrico Chem-Williams



Borden Chemical Co.

C. F. Industries, Inc.



Engelhard M&C-Con. Ser.

Farmland Industries

Freeport Minerals

Gardinier

Grace & USS Agri-Chem.

W. R. Grace & Co.

International Minerals

Royster Co.

USS Agri-Chem.


Pierce, Fla.

Donaldsonville, La.

Piney Point, Fla.

Bonnie, Fla.

Plant City, Fla.

Nichols, Fla.

Pierce, Fla.

Uncle Sam, La.

Tampa, Fla.

Bartow, Fla.

Bartow, Fla.

New Wales, Fla.

Mulberry, Fla.

Bartow, Fla.

Fort Meade, Fla.


Total Central Florida . . . . . . . . . . .

T otal .. . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .


1974
245
270


159
175
580
640
227
250
136
150
413
455
680
750
494
544


299
330


122
135
82
90
160
176
2,917
3,215
3,597
3,965


1975
272
300
363
400
159
175
580
640
567
625
136
150
413
455
680
750
494
544


299
330
680
750
122
135
82
90
160
176
3,964
4,370
5,008
5,520


1976
272
300
363
400
159
175
626
690
567
625
136
150
413
455
680
750
494
544


299
330
680
750
122
135
82
90
160
176
4,010
4,420
5,053
5,570


1977
272
300
363
400
159
175
626
690
567
625
136
150
413
455
680
750
494
544
345
380
299
330
680
750
122
135


160
176
4,273
4,710
5,316
5,860


1978
272
300
363
400
159
175
626
690
567
625
136
150
413
455
680
750
494
544
345
380
299
330
680
750
122
135


160
176
4,273
4,710
5,316
5,860


1979
272
300
363
400
159
175
626
690
567
625
136
150
413
455
680
750
494
544
345
380
299
330
680
750
122
135


160
176
4,273
4,710
5,316
5,860


1980
272
300
363
400
159
175
626
690
567
625
136
150
413
455
680
750
494
544
345
380
299
330
680
750
122
135


160
176
4,273
4,710
5,316
5,860

























TABLE 2.-Total identified resources of phosphate rock in recoverable product tons by grade and cost
(million metric tons, followed by million short tons)


Location


Northern Florida


Cost per short/metric ton of product


<$15 $15-$20
3.94 280.19


$20-$25 $25-$30 $30-$35
560.61 288.08 115.27


$35-$40 4 $40
12.70 7.26


Product
Total grade,
(million) percent
BPL


1.268.05


4.o35 30U8.6 617.97 317.56 127.07 14.00 8.00 1,397.81 66.4
Central Florida

Polk County 339.28 281.02 0.18 8.89 1.38 630.77
374.00 309.78 0.20 9.80 1.53 695.31 68.9

Hillsborough County 45.36 27.22 86.09 8.74 7.26 1.81 176.47
50.00 30.00 94.90 9.63 8.00 2.00 194.53 71.4

Sub-Total I 384.64 308.24 86.09 8.92 16.15 1.38 1.81 807.24
424.00 339.78 94.90 9.83 17.80 1.53 2.00 889.84 69.4
South Florida


DeSoto, Manatee, &
Sarasota Counties

Hardee County

Sub-Total II

Total I + II

Total Florida


406.78
448.40
260.36
287.00
667.14
735.40
384.64 975.38
424.00 1,075.18
388.59 1,255.57
428.35 1,384.04


162.96 214.09
179.60 236.00
167.82 183.70
185.00 202.50
330.74 397.79
364.60 438.50
416.83 406.71
459.50 448.33
977.45 694.89
1,077.47 765.89


54.43
60.00
73.87
81.45
128.30
141.45
144.46
159.25
259.73
286.32


70.03 -
77.20 -
21.77 73.48
24.00 81.00
91.80 73.48
101.20 81.00
93.18 75.29
102.73 83.00
105.88 82.55
116.73 91.00


908.26
1,001.20
781.03
860.95
1,689.30
1,862.15
2,496.54
2,751.99
3,764.59
4,149.80


1,268.05
























TABLE 3.-Announced Uranium Recovery from Florida Ores


Company

Farmland Industries


Gardinier


International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
C. F. Industries modules


Uranium Recovery Corp.
(W. R. Grace modules)

Florida Subtotal:


Agrico Chemical Co.
(Donaldsonville, La.)

Freeport Chemical
(Uncle Sam, La.)

Outside Florida Subtotal:


Total from Florida Phosphate Rock:


Announced U308 Production Capacity

450,000 lb
204,000 kg

425,000 lb
193,000 kg

750,000 lb
340,000 kg
1,260,000 lb
571,000 kg

300,000 lb
136,000 kg

3,185,000 lb (1,593 short tons)
1,444,000 kg (1,445 metric tons)

400,000 lb
181,000 kg

690,000 lb
313,000 kg

1,090,000 lb (545 short tons)
494,315 kg (494 metric tons)

4,275,000 lb (2,137 short tons)
1,939,000 kg (1,938 metric tons)


Date
Onstream

Aug. 1978


Mar. 1979


1979

1980


1978


1982


1978



































DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

This public document was promulgated at a total
cost of $152.75 or a per copy cost of $.15 for
the purpose of disseminating information on the
development of the State's natural resources.

IP Li-3'I.T'O
a fl H,.S.I To -