An overview of peat in Florida and related issues ( FGS: Special publication 27 )

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Title:
An overview of peat in Florida and related issues ( FGS: Special publication 27 )
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Creator:
Bond, Paulette
Campbell, Kenneth M ( Kenneth Mark ), 1949-
Scott, Thomas M
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey ( Tallahassee, Fla. )
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aleph - 1093352
oclc - 15306483
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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


four feet thick, with a surface area of not less than 80 contiguous acres
per square mile and yield not less than 8,000 BTU per pound (moisture
free). The definition for fuel grade peat establishes minimum standards
for organic matter content and also for heating value (BTU per pound). It
further comments on the deposit itself, stipulating minimum thickness
and contiguous acreage requirements.
The three definitions of peat presented here reflect the specific pur-
poses of individuals and agencies who prepared them. Varied user
groups and professionals who work with peat may formulate additional
definitions directly suited to their needs. It is thus necessary to determine
the way in which an author defines peat in order to fully understand the
implications of his work.
In the state of Florida, the definition of peat may take on special signifi-
cance if it is used as a criterion for designation of peat as either a mineral
resource or an agricultural (vegetable) resource. It has been argued that if
peat is not classified as a mineral then its excavation might constitute a
harvesting process. Harvesting may not be subject to the regulatory
procedures that govern mining of a legally-defined mineral material.
The usage of the term harvesting to describe the mining of peat fol-
lows U.S. Department of Energy (1979). "Harvesting" when used in
conjunction with peat correctly refers to the nearly obsolete practice of
harvesting living Sphagnum (peat moss) from the surface of a bog. In this
process, the Sphagnum was allowed to grow back so that repeated
harvests were possible in a given area. Thus, a crop was in actuality
"harvested". Very little or no true harvesting occurs today (A. Cohen,
personal communication, 1984).

Terminology Relating to the Peat Forming Environment

Peat can only accumulate in a wet environment. The terms which refer
to these environments take on different definitions according to author
preference. The American Geological Institute distinguishes between
bogs and fens on the basis of chemistry. Bogs and fens are both charac-
terized as waterlogged, spongy groundmasses. Bogs, however, contain
acidic, decaying vegetation consisting mainly of mosses while fens con-
tain alkaline, decaying vegetation, mainly reeds (Gary, et al., eds.,
1974). The terms "bog" and "fen" are not usually applied to peatlands
in the southeastern United States. They are included in this discussion
because they occur frequently in the literature associated with peatlands
extraneous to Florida. Although a significant body of research specific to
the peats of Florida exists (Cohen and Spackman, 1980; Cohen and
Spackman, 1977; Griffin, et al., 1982; Pennsylvania State University,
1976), much information concerning mining techniques, reclamation
methods and hydrologic aspects of peatlands pertains directly to areas
remote from Florida where the terms "bog" and "fen" may be used.
The concepts of minerotrophy and ombrotrophy are based on the qual-
ity of water feeding a peatland (Heikurainen, 1976) and are perceived as







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


In Florida, peat deposits occur above or below the watertable (Davis,
1946; Gurr, 1972). Wet peat deposits occur if the watertable remains
relatively high. Peat may be actively accumulating in these settings.
Certain areas within the Everglades, the coastal mangrove peats, and
some lake-fringing peat deposits, such as the one associated with Lake
Istokpoga, are examples of deposits which occur below the watertable.
In other instances, peat deposits are now located above the watertable
due to drainage instigated to enhance the land for agricultural use. The
Everglades agricultural region contains numerous tracts drained for this
purpose. Other deposits have apparently been drained as a result of
regional lowering of the watertable. Most peatlands in Florida occur at or
below the watertable and, thus, are very frequently also wetlands.

INVENTORY OF PEAT IN FLORIDA

by
Paulette Bond

Mapping and Evaluating the Peat Resource

There is no comprehensive inventory of Florida's peat deposits cur-
rently in print. Excluding the early work of Robert Ransom, peat was not
considered as a fuel source in Florida; and several scattered deposits
were adequate to satisfy the state's agricultural and horticultural needs.
Thus, neither interest nor funding were available for a complete peat
inventory in the recent past.
It is important to point out that a comprehensive inventory of Florida's
peat resource is, of necessity, a massive undertaking. The reasons for
this difficulty are manifold. Florida is currently estimated to have 6.9
billion tons of peat contained in approximately 4,700 square miles (U.S.
Department of Energy, 1979, p. 16). This peat occurs in a variety of
geologic settings which are both discontinuous and widely distributed
across the breadth and length of the state. The various geologic settings
of peat in Florida are discussed in a previous section, "Geologic Settings
of Peat Accumulation in Florida".
These difficulties are compounded by the inaccessibility of many peat-
producing areas. Peat actively accumulates in wetland situations typified
by fresh water marshes, swamps, and mangrove swamps. Much of Flori-
da's peat occurs in the Everglades region (Figure 12). Due to extensive
drainage in the Everglades the exact thickness and extent of the peat has
decreased since Figure 12 (Davis, 1946) was prepared. Many of these
areas are not accessible to conventional vehicles. Their size and charac-
ter may render foot travel unfeasible. Some, but not all, sites may be
accessible to boats. Coring equipment for taking samples and measuring
thickness must, in addition, accompany any field party charged with
assessing peat reserves.
A realistic appraisal of Florida's peat resource is further complicated by






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


and generation of synthetic fuel gases. Reduced oxygen input and/or
water vapor injection are required to generate the fuel gases.

GASIFICATION

Peat is very reactive during gasification. Gasification can yield low to
medium BTU fuel gases, synthesis gases (those which can be further
upgraded by hydrocracking), fuel liquids, ammonia, sulfur and oil bypro-
ducts (napthalene, benzene and phenol) (U.S. Department of Energy,
1979; Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Several basic designs of gasifiers are feasible for peat gasification,
however, data for peat gasification is primarily limited to laboratory scale
operations (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Entrained flow and fluid
bed gasifiers appear attractive. An example is the peat gas process
developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Dry peat is fed to the
gasifier, and heated under pressure with a hydrogen rich gas. The carbon
in the peat reacts with the hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases (primar-
ily methane and ethane). The gases produced can be upgraded to pipe-
line quality (Minnesota DNR, 1981). Byproduct oils (benzene, napthalene
and phenols), ammonia and sulfur are extracted in turn from the liquids
which are condensed during various gas upgrading processes (Minne-
sota DNR, 1981).
The ratio of gaseous to liquid products is controlled by changes in
temperature, pressure and length of reaction time. Increased tempera-
ture and reaction time lead to gaseous product increases. With higher
temperature and longer reaction times, the large hydrocarbon molecules
comprising the liquid products are hydrocracked into lighter gaseous
molecules (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).

BIOGASIFICATION

Biogasification is an anaerobic fermentation process. An important
advantage of biogasification is that dewatering is not required. Biogasifi-
cation is a two-stage process. In the first step, the peat-water slurry is
partially oxidized to break it down to simple compounds. Aldehydes,
ketones, organic acids and esters are the main products at this stage.
The pH is adjusted and the mixture is transferred to the fermenter (anaer-
obic biological reactor) where bacteria catalyze methane production.
Methane and carbon dioxide are produced in stoichometric proportions
(U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) with up to 95 percent of the material
being converted to methane or carbon dioxide (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
The resulting gas can be upgraded to substitute natural gas (SNG) by
scrubbing the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the methane gas
(U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).
The waste material from the fermentation process contains undigested
peat components, inorganic residues and residual bacteria. These materi-
als can be utilized for soil conditioners, animal feeds, or can be concen-













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Figure 28. Topographic profile of the Everglades in Collier and Dade counties. (Prepared by the
Bureau of Geology for this report.)


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DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


BOB GRAHAM
Governor


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State


BILL GUNTER
Treasurer


RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


JIM SMITH
Attorney General


GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller


DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of Regional
Impact (DRI).

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

A peat mining operation falls under DER jurisdiction only if either of
two conditions are met. These criteria are: 1) the operation is located in
or would affect surface "Waters of the State", or 2) there is water
discharged off the property or to groundwater. If neither of these condi-
tions apply, then DER does not require a permit (Mark Latch, DER, per-
sonal communication, 1984).
The procedure involved is as follows: A site plan is submitted to DER.
DER makes a determination as to whether there is jurisdiction and per-
mits are required. If DER does have jurisdiction, the next step is to apply
for the applicable permits. Any or all of the following permits may be
required by DER depending on the specific site conditions and the site
plan proposed: Dredge and Fill, Stormwater, Groundwater, Industrial
Waste Water Discharge, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
certification, Power Plant Siting and Air Quality.

WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICTS

Four of the five Water Management Districts in Florida have peat mines
located within their boundaries. They are the Suwannee River, St. Johns
River, Southwest Florida and South Florida Water Management Districts.
The permitting required by each management district is discussed below.

Suwannee River Water Management District

Any wells drilled for water withdrawal or monitoring purposes require
well construction permits. Water use permits are required for all uses of
water whether the withdrawal is through wells or from surface water
bodies. A water use permit is not required for monitor wells (Ron Ceryak,
SRWMD, personal communication, 1984).

St. Johns River Water Management District

There are four permits which may be required by the SJRWMD. They
are the Consumptive Use Permit (40C-2), Water Well Construction Per-
mit (40C-3), Management and Storage of Surface Waters Permit (40C-4)
and Works of the District Permit (40C-6). The permits and pertinent
thresholds are summarized below by Frank Meeker (SJRWMD, Division
of Permitting, personal communication, 1984).






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


element Any of a class of substances that cannot be separated into
simpler substances by chemical means. Elements are the building blocks
from which all chemical compounds are formed.

enstatite A common rock-forming mineral of the orthopyroxene
group: MgSi03. It is isomorphous with hypersthene and may contain a
little iron replacing the magnesium. Enstatite varies from grayish white to
yellowish, olive green and brown. It is an important primary constituent
of intermediate and basic igneous rocks.

ester A compound produced by the reaction between an acid and an
alcohol with the elimination of a molecule of water.

estuary (a) The seaward end or the widened funnel-shaped tidal
mouth of a river valley where freshwater mixes with and measurably
dilutes seawater and where tidal effects are evident; e.g. a tidal river, or a
partially enclosed coastal body of water where the tide meets the current
of a stream; (b) A portion of an ocean, as a firth or an arm of the sea,
affected by freshwater; e.g. the Baltic Sea; (c) A drowned river mouth
formed by the subsidence of land near the coast or by the drowning of
the lower portion of a nonglaciated valley due to the rise of sea level.

ethane A colorless, odorless, water-insoluble, gaseous paraffin
hydrocarbon, formula C2H6, which occurs in natural gas or can be pro-
duced as a by-product in the cracking of petroleum.

ethanol (alcohol) A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, C2H5OH, pro-
duced by fermentation of certain carbohydrates, used chiefly as a sol-
vent, and in organic synthesis, beverages, medicine, colognes and anti-
freeze.

ethyl acetate A volatile, flammable liquid, CH3COOC2H5, used as sol-
vent for paints and lacquers.

eutrophication The process by which waters become more
eutrophic; the artificial or natural enrichment of a lake by an influx of
nutrients required for the growth of aquatic plants such as algae that are
vital for fish and animal life.

evapotranspiration Loss of water from a land area through transpira-
tion of plants and evaporation from the soil. Also, the volume of water
lost through evapotranspiration.

fen A waterlogged, spongy groundmass containing alkaline, decay-
ing vegetation characterized by reeds or peat. It sometimes occurs in the
sinkholes of karst regions. Cf: bog.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1. On a given site, the littoral zone (that vegetated area around the
perimeter of a wetland extending from the mean high water mark to
the mean low water mark) will be given prime consideration as an
area left in its natural state. Applicant will provide an area equal to a
50 feet wide belt of the perimeter of the wetland or 20 percent of the
total area of the project, whichever is greater.
2. Applicant will leave a one foot or greater layer of peat material at the
bottom of the excavation, except in those areas where necessary for
heavy equipment to operate. In these places, it is acceptable to go
down to bare sand to provide a solid roadway; however, this area
must be sealed with a one foot or greater layer of peat at abandon-
ment and meet any other reclamation requirements.
3. Overburden removal of a new site should coincide with viable seed
bank for reclamation. Strips of overburden from donor marshes can
be used in reclamation techniques, providing the total mined strips do
not exceed 20 percent of the wetlands existing area and the strips are
greater than 150 feet apart.
4. While water levels are still low, heavy equipment will provide any
final adjustments to slopes bringing them into compliance with the
General Mining Procedures previously discussed or as agreed upon by
the applicant and the District. Any breaches of the bottom peat layer
which were necessary to facilitate heavy equipment operations will
be covered with a one foot or greater layer of peat material. Slopes
will be adjusted at this time to be shallower than six horizontal to one
vertical from the mean high water mark or an elevation as agreed to
by the applicant and the District to a depth of six feet below the mean
low water mark except for small isolated pockets as identified by
District staff in consultation with the applicant on site.
5. Mulching of the site with existing overburden, stockpiled overburden
or in consultation with District staff, donor marsh overburden, will be
provided to those areas which do not already exhibit a viable seed
bank starting at the high water mark or an elevation as agreed to by
the applicant and the District, and proceeding to a depth of three feet
below the mean low water mark, following the gentle slopes as
described above. This mulch material will be disced into the soil to aid
stabilization procedures.
6. The area above the mean high water mark or that elevation agreed to
by the applicant and the District will be revegetated with native
grasses to aid in the prevention of soil erosion. Bahia grass with a hay
mulch would be satisfactory for this purpose.
7. It is suggested that no disturbance to the site by livestock during
reclamation or initial vegetative establishment will be permitted.
8. Applicant will use best effort and be responsible to see that a viable
wetland will be established within two growing seasons.
9. District employees, upon notification to the applicant, will have
access to the project to inspect and observe permitted activities in
order to determine compliance with reclamation proceedings.













QUANTITY (THOUSANDS OF SHORT TONS)


zF -
4 >
120 2 4




80 1.6




40 8




0
1972


Figure 23.


Production and value of peat in Florida, 1972-1983. (Compiled from Minerals
Yearbooks 1972-1981, U.S. Bureau of Mines; and The Mineral Industry of Florida,
1982, U.S. Bureau of Mines; and Mineral Industry Surveys, Annual Preliminary
Mineral Industry of Florida, 1983, U.S. Bureau of Mines.)


YEAR







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick

New Brunswick's peat resources are estimated to be in excess of
247,000 acres. Approximately 80 percent of New Brunswick's
peatlands are owned by the province which classes peat as a quarriable
substance (Keys, 1980).
Peats are extracted for horticultural purposes and producers hold peat
leases and pay acreage rentals and royalties on production. The horticul-
tural producers use a vacuum method of milled peat production. This
peat is in turn used as baled Sphagnum peat, soil mixes, artificially dried
and compacted peat and compressed peat pots (Keys, 1980). Addition-
ally, a small amount of peat is used as fuel to heat a greenhouse.
Nonextractive uses for New Brunswick peatlands include protection of
peats within Kouchibouquac National Park, use as wildlife management
areas and artificially developed waterfowl nesting areas. Management
objectives for future use of the peat resource include: 1) consideration of
the needs of existing industry, 2) conservation areas, 3) optimum use of
various qualities of peat, and 4) long-term versus short-term economic
development (Keys, 1980).
An idealized case for management of New Brunswick's peatlands
would be such that surface layers of peat could be removed for horticul-
tural use exposing underlying fuel peats. On removal of the fuel peats,
the basal unminable layer (20 inches thick with high ash content and
rocks and other irregularities), with a suitably designed drainage system,
could allow utilization of the depleted peatland for agriculture and affor-
estation (Keys, 1980).
Selective use of New Brunswick's peat resources are encouraged. The
need for conservation areas is acknowledged. Reclamation is viewed as
an integral step in the exploitation of peatlands. A summary of the leas-
ing procedure applied to peatlands of New Brunswick is presented in
Appendix E of this document.

Reclamation in Peatlands of Florida

In Minnesota, North Carolina, Finland and New Brunswick ongoing
research is aimed at devising reclamation techniques which are workable
for specific regions. For instance, North Carolina cannot assume that
reclamation methods suitable to Minnesota may be successfully applied
to the soil conditions and climate of North Carolina. Minnesota (Asmus-
sen, 1980) has appointed a panel of peatland ecologists to identify
peatlands with preservation value. The Peat Mining Task Force of North
Carolina notes that some areas in peatlands should be left entirely in their
natural state (North Carolina DNRCD, 1983). It is recommended that
those areas be identified as quickly as possible and a program for their
preservation be instituted.
If Florida determines to allow mining of its peatlands, a number of
factors will require research so that successful reclamation programs







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


AGRICULTURE

Agricultural uses of peat are similar to horticultural uses. The peat is
utilized as a growing medium (soil) for agricultural crops. The material is
not mined, however, drainage is generally necessary to provide the
proper moisture conditions.
Hemic and sapric peats, as well as mucks, are utilized for agricultural
purposes. Fibric peats typically are not suitable due to the low pH (acidic)
which makes nutrients unavailable to many plants (Farnam and Lever,
1980). Large areas of Florida peats and mucks are utilized for agricultural
purposes.

ENERGY CROPS

Growing energy crops for plant biomass production allows peatlands
to be utilized to produce renewable energy sources. Plant biomass can be
harvested and burned directly or can be gasified to produce liquid and
gaseous fuels. Energy crops can be an alternative to conventional mining
(using the peat as a growing medium) or can be utilized as a reclamation
technique on mined out peatlands (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Plants which may be suitable for energy crop use in wetlands include:
cattails, reeds and sedges, willow, and alder (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
These wetland species have two distinct advantages over conventional
crops for use in biomass energy production: 1) the biomass productivity
of wetland species is often higher than conventional crops (corn, soy-
beans, etc.) and 2) they can be grown in wetlands unsuitable for conven-
tional crop plants and thus do not compete with conventional crop pro-
duction (Minnesota DNR, 1981).

Sewage Treatment

Peat has been utilized in the tertiary treatment of waste water both in
the U.S. and in Europe. The primary objective is to reduce nutrient levels,
primarily phosphorous and nitrogen (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Phosphorous is removed from solution by bacteria present in that por-
tion of the peat exposed to air. Bacterial metabolism converts the phos-
phorous to insoluble forms. Chemical reactions with calcium, aluminum
and iron present in the peat also remove phosphorous from solution
(Nichols, 1980).
Nitrogen is metabolized by anaerobic bacteria, converting nitrate in the
waste water to gaseous nitrogen which is released to the atmosphere
(Nichols, 1980). Additional nutrients are removed through uptake by
plants growing on the peat surface.
Three methods are commonly used for the tertiary treatments of waste
water. Two utilize the peat in place, the third utilizes excavated peat
(Minnesota DNR, 1981). If peat is to be used in place, waste water may
be introduced in one of two ways. The waste water can be introduced






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


markets. Two companies market their product outside of Florida, primar-
ily in the southeast United States. One of the companies, however, ships
bulk peat to Texas where it is bagged for retail sale.

Use of Peat

The principal use of peat mined in Florida is as a soil conditioner, with
large amounts being used for lawns, golf courses and in nurseries and
greenhouses.
The majority of Florida peat production is marketed as a bulk product
(typically truck loads of 30 50 cubic yard) for nursery and landscaping
purposes, with the remainder bagged for the retail market. The peat may
be marketed as is (peat only) or blended with other materials to form
topsoil and potting soil products. Blended products are generally custom
mixed to the customers' specifications. Quartz sand, sawdust and wood
chips are typical ingredients added in order to improve the drainage char-
acteristics of the peat. The nurseries may blend their own potting soil
mixes using bulk peat purchased from mining companies. The bulk mate-
rials may be utilized as a growing medium for nursery plants, or bagged
for retail sale.
Peat from several Florida deposits has been tested for suitability as an
alternative boiler fuel. Although tests have indicated that peat can be an
effective and price competitive fuel, there is no current peat usage for
fuel in Florida.

PERMITTING

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

County, state and federal permits may be required in order to open a
new peat mine. The process is very site specific and varies from county
to county. Under some conditions, permits may not be required by any
agency.

County Level Permits

Operational peat mines are located in 12 Florida counties. In most of
the counties, zoning regulations are the only county regulations which
apply to opening a peat mine. A summary of county permitting processes
is shown in Table 3.

State Level Permitting

The primary state agencies with permitting responsibility with respect
to peat mining are the Department of Environmental Regulation (DER)
and the five individual Water Management Districts. The Department of






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Southwest Florida Water Management District

The district permitting requirements which could pertain to peat min-
ing are summarized below by Kenneth Weber (SWFWMD, Resource Reg-
ulation Department, personal communication, 1984).


"Permits may be required for activities related to peat mining under
four chapters of District rules. Under Chapter 40D-2, Consumptive
Use of Water, permits are required when surface or ground water
withdrawals: (1) exceed 1,000,000 gallons on any single day, or
100,000 gallons average per day on an annual basis, (2) if the
withdrawal is from a well larger than six inches inside diameter, (3)
if withdrawal equipment has the capacity of greater than
1,000,000 gallons per day, or (4) if the withdrawal is from a combi-
nation of wells, or other facilities, or both, having a combined
capacity of more than 1,000,000 gallons per day. Under Chapter
40D-3, Regulation Wells, permits may be required for construction
of any wells two inches in diameter or greater, and for test or
foundation holes. Under Chapter 40D-4, Management and Storage
of Surface Waters, permits are required for various activities involv-
ing construction of impoundments, diversions of water involving
dikes, levees, etc., operable structures, and rerouting or altering of
the rate of flow of streams or other water courses. Under Chapter
40D-6, Works of the District, permits are required "to connect to,
withdraw water from, discharge water into, place construction
within or across, or otherwise make use of a work of the District or
to remove any facility or otherwise terminate such activity." Note
that there are specific exemptions to each of these rules.







South Florida Water Management District

The South Florida Water Management District has several permits
which would be required in the operation of a peat mine. The permits
which would be required are determined on a site specific basis. The
possible permits include Surface Water Management, Dewatering, Public
Water Supply or General Water Use (dependent on volume) and the
Industrial Water Use Permit. District personnel recommend a pre-
application meeting with district staff to expedite the permitting process,
(Rebecca Serra, SFWMD, personal communication, 1983).





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


It specifies the financial terms of the right to use land (rents and royal-
ties) as well as minimum production levels required. In addition, a lease
may stipulate reclamation staging and type and requirements to monitor
a peat mining or processing venture. Thus, the lease is a complex man-
agement tool.
"Other'management elements include environmental review proce-
dures and permitting processes. These are shared by responsible agen-
cies, in Minnesota: the Department of Natural Resources, Pollution Con-
trol, the Minnesota Energy Agency, and the Environmental Quality
Board. Between them are administered water withdrawal and drainage
permits, air quality permits, certificates of need for energy proposals,
and environmental impact statements.
"From the above elements a comprehensive management program for
Minnesota peatlands can emerge. Through proper site selection proce-
dures it should be possible to allocate peatland uses to avoid resource
conflicts, areas of environmental sensitivity, and unnecessary social and
economic costs. A careful leasing process should assure a fair return to
the state for making the resource available to the private sector and
insure that the land is returned, or reclaimed, to a useful condition. Per-
mits and environmental review procedures are the final safeguard
against developments inimical to the environment."

PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, PROVINCE OF NEW BRUNSWICK
(From Keys, 1980)
Ownership of Peatlands

Peat is classified as a surficial deposit in New Brunswick under the
provision of the Quarriable Substance Act. As such, ownership of the
deposits rests with the landowner. However, few peatlands were
included in the original applications for land grants. Hence, ownership of
an estimated 80 percent of New Brunswick peatlands remains with the
province under the administration of the Department of Natural
Resources.
"The twelve companies presently producing horticultural peat prod-
ucts in New Brunswick lease all or parts of their production areas from
the province. An acreage rental and a royalty on production is paid annu-
ally. The regulations governing leasing of peatlands were recently revised
to ensure optimum management of the resource (3). The objectives of
the leasing policy are to maximize the contribution of the resource to the
economic development of the province and to have development in a
manner which does not jeopardize future utilization or rehabilitation of
the peatlands.
"To obtain a peat production lease, it is first necessary to obtain a
peatland exploration license. This license effectively reserves an area of
800 hectares (2,000 acres) to allow the applicant sufficient time to
ascertain that the quality and amount of peat in the proposed lease is
suitable for the intended use. The exploration license is renewable annu-


137













Table 4. Water quality issues associated with peat mining (taken from King, et al., 1980).
Scales of Development
Primary
Environmental Small Moderate Large
Resource Issue Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor
Discharge Low pH Water X X X
Discharge High BOD/COD X X X
Discharge Nutrients X X X
Discharge Compounds X X X
Discharge Colloidal &
Settleable Solids X X X


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Farms mine does not involve either of the special issues-wet reclama-
tion or perpetual pumping-which are addressed below. These special
issues will require expert consideration beyond the scope of this report or
of previous mining permit actions. In any event, the reclamation ques-
tions presented by mining in such areas warrant the detailed attention
called for in part (2).
"The State can implement all four parts of this general policy on siting
peat mines under the Mining Act on grounds of "unduly adverse" effects
on freshwater, estuarine, or marine fisheries. General Statute 113-230
may also permit the secretary to designate buffer zones to protect estua-
rine resources. The most noticeable effect of this recommendation, par-
ticularly part (2), would be to create a buffer zone for peat mining along
both shores of the Alligator River in Dare, Hyde and Tyrrell counties.
Implementation of part (2) should be related closely to implementation of
several recommendations of the Governor's Coastal Water Management
Task Force. The resources inventory and mapping effort recommended
there will be most useful in future peat deliberations.
"This recommendation does not specifically address questions related
to peat mining on federal lands in North Carolina. Most of the land in
national wildlife refuges and in the bombing range in Dare County would
fall under part (2). However, the large peat deposits in the Croatan
National Forest would not. The task force recommends that coordination
should be initiated with federal agencies concerning peat mining on fed-
eral lands, and that special attention be given to any changes proposed in
the Croatan National Forest management plan. The pocosin in the Great
Lake area of the national forest has been relatively undisturbed and the
area may be a prime candidate for preservation as a natural area.
"The task force has not specifically addressed the question-of mining
peat in Carolina bays. As the recommendation is worded, Carolina bays
would fall in part (4) and mining would be permitted. It seems unlikely
that large-scale mining will occur in Carolina bays because of the rela-
tively small amount of peat in any one bay. However, a ready market for
peat to fuel power plants could put pressure on the bays due to their
proximity to power plants. The task force suggests that the Carolina
bays be included in those areas for which mining permits not be issued
pending the completion of an ecological inventory of them as natural
areas and the development of a protection and conservation plan for
Carolina bays.
5. Need for Long-Range Policy on Peat Mining and Its Cumulative
Impacts
"DNRCD should develop a long-range policy on the ultimate extent of
peat mining which will be allowed and on the total land area which can be
disturbed at any given time. The issues of impacts on wildlife and pri-
mary nursery areas should receive special attention in this respect. This
policy should be developed for the Secretary's consideration by the
Department's peat working group, working under the direction of the
Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


L AK E


_______ MARTIN COUNTY
PALM BEACH COUNTY


0 KEECHOBEE


0 2 4 6 8 10 MILES
SCALE


Figure 17. Map of the Everglades Agricultural Area showing the
locations of profile A-A' and B-B'. (Modified from
Stephens and Johnson, 1951).


0
c







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the Gulf and has come to be described as sheet flow (Parker, 1974). The
chronic inundation allowed the accumulation and preservation of the
organic soils and peats which characterize the highly productive Ever-
glades Agricultural Area.
In about 1880, Hamilton Disston entered into a contract by which he
would drain land on the upper Kissimmee River and receive as compensa-
tion half of the land he drained. His success was debatable (Tebeau,
1974). The history of early drainage efforts is a history of inadequate
technical expertise and insecure funding. The scope of the drainage issue
was continually underestimated. Disastrous floods associated with hurri-
canes in 1926 and 1928 moved the Federal Government to take action.
The extensive floods of 1947 and 1948 made it obvious that water
control had not yet been established and set the stage for the interven-
tion of the Army Corps of Engineers (Tebeau, 1974).
In 1947, most of south Florida was flooded for several months. The
U.S. Congress, in response to the continuing water-control problems,
passed the Flood Control Act of June 30, 1948. This action directed the
Army Corps of Engineers to plan, design and construct a massive project
which would ultimately solve water problems in all or parts of 18 coun-
ties in central and south Florida (Snyder, et al., 1978). In the plan pro-
posed by the Army Corps of Engineers, major concern was devoted to
the protection of life and property along the lower east coast of Florida.
The first phase of the project involved building an artificial levee from
Lake Okeechobee to about Homestead in order to confine flood waters to
the Everglades. The project was also designed to provide water control
for soil, water conservation and farming (Snyder, et al., 1978).
After studies by both the United States Department of Agriculture and
the University of Florida, the lands of the present "Everglades Agricul-
tural Area" were set aside for agricultural development. The organic soils
of the Agricultural Area were the only soils of sufficient depth and of the
proper type to support cultivation for a period of time sufficient to justify
development (Snyder, et al., 1978). It is important to note that when the
Everglades Agricultural Area was being planned it was recognized that
subsidence of organic soil would occur and that the area could not sup-
port cultivation indefinitely (Snyder, et al., 1978).

Crops and Soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area

The Florida Everglades comprises the single largest body of organic
soils in the world, 1,976,800 acres (Shih, 1980). The Everglades Agri-
cultural Area consists of 765,700 acres of fertile organic soil. Winter
vegetables from the Agricultural Area include sweet-corn, celery, rad-
ishes, leaf crops, carrots and beans. In addition, lands of the agricultural
tract are used for sugar cane, pasture and turf (Shih, 1980). Sugar cane
is the dominant crop with cash receipts of $215 million in 1977- 1978
(Snyder, et al., 1978).
The proximity of the Florida Agricultural Area to the south.shore of






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Peat Methanol Associates, 1983, PMA Update: News From Peat Metha-
nolAssociates, Vol. 1, No. 1, Peat Methanol Associates, Creswell, N.C.

Pennsylvania State University, Coal Research Section, 1976, A Field
Guide to Aid in the Comparative Study of the Okefenokee Swamp and
the Everglades-Mangrove Swamp-Marsh Complex of Southern Flor-
ida: Coal Research Section, University Park, Pa.

Pohjonen, V.M., 1980, Energy Willow Farming on Old Peat Industry
Areas, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, August
17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., pp. 439-440.

Press, F., and R. Siever, 1974, Earth: W.H. Freeman and Company, San
Francisco, Ca., 945 p.

Pritchard, P.C.H., ed., 1978, Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida: Vol.
1 -Mammals, Vol. 2-Birds, Vol. 3-Amphibians and Reptiles, Vol. 4-
Fishes: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, Fl.

Quinn, A.W., and H.D. Glass, 1958, Rank of Coal and Metamorphic
Grade of Rocks of the Narragansett Basin of Rhode Island: Economic
Geology, V. 53, pp. 563 576.

Robinson, C.W., R.L. Schneider, and A.B. Allen, 1983, Harvesting and
Converting Peat to Methanol at First Colony: in Mining Engineering, July,
pp. 723-726.

Searls, J.P., 1980, Peat: United States Bureau of Mines Bulletin 671,
Washington, D.C., pp. 641 -650.

Shih, S.F., 1980, Impact of Subsidence on Water Management in Ever-
glades Agricultural Area, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat
Congress, August 17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth,
Mn., 473 p.

Snyder, G.H., H.W. Burdine, J.R. Crocket, G.J. Gascho, D. Harrison, G.
Kidder, J.W. Mishoe, D.L. Myhre, F.M. Pate, S.F. Shih, 1978, Water
Table Management for Organic Soil Conservation and Crop Production in
the Florida Everglades: Institute for Food and Agricultural Science, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Fl., 22 p.

Soper, E.K., and C.C. Osbon, 1922, The Occurrence and Uses of Peat in
the United States: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 728, Wash-
ington, D.C., 207 p.

Spackman, W., D.W. Scholl, and W.H. Taft, 1964, Field Guidebook to
Environments of Coal Formation in Southern Florida: Printed for the Geo-
logical Society of America Pre-Convention Fieldtrip, November, 67 p.


100







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Cohen, A.D., 1974, Evidence of Fires in the Ancient Everglades and
Southern Everglades, in P.J. Gleason, ed., Environments of South Flor-
ida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, pp.
213-218.

Cohen, A.D., and W. Spackman, 1977, Phytogenic Organic Sediments
of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades -Mangrove Complex of
Florida: Part II, The Origin, Description and Classification of the Peats of
Southern Florida: in Paleontographica, p. 71.

Cohen, A.D., and W. Spackman, 1980, Phytogenic Organic Sediments
of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades-Mangrove Complex of
Florida: Part III, the Alteration of Plant Materials in Peats and the Origin of
Coal Macerals: in Paleontographica, p. 125.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe, 1979, Classification
of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States: U.S. Depart-
ment of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Ser-
vices, Washington, D.C.

Craig, R., 1981, Ecological communities of Florida: Descriptions, soils,
ecosystems, environmental values: (An in-house draft.) United States
Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service, Gainesville, FL.

Crawford, R., 1978, Effect of Peat Utilization on Water Quality in Minne-
sota: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn., 18
p.

Davis, J.H., 1946, The Peat Deposits of Florida, Their Occurrence,
Development and Uses: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 30, Tallahas-
see, Fl., 247 p.

DRAVO Engineers and Constructors, 1981, Synfuels Glossary: DRAVO,
Pittsburgh, Pa., 10 p.

Eckman, E., 1975, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 102.

Environmental Science and Engineering, 1982, Appendix A-Physical,
Chemical and Ecological Data, in NPDES Permit Application, Wastewater
Discharge Assessment: ESE, Gainesville, Fl., 297 p.

Farnham, R.S., 1979, Peatland Reclamation, in Management Assess-
ment of Peat as an Energy Source: Symposium Papers July 22-24,
1979, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology.

Farnham, R.S., and T. Lever, 1980, Agricultural Reclamation of
Peatlands: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn.,
70 p.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


6. Completion of Reclamation
"The acceptance of mined-out land as reclaimed should be done on a
case-by-case basis. Each permit is likely to have many site-specific
aspects in its reclamation plan. This specificity has led the task force to
change its 1981 recommendation to incorporate a general policy on rec-
lamation release in the mining regulations. The task force is confident
that the permitting process, review procedures, and monitoring reviews
will supply adequate information to support case-by-case decisions on
the release from reclamation bonds. The Division of Land Resources
should, however, continue to monitor closely this question and, if it
appears that general policies on reclamation completion can be formu-
lated, present appropriate recommendations to the Mining Commission.
"The particular issue of the release of part of a tract on a single mining
permit as reclaimed while mining continues on other portions is difficult,
but the task force concluded that case-by-case consideration is the best
way to resolve it. Monitoring results on existing mines should eventually
allow a sound decision on the best patterns-e.g. checkerboard, long
strips, whole-area-fallow peat mining, and reclaimed areas to minimize
environmental impacts.


7. Expansion of Capacity Use Area
"Capacity Use Area #1, which covers the existing permitted areas for
mining, should now be extended eastwards by the Environmental Man-
agement Commission to include the rest of Tyrrell, Hyde, and mainland
Dare counties as well as Roanoke Island. This action is necessary to
ensure that the provisions of this law, particularly its water use permit
requirement, fully apply to all future mining proposals. Expansion of
Capacity Use Area #1 should be considered if mining is proposed south
or west of its present extent.
"The water use permit, under the Water Use Act of 1971, is the
Department's primary means of controlling dewatering and excavation
activities in capacity use areas. It is the basis for the requirement of
monitoring freshwater discharge volumes from peat mines. Until NPDES
and groundwater regulations are revised to include volume controls and
reporting requirements, the capacity use concept remains important. As
groundwater classifications and standards are completed by the Division
of Environmental Management, they should be incorporated in the peat
mine permit package.
"Development of nutrient and salinity standards should continue by
the Division of Environmental Management, with active consultation
with the Division of Marine Fisheries and the Office of Coastal Manage-
ment. The task force, however, is aware of the difficulties in developing
workable salinity standards and urges that in the interim preventive mea-
sures such as outlet location and water control measures be fully imple-
mented as part of the mining permit conditions.


145







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


is presently in the process of revising this classification; the above term
will no longer be used.

ion An atom or group of atoms with an electric charge.

isopach map A map that shows the thickness of a bed, formation, sill
or other tabular body throughout a geographic area, based on a variety of
types of data.

karst A type of topography that is formed by the dissolution of lime-
stone, dolomite or gypsum rock by rainwater or rivers. The topography is
characterized by closed depressions, sinkholes, caves and underground
drainages.

ketone Any of a class of organic compounds containing a carbonyl
group, e.g., C = O, attached to two organic groups, such as CH3COCH3.

lagoon A shallow stretch of seawater, such as a sound, channel, bay,
or saltwater lake, near or communicating with the sea and partly or
completely separated from it by a low, narrow, elongate strip of land,
such as a reef, barrier island, sandbank or spit. It often extends roughly
parallel to the coast, and it may be stagnant.

lignin An organic substance somewhat similar to carbohydrates in
composition that occurs with cellulose in woody plants.

lignite A brownish-black coal that is intermediate in coalification
between peat and bituminous coal; consolidated coal with a calorific
value less than 8300 BTU/pound, on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis.
Cf: brown coal.

marine environment Areas directly influenced by normal salinity sea-
water (approximately 35 parts per thousand).

marl An old term loosely applied to a variety of materials most of
which occur as soft, loose, earthy and semifriable or crumbling unconsol-
idated deposits consisting chiefly of an intimate mixture of clay and
calcium carbonate in varying proportions, formed under either marine or
freshwater conditions.

marsh A water saturated, poorly drained area, intermittently or per-
manently water-covered, having aquatic and grasslike vegetation. Cf:
swamp; bog.

megawatt A unit of power equal to 1 million watts.

metamorphism The mineralogical and structural adjustment of solid
rocks to physical and chemical conditions which have been imposed at
depth below the surface zones of weathering and cementation and


108






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS

A mining operation (including peat mining) is considered to be a devel-
opment of regional impact (DRI) when either of two criteria are met. The
criteria are: (1) when more than 100 acres per year are mined or dis-
turbed and (2) when water consumption exceeds 3,000,000 gallons per
day. (Sarah Nail, Department of Community Affairs, personal communi-
cation, 1984).

Federal Level Permitting

Two federal agencies, the Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) and the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have permitting jurisdiction
which may apply to peat mining. Each agency will be discussed below.

ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

The Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) operates under two federal acts:
The Rivers & Harbors Act and the Clean Water Act (Vic Anderson, ACE,
personal communication, 1984). Both acts apply in navigable waters;
however, only the Clean Water Act applies in non-navigable water. The
legislative mandate of the Clean Water Act is to, "restore and maintain
the physical, chemical and biological integrity of the nation's water".
Authority under the Clean Water Act extends up tributaries and headwa-
ter streams to the point where average annual flow is five cubic feet per
second (CFS). ACE has discretionary authority upstream of this point if
1) toxic materials are released, 2) wild or scenic rivers will be affected, 3)
endangered species are involved, 4) the operation will result in down-
stream turbidity or erosion, or 5) the EPA requests ACE involvement.
Individual permits are required under the River & Harbors Act (navigable
waters), and under the Clean Water Act for tributaries up to the five CFS
mean annual flow point, or beyond if conditions warrant the involve-
ment. When conditions do not warrant involvement above the five CFS
point, the regulations state that the activity is covered by a nationwide
permit.

THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

In the past, the EPA has administered air quality and water quality
permitting programs. Air quality regulation and permitting has been dele-
gated to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation. The state
of Florida requires permits for all sources of air pollution. The EPA still
controls the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permitting. A NPDES permit is required for any operation which would





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


more than 25 percent ash. Other estimates are much greater (1.75 billion
tons and 6.9 billion tons). These estimates include organic soils whose
ash content exceeds ASTM standards for material defined as peat and
U.S. Department of Energy standards for fuel grade peat.
The Everglades Agricultural Area was delineated based on scientific
analysis of soils to determine their suitability as a growth medium. The
drainage necessary for successful agriculture has been accompanied by
subsidence primarily because soils are no longer protected from decom-
posing organisms which require oxygen for their metabolism. Soil loss
continues to occur at about one inch each year. It is predicted that by the
year 2000 approximately 250,000 acres in the Agricultural Area will
have subsided to thicknesses of less than one foot. The fate of soils less
than one foot thick is uncertain. They may be used for pasture land or
abandoned for agricultural purposes.
Peat currently is used in Florida for a variety of horticultural and agricul-
tural purposes. The United States Bureau of Mines reports that in 1982,
120 thousand short tons was produced at a value estimated at 1.575
million dollars. These data reflect voluntary information supplied to the
Bureau of Mines and do not include responses from all of Florida's peat
producers. Most peat sales in Florida are currently wholesale and for
agricultural purposes and are thus exempt from sales tax. Records are
not maintained which detail sales tax on retail sale of peat products
specifically, and thus there is no way of estimating the current tax
income derived from the exploitation of peat resources in the State of
Florida.
The peat permitting process as it applies to peat mining is complex.
County level permits may be required, although in many cases zoning
regulations are the only regulations which apply to opening a peat mine.
At the state level, the Department of Environmental Regulation and
Water Management Districts containing peat may require permits. The
Department of Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of
Regional Impact (DRI). Certain peat mining operations could come under
federal jurisdiction. The agencies concerned would include the Environ-
mental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers.
The environmental impacts associated with peat mining for energy
purposes depend strongly on the size of the prospective operation. Envi-
ronmental impacts are also site specific. Small operations could consume
approximately 26 acres of peat mined to a depth of 6 feet, over 4 years;
moderate operations could take approximately 3500 acres mined to a
depth of 6 feet, over a 20 year period; and a large operation could require
approximately 125,000 acres of peat, mined to a depth of 6 feet to
operate for 20 years. Peat mining will occur largely in wetlands and the
values of each individual wetland must be weighed against the value of
peat to be removed. The wetland habitat will be severely affected. Fauna
will be displaced and possibly destroyed and flora will be destroyed when
the peatland is cleared for mining. Water quality impacts may be major,
even for small operations, and are related to chemical characteristics of





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


pyrolysis Decomposition of organic substances by heat in the
absence of air.

quartz (mineral) Crystalline silica, an important rock-forming mineral:
SiO2. It is, next to feldspar, the commonest mineral. Quartz forms the
major proportion of most sands.

radiocarbon dating See carbon-14 dating.

radiometric dating Calculating an age in years for geologic materials
by measuring the presence of a short-life radioactive element, e.g.
carbon-14; or by measuring the presence of a long-life radioactive ele-
ment plus its decay product, e.g., potassium-40/argon-40. The term
applies to all methods of age determination based on nuclear decay of
natural elements.

reduced To change a chemical compound by removing oxygen or
adding hydrogen so that the valence of the positive element is lower.

reed-sedge peat (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
classification) Peat containing at least 33.33 percent plant fibers, half of
which are reed-sedge and other nonmosses. NOTE: ASTM is presently in
the process of revising this classification. The above term will no longer
be used.

salt-water encroachment Displacement of fresh surface or ground-
water by the advance of saltwater due to its greater density, usually in
coastal and estuarine areas, but also by movement of brine from beneath
a playa lake toward wells discharging freshwater. Encroachment occurs
when the total head of the saltwater exceeds that of adjacent fresh-
water. Syn: encroachment; saltwater intrusion; seawater encroachment.

sapric peat (U.S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat con-
taining less than 33.33 percent recognizable plant fragments of any
type; consists of the most extensively decomposed plant material.

sapropel An unconsolidated, jelly-like ooze or sludge composed of
plant remains, most often algae, macerating and putrifying in an anaero-
bic environment on the shallow bottoms of lakes and seas. It may be a
source material for petroleum and natural gas.

sheet flow An overland flow or downslope movement of water tak-
ing the form of a thin, continuous film over relatively smooth soil or rock
surfaces and not concentrated into channels larger than rills.


silviculture The cultivation of forest trees.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


8. On-Site and Regional Monitoring Systems
"Since the Mining Act addresses the full range of peat mining impacts,
the Division of Land Resources should apply its provisions to require
monitoring of the full range of impacts. These expanded requirements
should be incorporated as conditions on the mining permit. Also, the
Division of Environmental Management should continue to expand its
ambient air, surface water, and groundwater monitoring system in the
peat mining region.
"Incorporation of surface water, air, and groundwater monitoring
requirements in conditions of mining permits does not diminish the pri-
mary role of the Division of Environmental Management in setting these
requirements and in analyzing the results. An advantage of the package
approach to permits for peat mines is that monitoring can be fully coordi-
nated among the concerned agencies. The peat permit application
review group should play a central role in this coordination.
"As soon as the results of Skaggs and Gregory's peat hydrology pro-
ject (See Table I) are available, they should be thoroughly evaluated by
the Department and, where appropriate, incorporated in monitoring
requirements. The surface and groundwater hydrology model developed
by Skaggs and Broadhead may allow a predictive capability sound
enough to relax some monitoring requirements. Even so, several years of
very detailed monitoring results will be needed to verify the model. Fur-
ther effort will be needed to expand the model for general applicability
since it is presently rather site-specific for the 15,000 acre First Colony
Farms site.
"Since the task force's 1981 report, mercury in drainage water from
peat mines has arisen as a major concern. In preparing their applications
and analysis, PMA found mercury levels exceeding state standards in the
waters receiving drainage from the First Colony Farms peat mine, and
PMA reported their data to the state. Questions have arisen about the
sampling and analytical methodology which produced these values, and
a new sampling series has been proposed. PMA has not yet applied for
nor received an NPDES permit for the First Colony Farms mine.
"The mercury issue reemphasizes the need to require an NPDES permit
for each peat mine. The department should require detailed analysis of
mercury issue as part of each peat mining permit and NPDES permit
application. All mining permits should require monitoring on-site and in
receiving waters by the mine operator. Laboratory and field experiments
should be initiated by the Division of Environmental Management,
assisted by N.C. State University, to identify the chemical species of
mercury present, mechanism of release, and transport mechanisms of
mercury. These experiments should be supplemented with further and
continuous biological monitoring by the Division of Environmental Man-
agement and Marine Fisheries. Finally, the Division of Environmental
Management should research to develop any needed water treatment
standards for mine drain water.


146






0)


B


S 0 I MILE
2
SCALE
100X VERT. EXAG.


Figure 24. Topographic profile of a karst basin peat deposit in north Florida. (Prepared by the
Bureau of Geology for this report.)


140 r


120


100


80 L


B'

-1140


120


100


80


C
m
m
C
0
'1

m
0
-
0
Q





Table 3 continued.
Public
Title of Permit Administrative Hearing Hearing
County Ordinance Required Agency Required Body Comments


Orange Excavation & Fill
Ordinance 71-11

Palm Beach Planning & Zoning
Ordinance


Excavation County
Permit Engineering
Department


Occupational
Building,
Electrical


Pasco County Mining Mining
Ordinance Permit







Polk County Zoning Conditi
Ordinance & Flood Use
Protection & Surface
Water Management
Code (81 82)


Putnam Zoning Ordinance of
Putnam County
75- 5 Amend


None


Sumter County Development Excavation
Code Permit


Planning and
Zoning Department


County Planning
Department


onal Planning
Department


Building, Zoning &
Building
Department
Planning, Zoning &
Building
Department


Yes County Not zoning dependent, not allowed
Commission in planning conservation areas.

Yes County Land must be zoned agricultural.
Commission Site plan must be approved.


Yes County Mining ordinance refers specifically
Commission to inorganic materials, peat may not
be covered county source did not
know. If covered, mining &
reclamation plan, evidence of fiscal
responsibility and prior approval of
all necessary state and federal
permits would be required.
Yes County Allowed in Rural Conservation
Commission Districts only after public hearing
approval for conditional use. Polk
county is not actively permitting
present peat operation & no new
permits have been submitted, but
the County has the option to do so.
Yes Zoning Board Allowable as a special exception in
agricultural zoned area only.


No


Allowable in A-5 zones: Require site
plan & prior approval of any
necessary state & federal permits.


Pasco








Polk


C)
-o
m
0

I-



~0
C






0
ro
z
z

Z
Z
O
h)
\I





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


research on peat impacts, but CEIP's future funding is in doubt due to
federal cutbacks. Should OCS revenue sharing pass Congress, it is likely
that CEIP will be able to fund a significant portion of future research.
"The task force believes that the most urgent detailed research needs
now apparent are:
*sources and mechanisms of mercury release into drainage water;
*delineation of the specific areas where peat mining should be prohib-
ited;
*development of improved water control techniques;
*development of improved reclamation schemes;
*impacts of wet reclamation;
*legal and institutional issues of perpetual pumping;
*impacts of perpetual pumping;
cumulative impacts of multiple mining activities.
"Research efforts outside DNRCD should be closely followed, and
interagency cooperation should be sought. Peat-related issues have been
the focus of a recently intensified research effort by several federal agen-
cies and other states (Minnesota, in particular). A continuing, long-term
effort to stay informed of their efforts, and to communicate our results to
them, is recommended.
11. Additional Resources Needed to Carry Out State Responsibility
"The Department will experience significant costs for regional moni-
toring, research, supervising on-site monitoring by permit holders, evalu-
ating monitoring results, and the development of adequate environmen-
tal safeguards. Funds to pay these costs should be sought.
"Possible sources of these funds are permit fees, legislative appropria-
tions, federal grants, severance taxes, and voluntary contributions from
peat mine operators.
"In addition to increased costs, DNRCD's responsibilities towards peat
mining may impose significantly increased workloads and personnel
requirements. These may create problems in the regional DNRCD field
offices which deal with peat mines; this particularly applies to the Wash-
ington office. These needs should be carefully reviewed by the appropri-
ate divisions and action taken prior to major crises arising.
12. Technical Advisory Assistance
"DNRCD will soon face technical issues related to peat mining and use
which will require the advice of outside experts. The evaluation of moni-
toring results and the resolution of the questions of wet reclamation and
perpetual pumping are two such matters. The Assistant Secretary for
Natural Resources should be charged with oversight in securing the nec-
essary outside technical expertise. It is anticipated that this expertise can
be secured on our ad hoc basis from universities, industry, federal agen-
cies, and state agencies outside DNRCD. In the future, advisory commit-
tees or consulting services may be needed.
13. Link to State Energy Policy Council and Department of Commerce
The state Energy Policy Council should be informed on peat mining






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Table 8 continued.


PLANTS, cont'd.


Night-scent Orchid
Nodding Catopsis
Okeechobee Gourd
Panhandle Lily
Piedmont Water Milfoil
Pinewoods Aster
Pink Root
Pond Spice
Prickley Apple
Quillwort Yellow-eyed Grass
Red Tail Orchid
Red-flowered Pitcherplant
Red Mangrove
Red-flowered Ladies'-tresses

Slender-leaved False Dragonhead
Small-flowered Meadowbeauty
Snake Orchid
Southern Milkweed
Spoon Flower
Thick-leaved Water-willow
Tiny Orchid
Tropical Curly-grass Fern
Tropical Waxweed
Turks Cap Lily
Violet-flowered Butterwort
Water Sundew
White top Pitcherplant
Worm Vine Orchid
Yellow Anise
Yellow Fringeless Orchid
Yellow-eyed Grass (Unnamed)


Epidendrum nocturnum
Catopsis nutans
Cucurbita okeechobeensis
Lilium iridollae
Myriophyllum laxum
Aster spinulosus
Spigelia loganioides
Litsea aestivalis
Cereus gracilis
Xyris isoetifolia
Bulbophyllum pachyrhachis
Sarracenia rubra
Rhizophora mangle
Spiranthes landceolata var.
paludicola
Physotegia leptophyllum
Rhexia parviflora
Restrepiella ophiocephala
Asclepias viridula
Peltandra sagittifolia
Justicia crassifolia
Lepanthopsis melantha
Schizaea germanii
Cuphea aspera
Lilium superbrum
Pinguicula ionantha
Drosera intermedia
Sarracenia leucophylla
Vanilla barbellata
Illicium parviflorum
Platanthera integra
Xyris drummondii


Peatland Reclamation in Minnesota

It is estimated that the state of Minnesota contains 173 million acres
of wetlands, three million hectares of which are categorized as peatlands
(Farnham, et al., 1980). In 1975, Minnesota received requests for six
leases of peatlands. (A general description of this leasing procedure is
included in Appendix E) Minnesota Gas Company requested a lease for







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


land systems associated with mining will result in displacement and pos-
sibly in some cases death of flora and fauna specially adapted to an
individual wetland environment. Florida Statutes pertaining to wetland
regulation are included in Appendix C of this document.

The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Quality

This discussion is primarily from a study of environmental issues asso-
ciated with peat mining prepared for the United States Department of
Energy by King, et al. (1980).
The water quality of surface waters flowing from a peatland is charac-
teristic of the peatland and controls to some extent aquatic habitats both
onsite and downstream. Peat mining will be accompanied by discharge
of water from drainage as well as waste water derived from the process-
ing of peat for energy purposes. The release of organic and inorganic
compounds is thought to be capable of generating a number of water
quality impacts (King, et al., 1980). The following water quality charac-
teristics are listed in decreasing order of importance. It is also noted that
this list may not include all possible water quality problems. Table 4 ranks
water quality issues with respect to scales of peatland development:
1. Low pH
2. High BOD/COD
3. Nutrients
4. Organic Compounds
5. Colloidal and Settleable Solids
6. Heavy Metals
7. Carcinogenic and Toxic Materials
Water discharged from a peatland may be acidic in character because
waters entering the peatland lack natural buffering capacity. Addition-
ally, hydrogen ion production and organic acids produced by plant photo-
synthesis and decomposition contribute to the acidic nature of waters
from peatlands. The pH values from ombrotrophic peatlands range from
3 to 4 and from minerotrophic peatlands range from 4 to 8 (King, et al.,
1980). Although these low pH values are of completely natural origin,
they can result in significant changes to the aquatic ecosystem. These
changes may include species specific fertility problems, morbidity, mor-
tality and mobility problems as well as other physical and physiological
problems (King, et al., 1980).
The discharge of waters resulting from peatland drainage as well as
discharge of water released by the dewatering process may create Bio-
chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).
The dissolved oxygen levels in surface streams are crucial for protection
of fishery resources. These oxygen levels may be depressed as a result
of increased turbidity within the stream and the decomposition of soluble
and insoluble material by aerobic microbiota.
Peatlands are known to store nitrogen and phosphorus. Thus, concern
exists that, during drainage and processing, significant amounts of these







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


The Effects of Peat Mining on Air Quality

This discussion is taken primarily from a study of environmental issues
associated with peat mining prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy
by King, et al. (1980).
The mining and storage of peat, as well as its processing for energy
purposes, will produce certain air quality impacts. Expected major air
quality concerns are related to fugitive emission factors from large-scale
mining and storage operations. Overall particulate emission problems are
generated during dry mining, transportation and storage of peat. Small
and moderate scale peat-fired power plants are expected to produce less
air quality impacts than equivalent coal burning plants. Airborne emis-
sions associated with a large synthetic natural gas plant can only be
discussed on a generalized basis. Table 6 lists a number of air quality
issues in order of their projected importance (King, et al., 1980).
Milled and sod peat mining methods both require that peat be drained
previous to mining and also dried on the ground. Drying peat may be
suspended by wind or mechanical action. After peat is dried, it must be
collected, stored, transported and restored. All of these steps may result
in loss of peat to the atmosphere (King, et al., 1980).
Carbon monoxide will be emitted from the direct combustion of peat.
Carbon monoxide is not easily collected in air scrubbers and emissions
may be improved only by improving the combustion process (King, et al.,
1980).
Nitrogen oxides are formed when fuels are burned in air. Emission of
nitrogen oxides from direct combustion of peat fuel may exceed allowa-
ble levels.
Various sulfur oxides (SO,) may be emitted when peat is burned. Peat
is relatively low in sulfur and, thus, may not result in severe emission
problems (King, et al., 1980). A. Cohen (personal communication, 1984)
notes that sulfur must be determined on a site specific basis and further
comments that it may especially be a problem in coastal areas.
The strong affinity of emitted SO2 and SO3 for water causes formation
of droplets in the emissions plume. The long distance transport of these
emission products can result in acid rains in areas remote to the plant site
(King, et al., 1980).
King, et al. (1980) report that direct combustion of various forms of
peat fuel may generate particulate matter including sulfate, heavy
metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some particles in the
submicron range.
Non-methane hydrocarbons resulting from incomplete combustion of
peat may react in the atmosphere to form photochemical oxidants
(ozone). Non-methane hydrocarbons include polynuclear aromatic hydro-
carbons which are carcinogenic at very low levels and stable in the envi-
ronment. Most control strategies for ambient ozone involve emission
controls on non-methane hydrocarbons (King, et al., 1980).
Photochemical oxidants (ozone) may be derived from direct burning of





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


various forms of peat fuel. They are formed in the atmosphere from non-
methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide and are controlled by emis-
sion controls on non-methane hydrocarbons.
Metals may be concentrated in the organic or inorganic fraction of peat
as a consequence of water flow through peat or by deposition from the
atmosphere. These metals may be volatilized at high combustion temper-
atures or emitted as gaseous molecules. The behavior and effects of
these metals are complex (King, et al., 1980).
Emissions of reduced sulfur, nitrogen compounds and halogen com-
pounds may all exceed allowable levels from synthetic fuel plants (King,
et al., 1980). The effects of reduced sulfur emissions and nitrogen com-
pounds (other than NOx) are dependent on meteorological conditions and
ambient air chemistry and quality. The emissions of particulate matter
and plume condensation may cause visibility reduction in the immediate
vicinity of the combustion source when various forms of peat fuel are
burned directly. The extent of this effect will depend on the rate of wind
dispersion of emitted materials (King, et al., 1980).
Combustion sources will generate water vapor which may condense
and precipitate downwind of the processing plant. If water vapor com-
bines with SOx, acid mists may be formed (King, et al., 1980).
Production of peat energy will necessitate emission of carbon dioxide.
The production of CO2 will contribute to the global carbon dioxide build-
up, the significance of which is still subject to debate (King, et al., 1980).

The Effects of Peat Mining on Topography

by
Thomas M. Scott

Peat is currently mined from deposits formed in a number of specific
geologic settings. These include bayhead swamps, closed depressions or
karst basins, river valley marshes and large, flat, poorly drained areas
such as the Everglades.
Closed depressions or karst basins occur predominantly in north and
central Florida. The depressions or basins are the result of sinkhole for-
mation and do not have surface outlets for water. Topography of this
type of deposit is shown in Figure 24.
River valley and bayhead swamp deposits occur throughout much of
the state. Notable examples of these are the upper St. Johns River Valley
and Oklawaha River Valley peat deposits (Figure 13) and the Santa Fe
Swamp peat deposit (Figure 14). These areas have surface drainage by
streams and rivers. The general topography of the deposits is shown in
Figures 25, 26 and 27.
In general, the large, flat, poorly drained areas of peat development are
in south Florida, south of latitude 290N (Davis, 1946). The Everglades
and its associated peats are a typical example of this type of peat
deposit. The topography of this type of deposit is shown in Figure 28.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


separate from the series eutrophy, mesotrophy and oligotrophy. The lat-
ter series describes nutrient resources of peatlands using plant composi-
tion with eutrophy being richer in nutrients and oligotrophy being poorer.
The eutrophy-oligotrophy series is difficult to apply since it may be
expanded to include additional extreme and transitional groups. The
boundaries between these various groups are not clear (Heikurainen,
1976) and they will not be considered further in this document.
Bogs are said to be ombrotropic, which implies that the bog is isolated
from the regional groundwater system and receives its moisture mainly
from precipitation. Minerotrophic peatlands, or fens, are defined as being
connected with the regional groundwater system and are nourished both
by precipitation and groundwater flow (Brooks and Predmore, 1978).
The U.S. Department of Energy in its Peat Prospectus avoids the usage
of fen and characterizes peat as forming in swamps, bogs, and saltwater
and freshwater marshes (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). The extent
of this confusion becomes clear on examination of the American Geologi-
cal Institute's definition of swamp (Gary, et al., eds., 1974) which is
characterized as, "A water saturated area . essentially without
peatlike accumulation". It should be noted that most workers in the field
do not concur with the portion of the American Geological Institute's
definition that addresses the accumulation of peat in swamps (A. Cohen,
personal communication, 1984). Moore and Bellamy (1974, p. 84) use
the term "mire" to cover all wetland ecosystems in which peat accumu-
lates in the same area where its parent plant material lived and grew.
Thus, the meaning of specific names assigned to the peat-forming envi-
ronment must be derived from an author's context.
In the southeastern United States, the most commonly used terms for
peat-forming environments are swamps and marshes. Swamps refer to
forested wetlands and marshes refer to aquatic, herbaceous wetlands
(A. Cohen, personal communication, 1984).

Peat: Agricultural or Mineral Resource?

In Florida, peat may eventually be viewed as a mineral resource or an
agricultural resource. The United States Bureau of Mines has long con-
sidered peat a mineral resource for the reporting of commodity statistics.
In deference to the formal definition of the term "mineral", the greatest
majority of earth science professionals would not classify peat as a min-
eral. Peat might be likened more properly to a rock in that it contains a
number of minerals (quartz, pyrite, and clay minerals among others) as
well as macerals which are the organic equivalents of minerals.
If, however, the formal and most restricted definition of mineral is
compared with a definition of mineral that reflects current usage, it is
noted that "minerals" adhere to the specifications of the formal defini-
tion in varying degrees. The intent of this discussion is not to establish
that peat is a mineral, but rather to illustrate the extent to which the
formal definition has been expanded in common usage.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


description of the proposed area; specific principles for guiding develop-
ment within the area; and an inventory of lands owned by the state,
federal, county, and municipal governments within the proposed area.
"(2) An area of critical state concern may be designated only for:
"(a) An area containing, or having a significant impact upon, environ-
mental or natural resources or regional or statewide importance,
including, but not limited to, state or federal parks, forests, wild-
life refuges, wilderness areas, aquatic preserves, major rivers
and estuaries, state environmentally endangered lands, Out-
standing Florida Waters, and aquifer recharge areas, the uncon-
trolled private or public development of which would cause sub-
stantial deterioration of such resources. Specific criteria which
shall be considered in designating an area under this paragraph
include:
"1. Whether the economic value of the area, as determined by the
type, variety, distribution, relative scarcity, and the condition of the envi-
ronmental or natural resources within the area, is of substantial regional
or statewide importance.
"2. Whether the ecological value of the area, as determined by the
physical and biological components of the environmental system, is of
substantial regional or statewide importance.
"3. Whether the area is a designated critical habitat of any state or
federally designated threatened or endangered plant or animal species.
"4. Whether the area is inherently susceptible to substantial develop-
ment due to its geographic location or natural aesthetics.
"5. Whether any existing or planned substantial development within
the area will directly, significantly, and deleteriously affect any or all of
the environmental or natural resources of the area which are of regional
or statewide importance.

"Chapter 259-Land Conservation Action of 1972
Section 259.04-Powers and duties of "Board":
Definition: "Board" means the governor and cabinet, sitting as the
Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund. [(259.03(4)].
"(1) For state capital projects for environmentally endangered lands:
"(a) The board is given the responsibility, authority, and power to
develop and execute a comprehensive plan to conserve and protect envi-
ronmentally endangered lands in this state. This plan shall be kept cur-
rent through continual reevaluation and revision.

"Chapter 163-Local Government Comprehensive Plan Act of 1975
Section 163.3161--Intent and Purpose:
"(1) This act shall be known and may be cited as the "Local Govern-
ment Comprehensive Planning Act of 1975."
"(2) In conformity with, and in furtherance of, the purpose of the
Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972, chap-
ter 380, it is the purpose of this act to utilize and strengthen the existing







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Figure 12. Isopach map of the Everglades
region showing thickness of peat
and some muck areas. (From
Davis, 1946).




the variability of the material. Peat may be classified as fibric, hemic or
sapric depending on the extent to which it has decomposed (see section
entitled "Classification Systems Applied to Peat"). It also varies with
respect to the chemical and physical properties that affect its eventual
uses, e.g. fuel and horticulture. Complete assessment of the peat
resource requires laboratory analysis in addition to time-consuming field
studies.
Attempts to assess the amount and locations of peat in Florida are
hampered by an additional factor. Peat deteriorates by oxidizing when
the wetlands where it accumulates are drained. This drainage may be
due to the activities of man or by natural lowering of the water table in


LAKE
LEGEND O .KEECHOBEE
OKEECHOBE'l'\
MUCK
PEAT
THICKNESS
FEET

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5-7 BIG
CYPRESS ii :



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WITHIN LIMITS '
OF EVERGLADES



MANGROVE
PEAT CAPE SABLE

ISOPA CH MAP
SHOWING THICKNESS OF PEAT IN
THE EVERGLADES







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


result in discharge to the surface water of the U.S. (this includes "waters
of the state"). The NPDES permit is required even for intermittent dis-
charges (Mark Latch, DER, personal communication, 1984).


PEAT REVENUE AND TAXATION


by
Kenneth M. Campbell

The volume of peat sales in the state of Florida generally increased
from 1972 to 1978 (Figure 23). During the same period the value of peat
also increased. The value and tonnage fluctuated from 1978 through
1981 prior to a rather drastic decrease in 1982. In 1982, the quantity
dropped 25 percent from the estimated tonnage (Boyle and Hendry,
1984) and 24 percent from the previous year. The 1982 value was 47
percent below the predicted level (Boyle and Hendry, 1984) and 45 per-
cent less than 1981. Figure 23 reflects these trends as compiled by the
U.S. Bureau of Mines.
The differences between the predicted and actual numbers for peat
mining in Florida is significant in two important ways. First, the differ-
ences reflect the recent recession which had a tremendous effect on the
mineral industries as a whole, with greatly declined production and
value. Secondly, future revenue estimates for peat from the Florida
Department of Revenue are based on the trends of the recent past. The
recently released 1982 figures may indicate a drastic change in the trend
and may require a significant alteration of the previously predicted peat
values for 1983- 1984 which were $3.9 million (Figure 23). The peat
industry may rebound to its previous levels. However, in light of a 1982
value of $1.575 million, it seems highly unlikely that a value of $3.9
million would be achieved in 1983- 1984.
Currently, the vast majority of peat sales in Florida are wholesale and
for agricultural purposes and, as such, are exempt from state sales taxes.
Some peat products are used in potted plants and sales taxes are col-
lected on retail sales of the potted plants. However, the value of the peat
and the tax upon that value are not separated from the value and tax on
the total sale. Thus, the amount of tax arising from retail sale of peat
cannot be determined. Also, there are no records for sales tax applied to
peat based potting soils (L. Voorhies, Department of Revenue, personal
communication, 1983). As a result, there is no way of estimating the
current tax income derived from the exploitation of peat resources in the
state of Florida.
Estimated tax revenues derived from the imposition of a severance tax
on peat could be determined from the revised predicted values for the
near future. The Florida Department of Revenue does not currently have
such an estimate available.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


in basic igneous rocks or by metamorphism of dolomite rocks; and it
usually occurs in foliated, granular or fibrous masses. Talc is used as a
filler, coating pigment, dusting agent, and in ceramics, rubber, plastics,
lubricants and talcum powder.

tar A thick, brown to black, viscous organic liquid, free of water,
which is obtained by condensing the volatile products of the destructive
distillation of coal, wood, oil, etc. It has a variable composition, depend-
ing on the temperature and material used to obtain it.

volatile matter In coal, those substances, other than moisture, that
are given off as gas and vapor during combustion. Standardized labora-
tory methods are used in analysis. Syn: volatiles; volatile combustible.

wet carbonization A process in which a peat slurry is heated to
572-7520F at 50-100 atmospheres of pressure; produces a "peat
coal" with a heat content of 12,000- 14,000 BTU/lb dry weight.

wetland Areas inundated or saturated by surface water or ground-
water at a frequency and duration to support, and that under normal
circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted
for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands can often be a transition
zone between aquatic and terrestrial communities.

wet mining methods See hydraulic peat mining.

wet oxidation Process for oxidation of many wet organic materials in
which air or oxygen is fed to the wet organic material in a closed, heated
vessel. Combustion is controlled by the rate of oxygen feed and can be
carried to completion to produce energy or can be stopped after the
material is carbonized.

wet reclamation Any reclamation process which results in a perma-
nently or periodically flooded reclaimed area.

Definitions and information on terms in this glossary are taken from the
following references:

Brown, et al., 1983
Dravo Engineers and Constructors, 1981
Fuchsman, 1978
Gary, et al., 1974
U.S. Department of Energy, 1979
Langbein and Iseri, 1960


114






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


recreational lakes. It is recommended that acceptance of mined-out
peatlands as reclaimed be on a case-by-case basis (North Carolina
DNRCD, 1983). (Recommendations of the North Carolina Peat Mining
Task Force are included in Appendix E of this document.)
In response to growing interest in North Carolina's peat deposits by
developers, a Peat Mining Task Force was created to review permitting
procedures for peat mining. Recommendations pertinent to all phases of
peat mining including permits, reclamation, evaluation of environmental
impacts and monitoring of environmental impacts were prepared.



Peatland Reclamation in Finland


Mires are estimated as occupying 24 million acres or 31.9 percent of
the total land area of Finland (Lappalainen, 1980). Development of
peatlands in Finland is encouraged as Finland imported 70 percent of its
energy needs in 1979 (Harme, 1980). Indigenous energy sources which
accounted for 31 percent of Finland's energy include hydro power, peat,
industrial waste woods, waste liquers and normal firewood. Finland's
fuel grade peat resources are estimated to be 32.7 x 109 cubic yards
(Lappalainen, 1980) and the nation pays subsidies to new users of
domestic fuels equal to five percent to 20 percent of the total investment
required for new plants (Harme, 1980).
Annual (1979) peat usage in Finland was approximately 6.5- 7.8 mil-
lion cubic yards or about 2.5 percent of the nation's energy consump-
tion. The aim for the 1980's is to raise consumption to 33-39 million
cubic yards per year. It is thought that the 26 million level is reasonable
based on rising coal and oil prices (Harme, 1980).
Pohjonen (1980) notes that by the end of the century mined-out soil
surface area will occupy 123,550 acres and the problem of future use for
those lands must be solved. It is suggested that a number of characteris-
tics of mined peatlands in Finland make reclamation to "growing environ-
ment" an attractive option. The bottom peat layer is exceptionally sterile
and no weeds, diseases or insects are present. This layer is rich in nitro-
gen and calcium and an underlying mineral soil provides nutrients lacking
in the bottom peat layer. It is noted that energy willow production would
be extremely efficient since burning the willow in heating plants yields a
nutrient-rich ash which may be returned as a fertilizer to the willow
plantations (Pohjonen, 1980).
Finland is actively pursuing development of its peat resource for
energy use in order to offset its dependence on imported energy.
Researchers are beginning to explore reclamation options which make
use of residual peats remaining after mining in combination with underly-
ing mineral soils. The cultivation of energy willows is seen to be an
attractive option, given the renewable nature of that resource.









Table 5. Water resources issues associated with peat mining. (Taken from King, et al., 1980).
Scales of Development
Small Moderate Large
Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor
Increased Floodwater Flow
Potential X X X
Groundwater Elevations
Modification X X X
Potential Salt Water
Intrusion X X X
Modification of Surface
Water Flow Patterns X X X
Increase Minimum Stream
Discharges X X X
Increase Mean Surface
Water Discharge X X X
Alter the Hydrological
Budget X X X
Alter Groundwater Aquifer X X X
Reduce Evapotranspiration X X X


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120


Minerals Leasing Act of 1920,
as amended by 30 USC 181


Safe Drinking Water Act


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


"Provides the controls and regulation
of surface and subsurface minerals
extraction from Federal Public Lands."

"Wastewater discharges may require
additional treatment for heavy metals
or organic waste if they impact drink-
ing water supplies."






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


A Consumptive Use Permit (CUP) is required to put down a well if it
meets certain thresholds. These thresholds are:

1. If the average annual daily withdrawal exceeds 1,000,000 gallons
per day on an annual basis,
2. If there is a withdrawal from a combination of wells with a com-
bined capacity of 1,000,000 gallons per day,
3. If the withdrawal equipment has a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons
per day,
4. If the outside diameter of the well is six inches or greater.

A Water Well Construction Permit (WWCP) is required prior to construc-
tion, repair or abandonment of any public supply well having a nominal
casing diameter exceeding four inches. In the Oklawaha River Basin (all
or parts of Marion, Lake, Polk and Orange counties) a permit is required
for the same parameters, however, the nominal casing size is reduced to
two inches. Volusia and Duval counties do not require permits except for
public drinking water supply wells.

A Management and Storage of Surface Waters Permit (MSSW) is
required when a mining operation exceeds one of several thresholds. To
construct, alter, operate, repair or abandon a project, a permit is required
if:
1. It is capable of impounding 40 acre-feet,
2. The project is greater than 40 acres in size,
3. It has 12 or more acres of impervious surface which constitutes 40
percent or more of the total land area.
4. The project has a traversing work which traverses:
a. an impoundment of 10 acres or more,
b. a stream or watercourse with a drainage area of five square
miles,
c. or a Hydrologically Sensitive Area not wholly owned by the
applicant.
A Work of the District Permit (WOD) is required to make use of, alter,
remove works from or place works within, on or across a WOD. Exam-
ples of WODs are the St. Johns River, St. Johns Marsh and the Oklawaha
River.

In addition to these rules, the District requires a reclamation plan to
mitigate adverse water quality, quantity, compensating storage and envi-
ronmental impacts. These impacts are directly related to the mining oper-
ation. Specific guidelines are listed below and are utilized with site spe-
cific information (including soil types, slopes, water levels and
vegetation types) to help mitigate the impacts to the water resources and
related parameters.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX E
PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT

PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STATE OF MINNESOTA

Elements of a Management Program for the Peatlands
(Taken from Asmussen, 1980)

"Following legislative review and response in 1981 the Minnesota
Peat Program must create a long-term management program for the
peatlands. Some of the elements of a program are already in place, for
example, the leasing of horticultural peat. Should the energy and other
peatland development proposals discussed above be realized, manage-
ment concerns and responsibilities will multiply.
"One important element in an on-going program is a routine site-
selection process. Criteria are being established for identifying peatland
areas suitable for one or another type of utilization. A list of possible site
selection criteria is presented in Table 3, below.

"Table 3. Peatland Utilization Site Selection Criteria

1. Peat quality and depth
2. Accessibility
3. Watershed configuration
4. Ownership pattern
5. Proximity to existing development
6. Existing bog disturbance
7. Presence of unique features
8. Presence of conflicting uses or management status
9. Regional benefit of proposed development
10. Regional costs of proposed development

"Site selection processes must be complemented with the designation
of management units. In Minnesota, management units will be defined
primarily by watershed boundaries because water flow and direction are
the most critical impact vectors in the peatland ecosystem. Management
units might coincide with smaller watersheds. In larger watersheds it
may be possible to site developments at the downstream part of the
watershed, thereby limiting total watershed disturbance.
"The mechanism for allocating peatland to various utilizations has
been, and will probably continue to be, leasing. The state of Minnesota
owns or manages over 50 percent of the peatland in the state and about
70 percent of the peat in northern Minnesota considered most suitable
for energy developments. Traditionally, the Department of Natural
Resources has leased areas of peat for horticultural and agricultural uses
and is likely to use this mechanism for energy utilization should it occur.
"The lease is more than a simple covenant between owner and lessee.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


areas, as well as the overall policy development and coordination area,
the central coordinating role should be played by the Assistant Secretary
for Natural Resources with such supporting service from the divisions as
is deemed appropriate.
16. Recommended Approach to Resolve Issues of Wet Reclamation
and Perpetual Pumping
"DNRCD, through the peat working group, with appropriate outside
advice and expertise, should scope the issues which should be
addressed in any permit applications for a peat mine which involve either
wet reclamation or perpetual pumping. These are very important emerg-
ing issues which need to be addressed now, so that appropriate research
and policy development can take place prior to review of individual per-
mit applications. The list of issues, or questions, thus produced would
have to be addressed in the permit applications. Site-specific solutions to
these problems would then be addressed in the individual permit applica-
tions and reviews.
"Wet reclamation" includes all forms of reclamation which perma-
nently or periodically put the reclaimed area under either fresh or saltwa-
ter. Such uses as paddy culture, reversion to swamp forest or pocosin,
reservoirs, aquaculture of fish or shell fish, artificially created nursery
areas, waterfowl impoundments, marinas, and recreational lakes would
fall in this category. None of these has yet appeared on a mining permit
application, but they may do so as soon as 1983.
"Perpetual pumping" applies to any reclamation schemes which will
require constant pumping to maintain land dry enough for productive
use. Intensive agriculture is apparently the only reclamation use which
can financially justify the cost of pumping. In addition to hydrological
questions, perpetual pumping raises many legal and institutional ques-
tions which must be resolved before a permit should be issued which
involves perpetual pumping.
"The approach suggested in this recommendation is fully consistent
with the general permit package processing procedure recommended
above. The only difference comes from having advance scoping done
prior to permit applications.








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BROWARD CO.** .. M









Figure 21. Thicknesses of soils in the Everglades Agricultural Area as determined by a
recent study. (Modified from Griffin, et al., 1982).
~ 0
. . . . . . .. . .


..,..... .





PA M BEACH CO.
BROWARD CO.



Figure 21. Thicknesses of soils in the Everglades Agricultural Area as determined by a
recent study. (Modif ied f rom G rif fin, et al., 1982).











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w
a-

FIBRIC


0 10 20 30 40

PLANT FIBER
Figure 2. The relationship of peat types
Energy, 1979).


MODERATE


HIGH


LOW


50 60 70 80 90 100

DECOMPOSITION (%)
to fuel grade. (Modified from U.S. Department of






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Yellow-eyed grass, Xeris ambigua
Whitetop sedge, Dichromena colorata
"A wetlands classification scheme was developed by the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (USACOE) primarily to help delineate the boundaries
of wetlands subject to federal jurisdiction. Specifically a series of eight
preliminary guides to major regions of wetland communities and domi-
nant plant associations was produced to aid USACOE regulatory person-
nel to recognize the critical boundaries of wetlands subject to dredge and
fill permit regulation under Section 404 of Public Law 92-500 (Federal
Water Pollution Control Act Amendment of 1972).
"One particular guidebook, Preliminary Guide to Wetlands of Peninsu-
lar Florida, serves as a classification key for wetlands south of St. Augus-
tine. In addition to the key, each of eight wetland types (Saltwater
Aquatic, Saltwater Coastal Flat, Saltwater Marsh, Saltwater Swamp,
Freshwater Aquatic, Freshwater Flat, Freshwater Marsh and Freshwater
Swamp) are dealt with in detail. A brief description of each of the four
freshwater wetlands follows:
a. Freshwater aquatic
"Wetlands that are usually dominated by free-floating or rooted
aquatic herbs and are semi-permanently or permanently flooded by
freshwater (e.g., floating duckweed mats).
b. Freshwater flat
"Wetlands that have 25% or less vegetative cover and are occa-
sionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., mudflats).
c. Freshwater marsh
"Wetlands that have more than 25% vegetative cover of herba-
ceous plants but 40% or less cover by woody plants that are
occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., cattail
marsh).
d. Freshwater swamp
"Wetlands that have more than 40% cover by woody plants and
are occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., cypress
swamps).
In addition to a short general description of each wetland based on vege-
tative cover and water regime the abundance and normal locations of the
wetland within the region described. Growth forms and physiognomy are
described briefly and then shown pictorially in a simplified floristic profile
that contrasts the distribution of "typical" species (those which gener-
ally occur as dominants) and the distributions of "Transitional" species
(those generally associated with transition zones). "Associated" species
(those which commonly occur but not in sufficient abundance to be
considered dominants) are also listed (both scientific and common
names) as well as described in their relationships with dominant species.
Environmental conditions, usually the characteristics of the substrate,
hydro-period, water regime, and water pH, are described in order to
highlight the cluster of conditions that are critical to the distribution of
dominant species.


125































LEGEND
M PEAT


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


ASTATUL


LAKE
APOPKA


R 25E


R26E


R 27E


I I u
Figure 9. Peat deposits bordering lakes in Lake and Orange counties,
Florida. (From Davis, 1946).







B B'

20
19
18
17 IK -GROUND ELEV. 1912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS)
16 GROUND ELEV 1940



13 ESTIMATED GROUND ELEV. 1970
12 -

S ROCK
0 .. ESTIMATED GROUND ELEV. 2000
9 IROCK0
0 8 >
<7






MILES _-
5 0 15 20 25 30





Figure 19. Profile B-B' across the lower Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original
surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical
surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from
Stephens and Johnson, 1951).
hi 3 I
2 0
WMLES

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Figure 19. Profile B-B' across the lower Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original
surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical
surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from
Stephens and Johnson, 1951).






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


tem (1976). Inventory of state land resources would be achieved
through the coordination of remote-sensing techniques (including aerial
photography) and ground-based observations. Computer storage of such
vast quantities of information could permit organization of the data in a
variety of ways that would expedite management decisions. Within this
scheme, information from various sensors is organized into various levels
of classification ranging from Level I to Level IV. The levels are summa-
rized as follows in the technical report describing the classification sys-
tem:
"Level I classification uses satellite imagery with very little supple-
mental information. The mapping is usually at a ratio of 1:1,000,000. At
this ratio only a general classification based on major differences in land
cover can be made.
"Level II classifications are based on high altitude and satellite imagery
combined with topographic maps. The mapping is normally at a ratio of
1:1,000,000 and transferable to 1:24,000 ratio.
"Level Ill classification are based on medium altitude remote sensing
at a scale of less than 1:24,000 combined with detailed topographic
maps and substantial amounts of supplemental information, i.e., field
observation.
"Level IV classification uses low altitude imagery with most of the
information being derived from supplemental sources.
(This level is not included within this document.)
600 Wetlands: (Level I)
"Forested wetlands are areas that are subject to permanent or pro-
longed periods of inundation or saturation and/or exhibit vegetative com-
munities characteristic of this hydroperiod.
610 WETLAND-CONIFEROUS FOREST: (Level II).
"These wetlands have a tree crown areal density of 10 percent or
more (Crown closure requirement), and have a dominant tree
crown of the coniferous species, and are a result of natural seed-
ing.
611 Cypress: (Level III)
"These forested areas are dominated by a crown closure in
either bald cypress or pond cypress. Principal associates are
tupelo, gum, and maple.
612 Pond Pine: (Level III)
"These are forested areas dominated by a crown closure in
pond pine. Pond pine dominates wetter flats with low pH,
often associated with the inland reaches of marshes or
much swamps.
620 WETLAND-HARDWOOD FOREST: (Level II)
"These wetlands have a dominant tree crown of the hardwood
species meeting the crown closure requirement and are a result of
natural seeding.


122







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
TALLAHASSEE
July 1986


Governor Bob Graham, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Graham:

Florida has an estimated 606 million tons of fuel grade peat and devel-
opment of Florida's peat as a fuel source is becoming increasing attrac-
tive. Additionally, a thriving industry related to the agricultural use of
peat currently exists in the state. Peat, however, occurs almost exclu-
sively in wetlands and is an essential component of shrinking wetland
habitats.

The Bureau of Geology has designed and executed a study of Florida
peat in order to clarify issues associated with its wise utilization and
conservation. Special Publication No. 27, "An Overview of Peat in Flor-
ida" has been prepared as an account of the results of this study.

Sincerely,

Walter Schmidt, Chief
Bureau of Geology





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 133

addition it found that reduction of the development by half was a valid
exercise of police power. "The owner of private property is not entitled
to the highest and best use of his property if that use will create public
harm." Further:
"We agree with the Wisconsin Supreme Court's observation in Just v.
Marinette County, 56 Wis. 2d7, 201 N.W. 2d 761 (1972), where that
court pointed out the involvement of exceptional circumstances
because of the interrelationship of the wetlands, swamps and natural
environment to the purity of the water and natural resources such as
fishing. The court also noted the close proximity of land in question to
navigable waters which the state holds in trust for the public. Similar
factors are present in the case at bar. We agree with the Wisconsin
court that [a]n owner of land has no absolute and unlimited right to
change the essential natural character of his land so as to use it for a
purpose for which it is unsuited in its natural state and which injures
the right of others, 56 Wis. 2d at 17, 201 N.W. 2d at 768."







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


an appropriate mining method. The groundwater levels in peatlands may
also influence groundwater levels in aquifers which are connected hydro-
logically (King, et al., 1980). It is important to define the relationship, or
lack of relationship, between peatlands which are to be mined and aqui-
fers which might possibly be affected by removal of peat.
If coastal peatlands are to be mined, the drainage necessary to reduce
water levels could possibly lead to saltwater intrusion. In addition,
groundwater recharge may be reduced and groundwater levels could be
lowered (King, et al., 1980). The combination of these three effects
could lead to saltwater intrusion and King, et al. (1980) suggest the
effects of this change should be researched carefully before develop-
ment.
Peat mining will require construction of drainage ditches, water control
devices and roads. Thus, the patterns of surface water flow in the mined
area and in downstream channels will be modified (King, et al., 1980).
It is believed (King, et al., 1980) that peatland development will
increase minimum stream discharge. Net evapotranspiration from the
peatland will be reduced since vegetation must be cleared in order for
mining to occur. Thus, a greater portion of net precipitation will drain. As
ditches are constructed, more of the peatlands will be able to contribute
flow directly to artificial surface streams (King, et al., 1980).
A number of factors associated with peat mining will serve to increase
mean surface water discharge. If the mining method chosen involves
drainage, then water being drained will be added to surface water dis-
charge. Additionally, mined peat will have to be dewatered, so another
addition to surface water discharge occurs. It is projected (King, et al.,
1980) that the effects of a small scale development on mean surface
discharge would be minor. Proposed moderate and large scale mining
operations should be evaluated on a site specific basis to protect down-
stream water users and aquatic resources (King, et al., 1980).
The development and reclamation of a peatland will permanently
change the hydrologic budget of the area (King, et al., 1980). These
changes may be helpful or detrimental offsite.
If peatlands contribute to aquifers in a given area, then the effect of
positive or negative changes affecting that aquifer should be researched.
The groundwater flow from peatlands to connected regional aquifers will
change with mining (King, et al., 1980).
Lastly, the evapotranspiration rate from the mined area will change
(King, et al., 1980). Since mining involves removal of surface vegetation,
net evapotranspiration will be reduced. Ditching will lower the ground-
water level and cause a moisture deficiency in the upper portion of the
drained area which will contribute to a lower net evapotranspiration rate.
Although the effects of these changes are expected to be minor for all
scales of development, the modifications in adjacent plant and animal
communities and in local climate are poorly understood (King, et al.,
1980).





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the waste piles are removed. The notable exception is that an open body
of water may be present where the peat has been removed.

ENDANGERED SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH AREAS OF POTENTIAL
PEAT MINING

by
Thomas M. Scott

Areas of peat accumulation are associated with specific wetland habi-
tats and contain specific faunal and floral communities. The mining pro-
cess, of necessity, removes existing vegetation and significantly alters
the immediate environment of the active mine. As a result of these
altered habitats, indigenous fauna may be forced out and native flora is
destroyed.
The major wetland habitats in Florida are coastal marshes, freshwater
marshes, wet prairies, cypress swamps, hardwood swamps and man-
grove swamps. These are briefly discussed below using information
taken from Hartman (1978) and Gilbert (1978).
The coastal marshes occur along shorelines characterized by low wave
energy. Coastal marshes are generally found north of the range of man-
groves but are interspersed with mangroves in some areas. These
marshes may extend into tidal rivers and sometimes exist as a narrow
zone between mangroves and freshwater in south Florida.
Freshwater marshes consist of herbaceous plant communities in areas
of water-saturated soils which may be characterized by standing water
during portions of the year. Freshwater marshes grade into wet prairies
with the characteristic differences being shallower water and more abun-
dant grasses in the wet prairie.
Cypress swamps generally have water at or above ground level a sig-
nificant portion of the year. Cypress swamps occur along rivers and lake
margins and may be scattered among other environments. This habitat
contains fewer grasses and significantly more abundant trees.
Hardwood swamps occur in lake basins and along rivers where the
substrate is saturated or submerged for at least part of the year. Two
important variations of this habitat are the bayhead swamp and the titi
swamp.
Bayhead swamps are very similar to cypress swamps except the vege-
tation is more dense. The growth may be so dense as to be impenetrable
in some areas. The plants of the bayheads are mostly small trees with
shrubs and cypress. Standing water is present most of the year within
these areas. These swamps are dominated by varieties of bay trees.
Titi swamps are similar to the bayhead swamps. They are dominated
by the presence of titi rather than bay trees.
Mangrove swamps occur along low energy coastlines in central and
southern Florida. Mangroves dominate with red mangrove furthest sea-






























LEGEND

WATER ALGAL MAT FRESH WATER MARL M PEAT BEDROCK E


SECTIONAL PROFILE THROUGH A CYPRESS HAMMOCK

Figure 6. Cross-section through a cypress hammock, Everglades National
Spackman, et al., 1964).


"Moat" a
c



m
0
-n

m
'-
i -0


3- SCALE
4-

0 FEET 50

Park. (Modified from










































10


20
MILES


25


30


35


40


Profile A-A' across the upper Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original
surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical
surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from
Stephens and Johnson, 1951).


A


C)
00


20

18


-J 16
16

(n
14
z
4
< 12

w 10
A--

z 8
z
o 6
>-
> 4
IJ
-1
L.J


A'


GROUND ELEVATIONS 1912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS)

I--^ -


,.~I. GROUND ELEVATIONS 1940 (SCS SURVEYS)

-.S AND:'.

ESTIMATED GROUND ELEVATIONS 19TO



ESTIMATED GROUND ELEVATIONS 2000


I ROCK)
u cr I, ROCK


ui 4 0 > c
x a. z


Figure 18.


w
C
m



'1

m
0
I-
0
0<


v


F


LLI
>
|, 1





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


APPENDIX F
1984 SUPPLEMENT TO FLORIDA STATUTES 1983

403.265 Peat mining; permitting
(1) Definitions-As used in this section, the term:
(a) "Agricultural use of peat" means the use of peat as a soil
medium, additive, enhancer, or fertilizer.
(b) "Peat" means a dark brown or black residuum produced by
the partial decomposition and disintegration of mosses, sedges, trees,
and other plants that grow in marshes and other wet places.
(c) "Peat mining activity" means the extraction of peat or peat
soils for sale or consumption or the disturbance of vegetation or soils in
anticipation of the extraction of peat or peat soils for sale or consump-
tion. For the purposes of this part, the term "peat mining activity"
does not include the removal of peat or peat soils for construction
activities or the removal of overburden for other mining activities.
(d) "Peat soil" means soil which contains at least 75 percent dry
weight of peat mineral. Such soil is rich in humus and gives an acid
reaction.
(2) Each department permit which authorizes the mining of peat or
peat soils or any mining activity associated with the anticipation of the
extration of peat or peat soils for sale or consumption shall require the
permitted to institute and complete a reclamation program for the area
mined, which program must include the following factors:
(a) Control of the physical and chemical quality of the water
draining from the mining area;
(b) Soil stabilization, including contouring and vegetation;
(c) Elimination of health and safety hazards;
(d) Conservation and preservation of remaining natural
resources; and
(e) A time schedule for the completion of the program and the
various phases thereof.
(3) The department may adopt rules which are consistent with the
powers and duties listed in s. 403.912 to govern the mining of peat,
including stricter permitting and enforcement provisions for the mining
for sale or consumption of peat or peat soils within or contiguous to the
areas which have been designated as Outstanding Florida Waters or
which were under consideration by the Environmental Regulation Com-
mission for such designation on April 1, 1984.
(4) The mining of peat or peat soils of less than 5 acres per year, and
all peat mining activities for the agricultural use of peat, are exempt from
the provisions of this section.
(5) Nothing in this section limits the permitting authority of the depart-
ment to regulate peat mining pursuant to other provisions of this chapter.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981, Florida Energy
Resources: State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, Tallahassee, Flor-
ida, 111 p.

Stein, J., L.C. Hauck, and P.Y. Su, eds., 1975, Random House College
Dictionary, Random House, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1568 p.

Stephens, J.C., 1974, Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Florida
Everglades-A Review and Update, in P.J. Gleason, ed., Environments of
South Florida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, pp.
352-361.

Stephens, J.C., and L. Johnson, 1951, Subsidence of Organic Soils in
the Upper Everglades of Florida: Soil Science Society of Florida Proceed-
ings, Vol. XI, pp. 191 -237.

Tate, R.L., 1980, Environmental Factors Limiting Microbial Activity in
Histosols, in Proceeding of the 6th International Peat Congress, August
17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., p. 695.

Tebeau, C.W., 1974, South Florida Water Management District, in P.J.
Gleason, ed., Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miami
Geological Society, Memoir 2, p. 362.

Turner, F.J., and J. Verhoogen, 1960, Igneous and Metamorphic Petrol-
ogy: 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 545 p.

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972-1981, Minerals Yearbook: U.S. Depart-
ment of Interior, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, Peat-Prospectus: United States
Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Processing, Washington,
D.C., 79 p.

Weast, R.C., ed., 1973, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 54th ed.,
CRC Press, Cleveland, Oh.

White, W.H., 1970, The Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula: Florida
Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, Tallahassee, Fl., 164 p.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


properly refers to the practically obsolete procedure of literally harvesting
living Sphagnum from the surface of a bog. In this procedure, Sphagnum
is allowed to continue its growth subsequent to harvesting (A. Cohen,
personal communication, 1984). Peat, however, is not considered
renewable due to its slow rate of accumulation (U.S. Department of
Energy, 1979; Moore and Bellamy, 1974).
Currently, the choice of "harvesting" as opposed to "mining" for
terms to describe the excavation process of peat may be arbitrary. The
type of distinction is demonstrated in the following quotation taken from
Peat Prospectus: "Thus, the recovery of peat is a surface mining or
harvesting process," (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, p. 18). It may
be significant that surface mining carries with it certain negative environ-
mental connotations. Harvesting is largely free of environmentally nega-
tive connotations but this is perceived to be due to a lack of understand-
ing since harvesting is frequently used as synonymous with surface
mining.
The equipment utilized in the peat removal process is not associated
with harvesting in its commonly accepted sense. Peat operations which
are currently active in Florida utilize earth moving and excavating
machinery. In drained bogs such machinery commonly includes shovels,
bulldozers and front-end loaders while draglines, clamshells and dredges
are used in undrained bogs (Searls, 1980).
The process of harvesting in its usual sense does not imply the neces-
sity of extensive land reclamation. However, reclamation of peatlands
which have been excavated is acknowledged as necessary (Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources, 1981) and is discussed more thor-
oughly in the section of this report entitled "Reclamation of Peatlands of
Florida".

Classification Systems Applied to Peat

Peat, like many materials, is classified for the convenience of persons
using it. Since peat use in the United States has been largely agricultural,
most classification schemes are based on properties of peat pertinent to
agricultural applications. As one might expect, classification schemes
devised for agricultural application do not necessarily indicate peat qual-
ity for energy purposes. However, there is a general relationship between
peat decomposition and its energy value with respect to direct combus-
tion. This is illustrated in Figure 2.
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has estab-
lished maximum and minimum particle sizes for fibers found in peat
(ASTM, 1969). They additionally specify fiber content requirements for
various types of peat. The maximum particle size for fibers is 0.5 inch
(1.25 cm) and the minimum is 0.006 inches (0.15 mm). Peat is subdi-
vided into five types and each type must contain a certain percentage of
the characteristic fiber. These percentages are based on an oven-dried
weight at 1050C as opposed to volume. The types of peat recognized by







34


BASIN BOUNDARY CONTROL STRUCTURE (S)


HGS
LAKE
^ OKEECHOBEE


L-I


L-2


L-6


L-3


L-4 S-8\\


L-5


S-7


Figure 16. Location map of the Everglades Agricultural Area. (Modi-
fied from Snyder, et al., 1978).



Lake Okeechobee is not coincidence (Figure 16). Before the activities of
man altered the tendency of Lake Okeechobee to overflow along its
southern edge, silt, clay, and organic colloids were mixed with dead
plants to form muck. In this way, the mucks became enriched in the
microelements that peat lacks (Stephens, 1974), enchancing the mucks
as an agricultural growth medium.


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


PRIVATELY BACKPUMPED LANDS


STATE OWNED LANDS


CANAL
LEVEE (L)


G3
LIIZ"'








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WETLAND ENVIRONMENT
ABUNDANT VEGETATION ADAPTED TO SWAMPY CONDITIONS


Plant litter accumulates at
the surface

Buried plant litter decays
partially and is compacted
forming peat

Underlying sediments in Florida
typically consist of limestone
clay and unconsolidated sand.


i OVERLYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.:***

BROWN COAL

= UNDERLYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS






; HUNDREDS TO THOUSANDS---
-OF METE 0 F ........ ......
:_-OVERLYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS_

--- ----- ---Bi iriiriril~O~ ~i~


Figure 1. The process of coal formation. (Modified from Press

and Siever, 1974, Figure 13- 18, p. 468).


With shallow burial peat is
compressed to form brown
coal,













Additional burial transforms
the brown coal to lignite if
burial is comparatively shallow
and bituminous coal if depth of
burial is greater.










Coal is metamorphosed to anthracite
or graphite with continuing burial
and metamorphism.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


remain they could be severely affected by peat mining activities. Randy
Kautz (Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, personal communica-
tion, 1983) expressed concern for selected habitats of the Florida Black
Bear.


RECLAMATION OF MINED PEATLANDS


by
Paulette Bond

Farnham (1979) notes that in a number of European nations, reclama-
tion of mined peatlands has been common practice for many years.
Mined areas are used for crop production, tree production, conservancy
areas, wildlife habitats and lakes or ponds. Ireland and Poland commonly
use mined peatlands for forage and grass production. In a recent consid-
eration of reclamation of mined peatlands (King, et al., 1980), primary
purposes were cited as provision for long-term erosion control and drain-
age and mitigation of environmental and socioeconomic effects of min-
ing by improving the value of the land.
Farnham, et al. (1980) note that reclamation should preferably be con-
sidered before removing peat for energy purposes. King, et al. (1980)
optimistically suggest that reclamation programs could create lands with
superior recreational and wildlife habitat values. These researchers also
note that drained organic soils may have great economic value as agricul-
tural or forest lands. It should be noted that experience gained in the
Everglades Agricultural Area supports the economic viability of farming
drained organic soils. However, the rate of subsidence of organic soils in
the Florida Everglades Agricultural Area is well known and suggests that
this type of reclamation might not be a feasible long-term solution for use
in Florida's mined peatlands. In order to achieve an approved reclamation
plan, clean-up and possible permanent drainage control may be indicated
(King, et al., 1980).
King, et al. (1980) have prepared a list of environmental parameters
affecting reclamation options. They include 1) seasonal fluctuations in
groundwater level, 2) soil fertility and drainage characteristics, 3) the
amount of residual peat remaining after mining, 4) trafficability (the abil-
ity of the bog surface to support vehicles and machinery), and 5) number
and types of lakes and streams. In addition, factors which control site
specific reclamation programs are tabulated by the same authors. That
information is presented in Table 9. In examining Table 9, it is important
to note that factors tabulated are independent of each other. Thus, a
small development might be harvested by wet methods. The private
single owner of this small development might choose to let the mined-out
area become a lake (open water), since drainage could prove difficult and
undesirable assuming water tables in the area were high.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


"A policy on the ultimate extent of peat mining will result, in large part,
from DNRCD's implementation of the preceding recommendation in
areas suitable for mining. Details-e.g., the width of buffer zones along
estuaries or the precise nature of environmental safeguards developed
for mining and reclamation in low-lying areas-of this implementation
and of permitting decisions will shape the ultimate boundaries of the
parts of peat deposits which may be mined. The other major DNRCD
action which will influence the ultimate extent of peat mining will be the
preservation or protection of natural areas and special wildlife popula-
tions.
"The task force discussed the concept that limits should be placed on
the total acreage actually disturbed by all active peat mines at any given
time, but the task force did not find that sufficient information yet exists
to provide the basis for a sound standard requiring this. Since aggregated
disturbed area would most likely express its cumulative impacts most
quickly in particulate air pollution, or perhaps eventually groundwater
impacts, the task force concluded that air quality standards would oper-
ate to limit additional mining. This would happen, the task force pro-
jected, before other impacts create problems. However, the regular eval-
uation of monitoring results should endeavor to detect effects which
contradict this conclusion. The Mining Act's provisions can be invoked to
revise or revoke existing mining permits should unsatisfactory cumula-
tive effects be detected.
"A specific long-term strategy is needed to ensure development com-
patible with the survival of wildlife. It should embody two distinct
approaches: (1) identification and preservation of critical natural areas,
and (2) establishment of wildlife habitat by conditions imposed on mining
and reclamation.
"There are areas in the peatlands which should be left entirely in their
natural state. These areas should be identified as quickly as possible, and
a program to ensure the preservation of these areas should be developed.
State policy towards black bear habitat, in particular, could greatly affect
the extent of peat mining. The task force recommends that the Division
of Parks and Recreation be directed to move as soon -as possible to
convert the recently completed natural areas inventories in most of the
peatlands counties into a specific program for preservation or conserva-
tion. Also, as a comprehensive wildlife protection program will necessar-
ily involve some land acquisition, the Division of Parks and Recreation
and the Wildlife Resources Commission should be directed to prepare
specific alternatives in this regard, including identification of areas
needed to be protected, priorities for acquisition, and mechanisms for
acquisition. Particular attention should be given to alternatives such as
donations, tax incentives, fee purchase, and conservation easements. In
close coordination with this review, the Division of Land Resources
should be directed to review and establish a clear policy on the possible
requirement, as a mining permit condition, to leave part of the area cov-
ered by a mining permit in its natural state if needed to prevent undue




















HUNDREDS OF YARDS
LEGEND
E SAPROPEL
111l FIBROUS SAWGRASS PEAT

CLAY

Figure 10. Cross-section showing peat filling lake (Mud Lake, Marion County, Florida).
(From Davis, 1946).






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


muck Dark, finely divided, well decomposed, organic material inter-
mixed with a high percentage of mineral matter, which forms surface
deposits in some poorly drained areas.

napthalene A white, crystalline, water insoluble hydrocarbon, C10H8,
contained in coals, peat tar and some crude oils.

NPDES Permit (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) A
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permit required for any operation
which results in a discharge into the surface waters of the U.S.

oils See benzene, napthalene and phenol.

ombrotrophic Peatlands which are isolated from the regional ground-
water system and receive moisture only from precipitation; contains
acidic decaying vegetation or peat. See also: bog.

opal A mineral (or mineral gel): SiO2.nH2O. It is an amorphous (collo-
dial) form of silica containing a varying proportion of water (as much as
20 percent but usually 3-9 percent) and occurring in nearly all colors.
Opal is transparent to nearly opaque and typically exhibits a definite and
often marked iridescent play of color. It differs from quartz in being
isotropic, having a lower refractive index and being softer and less
dense.

organic soil A general term applied for a soil or a soil horizon that
contains at least 30 percent organic matter, such as peat soils, muck
soils and peaty soil layers.

oxidation The process of combining with oxygen.

ozone A form of oxygen, 03, having three atoms per molecule, pro-
duced when ordinary oxygen gas is passed through an electrical dis-
charge.

peat An unconsolidated deposit of semicarbonized plant remains
occurring in a watersaturated environment, such as a bog or fen. It is
considered an early stage or rank in the development of coal; carbon
content is about 60 percent and oxygen content is about 30 percent (dry
weight). When dried, peat burns freely. It may contain no more than 25%
ash.

peat bitumens Those peat components which are soluble in nonpolar
organic solvents (gasoline, benzene, dichloroethane, etc.). The peat bitu-
mens of commercial interest are waxes and resins.

peat coal A fuel, derived from the wet carbonization of peat, contain-
ing a heat value of 12,000- 14,000 BTU/lb dry weight.


110






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


may be instituted. Florida's climate is unlike the climates of other peat
producing areas in which extensive research has been done. Peat in
Florida frequently lies directly over limestone or quartz sand. This rela-
tionship coupled with subsidence rates measured in Florida must be con-
sidered carefully with respect to reclamation to agriculture. If reclama-
tion to agriculture or silviculture is considered, the fertility of the residual
peat and its thickness must be investigated. A number of site specific
hydrologic characteristics will require consideration including the number
and types of lakes and streams as well as the relationship of the site to
groundwater resources in its area.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Mineral versus Non-Mineral

Peat, like coal, petroleum and natural gas, does not comply with the
principal conditions set forth in the academic definition of the term min-
eral. Peat represents an early stage in a series of products which may
under certain conditions result in the conversion of vegetable matter to
pure carbon (peat-lignite-bituminous coal-anthracite-graphite), the end
product of which fits all the requirements of a true mineral. In classifying
peat as a mineral or non-mineral, there has been a tendency toward
allowing use to play an important role in the classification, that is, if used
as an agricultural product peat would be treated as a non-mineral or if
used as an energy source or fossil fuel peat would be treated as a min-
eral. Classification based on use can create considerable confusion espe-
cially with mineral products used as fertilizers. Peat has been historically
classified by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey as
a mineral resource, a somewhat broader category than just "mineral",
along with coal, oil and natural gas. Peat is generally regarded as nonre-
newable by earth science professionals, requiring in excess of 1,000
years to generate a commercially extractable deposit of fuel grade peat.
This study concludes that because of peat's genetic relationship to the
mineral graphite, its general classification by the U.S. Bureau of Mines
and the U.S. Geological Survey as a mineral resource, and its nonrene-
wability, peat should be classed as a "mineral resource", or "mineral
product".

Harvesting versus Mining

Harvesting and mining have been used synonymously to refer to the
extraction of peat. Literature searches reveal that the term harvesting
correctly refers to the nearly obsolete practice of selectively removing
living Sphagnum (peat moss) from the surface of a bog. In this practice,
Sphagnum was allowed to grow back, permitting successive harvests in
a single location. Peat (unlike living Sphagnum) is considered nonrenew-
able and the term harvesting is inappropriate when applied to peat






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Toxic Substances Control Act
(TOSCA)
PL 94-469

Noise Control Act 1972
PL 92-574




National Historic Preservation
Act of 1966 PL 89-665



Endangered Species Act
PL 93-205



Fish and Wildlife Coordination
Act
PL 85-624


MOU-1967 DOD & DOI
EO-1977

Wildlife and Scenic Rivers Act
PL 90-542

Coastal Zone Management Act
of 1972
PL 92-583


"Since effluent guidelines have not
been developed for most fossil energy
technologies, permit requirements are
determined on a case-by-case basis by
states or by EPA."

"A "No Discharge" goal has been set
for 1985."

"Disposal of specific materials used in
peat energy process may be regu-
lated."

"Control of ambient noise levels and
recommended standards for facilities
regulated by state and local govern-
ments may be required in the near
future."

"Federally financed, assisted, or per-
mitted projects cannot impact impor-
tant historic or culture sites unless no
alternative exists."

"Identification of endangered aquatic
and terrestrial species at a potential
construction site is required. May
effect peat energy facility siting."

"Any project requiring modification of
bodies of water must be reviewed to
prevent or reduce loss or damage to
fish and wildlife."

"Controls permit action by Corps of
Engineers."

"Project must not degrade the quality
of wildlife habitats and scenic rivers."

"State coastal zone management
plans developed with Federal financial
assistance may affect siting and
design of harvesting and conversion
plant."










FEET (METERS) PINE PALMETTO
ABOVE SEA PINE- PALMETTO
LEVEL FLATWOOD BAY SWAMP
70
(21.3)
TITI SWAMP
60


50 C
(15.2) M

c
40
0
(12.2)

30 -

(9.1) 0
--)
20 L "-
(6.1)
LEGEND
["I PEAT, MUCK and SAND r SAND PEAT and MUCK SAND, SILT and CLAY

I MARL

Figure 8. Cross-section through bay swamp and titi swamp, Bradwell Bay Wilderness,
Wakulla County, Florida. (Modified from Cameron, et al., 1977).





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Protection of Wetlands
Executive Order 11990


Protection and Enhancement
of Environmental Quality
Executive Order 11514 as
amended by Executive Order
11911


Surface Mining Control and
Reclamation Act of 1977
30 USC 1201


regulated programs, and Federal activ-
ities affecting land use."

"Reduce floodplain hazards and apply
floodplain management practices."

"Each agency will provide leadership
and action to minimize the destruction
and loss of wetlands and will conduct
activities so as not to adversely affect
land use and water resource planning
efforts."

"Each agency must review possible
alternatives and designate practicable
measures to mitigate the impacts."

"The Federal government shall pro-
vide leadership in protecting and
enhancing the environmental [sic] and
quality of life."

"Each agency must: monitor and eval-
uate its activities to protect the envi-
ronment; develop procedures to issue
public information on Federal plans
and programs; develop research and
demonstration testing programs; and
engage in data and research exchange
with other agencies."

"Provides a mechanism for Federal
and State review of all surface extrac-
tion of coal and other minerals (Peat
may be considered to be a mineral)."

"Designed to issue and enforce regu-
lations for the surface mining industry,
reduce environmental degradation,
and force reclamation of a surface
mine area."

"The act declares that surface mining
when conducted in an environmen-
tally safe and diligent manner is a
legally permitted activity."






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


peat coke A carbon residue produced by the pyrolysis of peat which
is a raw material for the production of activated carbon, in the production
of high purity silicon and in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosili-
con alloys.

peat-humus (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
classification) Peat which contains less than 33.33 percent plant fiber.
NOTE: ASTM is presently in the process of revising this classification;
the above term will no longer be used.

peat resin A peat bitumen, a byproduct of peat wax production uti-
lized primarily as a source of steroids for use by the pharmaceutical
industry.

peat tar A water immiscible condensate produced by the pyrolysis of
peat. It is often recycled as fuel for the coking pyrolysiss) process.

peat wax See peat bitumen.

petroleum ether A flammable, low boiling point, hydrocarbon mixture
produced by the fractional distillation of petroleum, used as a solvent.

pH The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity (less correctly
concentration), indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.

phenol A white poisonous substance, C6HOH, derived from coal or
peat tar or as a derivative of benzene; used primarily as a disinfectant, as
an antiseptic and in organic synthesis; also called carbolic acid.

physiognomy External aspect; characteristic or quality as revealed
outwardly.

polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Nonmethane hydrocarbons pro-
duced by the incomplete combustion of peat; they are carcinogenic at
very low levels and are stable in the environment.

potassium dichromate An orange-red poisonous powder, K2Cr207,
used as a laboratory reagent, in dyeing and in photographic chemicals.

power gas Gas utilized as fuel.

proximate analysis The determination of moisture, volatile matter,
fixed carbon, and ash using procedures prescribed by the American Soci-
ety of Testing and Materials.

pulverized fired boiler A boiler design which uses fuel which has been
finely ground.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Figure 5. SW-NE cross-section from Cape Sable to vicinity of
Tamiami Trail. (Modified from Spackman, et al., 1964;
and Spackman, et al., 1976.


water. Specific environments are enumerated for both marine to brackish
water deposits and also fresh water deposits. Peats of these deposits are
differentiated based mainly on their botanical composition.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX C
FLORIDA STATUTES CONCERNING WETLANDS

(Taken from Brown, et al., 1983)
"How Wetlands are Perceived in Florida Law

"A marsh or a swamp which is not physically connected to a lake or
stream by even occasional overflow is treated as surface water in spite
of its permanence" (Maloney, 1971, in Brown, et al., 1983). Therefore,
it is common to see wetlands characterized as "surface water" in the
Florida Statutes, which administers authority to the various agencies. It
is not until such agencies mandate specific actions that the actual term
of "wetlands" is used.

"Florida Statutes that Administer Wetland Authority Chapter
380-The Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of
1972

"Section 380.012-Purpose
It is the intent that, in order to protect natural resources and environ-
ment of this state as provided in s. 7, Art. II of the State Constitution,
insure a water management system that will reverse the deterioration of
water quality and provide optimum utilization of our limited water
resources, facilitate orderly and well-planned development, and protect
the health, welfare, safety, and quality of life of the residents of this
state, it is necessary adequately to plan for and guide growth and devel-
opment within this state. In order to accomplish these purposes, it is
necessary that the state establish land and water management policies
to guide and coordinate local decisions relating to growth and develop-
ment; that such state land and water management policies should, to the
maximum possible extent be implemented by local governments through
existing processes for the guidance of growth and development; and that
all the existing rights of private property be preserved in accord with the
constitutions of this state and of the United States.

"Section 380.05-Areas of critical state concern
(1) (a) The state land planning agency may from time to time recom-
mend to the Administration Commission specific areas of critical state
concern. In its recommendation, the agency shall include recommenda-
tions with respect to the purchase of lands situated within the bounda-
ries of the proposed area as environmentally endangered lands and out-
door recreation lands under the Land Conservation Act of 1972. The
agency also shall include any report or recommendation of a resource
planning and management committee appointed pursuant to s. 380.045;
the dangers that would result from uncontrolled or inadequate develop-
ment of the area and the advantages that would be achieved from the
development of the area in a coordinated manner; a detailed boundary


126





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Water Quality Measurements Prepared for Wastewater Discharge
Assessment, Peat-to-Methanol Plant, Creswell, North Carolina.

In situ:
Dissolved Oxygen, Field (mg/L)
pH, Field (standard units)
Sechi Depth (m)
Specific Conductance, Field (umhos/cm)
Water Temperature (C)


Classicals:
Alkalinity, Total (mg/L as CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/L-N)
Antimony (ug/L)
BOD (mg/L, 20 day-20 deg C)
BOD (mg/L, 3 day-20 deg C)
BOD (mg/L, 30 day-20 deg C)
BOD (mg/L, 40 day-20 deg C)
BOD (mg/L, 50 day-20 deg C)
BOD (10 day mg/L)
BOD (5 day mg/L)
BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 10 day-20
deg C)
BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 20 day-20
deg C)
BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 3 day-20
deg C)
BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 30 day-20
deg C)
BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 40 day-20
deg C)
BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 5 day-20
deg C)
BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 50 day-20
deg C)
Calcium, Total (mg/L)
Chloride (mg/L)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L, corrected)
Cobalt
Color (CPU)
Copper, Total (ug/L)
Cyanide (mg/L)

Metals:
Arsenic, Total (ug/L)
Chromium, Total (ug/L)
Chromium, (+ 6) (ug/L)


Dissolved Reactive Silica
Flouride (mg/L)
Hardness (mg/L)
Iron, Total (ug/LO
Lead, Total (ug/L)
Magnesium, Total (mg/L)
Mercury, Total (ug/L)
Nickel (ug/L)
NO2, (mg/L-N)
NO,, (mg/L-N)
NO,, NO, (mg/L-N)
Ortho-Phosphate, Dissolved
(mg/L as P)
Phosphorus, Total (mg/L as P)
Silica, Total (mg/L as SiO2)
Silver, Total (ug/L)
Sodium, Total (mg/L)
Solids, Dissolved (mg/L)
Solids, Total Suspended (mg/L)
Sulfate (mg/L)
T. Org. N. (mg/L-N)
Thiocyanate (mg/L as SCN)
TKN (mg/L-N)
Turbidity (NIU)
Zinc, Total (ug/L)








Cadmium, Total (ug/L)
Magnesium, Total (mg/L)
Selenium, Total (ug/L)


135






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


istics of the mined area. Net changes both on and off site will be a
function of the size (or scale) of the operation, the mining procedures
which are employed, and technology used for energy processing follow-
ing mining. Water resources issues listed in decreasing order of their
importance include:
1. Floodwater Runoff Response
2. Groundwater Elevations
3. Salt Water Intrusion
4. Surface Flow Patterns
5. Minimum Stream Discharges
6. Mean Surface Water Discharges
7. Hydrological Budget
8. Groundwater Aquifers
9. Evaportranspiration Rate


Table 5 lists various water resource parameters which might be
affected by development of peat mining operations. The operations are
classified into three size groups and each water resource parameter is
evaluated in terms of the effects of small, moderate and large scale
development. Obviously, the hydrologic characteristics of each individ-
ual site must also be considered in determining the extent to which a
given peat mining development will modify a specific water resource
parameter. Mining operations are classified as small, moderate or large
based on the peat they require and the amount of energy they produce.
A small peat operation (1 megawatt-MW) would require approxi-
mately 6.5 acres of peat, six feet in depth per year. The total amount of
peat consumed in an operation projected to last four years would be
approximately 26 acres mined to a depth of six feet. A peat operation of
moderate scale (60 MW) is projected to consume approximately 3,500
acres of peat averaging six feet in depth over a 20 year period. An
operation categorized as large (800 MW) would require approximately
125,000 acres of peat to operate for 20 years (King, et al., 1980).
Development which accompanies peat mining and subsequent recla-
mation may change an area's floodwater response. The extent of this
change will vary with the size of the development itself. Some factors
accompanying development will tend to increase flood flows and other
factors will tend to decrease them (King, et al., 1980). The net effect of
these potential opposing factors will have to be evaluated for each site
specifically. King, et al. (1980) suggest that appropriate state agencies
define downstream flood prone areas so that they may be protected from
large or moderate peatland developments at upstream sites.
Drainage of mined areas and potential ponding will cause changes in
groundwater levels. Groundwater levels are of prime concern in choosing






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


*.g BP


Figure 15. Peat deposits in Florida. (From State of Florida Gover-
nor's Energy Office, 1981).


between 12 to 20 feet above mean sea level (M.S.L.) (Parker, 1974). The
water level in the upper Everglades rose and fell in response to the fluctu-
ations of Lake Okeechobee.
In the wet season, most of the Everglades was inundated much of the
time. When the water level of Lake Okeechobee reached about 14.6 feet
(M.S.L.), two separate segments of the lake shore would begin overflow-
ing into the Everglades. At about 18 feet (M.S.L.), the entire southern
shore (30 miles) overflowed, pouring a flood into the upper Everglades
(Parker, 1974). It is important to note, however, that losses due to
evapotranspiration are estimated to have been as high as 82 percent.
Thus, flood water from Lake Okeechobee most probably did not travel
the entire length of the Everglades, but rather local precipitation caused
the inundation (Parker, 1974). This mass of water flowed sluggishly to





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ally to a maximum of three years provided all requirements are met.
Approval of a peatland exploration license is granted only if the applicant:
has no other license in effect; can demonstrate the proposed develop-
ment will not adversely affect the future availability of peat for an exist-
ing leaseholder; and can market the product without jeopardizing the
existing industry in the province.
"After determining the portion of the exploration area best suited for
the proposed use, the applicant may then apply for a peat lease of 250
hectares (620 acres). This application must include a drainage plan, a
harvesting and future expansion plan, and an abandonment plan. If all
requirements are met a lease can be granted for a period of ten years.
Renewal for further ten year periods is possible if certain minimum pro-
duction requirements and other conditions are met. A security deposit to
ensure compliance with production and abandonment plans is required.
"The size and term of leases is designed to avoid the holding and
under-utilization of large tracts of peatlands for extended periods. How-
ever, to ensure the opportunity for expansion, the holder of a lease may
negotiate a time limited option on an adjacent buffer zone."

PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA

(Recommendations prepared by the Peat Mining Task Force,
Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, State
of North Carolina, January 1983)

"The DNRCD Peat Mining Task Force has completed its review of the
department's permitting procedures for peat mining. It has also reviewed
its own 1981 recommendations, updating them as necessary. In the
recommendations below, whenever a 1981 recommendation has been
updated or repeated, it is so noted and major changes are explained. The
task force considered the issues of peat use and has reconsidered the
overall impacts of peat mining. From this effort have come the conclu-
sions and recommendations in this report. Specific recommendations
follow.
1. Existing Permits
"The review of the five existing mining permits for peat mines has led
the task force to conclude that all five of them should be revised to
include the recommendations in this report. The three existing peat
mines which do not have NPDES, air quality, and water use permits
should be required to apply immediately for these permits. The Division
of Land Resources, in coordination with the Division of Environmental
Management, should immediately notify permit holders of this determi-
nation. In the case of these three, the revision of the mining permit and
the applications for the three DEM permits should be treated as a pack-
age and public meetings held. In addition to the mining permit revision,
the other two mines (PEATCO and Whitetail) should have their water and
air permits revised to reflect the contents of Table III.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


nutrients could be released to receiving waters. If nutrient supplies are
increased, eutrophication rates would increase and changes in the
aquatic ecosystem would occur (King, et al., 1980).
Peat contains a number of organic acids. These compounds (fatty
acids, humic acids, amino acids, tannic acids and other organic acids) are
partially responsible for the low pH values associated with waters from
peatlands. The release of waters containing such compounds as a part of
the drainage and dewatering process could have a direct toxological
effect on aquatic organisms.
Peat, since it is derived from an accumulation of plant material, may
also contain microlevels of heavy metal ions which were used by original
plants for life processes. Heavy metal ions are also derived from fallout of
pollutants directly onto the surface of the peat and from the filtering of
surface waters by peats. If peats are exploited as a fuel resource, they
must be drained and dewatered and, eventually, processed for energy
production. This processing may lead to the release of metals to the air
and water.
It is suggested (King, et al., 1980) that all effluent streams be moni-
tored qualitatively and quantitatively to determine the characteristics of
organic chemicals being released. Mining of peat and its processing for
energy may possibly lead to an inadvertent release of toxic inorganic
compounds and phenols. It is important to note that release of these
materials may not necessarily occur. Peat mining and subsequent pro-
cessing for energy, however, have not been extensively practiced in the
United States and monitoring is suggested as means of offsetting this
lack of experience.
The mining and dewatering of peat may result in the release of colloidal
and settleable solids into receiving streams. Peat itself comprises water-
soluble colloidal material and small particles of cellulose and fibrous
material. The nature of these materials and of the constituents which
may become adsorbed onto them is such that oxygen levels are expected
to be depressed. Additionally, the transport of nutrients which might lead
to eutrophication and heavy metals might be increased.
Three states which have begun to cope with water quality aspects
which might accompany the mining of peat for energy include Minne-
sota, North Carolina and Florida. Appendix D of this document includes
lists of water quality parameters chosen for measurement by each state.
The lists are different, since they were prepared for somewhat different
purposes. The state of Minnesota, after an extensive literature review,
concluded that baseline data were needed. A study was devised in which
33 water quality parameters were monitored in 45 undisturbed peatlands
in northern Minnesota. The list of parameters being monitored in North
Carolina has been developed for the assessment of wastewater dis-
charge in conjunction with a proposed peat-to-methanol plant at
Creswell, North Carolina. The Florida Department of Environmental Reg-
ulation has required monitoring of 26 water quality parameters in a per-






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


(selenite). Gypsum is used chiefly as a soils amendment, as a retarder in
portland cement and in making plaster.

harvesting The gathering of a crop or yield of one growing season.
Commonly refers to vegetable matter which can be replanted at will. In
reference to peat, this term is used as a synonym for mining.

hectare A metric unit of land area equal to 10,000 square meters or
2.471 acres.

hemic peat (U.S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat in
which plant fibers compose between 33.33 and 66.66 percent of the
material; more decomposed than fibric peat.

humic acid Black, acidic, organic matter extracted from soils, peat,
low rank coals and other decayed plant substances by alkalis. It is insolu-
ble in acids and organic solvents.

hydraulic peat mining Peat mining methods which do not require prior
drainage of the deposit. Typically, high pressure water guns or dredges
are used to cut peat from the deposit.

hydrocracking A process in which relatively heavy hydrocarbons are
broken up by heat into lighter products (such as gasoline) in the presence
of hydrogen.

hydrologic budget An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from and
storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone,
lake or reservoir (Langbein and Iseri, 1960); the relationship between
evaporation, precipitation, runoff and the change in water storage,
expressed by the hydrologic equation. Syn: water balance; water
budget; hydrologic balance.

hydrology The science that deals with continental water (both liquid
and solid), its properties, circulation and distribution, on and under the
Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, from the moment of its precipita-
tion until it is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or is
discharged into the ocean.

hydroperiod (of a wetland community) A measure of the time (usu-
ally in days per year) that water is at or above the soil surface.

hydrostatic head The height of a vertical column of water, the weight
of which, if of unit cross section, is equal to the hydrostatic pressure at a
point; static head, as applied to water.

hypnum moss peat (American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM) classification) Peat which contains at least 33.33 percent plant
fibers with one-half of those identifiable as Hypnum moss. NOTE: ASTM






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


role, processes, and powers of local governments in the establishment
and implementation of comprehensive planning program to guide and
control future development.
"(3) It is the intent of this act that its adoption is necessary so that
local governments can preserve and enhance present advantages;
encourage the most appropriate use of land, water, and resources con-
sistent with the public interest; overcome present handicaps; and deal
effectively with future problems that may result from the use and devel-
opment of land within their jurisdictions. Through the process of compre-
hensive planning, it is intended that units of local government can pre-
serve, promote, protect, and improve public health, safety, comfort,
good order, appearance, convenience, law enforcement and fire preven-
tion, and general welfare; prevent overcrowding of land and avoid undue
concentration of population; facilitate the adequate and efficient provi-
sion of transportation, water, sewage, schools, parks, recreational facili-
ties, housing, and other requirements and services; and conserve,
develop, utilize, and protect natural resources within their jurisdiction.

"Section 163.3177 (7) and (8)-Required and Optional Elements of
Comprehensive Plan:
"(7) Such other elements as may be peculiar to, and necessary for,
the area concerned and as are added to the comprehensive plan by the
governing body upon the recommendation of the local planning agency.
"(8) All elements of the comprehensive plan, whether mandatory or
optional, shall be based upon data appropriate to the element involved.

"Chapter 581 -Plant Industry
Section 581.185-Preservation of flora of Florida:
"(1) PROHIBITIONS; PERMITS:
(a) With regard to any plant on the Endangered Plant List provided in
subsection (2), it is unlawful for any person:
"1. To willfully injure or destroy any such plant growing on the private
land of another without first obtaining the written permission of the
owner of the land or his legal representative.
"2. To willfully injure or destroy any such plant growing on any public
land or water without first obtaining the written permission of the
superintendent or custodian of such land or water, and a permit from the
department as provided in this section.
"4. To willfully harvest, collect, pick, or remove three or more individ-
ual plants of a given species listed on the Endangered Plant List from any
native habitat without first obtaining the written permission of the owner
of the land or his legal representative or, in the case of public land or
water, the written permission of the superintendent or custodian of such
land or water, and a permit from the department as provided in this
section.
"(2) ENDANGERED PLANT LIST:
The following plants shall be included in the Endangered Plant List:


128





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


routinely with permits in this department. In final review stages, the
package of draft permits should be the subject of a public hearing to
receive comments on the draft. The public hearing on a draft permit is,
already done for some DEM permits, and the 1981 amendments to the
Mining Act provide for a public hearing on any new mining application
when significant revisions of existing mining permits where there is sig-
nificant public interest.
"The task force recommends that the Division of Land Resources,
with the Division of Environmental Management's assistance, prepare
packets of application materials and information, a NPDES permit appli-
cation, an air quality permit application, a water use permit application, a
list of contacts on permitting matters, and a copy of this report. The task
force does not recommend the development of any new combined appli-
cation.
"Use of the mining permit as the state's primary management tool for
peat mining requires that additional information be included in mining
permits. Table lil (in Chapter IV) enumerates the issues related to peat
mining and specifies which permit covers each issue. Each issue which
can be addressed by the Mining Act should be included in a mining permit
for peat.
"Inasmuch as is possible, permits from other departments and permits
for peat use activities should be included in this comprehensive review
recommended for the mining and related permits.
3. Impacts of Peat Use
Each proposed facility which will use peat should be carefully studied
on its own merits. These facilities, by their highly specialized nature, are
expected to have process-specific and site-specific impacts.. For exam-
ple, in addition to DNRCD permit requirements, any electric generating
plants will be closely controlled under North Carolina's utilities laws, and
the proposed methanol plant is subject to the special stipulations of the
federal Energy Security Act. Other uses, such as industrial process heat,
are not so obviously covered.
"All uses of peat, except horticultural peat, will probably involve facili-
ties which require NPDES, air, and water use permits. The task force
expects that these permits will cover the most serious impacts of such
facilities. The immediate site-related impacts of peat transportation from
mines to users should be covered under comprehensive mining permits.
"In the specific case of Peat Methanol Associates' proposed methanol
plant, the task force found no impacts which could not be covered by
either these permits or by the comprehensive mining permit to be applied
to the mine supplying peat for the plant. The special environmental moni-
toring plans required under the federal Energy Security Act for this pro-
ject should be specifically incorporated into the related mining permit.
These data will provide critical additional information regarding impacts
of peat mining and use.
"The task force recommends that DNRCD continue to track closely













































Printed for the
Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee
1986

ISSN No. 0085-0640


iv






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PEAT MINING

by
Paulette A. Bond
The Effects of Peat Mining on Wetlands

Cowardin, et al. (1979) define wetlands as, . lands transitional
between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually
at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water". This
definition encompasses a number of environments which are commonly
associated with the accumulation of peat including bottoms of lakes,
vegetated and forested wetlands (such as swamps, heads and sloughs),
scrub or shrub wetland (such as shrub swamp, mangrove swamp, poco-
sin and bog) and emergent wetland (such as marsh, fen and bog). This
general definition of wetland may not apply to all of Florida's myriad
wetland environments. The complexity of Florida's wetlands is reflected
in the various classification systems designed especially for them.
Appendix B describes several classifications developed specifically for
use in the state which list and describe various wetland environments of
Florida. King, et al. (1980) note that state and federal land management
and environmental agencies will classify most peatlands as wetland habi-
tats. It was also noted by those authors that peatlands falling into a
wetlands land use category would be closely scrutinized, so that it would
be necessary to demonstrate substantial benefits to the state in order for
land use permits to be secured.
It is generally accepted that peat mining in a wetland environment will
modify the existing system. It is, thus, instructive to examine the various
functions attributed to wetlands. The hydrologic functions of wetlands
are summarized by Carter, et al. (1978). Hydrologic functions include:
flood storage and storm flow modification, base flow and estuarine
water balance, recharge, indicators of water supply, erosion control and
water quality. Flood storage and storm flow modification, base flow, and
water quality are treated in sections of this report dealing with water
resources and water quality. Estuaries are characterized by a balance
between fresh water (from landward sources) and salt water (from sea-
ward sources). Rivers which flow into estuaries may be flanked by wet-
lands which are flooded on occasion due to increased river discharge
combined with tidal action. Waters which temporarily reside in wetlands
lose some of their nutrient load as well as sediment load. They likewise
gain organic detritus and decomposition products which are passed on to
the estuary for entry into certain food chains. Temporary residence in
wetlands causes a decrease in velocity which aids in controlling both
timing and volume of fresh water influx (Carter, et al., 1978).
Recharge occurs when water moves into an aquifer. Carter, et al.
(1978) note that there is considerable disagreement concerning the role
of wetlands in recharge. It is noted that while some recharge may occur
in wetlands, all wetlands are not recharge areas. Little information in the






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


A standard mineralogy textbook for university students, Elements of
Mineralogy (Mason and Berry, 1968), gives the following definition of a
mineral: "A mineral is a naturally occurring, homogeneous solid, inorgan-
ically formed, with a definite chemical composition and an ordered
atomic arrangement". This definition is useful because its authors con-
tinue by expanding on each part of their definition, taking into account
the complexity of the group of compounds classified as minerals.
According to this definition, a mineral must be naturally occurring. This
eliminates materials which are synthesized in the laboratory or are
formed as by-products of various manufacturing processes. Since peat is
indisputably naturally occurring, this aspect of the definition will not be
considered further.
A mineral must also be a homogeneous solid. This qualification elimi-
nates liquids and gases from consideration and implies that a mineral
cannot be separated into simpler compounds by any physical means
(Mason and Berry, 1968). In the coalification process by which plant
material (i.e., cellulose) becomes peat, water, carbon dioxide and meth-
ane are evolved with time (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). The coali-
fication process (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) refers to a general-
ization of the peat-forming process in which all initial plant material is
referred to as cellulose. In actuality, peat contains many types of plant
material and may possibly contain no cellulose at all. It is important here
to note that many mineral substances evolve water or gaseous by-
products when subjected to changed conditions of pressure or tempera-
ture. Gypsum dehydrates (evolves water) forming anhydrite. The mineral
talc evolves water and forms enstatite and quartz at elevated tempera-
tures. Thus, minerals may contain water as an integral part of their crys-
tal structures.
The term mineral is restricted by definition (Mason and Berry, 1968) to
refer to inorganically formed substances. It eliminates homogeneous
solids formed by plants and animals such as oyster shells, pearls and
gallstones. Ostensibly, this qualification could eliminate peat from con-
sideration.
The American Geological Institute in its Glossary of Geology (Gary, et
al., eds., 1974) includes the following references in its definition of the
term mineral: "A mineral is generally considered to be inorganic, though
organic compounds are classified by some as minerals". Thus, organic
compounds are not automatically eliminated from consideration as min-
erals. This suggests that the term mineral has come to be used in a sense
that is less restricted than might be supposed from examination of the
definition presented to beginning students of mineralogy.
Minerals are defined as having definite chemical composition (Mason
and Berry, 1968). This implies that their composition must be readily
expressible using a chemical formula. It does not preclude variation in
chemical composition. Variation within definite limits is allowed, thus,
the composition is definite but not fixed (Mason and Berry, 1968). The
compositions of cellulose and the peat derived from it are frequently






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


The soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area are classified by soil sci-
entists on the basis of the percentage of inorganic matter they contain
and their thickness. The Torry Series soils occur within two to five miles
of Lake Okeechobee. They contain black organic layers more than 51
inches thick and are characterized by a range of 35 percent to 70 percent
mineral matter (mostly the clay minerals sepiolite and montmorillonite)
(Snyder, et al., 1978) and are not considered peats according to ASTM
standards. The Terra Ceia, Pahokee, Lauderhill and Dania soils are dark
organic soils which are differentiated from one another based on their
thickness above bedrock. The Terra Ceia soils are the thickest, with the
Pahokee, Lauderhill and Dania becoming successively thinner. As the
process of subsidence occurs, Terra Ceia soils will become Pahokee soils
since Pahokee soils differ from Terra Ceia soils only in their thickness
(Snyder, et al., 1978).

Subsidence

Subsidence refers to the loss of thickness which is incurred by organic
soils when they are drained. A group of physical processes are responsi-
ble for subsidence, including 1) shrinkage due to dessication, 2) consoli-
dation by loss of the buoyant force of groundwater and loading, or both,
3) compaction by tillage, 4) wind erosion, 5) burning and 6) biochemical
oxidation (Stephens, 1974). The processes of drying, consolidation and
compaction do not result in actual loss of soil (Shih, 1980). Stephens and
Johnson (1951) documented an increase of oven dried weight for Ever-
glades peat from about 9 pounds to about 16 pounds per cubic foot after
cultivation. This increase in density corresponds to a decrease although
there is little actual loss of soil.
The processes of wind erosion, burning and oxidation do, however,
result in the actual loss of organic soils (Shih, 1980). Wind erosion is
thought to have minor effects in the Everglades Agricultural Area.
Numerous charcoal-rich lenses which represent ancient fires have been
found at depth in cores through the organic soils of the Everglades and
coastal swamps (Cohen, 1974). Attempts to correlate charcoal layers
from core to core were futile suggesting that fires were not widespread
geographically. The fires were confined mainly to sawgrass-dominated
peats. Modern observation indicated that fires are very common in saw-
grass communities and it is suggested that sawgrass may be especially
well-adapted to survival of fires (Cohen, 1974).
The most serious cause of long term subsidence in the Everglades is
biochemical oxidation. Biochemical oxidation has been responsible for
55 to 75 percent of the total soil loss in the upper Everglades Agricultural
Area (Stephens, 1974). Although original plans for drainage in the Ever-
glades recognized that subsidence would occur, the causes were appar-
ently misunderstood (Stephens and Johnson, 1951). Shrinkage of origi-
nal peat due to drainage was taken into account, but the slow continual
loss of peat due to biochemical oxidation was not considered.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


REFERENCES

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1969, Standard Classifica-
tion of Peats, Mosses, Humus, and Related Products: ASTM, Philadel-
phia, Pa., Designation D2607- 69.

Asmussen, D., 1980, The Minnesota Peat Program, in Peat as an Energy
Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington,
Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 647 655.

Aspinall, F., 1980, Peat Harvesting-State of the Art, in Peat as an
Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1-3, 1980, at
Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 159 173.

Bel'Kevich, P.I., 1977, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, pp. 37-38.

Boyle, J.R. and C.W. Hendry, Jr., 1984, The Mineral Industry of Florida,
1982: Florida Bureau of Geology Information Circular 95, Tallahassee,
Fl., 11 p.

Brobst, D.A. and W.P. Pratt, eds., 1973, United States Mineral
Resources, United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 820,
722 p.

Brooks, K. and S. Predmore, 1978, Phase II-Peat Program, Hydrologic
Factors of Peat Harvesting (Final Report): Department of Forest
Resources, College of Forestry, University of Minnesota, for the Minne-
sota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn., 49 p.

Brown, M.T., E.M. Starnes, C. Diamond, B. Dunn, P. McKay, M. Noonan,
S. Schreiber, J. Sendzimer, S. Thompson and B. Tighe, 1983, A Wet-
lands Study of Seminole County: Identification, Evaluation, and Prepara-
tion of Development Standards and Guidelines: Center for Wetlands
Technical Report 41, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl., 248 p.

Cameron, C., 1973, Peat, in Brobst, D.A. and W.P. Pratt, eds., 1973,
United States Mineral Resources: United States Geological Survey, Pro-
fessional Paper 820, Washington, D.C., 722 p.

Carter, V., M.S. Bedinger, R.P. Novitzki, and W.O. Wilen, 1978, Water
Resources and Wetlands, in Wetland Functions and Values: The State of
Our Understanding: American Water Resources Association, pp.
344-376.

Clausen, J.C., 1979, The Potential Effects of Peat Mining, in Manage-
ment Assessment of Peat as an Energy Resource: Symposium Papers,
July 22-24, 1979, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas
Technology.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Peatland Reclamation in North Carolina

North Carolina contains an estimated 1,000 square miles of peatlands
(640,000 acres). The peat is usually black, fine-grained and highly
decomposed with ash contents that are often less than five percent, low
sulfur contents and high heating values (Ingram and Otte, 1980). This
peat occurs in three major geologic settings: 1) pocosins, which are
broad, shallow depressions characterized by peats varying from one to
eight feet in thickness, 2) river flood plains which are of unknown extent
but contain peats which may attain thicknesses of 25 feet, and 3) Caro-
lina Bays which are elliptical depressions of unknown origin. The 500 to
600 Carolina Bays sometimes contain high quality peats up to 15 feet in
depth (Ingram and Otte, 1980).
In April of 1983, the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation approved a loan
of $820,750 for the First Colony peat-to-methanol project in North Caro-
lina. The 15,000 acre site is expected to supply peat for methanol con-
version for 30 years (Robinson, et al., 1983).
Peat Methanol Associates (PMA) is the group planning to construct
and operate North Carolina's synthetic fuel plant. It is believed by PMA,
based on their studies of the peat deposits and ground water conditions,
that natural drainage will be adequate to return the land to agricultural
use. PMA also plans a land restoration program which will include tree
and vegetation planting to provide wildlife refuge and nesting areas
(PMA Update, February 1983).
In response to the major peatland development proposed by Peat
Methanol Associates, the state of North Carolina created a Peat Mining
Task Force in December 1980. An initial report was issued in March
1981. The task force was reconvened in June 1983, as interest in the
state's peatlands escalated. The original recommendations of the task
force were reviewed, updated and published in January 1983 (North
Carolina DNRCD, 1983).
The sixteen member task force was drawn from all divisions within the
Department of Natural Resources and Community Development which
were involved with peat mining. The task force reviewed peat mining and
its impacts on the state's natural resources. It also reviewed the ability of
the state's management program for peat mining to deal with potential
impacts (North Carolina DNRCD, 1983).
Reclamation methods are categorized as "wet reclamation" or "per-
petual pumping". Constant pumping may be required to maintain land
dry enough for certain uses. Intensive agriculture is believed to be the
only use which can financially justify the continual pumping (North Caro-
lina DNRCD, 1983).
Wet reclamation includes all forms of reclamation which could perma-
nently or periodically cause the reclaimed area to be under salt or fresh
water. Uses which are included comprise paddy culture, reversion to
swamp forest or pocosin, reservoirs, aquaculture of fish or shell fish,
artifically-created nursery areas, waterfowl impoundments, marinas and





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


which are situated on limestone bedrock. The trees, which are responsi-
ble for the peat beneath them, contain enormous amounts of lignin.
Lignin is very resistant to decay (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). It is alterna-
tively suggested that hammock peats in Florida may be controlled more
by the persistence of water than by the amount of lignin (A. Cohen,
personal communication, 1984).

THE ACCUMULATION OF PEAT IN FLORIDA

by
Paulette Bond

Rates of Peat Accumulation

Knowledge of the rate of peat accumulation is important in that it
allows various extractive uses for the resource to be weighed in light of
the amount of time it takes for the mineral to accumulate. Rates of peat
accumulation are usually determined using the carbon-14 method of dat-
ing organic materials. This method is subject to a number of difficulties
when applied to peat. The following problems were enumerated by
Moore and Bellamy (1974): 1) Wide errors may be introduced since
young roots may penetrate material at depth. This problem could result in
apparently rapid rates for the accumulation of peat. 2) Older layers are
compacted as new ones are deposited. This could cause rates of deposi-
tion to appear anomalously low. 3) Rates of peat formation vary with
climate and climate varies with time. Thus, an accumulation rate proba-
bly reflects a sort of average rate for some given amount of peat. Several
estimates of peat accumulation rates in Florida are presented in Table 1.
The variation in rate presented here for peat accumulation may be
attributed to a number of factors. Gleason, et al., (1974) used Davis'
(1946) data to compute a value of productivity for the sawgrass environ-
ment. Productivity refers to the amount of dry organic matter (measured
in pounds) which is formed on an acre of ground in a year. When this
productivity is compared to the dry weight of an acre-foot of peat as
estimated by Davis (1946), a discrepancy is apparent. According to
these computations, more material accumulates as peat than is originally
formed in the sawgrass environment (Gleason, et al., 1974). Factors
which may account for this difficulty include possible low estimates of
productivity and inadequate estimates of silica content or peat density. It
is also possible that silica in the peat might not be entirely derived from
sawgrass (Gleason, et al., 1974). Rates of peat accumulation computed
from radiocarbon age are grouped about an average of 9.1 cm/100
years. The rate of peat accumulation can vary with climate (which also
varies with time), the position of the water table and nutrient supply
(Moore and Bellamy, 1974). Data are not available which would allow
rate variation in different environments to be evaluated. The rates pre-
sented here were calculated from peats produced from varying plant







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX A-FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
(Appendix A is taken from R. King, et al., 1980)


LEGISLATION

National Legislation Policy Act
of 1969 (NEPA) PL 91-190







Clean Air Acts as amended
PL 91-604 as amended by
PL 92-157
PL 93-15
PL 93-319
PL 95-95


Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972
PL 92-500


APPLICABILITY TO PEAT ENERGY

"Environmental Impact Statements
(EIS) must be prepared for all major
federal actions significantly affecting
the quality of the human environmen-
tal [sic]. Environmental Impact
Assessments (EIA) are usually done to
determine which actions require an
EIS."

"Ambient air quality standards have
been set to SO2 TSP, NO2, CO, and 03;
more are being considered. Affects all
peat energy facilities. New Source
Performance Standards (NSPS) apply
to coal-fired boilers and regulate SO2,
NO2, and particulates. Lower emission
levels are being considered, as are reg-
ulations for small particulates. Stricter
standards specific to coal liquefaction
may be forthcoming."

"Standards for hazardous air pollu-
tants limit mercury, beryllium, and
lead emissions, and currently limit
coal types that can be used for dem-
onstration plants."

"NSPS and regulations for the preven-
tion of significant deterioration may
affect plant siting. Nonattainment cri-
teria may be extended to NO3, which
could affect plant siting."

"Best Available Control Technology
(BACT) may be required for peat
energy demonstration facilities."

"National Pollutant Discharge Elimina-
tion System (NPDES) permits are
required to treat wastewater dis-
charges."


116







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Rivers and Harbors Act
33 U.S.C. 401-413
Section of the 1899 Act




Marine Protection, Research
and Sanctuaries Act of 1972
PL 92-532


Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
PL 91-596




Energy Reorganization Act of
1974
PL 93-438


Non-nuclear Energy Research
and Development Act of 1974
(Section 13)
PL 93-577


Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act of 1976
PL 89-272






Floodplain Management
Executive Order 11988


"Permits are required for dredge and
fill activities in navigable waters."

"Project must be integrated with
flood control, river, and dam pro-
jects."

"Permits are required for locating
plants in wetland areas, which may
restrict extraction opera-areal [sic]
peat conversion plant siting."

"Health and safety regulations must
be met for workers in peat energy
products. Noise levels for compres-
sors, pumps, etc., are limited and
must be controlled. Health regulations
will be forthcoming."

"DOE is required to ensure environ-
mental acceptability of the fossil
energy and other technologies under
development."

"Water availability assessments are
required for demonstration and com-
mercial plants; assessments are
reviewed by Water Resources Council
(WRC)."

"Solid waste disposal must comply
with most stringent air and water
standards; monitoring is required;
state or EPA permits required; state or
EPA permits required for all landfills by
April 1, 1988; must comply with
states programs for non-hazardous
materials."

"Designated to reduce as much as
possible long and short term impacts
associated with [sic] floodplain devel-
opment."

"Requires each Federal agency to
review policies concerning acquiring
and managing Federal lands, federally





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


peat deposits of Florida combined with detailed work in the Everglades
Agricultural Area (Griffin, et al., 1982).
The current study was undertaken in response to a directive from the
Florida Legislature originating in the Natural Resources Committee of the
Florida House of Representatives. It provides a compilation of informa-
tion concerning the location and amount of Florida's peat resources. In
addition, the various aspects of the Everglades Agricultural Area are
described in some detail and implications of subsidence of peats in this
region are considered. Emphasis is also placed on existing information
relative to potential effects of peat mining on Florida's environment.
Legislation which may be applied to peat mining, water quality parame-
ters monitored in conjunction with various phases of peat mining, and
methods of regulation applied to the peat resource by Minnesota, North
Carolina, and New Brunswick are included as appendices to this report.

DEFINITION OF PEAT AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS DEFINITION


by
Paulette Bond

Peat is defined by workers in a variety of disciplines (geology, botany,
soil science, and horticulture among others). These definitions have pro-
liferated in response to the multiple uses of peat. The American Geologi-
cal Institute defines peat as, "An unconsolidated deposit of semicar-
bonized plant remains of a watersaturated environment, such as a bog or
fen and of persistently high moisture content (at least 75 percent). It is
considered an early stage or rank in the development of coal . ." (Gary,
et al., eds., 1974). This extremely general definition notes several essen-
tial points. Peat is composed of plant remains which accumulate in a wet
environment. It is considered to be an early product of the coal-forming
process.
In a definition which will be published in an upcoming volume (A.
Cohen, personal communication, 1984), the American Society for Test-
ing and Materials (ASTM) defines peat as a naturally occurring unconsoli-
dated substance derived primarily from plant materials. Peat is distin-
guished from other organic soil materials by its lower ash content (less
than 25 percent ash by dry weight [ASTM Standards D2974]) and from
other phytogenic material of higher rank (i.e. lignite coal) by its lower
BTU value on a water saturated basis. This definition is designed so that
peats may be classified objectively and distinguished from both organic
soils and coals.
Griffin, et al., (1982) note the definition of fuel grade peat which was
used by the United States Department of Energy for its "Peat Develop-
ment Program". Fuel grade peat was defined as an organic soil consist-
ing of greater than 75 percent organic matter in the dry state. In order for
a peat deposit to be classified as fuel grade, the deposit must be at least






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


bioenergy crops Crops which are grown for plant biomass to produce
renewable energy sources. Plant biomass can be harvested and burned
directly or may be gasified to produce liquid and gaseous fuels.

biogasification A process which utilizes bacteria to produce methane
gas from organic material.

bituminous Coal which contains up to 86 percent fixed carbon and
which generates at least 8300 BTU/lb on combustion. It is dark brown to
black in color and is the most abundant rank of coal. Lower grades burn
with a smokey flame, however, higher grades burn without smoke.

BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) The amount of oxygen (measured
in parts per million) removed from aquatic environments rich in organic
matter by the metabolic requirements of aerobic microorganisms.

bog A waterlogged, spongy groundmass, primarily mosses, contain-
ing acidic, decaying vegetation or peat.

brackish water An indefinite term for water, the salinity of which is
intermediate between that of normal sea water and normal fresh water.

BTU (British Thermal Unit) The amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water one (1) degree F.

carbohydrate A polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone or a compound that
can be hydrolyzed to such a compound. Carbohydrates, of which sugars,
starches and cellulose are examples, are produced by all green plants and
form an important animal food.

carbonization (a) In the process of coalification, the accumulation of
residual carbon by the changes in organic matter and decomposition
products; (b) The accumulation of carbon of a carbonaceous substance
such as coal by driving off the other components, either by heat under
laboratory conditions or by natural processes.

carbon-14 dating A method of determining an age in years by mea-
suring the concentration of carbon-14 remaining in an organic material,
usually formerly living matter, but also water biocarbonate, etc. The
method, worked out by Willard F. Libby, U.S. chemist (1908 ), in the
years 1946-1951, is based on the assumption that assimilation of
carbon-14 ceased abruptly on removal of the material from the Earth's
carbon cycle (i.e. the death of an organism) and that it thereafter
remained a closed system. Most carbon-14 ages are calculated using a
half-life of 5570+30 years, thus the method is useful in determining
ages in the range of 500 30,000 or 40,000 years, although it may be
extended to 70,000 years by using special techniques involving con-






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 17

Table 1. Estimated rates of peat accumulation in Florida.


Author
Davis
(1946, p. 74)






Kuehn
(1980, p. 49)




Kuehn
(1980, p. 49)



Stephens
(1974, p. 356)


Estimated Rate
5.2 in./100 years







4.24 in./100 years




3.64 in./100 years




3 in./100 years


communities which thrive in different environments. In addition, peat
has been lost by fire during various prehistoric dry periods (Cohen,
1974). Failure to recognize evidence of fire could alter the rate at which
peat is calculated to accumulate.

Geologic Settings of Peat Accumulation in Florida

The conditions under which peat can occur in Florida are highly varia-
ble. While geologic and hydrologic relations of peat to its neighboring
materials have been thoroughly documented in the Everglades of south
Florida, numerous small deposits in the central peninsula remain
unmapped. Davis (1946, p. 114), considered the peat deposits of Florida
as falling into a number of groups based on their locations. These groups
include: 1) coastal associations, including marshes and mangrove
swamps, lagoons and estuaries as well as depressions among dunes; 2)
large, nearly flat, poorly-drained areas as exemplified by the Everglades
illustrated in Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7; 3) river-valley marshes such as the
marsh adjacent to the St. Johns River; 4) swamps of the flatland region
(Figure 8); 5) marshes bordering lakes and ponds (Figure 9); 6) season-
ally flooded shallow depressions; 7) lake bottom deposits (Figure 10); 8)
peat layers buried beneath other strata (Figure 11).
Cohen and Spackman (1977) have devised a more comprehensive
classification of south Florida's phytogenic (of plant origin) sediments


Comments
This rate is computed based on the amount of
SiO2 fixed by a standing crop of sawgrass from
the Everglades. It is widely quoted, but a recent
analysis of the method (Gleason, et al., 1974)
indicates that certain of the assumptions
necessary to the calculation must be in error.
This difficulty is discussed more completely in
the accompanying text.

This rate was computed from a core which
penetrated peat formed alternately in marine,
brackish and fresh water environments from
southwest Florida. The computations were
based on radiocarbon ages.

This rate was computed for a single type of
peat, red mangrove (Rhizophora), from
southwest Florida using measured thickness
and radiometric ages.

Rates were computed from the Everglades
using radiocarbon ages which were not
specifically referenced in the text.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


2. Role of Mining Permit
"The mining permit should be the department's primary management
tool for peat mining. The four principal state permits required for peat
mining-the mining permit, NPDES permit, air quality permit, and water
use permit-should be processed as a package.
"A public scoping meeting should be held on each package where
there is significant public interest to identify the specific issues to be
addressed in the permit applications and supporting information. A coor-
dinated public hearing should be held on these draft permits in each
package before they are issued.
"The laws requiring these permits allow the State to require submis-
sion of detailed analyses of environmental impacts as part of the permit
applications and this should be required in all cases. While the informa-
tion submittal need not be in the same format as a formal environmental
impact statement, it should be detailed and complete enough to provide
the department with sufficient information to assess the impacts of the
proposed project prior to a permit decision. A standard set of information
requirements for this analysis should be prepared by the Division of Land
Resources in close coordination with all other affected division, and sup-
plied to applicants early in preapplication counseling.
"Under the Mining Act of 1971, the significant impacts of peat mining
can be addressed by a mining permit. Table III (in Chapter IV) identifies
these issues and specifies which permits cover them directly and indi-
rectly. The requirements of the other permits can and should be incorpo-
rated into the mining permit, strengthening its umbrella or coordinating
role.
"Treating the four permits for a peat mine as a package will ensure that
all significant impacts will be addressed in a timely and consistent man-
ner. It will also increase the predictability of the permitting schedule. The
most efficient possible use of specialized resources in all for example,
DEM's water quality expertise is needed to advise Land Resources on
specific water quality issues and conditions which must be handled in
the mining permit. Different statutory timetables for various permits and
the variations with individual projects may make complete coordination
impossible. Natural Resources Planning and Assessment, on behalf of
the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources, should prepare a detailed
flow chart of permit hearing, meeting, and decision deadlines for each
proposed peat mine operation. The department's existing peat permit
application review group can extend its function to review the four-
permit package with little change of membership.
"The package concept will also enhance the opportunities for public
involvement in the permitting process for peat mines. Shortly after appli-
cations for a peat mine are received, a public scoping meeting may be
convened by the department to discuss the questions and issues which
should be addressed in reviewing permit applications. The scoping meet-
ing, which is not required by statute, represents an innovation for dealing







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Farnham, R.S., W.E. Berguson, T.E. Levar, and D.B. Sherf, 1980,
Peatland Reclamation--The Energy Crop Option, in Peat as an Energy
Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington,
Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 635 -642.

Fuchsman, C.H., 1978, The Industrial Chemical Technology of Peat:
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn., 190 p.

Gary, M., R. McAfee Jr., and C.L. Wolf, eds. 1974, Glossary of Geology:
American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Va., 805 p.

Georgia-Pacific Corporation, 1982, Cow Bay Pilot Peat Project: Supple-
mental Information Submitted to Florida Department of Environmental
Regulation for Amended Dredge and Fill Permit and Industrial Waste-
water Permit Application.

Gilbert, C.R., 1978, Analysis of the Florida Aquatic Ecosystems, in Rare
and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. 4-Fishes: Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, Fl.

Gleason, P.J., A.D. Cohen, H.K. Brooks, P. Stone, R. Goodrick, W.G.
Smith, and W. Spackman, Jr., 1974, The Environmental Significance of
Holocene Sediments from the Everglades and Saline Tidal Plain, in P.J.
Gleason, ed., Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miami
Geological Society, Memoir 2, pp. 287-341.

Griffin, G., C.C. Wieland, L.Q. Hood, R.W. Goode, III, R.K. Sawyer, and
D.F. McNeill, 1982, Assessment of the Peat Resources of Florida, With a
Detailed Survey of the Northern Everglades: State of Florida, Governor's
Energy Office, Tallahassee, Fl., 190 p.

Gurr, T., 1972, The Geology of a Central Florida Peat Bog, Section 26,
Township 30 South, Range 25 East, Polk County, Florida: Unpublished
M.S. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fl.

Harme, P., 1980, Peat and Finland, in Proceedings of the 6th Interna-
tional Peat Congress, August 17-23, 1980: International Peat Society,
Duluth, Mn., 735 p.

Harper, R., 1910, Preliminary Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida:
Florida Geological Survey, 3rd Annual Report, Tallahassee, Fl., 397 p.

Hartman, B., 1978, Description of Major Terrestrial and Wetland Habi-
tats of Florida, in Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. 1-
Mammals: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee,
Fl.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


(Fuchsman, 1978). Potential uses include the production of plastics and
synthetic fibers, components for paints and adhesive formulations and
flocculants or thickeners in water purification systems. These uses are
based primarily on the adsorption and ion exchange properties of humic
acids (Fuchsman, 1978).

PEAT COKE, PEAT TAR AND ACTIVATED CARBON

Peat coke, peat tar and activated carbon are produced by the process
of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis consists of decomposition of organic substances
by heat in the absence of air. When carried to a high enough temperature
and for long enough time, the process yields a carbon residue (peat
coke), a water immiscible condensate (peat tar) and non-condensable
gases which can be utilized as fuel gases.
Peat suitable for coking requires a relatively high carbon content (high
level of decomposition), low ash content and low phosphorous content
(Fuchsman, 1978). High carbon content is necessary for acceptable
yields. Phosphorous and ash degrade the product quality.
Several factors influence the yield of pyrolysis products. Coke yields
are increased with more highly decomposed peats and slower rates of
heating. Peat tar and gases generated by the pyrolysis process are often
recycled as fuel for the coking process.
Activated carbon is produced from peat coke by treating coke with
steam at 1,6320F- 2,0120F. The reaction forms hydrogen gas and car-
bon monoxide which has the physical effect of expanding the pores in
the peat coke, greatly increasing the surface area available for adsorption
(Norit, N.V. (n.d.), in Fuchsman, 1978).
Peat coke is utilized to form high purity silicon for the electronics
industry and as a reducing agent in electric smelting furnaces especially
in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosilicon alloys (Eckman, 1975,
in Fuchsman, 1978). Peat tars are refined for pesticide and wood pre-
servative use. The primary use, however, is as fuel recycled to the peat
coke production process (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Activated carbon is utilized for a variety of purposes, all of which take
advantage of the large surface area available for adsorption. Uses include
removal of pollutants from industrial waste gases, as a gas absorber,
deodorizer, and for purification of water and sugar (Fuchsman, 1978).

Use of Peat as a Growth Medium

HORTICULTURE

Essentially all of the peat mined in Florida, at the present time, is used
for horticultural purposes. Peat is used by home owners for soil enhance-
ment, by nurseries and landscapers for potting soils and growing media
for plants, and also as a medium for mushroom and earthworm culture.








STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director


DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Art Wilde, Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Walter Schmidt, Chief











Special Publication No. 27

AN OVERVIEW OF PEAT
IN FLORIDA
AND RELATED ISSUES

by

Paulette Bond
Kenneth M. Campbell
Thomas M. Scott


Published for the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE
1986


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


APPENDIX B
CLASSIFICATION OF WETLANDS IN FLORIDA
(Taken from Brown, et al., 1983)

State Level

"Several classification schemes have been developed for use in Flor-
ida. Monk (1968) classified communities by forest vegetation types. He
states, "Seven major forest vegetation types exist in North Central Flor-
ida: (1)Climax Southern Mixed Hardwood; (2)Sand Pine Scrub; (3)Sand
Hills; (4)Pine Flatwoods; (5)Cypress Swamps; (6)Bayheads; and
(7)Mixed Hardwood Swamps." Of these, three are used for wetlands
classification-Mixed Hardwood Swamps, Bayheads, and Cypress
Swamps.
"In a classification scheme developed by Craig (1981), wetland areas
were broken down into 11 categories. These include: (1)Sloughs;
(2)Freshwater Marsh and Ponds; (3)Pitcher Plant Bogs; (4)Shrub Bogs;
(5)Swamp Hardwoods; (6)Cypress Swamps; (7)Cabbage Palm Ham-
mocks; (8)Wetland Hardwood Hammocks; (9)Cutthroat Seeps; (10)Cab-
bage Palm Flatwoods; and (11)Bottomland Hardwoods.
"Laessle (1942) used associations for classifying vegetation types. He
defines association as, "A characteristic combination of plant species
which is repeated in numerous stands with but little if any change in the
vigor and proportions of its principal components.
"Laessle's classification scheme for wetlands included:
I. Hydric Communities Dominated by Trees
1. Bayhead (Gordonia-Tamala pubeslens-Magnolia virginiana
Association)
2. River Swamp (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa biflora Association)
II. Herbaceous Aquatic Communities Bordering the River and Its Tidal
Tributaries
1. Submerged Associations (Naias-Ceratophyllum Association
and Vallisneria Association)
2. Floating Associations (Piaropus Association and Pistia-Salvina
Association)
3. Emergent Vegetation

"A report developed in part by the Northeast Regional Planning Coun-
cil classifies several communities associated with wetland areas. These
include Swamp Hammock, Hardwood Swamp, Riverine Cypress,
Cypress Pond, Bayhead and Bog, Wet Prairie, Freshwater Marsh (shallow
and deep), and Tidal Flat (Jacksonville Area Planning Board, 1977).
"Under the aegis of the Florida Department of Administration, the
State Division of Planning, and the Bureau of Comprehensive Planning a
committee was created to increase the efficiency of land use planning by
coordinating the collection, interpretation, and other use of land resource
data. The result was the Florida Land Use and Cover Classification Sys-





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Table 8 continued.


REPTILES


Alabama Red-bellied Turtle
Alligator Snapping Turtle
American Alligator
American Crocodile
Atlantic Salt Marsh Watersnake
Eastern Indigo Snake
Florida Ribbon Snake
Gulf Salt Marsh Watersnake
Key Mud Turtle
Mangrove Terrapin

Short-tailed Snake
Southern Coal Skink
Spotted Turtle
Suwannee Cooter




Black-crowned Night Heron
Florida Sandhill Crane
Glossy Ibis
Great Egret
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Least Bittern
Limpkin
Little Blue Heron
Louisiana Heron
Mangrove Clapper Rail
Marian's Marsh Wren
Osprey
Reddish Egret
Roseate Spoonbill
Snail (Everglades) Kite
Snowy Egret
Southern Bald Eagle

Southern Hairy Woodpecker
White Ibis
White-tailed Kite
Wood Stork
Worthington's Marsh Wren
Yellow-crowned Night Heron


Chrysemys alabamenensis
Macioclemys temmincki
Alligator mississippiensis
Crocodylus acutus
Nerodia fasiata taeniata
Drymarchon corais couperi
Thamnophis sauritus sackeni
Nerodia fasciata clarki
Kinosternon bauri bauri
Malaclemys terrapin
rhizophorarum
Stilosoma extenuatum
Eumeces anthracinus pluvialis
Clemmys guttata
Pseudemys concinna
suwanniensis

BIRDS

Nycticorax nycticorax
Grus canadensis pratensis
Plegadis falcinellus
Casmerodius albus
Campephilus principalis
Ixobrychus exilis
Aramus guarauna
Florida caerulea
Hydranassa tricolor
Rallus longirostris insularum
Cistothorus palustris marianae
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis
Dichromanassa rufescens
Ajaia ajaia
Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus
Egretta thula
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
leucocephalus
Picoides villosus audubonii
Eudocimus albus
Elanus leucurus majusculus
Mycteria americana
Cistothorus palustris griseus
Nyctanassa violacea






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Figure 4. Peat provinces of southern Florida. (Modified from Spack-
man, et al., 1976).



based on micropetrological studies. They first divide phytogenic sedi-
ments into two groups based on whether the plant material is trans-
ported from the site of growth or deposited at or near the growth sites of
their source plants. Transported and nontransported phytogenic sedi-
ments are subdivided as occurring in marine to brackish water or fresh







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Heikurainen, L., 1976, The Concepts of Trophy and Production: Com-
mission I of International Peat Society Transactions of the Working Group
for Classification of Peat, Helsinki, Finland, p. 31.

Ingram, R.L., and L.J. Otte, 1980, Assessment of North Carolina Peat
Resources, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, Decem-
ber 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technol-
ogy, pp. 123-131.

Institute of Gas Technology, 1980, Peat as an Energy Alternative: Sym-
posium Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: 777 p.

International Peat Society, 1980, Proceedings of the 6th International
Peat Congress, August 17-23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., 735 p.

Ishino, 1976, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 57.

Jacksonville Area Planning Board, 1977, Regional land use element:
Jacksonville, FL.

Keys, D., 1980, Assessment and Management of the Peatlands in New
Brunswick, Canada: in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium
Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute
of Gas Technology, pp. 131 -143.

King, R., S. Richardson, A. Walters, L. Boesch, W. Thomson, and J.
Irons, 1980, Preliminary Evaluation of Environmental Issues on the Use
of Peat as an Energy Source: prepared for the U.S. Department of
Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Processing, Washington, D.C.

Kuehn, D.W., 1980, Offshore Transgressive Peat Deposits of Southwest
Florida: Evidence for a Late Holocene Rise of Sea Level: Unpublished
M.S. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, Pa.

Laessle, A.M., 1942, The Plant Communities of the Welaka Area: Biolog-
ical Science Series, V. IV, N. 1, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Langbein, W.B., and K.T. Iseri, 1960, General Introduction and Hydro-
logic Definitions, United States Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper
1541-A, 29 p.

Lappalainen, E., 1980, The Useful Fuel Peat Resources in Finland, in
International Peat Society, Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Con-
gress, August 17-23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., pp. 59-63.

Lishtvan, I.I., and N.T. Korol, 1975, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, pp.
36-37.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


sod peat mining Peat mining process in which the top layer of peat is
cut and compressed by the machinery before being extruded onto the
field to dry.

soil A natural, three dimensional body at the Earth's surface which
has properties resulting from the integrated effect of climate and organic
matter on present rock material, as conditioned in response to topogra-
phy; capable of supporting plant material.

solvent extraction Process which selectively separates components
of an organic substance by means of reacting with a solvent. The
absorbed compounds are subsequently stripped from the solvent.

sphagnum moss peat (American Society of Testing and Materials
(ASTM) classification) Peat which must contain at least 66.66 percent
Sphagnum moss fibers, by weight. NOTE: The ASTM is presently in the
process of revising this classification. The above term will no longer be
used.

stoichiometric proportions With reference to a compound or a phase,
pertaining to the exact proportions of its constituents specified by its
chemical formula. It is generally implied that a stoichiometric phase does
not deviate measurably from its ideal composition.

subsidence The lowering of the upper surface of a peat deposit due
to a reduction in volume; caused by a number of factors: shrinkage due
to dessication, consolidation due to loss of bouyant force of water or
loading, compaction due to tillage, erosion by wind, fire damage or bio-
chemical oxidation.

sulfur An orthorhombic mineral, the native nonmetallic element S. It
occurs in yellow crystals or in masses or layers often associated with
limestone, gypsum and other minerals; used in the production of sulfuric
acid, in petroleum refining, chemical production, iron and steel, paper,
industrial explosives and many other uses.

swamp A water-saturated area, intermittently or permanently cov-
ered with water, having shrub and tree-type vegetation.

synthesis gas Those gases produced during gasification of peat
which can be upgraded by hydrocracking to produce synthetic natural
gas.

talc An extremely soft, whitish, greenish or grayish monoclinic min-
eral: Mg3Si4010(OH)2. It has a characteristic soapy or greasy feel and a
hardness of 1 on Mohs' scale, and it is easily cut with a knife. Talc is a
common secondary mineral derived by alteration (hydration) of non-
aluminous magnesium silicates (such as olivine, enstatite and tremolite)


113







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


directly to the bog surface and allowed to filter through the peat or it may
be introduced to a ditched and drained peat deposit. Introduction of
waste water to a ditched and drained deposit would increase the volume
of peat exposed to the waste water, increasing residence time and allow-
ing more efficient nutrient uptake (Nichols, 1980). The third method
involves a built up filter bed of peat, sand and gravel. The effluent is
applied to the filter surface by sprinklers. Generally, the surface of the
filter would be seeded with a suitable sedge or grass to remove additional
nutrients (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Peat water treatment systems and experimentation have not been con-
ducted for enough time to determine the period of time over which it can
effectively remove nutrients before it becomes saturated. Environmental
effects, therefore, must be strictly monitored (Minnesota DNR, 1981).

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PEAT MINING

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

Peat is currently mined in 12 Florida counties (Figure 22). In each of
these counties, the mining companies provide jobs, pay state and local
taxes, require the services of various support industries and provide a
valuable product to nurseries and individuals.

Production, Value and Price of Peat

The U.S. Bureau of Mines reports an average 1982 price for Florida
peat of $13.12 per short ton. 1983 prices quoted by mining companies
range from $8.50 to $18.00 per cubic yard of peat with the most com-
mon price being $10.00 to $10.50 per cubic yard. Blended topsoils
range from $11.00 to $20.00 per cubic yard. If one ton of peat is
assumed to occupy 2.3 cubic yards, the $10.50 per cubic yard price is
equivalent to $24.15 per short ton. Bagged peat prices are higher and are
in the range of $45.00 per ton.
Florida ranked second in peat production nationally in 1982 (Boyle and
Hendry, 1984). The U.S. Bureau of Mines (B.O.M.) reported peat produc-
tion in 1982 as 120,000 short tons, with a value of $1,575,000 dollars
(Figure 23). The average price in 1982 was $13.12 per short ton. The
above figures represent a 25 percent drop in production and a 47 percent
drop in value from 1981.
The B.O.M. production and value figures do not represent the com-
plete picture. The B.O.M. reported peat production from four counties in
'1982. Of the 10 companies on the B.O.M. peat producer list, only six are
still active. The authors have compiled a list of 21 peat producers,
located in 12 counties. The actual peat production in the state must be
significantly higher than reported by the B.O.M.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


adverse effects on wildlife. This specific alternative should be considered
by the Division of Land Resources during the processing of each mining
permit.
"Specific standards and permit conditions are needed for the estab-
lishment of wildlife habitat as a required part of all reclamation plans. A
mechanism should be implemented by the Division of Land Resources to
ensure that these wildlife mitigation measures continue on reclaimed
land after reclamation is formally completed, even if ownership changes.
Conservation easements may well be the most promising approach for
general application.
"Wildlife is not amenable to monitoring standards as permit condi-
tions. A modest wildlife research effort should be instituted, the financial
cooperation of the mine operators should be encouraged, and mitigation
of impacts on wildlife included both in permit conditions and research
efforts.
"The recommendations of the Governor's Coastal Water Management
Task Force for the protection of nursery areas should be extended to
include the impacts of peat mining, and the recommendations should be
implemented as soon as possible. Mining permit and NPDES permit con-
ditions should be used to protect nursery areas by means of monitoring,
control structures, buffer strips, and limits on the local and ultimate
extent of mining. Reclamation plans should be designed to promote the
long-term protection of nursery areas and other estuarine resources. The
advice of the Division of Marine Fisheries should be sought in formulating
these permit conditions.
"This recommendation reflects the task force's view that the overall,
long-term impacts of mining peat in North Carolina will be greatly influ-
enced by the impacts of the reclamation activities that follow mining.
The Mining Act of 1971 recognizes the importance of careful reclama-
tion and allows the mining permit to be conditioned upon state accep-
tance of reclamation plans and procedures to avoid and minimize recla-
mation problems. Its reclamation provisions are adequate to ensure that
reclamation will include appropriate measures to prevent or reduce these
impacts.
"The same measures recommended for wildlife can also be used to
maintain the long-term preventive measures necessary for protection of
primary nursery areas. An example of this is the use of conservation
easements to protect forested buffer strips installed to fulfill mining per-
mit conditions. Similarly, estuarine buffer strips to protect nursery areas'
water quality could come under a conservation easement. Other
approaches also need to be investigated and, when appropriate, imple-
mented. The Division of Land Resources should receive the active coop-
eration of the Division of Marine Fisheries in identifying key nursery
areas, assessing the impacts of individual project proposals and mitiga-
tion plans, and setting priorities for actions necessary to protect these
vital areas.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 8. Endangered, threatened and rare species associated with
areas of potential peat accumulation (compiled by the Bureau
of Geology staff).
MAMMALS


Bobcat
Cudjoe Key Rice Rat
Everglades Mink
Florida Black Bear
Florida Panther
Florida Weasel
Homosassa Shrew
Key Deer
Key Vaca Raccoon
Lower Keys Cotton Rat
Mangrove Fox Squirrel
Round-Tailed Muskrat
Sherman's Fox Squirrel
Southeastern Shrew
Southeastern Weasel
Southern Mink


Lynx rufus
Oryzomys sp.
Mustela vision evergladensis
Ursus americanus floridanus
Felis concolor coryi
Mustela frenata peninsula
Sorex longirostris eionis
Odocoileus virginianus clavium
Procyon lotor auspicatus
Sigmodon hispidus exsputus
Sciurus niger avicennia
Neofiber alleni
Sciurus niger shermani
Sorex longirostris longirostris
Mustela frenata olivacea
Mustela vision mink


FISH


Blackbanded Sunfish
Cypress Darter
Cypress Minnow
Eastern Mud Minnow
Mudsunfish
Opossum Pipefish
Rivulus
Sailfin Molly


Enneacanthus chaetodon
Etheostoma proeliare
Hybognathus hayi
Umbra pygmaea
Acantharchus pomotis
Oostethus lineatus
Rivulus marmoratus
Polcilia latipinna


AMPHIBIANS


Carpenter Frog
Florida Gopher Frog
Four-toed Salamander
Gulf Hammock Dwarf Siren

Many-lined Salamander
One-toed Amphiuma
Pine Barrens Tree Frog
Seal Salamander
Striped Newt


Rana virgatipes
Rana areolata aesopus
Hemidactylium scutalum
Pseudobranchus striatus
lustricolus
Stereochilus marginatus
Amphiuma pholeter
Hyla andersoni
Desmognathus monticola
Notophthabmus perstriatus







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


mit for construction of a storm water disposal system associated with
mining of peat in central Florida (Putnam County).

The Effect of Peat Mining on Water Resources

WATER RESOURCES IN AN UNDISTURBED SYSTEM

The mining of peat will cause changes in the hydrologic budget associ-
ated with a peatland. The changes could be helpful or detrimental, but
the system will change. In order to better understand the changes which
are discussed in the next portion of the text, it is instructive to examine
the system as it operates naturally.
The hydrologic cycle is used by geologists to describe what happens to
water which falls to the earth as precipitation. The water which falls as
precipitation has a number of possible fates. It may evaporate from fall-
ing rain and never reach the earth's surface. It may be taken up by the
roots of plants, carried to the leaves and returned to the atmosphere by
transpiration (the process by which the foliage of plants releases water
vapor). Evaporation, which returns water to the atmosphere, occurs
from soil, from the surfaces of lakes, rivers and oceans, even from the
dew which collects on plants. Some portion of the rain which falls does
reach the earth's surface and flows across it to reach lakes, streams or
possibly the ocean. This portion is referred to as runoff. Some part of
rainfall soaks into the ground (infiltration). A portion of the water which
soaks into the ground will make its way slowly to streams or lakes, and in
certain areas, some of this water may enter a porous and permeable rock
unit referred to as an aquifer.
For a given geographic area, geologists may estimate the proportion of
water which is lost to the processes of evaporation and transpiration.
Measurements are made so that geologists are familiar with average
values of stream discharge, and lake levels. The depth to the water table
may be measured. (The water table is the level below which pores in the
rock or sediments are filled with water and above which they are partly
or totally filled with air). The measurements may be used to make up a
hydrologic (water) budget for a given area. Thus, water resources are a
system. If one aspect of the system is modified, other aspects change in
response to the modification.

WATER RESOURCE PARAMETERS AFFECTED BY PEAT MINING

This discussion is primarily from a study of environmental issues asso-
ciated with peat mining, completed for the U.S. Department of Energy by
King, et al., 1980.
In a study which deals solely with environmental issues arising from
mining of peat, King, et al. (1980) report that the development required
for mining will modify natural groundwater and surface water character-






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX D
WATER QUALITY

Water Quality Parameters Measured in Conjunction with Peatland
Development; Minnesota, North Carolina and Florida.

Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Baseline Studies by
Minnesota. (Taken from Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,
1981).


acidity
alkalinity
aluminum
ammonia
arsenic
boron
cadmium
calcium
chemical oxygen demand
chromium
color
copper
dissolved oxygen
fulvic acid
humic acid
iron


magnesium
manganese
mercury
nickel
nitrate
nitrite
organic nitrogen
pH
selenium
sodium
specific conductivity
suspended sediment
temperature
total nitrogen
total phosphorous
zinc


lead


Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Monitoring in Conjunction
with a Peat Mining Operation, Department of Environmental
Regulation, State of Florida.


Alkalinity
Aluminum
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Color
Copper
Dissolved Ortho-Phosphate
Dissolved Oxygen
Iron
Lead
Mercury
Nickel


Ortho Phosphate
pH
Phenols
Selenium
Specific Conductance
Temperature
Total Dissolved Solids
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Total Organic Carbon
Total Phosphorus
Total Suspended Solids
Turbidity
Zinc


134






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF PEAT RESEARCH IN FLORIDA

Interest in Florida's peat deposits has fluctuated since the Florida Geo-
logical Survey published a "Preliminary Report on the Peat Deposits of
Florida" in its Third Annual Report (Harper, 1910). This early work was
basically a reconnaissance study of peat resources in the state. The
author acknowledged that as population density in the state increased, a
detailed report would be required. In light of current environmental
awareness, it is especially interesting that Harper (1910) recommended
studies by both an engineer and an ecologist.
The historical perspective of peat use in Florida is not complete with-
out mention of the work of Robert Ransom, a civil engineer, who came to
Florida from Ipswich, England, in 1884. Ransom viewed Florida's peat
deposits as a readily exploitable resource and was especially interested in
energy production from peat. For thirty-five years Ransom experimented
with peat, eventually even opening a test plant near Canal Point (Palm
Beach County) which produced power gas, tars, oils, methyl alcohol
and various by-products. He was not able to gain acceptance for his
radical projects within his lifetime (Davis, 1946).
In 1946, John H. Davis published The Peat Deposits of Florida, Their
Occurrence, Development and Uses. This study categorized peat-
forming environments in the state and treated individual deposits in
detail. It extended Harper's work and included chemical characterization
of various Florida peats. Chemical characteristics were related to the use
of peat for agricultural purposes and also to its use as a fuel source.
A number of studies treating the peats of south Florida have been
prepared by W. Spackman and his co-workers. Spackman, et al. (1964)
presented a summary of various coal forming environments associated
with the Everglades. This work includes a large number of geologic cross
sections which document the relationship of peats to bedrock and sur-
rounding materials. The plant communities currently associated with
peats in the various coal forming environments are also carefully docu-
mented. Cohen and Spackman (1977, 1980) present detailed descrip-
tions of peats from southern Florida along with discussions of their ori-
gin, classifications and consideration of the alteration of plant material.
Spackman and others (Pennsylvania State University, 1976) present an
updated and augmented edition of the original guidebook. The format of
these works (Spackman, et al., 1964; Pennsylvania State University,
1976) makes them particularly useful to scientists in various disciplines
whose interests involve the various wetland environments of south Flor-
ida.
In 1979, the U.S. Department of Energy began its "Peat Development
Program". The assessment of fuel grade peat deposits was part of an
effort to define energy resources in the United States exclusive of petro-
leum. The Florida Governor's Energy Office subcontracted with the Uni-
versity of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences to survey
the peat resources of Florida. This study resulted in a literature survey of











Table 9. Independent factors governing site specific reclamation programs. (After King, et al., 1980).
Peat Land Landowner Post Harvesting
Harvest Ownership Future Use Site Conditions External
Development Technique Status Potentials Environmental Factors
Private Single Forestry Climate Reclamation
Owner Laws
Small
25 Acres Dry Large industrial Agriculture Soil Fertility
Owner Land Use

Medium Wildlife/ Vegetation Permits
S Acre Wet Public Land Recreation
3,500 Acres +
Drainage
Tribal or Native Water Discharge
Lands Open Water Permits
Large Combination Trafficability
100,000 Acres +
Combination of Multiple
Above Land Use Other Other


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Executive Summary-Paulette Bond ...................... 1
Acknow ledgements .................................. 3
Purpose and Scope of the Study ......................... 3
Historical Perspective of Peat Research in Florida ............ 4
Definition of Peat and the Significance of This
Definition- Paulette Bond ............................ 5
Terminology Relating to the Peat Forming Environment ..... 6
Peat: Agricultural or Mineral Resource? ................ 7
Harvesting or M ining .............................. 9
Classification Systems Applied to Peat ................. 11
Parameters Affecting Peat Use for Fuel ................ 13
The Accumulation of Peat-Paulette Bond ................. 14
The Process of Peat Formation ................... .... 14
Geologic Conditions Associated with Peat Accumulation .... 14
The Accumulation of Peat in Florida-Paulette Bond .......... 16
Rates of Peat Accumulation in Florida ................. 16
Geologic Settings of Peat Accumulation in Florida ........ 17
Inventory of Peat in Florida-Paulette Bond ................. 26
Mapping and Evaluating the Peat Resource .............. 26
Current Estimates of Peat in Florida ................... 28
The Everglades Agricultural Area-Paulette Bond ............ 29
History of the Everglades Agricultural Area .............. 29
Crops and Soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area ....... 33
Subsidence ..................................... 35
Conservation Measures ............................ 36
The Near Future of the Everglades Agricultural Area ....... 40
Mining Technology-Kenneth M. Campbell ................. 43
Mining Methodology Associated with the Use of Peat for
F uel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3
Mining Methodology Associated with the Agricultural Use of
Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4
Industrial Uses of Peat-Kenneth M. Campbell .............. 45
Preparation of Peat for Industrial Utilization ............. 45
Fuel U ses ...................................... 46
Direct Com bustion ............................ 46
G asification ................................. 47
Biogasification ............................... 47
Industrial Chem icals .............................. 48
Bitum ens ................................... 48
Carbohydrates ............................... 49
Hum ic A cids ................................. 49
Peat Coke, Peat Tar and Activated Carbon ........... 50






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


The greatest potential peat resources in Florida lie predominantly in
south Florida (Figures 13, 14, and 15). The vast majority of this peat lies
in the Everglades and associated swampy areas. It is interesting to note
that while Davis (1946) (Figure 13) and the U.S. Department of the
Interior (State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15)
show similar areas of peat in south Florida, Griffin, et al. (1982) (Figure
14) show a significantly smaller area. This discrepancy may be due to
subsidence and high ash content which would render peat unsuitable for
fuel use. Griffin, et al. (1982) show peat deposits in Collier and Lee
counties that are not included on the other maps.
Figures 13, 14, and 15 indicate the presence of large deposits in the
St. Johns River Valley (Indian River, Brevard and Orange counties), and
the Oklawaha River Valley (Marion and Lake counties). Other relatively
large deposits include: Lake Apopka (Orange and Lake counties), near
Lake Arbuckle (Highlands County), Orange Lake area (Marion and Ala-
chua counties) and the Florahome deposit (Putnam County). Smaller
deposits are also indicated on Davis' (1946) map (Figure 13) and Griffin,
et al. (1982) map (Figure 14).
It is interesting to note that while Davis (1946) (Figure 13) shows
scattered samples taken from small peat areas in the panhandle, Griffin,
et al. (1982) (Figure 14) show a number of deposits, including a large
deposit in Leon County and smaller deposits in Bay, Jackson, and Santa
Rosa counties. The U.S. Department of the Interior map (State of Florida
Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15) does not indicate any
deposits in the panhandle.
Peats associated with mangrove and coastal swamps generally occur
in a narrow band paralleling Florida's coastline. The zone occupied by
these environments is widest in southwest Florida. These peats are not
generally shown on the maps of peat resources due to the scale of the
maps.
Until a more detailed investigation of our peat resources is undertaken
the published resource estimates must suffice. It must, however, be kept
in mind that the figures are estimates of the available resources and vary
from one investigator to another.

THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA

by
Paulette Bond

History of the Everglades Agricultural Area

The Everglades Agricultural Area is a part of an immense natural drain-
age system that begins in the northernmost reaches of the Kissimmee
River drainage basin near Orlando. The Kissimmee River flows to the
southeast into Lake Okeechobee. In its natural state, the level of Lake
Okeechobee fluctuated within a range of approximately 8 feet, that is,






19 Profile B-B' through the lower part of the Everglades
Agricultural Area showing surface elevations in 1912,
1940, 1970, 2000 ............................ 39
20 Soil depths predicted for the year 1980, for the
Everglades Agricultural Area .................. . 41
21 Thicknesses of soils in the Everglades Agricultural Area
as determined by a recent study ................... 42
22 Location of current peat producers in Florida ......... 53
23 Production and value of peat in Florida, 1972- 1983 ... 54
24 Topographic profile of a karst basin peat deposit in north
Florida ...................................... 76
25 Topographic profile of St. Johns River Marsh peat
deposit in southern Brevard County ................ 77
26 Topographic profile of the Oklawaha River peat deposit in
northern Lake and southern Marion counties .......... 78
27 Topographic profile of the Santa Fe Swamp peat deposit
in Alachua and Bradford counties .................. 79
28 Topographic profile of the Everglades in Collier and Dade
counties ................................... 80


TABLES


Table Page

1 Estimated rates of peat accumulation in Florida ....... 17
2 Proportions of the organic soils of the Everglades
Agricultural Area falling into categories based on
thickness ................................... 43
3 Summary of county level permitting requirements ...... 56
4 Water quality issues associated with peat mining ...... 67
5 Water resources issues associated with peat mining .... 71
6 Air quality issues associated with peat mining ........ 74
7 Plant communities of concern .................... 82
8 Endangered, threatened, and rare species associated with
areas of potential peat accumulation ............... 84
9 Independent factors governing site specific reclamation
programs ........................... ......... 88







Table 6. Air quality issues associated with peat mining. (Taken from King, et al., 1980).
Scales of Development
Small Moderate Large
Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor


Harvesting Emission
Fugitive Dust
Carbon Monoxide
Emissions
Nitrogen Oxide Emissions
Sulfur Oxide Emissions
Particulate Emissions
Nonmethane Hydrocarbon
Emissions
Photo Chemical Oxidants
Heavy Metal Emissions
Reduced Sulfur Compound
Emissions
Nitrogen Compound
Emissions
Halogen Compound
Emissions
Visibility Reduction
Water Vapor Emissions
Carbon Dioxide Emissions


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PAGE 1

S TATE OF F LORID A D EPARTMENT O F NAT URA L R ESOU R CES Elton J G i ssendanner Execut i ve D i re c tor DI V ISION OF RESOUR C E MANAGEMENT Art W il de D irector BUREAU OF GEOLOGY W alte r Schmidt Chie f S pecial P ublicati o n No. 27 AN OVERVIEW OF PEAT IN FLORIDA AND RELATED I SSUES by Paulette B ond K enneth M Campbell Tho mas M Scott Publish e d for the FL O R IDA GEOL OG ICAL S URVEY T A LLAHASSEE 1986 UtuVtRSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARlES

PAGE 2

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES BOB GRAHAM Governor GEORGE FIRESTONE Secretary of State BILL GUNTER Treasurer RALPH D TURLINGTON Commissioner of Education JIM SMITH Attorney General GERALD A. LEWIS Comptroller DOYLE CONNER Commissioner of Agriculture ELTON J. GISSENDAN NER Executive Director II

PAGE 3

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL BUREAU OF GEOLOGY TALLAHASSEE July 1986 Governor Bob Graham, Chairman Florida Department o f Natural Resou r ces Tallahassee, Florida 32301 Dear Governor Graham: F l orida has an estimated 606 million tons o f fuel grade peat and devel opment of F lorida's peat as a fuel source is becoming increasing attractive. Additionally, a thriving industry related to the agricultural use of peat currently exists in the state. Peat, however, occurs almost exclu sively in w etlands and is an essential component of shrinking wetland habitats. The Bureau of Geology has designed and executed a study of Florida peat in order to c larify issues associa t ed w ith its wise utilization and conservation. Special Publication No. 27, "An Overview of Peat in Florida" has been prepared as an account of t he results of this study. Sincerely, Wa lter Schmidt, Chief Bureau of Geology Ill

PAGE 4

Printed for the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee 1986 ISSN No 0085-0640 IV

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Executive Summary Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Purpose and Scope of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Historical Perspective of Peat Research in Florida . . . . . . 4 Definition of Peat and the Significance of This Definition-Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Terminology Relating to the Peat Forming Environment . . 6 Peat: Agricultural or Mineral Resource? . . . . . . . . 7 Harvesting or Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Classification Systems Applied to Peat . . . . . . . . 11 Parameters Affecting Peat Use for Fuel . . . . . . . . 13 The Accumulation of Peat-Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . 14 The Process of Peat Formation . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Geologic Conditions Associated with Peat Accumulation . . 14 The Accumulation of Peat in Florida-Paulette Bond . . . . . 16 Rates of Peat Accumulation in F l orida . . . . . . . . 1 6 Geologic Settings of Peat Accumulation in Florida . . . . 1 7 Inventory of Peat in Florida Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . 26 Mapping and Evaluating the Peat Resource . . . . . . . 26 Current Estimates of Peat in Florida . . . . . . . . . 28 The Everglades Agricultural Area-Paulette Bond . . . . . . 29 History of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . . . . . 29 Crops and Soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . 33 Subsidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Conservation Mea sures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Near Future of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . 40 Mining Technology-Kenneth M. Campbell . . . . . . . . 43 Mining Methodology Associated with the Use of Peat for Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Mining Methodology Associated with the Agricultural Use of Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industria l Uses of Peat Kenneth M. Campbell . ........... Preparation of Peat for Industrial Utili zation ............ Fuel Uses ..................................... Direct Combustion .......................... Gasification ................................ Biogasification .............................. Industrial Chemicals ............................. Bitumens .................................. Carbohydrates ............................. Humic Acids ................................ Peat Coke, Peat Tar and Activated Carbon v 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50

PAGE 6

Use of Peat as a Growth Medium . . . . . . . . . . 50 Horticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Energy Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Sewage Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Economic Impact of Peat Mining-Kenneth M. Campbell . . . 52 Production, Value, and Price of Peat . . . . . . . . . 52 Location of Peat Producers . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Location of Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Use of Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Permitting Kenneth M. Campbell . . . . . . . . . . . 55 County Level Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 State Level Permitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Department of Environmental Regulation . . . . . . 58 Water Management Districts . . . . . . . . . . 58 Suwannee River Water Management District . . . 58 S t Johns River Water Management D istrict . . . 58 Southwest Florida Water Management District . . 61 South Florida Water Management District . . . . 61 Department of Community Affairs . . . . . . . . 62 Federal Level Permitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Army Corps of Engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The Environmental Protection Agency . . . . . . . 62 Peat Revenue and Taxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Potential Environmental Impacts o f Peat Mining Paulette Bond 64 The Effects of Peat Mining on Wetlands . . . . . . . . 64 The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Quality . . . . . . 66 The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Resources . . . . . 69 Water Resources in an Undisturbed System . . . . . 69 Water Resource Parameters Affected by Peat Mining . 69 The Effects of Peat Mining on Air Quality . . . . . . . 73 The Effects of Peat Mining on Topography-Thomas M. Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Endangered Species Associated with Areas of Potential Peat Mining Thomas M. Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Reclamation of Mined Peatlands Paulette Bond . . . . . . 83 Peatland Reclamation in Minnesota . . . . . . . . 87 Peatland Reclamation in North Carolina . . . . . . . . 90 Peatland Reclamation in Finland . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick . . . . . . . 92 Reclamation in Peatla nds of Florida . . . . . . . . . 92 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Mineral versus Non-Mineral . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Harvesting versus Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Environmental Impact s of Peat Mining . . . . . . . . 94 Reclamation of Peat M ines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Agricultural Use o f Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 VI

PAGE 7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 G l ossary of Technical Terms-Kenneth M. Campbell .......... 102 Append i ces -Paul ette Bond .............. ............. 116 Appendix A. Federal Environmental Legis l ation .......... 116 Appendix B. C l assification of Wetl ands i n F l orida ... ..... 121 A p pendi x C. Florida Statut es Concerning Wetlands ...... 126 Appendix D. Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Appendix E. Peatlands Management .......... . .... 136 Appendix F. Florida Statute 403.265: Peat M i ning; permitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 51 ILLU S TRATIO N S F i gure Page 1 The process of coal for mation . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 2 T he relationship of peat types to fuel grade . . . . . 1 2 3 A comparison of moisture content and heat i ng value for peat, wood and various coa l types . . . . . . . . 1 5 4 Peat provinces of southern Florida . . . . . . . . 18 5 SWN E cross section from Cape Sable to vicinity of Tamiami Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6 Cross-section through a cypress hammock . . . . . 20 7 Cross-section through a "Bay Head" . . . . . . . 21 8 Cross-section through bay swamp and titi swamp . . 22 9 Peat deposits bordering lakes . . . . . . . . . . 23 1 0 Cross-section s howing peat f ill ing lake . . . . . . . 24 1 1 Cross-section using cores to show buried peat layers at Eureka Dam site, Oklawaha River, Marion County, Flor i da . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 12 Isopach ma p of t he Everglades region s howing thickness of peat and some muck a r eas . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 13 Peat deposits in Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 14 Fue l grade peat depos its in Florida . . . . . . . . 31 1 5 Peat deposits in Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 16 Locati on map of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . 34 17 Map of the Everglades Agricultural Area showing t h e locati ons of profiles A-A' and B-B' . . . . . . . . 37 18 Profi l e A A across the upper Everg l ades showi ng surface elevations in 1912, 1940, 1970, 2000 . . . . . . 38 VII

PAGE 8

1 9 Pr o f il e B B through the lower part of the Everglades Agricu l tural Area showing surface elevations in 1912, 1940, 1970, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 20 Soil depths predicted for the year 1980, for the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . . . . . . . . 41 21 Thicknesses of soi l s in the Everglades Agricul t ura l Area as determined by a recent study . . . . . . . . . 42 22 Location of current peat producers in Florida . . . . 53 23 Producti on and value of peat in Florida 1972-1983 . 54 24 Topograph i c profile of a karst basin peat deposit in north Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 25 Topographic profile of St. Johns River Marsh peat deposit in southern Brevard County . . . . . . . . 77 26 Topographic profile of the Oklawaha River peat deposit in northern Lake and southern Marion counties . . . . . 78 27 Topographic profile of the Santa Fe Swamp peat deposit in A l achua and Bradford counti es . . . . . . . . . 79 28 Topographic profile o f the Everglades in Collier and Dade Table 1 2 count1es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 TABLES Estimated rates of peat accumulation in Florida Proportions of the organic soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area f alling into categories based on Page 17 thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3 Summary of county level permitting requirements . . . 56 4 Water quality issues associated with peat mining . . . 67 5 Water resources issues associated with peat mining . . 71 6 Air quality issues associated w ith peat mining . . . . 7 4 7 Plant communities of concern . . . . . . . . . . 82 8 Endangered, threatened, and rare species associated with areas of potential peat accumulation . . . . . . . 8 4 9 Independent factors governing site specific reclamation programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 VIII

PAGE 9

AN OVERVIEW OF PEAT IN FLORIDA AND RELATED ISSUES by Paulette Bond, Kenneth M. Campbell and Thomas M. Scott EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Peat is a deposit of partially decayed plant remains which accumulates in a waterlogged environment. It may contain some proportion of inor ganic material which is referred to as ash. Ash content is a critical param eter if peat is to be used as a fuel and may not exceed 25 percent of the material by dry weight. In addition, fuel grade deposits must be at least four feet thick with a surface area of at least 80 contiguous acres per square mile. Fuel grade peat must yield at least 8000 BTU per moisture free pound. Peat is removed from the ground in an excavation process. The proce dure is alternatively referred to as harvesting or mining. "Harvesting" when used in conjunction with peat correctly refers to the nearly obso lete practice of harvesting living Sphagnum from the surface of a bog. In t his process, the Sphagnum was allowed to grow back so that repeated harvests were possible in a given area. Very little or no true harvesting occurs today. Thus, the extraction of peat is properl y termed mining. An important implication of the definition of peat is peat' s classifica tion as an agricultural resource as opposed to a mineral resource This c lassification may have ramifications with respect to the sorts of regula t i ons which are applied to peat mining. Peat does not comply with the conditions set forth in the academic definition of the term mineral. It is, however, considered a mineral resource by the United States Geological Survey and the United States Bureau of Mines. Peat may be ancestor of the mineral graphite and is also viewed by earth science professionals as nonrenewable. Thus it is considered appropriate to term peat a mineral resource. Peat accumulates and is preserved in wetlands, such as the Ever glades, marshes and mangrove swamps, river-valley marshes (St. Johns river-valley marsh), and in sinkhole lakes. This strong association of peat with wetlands occurs because the presence of water serves to inhibit the activity of decomposing organisms which would normally metabolize plant matter and prevent its accumulation. Earth science professionals consider peat to be nonrenewable In Flor ida an average rate of peat accumulation is 3.62 inches per 100 years. Using this average rate a deposit 4 feet thick (minimum thickness of a fuel grade deposit) could accumulate in approximately 1,326 years or approximately 18 human lifetimes (average lifetime of 72 years). Florida is estimated as having 67 7 688 acres of fuel grade peat or 606 million tons. This estimate is based on material thought to contain no

PAGE 10

2 BUREAU OF G E OLOGY more than 25 percent ash Other estimates are much greater ( 1 75 billion tons and 6.9 billion tons). These estimates include organic soils whose ash content exceeds ASTM standards for material defined as peat and U.S. Department of Energy standards for fuel grade peat. The Everg l ades Agricul tural Area was delineated based on scientific analysis of soils to determine their suitabi lity as a growth medium. The drainage necessary for successful agriculture has been accompanied by subsidence primarily because soils are no longer protected from decom posing organisms which require oxygen for their metabolism. Soil loss continues to occur at about one inch each year. It is predicted that by the year 2000 approximately 250,000 acres in the Agricultural Area will have subsided to thicknesses o f less than one foot. The fate of soils less than one foot thick is uncertain. They may be used for pasture land or abandoned for agricultural purposes. Peat currently is used in Florida for a variety of horticultural and agricul tural purposes The United States Bureau of Mines reports that in 1982. 120 thousand short tons was produced at a value estimated at 1 575 m i llion dollars. These data reflect voluntary information supplied to the Bureau of Mines and do not include responses from all of Florida's peat producers. Most peat sales in Florida are currently wholesale and for agricultural purposes and are thus exempt from sales tax. Records are not maintained which detail sales tax on retai l sale of peat products specifically, and thus there is no way of estimating the current tax income derived from the exploitation of peat resources in the State of Flor i da The peat perm itting process as it applies to peat mining is complex. County level permits may be required although in many cases zoning regulations are the only regulations which apply to opening a peat mine At the state level the Department of Environmental Regulation and Water Management Districts containing peat may require permits. The Department of Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of Regional Impact (DRI). Certain peat mining operations could come under federal jurisdiction. The agencies concerned would include the Environ mental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers The environmental impacts associated with peat mini ng for energy purposes depend strongly on the size of the prospective operation. Envi ronmental impacts are also site specific. Small operations could consume approximately 26 acres of peat mined to a depth of 6 feet. over 4 years; moderate opera t ions could ta k e approximately 3500 acres mined to a depth of 6 feet, over a 20 year period; and a large operation could require approximately 125,000 acres of peat, mined to a depth of 6 feet to operate for 20 years Peat mining will occur largely in wetlands and the values of each individual wetland must be weighed against the value of peat to be removed. The wetland habitat will be severely affected. Fauna will be displaced and possibly destroyed and flora will be destroyed when the peatland is cleared for mining. Water quality impacts may be major, even for smal l operations, and are related to chemical characteristics of

PAGE 11

SPEC I AL PUBLICATION NO. 2 7 3 the discharge waters. Water resource parameters are not expected to be severely affected by small scale operations but may be more seriot:sly impacted by larger scale development. The impacts of mining on air quality a r ise from mining, processing, and uti lizing peat as a fuel. T h ey are specific to an operation's size, m i ning meth od, and t he intended u se for the product. Endange r ed species, both plan t and animal, may inhabit peatl ands. The change in habita t brought abo u t by peat mining might lead to t h e destruction of certain stressed species associated with a mined area. Resea r c h in M innesota, North Caro l ina, Finland, and New B runswick Canada, show that rec lamation techni ques can be successfully applied to peatl ands; although, reclamation techniques are specific to those areas and do not add r ess problems inhe rent to Florida peatlands. Recla mation of Florida's peatlands may invol ve a change f rom wetland sys tems to other systems (probably aquatic systems). Restoration of mined peatlands to their original state (for t he most part wetl ands) will, i n all probability, be financially unfeasible. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The initial outline for this study was r ead and imp r oved by David Gluck man, rep r esenting the Flor i da Chapter of the Sierra Club; Charles Lee, representi n g the Florida Audubon Society; and Katherine Ewel Hel en H ood, John Kaufmann, and M arjorie Carr, r ep r esenting the Flori da Defende r s of the Environment. Ric h ard P. Lee, Florida Department of Environment al Regulation offered helpful comments on the outl i ne and sent valuable references concerning wetlands. Irwin Kantrowitz, United States Geological Survey read the outline and offered assistance. Ronn i e Best of t h e Center for Wetlands, University o f Florida provided an excel lent perspective on the values attri buted to wetl ands p r ovided a most useful reference Roy Ingram, Professo r of Geology at the Univer sity o f North Carolina Chape l Hill provided work space access to his pe r sonal collecti on o f peat reference works and the benefit of his research expe r i ence t h rough numerous informal conversa t ions concerning various aspects of peat. PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY T h i s study was undertaken in response to a di rective from the Florida Leg i slature ori ginating in the Natural Resources Committee of the Flor i da House of Representatives Florida is cu rrentl y faced with i m mediate e x panding industrial interes t in the exploitation of its peat resou r ces for fuel use. The study is primarily a compilation of literature pertinent to peats of Flori da and t heir use for agriculture and energy applications. It is conceived as provi ding an information base for decisions concerni n g both the u t i lization a n d conservation of F lorida's extens i ve peat resource.

PAGE 12

4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY HISTORICAL P ERSPEC TI VE OF PEAT RES E ARCH IN FLORIDA Interest in Florida's peat deposits has fluctuated since the Florida Geo l ogica l Survey published a Pre liminary Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida" in its Third Annual Report (Harpe r 191 0). This early work was basically a reconnaissance study of pea t resources in the state. T he author acknowledged that as population density in the state increased, a detailed report would be required In light of current environmental awareness, it is especially interesting that Harper ( 191 0 ) recommended studies by both an engineer and an ecologist. The hist orical perspective of peat use i n Florida is not complete without mention of the work of Robert Ransom a civil engineer who came to Florida from Ipswich, England, i n 1884. Ransom viewed Florida s peat deposits as a readily exploitable resource and was espec i ally interested in energy production from peat. Fo r thirty-five years Ransom experimented with peat, eventually even opening a test plant near Canal Point (Palm Beach County) which produced power gas tar s oils methyl alchohol and various by-products. He was not able to ga i n a cceptance for his radical projects within his lifetime (Davis 1946). In 1946, John H. Davis pub l ished The Peat Deposits of Florida Their Occurrence Development and Uses. This study categorized peatforming environments in the state and treated individual deposits in detail. It extended Harper's work and included chemi cal characterization of various Florida peats. Chemica l characteristics were related to the use of peat for agricultural purposes and also to its use as a fuel source. A number o f s t udies treating the peats of south Florida have been prepared by W. Spackman and his co-workers. Spackman e t al. ( 1964) presented a summary of various coal forming environments associated with the Everglades. This work includes a large number of geologic c r oss sections which document the relationship of peats to bedrock and sur rounding materials. The p lant communities currently assoc i ated with peats in the various coal forming environments are also carefully documented. Cohen and Spackman ( 1 977, 1980) present detailed descrip t ions of peats from southern Florida along with discussions of their ori gin, c lassifications and conside ration of the alteration of plant material. Spackman and others (Pennsylvania State University, 1976) present an updated and augmented edition of the original guidebook. The format of these works (Spackman et al., 1964; Pennsylvania State University, 1976) makes them particularly useful to scientists i n various disciplines whose interests involve the various wetland environments of south Flor ida In 1979, the U S Department of Ene rgy began its "Peat Development Program". The assessment of fuel g r ade peat deposits was part of an effort to define energy resources in the United States exclusive of petro leum. The Florida Governor's Energy Office subcontracted with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences to survey the peat resources of Flo r ida. This study resu l ted i n a literature survey of

PAGE 13

SPECIAL PUBLICAT ION NO. 27 5 peat deposits of Florida combined with detailed work in the Everglades Agricultural Area (Griffin, et al. 1982). The current study was undertaken in response to a directive from the Florida Legislature originating in the Natural Resources Committee of the Florida House of Representatives. It provides a compilation of informa tion concerning the location and amount of Florida's peat resources. In addition, the various aspects of the Everglades Agricultural Area are described in some detail and implications of subsidence of peats in this region are considered. Emphasis is also placed on existing information relative to potential effects of peat mining on Florida's environment. Legislation which may be applied to peat mining, water quality parame ters monitored in conjunct ion with various phases of peat mining, and methods of regulation applied to the peat resource by Minnesota, North Carolina, and New Brunswick are included as appendices to this report. DEFINITION OF PEAT AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS DEFINITION by Paulette Bond Peat is defined by workers in a variety of disciplines (geology, botany, soil science, and horticulture among others). These definitions have pro liferated in response to the multiple uses of peat. The American Geologi cal Institute defines peat as "An unconsolidated deposit of semicar bon i zed plant remains of a watersaturated environment, such as a bog or fen and of persistently high moisture content (at least 75 percent). It is considered an early stage or rank in the development of coal . (Gary, et al. eds., 1974). This extremel y general definition notes several essen tia l points. Peat is composed of plant remains which accumulate in a wet environment. It is considered to be an early product of the coal-forming process. In a definition which will be published in an upcoming volume (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1984). the American Society for Test ing and Materials (ASTM) defines peat as a naturally occurring unconsoli dated substance derived primarily from plant materials. Peat is distin guished from other organic soil materials by its lower ash content (less than 25 percent ash by dry weight [ASTM Standards 02974)) and from other phytogenic materia l of higher rank (i.e. lignite coal) by its lower BTU value on a water saturated basis. This definition is designed so that peats may be classified objectively and distinguished from both organic soils and coa l s. Griffin, et al. (1982) note the definition of fuel grade peat which was used by the United States Department of Energy for its "Peat Develop ment Program". Fuel grade peat was defined as an organic soil consist ing of greater than 75 percent organic matter in the dry sta t e In order for a peat deposit to be c l assified as fuel grade, the deposit must be at least

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6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY four feet thick, with a surface area of not less t han 80 contiguous acr es per square mile and yie l d not less than 8,000 BTU per pound (mo isture free). The definition for fuel grade peat establishes minimum standards for organic matter content and also for heating value (BTU per pound). It further comments on t h e deposit itself, stipulating minimum thickness and contiguous acreage requirements. The three definitions of peat presented here ref lect the specific pur poses of individua l s and agencies who prepared them. Varied use r g r oups and professionals who work with pea t may formulate additional definitions directly suited t o their needs. It is thus necessary to determine the way in which an author defines peat in order to fully understand the i mplications of h i s work. In the state of Florida t he definition of peat may take on special signifi cance if it is used as a criterion for designation of peat as either a mineral resource or an agricultural (vegetable) resource. It has been argued that if peat is not classified as a mineral then its excavation might constitute a harvesting process. Harvesting may not be subject to the regulatory p r ocedures that govern mining of a legally -defined mineral material. The usage of the term harvesting to describe t he m i ning of peat follows U.S. Department of Energy (1979). "Harvesting" when used in conjuncti on with peat correctly r efers to the nearly obsol ete practice of harvesting living Sphagnum ( peat moss) from the surface of a bog. In this process, the Sphagnum w as allowed to grow back so that repeated h a r vests wer e possible i n a given area. Thus, a crop was in actuality "harvested". Very litt le or no true harvesting occurs today (A. Cohen persona l communication, 1984). T e rminology Relating to the P eat Forming Env i r o nment Peat can only accumul ate in a wet environment. The terms which r efer to these environments take on different definitions accord ing to author pre f erence The American Geological Institute distinguishes between bogs and fens on the basis of chemistry. Bogs and fens are both charac terized as waterlogged, spongy groundmasses Bogs however, contain acidic, decaying vegetation consisting mainly of mosses whil e fe n s con t ain alkaline, decaying vegetation, mainly reeds (Gary et al., eds., 1974). The terms "bog" and "fen" are not usually applied t o peatlands in the southeastern United States. They a r e included in this discussion because they occur f r equen t ly in the literature associated with peatlands extraneous to Flor i da Although a significant body of research specific to the peats of Florida exists (Cohen and Spac k man, 1 980; Cohen and Spackman, 1977; G riffin, et a l. 1982; Pennsylvania State Uni vers ity, 1976), much information concerning mining techniques reclamation methods and hydrologic aspects of peatlands pertains directly to a r eas remote from Florida where the terms "bog" and "fen" may be used. The concepts o f minerotrophy and ombrotrophy are based on the qua l ity of water feeding a peatland ( H eikurainen 1976) and are perceived as

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 7 separate from the series eutrophy, mesotrophy and oligotrophy. The lat ter ser i es describes nutrient resources of peatlands using plant composition with eutrophy being richer in nutrients and o ligotrophy being poorer. The eutrophy-oligotrophy series is difficult to apply since it may be expanded to include additional extreme and transitional groups The boundaries between these various groups are not clear (Heikurainen, 1976) and they will not be considered further in this document. Bogs are said to be ombrotropic which implies that the bog is isolated from the regional groundwater system and receives its moisture mainly from precipitation. Minerotrophic peatlands, or fens, are defined as being connected with the regional g roundwater system and are nourished both by precipitation and groundwater flow (Brooks and Predmore, 1978). The U.S. Department of Energy in its Peat Prospectus avoids the usage of fen and characterizes peat as forming in swamps, bogs, and saltwater and freshwater marshes (U.S. Department of Energy 1979). The extent of this confusion becomes clear on examination of the American Geologi cal Institute's definition of swamp (Gary, et al., eds., 1974) which is characterized as, "A water saturated area . essentially without peatlike accumulation". It should be noted that most workers in the field do not concur with the portion of the American Geological Institute's definition that addresses the accumulation of pea t in swamps (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1984). Moore and Bellamy (1974, p. 84) use the term "mire" to cover all wetland ecosystems in which peat accumu lates in the same area where its parent plant material lived and grew. Thus, the meaning of specific names assigned to the peat-forming environment must be derived from an author's context. In the sou t heastern United States, the most commonly used terms for peat -forming environments are swamps and marshes. Swamps refer to forested wetlands and mars h es refer to aquatic, herbaceous wetlands (A. Cohen, personal communication 1984). Peat: Agricultural or Mineral Resource? In Florida, peat may eventually be viewed as a mineral resource or an agricultural resource. The United States Bureau of Mines has long con sidered peat a mineral resource for the reporting of commodity statistics. In deference to t h e formal definition of the term "mineral", the greatest majority of earth science professiona l s would not classify peat as a min eral. Peat might be likened more properly to a rock in that it contains a number of minerals (quartz, pyrite, and clay m i nerals among others) as well as macerals which are the organic equ i valents of minerals. If, however, the forma l and most restricted definition of mineral is compared with a definition of mineral that reflects current usage, it is noted that "minerals" adhere to the specifications of the formal defini tion in varying degrees. The intent of this discussion is not to establish that peat is a mineral but rather to illustrate the extent to which the formal definition has been expanded in common usage

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8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY A standard mineralogy textbook for university students, Elements of Mineralogy (Mason and Berry, 1968), gives the following definition of a mineral: A mineral is a naturally occurring, homogeneous solid inorgan ica lly formed, with a definite c hemical composit ion and an ordered atomic arrangement". This definition is useful because its authors con tinue by expanding on each part of their definition, taking into account the complexity of the group of compounds classified as minerals According to thi s definition, a mineral must be naturally occurring. This eliminates materials whic h are synthesized in the laboratory or are formed as by-products of various manufacturing processes. Since peat is indisputably naturally occurring, this aspect of the definition will not be considered further. A minera l must also be a homogeneous solid. This qualification elimi nates liquids and gase s from consideration and implies that a minera l cannot be separated into simpler compounds by any physical means ( Mason and Berry 1968). In the coalification process by which plant material (i.e., cellulose) becomes peat, water, carbon dioxide and meth ane are evolved w ith time ( U S Department of Energy, 1979). The coali fication process (U.S. Department of E nergy, 1979) refers to a general ization of the peat-forming process in which all initial plant material is referred to as cellulose. In actuality, peat contains many types of plant material and may possibly contain no cellulose at all. It is important here to note that many mineral substa nces evolve water or gaseous by products when subjected to changed conditions of pressure or tempera ture. Gypsum dehydrates (evolves water) forming anhydrite. The mineral talc evolves water and forms enstatite and quartz a t elevated tempera tures. Thus, minerals may contain water as an integral part of t heir crys tal structures. The term mineral is restricted by definition (Mason and Berry, 1968) to refer to inorgan ically formed substances. It e liminates homogeneous sol ids formed by plants and an imals such as oyster shells, pearls and gallstones. Ostensibly this qualification could eliminate peat from con sideration. The American Geolog ical Institute in its Glossary of Geology (Gary, et al., eds ., 1974) includes the following references i n its definition of the term mineral: "A mineral i s generally consi dered to be inorganic, though organic compounds are classi f ied by some as minerals". Thus, organic compounds are not automatically eliminated from consideration as min erals. This suggests that the term mineral has come to be used in a sense that is less restricted than might be supposed from examination of the definition presented to beginning students of mineralogy. Minerals are defined as having definite chemical composition (Mason and Berry 1968). This impl i es that thei r composition must be readily expressible using a chemical formula. It does not preclude variation in chemical composition. Variation within definite limits is allowed, thus, the composition is definite but not fixed (Mason and Berry, 1968). The compositions of cellulose and the peat derived from it are frequently

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 9 cited using the appropriate chemica l formul ae (Soper and Osbon. 1922. pp. 6 7; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, pp. 5-6; Cameron, 1973, p. 506). (As noted previous ly, the formulae cited here are based on a genera l ization of the peat-forming process in w h ich peat is derived from a starting material of cellulose. Due to the compl ex composition of most peats, thi s simp l ified approximation is not real istic). The last crite r ion in Mason and Berry's definition of a m i neral is that of an ordered atomic arrangement; that is, a mine ral sho u ld be a crystal l ine solid. Mason and Berry ( 1968) note a group of compounds which are considered minera l s even though the crystalline state is not initially attained: "A few minerals, the commonest being opal, are formed by the so l idification of a colloidal gel and are nonc r ystalline initially; many such mine r als become cryst alline during geologic time". The mineral opal may attain an ordered atomic arrangement on ly in the course of geo l ogic time. The coal -forming process is illustrated in Figure 1. As organic matter (originally deposited as peat) is subjected to conditions of increasing temperature and pressure i t undergoes the changes associated with coal ification. The end-product of thi s process is the mineral graphite (Press and Siever, 1974, p. 468). Graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system and its formula is simply carbon (C). It i s found in a number o f occur rences including metamorphosed coal beds (Quinn and Glass, 1958). The parallels with the case of opa l seem appa r ent. Neither opal nor peat initially attain the internal atomic ordering referred to in Mason and Ber ry's definition of a mineral. Opal will presumably achieve internal atomic ordering in the course of geologic time (Mason and Berry, 1968). The transformation of peat into t he mineral grap hite requires, in add i tion to the passage of time, increases in temperature and pressure (Press and Siever, 1974) and will be accompanied by the evolution of variou s liquids and gases. Geologists do not universally inc l ude crystalline form as a prerequisite to classification of a mat erial as a mineral. This is demonstrated in the continuation of the AGI Glossary's de finiti on of mineral. Those who inc lu de the requirement of c r ystalline form in the definition of a mineral would consider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a 'mineral aid'" (Gary, e t al. eds 1974) The United States Geolog ical Survey in its volume entitled United States Mineral Resources (Brobst and Pratt eds . 1973), devotes a chap ter to peat as well as chapters to petro l eum, natural gas and coal. The United States Bureau of Mines also considers peat to be a mineral resource in addition to coals petroleum and natural gas. These resources. includ ing peat, are all non-renewab le. Harvesting or Mining Harvesting and min in g are both terms which are appl i ed to the extrac tion of peat. As was discussed in the section of this report "The Defini t i on of Peat and Significance of thi s Definition the term "harvesting"

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10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY WE:TtAr. O (WIJfiOiiM[I;t A8UN0ANT VEGETATION AOAPT T O SAMPT Plant at the su1'face-8vrfed plant l itter decays parttally an d h forming PNH. U nder lying sediments in Florida conostn of linestoM cloy and uncon\o,1d4ttd sand. With llow tturia 1 DeaL Is (O
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SPEC IAL PUBLICATION NO 2 7 11 properly refers to the practically obsolete procedure of li terally harvesting living Sphagnum from the surface of a bog. In this procedure Sphagnum is allowed to continue its growth subsequent to harvesting ( A Cohen, personal communication, 1984). Peat however, is not considered renewabl e due to its slow rate of accumulation (U.S. Department of Energy 1979; M oore and Bellamy, 1974). Currently the cho ice of "harvesting as opposed to "mining" for terms to describe the excavat io n process of peat may be arbitrary The type of d istinction is demonstrated in the following quotation taken from Peat Prospectus: Thus the recovery of peat is a surface mining or harvesting process," (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, p 18). It may be significant that surface mining carries with it certain negative environ mental connotations. Harvesting is largely free of environmentally nega tive connotations but this is perceived to be due to a lack of understand ing since harvesting is frequently used as synonymous with surface mining. The equipment utilized in the peat removal process i s not associated with harvesting in its commonly accepted sense Peat operation s which are currently active in Flor i da u t ilize earth moving and excavating machinery In drained bogs such machinery commonly includes shove ls bulldozers and frontend loaders while draglines, clamshells and dredges are used i n undrained bogs (Searls, 1980). The process of harvesting in its usual sense does not imply the neces sity o f extensive land re cla mation. However, reclamation of peat la nds which have been excavated is acknowledged as necessary ( M inneso ta Department of Natural Resour ces, 1981 ) and is discussed more thor oughly in the section of this report entitled "Recl amation of Peat lands of Florida". Classification Systems Applied to Peat Peat like many materials, is cl assified for the convenience of persons using it. Since peat use in the United States has been largely agricultural, most class i f ica t i on schemes are based on properties of peat pertinen t to agr icul tural applications. A s one m ight expect, classification schemes devised for agricultural appli cation do not necessarily indicate peat qual ity for energy purposes However, there is a general relationship between peat decomposition and its energy value with respect to direct combus tion. This is illust rated in Figure 2. The American Society f o r Test ing and Materials !ASTM) ha s estab lishe d maximum and minimum particle sizes for fibers found in peat (ASTM, 1969). They add i t ionall y specify fiber content requirements for var ious types of peat. The maximum particle size for fibers is 0. 5 inch ( 1 .25 em) and the minimum is 0.006 inches (0.15 mm). Peat is subdi vid ed into five types and each type must contain a certain percentage of the characteristic fiber. The se percentages are based on an oven dried we ight at 1 05 C as opposed t o volume. The types of peat recognized by

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SAPRIC MODERATE CJ) IJJ a.. w 0 >-<( ..... a:: HEMIC HIGH (!) ..... <( w a.. _J w ::) LL FIB RIC LOW 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PLANT FIBER DECOMPOSITION (0/o) Figur e 2 The relationship of peat types to fuel grade. (Modified from U S. Department of Energy, 1 979). m c :::0 m )> c 0 G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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SPEC IAL PUBLI C ATION NO 2 7 1 3 the ASTM include: 1) Sphagnum moss peat which must contai n at l eas t 66.66 percent Sphagnum fibers by w eight, 2) Hypnum moss peat which must contain at least 33.33 percent fibers w ith one-half of those identifi able as Hypnum moss, 3) r eed-sedge peat which must contain at l east 33.33 percent fibers, one-ha l f o f which are reed-sedge and other nonmosses, 4 ) peat-humus must contain l ess than 33.33 percen t fiber, and 5) other peat, which accounts for all peat not previous l y classified 1n ASTM Designation D -2607-69 (ASTM, 1969). The ASTM classificatio n as discussed in the previous paragraph is currently under r evision. Two major factors were considered in this revi s i on. T h e classification of peat should meet the needs of t h r ee major user g r o u ps including engineers, energy users and agricultural u sers. In addi tion, the c l assificatio n should be based on parameters which may be measured objectively. These paramete r s i nclude ash, botanical composi tion, pH, and water h olding capacity. In order t o be called peat, a material w i ll h ave to contain 75 percent or more organic materia l on a dry basis. A lthough peats wil l still be categori zed as fibri c, hemic o r sap ric (based on fiber content), these ge n e r a l terms will be modified by as h content, botanical composition, pH and water h olding capc ity (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1983). One essential charcteristic that is assoc i ated with peat is moisture l evel, but there are no current regulated standards for moistu re in peat. The U nited States Bureau of M ines considers a "commonly accepted" value in the United States to be 55 percent moisture by weight for air dried peat (Sea r ls, 1980). T h e U.S. Department of Agriculture divides peat into three categories (Searls, 1 980). F ibric peat must contain more than 66.66 percent p lant fibers. Hemic peats are more decomposed than fibric peats. They must have a fiber content whi ch ranges between 33.33 percent and 66.66 percent fibers. Sapric peat consists of the most extensively decomposed p lant material. Sapric peat con t ains less than 33.33 percent recognizable pla n t fragments of any type. Peat in the United States h as often bee n c l assified into thr ee general categories (Searls, 1980; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Moss peat is comprised of Sphagnum, Hypnum and other mosses. R eed-sedge peat is mainly t h e product of r eeds, sedges and other swamp plants. Humus is simply too decomposed for evidence of its origin to be r etained. Parameter s Affecting Peat Use for Fuel The parameters whi ch bear most d irectly on peat's usefu l ness as a fuel source a r e measured by pro x imate analysis. In this procedure, peat is ana l yzed in the laborato r y for its volatile content, fixed carbon, ash con tent and moisture. The volatil e content of peat refers to substances oth er than moi s t u r e which are emitted as gas and vapor when peat is burned. Peat has a very high vola t i l e content compared to coa l. This is a pos itive attribute for peat which is to be gasified s i nce the reactivity of peat in the

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14 BUR EAU OF G EOLOG Y gasifica t ion process increases with increased volatile content. The fixed carbon content of the peat is responsible for much of its combustion energy. Ash is the amount of materials in a fuel which remains after combustion. The amount of ash varies for different types of peat. Peats which receive their moisture primarily from precipitation are usually lower i n ash than those which are nourished by surface waters. In times of flood, surface waters may carry large sediment loads onto the peatlands where sediment is trapped in the peat. Peat's high moisture content can be a major problem which must be considered in its utilization. Even a drained and solidified bog may con tain 7095 percent moisture and for some uses peat will require addi tional drying which will, in turn, require energy. THE A CC UMULATION OF PEAT by Paulette Bond The Pr ocess of P ea t F ormation Peat forms when the rate of accumul ation of plant matter exceeds the rate at which decomposing organisms metabolize it. The conversion of fresh plant material to peat takes place over a period of time as peat becomes enriched in fixed carbon while evolving water, carbon dioxide and methane (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Peat is comparatively increased in fixed carbon as opposed to cellulose, and the process by which this takes place is referred to as carbonization. It is this enrichment of carbon which makes peat desirable as a fuel source (Figure 3) The Peat Prospectus (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) compares peat with wood and various grades o f coal in terms of fixed carbon and heating value (in British The r mal Units, BTU). The following values are taken from Figure 3 of the Peat Prospectus and are approximate (U.S. Depart men t of Energy, 1979). One pound of wood has a fixed carbon content of approximately 20 percent and generates 9,300 BTU on a moisture and mineral free basis. An equivalent amount of peat contains 28 percent fixed carbon and generates approximately 10,600 BTU These values for peat and wood contrast with values for lignite which yields abou t 12,400 BTU and has a fixed carbon content of approximately 4 7 per cent. Ge o l o gic C o ndition s Asso c iated with P eat Accumulatio n As was previously noted, peat forms when the accumulation of plant material exceeds its destruction by the organisms which decompose it. Since plant matter is usually decomposed before significant accumula tions develop, it is i nstructive to examine the set of circumstances w hich allow pea t to form. Certain geologic, hydrologic and climatic conditions

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 GEOLOGIC AGE RECENT TERTIARY CRETACEOUS CARBONIFEROUS 65 Mil liON YRS 100 M illiO N YRS 300 MILUON VRS COAL TYPES wooo 'Vol 1 6 15 14 13 8 7 ;;; ... "' ... ... c "' ... z -Figure 3. A comparison of moisture content and heating value for peat, wood and various coal types. (Modified from U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). 1 5 serve to inhibit decomposition by organisms. Ideally areas should be continually waterlogged, temperatures generally low and pH values of associated waters should be low (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). It should be noted that Moore and Bellamy ( 197 4) primarily treat peats associated with northern cold climates. Certain geologic characteristics are associated with waterlogged sur face conditions. The tendency toward waterlogging is enhanced if topographic relief is generally low and topographic barriers exist which restrict flow and allow water to pond. Additionally, waterlogging is encouraged if highly permeable bedrock is covered with material of low permeability (Olson, et al., 1979). The chemical nature of the plant litter may also serve to reduce its susceptibility to decomposition. Moore and Bellamy (1974) note the association of cypress and hardwood trees in peats of the hammocks or tree islands of the Everglades. These hammocks occur on peat deposits

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1 6 B U REAU OF GEOLOGY which are situated on limestone bedrock. The trees, which are responsi ble for the peat beneath them, contain enormous amounts of lignin. Lignin is very resistant to decay (Moore and Bellamy 1974). It is alterna tively suggested that hammock peats in Florida may be controlled more by the persistence of water than by the amount of lignin (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1984). THE A C CUMULATION OF PEAT IN FLORIDA by Paulette Bond Rate s o f Peat A cc umul a tion Knowledge of the rate of peat accumulation is important in that it allows various extractive uses for the resource to be weighed in light of t he amount of time i t takes for the mineral to accumulate. Rates of peat accumulation are usually determined using the carbon-14 met hod of dating organic mater ials. This method is subject to a number of difficulties when applied to peat. The following problems were enume r ated by Moore and Bellamy (1974): 1) Wide errors may be introduced since young roots may penetrate material at depth. This problem could result in apparently rap i d rates for the accumulation of peat. 2) Older layers are compacted as new ones are deposited. This could cause rates of deposition to appear anomalously low. 3) Rates of peat formation vary with climate and climate varies with time. Thus, an accumulation rate proba bly reflects a sort of average rate for some given amount of peat. Several estimates of peat accumulation rates in Florida are presented in Table 1. The variation in rate presented here for peat accumulation may be attributed to a number of factors. Gleason, et al., (1974) used Davis' (1946) data to compute a value o f productivity for the sawgrass environ ment. Productivity refers to the amount of dry organic matter (measured in pounds) which is formed on an acre of ground in a year. When this productivity is compared to the dry weight of an acre-foot of peat as estimated by Davis (1946), a discrepancy is apparent. According to t hese computations, more material accumulates as peat than is originally formed in the sawgrass environment (Gleason, et al., 1974). Factor s which may account for this difficulty include possible low estimates of productivity and inadequate estimates of silica content or peat density. It is also possible that silica in the peat might not be entire l y derived from sawgrass (Gleason, et al., 1974). Rates of peat accumulation computed from radiocarbon age are grouped about an average of 9.1 cm/100 years. The rate of peat accumulation can vary with climate (which also varies with time). the position of the water t able and nutrient supply (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). Data are not available which would allow rate variation in different environments to be evaluated. The rates pre sented here were calculated from pea t s produced from varying plant

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 17 Table 1. Estimated rates of peat accumulation in Flo r ida. Author Estimated Rate Davi s 5. 2 i n./1 00 years (1946, p. 74) Kuehn 4 .24 i n./100 yea r s ( 1980, p 49) Kuehn 3.64 i n./100 years ( 1980, p 49) Stephens 3 i n./1 00 years (1974, p 356) Comments Th i s rate i s computed based on the amount of S i 02 fixed by a stand ing crop of sawgrass from the Everglades. I t is widel y quoted, but a recent ana l ysis of t h e method (Gleason, et al., 1974) indicates that certain of the assumpt i ons necessary to the calcu l at i on must be i n error This d ifficulty is discussed more completely i n the accompanying text. This rate was computed from a core which penetrated peat formed alternate l y in marine, brackish and fresh water environments from southwest Flor i da. The computations were based on radiocarbon ages. Thi s rate was computed for a single type of peat, red mangrove (Rhizophora). from southwest Florida using measu r ed thickness and radiometric ages. Rates were computed from the Everglades using radiocarbon ages whi ch were not specif i cally referenced in the text. communi ties which thrive in different environments. In addition, peat has been lost by fire during various preh istoric dry pe r iods (Cohen 1974). Fai l ure to recognize evidence of f i re coul d a lter the rate at which peat is ca lcul ated to accumulate. Geologic Settings of Peat A ccumulation in Florida The conditions under which pea t can occur in Florida are highly varia b l e. While geologic and hydrologic relations of peat to i t s neighboring materials have been thoroughly documented in the Everglades of south Florida, numero u s small deposits in the cen t ral peninsula remain unmapped. Davi s ( 1946, p. 114). consi d e r e d the peat depos its of Florida as falling into a number o f g roups based on their locations. These groups include: 1) coasta l associations, inc l uding marshes and mangrove swamps, l agoons and estuaries as well as depressions among dunes; 2) large, nearly flat, poorly-drained areas as exemplified by t he Everglades illust r ated in Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7; 3) rive r valley marshes such as the marsh adjacent to the St. Johns R i ver; 4 ) swamps of the flatland region (Figu r e 8); 5) ma r shes bordering lakes and ponds (Figure 9); 6) season ally f l ooded shallow depressions; 7) lake bottom deposits (Figure 1 0); 8) peat l ayers buried beneath other strata (Figure 11). Cohen and Spackman ( 1977) have devised a mor e comprehensive classifi cation of south Flo rida's phytogenic (of plant origin) sediments

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18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY BIG CYPRESS PROVINCE . . . . . . . . . RIDGE AND SUB-PROVINCE .J 'F Figure 4. Peat provinces of southern Florida. (Modified from Spack man, et al., 1976). based on micropetrological studies. They first d i vide phytogenic sedi ments into two groups based on whether the plant materi al is trans ported from the site of growth or deposited at or near the growth sites o f their source plants. Transported and nontransported phytogenic sediments are subd i vided as occurring in marine to brack i sh water or fresh

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0 ... i. -0 SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 19 \ !ot. '!wrg ... 01011 herglodu D .. \\ r I d. $ B o y o <> Flor i d a I \, ' -. ot> o c 0 LEGEN D PEAT iZl-10 3 M ARINE. MAR t. 6 J: L I MESTONE Q:l t:: I SHElL BEACH o o I F i gure 5. SW-NE c r oss-sec t ion from Cape Sable to vicinity of Tamiami Trail. (Modified from Spackman, et al., 1964; and Spackman, et al., 1976. water. Specific environments are enumerated for both marine to brackish water deposits and a l so fresh water deposits. Peats of these deposits a r e differentiated based ma inly on their botanical composition

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sw "Moat '' LEGEND ALGAL MAT FRESH WATER MARL PEAT BEDROCK ( I I 11 SECTIONAL PROFILE THROUGH A CYPRESS HAMMOCK I .... 2 IIJ 11.13 lA. "Moat" SCALE 5-+------, 0 FEET 50 Figure 6. Cross section through a cypres s hammock, Everglades Natio nal Park (Modified from Spackman, et al. 1964). N 0 aJ c ::J:J m l> c 0 -n C) m 0 ,.... 0 C) -<

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LEGEND WATER r;:::;::;:3 FRESH WATER MARL PEAT 1 12 LtJ 3 SCALE 4 5-+---------. 0 FEET SO BEDROCK I. I I I F ig ure 7 Cross -section through a Bay Head," Everglades National Park. (Modified from Spackman, et al. 1964). CJ) ., m (") -)> r ., c r (") -0 2 2 0

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F E E T ( METERS) A B OVE S EA LEVEL 70 (21.3) 60 ( 18. 3) 50 ( 15. 2) 40 ( 12.2) 30 ( 9.1) 20 ( 6.1) Figure 8. PI NE-P ALMETTO F L AT WOOD BAY S W A MP TITI S WAMP -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 ----------------------------------------------LEGEND PEAT MUCK and SAND MUCK SAND, SILT a nd PEAT and CLAY SAND 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MARL bay swamp and titi swamp, Bradwell Cross section through Wakulla County, Florida (Modified from Cameron, et al. 1 977). Bay Wilderness, N N c ::a m )> c 0 C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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LAKE HARRIS R 25E SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 EUSTIS R26E I \ "' "" c ..J \ LAKE APOPKA \ > R 27E 23 (/) a'l 1(/) 0 C\1 1(/) C\1 1(/) C\1 C\1 1Figure 9. Peat deposits bordering lakes in Lake and Orange counties, Florida. (From Davis 1946).

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0 .. 0 6 0 . . --. 4:'-------. i , ,,, ,' 0 0 : 0 0 H UN D REDS L EGEND OF YAitDS SAPROPEL FIBROUS SAWG.-ASS CLAY \ 0 20 . .. 0 60 Figure 1 0. Cross-section showing peat filling l ake ( M ud L ake, Marion County, Florida). (From D avis 1946 ). tD c :IJ m l> c 0 "T1 C) m 0 r 0 C) <

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SCALE V E R [4 FT. LEGEND HOR. 200FT. D SAND . [I] SHELL . . . ) .. [] SILT ,. I lZl 1 1 CLAY l .. ) ) . .. ) . PEAT . . . I I . . MARL . . . ) . raJ ) I COMB I - ) ) [ill] NATIONS 'I . ) . .) I . I MA MARINE . FAUNA . . . \ PO-PINE-OAK . . POLLEN . SFSPRUCE FIR . POLLEN . Figure 1 1. Cross -section u s in g cor es to s how buried peat layers at E ureka Dam s ite, Oklawaha River Marion Co unty, Fl o r ida (From D avis, 1946.) (J) m ('") -)> r-" c O::J r('") 0 z z 0 N N (11

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26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY In Florida, peat deposits occur above or below the watertable (Davis, 1946; Gurr, 1972). Wet peat deposits occur if the watertable remains relatively high. Peat may be actively accumulating in these settings. Certain areas within the Everglades, the coastal mangrove peats, and some lake fringing peat deposits, such as the one associated with Lake l stokpoga, are examples of deposits which occur below the watertable. In other instances, peat deposits are now l ocated above the watertable due to drainage instigated to enhance the land for agricultural use. The Everglades agricultural region contains numerous t racts drained for this purpose. Other deposits have apparently been drained as a result of regional lowering of the watertable. Most peatlands in Florida occur at or below the watertable and, thus, are very frequently also wetlands. INVENTORY OF PEAT IN FLORIDA by Paulette Bond Mapping and Evaluating the Peat Resource T here is no comprehensive inventory of Florida's peat deposits cur rently in print. Excluding the ear l y work of Robert Ransom, peat was not considered as a fuel source in Florida; an d several scatte red deposits were adequate to satisfy t he state's agricultural and horticultura l needs. Thus. neither interest nor funding were available for a complete peat inventory in the recent past. It is important to point out that a compr ehensive inventory of Florida's peat resource is, of necessity, a massive undertaking. The reasons for this difficulty are manifold. Florida is currently estimated to have 6.9 billion tons of peat contained in approximate ly 4, 700 square miles (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, p. 16). This peat occurs in a variety of geologic settings which are both discontinuous and widely distributed across the breadth and length of the state. The various geologic settings of peat in F lorida are discussed in a previous section, "Geologic Settings of Peat Accumul ation in Florida". These difficult ies are compounded by t h e inac cess ibility of many peat producing areas. Peat actively accumulates in wetland situations typified by fresh water marshes, swamps, and mangrove swamps. Muc h of Flori da's peat occurs in the Everglades region (Figure 12). Due to extensive drainage in the Everglades the exact thickness and extent of the peat has decreased since F igu re 12 (Davis, 1946) was prepared. Many of these areas are not accessible to conventional vehicles. Thei r size and charac ter may render foot travel u nfeasible. Some but not all, sites may be accessible to boats. Coring eq uipment for taking samples and measuring thickness must, in addition, accompany any field party charged with assessing peat reserves. A realistic appraisal of Florida's peat resource is further complicated by

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 LEGEND II PEAT THICKNESS FEET 9-11 rl7-9 Ds-7 1]13-5 rnGilll-3 Oo-1 WITHIN L IMITS OF EVERGLADES MANGROVE: PEAT B l G CYPRESS I SOPACH MAP SHOWING THICKNESS OF PEAT I N THE EVERGLADES Figure 12. Isopach map of the Everglades region showing thickness of peat and some muck areas. (From Davis, 1946). 27 the variability of the material. Peat may be classified as fibric, hemic or sapric depending on the extent to which it has decomposed (see section entitled "Classification Systems Applied to Peat"). It also varies with respect to the chemical and physical properties that affect its eventua l uses, e.g. fuel and horticulture. Complete assessment of the peat r esource requires laboratory analysis in addition to time-consuming f ie l d studi es Attempts to assess the amount and locations of peat in Florida are hampered by an additional factor. Peat deteriorates by oxidizing when the wetlands where it accumulates are drained This drainage may be due to the activities of man or by natural lowering of t he water table in

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28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY times of drought. Any data base for peat will require periodic updating if it is to remain useful. Curren t E stimates of Peat in Florida The total peat resources available in Florida are difficult to estimate and published values vary widely. The paucity of actual peat resource investigations is an important hindrance to the development of accurate figures. A few published studies are concerned with the entire state (Davis, 1946; Griffin, et al., 1982). Several others concentrate on limited areas (Stephens and Johnson, 1951; Gurr, 1972). Individual county soil surveys vary in their usefulness due to apparent inconsistencies in the terminology relating to organic soils and peats. The more recent studies were used by Griffin, et al. (1982) to estimate fuel grade peat resources. Unfortunately, these studies are not complete for every county in the state. As a result, Griffin, et al. (1982) were unable to provide a comprehensive inventory of the peat resources for the entire state. Another possible reason for the variation between resource estimates may be the result of the specific material studied. Griffin, et al. (1982) investigated "fuelgrade peats" (defined by the U.S. Department of Energy for their peat resource study) while Davis ( 1946) inventoried a variety of organic materials classified as peats. The United States Soil Conservation Service studies soils in general and describes their organic content in addition to other characteristics. Griffin, et al. ( 1 982) reported the discrepancies among the figures from various studies but were unable to determine the reason for the differences Griffin, et al. ( 1982) also state that verbal reports from other U.S. Department of Energy peat researchers indicate that they have found similar discrepancies between the resource figures from the U.S Soil Conservation Service and their own figures in other states. Published estimates of Florida's peat resources vary nearly by an order of magnitude. Griffin, et al. (1982) provide the lowest figure of 677,688 acres (1 ,059 square miles) consisting of 606 million tons of moisture free peat Davis (1946) estimated 2,240,000 acres (3,500 square miles), comprising 1, 750,000,000 tons of air dried peat. The highest figure is provided by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (in U S. Depart ment of Energy, 1979) and is 3 ,000,000 acres (4, 700 square miles), or 6,900,000,000 (35 percent moisture by weight} tons of peat. The pub lished resource estimates vary significantly and thus should be used with reservation. The determination of a more accurate resource figure for Florida peats would require a significant investment of time and money to complete. The scattered nature of the deposits in north and central Florida (Figure 13} is such that there are literally thousands of sites to be investigated In south Florida, peat deposits cover broad areas which would have to be examined in order for accurate estimates to be prepared.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 29 The greatest potenti a l peat resources i n Florida lie predominantly in south Florida (Figures 1 3, 14, and 1 5). The vast majority of this peat lies in the Everglades and associated swampy areas. It is interesting to note that while Davis (1946) (Figure 1 3) and the U.S. Department of the Interior (State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15) show similar areas of peat in south F l orida, Griffin, et al. (1982) (Figure 14) show a significantly smaller area. This discrepancy may be due to subsidence and high ash content which would render peat unsuitable for fuel use. Griffin, et al. (1982) show peat deposits in Collier and Lee counties that are not included on the other maps. Figures 1 3, 14, and 1 5 indi cate the presence of large deposits in the St. Johns River Val ley (Indian River, Brevard and Orange counties), and the Oklawaha River Valley (Marion and Lake counties). Other relatively large deposits include: Lake Apopka (Orange and Lake counties), near Lake Arbuckle (Highlands County), Orange Lake area (Marion and Ala chua counties) and the F l orahome deposit (Putnam County). Smaller deposits are also indicated on Davis' ( 1946) map (Figure 13) and Griffin, et al. ( 1982) map (Figure 14). It i s interesting to note that while Davis ( 1946) (Figure 1 3) shows scattered samples taken from small peat areas in the panhandle, Griffin, et al. ( 1982) (Figure 14) show a number of deposits, i ncluding a large deposit in Leon County and smaller deposits in Bay Jackson, and Santa Rosa counties. The U.S. Department of the Interior map (State o f Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15) does not i ndica t e any deposits in the panhandle. Peats associated with mangrove and coastal swamps generally occur in a narrow band paralleling Florida's coastline The zone occupied by these environments i s widest in southwest Flor i da. These peats are not generally shown on the maps of peat resources due to the scale of the maps. Until a more detailed investigation of our peat resources is undertaken the published resource estimates must suffice. It must, however, be kept in mind that the figures are estimates of the available resources and vary from one investigator to another. THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA by Paulette Bond History of the Everglades Agricultural Area The Everglades Agricul tural Area is a pa r t of an i mmense natural drain age system that begins in the northernmost reaches of the Kissimmee River drainage basin near Orlando. The Kissimmee River flows to the southeast into Lake Okeechobee In its natural state, the level of L ake Okeechobee fluctuated within a range of approx imately 8 feet, that is,

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30 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1---' .J-t( Q... Cil ,_ lo.. \ ...... t """ .. ' -.. ., : 'I .,.. I ....... l .. ',r"' I .. .. ..... f "'-.. vo n:" J :-""',1-t . ,L:(";, : .. .. 0 ) -. -(,:) ) ..... 0 EvE R G L A oEs .J :.,... \ .. I Mostly So..,..CJ!ossPeol ......... -.. .- :""'-.. A Muck ond Pt-ct ... : ... 8 Lox.ohotchee Peat ..' ':.., C Ptot \ 0.:., 0 MANGROVE a'>:, I J,:J., ' 1 E SA lT-MARSH PEATS :.. ':r CORKSCREW MARSH 0 -... l. F VAN SWEAR I NGEN SLOUGH :: Jl. .':iio $ G I STOKPOGA MARSH&Sw"AMP Jt' ""-f'l > H U PPER ST. JOHNS R I V E R F ELLSM ERE AREA l P EAC E CREEK DRA I NAGE DISTRIC T AREA J C L ERM O NT MARSH K L AKE APOPKA MARSH 0 h o0 I 0: "" '\,,<.J,'' .... t.. <;).' ........ "" :t ..1 I ._ '0' ,\ I . .' r .,__ ... --i! .. ,_! :. __ :. v {' .,;, (.) :.,., -.,..___ .1 \!) 1-f. ...: .. 11!1 .. .. ' ,; (,;,. '"' .... \H .._ I \ L OKLAWAHA R I VER AREA _ M ORANG E LAKE !'! -, .,, N F lORAHOME AREA e .:::.'. 1 ,. 0 SAMPLES TAKEN ANO SMA LLER-lt:-. -- .. ......... ,,::-:, .. Y '# P E AT AREAS _\.; / , -' S 1 :-\ T t : Ot n.OUIO.-\ \ J' __ - SHOWING ::_{''-., -::-::. ;;;..,; PEAT DEPOSITS -e ... 1, "'!Y' ' ..... _,, \ . . . ,. ; . .,./'. ... .. F i gure 13. Peat deposits tn Florida. ( From Davis, 1946).

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li;,;,;,-SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 FUEL GRADE PEAT DEPOSITS ..... . ......... . > t . . . . . -""""' = = 1' . .: 3 1 Figure 14. Fuel grade peat deposits in Florida (From Griffin, et al., 1982).

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32 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Figure 1 5. Peat deposits in Florida. (From State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981 ). between 12 to 20 feet above mean sea level (M.S.L.) (Parker, 1974). The water level in the upper Everglades rose and fell in response to the fluctuations of Lake Okeechobee. In the wet season, most of the Everglades was inundated much of the time. When the water level of Lake Okeechobee reached about 14.6 feet (M.S.L.). two separate segments of the lake shore would begin overflowing into the Everglades. At about 18 feet (M.S.L.). the entire southern shore (30 miles) overflowed, pouring a flood into the upper Everglades (Parker, 1974). It is important to note, however, that losses due to evapotranspiration are estimated to have been as high as 82 percent. Thus, flood water from Lake Okeechobee most probably did not travel the entire length of the Everglades, but rather local precipitation caused the inundation (Parker, 1974). This mass of water flowed sluggishly to

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SPECIAL PUBLI C ATION NO 27 33 the Gulf and has come to be described as sheet f low (Parker, 1974). The chronic inundation al lowed the accumulation and p r eservation of the organic soils a n d p eats which characterize the highly productive Ever glades Agricul tural Area. In about 1880, Hamilton Disston entered into a contract by which he would drain l and on the upper Kiss i mmee River and receive as compensa t ion half of t he land he drained His success was debatable (Tebeau 197 4). The histor y of early drainage efforts is a history of inadequate technical expertise and insecure funding. T he scope of t h e d r ainage issue was continually underestimated Disastrous f l oods associated w ith hurri canes in 1926 and 1928 moved the Federa l Government to take action. The extensive floods of 194 7 a n d 1948 made it obvious that water contr ol had not yet been established and set the stage for the interven tion of the Army Corps of Engineers ( T ebeau, 1974). In 194 7, most of south Flor i da was flooded for several months. The U.S. Congress in respo n se to the conti n u ing water-control problems, passed the Flood Control Act of Jun e 30, 1948. This action directed the Army Corps of Engineers to p l an design and construct a massive project which would ult imately solve water problems in all or parts of 1 8 counties in centra l and south Flor i da (Snyder, et al. 1978). In the plan pro posed by the Army Corps of E n gi n eers major concern was devoted to t h e protecti on of l ife and property along the lower east coast of Florida. T he first phase of the project in volved building an artifi cial l evee f rom L ake Okeec h obee to about Homestead in order to confin e flood wat ers to the Everglades. T h e project was also des i gned to provide water control for soil water conservation and farming (Snyder, et al. 1978). After studies by both the U n ited Stat es Department of Agriculture and t h e University of F lorida, t h e lan ds of t he present "Everglades Agricul tural Area" wer e set aside for agricultural development. The organic soi l s of t h e Agri cultural Area were the on l y soils of sufficient de pth and of the proper type to s upport cultivati on for a per iod of time sufficien t to justify development (Snyder, et a l. 1978). It is important to note that when the Everg l ades Agricultural A rea was being p l anned it was recognized that subsidence of o r ganic soi l would occur and that the area could not support cultivation indefinitely (Snyder, et a l. 1978). Crops a nd So i l s of the Ev e rglades Agric ultural Area The Flor i da Everglades comprises the single la rgest body of organic soi l s in the world, 1,976,800 ac r es (Shih, 1980). The Eve r glades Agri cultural A rea consi sts of 765,700 acres of f ertile o r ga n ic soil. Winter vegetab l es from t h e Agricultural Area in clude sweetcorn celery, ra d is h es, leaf crops, carrots and bea n s. I n a d dition, lands of the agricultural t rac t a r e used for sugar cane, pasture and turf (Shih, 1980). Sugar cane is the dominant crop with cash receipts of $21 5 million in 1977-1978 (Snyder, et al., 1978). The proximity of the Florida Agricultural Area to the south shore of

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3 4 c:J . . . r BUREAU OF GEO L OGY PRI VATELY BAC KPUMPED LANDS STATE 0WNEO LANDS CA NAL LEVEE (L) r.:1 ""' BASIN B OUNDARY CONTROL STRUCTURE ( S ) LAKE OKEECHOBEE CLE W ISTON HGS 2 HOOVER OIK E S-3 BASI N \ S B BASIN c> L \ R O TEN BERGE R TRACT L 4 S-2 BAS I N .,.SELL E GLADE S-2 L-5 S-5 BASIN L-7 S-6 Figure 16. Location map of the Everglades Agricultural Area. (Modi fied from Snyder, et al., 1 978). Lake Okeechobee is not coincidence (Figure 16). Before the activiti es of man alte r ed the tendency of Lake Okeechobee to overflow along its southern edge, silt, clay and organic colloids were mixed with dead p lants to form muck. In this way, the mucks became enriched in the microelements that peat lacks (Stephens, 1974), enchancing t he mucks as an agricultural growth medium.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 35 The soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area are classified by soil sci entists on the basis of the percentage of inorganic matter they contain and their thickness. The Torry Series soils occur within two to five miles of Lake Okeechobee. They contain black organic layers more than 51 inches thick and are characterized by a range of 35 percent to 70 percent mineral matter (mostly the clay minera l s sepiolite and montmorillonite) (Snyder, et al. 1 978) and are not considered peats according to ASTM standards The Terra Ce i a Pahokee Lauderhill and Dania soils are dark organic soils which are differentiated from one another based on their thickness above bedrock. The Terra Ceia soi ls are the thickest, with the Pahokee, Lauderhill and Dania becoming successively thinner. As the process of subsidence occurs, Terra Ceia soils will become Pahokee so i ls since Pahokee soils differ from Terra Ceia soils only in their thickness (Snyder et al., 1978). Subsidence Subsidence refers to the l oss of thickness which is incurred by organic soils when they are drained. A group of physical processes are responsi ble for subsidence, including 1) shrinkage due to dessication 2) consoli dation by loss of the buoyant force of groundwater and loading, or both, 3) compaction by tillage, 4) wind erosion, 5) burning and 6) biochemical oxidation (Stephens 1974). The processes of dryi ng consolidation and compaction do not result in actual loss of soil (Shih, 1980). Stephens and Johnson ( 1951) documented an increase of oven dried weight for Ever glades peat from about 9 pounds to about 16 pounds per cubic foot after cultivation. This increase in density corresponds to a decrease although there is little actual loss of soil. The processes of wind erosion burning and oxidation do, however, result in the actual l oss of organic soils (Shih 1 980). Wind erosion is thought to have minor effects in the Everglades Agricultural Area. Numerous charcoal-rich lenses which represent ancient fires have been found at depth in cores through the organic soils of the Everglades and coastal swamps (Cohen, 1974). Attempts to correlate charcoa l layers from core to core were futile suggesting that fires were not widespread geographically. The fires were confined mainly to sawgrassdominated peats. Modern observation indicated that fires are very common in sawgrass communities and it is suggested that sawgrass may be especially welladapted to surviva l of fires (Cohen, 1974). The most serious cause of long term subsidence in the Everglades is biochemical oxidation. Biochemical oxidation has been r esponsible for 55 to 75 percent of the total soil loss in the upper Everglades Agricultural Area (Stephens, 1974) Although original plans for drainage in the Ever glades recognized that subsidence would occur, the causes were apparently misunderstood (Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ). Shrinkage of origi nal peat due to drainage was taken into account, but the slow continual loss of peat due to biochemical oxidation was not considered.

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36 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The organic soi l s of the Everglades are a collection of organic particles and mineral particles which are inte rspersed with void spaces or pores When these pores are filled with water the microorganisms whi ch actively decompose the organic soil are unable to function or function at a greatly reduced rate (Snyder, et al., 1978). Th is is the condition that allowed organic soils to accumul ate before modification of natural drain age patterns. Biochemical oxidation of organic soils is facilitated by warm temperatures, low water tables, high pH and high organic content ( Stephens, 197 4). Drained organic soils of the F l orida Everglades Agricultural Area sub side at an average rate of approximately one inch/year (Stephens, 1 97 4). T h is rate varies with variation of depth to the water table. Rates of subsidence for experimental plots with water table depths of 1 2 inches, 24 inches and 36 inches were measured to be 0.6 inches per year 1 4 inches per year and 2.3 inches per year, respectively. Subsidence has been documented in the Everglades using repeated surveys of ground elevation along certain l ines. In Figures 17, 18 and 19 (Stephens and Johnson, 1951), the so l id lines represent the original elevation of the surface of the ground and the elevation as measured in 1940. The dashed lines indicate the topographic elevations predicted from subsidence ra t es. Stephens (1974) notes that subsidence was measured to be 33.5 inches between 1941 and 1966 in the upper Ever glades which may be compared to a predicted subsi dence l oss of 33.0 in c hes in 25 years (Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ). Rates of subsidence in the Everglades Agri cu l tura l Area vary with the del?th to which the water table is maintained. The depth at which the water table is mainta i ned depends on optimum conditions for each land use Snyder, et al. (1978) note that most vegetable crops produce high yields when the water table is maintained at 24 inches below the sur face. Sugar cane normally requires a water table depth which is greater than 24 inches; and in certain organic soils, a water table depth of 30 to 36 inches greatly improves sugar cane quality. Water tables for cattle and sod production may be maintained at levels which would be consid ered too high for most crops. It is important to note that extremely high water tables may cause problems specifically related to c r op l and use even though high water tables allow maximum soil preservation (Snyder, et al., 1978). Conservation Measures Researchers who have worked in the Everglades Agricultural Area sug gest that maintenance of h ig h water tables is t he most effective measure available for conservation of organic so i ls. Tate ( 1 980) notes that the only feasible means of controlling subsidence is knowledgeable manipulation of the water table. Snyder et al. ( 1978) recommend: "For best conservation organic soils shou l d be kept flooded whenever not in use. When soils are used, the water table should be maintained as high as is

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SPEC IAL PUBLICATI O N NO. 27 LAKE OKEECHOBEE ' ' .. ' CANAL 0 2 6 8 10 M I \.ES SCAl.[ ' ' I ' MARTIN COUNTY Pl. L M COUNTY ', ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' I ' \ ' Figure 1 7 Map of the Everglades Agricultural Area showing the locations of profile A-A' and B-B (Modi fied from Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ) 37

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A 2 0 (j 18 > w _J 16 4 w _J w 2 I I ... _L I ........ I 't .. .... ... 10 () :r: 0 () () .c >-w m 0:: 0 :E z _J w ct I Q. ELEVATI O NS 1912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS) I I GROUND : ELEVATIONS 1940 (SCS S URVEYS) I I I I ESTI M ATED IGROUND E LEVA TION S 1970 1 I I I -----,1 I ... ----.... ... 1,', .,.... ---------........ .., I 'L------I ... -1 I ; ESTIMATED :GROUND E LEVATIONS 2000 1 1 .. -----... I "' ... I """ ---, ------I ., ------.. 1 "' ., I ROCK ./ I _J ctl z ct () :E ct :E .JI 0z 0:: 0 0:: 0 m .J Ulct .Jz ::::! ct :r: () ROCK A' I I I I I I I / 0 ., 0 5 10 1 5 20 M ILES 2.5 30 35 40 Figure 18. Profile A A across the upper Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical surveys. Profi les for the yea rs 1970 a nd 2000 are estimated ( Modified from Stephens and Johnson, 1951). w (X) to c :a m )> c 0 .., G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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8 8' 2 0 1 9 I 1 8 ...--GROUND ELE V 1 912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS) _J l)J 1 7 > w 16 _J w _J 6 w 5 : 1970 : -I --... L" ...... ..-------I -r...--.. ...., ---.... ., _, .__ -..... ._,_ '-I / / ""-'i V GROUN D ELE V 2000 --I I """---I ---------I ..., I I ct:l 4 3 -.J 2 I NILES 1 5 20 25 0 Figur e 19. Profile B -B' across the lower Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original surface elevation in 1 9 1 2 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ) C/) m (') -)> r, c CD r(') 0 2 2 0 w CD

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40 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY poss i ble for that use". Stephens ( 1974) a number of suggestions geared toward conservation of organic soil: ( 1) provide adequate water control facilities for keeping water tables as high as crop and field requirements will tolerate; (2) make productive use of drained lands as soon as possible; and (3) intensify research studies to develop practices to prolong the life of the soils". It has been suggested that extending the life of organic soils by plow ing under cover crops or litter (Snyder, et al. 1978; Stephens, 1974) is probably not an effective conservation measure. The rate at which peat forms is extremely slow and the volume of plant litter produced is very small. Snyder, et al. ( 1978) discuss an example which clarifies thi s rela tionship. Sugar cane produces an amount of top growth exceeded by few, if any, plants. An average cane crop (30 tons/ acre) is estimated to contain approximately eight tons of dry matter. If all of the dry matter from an entire crop were added to the soil, it could be assumed that about half of it would be decomposed rapidly. One acre inch of top soil is about the amoun t lost to subsidence each year in the Everg l ades Agricul tural Area. That amount of soil weighs approximately 50 tons. Thus, four tons are replaced each year, which is still only approximately 1 /12 the amount which is lost. The Near Future of the Ever glades Agricultural Area Snyder, et al. (1978) have included a discussion of land use in the Everglades Agricultural Area through the year 2000. It is noted that the predictions of Stephens ( 1951) have prove d reliable (compare Figures 20 and 21 ). These predictions are presented in Table 2 (Snyder, et al., 1 978). Although land elevations are shown through the year 2000, sub sidence will continue. By the year 2000, only approximately 80,000 acres of soil three feet in depth or deeper will remain. It is predicted that sugar cane acreage will decrease, pasture acreage will increase signifi cantly and vegetable acreage will r emain essent i ally unchanged assum ing the economic viability of such operations. By the year 2000, over 500,000 acres will be less than three feet in thickness. Approximately half of this will be less than a foot in depth (Snyder, et al., 1 978). The depth of three feet is significant because, at depths o f less than thre e feet, the use of mole d r ains becomes impractical. The soils which have subsided to depths of less than one foot face an uncertain fate. Snyder, et al. ( 1 978) suggest that while some of those soils may be suitable for pasture, the soils may be abandoned for agricultural uses. It is also sug gested that the remaining soils and the existing water-control structures be used to produce aquatic crops. The authors suggest that such a usage could greatly extend the useful agricultural life of the soils.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 LAKE OKEECHOBEE n CAN!\L t. 6 9 10 \'IUS StAL 41 M4ft l N COUNTY PAlM f!(ACH COUNlY ' ' Figure 20. Soil depths predicted for 1980 for the Everglades Agri cultureal Area. Compare these with Figures 18 and 19. (Fro m Griffin, et al., 1982).

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I / / v LAKE ... ...... 0 0 0 0 . . .... ... . . 0 0 0 'k' ::: -l X :.'\'!' y . fv I \.' 17 MART I N CO. 0 -----l -------PAL M eEACH CO. I OKEECHOBEE . :. I I I .-: .;: 2$.>4 /0 ;.0 IQ : :.'.':::: :::'\,.;.; X ,.. '1 ""'\ ............... : .;& >(V, \......./ _L' .... . : : : y ( X X'\ x A "0 ;Q< X. x0 .. X ""-'?Y)(I X X :x.x X :M: xx X X 2Y"'I. X XV /\ ... '(: X X ..f .)V""' K X )(' 0 '>< ){))( X X )(I >(') X X X 0. {i -::::. Xf X X, r; ::::: AX: .:.:>< ,-Tv-:...-'1 1.))(-)('t:-:-:::-::-:-. X< \.. Do< )o .. . "'--"' X ( .... .. )( r . X '7' "1"-' ,_:;;;;;;;:.:.: '-.)( x V' r .. _0: ["" . . ......... .:::: ._.. ___ _. .::.._ X ... : ........ r .'lr!( r....... . I. ./V' - p lit 0 0.... : : I'J "" 0... _ - l i X o o . :o 0 0. .. 0 0 0 . J i.. y : o. ./:: r_x )< 0 0 0 o ,._._.. 0 y X o o o o o. o o 0. 0 0 0 :: () ;:(< :::::::.::..:.. ::..:.:.::: .. ts "" < 0 ....,..... 0 0 or. 0 0 ..,.. 0 )< 'W&:\-:-:::::-::. /XJ ..tQ< >(< >(< ..._ /< XX >(' iV 0 >& 0 :>0. PALM 8EACH CO. ------""" ..... 1-----8ROWARO CO. Figure 21. Thicknesses of soils in the Everglades Agricultural Area as determined by a recent study. (Modified from Griffin, et al., 1982). Ol c ::D m )> c 0 "T1 G) m 0 r 0 G) -<

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO 27 43 Table 2. Proportions of the Organic soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area f alling into categories based on thickness (after Snyder, 1978). YEAR 0 to 1 ft. 1 to 3 ft. 3 to 5 ft over 5 ft. 1912 0 1 3 95 1925 1 3 7 89 1940 1 7 14 85 1950 2 7 28 78 1960 4 12 28 55 1970 1 1 16 41 45 1980 17 28 41 14 1990 27 28 39 7 2000 45 42 9 4 MINING TECHNOLOGY by Kenneth M. Campbell Mining Methodology A ssociated with the U se of Peat for Fuel Recently several potential commer c ial users have been investigating Florida's peat as a fuel source. This interest is prompted by the r ising cost of traditional fuels. Preliminary proposals for the use of peat as a fuel in Florida suggest that peat will be air dried and burned directly. This usage w ill require comparatively large amounts of peat which must be dried before it is burned (this drying is in addition to the moist ure reduc tion which accompanies bog drainage) (U.S. Department of Energy 1979). The drainage of a peatland is an integral and necessary first step in any large sca le peat mining operation utilizing milled peat or sod pea t mining methods. Moisture must be r educed to approximately 90 percent for the bog to be considered workable (i.e. able to bear the weight of machinery). Drainage is accomplished by construction of a system of ditches and waterways which are designed to capture water and route it away from the portion of the bog to be mined (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). If surface streams traverse the bog, they are diverted around i t. Ev entually, surface vegetation and stumps must be removed. There are several mining methods in common use in Europe. The man ual method is one in which peat is cut in t o blocks by hand removed from the bog for air drying and finally burned for home heating and cooking (U.S. Department of Energy 1979). Manual peat harvesting is labor intensive and probably will not become important in Florida. The sod peat mining method is one in which a t rench is cut into a previously prepared field. These trenches are cut by excavator/ macerators which are specifically desig n ed to cut macerate, and

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4 4 BUREA U OF GEOLO G Y e xtrude sods onto a conv eyor which deposits them onto the field for air drying. At a moisture content of about 75 percent the sods are windrowed. Windrows are periodically split and turned to facilitate drying and at about 55 percent moisture, sods are considered dry and removed for storage (Aspinall, 1980). The milled peat mining method is one in which a peat l ayer one-quarter to 2 inches thick is milled or s h redded from the prepared surface of the bog. The peat is periodically harrowed to expedite drying. At a moisture content of 50 t o 55 percent, the dried peat is pushed into ridges where it is collected for transportation to storage faciliti es (Aspinall 1980). Several methods of hydraulic peat mining are in development. Exam ples o f t hese processes are the slurry ditch, hydro peat and slurry pond methods (Aspinall, 1980). In each o f these met hods, the surface must be cleared; but drainage is not necessary. The s lurry ditch and hydro peat methods utilize high pressure water guns to cut peat from a ditch f ace. T h e diff erence between the methods lies i n the post-mining dewatering process. The slurry ditch method uti lizes a dewatering apparatus; whereas, the hydro pea t method is dewatered by pumping the slurry to a drying field where it is spread to dry (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). The slur r y pond met hod utilizes mechanical excavators o r a dredge to remove peat. Mining equipment is mounted on a barge which f loats on a pond excavated within the peat deposits as the m i ning progresses. The ultimate success of wet mining methods w ill depend on the successful development of very large scale dewatering processes and upon the environmental impacts of the mining process (U. S. Department of Energy, 1979). These may be the preferred methods, however in areas where drainage of pea t deposits is technically difficult or envi ronmentally unsound. Mini ng Methodology A sso ciated with the Agri cultural U s e of P e a t In order to obtain current information on Flo rida's active peat operations for the present study, the staf f of the Bureau of Geology designed and conducted a survey of producers. In the firs t stage of t h i s survey, a list of peat produce r s w as compi l ed. In an effort to make this list as comprehensive as possible, a number of sources were consulted includ ing: e xisting lists of producers (Florida Bu r eau of Geology, United Stat es Bureau of M ines, United States Mines Safety and H ea lth Administration); agencies contacting peat producers in conjunction w i t h regular profes sional services (county agricultural agents, Florida Department of Agr i cul t ure); and nume r ous telephone di r ectories. In the second stage of the survey, peat producers were contacted by telephone and f i eld visits w e r e ar r anged. The information which follows w as contr ibuted on a voluntary basis by produce r s who w ere contacted during fie ld visits. Peat extracti on methods var y with the size and nature o f the deposit being mined. Most deposits are mined using conventional types of earth -

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S PECIAL PUBLI CATION N O. 2 7 4 5 moving and excavating equipment. The machinery used includes drag lines, backhoes, grade-ails, front-end loaders and hydraulic excavators. The majority of companies use a dragline for mining. A shredde r is used to pulverize the peat. Most companies drain the immediate a rea of m i ning by ditching and pumping which enables the deposit to be mined by d r y processes. Approximately one-third of the companies contacted conduct all or part of their mining be low the watertable. Two companies util ize a var iety of the milled peat min i ng process. After surface clearing and ditching is complete, the surface peat is pu l verized w ith a rotovater. The pu l verized mate ri al is drie d in the sun and i s tur ned by discing to he l p promote d r ying. The dried materia l i s mechani cally windrowed using a frontend loader or bulldozer and is then stock piled or loaded for transport. There are no companies currently min i ng peat by the sod peat method in Florida. INDUSTRIAL USE S OF P EAT by Kenneth M. Campbell Industria l use of peat can be divided into two major categories: extrac tive and non-extractive ( M innesota D NR, 1981 ). The extractive uses include direct combust ion, gasificati on, ind u strial chem i cals, hor t icul tural products and sewage treatment. The non-extracti ve uses include agriculture, energy crops and sewage treatment (Minnesota DNR, 1981). Preparati o n o f P eat f o r Industrial Utilization For most applicat i ons, peat must be dewatered before processing. Uses for b i ogasification, some energy crops and sewage treatmen t p ro c esses do not require dewatering. Solar drying in the fiel d is energy effi cient bu t is not suitable to wet mining processes or to all mining plans. Its feasibi lity is str ongly d epen dent on climate, especially r a i nfall. A l ternative dewatering processes include mechanica l presses and the r ma l d r yers, in ad d i tion to pretreat ment processes such as wet carbonization, wet oxi dation and solvent ext raction. Mechanical methods are limited in the amount of water they can remove. Most of t he water con tained i n pea t is held i n chemical bonds, colloidal suspens i ons and sma ll pores in the organic matter. Mechanical methods may r educe water content to 70 p e rcent at bes t (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) Therma l dryers can be utilized to reduce the moi sture con tent further The efficiency of mechanical dewatering i s great l y en h anced by pretreatment processes such as wet carboniza t ion, wet oxidation and solvent extraction. Peat can be mechanically dewatered to

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4 6 BUREAU OF GEOLOG Y approximately 30 percent water content after wet oxidation (Mensinger e t al., 1980 in Minnesota DNR, 1981, p. 30). Wet carbonization consists of heating a slurry of peat and water (approximately three percent solids) to 300 to 400F at 50 to 100 atmospheres of pressure for 30 minutes. A peat coal" with a heat value of 12,000 to 14,000 BTU/Ib dry weight is obtained after the liquid is removed (U.S Department of Energy 1979). Wet oxidation is an established process for t he oxidat ion of many wet organic materials. Air or oxygen is pressure fed to wet peat in a closed, heated vesse l. Combustion is rapid and is contr olled by the rate o f supply of the oxygen or air. The process can be stopped after enough heat has been generated to carbonize the remaining peat or can be carried to completion to produce energy (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Solvent e xtraction reacts a heated peat-water slurry under pressure with an organ i c solvent. The water is ext racted from the peat by the solvent. Subsequent to cooling, the absorbed water i s stripped from the solvent and after trea tment is disposed of as waste. Fu e l U ses D IRECT COMBUST I ON Direct combustion of peat is a method of producing energy which has been utilized on a commercial scale in Ireland Finland and the Soviet Union for several decades. The Sovie t Uni on had i nstalled an electric power station fueled entirely by peat as early as 1914 (U.S Department of Energy 1 979). The U S. Department of Energy has developed several criteria for fuel grade peat for use i n its peat program The criteria are: 1) heat value greate r than 8,000 BTU/Ib (dry weight), 2) greater than 80 acres of peat per square mile, 3) peat depth greater than four feet, and 4) ash con tent less than 25 percent (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Hemic peats are generally the most suitable for direct combustion usage. The mor e decomposed peats (sapric) have been carbonized to a greater extent but often have larger ash contents which reduces their fuel value. Fibric peats have bee n less carbonized and thus ha v e lower heating values. Direct combustion of peat i s accomplished in boilers designed or retrofitt ed for either peat fuel entirely or mixed fue l feed Boi l er design must accommodate the char acteristics o f peat fuel : low energy density, high moistur e content. Both of t hese cha r ac t eristics r esul t in i ncreased cost (approximately 50 p ercent greater) of the boiler and feed system com pared with a coal or oil fire d boiler of the same capacity (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Grate fired and fluidi z ed bed boilers require pelletized or b riquetted feed. Pulve r ized fired boilers require peat ground to be par ticle size compatibl e with the combuster design. Direct combustion techniques can result in partial o x idation of the p eat

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 47 and generation of synthetic fuel gases. Reduced oxygen input and / or water vapor injection are required to generate the fuel gases. GASIFICATION Peat is very reactive during gasification. Gasification can yield low to medium BTU fuel gases, synthesis gases (those which can be further upgraded by hydrocracking), fuel liquids, ammonia, sulfur and oil byproducts (naptha l ene, benzene and phenol) (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979; Minnesota DNR, 1981). Several basic designs of gasifiers are feasible for peat gasification, however, data for peat gasification is primarily limited to laboratory scale operations (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Entrained flow and fluid bed gasifiers appear attract ive. An example is the peat gas process deve l oped by the Institute of Gas Technology. Dry peat is fed to the gasifier, and heated under pressure with a hydrogen rich gas. The carbon in the peat reacts wit h the hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases (primar ily methane and ethane) The gases produced can be upgraded to pipe line quality (M innesota DNR, 1981 ). Byproduct oils (benzene, napthalene and phenols), ammonia and sulfur are extracted in turn from the liquids which are condensed during various gas upgrading processes (Minne sota DNR, 1981 ). The ratio of gaseous to liquid products is controlled by c hanges in temperature, pressure and length of reacti on time. Increased tempera ture and reaction time l ead to gaseous product increases. With higher temperature and longer reaction times, the large hydrocarbon molecules comprising the liquid products are hydrocracked into lighter gaseous molecules (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). BIOGASIFICATION Biogasification is an anaerobic fermentation process. An important advantage of biogasification is that dewatering is not required. Biogasifi cation is a twostage process. In the first step, the peat-water slurry is partially oxidized to break it down to simple compounds. A l dehydes, ketones, organic acids and esters are the main products at this stage. The pH is adjusted and the mixture is transferred to the fermenter (anaer obic biological reactor) where bacteria catalyze methane production. Methane and carbon dioxide are produced in stoichometric proportions (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) with up to 95 percent of the material being converted to methane or carbon dioxide (M i nnesota DNR, 1981 ). The resulting gas can be upgraded to substitute natural gas (SNGJ by scrubbing the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the methane gas (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). The waste materia l from the fermentation process contai ns undigested peat components, inorganic residues and residual bacteria. These materi als can be utilized for soil conditioners, animal feeds, or can be concen -

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48 BUREAU OF GEO L OGY trated for disposal. Excess water is recycled to the fermenter (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Industr ia l Chemicals Peat has been utilized as a raw materia l for the production of industrial chemicals for many years in Europe and the Soviet Union. U.S. interest has developed only recently. Peat bitumens, carbohydrates and humic acids are extracted by processes at low to moderate temperatures. Peat coke, peat tar and activated charcoal are produced by pyrolysis. The use of peat for industrial chem i cals does not pose major technical problems. The technology has been developed in Europe and the Soviet Union. The chemicals produced are similar to petroleum derived products. As petro leum becomes more expensive, the incentives to utilize peat will increase (Min nesota DNR 1981 ). BITUMENS Peat bitumens are those peat components which are so l uble in nonpo lar organic so l vents. The yield of b itumens depends on the extracting solvent chosen. Yield i ncreases from low to high in the following list of solvents: petroleum ether, gasoline, dichloroethane, benzene, ethanol:benzene ( 1: 1) (Fuchsman, 1978). Although variou s solvents are utilized for analytical purposes, gasoline is the so lvent used in commer cial processes. Benzene is not used because of heal t h hazards (Bei'Kevich, 1977 in Fuchsman, 1978). The peat bitumens of commer cial interest are peat waxes and res ins. The waxes are the most important commercially (Fuchsman, 1978). Peat, su i table for commercial wax production, contains at least five percent gasoline extractable material and has an ash content less than 10 percent (Lishtvan and Korol, 1975, in Fuchsman 1978). The wax content of peat is higher in more highly decomposed peats (Naucke, 1 966, in Fuchsman, 1 978) particularly those with remains of shrubs and trees (Fuchsman, 1978). Dried peat particles in the size range of 0.02 inches -0.2 inches are required for efficient solvent extraction. Wax extraction utilizes gasoline as the solvent and extracts most of the wax but relatively few of the resins (Bei' Kevich, 1977, in Fuchsman, 1978). Gasoline and peat are mixed at 20: 1. Approximately five percent of the gasoline i s lost in the process, with the rest be ing recycled after wax removal by solvent evaporati on. T he crude wax contains some resins. Resins are partially removed by t reatment w ith an appropriate solvent (cold acetone, alcohol and ethyl acetate) (Fuchsman, 1978). Further purification is accomplished by treatment with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid at 167F-230F. The result is a fair l y hard, light tan wax (Bei' Kevich, 1977, in Fuchsman, 1978).

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 49 Peat waxes are produced commercially only in the Soviet Union wher e they are used as release agents in foundry castings and on polyethyl ene surfaces. Peat waxes are simila r to montan wax which is deri ved from ligni t e. Mont an wax is a substitute for beeswax and carnauba wax and is used as an industrial l ubrican t and as an ingred ient in shoe and furniture polish electrical insu lating materia l s and in candles ( M i nnesota D N A 1981 ). Peat resins are the primary byproducts of pea t wax production. The res i ns are o f importance as a source of steroids for use by the pharmaceutical industry ( M innesota DNA. 1981 ). CARBOHYDRATES Peat carbohydrates consist primarily of cellulose and related materials such as hemicellulose and star ches (Fuchsman 1978). Sugars are p r oduced by acid hydr olysis for use i n yeast culture. Yeast culture can be optimized for the production of single cell protein or for the fermentation of alcoho l (Fuchsman 1978) Peat suitable for carbohydrate hydrolysis, accord ing to Soviet crite r ia are : Sphagnum peat with degree of decomposition less than 20 percent, ash content l ess than five percent and at least 24 percent of the dry weight of the peat recoverable as fermentable sugars from the easily hydrolyzabl e carbohydrates (or 45 percent i f difficultly hydrolyzable carbohydrates a r e included) (Fuchsman 1978). Cellulose is classif i ed as being difficult to hydrol yze. The preferred Soviet process (lshino 1976, in Fuchsman, 1978) is as follows: pea t with a maximum grain size of 0.4 inches is s l urried with water to 7 -20 pe rcent solids and mixed. The suspension is then pumped at 5 7 atmospheres o f pressure and concentrated sulfuric acid i s added to give an overall acid concen t ration of 0.251 percent. T he s lurr y is h eated to 284F-338 F by steam injec tion and discharged to atmospheric pressure and reacted for 1 0 -30 minutes. Volatile matter is flashed off, the f l uid i s dil u ted and reacts for an add i t i onal 1 0 minutes at 284F to allow hydrolysis completion. Solids are then removed by sedimentation centrifuge or filtration. Yield by this process is 34-40 percent of the peat dry weight. HU M IC ACIDS Fuchsman (1978) describes humic ac i d as "al kal i soluble, acid insolub l e organic compounds. excluding b itumens and carbohydrates". The r e are several lines of chemical modifi cation of humic ac i d: pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction (Fuchsman. 1978). T o date, ther e are no large scale commercial uses for humic acid. P resent industr ial uses for humic acids include si z ing for paper, tanning agents, in fertilizers and as viscosity modifiers for o i l well dril l ing mud

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50 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY (Fuchsman, 1978). Potential uses include the production of plastics and synthetic fibers, components for paints and adhesive formulations and flocculants or thickene rs in water purification systems. These uses are based primarily on the adsorption and ion exchange properties of humic acids (Fuchsman, 1978). PEAT COKE, PEAT TAR AND ACTIVATED CARBON Peat coke, peat tar and activated carbon are produced by the process of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis consists of decomposition of organic substances by heat in the absence of air. When carried to a high enough temperature and for long enough time, the process yields a carbon residue (peat coke) a water immiscible condensate (peat tar) and non condensable gases which can be utilized as fuel gases. Peat suitable for coking requires a relatively high carbon content (high level of decomposition), low ash content and low phosphorous content (Fuchsman, 1978). High carbon content is necessary for acceptable yields. Phospho rous and ash degrade the product quality. Several factors influence the yield of pyrolysis products. Coke yields are increased with more highly decomposed peats and slower rates of heating. Peat tar and gases generated by the pyrolysis process are often recycled as fuel for the coking process. Activated carbon is produced from peat coke by treating coke with steam at 1 ,632F-2 ,012F. The reaction forms hydrogen gas and car bon monoxide which has the physical effect of expanding the pores in the peat coke, greatly increasing the surface area available for adsorption (Norit, N.V. (n .d.L in Fuchsman, 1978). Peat coke is u t ilized to form high purity silicon for the electronics industry and as a reducing agent in electric smelting furnaces especially in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosilicon alloys (Eckman, 1975, in Fuchsman, 1978). Peat tars are refined for pesticide and wood pre servative use. The p rimar y use, however, is as fue l recycled to the peat coke production process (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Activated carbon is utilized for a variety of pu rposes, all of which take advantage of the large surface area available for adsorption. Uses include removal of pollutants from industrial waste gases, as a gas absorber, deodorizer, and for purification of water and sugar (Fuchsman, 1978). Us e of P eat as a Growth Medium HORTICULTURE Essentially all of the peat mined in Florida at the present time, is used for horticultural purposes. Peat is used by home owners for soil enhancement, by nurseries and landscapers for potting soils and growing media for plants, and also as a medium for mushroom and earthworm culture.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 51 AGRICULTURE Agricultural uses of peat are sim il ar to horticultural uses. The peat is utilized as a growing medium (so i l) for agr i cultural crops. The material is not mined, however, drainage is generally necessary to provide the proper moisture conditions. Hemic and sapric peats, as well as mucks, are utilized for agricultural purposes Fibric peats typically are not suitable due to the low pH (acidic) which makes nutrients unavailable to many plants (Farnam and Lever, 1 980). Large areas of Flo r ida peats and mucks are utilized for agricultural purposes ENERGY CROPS Growi ng energy crops for plant biomass production allows peatlands to be utilized to produce renewable energy sources Plant biomass can be harvested and burned directly or can be gasified to produce liquid and gaseous fuels. Energy crops can be an alternative to conventional mining (using the peat as a growing medium) or can be utilized as a reclamation technique on mined out peatlands (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Plants which may be suitable for energy crop use in wetlands include: cattails, reeds and sedges, willow, and a l der (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) These wetland species have two distinct advantages over conventional crops for use in biomass energy production: 1) the biomass productivity of wetland species is often higher than conventional crops (corn soybeans, etc.) and 2) they can be grown in wetlands unsuitable for conven tional crop plants and thus do not compete with conventional crop production (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) Sewage Treatment Peat has been u t ilized in the tertiary treatment of waste water both in the U.S. and in Europe. The primary objecti ve is to reduce nutrient l evels, primarily phosphorous and nitrogen (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) Phosphorous is removed from solution by bacteria present in that portion of the peat exposed to air. Bacterial metabolism converts the phos phorous to insoluble forms. Chemical reactions with calcium, aluminum and iron present in the peat also remove phosphorous from solution (Nicho l s, 1980). Nitrogen is metabolized by anaerobic bacteria, converting nitrate in the waste water to gaseous nitrogen which is released to the atmosphere (Nicho ls 1980). Additional nutrients are removed through uptake by plants growing on the peat surface. Three methods are commonly used for the tertiary treatments of waste water. Two utilize the peat in place, the third utilizes excavated peat (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) If peat is to be used in place, waste water may be introduced in one of two ways. The waste water can be introduced

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52 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY directly to the bog surface and allowed to filter through the peat or it may be introduced to a dit ched and drained peat deposit. Introduction of waste water to a ditched and drained deposit would increase the volume of peat exposed to the waste water, increasing residence t im e and allow ing more efficient nutrient uptake (Nichols, 1980). The third method involves a built up filter bed of peat, sand and gravel. The effluent is applied to the f il ter surface by sprinklers. Generally, the surface of the filter would be seeded with a suitable sedge or grass to remove additional nutrients (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Peat water treatment systems and experimentation have not been conducted for enough time to determine the period of time over which it can effectively remove nutri ents before i t becomes saturated. Environmental effects, therefore, must be strictly mon i tored (M i nnesota DNR, 1981 ) ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PEAT MINING by Kenneth M. Campbell Peat is currently mined in 12 Florida counties (Figure 22). In each of these counties, the mining companies provide jobs, pay state and l ocal taxes, require the services of various support industries and provide a valuable product t o nurseries and individuals. Production, Value and Price of Peat The U.S. Bureau of Mines reports an average 1982 price for F lori da peat of $13. 12 per short ton. 1983 prices quoted by mining companies range from $8.50 to $18.00 per cubic yard of peat with the most common price being $10.00 to $10.50 per cubic yard. Blended topsoils r ange from $11.00 to $20.00 per cubic yard. If one ton of peat is assumed to occupy 2.3 cubic yards, the $10.50 per cubic ya r d price is equiva lent to $24.15 per short ton. Bagged peat prices are higher and are in the range of $45.00 per ton. Flor i da ranked second in peat production nationally in 1982 (Boyle and Hendry, 1984). The U.S. Bureau of Mines (B.O.M.) reported peat produc tion in 1982 as 120,000 short tons, with a value of $1 ,575,000 dollars (Figure 23). The average price i n 1982 was $13.12 per short ton. The above figures represent a 25 percent drop in production and a 4 7 percent drop in value from 1 981 The B.O.M. production and value figures do not represent the complete picture. The B.O.M. reported peat production from four counties in 1 982. Of the 10 companies on the B.O. M peat producer l ist, only six are still active. The authors have compiled a list of 21 peat producers, located in 12 counties. The actual peat production in the state must be significantly higher than reported by the B.O .M.

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SPEC IAL PUBLI C ATION NO. 2 7 Figure 22. Location of current peat producers in F l orida (From a Bureau of Geology survey for this report}. Loca tio n o f Peat Pro ducers 53 Peat production is concentrated in central peninsular Florida, in Sumter, Lake, Orange Pasco, Hillsborough Polk and Highlands counties. Additional producers are located in Madison Coun t y (Northwest penin sula}, Clay and Putnam counties (Northeast peninsula} and in Palm Beach and Dade counties (south Florida}. The authors did not locate any active peat producers in the panhandle of Florida L oca tion of M ar k e t s The majority of Florida peat producers marke t bulk pea t and blend potting soils for regional or statewide distribution. Two companies have only local markets, 11 have regional markets and six have statewide

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200 4 0 QUANTITY (THOUSANDS OF SHORT TONS ) D VALUE ( MILLIONS OF DOLLARS) 160 3.2 ,... -.., It) > It) -p PRELIMINARY DATA -.... -w ::: 0.. z ..J c{ c{ a:l ::: > .n N 0 ... N 0 -N 1 ... N (I) 01 ,... ,... IQ It) .., 8 0 1972 1 973 1974 1 975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 YEAR Figure 23. Production and value of peat in Florida 1972-1983. (Compiled from Minerals Yearbooks 1972-1981, U S Bureau of Mines; and The Mineral Industry of Florida 1982, U S Bureau of Mines ; and Mineral Industry Surveys, Annual Prelim inary Mineral Industr y of Florida, 1983, U.S. Bureau of Mines ) CD c :a m )> c 0 "T1 C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 55 markets. Two companies market their product outside of Florida, primar ily in the southeast United States. One of the companies however, ships bu l k peat to Texas where it is bagged for retail sale. Use of Peat The principal use of peat mined in Florida is as a soil conditioner, with large amounts being used for lawns, golf courses and in nurseries and greenhouses. The majority of Florida peat production is marketed as a bulk product (typically truck loads of 30-50 cubic yard) for nursery and landscaping purposes, with the remainder bagged for the retail market. The peat may be marketed as is (peat only) or blended with other materia l s to form topsoil and potting soil products. B l ended products are generally custom mixed to the customers' specifications. Quartz sand sawdust and wood chips are typical ingredie nts added in order to improve the drainage char acteris tics of the peat. The nurseries may blend their own potting soil mixes using bulk peat purchased from m in ing companies. The bulk mate rials may be utilized as a growing medium for nursery plants, or bagged for retail sale. Peat from several Florida deposits has been tested for suitability as an alternative boiler fuel. Although tests have indicated that peat can be an effective and price competitive fuel, there i s no current peat usage for fue l in Florida. PERMITTING by Kenneth M. Campbell County, state and federal permits may be required in order to open a new peat mine. The process is very site specific and varies from county to county. Under some conditions, permits may not be required by any agency. County level Permits Operationa l peat mines are located in 12 Florida counties In most of the counties, zoning regulations are the only county regu l ations which apply to opening a peat mine. A summary of county permitting processes is shown in Table 3. State level Permitting The primary state agencies with permitting responsibility with r espect to peat mining are the Department of Environmenta l Regulation (DER) and the five individua l Water Management Districts. The Department of

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Table 3 Summa r y o f C ounty L eve l Permittin g R eq ui rements (Pre p a r e d by Bu reau o f G eo logy Staff). County Clay Dade Highlands Hillsbo r ough Lake Titl e of Ordinance Clay Co. Zoning Ordinance 82-45 County Zoning Ordinance County Zoning Ordinance County Zoning Code and Borrow Pit Ordinance Lake Co. Zoning Regulations 1 971 6 Permit R equired Bo rrow Pit Excavation Permit Special Exception Borrow Pit Cond i tional Use, Operational Administr ative Agency Planning Bu il ding and Zoning Comm. Building & Zoning Depa rtment P l anning and Zoning Depa rtment Development coordination Plann i ng Department Public Hearing Requi r ed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Hearing Body Zoning Board of Adjustment Zoning Appeal s Board Board of Zoning Adjustment County Commissi on Planning & Zoning Commission Comments Mining is allowed only as a special exception to zoning regulations A certified survey and site plan are required County regulations specify setback and sloping requirements. Public hearing approval by Z.A B. is r equired to obtain excavation permit. No specific zoning required. Permitted in industrial zoned areas; and in agricultura l zoned areas after a special exception is granted Requires proper zoning the issuance Borrow Pit Permit & the app r oval of the Hillsbo rough County Env i ronmental Protecti on Commission. Allowable only agricultural zoned areas after issuance of Conditional Use Perm i t Site plan is required. Before final operational permit will be granted all other permits required {Ex. DER) must have been approved U1 en co c ::D m )> c 0 "T1 C) m 0 ,.... 0 C) -<

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Table 3 continued County Orange Palm B each Pasco Polk Putnam Sumter Title of Ordinance Excavatio n & Fill Ordinance 7111 Plann ing & Zoning Ordinan ce Pasco County M ining Ordinance Polk County Zon ing Ordinance & Flood Protection & Surface Water Management Code (81 -82) Zoning Ordinance of Putnam County 755 Amend County Development Cod e Permit Required Excavation Permit Occupational Building Electri c al M ining Permit Conditional Use None Excavatio n P er mit Administrative Agency County Engin ee r i ng Department Plann ing and Zon ing Departmen t County P lann ing Department P lanning Department Building Zoning & Building Department Planning Zoning & Bui l ding Department Public Hear i ng Required Yes Yes Yes Ye s Yes No Hearing Body County Commission County Comm ission County Commissio n County Commission Zoning Board Comments Not zoning dependent, not allowed in planning conservation areas Land must be zoned agricultural. (J) Site plan mus t be approved "lJ m (") -M ining ordinance refers specifically )> ,.... to inorganic materials, peat may not ., be covered county source d i d not c know. I f covered, mining & co ,.... reclamation plan evidence of f isca l (") responsibility and p rior approval of !:; all necessary state and federal -permits would be r equired. 0 2 Allowed in R ural Conservation 2 Districts only after public hearing 0 approval for conditional u se. Polk county is not actively permitting N present peat operation & no new permits have been submitted, but the County has the option to do so. Allowable as a special exception in agricultural zoned area only. Allowable in A 5 zones: Require site plan & prior approval of any necessary s tate & federal permits. U'1

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58 BUREAU O F GEO L OGY Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of Regional Impact (DRI ). DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION A peat mining operation falls under DER jurisdiction only if either of two conditions are met. These criteria are: 1 ) the operation is located in or would affect surface "Waters of the State", or 2) there is water discharged off the property or to groundwater. If neither of these conditions apply, then DER does not require a permit (Mark Latch, DER, per sonal communication, 1984). The procedure involved is as follows: A site plan is submitted to DER. DER makes a determination as to whether there is jurisdiction and permits are required. If DER does have jurisdiction, the next step is to apply for the applicable permits. Any or all of the following permits may be required by DER depending on the specific site conditions and the site plan proposed: Dredge and Fill, Stormwater, Groundwater, Industrial Waste Water Discharge, Nationa l Pollutant Discharge Elimination System certification, Power Plant Siting and Air Quality. WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICTS Four of the five Water Management Districts in Florida have peat mines located within their boundaries. They are the Suwannee River St. Johns River, Southwest Florida and South F l orida Water Management Districts. The permitting required by each management district is discussed below. Suwannee River Water Management District Any wells drilled for water withdrawal or monitoring purposes require well construction permits. Water use permits are required for all uses of water whether the withdrawal is through wells or from surface water bodies. A water use permit is not required for monitor wells (Ron Ceryak, SRWMD, personal communication, 1984). St. Johns River Water Management D istrict There are four permits which may be required by the SJRWMD. They are the Consumptive Use Permit (40C -2), Water Well Construction Permit (40C-3), Management and Storage of Surface Waters Permit (40C-4) and Works of the Distric t Permit (40C -6). The permits and pertinent thresholds are summarized below by Frank Meeker (SJRWMD, Division of Permit t ing, personal communication, 1984).

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 59 A Consumptive Use Permit (CUP) is required to put down a well i f it meets certain thresholds. These thresholds are: 1 If the average annual daily withdrawal exceeds 1 ,000,000 gallons per day on an annual basis, 2. If there is a withdrawal from a combination of wells with a com bined capacity of 1,000,000 gallons per day, 3. If the withdrawal equipment has a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons per day, 4 If the outside diameter of the well is six inches or greater. A Water Wel l Construction Permit (WWCP) is required prior to construction, repair or abandonment of any publi c supply well hav ing a nominal casing diameter exceeding four inches In the Oklawaha River Basin (all or parts of Marion, Lake Polk and Orange counties) a permit is required for the same parameters however, the nominal casing size is reduced to two inches. Volusia and Duval counties do not require permits except for public drinking water supply wells. A Management and Storage of Surface Waters Permit (MSSW ) is required when a mining operation exceeds one of several thresholds To construct, alter operate, repair or abandon a project, a permit is required if: 1 It is capable of impounding 40 acre-feet 2. The project is greater than 40 acres i n size 3 It has 12 or more acres of impervious surface which constitutes 40 percent or more of the total land area. 4 The project has a traversing work which t r averses: a. an impoundment of 10 acres or more, b a stream or watercourse with a drainage area of five square miles c. or a Hydrologically Sensitive Area not wholly owned by the applicant. A Work of the District Permit (WOO) is required to make use of, alter, remove works from or place works within, on or across a WOO. Exam ples of WOOs are the St. Johns River St. Johns Marsh and the Oklawaha River. In addition to these rules, the District requires a reclamation plan to mitigate adverse water quality, quantity, compensating storage and envi ronmental impacts. These impacts are directly related to the mining oper ation. Specific guidelines are listed below and are utilized with site spe cific information (including soi l types, slopes, water levels and vegetation types) to help mitigate the impacts to the water resources and related parameters.

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60 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1. On a given site, the littoral zone (that vegetated area around the perimeter of a wetland extending from the mean high water mark to the mean low water mark) will be g iven prime consideration as an area left in its natural state. Applicant will provide an area equal t o a 50 feet wide belt of the perimeter of the wetland or 20 percent of the total area of the project, whichever is greater. 2. Applicant will leave a one foot or greater layer of peat material at the bottom of the excavation, except in those areas where necessary for heavy equipment to operate. In these places, it is acceptable to go down to bare sand to p rovide a solid roadway; however, this area must be sealed with a one foot or greater layer of peat at abandon ment and meet any other reclamation requirements. 3. Overburden removal of a new site should coincide with viable seed bank for reclamation. Strips of overburden from donor marshes can be used i n reclamation techniques, providing the total mined strips do not exceed 20 percent of the wetlands existing area and the strips are greater than 1 50 feet apart. 4. While water levels are still low, heavy equipment will provide any final adjustments to slopes bringing them into compliance with the General Mining Procedures previously discussed or as agreed upon by the applicant and the District. Any breaches of the bottom peat layer which were necessary to facilitate heavy equipment operations will be covered with a one foot or greater layer of peat material. Slopes will be adjusted at this time to be shallower than six horizontal to one vertical from the mean high water mark or an elevation as agreed to by the applicant and the District to a depth of six feet below the mean low water mark except for small isolated pockets as identified by District staff in consultation with the applicant on site. 5. Mulching of the site with existing overburden, stockpiled overburden or i n consultation with District staff, donor marsh overburden, will be provided to those areas which do not already exhibit a viable seed bank starting at the high water mark or an elevation as agreed to by the applicant and the District, and proceeding to a depth of three feet below the mean low water mark, following the gentle slopes as described above. This mulch material will be disced into the soil to aid stabil ization procedures. 6. The area above the mean high water mark or that elevation agreed to by the applicant and the Distric t will be revegetated with native grasses to aid in the prevention of soil erosion. Bahia grass with a hay mulch would be satisfactory for this purpose. 7. It is suggested that no disturbance to the site by livestock during reclamation or initial vegetative establishment will be permitted. 8. Applicant will use best effort and be responsible to see that a viable wetland will be established within two growing seasons 9 District employees upon notification to the applicant, will have access to the project to inspect and observe permitted activities in order to determine compl iance with reclamation proceedings.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 61 Southwest Florida Water Management District The district permitting requirements which could pertain to peat min ing are summarized below by Kenneth Weber (SWFWMD, Resource Reg ulation Department, personal communication, 1984). "Permits may be required for activities relat ed to peat mining under four chapters of District rules. Under Chapter 40D-2, Consumptive Use of Water, permits are required when surface or ground water withdrawals: ( 1) exceed 1 ,000,000 gallons on any single day, or 100,000 gallons average per day on an annual basis, (2) if the withdrawal is from a well larger than six inches inside diameter (3) if withdrawal equipment has the capacity of greater than 1,000,000 gallons per day, or (4) i f the withdrawal is from a combi nati on of wells, or other facilities, or both, having a combined capacity of more than 1 ,000,000 gallons per day. Under Chapter 40D-3, Regulation Wells, permits may be required for construction of any wells two inches in diameter or greater, and for test or foundation holes. Under Chapter 40D-4, Management and Storage of Surface Waters, permits are requ ir ed for various activities invol v ing construction of impoundments, diversions of water involving dikes, levees, etc., operable structures. and rerou t ing or altering of the rate of flow of streams or other water courses. Under Chapter 40D-6, Works of the District, permits are required "to connect to, withdraw water from, discharge water into, place construction within or across, or otherwise make use of a work of the District or to remove any facility or otherwise terminate such activity." Note that there are specific exemptions to each of these ru l es. South Florida Water Manag emen t District The South Florida Water Management District has several permits which would be requ i red in the operation of a peat mine. The permits which would be required are determined on a site specif i c basis. The possible permits include Surface Water Management, Dewatering, Public Water Supply or General Water Use (dependent on vol ume) and the Industrial Water Use Permit. District personnel recommend a pre application meeting with district staff to expedite the permitting process, (Rebecca Serra, SFWMD, personal communication, 1983).

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62 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS A mining operation (including peat mining) is considered to be a devel opment of regional impact (DRI) when either of two criteria are met. The criteria are: ( 1 ) when more than 100 acres per year are mined or dis turbed and (2) when water consumption exceeds 3,000,000 gallons per day. (Sarah Nail, Department of Community Affairs, personal communi cation, 1984). Federal Level Permitting Two federa l agencies, the Army Corps o f Engineers (ACE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have permitting jurisdiction which may apply to peat mining. Each agency will be discussed below. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS The Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) operates under two federal acts: The Rivers & Harbors Act and the Clean Water Act (Vic Anderson, ACE, pe rsonal communication, 1984). Both acts apply in navigable waters; however, only the Clean Water Act applies in non-navigable water. The legislative mandate of the Clean Water Act is to, "restore and maintain the physical, chemica l and biological integrity of the nation's water". Authority under the Clean Water Act extends up tributaries and headwater streams to the point where average annual flow is five cubic feet per second (CFS). ACE has discretionary authority upstream of this point i f 1) toxic materials are released, 2) wild or scenic rivers will be affected, 3) endangered species are involved, 4) the operation will result in downstream turbidity or erosion, or 5 ) the EPA requests ACE involvement. Individual permits are required under the River & Harbors Act (navigable waters), and under the Clean Water Act for tributaries up to the five CFS mean annual flow point, or beyond if conditions warrant the involve ment. When conditions do not warrant involvement above the five CFS point, the regulations state that the activity is covered by a nationwide permit. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY In the past, the EPA has adm inist ered air quality and water quality permitting programs. Air quality regulation and permitting has been dele gated to the Florida Department o f Environmental Regulation. The state of Florid a requires permits for all sources of air pollution. The EPA still controls the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting. A NPDES permit is required for any operation which would

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SPECIAl PUBliCATION NO 27 63 result in discharge to the surface water of the U.S. (this includes "waters of the sta te"). The NPDES permit is required even for intermittent d i s charges (Mark latch, DER, personal communication, 1984). PEAT REVENUE AND TAXATION by Kenneth M. Campbell The volume of peat sales in the state of Florida generally i ncreased from 1972 to 1978 (Figure 23). During the same period the value of peat also incr eased. The value and tonnage fluctuated from 1978 through 1981 prior to a rather drastic decrease in 1982. In 1982, the quantity dropped 25 percent from the estimated tonnage (Boyle and Hendry 1984) and 24 percent from the previous year. T he 1982 value was 4 7 percent below the predicted l evel (Boyle and Hendry, 1984) and 45 per cent l ess than 1981. F igure 23 ref lects these trends as compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The differences between the pred icted and actual numbers for peat mining in F lor id a is significant in two important ways. First, the differ ences reflect the recent recession which had a tremen dous effect on the mineral ind u stries as a whole, with greatly decl i n ed production and value. Secondly, future revenue estimates for peat from the Florida Department of Revenue are based o n the trends of the recent past. The recently released 1982 figures may indicate a drastic change in the trend and may requ i re a significant alteration of the previously p redicted peat values for 1983-1984 which were $3.9 m i llion (Figur e 23). The peat industry may rebound to its previous levels. However, in light of a 1982 value of $1.575 million, it seems highly unlikely that a value of $3.9 million would be achieved in 1983-1984 Curren t ly, the vast majority of peat sales in F lorida are wholesale and for ag r icultural purposes and, as such, are exempt from state sa l es taxes. Some peat products are used in potted plants and sales taxes are col lected on r etail sales of the potted plants. However, the va lu e of the peat and the tax upon that value are not separated from the value and tax on the total sale. Thus, the amount of tax arising from retail sale of peat cannot be determined. Also, there are no records for sales tax app lied to peat based potting soils (L. Voorhies, Department of Revenue persona l communication, 1983). As a result there is no way of estimating the current tax income derived from the exploitation of peat r esources in the state of Flor ida. Estimated tax revenues derived f r om the imposition of a severance tax on peat could be determined from t h e revised pred icted values for the near future. T h e Florida Department of Revenue does not currently have such an estimat e ava ilab l e.

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64 BUR EA U OF G E O L OGY POTENTIAL ENV I RONMENTA L IMPACTS O F P EAT MINING by Paulette A. Bond The Ef fects o f Peat M ining on Wetlands Cowardin, et al. ( 1979) define wetlands as, ... lands transitional between terrestr ial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water". Th i s definition encompasses a number of environments which a r e commonly associated with the accumulation of peat including bottoms of l akes, vegetated and forested wetlands (suc h as swamps, heads and sloughs). scrub or shrub wetland (such as shrub swamp, mangrove swamp, pocosin and bog) and emergent wetland (such as marsh, fen and bog). Thi s general definition of wetland may not apply to all of F lorida's myri ad wetland environments. The complexity of Florida's wetlands is refl ected in the various classification systems designed especially for them. Appendix B describes several classifications developed spec i fical l y for use in the state which list and descri be various wetland environments of Florida. King et al. (1980) note that state and federal land management and environmental agencies will c l assify most peatlands as wetland habi tats. It was also noted by those authors that peatlands falling in t o a wetlands land use category would be closely scrutinized, so that i t would be necessary to demonstrate substantial benefits to the state in order for land use permits to be secured. It is generally accepted that peat mining in a wetland environment will modify the existing system. It is, thus, instructive to exam i ne the various functions attributed to wetlands. The hydrologic functions of wetlands are summarized by Carter, et a l. (1978). Hydrologic functions include: flood storage and storm flow modification, base flow and estuarine water ba l ance, recharge, indicators of water supply, e r osion control and water quality. Flood storage and storm flow modificat ion, base flow, and water quality are treated in sections of this repor t dealing with w ater resources and water qua l ity. Estuaries are cha r acterized by a balance between fresh water (from landward sources) a n d salt w ater (from sea ward sources). Rivers which flow into estuaries may be flanked by wet lands which are flooded on occasion due to increased r i ver disc h a r ge combined w ith tidal action. Waters which temporarily reside in wetlands lose some of their nutrient load as well as sediment load They l ikewise gain organic detritus and decomposit ion products which are passed on to the estuary for entr y into certain food chains. Temporary residence in wetlands causes a decrease in velocity which aids in con t rolling bot h timing and volume of fresh water influx (Carter, et al., 1978). Recharge occurs when water moves into an aquifer. Carter, et al. ( 1978) note that there is considerable disagreement concerning the role of wetlands in recharge. It is noted that while some recharge may occur in wetl ands, all wetl ands are not recha r ge areas. Little information in the

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 65 literature supports the idea that significan t recharge occurs in wetlands. Some s t udies indicate that most wetlands are discharge areas whil e a few provide limited recharge (Carter, et al., 1978). Recharge in wetlands is not completely understood but is apparently limited in its exten t Confusion in the literature suggests that generaliza tions concerning recharge in wetland areas should be made with caution and that site specific studies may be needed in order to understand individual systems. In certain geologic settings, development of a w etland may indica t e favorable areas in exploration for groundwater. Carter, e t at. (1978) note that a wetl and developed on a floodpla i n of water-saturated sand might serve as an indicator of potential water suppl y w hile simultaneous l y reducing groundwater levels by evapotranspiration and the inhibition of downward percolation of water. Wetlands have been cited as having a role in the control of both inland and coastal erosion (Carter, et at., 1978). This role is dominantly re l ated to wetland vegetation which is desc ri bed as serving t hree primary func tions: 1) binding and stabilization of substrate, 2) dissipation of wave and current energy and 3) the trapping of sediment. Substantial evidence exis t s suggesting that native plants are an e ffective part of natural ero sion control along rive r and lake shor elines Limitations to that effective ness arise since vegetation can be undermined by wave and water, severely damaged by floating debr is or covered by debris and s ilt during floods (Carter, et at. 1978). Vegetation perfo rms a function in coastal wetlands similar to that documented for inland lakes and rivers. It is noted, however, that the ability of wetlands to mitigate the catastr ophic flooding from storm surge in combination with wind and h i gh tide may be relatively small (Carter, et at., 1978). Brown, et at. ( 1983) list the following biological functions of wetlands: 1) wildlife utilization 2) li f e form richness and 3) gross primary produc tivity. Wildlif e use measu r es the diversity of species inhabiting a given community. I t is the summation o f amphibians reptiles mammals and birds which commonly inhabit any wetland community. Life form rich ness refers to diversity in the physical structure or growth habits of plants. Various life forms comprise trees. shrubs, emergents, su r face plants and submergent p l a nts (Br o w n et at., 1983). Gross primary pro duct ion measures plant matter during the growing season that may eventually become food for various consumers Gross production is important since it is the first step in the food chain (Brown, e t at., 1983). Peat is frequently found in wetl and environments, since waterlogging i s necessary in order for peat to accumulate and be p r eserved. The min ing of peat in wetlands will of necessity modify the wet land system from which peat is taken. The hydrologic functions of a wetl and are site spe cific (a wetland may or may not perform any given function) and t h u s impact s of m ining will a l so be site specific. Biologic functions of wet lands include the support of a diver se flora and fauna and also the gross primary productivity of t h e environment itself. The modification o f wet-

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66 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY land systems associated with mining will result in displacement and pos sibly in some cases death of flora and fauna specially adapted to an individual wetland environment. F lor ida Statutes perta inin g to wetland regulation are in cluded in Appendix C of this document. The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Quality This discussion is primarily from a study of environmenta l issues asso ciated with peat min i ng prepared for the United States Department o f Energy by King, et a l. {1980). The water quality of surface waters flowing f r om a peatland is characteristic of the peatl and and controls to some extent aquatic habitats both ons ite and downstream. Peat mining will be accompanied by discharge of water from drainage as well as waste water derived from the process ing of peat for e n ergy purposes. The release of organic and inorganic compounds i s thought to be capable of generating a number of water qua lity impacts {King, et al., 1980). The following water quality characteristics are listed in decreasing order of i mportance. It i s also noted that thi s list may not include all poss ibl e water quality problems. Tabl e 4 ranks water quality issues with respect to scales of peatl and development: 1. Low pH 2 High BOD / COD 3. Nutrients 4. Organic Compounds 5. Colloidal and Settleabl e Solids 6. Heavy Metals 7. Carcinogenic and Toxic Materials Water discharged from a peatland may be acidic in character because waters entering the peatland lack natural buffering capacity. Addition ally, hydrogen i on production and organic acids produced by plant photo synthesis and decomposition contribute to the acidic nature of waters from peatlands. The pH values from ombrotrophic peatl ands r ange from 3 to 4 and from minerotrophic peatl ands range from 4 to 8 {Ki n g, et al., 1980). Although these low pH values are of completely natural origin, they can result in significant changes to the aquatic ecosystem. These changes may i nclude species specif i c fertility problems, morbidity, mor tality and mobility problems as well as other physical and physiological problems {King, et al., 1980). T he discharge of waters resulting from peatland drainage as well as discharge of water re l eased by the dewatering process may create Bio chemical Oxygen Demand {BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand {COD). The dissolved oxygen levels in surface streams are c ru c i al for protection of fishery resources. These oxygen levels may be depressed as a result of increased turbidity within the stream and the decomposition of soluble and insoluble material by aerobic microbiota. Pea t lands are known to store nitrogen and phosphorus. Thus, concern exists that, during drainage and processing, significant amounts of these

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Table 4. Water quality issues associated with peat mining (taken from King, et al., 1980). Primary Env i ronmental Resource Issue Discharge Low pH Water Discharge High BOD / COD Discharge Nutri ents Dis c harge Compo und s D i scharge C o llo i dal & Settleabl e S o lid s Major X X X Small Moderate X X Scales of Development Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor X X X X X Large Major Moderate X X X X X Minor C/) ., m n -)> r., c aJ rn -0 2 2 0

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68 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY nutrients could be released to receiving waters. If nutrient supplies are increased eutrophication rates would i ncrease and changes in the aquatic ecosystem would occur (King et al. 1980). Peat contains a number of organic acids. These compounds (fatty acids humic acids amino acids, tannic acids and other organic acids) are partial l y responsible for the low pH values associated with waters from peatlands. The release of waters containing such compounds as a part of the drainage and dewatering process could have a direct toxological effect on aquatic organisms. Peat, since it is derived from an accumulation of plant materia l may a l so contain microlevels of heavy metal ions which were used by original p l ants for life processes. Heavy metal ions are also derived from fallout of pollutants directly onto the surface of the peat and from the filtering of surface waters by peats. If peats are exploited as a fuel resource, they must be drained and dewatered and eventually, processed for energy production. This processing may lead to the release of metals to the air and water. It is suggested (King, et al., 1980) that all effluent streams be moni tored qualitatively and quantitatively to determine the characteristics of organic chemicals being rel eased. Mining of peat and its processing for energy may possibly lead to an inadvertent release of toxic inorganic compounds and phenol s. It is important to note that release of these materials may not necessarily occur. Peat mining and subsequent pro cessing for energy, however, have not been extensively practiced in the United States and monitoring is suggested as means of offsett ing this lack of experience. The min ing and dewatering of peat may result in the release of colloi dal and settleabl e solids into receiving streams. Peat itself comprises water soluble colloidal material and small particles of cellulose and fibrous material. The nature of these materials and of the constituents which may become adso r bed onto them is such that oxygen levels are expected to be depressed. Additionally, the transport of nutrients which might lead to eutrophication and heavy metals might be increased. Three states which have begun to cope with water quality aspects which might accompany the mining of peat for energy include Minne sota North Carolina and Florida Appendix D of this document inc l udes lists of water quality parameters chosen for measurement by each state. The lists are different, since they were prepared for somewhat different purposes. The state of Minnesota, after an extensive literature review, concluded that baseline data were needed. A study was devised in which 33 water quality paramete r s were monitored in 45 und i sturbed peatlands in northern Minnesota. The list of parameters being monitored in North Carolina has been developed for the assessment of wastewater dis charge in conjunction with a proposed peat-tomethanol plant at Creswell, North Carolina The Florida Department of Environmental Reg ulation has required monitoring of 26 water quality parameters in a per -

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 69 mit for constructi on of a storm water disposal system assoc i ated with mining of peat in central Florida ( Putnam County). The Effect of Peat Mining on Water Resources WATER RESOURCES IN AN UNDISTURBED SYSTEM The m inin g of peat will cause changes in the hydrologic budget associ ated with a peatland. The changes could be helpful or detrimental, but the system will change. In order to better understand the changes which are discussed in the next portion of the text, it i s instructive to examine the system as it opera t es natura lly. The hydrolog i c cycle is used by geologists to describe what happens to water which falls to the earth as precipitation. The water which falls as precipitation has a number of possible fates. It may evaporate from fall ing rain and never reach the earth's surface. It may be taken up by the roots of plants carried to the leaves and returned to the atmosphere by transpiration (the process by which the foliage of plants releases water vapor). Evaporation, which returns water to the atmosphere, occurs from soil from the surfaces of lakes, rivers and oceans, even from the dew which collects on plants. Some portion of the rain which falls does reach the earth's surface and flows across it to reach lakes, streams or possibly the ocean. Th i s portion is referred t o as runoff. Some part of rainfall soaks into the ground (infiltration). A portion of the water which soaks into the ground will make its way s lowly to streams or lakes, and in certain areas, some of this water may enter a porous and permeable rock unit referred to as an aquifer. For a given geographic area, geo l og i sts may estimate the proportion of water which is lost to the processes of evaporation and transpiration. Measurements are made so that geologists are familiar with average values of stream discharge and lake levels The depth to the water table may be measured. (The water table is t he level below which pores in the rock or sediments are f ille d with water and above which they are partly or totally filled wifh air). The measurements may be used to make up a hydrologic (water) budget for a given area. Thus, water resources are a system. If one aspect of the system is modified, other aspects change in response to the modification. WATER RESOURCE PARAMETERS AFFECTED BY PEAT MINING This discussion is primarily from a study of environmental issues asso ciated with peat mining, completed for the U.S. Department of Energy by King et al., 1980. In a study which deals solely with environmental issues arising from mining of peat, King, et al. ( 1980) report that the development required for mining will modify natural groundwater and surface water character-

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70 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY IStiCS of the mined area. Net changes both on and off site will be a function of the size (or sca le) of the operation the mining procedures which are employed, and technology used for energy processing follow ing min i ng. Water resources issues listed in decreasing order of their importance include: 1. Floodwater Runoff Response 2. Groundwater Elevations 3. Salt Water Intrusion 4. Surface Flow Patterns 5 Minimum Stream Discharges 6 Mean Surface Water Discharges 7. Hydrological Budget 8. Groundwater Aquifers 9 Evaportranspiration Rate Table 5 lists various water resource paramete r s which might be affected by development of peat mining operations The operations are classified into three size groups and each water resource parameter is evaluated in terms of the effects of small, moderate and large scale development. Obviously the hydrologic characteristics of each individ ual site must also be considered in determining the extent to which a given peat mining development will modify a specific water resource parameter Mining operations are classified as small, moderate or large based on the peat they require and the amount of energy they produce. A small peat operation (1 megawatt-MW) would require approxi mately 6. 5 acres of peat, six feet in depth per year The total amount of peat consumed in an operation projected to last four years would be approximately 26 acres mined to a depth of six feet. A peat operation of moderate scale (60 MW) is projected to consume approximately 3 500 acres of peat averaging six feet in depth over a 20 year period An operation categorized as large (800 MW) would require approximately 125,000 acres of peat to operate for 20 years (King, et al., 1980). Development which accompanies peat mining and subsequent recla mation may change an area's floodwater response The extent of thi s change will vary with the size of the development itself. Some factors accompanying development will tend to increase flood flows and other factors will tend to decrease them (King, et al., 1980). The net effect of these potential opposing factors will have to be evaluated for each site specifically. King, et al. ( 1980) suggest that appropriate state agencies define downstream flood prone areas so that they may be protected from large or moderate peatland developments at upstream sites. Drainage of mined areas and potential pending will cause changes in groundwater levels. Groundwater levels are of prime concern in choosing

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T a bl e 5. W a t e r r esources i ss u es associ ated with p ea t mining ( T a k en f ro m King, e t a l. 198 0 ) Scales of Development Small Moderate L arge Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate M i nor en Incr eased Floodwater Flow '"'0 Po t e ntial X X X m (") -Groundwater Elevati ons )> Modification X X X r-'"'0 Potential Salt Water c g:J Intrusion X X X r-Modification of Surface (") Water Flow Patterns X X X Increase M i n i mum Stream 0 2 D i scharges X X X 2 Incr ease Mean Surface 0 Water D i scharge X X X N A lter the Hydrological ...... Budget X X X Alter Groundwater Aquifer X X X Reduce Evapot r anspiration X X X

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72 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY an appropriate mining method. The groundwater l evels in peatlands may also influence groundwater levels in aquifers which are connected hydr o logically (King, et a l. 1980). It is important to define the relationship, or lack of relationship, between peatlands which are t o be mined and aquifers which might possibly be affected by removal of peat. If coastal peatlands are to be mined, the dra i nage necessa r y to reduce water level s could possibly lead to saltwater intrusion. In addition, g roundwater recharge may be reduced and groundwater levels could be lowered (King et al., 1980). The combination of these t hree effects coul d lead to sa ltwater intrusion and King, e t a l. ( 1980) suggest the effects of this change should be researched carefully befor e development. Peat mining will require construction of d r ainage ditches, water control devices and roads. Thus, the patterns of surface water f low in the mined area and in downstream channels will be modified (King, et al., 1980). It is believed (King, e t a l. 1980) that peatland development will increase minimu m stream discharge Net evapotranspirati on from the peatland will be reduced since vegetation must be cleared in order for mining to occur. Thus, a g reater portion o f net precipitation will d rain. As ditches are constructed, more of the peatlands will be ab l e t o contribute flow directly to artificial surface streams (K ing, et al., 1980). A number of factors associa t ed with peat mining will ser v e to increase mean surface water discharge. If the mining method chosen involves drainage, then water being drained will be added t o surface water dis charge. Additionally, mi n ed peat will have to b e de w atered, so another addition to su rface water discharge occurs. I t is projected ( K ing, et al., 1 980) that the effects of a smal l scale development on mean su r face discharge would be minor. P r oposed moderate and large scale mining operations should be evaluated on a site spec ific basis to protect downstream water users and aquatic resou rces (King, et al., 1980). T he development and rec lamation of a p eatland will permanently change the hydrologic budget of the area (King, et al., 1980). These changes may be helpful or detrimental offsite. It peatlands contribute to aquifer s in a given area, then the effect of positive or negati ve changes affecting that aquifer s h ould be researched. T h e groundwater flow from peatlands to connected regional aqu ifers will change with mining ( K ing, et al., 1980). l astly the evapot ranspiration rate from t he mined area will change (King, et al., 1980). Since mining involves removal of surf ace vege t ation, net evapotranspiration will be reduce d Ditching will lower the groundwater level and cause a moisture deficiency in the upper portion of the drained area which will contribute to a lower net evapotranspiration rat e. Although the effects of these changes are expected to be minor for all scales of development the modifications in adjacent plant and animal communities and in local climate are poorly understood (King, e t al., 1980).

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 2 7 7 3 The Ef f ects o f Peat Mining on Air Qualit y This d iscu ssion is ta k en primarily from a study of environmental issues associated with peat mining prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by King, et al. (1980). The mining and stor age of p eat, as well as its process i ng for energy purposes, w ill produce certain air quality impacts. Expec t ed major air qua lity concerns are r elated to f ugitive emission factors from large-scale minin g an d storage o p e r a t ions. Overall parti cula t e emission probl ems are gene r a t ed during dry min ing, transportation and storage of peat. Small a n d moderate scale p eat-fired power plants are expected to produce less ai r qua l i t y impacts than equivalent coa l b urning p l ants. Airborne emis sions a ss ociate d w ith a large syntheti c natural gas plant can only be discussed on a ge n eralize d basis. Tab l e 6 lists a number of air quality issues in order of their projected importance (King, et al., 1980). Milled and sod peat m i n i ng methods both require t h a t peat be drained previous to mining and also dried on the ground. D r ying peat may be suspended by w i nd or mechan i cal action. After peat is dried, it must be collected, stored, transported and restored. All of these steps may resu l t in loss of peat to the atmosphere !King, et al., 1980). Ca r bon monoxide will be emitted from the direct combustion of peat. Carbon monoxide is not easi l y collected i n air scrubbers and emiss i ons may be improved o nl y by improving t h e combusti on process (King, et al., 1980). Nitrogen oxides are formed when fuels are burned i n air. Emissio n of nitrogen oxides from direct combustion of peat f uel may exceed allo w a ble levels. Various sulfur oxides !SO.l may be emitted when peat is burned Peat is r elat i ve l y low in s ulfur an d thus, may not result in seve r e emission probl ems (King e t a l. 1980). A. Cohen (personal commu n icati on, 1984) n otes that sulfur must b e determ ined on a site specific basis and further comments that it may especia ll y be a p robl e m in coastal areas. The strong affinity of emitted S02 and S03 for water causes formation of droplets in the emissions p lume. The long d i stance transport of these emission products can result in acid rains in areas remote to t he plant site (King et al., 1 980). K ing, et a l. (1980) report that direct combustion of various forms of peat fuel may generate particulate matter incl uding sulfate, heavy metals, polynucl ear aromatic hydrocarbons and some particl es in the submicron range. Non-methane hydrocarbons result i ng from incomplete combusti on of pea t may react i n the atmosphere to form photochemical oxidants (ozone). Non-methane hydroca r bons i nclude pol ynuclear aromati c hydro carbon s which are carci n ogenic at very low levels and stable in the envi ron m ent. Most contr o l str ategies for ambie n t o z one involve emission contr o l s on non-methane hyd r oca r bons (King, et al., 1980). Photochemical oxidants (oz one) may be derived from direct burning of

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..... Table 6. Air quality issues associated with peat mining. (Taken from King, et al., 1980). Scales of Development Small Moderate Large Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Harvesting Emission Fugitive Dust X X X Carbon Monoxide Emissions X X X Nitrogen Oxide Emissions X X X co c Sulfur Oxide Em i ssions X X X :::0 m Particulate Emissions X X )> X c Nonmethane Hydrocarbon 0 "T1 Emissions X X X C) Photo Chemical Oxidants X X X m 0 Heavy Metal Emissions X X X r-0 Reduced Sulfur Compound C) -< Emissions X X X Nitrogen Compound Emissions X X X Halogen Compound Emissions X X X Visibility Reduction X X X Water Vapor Emissions X X X Carbon Dioxide Emissions X X X

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO. 27 75 various forms of peat fuel. They are formed in the atmosphere from non methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide and are controlled by emis sion controls on nonmethane hydrocarbons. Metals may be concentrated in the organic or inorganic f raction of peat as a consequence of water flow through peat or by deposition from the atmosphere These metals may be volatilized at high combustion temper atures or emitted as gaseous molecules. The behavior and effects of these metals are complex ( K ing, et al. 1980). Emiss ions of reduced sulfur, nitrogen compounds and halogen com pounds may all exceed allowable levels from synthetic fuel plants ( King et al., 1980). The effects of reduced sulfur emissions and nitrogen com pounds (other than NO.) are dependent on meteorological conditions and ambient air chemistry and quality. The emissions of particu l ate matter and plume condensation may cause visibility reduction in the immediate vicinity of the combustion source when various forms of peat fuel are burned directly The extent of this effect will depend on the rate of wind dispersion of emitted materials ( King et al., 1980). Combustion sources w ill generate water vapor which may condense and precipitate downwind of the processing plant. If water vapor com bines with so . acid mists may be formed ( King et al., 1980). Production of peat energy will necessitate emission of carbon dioxide. The production of C02 will contribute to the globa l carbon dioxide build up, the significance of which is still subject to debate (King, et al., 1980). The Effects o f Peat Mining on Topography by Thomas M. Scott Peat is currently mined from deposits formed in a number of specific geologic settings. These inc lu de bayhead swamps, close d dep r essions or karst basins, river valley marshes and large, flat, poorly drained areas such as the Everglades. Closed depressions or karst basins occur predominantly in north and central Florida. The depressions or basins are the result of sinkhole for mation and do not have surface outlets for water. Topography of this type of deposit is shown in Figure 24. River valley and bayhead swamp deposits occur throughout much of the state. Notable examples of these are the upper St. Johns R iver Valley and Oklawaha River Valley peat deposits (Figure 13) and the Santa Fe Swamp peat deposit (Figure 14). These areas have surface drainage by streams and rivers. The general topography of the deposits is shown in Figures 25, 26 and 27. In general the large, flat, poorly drained areas of peat development are in south Florida south of latitude 29N (Davis, 1946). The Everglades and its associated peats are a typical example of this type of peat deposit The topogr aphy of this type of deposit is shown in Figure 28.

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B 140 120 SMITH LAKE 100 80 ALACHUA -HALL L AKE PEAT 80G .!. 0 I Ml LE 2 SCALE 100X VERT. EXAG. B B LOCATION B' 140 120 100 80 Figure 24. Topographic profile of a karst basin peat deposit in north Florida. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.) to c :::0 m )> c 0 "T1 G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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)\ \ r 1 ; "[ l SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 77 Figure 25. Topographic profile of St. Johns River marsh peat deposit in southern Brevard County. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.) The topography of other peat forming environments can be seen in the cross sections showing the cypress dome type of peats (Figure 6). These, however, are not typically mined. The peat mining process is an excavation process which removes the original surface vegetation and significantly alters the topography of the terrain. Various types of equipment are used to remove the peat and waste material, leaving a water filled (dry, if pumped) pit. During the course of mining, the size of the existing pit may vary from less than one acre to tens of acres. This depends on the areal extent of the deposit thi ckness of the peat and rate of production. Stock piles and waste piles are the result of the mining process. The stock piles are created to allow the peat to dry prior to shipping. These piles vary in size and shape during the life of the mine and are not present after mining is completed, having been depleted as peat is sold. The waste piles, on the other hand are not sold and remain after the comple tion of mining. The waste material generally consists of peat that is too contaminated with weed seeds and sediment to be used Generally, at the completion of mining, the waste piles are leveled and spread around the mine site. This is not always true since there are no required reclama tion procedures for peat mines. Field investigations suggest, however, that most operators level the site at the completi on of mining. The post-mining topography resembles the pre-mining topography if

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c 80 w w 70 60 50 w OKLAWAHA RIVER D IKE I---PEAT ---I 0 2 SCALE 100X VERT. EXAG. LOCATION MARION c c C' E 80 70 60 50 I MILE Figure 26. Topographic profile of the Oklawaha River peat deposit in northern Lake and southern Marion counties. (Prepar e d by the Bureau of Geolog y for this report. ) ttJ c ::0 m )> c 0 G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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A ALACHUA CO. BR ADFORD CO. A' 180 w E 180 _J (/) 160 LAKE ALTHA S W A M P 160 :E S AN T A FE S WAM P --H W Y 301 w > 0 1 4 0 H W Y 21 A ..JII' ---CXl 140 r-"0 c "' r0 0 2 2 0 N ....,

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w I E 40 COLLIER COJ D ADE CO. 4 0 20 201GUL F OF M XI w 0 --SEA LEVEL -20 5 0 10 20 -20 SCALE 833X VERT. EXAG. LOCATION DADE Figure 28. Topographic profile of the Everglades in Collier and Dade counties. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.) (X) 0 CtJ c :::IJ m )> c 0 C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 81 the waste piles are removed. The notable exception is that an open body of water may be present where the peat has been removed. ENDANGERED SPECIES ASSO C IATED WITH AREAS OF POTENTIAL PEAT MINING by Thomas M Scott Areas of peat accumulation are associated with specific wetland habi tats and contain specific faunal and floral communities. The mining pro cess, of necessity, removes existing vegetation and significantly alters the immediate environment of the active mine. As a result of these altered hab itats, indigenous fauna may be forced out and native flora is destroyed. The major wetland habitats in Florida are coastal marshes, freshwater marshes, wet prairies, cypress swamps, hardwood swamps and man grove swamps. These are briefly discussed below using information taken from Hartman (1978) and Gilbert (1978). The coastal marshes occur along shorelines characterized by low wave energy. Coasta l mar shes are generally found north of the range of man groves but are interspersed with mangroves in some areas. These marshes may ex t end into tidal rivers and sometimes exist as a narrow zone between mangroves and freshwater in south Florida Freshwater marshes consist of herbaceous plant communities in areas of water-satu rated soils which may be characterized by s t anding water during portions of the year. Freshwater marshes grade into wet prair i es with the characteristic differences being shallower water and more abun dant grasses in the wet prairie. Cypress swamps generally have water at or above ground l evel a sig nificant portion of the year. Cypress swamps occur along rivers and l ake margins and may be scattered among other environments. This habitat contains fewer grasses and significantly more abundant trees. Hardwood swamps occur in lake basins and along rivers where the substrate is saturated or submerged for a t least part of the year. Two important variations of this habitat are the bayhead swamp and the titi swamp. Bayhead swamps are very simi l ar to cypress swamps except the vege tation is more dense. The growth may be so dense as to be i mpenetrab l e in some areas. The plants of the bayheads are mostly small trees with shrubs and cypress. Standing water is present most of the year within t hese areas. These swamps are dominated by varieties of bay trees. Titi swamps are similar to the bayhead swamps. They are dominated by the presence of titi rather than bay trees. M angrove swamps occur along low energy coastlines in centra l and southern Florida. Mangroves dominate with red mangrove furthest sea -

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82 BUREAU O F G E O L OGY Table 7. Plant communities of concern based on Nature Conservancy recommendations. FLOODPLAIN SWAMP Water E l m /Ash Swamp Slash Pine Swamp STREAMBANK THICKET White Cedar Bog STRAND SWAMP Cypress / Royal Palm Strand SLOUGH Water Elm / Pop Ash Slough Pond Apple/ Pop Ash Slough BASIN SWAMP Slash Pine Swamp BAYGALL Everglades Bayhead ward, b l ack mangroves closer to shore and white mangroves furthest inland. T hese swamps support large estuari ne areas. The Nature Conservancy has inventoried the plant communities in F lor ida and assigned each community a rank in relation to how commonly it occurs. The plant communities of concern are listed in Table 7 (Linda Deuver, persona l communication, 1983). It was suggested tha"t specific native communities with tropical affini ties might be of such limited extent that peat mining in south Florida could possibly lead to the destruction of certain groups (li nda Deuver, personal communication, 1983). The existence of endangered threatened, ra r e or species of special concern in areas of potential peat mining should be determined on a sitebysite basis rather than a general habitat basis. Each site should be investigated and the presence o f species in question documented (R. Kautz, personal communication, 1983). The site specific investigations are necessary to avoid over generalization conce r ning the occurrence (or nonoccurrence) of endangered species. Table 8 is a compilation of species which are endangered, threatened, rare or of special concern. This information was gathered from the series entitled "Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida", from the official list of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission entitled "Endan gered and Potentially Endangered Fauna and Flora in Florida" and from data supplied by the Nature Conservancy. Species whose habitat coin cides with areas of potential peat accumulation were included. This list ing should not be considered all encompassing and up-to-date on species status. The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission updates their list periodically and should be consulted for the most recent compilation. Comments concerning individual endangered species in relation t o peatlands have been received by the staff of the Bureau of Geology. Charles Lee (Florida Audubon, personal communication, 1983) expressed concern for t he Florida Panther and the Ivory-bil l ed Woodpecker He suggested that peat mining might dis rupt portions of the panther's habitat. Lee also noted that if any Ivorybilled Woodpeckers

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 83 remain they could be severely affected by peat mining activities. Randy Kautz (Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, personal communica t i on, 1983) expressed concern for selected habitats of the Florida Black Bear. RECLAMATION OF MINED PEATL. ANDS by Paulette Bond Farnham ( 1979) notes that in a number of European nations, reclama tion of mined peatlands has been common practice for many years. Mined areas are used for crop production, tree production, conservancy areas, wildlife h abitats and lakes or ponds. I reland and Po l and commonly use mined peatlands for forage and grass production. In a recent consid eration of reclamation of mined peatl ands (King, et al., 1980). primary purposes were cited as provision for long-term erosion control and drain age and mitigation of environmental and socioeconomic effects of min ing by improving the value of the land. Fa r nham, et al. ( 1980) note that r eclamation should prefe r ably be con sidered before removing peat for energy pur poses. K ing, et al. ( 1 980) optimistically suggest that reclamation programs could create lands with superior recreational and wildlife habi tat values. These resea r chers also note that drained organic soils may have great economic value as agricul tural or forest lands. It should be noted that experience gained in the Everglades Agricultura l Area supports the economic viability of farming drained organic soils. However, the rate of subsidence of o r ganic soils in the Florida Everglades Agricultural Area is well known and suggests that this type of reclamation m ight not be a feasible long -term solution for use in F lorida's mined peatlands. In orde r to achieve an app r oved rec l amation plan, clean -up and possib l e permanent drai n age control may be indicated (King, et a l. 1980). King, et al. ( 1980) have prepared a list of environmental parameters affecting reclamation options. They in clude 1) seasona l fluctuations in groundwater level, 2) soil ferti lity and drainage characterist i cs, 3) the amount of residual peat remaining after mining, 4) trafficability (the abi l ity of the bog surface to s upport veh i cles and machinery). and 5) number and types of l akes and streams In addition, factors which control site specific reclamation programs are tabulated by the same authors. That information is presented in Tab l e 9. In examining Table 9 it is important to note that factors tabulated are independent of each other. Thus, a small development might be harvested by wet methods. The private single owner of this small deve l opment might choose to let the mined-out area become a lake (open water), since drainage could prove d ifficult and undesirable assuming water tables in the area wer e high

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84 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Table 8 Endangered threatened and rare species associated with areas of potential peat accum u lation (compiled by the Bureau of Geology staff). Bobcat Cudjoe Key Rice Rat Everglades Mink Florida Black Bear Florida Panther Florida Weasel Homosassa Shrew Key Deer Key Vaca Raccoon lower K eys Cotton Rat Mangrove Fox Squirrel RoundT ailed Muskrat Sherman's Fox Squirre l Southeastern Shrew Southeastern Weasel Southern Mink Blackbanded Sunfish Cypress Darter Cypress Minnow Eastern Mud Minnow Mudsunfish Opossum P i pefish Rivulus Sailfin Molly Carpenter Frog Florida Gopher Frog Four toed Salamander Gu l f Hammock Dwarf Siren Many-lined Salamander One toed Amphiuma Pine Barrens Tree Frog Seal Salamander Stri ped Newt MAMMALS Lynx rufus Oryzomys sp Mustela vision evergladensis Ursus americanus floridanus Felis concolor coryi Mustela frenata peninsu/ae Sorex longirostris eionis Odocoileus virginianus clavium Procyon lotor auspicatus Sigmodon hispidus exsputus Sciurus niger avicennia Neofiber alieni Sciurus niger shermani Sorex longirostris /ongirostris Mustela frenata olivacea Mustela vision mink FISH Enneacanthus chaetodon Etheostoma proeliare Hybognathus hayi Umbra pygmaea Acantharchus pomotis Oostethus lineatus Rivulus marmoratus Polci/ia /atipinna AMPHIBIANS Rana virgatipes Rana areo/ata aesopus Hemidactylium scuta/urn Pseudobranchus striatus lustricolus Stereochilus marginatus Amphiuma pholeter Hyla andersoni Desmognathus monticola Notophthabmus perstriatus

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SPECI AL PUBLI C ATION NO. 27 Tab l e 8 continued. REPT ILES Alabama Red bellied Turtle Alligator Snapp ing Turtle American Alligator American Crocodile Atlantic Sa l t Marsh Watersnake Eastern Indigo Snake Florida Ribbon Sna k e Gulf Salt Marsh Watersnake Key Mud Turtle Mangrove Terrapin Short-tailed Snake Southern Coal Skin k Spotted Turt le Suwannee Cooter B lack-crowned Night Heron Florida Sandhill Crane G l ossy Ibis Great Egret Ivorybilled Woodpecker Least Bittern Limpkin Little Blue Heron Louisiana Heron Mangrove Clapper Rail Marian s Marsh Wren Osprey Redd i sh Egre t Roseate Spoonbill Snail (Everglades) Kite Snowy Egret Southern Bald Eagle Southern Hai ry Woodpecker White Ibis Whitetailed Kite Wood Stork Worthington's Marsh Wren Yellow -crowned Night Heron Chrysemys alabamenensis Macioclemys temmincki Alligator mississippiensis Crocodylus acutus Nerodia fasiata taeniata Drymarchon corais couperi Thamnophis sauritus sackeni Nerodia fasciata clarki Kinosternon bauri bauri Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarum Stilosoma extenuatum Eumeces anthracinus pluvialis Clemmys guttata Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis BIRD S Nycticorax nycticorax Grus canadensis pratensis Plegadis fa/cine/Ius Casmerodius a/bus Campephilus principa/is lxobrychus exilis Aramus guarauna Florida caerulea Hydranassa tricolor Rallus longirostris insularum Cistothorus palustris marianae Pandion haliaetus carolinensis Dichromanassa rufescens Ajaia ajaia Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus Egretta thula Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus Picoides villosus audubonii Eudocimus a/bus Elanus leucurus majusculus Mycteria americana Cistothorus pa/ustris griseus Nyctanassa violacea 85

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86 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Table 8 continued. Acuna's Epidendrum Anise (Unnamed) Auricled Spleenwort Bartran's lxia Birds -nest Spleenwort Black Mangrove Cedar Elm Chapman' s Butterwort Climbing Dayflower Coastal Parnassia Corkwood Coville's Rush Cow-Horn Orchid Cuplet Fern Delicate lonopsis Orchid Dollar Orchid Dwarf Epidendrum Fall -flowering lxia Florida Merrybells Florida Willow Fuzzy-Wuzzy Air-Plant Ghost Orchid Giant Water-Dropwort Golden Leather Fern Grass of-Parnassus Hanging Club Moss Harper s Beauty Harper's Yellow-eyed Grass Harris' Tiny Orchid Hartwrightia H idden Orchid Holly (Unnamed) Karst Pond Xyris lakeside Sunflower Leafless Orchid Lily (Unnamed) Lythrum (Unnamed) Lythrum (Unnamed) Manchineel Mexican Tear-Thumb Naked -stemmed Panic Grass Narrow Strap Fern PLANTS Epidendrum acunae Illicium floridanum Asplenium auritum Sphenostigma coelestinum Asplenium serratum A vicennia germinans Ulmus crasifolia Pinguicula planifolia Commelina gigas Parnassia caroliniana Leitneria floridana Juncus gymnocarpus Cyrtopodium punctatum Dennstaedtia bipinnata lonopsis utricularioides Encyclia boothiana Encyclia pygmaea Nemastylis floridana Uvu/aria floridana Salix floridana Til/andsia pruinosa Polyrrhiza lindenii Oxypolis greenmanii Acrostichum aureum Parnassia grandifolia Lycopodium dichotomum Harperocallis f/ava Xyris scabrifolia Lepanthopsis melantha Hartwrightia floridana Maxillaria crassifolia /lex amelanchier Xyris longisepala Helianthus carnosus Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum Lilium catesbaei L ythrum curtissii Lythrum flagellare Hippomane mancinella Polygonum meisnerianum Panicum nudicaule Campyloneurum angustifolium

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 Table 8 continued. PLANTS, co nt 'd. Night-scent Orchid Nodding Catopsis Okeechobee Gourd Panhandle Lily Piedmont Water Milfoil Pinewoods Aster Pink Root Pond Spice Prickley Apple Quillwort Yellow eyed Grass Red Tail Orchid Red-flowered Pitcherplant Red Mangrove Red-flowered Ladies' -tresses Slender-leaved False Dragonhead Small-flowered Meadowbeauty Snake Orchid Southern Milkweed Spoon Flower Thickleaved Water-willow Tiny Orchid Tropical Curly grass Fern Tropical Waxweed Turks Cap Lily Violet-flowered Butterwort Water Sundew White top Pitcherplant Worm Vine Orchid Yellow Anise Yellow Fringeless Orchid Yelloweyed Grass (Unnamed) Epidendrum nocturnum Catopsis nutans Cucurbita okeechobeensis Lilium iridollae Myriophyllum laxum Aster spinulosus Spigelia loganioides Litsea aestivalis Cereus gracilis Xyris isoetifolia Bulbophyllum pachyrhachis Sarracenia rubra Rhizophora mangle Spiranthes landceolata var. paludicola Physotegia leptophyllum Rhexia parviflora Restrepiella ophiocephala Asclepias viridula Peltandra sagittifolia Justicia crassifolia Lepanthopsis melantha Schizaea germanii Cuphea aspera Lilium superbrum Pinguicula ionantha Drosera intermedia Sarracenia leucophylla Vanilla barbel/ata Illicium parviflorum Platanthera integra Xyris drummondii Peatland Rec lamation in M i nne sota 87 It is estimated that the state of Minnesota contains 1 73 million acres of wetlands, three million hectares of which are categorized as peatlands (Farnham, et al., 1 980). In 1975, Minnesota received requests for six l eases of peatlands. (A general description of thi s leasing procedure is i ncluded in Appendix E) Minnesota Gas Company requested a lease for

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Table 9. Independent factors governing site specific reclamation programs. (After King et al., 1980). Peat Land Landowner Post Harvesting Harvest Ownership Future Use Site Conditions Development Technique Status Potentials Environmental Small 25 Acres Medium 3 500 Acres + Large 100,000 Acres + Dry Wet Combination Private Single Owner Large Industrial Owner Public Land Tribal or Native Lands Combination of Above Forestry Agriculture Wildlife/ Recreation Open Water Multiple Land Use Climate Soil Fertility Vegetation Drainage Trafficability Other External Factors Reclamation Laws Land Use Permits Water Discharge Permits Other tD c :::0 m )> c 0 ., C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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SPEC IAL PUBLIC ATION N O. 27 8 9 200,000 acres of peatlands and five other large leases were requested in which peat was destined for horticultural usage. The Minnesota Legislature responded by funding the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources to study some implications of peat mining (Malterer, 1980). The Minnesota Study included consideration of the following topics: 1) socioeconomic implications, 2) policy, 3) leasing, 4) environmental baseline studies, and 5) a separately f unded resource estimati on of the state's peatlands. Environmental baseline studies included air water, vegetation and wildlife. Studies of utilization opportunities and constraints as well as studies of opportunities for reclama tion following mining were completed (Asmussen, 1980). These studies pointed ou t a number of land-use options including: 1) preservation of peatlands, 21 use of peatlands for agriculture, 3)forestry, 4 ) mining of peat for horticulture, 5) mining and process i ng of peat for i ndustrial chemicals, and 6) mining of peat for energy and convers i o n A panel of peatland ecologists is working toward identification of bogs with preser vation value based on uniqueness, r epresentativeness and recreat i on value. Reclamation o f peatlands for use as wildlife habitat has been investigated in a study which monitored the evolution of recently exca vated ponds in peat. Farnham, et al. (1980) note that the stabili t y of any g i ven crop depends on climate, hydrology, chemical and physical properties of peat and marketability of final products. The major limit to agricultural devel opment i n northern Minnesota is the relatively short, frostfree per i od each year (June 1 -August 15). These authors (Farnham, et al., 1980) report that studies dealing with grasses and grains show no significant difference in yield and quality between crops grown on the surface of developed or excavated peatlands. Two r eclamation options being considered by Minnesota researchers, as well as worldwide worker s, are agriculture and bioenergy (Farnham, et al., 1 980). Reclamation resea rch aimed at agricu l ture has identified vegetable and agronomic crops adaptable to northern Minnesota. Spe cies have been placed in mined and unmined environments with species and fertilize r treatments varied to allow recogn ition of factors which enhance productivity (Asmussen, 1980). Bioenergy crops (cattails, willows and alders, among others) are currently under investigation for cultivation in wetlands since production of these crops would provide a renewable energy resource. S.R.I.C ("short rotation intensively culti vated ) refers to the application of agricultural techniques developed to promote growth of selected bioenergy crops (Farnham, et al., 1980). The extensive peatlands of Minn esota have been the subject of inten sive research since 1975. The research program was devised to provide information on which to base l easing decisions. One continuing thrust o f this r esearch h as been the identificat ion of reclamation methods specifi cal l y adapted to the c limate and geologic setting of Minnesota's peatlands.

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90 BUR EAU OF GE O LOGY Peatl a nd Reclamati o n in N o rth Ca r olin a North Carolina contains an estimated 1 ,000 square m i les of peatlands (640,000 acres). The peat is usual l y black, fine-gra i ned and highly decomposed with ash contents that are often less than five percent, low su lfur contents and high heating values (Ingram and Otte, 1980). This peat occurs in three major geologic settings: 1) pocosins, which are broad, shallow depressions characterized by peats varying from one to eight feet in thi ckness, 2) river flood plains which are of unknown extent but contain peats which may attain thicknesses of 25 feet, and 3) Caro lina Bays which are elliptical depressions of unknown origin. The 500 to 600 Carolina Bays sometimes contain high quality peats up to 1 5 feet in depth (Ingram and Otte, 1980). In April of 1983, the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation approved a loan of $820,750 for the First Colony peat-to-methanol project in North Caro lina The 1 5,000 acre site i s expected to supply peat for methanol con version for 30 years (Rob i nson, et al., 1983). Peat Methanol Associates (PMA) is the group planning t o construct and operate North Carolina's synthetic fuel p lant. It is believed by PMA, based on their studies of the peat deposits and ground water conditions, that natural drainage will be adequate to return the land to agricultural use. PMA also p l ans a land restoration program which will include tree and vegetation planting to provide wildlife refuge and nesting areas (PMA Update, February 1983). In response to the major peatland development proposed by Peat Methanol Associates, the state of North Caro l ina created a Peat Mining Task Force in December 1980. An initial report was issued in March 1 981. The task force was reconvened in June 1983, as interest in the state' s peatlands esca lated. The origina l recommendations of the task force were reviewed, updated and pub l ished i n January 1983 (North Carolina D NRCD, 1983). The sixt een member task force was drawn from all divisions within the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development which were involved with peat mining. The task force reviewed peat mining and its impacts on the state's natural resources. It also reviewed the ability of the state' s management program for peat mining to deal with potential impacts (North Carolina DNRCD, 1983). Reclamation methods a r e categorized as "wet reclamation" or "perpetual pumping" Constant pumping may be required to main t ain land dry enough for certain uses. Intensive agriculture is believed to be the on l y use which can financially justify the conti nua l pumping (North Caro lina DNRCD 1983). Wet reclamation includes all forms of reclamation which could perma nently or period ically cause the rec l aimed area to be under sa l t or fresh water. Uses which are included comprise paddy culture, r eversion to swamp forest or pocosi n, rese rvoi rs, aquaculture of fish or she l l fish, a r t ifically-cr eated nursery areas, waterfowl impoundments, mari nas and

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SPECI AL PUBLI C ATION NO 27 91 recreational lakes It is recommended that acceptance of mined ou t peatlands as reclaimed be on a case by case basis (North Carolina DNRCD 1983). (Recommendations of the North Carolina Peat Mining Task Force are included in Appendix E of this document.) In response to growing interest in North Carolina's peat deposits by developers, a Peat M ining Task Force was created to review permitting procedures for peat mining. Recommendations pertinent to all phases of peat mining inc l uding permits, reclamation, evaluation of environmental impacts and monitoring of environmental impacts were prepared Peatland Rec lama t i o n in Finlan d M ires are estimated as occupying 24 million acres or 31.9 percent of the total land area of Finland (Lappalaine n 1980). Development of peatlands in Finland is encouraged as Finland imported 70 percent o f its energy needs in 1979 ( Harme 1980). Indigenous energy sources which accounted for 31 percent of Finland's energy include hydro power, peat, industrial waste woods, waste liquers and normal firewood. Finland's fuel grade peat resources are estimated to be 32. 7 X 109 cubic yards (lappalainen, 1 980) and the na t ion pays subsidies to new users of domestic fuels equal to five percent to 20 percent of the total investment required for new plants (Harme 1980). Annual (1979) peat usage in Finland was approximately 6.5-7.8 mil lion cubic yards or about 2. 5 percent of the nation's energy consump tion The aim for the 1980's is to raise consumption to 33-39 million cubic yards per year It is thought that the 26 million level is reasonable based on rising coal and oil prices ( Harme 1980). Pohjonen ( 1 980) notes that by the end of the century mined -out soil surface area will occupy 123,550 acres and the problem of future use for those lands must be solved. It is suggested that a number o f characteris tics of mined peatlands in Finland make reclamation to "growing environ ment" an attracti ve option. The bottom peat layer is exceptionally sterile and no weeds, diseases or insects are present This laye r is rich in n i tro gen and calcium and an un d erlying m ineral soil provides nutrients lacking in the bottom peat layer. It is noted that energy willow production would be extremely efficient since burning the willow in heating plants yields a nutrientri ch ash which may be returned as a fertilizer to the willow plantations (Pohjonen 1980). Finland is actively pursuing development of i t s peat resource for energy use in order to offset its dependence on i mported energy. Researchers are beginning to explore reclamation options which make use of residual peats remaining after mining in combination with underly ing minera l soils The cultiv ation of energy willows is seen to be an attractive option, given the renewable nature of that resource.

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92 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick New Brunswick's peat resources are estimated to be 1 n excess of 24 7, 000 acres Approximately 80 percent of New Brunswick's peatlands are owned by the province which classes peat as a quarriable substance (Keys, 1980). Peats are extracted for horticultural purposes and producers hold peat leases and pay acreage rentals and royalties on production. The horticul tural producers use a vacuum method of milled peat production. This peat is in turn used as baled Sphagnum peat, soil mixes, artificially dri ed and compacted peat and compressed peat pots (Keys, 1980). Addition ally a small amount of peat is used as fuel to heat a greenhouse. Nonextractive uses for New Brunswick peatlands include protection of peats within K ouchibouquac National Park, use as wildlife management areas and artificially developed waterfowl nesting areas Management objectives for future use of the peat resource include: 1 ) consideration of the needs of existing industry, 2) conservation areas 3) optimum use of various qualities of peat and 4 ) long-term versus short-term economic development (Keys, 1980). An idea l ized case for management of New Brunswick's peatlands would be such that surface layers of peat could be removed for horticul tural use exposing underlying fuel peats. On removal of t he fue l peats, the basal unminable layer (20 inches thick with high ash content and rocks and oth er irregularities) with a suitably designed drainage system, cou l d allow utilization of the depleted peatland for agr i culture and afforestation (Keys, 1980). Selective use of New Brunswick's peat resources are encouraged. The need for conservation areas is acknowledged Rec l amation is viewed as an integral step in the exploitation of peatlands. A summary of the leas ing procedure applied to peatlands of New Brunswick is presented in Appendix E of this document. Reclamation in Peatlands of Florida In Minnesota, North Carolina, Finland and New Brunswick ongoing resea r ch is a imed at devising reclamation techniques which are workable for specific regions For instance, North Carolina cannot assume that reclamation methods suitable to Minnesota may be successfully applied to the soil conditi ons and climate of North Carolina. M innesota (Asmus sen 1 980) has appointed a panel of peatland ecologists to identify peatlands with preservation value The Peat Mining Task Force of North Carolina notes that some areas in peatlands should be left entirely in their natural state (No rth Carolina DNRCD, 1983). It is recommended that those areas be identified as quick l y as possible and a program for their preservation be instituted. If Florida determines to allow mining of its peatlands, a number of factors will require research so that successful rec l amation programs

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 93 may be instituted. Florida's climate is unli k e the climates of other peat producing areas in which extensive research has been done. Peat in Florida frequentl y lies directly over limestone or quartz sand. This relationship coupled with subsidence rates measured in Florida must be con sidered carefully with respect to reclamation to agricu l ture. If reclama t ion to agriculture or silvicu l ture is considered, the fertility of the residual peat and its thickness must be investigated. A number of site specific hydrol ogic characteristics will requ ire consideration including the number and types of lakes and streams as well as the relation ship of the site to groundwater resources i n its area. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Mineral versus NonMineral Peat, l ike coal, petroleum and natural gas, does not comply with the principal conditions set forth in the academic definition of the term min eral. Peat represents an early stage in a series of products which may under certain conditions result in the conversion of vegetable matter to pure carbon (peat-lignite-bituminous coal-anthracite-graphite), the end product of which fits all the requirements of a true mineral. In classifying peat as a m i neral or non mineral, there has been a tendency toward al lowing use to play an important role i n the classification, that is, if used as an agricultural product peat would be treated as a non m i neral or if used as an energy source or fossil fuel peat would be treated as a min eral. Classification based on use can create considerable confusion espe cially with minera l products used as fertilizers. Peat has been historically classified by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey as a mineral r esource, a somewhat broader category than just "mineral", along with coal, oil and natural gas Peat is generally regarded as nonre newable by earth science professionals, requiring in excess of 1,000 years to generate a commercially extractable deposit of fue l grade peat. This study concludes that because of peat's genetic relationship to the minera l graphite, its general classification by the U S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey as a mine r al resource, and its nonrenewability, peat should be classed as a "mineral resource", or "mineral product". Harvesting versus Mining Harvesting and mining h ave been used synonymousl y to refer to the extraction of peat. Literature searches reveal that the term harvesting correctly refers to the nearly obsolete practice o f selectively removing living Sphagnum (peat moss) from the surface of a bog In this practice, Sphagnum was allowed to grow back, permitting successive harvests in a single location. Peat (unlike living Sphagnum) is considered nonrenewable and the term harvesting is inappropriate when applied to peat

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94 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY extraction. Additionally, the method and equipment utilized in peat extraction and the environmental impacts of peat extraction are synonymous with those commonl y attributed to mining, not harvesting. This study concludes that harvesting should be applied only to the removal of living Sphagnum or other living plants and that the extraction of peat should be ca t egorized as mining. Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining Peat occurrence in Florida is, in nearly every case examin ed, coincident with a current wetl and area. Thus the environmental impacts associated with peat mining may vary widely depending on the type of wetland, the l ocation of the wetl and, the function of the wetland, the extent of min ing the type of mining, and other physical parameters of the site. This study concludes that an accurate assessment of the environmen tal impacts of peat extraction will be site specific and can be anticipated to range from minor to severe. Reclamation of Peat Mines Reclamation or the return of mined land to a beneficial use is applicab l e to most mining operations and would be so with peat mining. Restoration or the return of mined land to the pre -mining function is on l y partially appl i cable to most mining operations and would not be practical with peat mining. The higher the ratio of overburden to the mined product, the higher the percentage of original landform and contour that can be achieved in reclamation In peat mining, where the mined product typically has no overburden, the extraction leaves a hole which will typically become a lake in areas where the water table is high. This study concludes that reclamation of mined peatlands to a benefi cial use as an aquatic or uplands system is achievable; however, the restoration of mined peatlands to premining contour and function is prob ab l y not financially feasible. Agricultural Use of Peat The in-place use of peat and related organics for agricu l tural purposes such as in the Everg l ades Agricultural Area appears to be a nonconsumptive use of peat, while in fact, the exposure of peat to air allows aerobic bacteria to oxidize the peat causing a gradual loss of peat accompanied by subsidence of the land surface. It is predicted t hat by the year 2000, approximate l y 250,000 acres in the Everglades Agricultural Area will have subsided to thicknesses of less than one foot. This report concludes that agricultural uses of in-place peat should be viewed as a consumptive use of peat and that research and planning should be carried out to determine t he impact result in g from peat loss and land subsidence on potential future land uses.

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SPEC IAL PUBLI C ATION NO. 27 95 REFEREN C ES American Society for Testing and Material s, 1969, Standard Classifica tion of Peats, Mosses, Humus, and Related Products: ASTM, Phi l adel p hi a, Pa., Designation D 2607-69. Asmussen, D., 1980, The Minnesota Peat Program, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 647-655. Aspinall, F ., 1980, Peat Harvesting-State of the Art, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va : sponsored by Institut e of Gas Tech n ology, pp. 1 59-173. Be i'Kevich, P.l., 1977, c itation in F uchsman, 1978, pp. 3 7 3B Boyle, J .R. and C.W. Hendry, Jr., 1 984, The Mineral Industry of Florida, 1982: Florida Bureau of Geo logy Information C i rcular 95, Tallahassee, Fl.,11p. Bro bst, D.A. and W.P. Pratt, e d s., 1973, United States Mineral Resources, United States Geo l ogical Survey, Professio n al Pap er 820, 722 p. Brooks, K and S Predmo r e, 1978, Phase II Peat Program, Hydrologic Factors of Peat Harvesting (Final Report): Department of Forest Resources, College of F orestry, University of Minn esota, for the Minne sota Department of Natural R esources, St. Paul, Mn., 49 p. Brown, M.T., E.M S t arnes, C. D i amond, B. Dunn, P. M cKay M Noonan, S. Schre i be r J. Sendzimer, S Thompson an d B. T i g h e, 1983, A Wet lands Study of Seminole County: Identification, Evaluation, and Prepara tion of Development S tandards and Guidelines: Center for Wetlands Techn i cal Report 41, University o f Flo r ida, Gainesvil le, Fl. 248 p. Camero n C. 1973, P eat, in Brobst, D.A. and W.P. Pratt, eds 1973, United States Mineral Resources: United States Geo l og i cal Survey, Pro f essional Pa p e r 820, Was hington, D.C., 7 2 2 p. Car t e r V M .S. Be d i n ger R.P. N ovitzki, and W.O. Wil en, 1978, Water Resources and Wetlands, i n Wetland Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding: American Water R esources Association, pp. 344-376. C l ause n J C., 1979, The Potential Effects of Peat Mining, in Manage ment Assessment of Peat as an Energy Resource: Symposium Papers, July 22-24, 1979, at Arlington, Va.: spon s ored b y I nstitute of Gas Technol ogy.

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96 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Cohen, A.D., 1974, Evidence of Fires in the Ancient Everglades and Southern Everglades in P.J. Gleason ed., Environments of South Flor ida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, pp. 213-218. Cohen, A.D. and W. Spackman 1977, Phytogenic Organic Sediments of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades -Mangrove Complex of Florida: Part 1/, The Origin, Description and Classification of the Peats of Southern Florida: in Pal eontograph i ca, p. 71. Cohen, A.D., and W. Spackman 1980, Phytogenic Organic Sediments of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades-Mangrove Complex of Florida: Part Ill, the Alteration of Plant Materials in Peats and the Origin of Coal Macerals: in Paleontographica p. 125. Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter F. Golet and E.T. LaRoe, 1979, Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States: U.S. Depart ment of the Interior Fish and W ildlife Serv i ce, Office of Biological Ser vices, Washington, D.C. Craig, R., 1981, Ecolog ical communities of Florida: Descriptions, soils ecosystems, environmental values : (An i n house draft.) United States Department of Agriculture Soi l Conservation Service, Gainesville, FL. Crawford, R., 1978, Effect of Peat Utilization on Water Quality in Minne sota: The M i nnesota Department of Natural Resources St. Paul Mn., 18 p. Davis J.H., 1946, The Peat Deposits of Florida, Their Occurrence, D evelopment and Uses: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 30, Tall ahas see Fl. 24 7 p. DRAVO Engineers and Constructors, 1981, Synfuels Glossary: DRAVO, Pittsburgh Pa. 10 p. Eckman, E., 1975, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 102. Environmental Science and Engineering, 1982, Appendix A Physical Chemical and Ecological Data, in NPDES Permit Application, Wastewater Discharge Assessment: ESE, Gainesville, Fl. 297 p. Farnham, R S. 1979, Peat/and Reclamation in Management Assessment of Peat as an Energy Source: Symposium Papers July 22-24, 1979, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology. Farnham R.S., and T. Lever 1980, Agricultural Reclamation of Peatlands: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn., 70 p

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SPECIAl PUBLICATION NO. 27 97 Farnham. R.S. W.E. Berguson, T.E. Levar, and D.B. Sherf, 1980, Peat/and Reclamation The Energy Crop Option, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 635-642. Fuchsman, C.H., 1978, The Industrial Chemical Technology of Peat: Minnesota Department of Natura l Resources. St. Paul Mn. 190 p. Gary, M., R. McAfee Jr., and C.L. Wolf, eds. 1974, Glossary of Geology : American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Va., 805 p. Georgia Pacific Corporation 1982, Cow Bay Pilot Peat Project : Supple mental Information Submitted to Florida Department of Env ironmental Regulation for Amended Dredge and Fill Permit and Industrial Waste water Permit Applicati on. Gilbert, C.R., 1978, Analysis of the Florida Aquatic E cosystems, i n Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. 4-Fishes: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commissi on, Tallahassee, Fl. Gleason. P.J., A.D. Cohen H.K. Brooks P. Stone. R. Goodrick, W.G Smith, and W. Spackman, Jr., 1974 The Environmental Significance of Holocene Sediments from the Everglades and Saline Tidal Plain i n P.J. Gleason, ed., Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miami Geologica l Society, Memoir 2, pp. 287-341. Griffin, G., C.C. Wieland L .Q. Hood, R.W. Goode, Il l R.K. Sawyer, and D.F. McNeill, 1982. Assessment of the Peat Resources of Florida With a Detailed Survey of the Northern Everglades: State of Florida, Governor's Energy Office, T allahassee, Fl., 190 p. Gurr, T., 1972, The Geology of a Central Florida Peat Bog, Section 26. Township 30 South, Range 25 East, Polk County, Florida: Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, F l Ha rm e, P., 1980, Peat and F inland, in Proceedings of the 6th Interna tional Peat Congress, August 17-23, 19BO: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., 735 p. Harper, R., 1910, Preliminary Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida: Florida Geolog i cal Survey 3rd Annual Report, Tallahassee, Fl., 397 p. Hartman, B., 1978, Description of Major Terrestrial and Wetland Habitats of Florida, i n Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. 1Mammals: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tal l ahassee, Fl.

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98 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Heikurainen, L., 1976, The Concepts of Trophy and Production : Com mission I of I nternational Peat Society Transactions of the Working Group f or Classification of Peat, Helsinki, Finl and, p. 31. Ingram, R.L ., and L.J. Otte, 1980, Assessment of North Carolina Peat Resources in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers. Decem ber 1 3 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technol ogy. pp. 1 23-131. Institute o f Gas Technology, 1980, Peat as an Energy Alternative: Sym posium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: 777 p. International Peat Society, 1980, Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, August 1 7 -23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., 735 p. lshino 1976, citation i n Fuchsman, 1978, p 57. Jacksonville Area Planning Board 1977. Regional land use element: Jacksonville, FL. Keys, D . 1980, Assessment and Management of the Peatlands in New Brunswick, Canada: in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 131 -143. K i ng R ., S. Richardson A. Walters L. Boesch W. Thomson and J. Irons, 1980, Prel i m inary Evaluation of Environmental Issues on the Use of Peat as an Energy Source: prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Division o f Fossil Fuel Processing, Washington, D.C. Kuehn, D.W., 1980, Offshore Transgressive Peat Deposits of Southwest Florida: Evidence for a Late Holocene Rise of Sea Level: Unpublished M S Thesis, Pennsylvania State Universi ty, College Park Pa Laessle A.M., 1942, The Plant Communities of the Welaka Area: B i olog ical Science Series V. IV, N 1 University of Florida, Gainesville FL. Langbein W.B and K. T. lseri 1960, Genera/Introduction and Hydro logic Definitions, United States Geolog ica l Survey, Water Supply Paper 1541 A ,29p. Lappalainen E.. 1980, The Useful Fuel Peat Resources in Finland, in International Peat Society Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Con gress August 17 -23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., pp. 59-63. Lishtvan 1.1., and N T Korol, 1975, citation in Fuchsman 1978, pp. 36-37.

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO. 27 99 Lucas, R., 1980, Mobility of Phosphorus and Potassium in Everglades Histosols, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, Duluth, Mn.,p.413. Malterer, T.J., 1980, Peat Resource Estimation Project, i n Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va : sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 69-75. Mason, B., and L.G. Berry, 1968, Elements of Mineralogy: W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco Ca., 550 p. McPherson, B.F. G.Y. Hendrix, H. K l ein, and H M Tyus, 1976, Th e Environment of South Florida A Summary Report: Uni ted States Geolog i cal Survey Professional Paper 1101, Washington, D.C., 81 p. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981, Minnesota Peat Program Final Report: The M innesota Department of Natural Resources St. Paul, Mn., 93 p. Monk, C.D., 1968, Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north-central Florida: T he American Midland Natural ist, v. 79, pp. 441-457. Moore, P., and D. Bellamy 1974, Peatlands: Elek Science London 221 p. Naucke W., 1966, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 35. Nei l son, W.A., T .A. Knott, and P W Carhart, eds., 1939, Webster s New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. unabridged G & C Merriam Company, Publishers, Springfie l d, Ma., 3210 p. Nichols, D.S., 1980, citation in Minnesota Department of N atura l Resour ces, 1981, p. 44. Norit, N.V., n.d., citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 112. North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Devel opment, 1983, Peat Mining and Natural Resources: Peat Mining Task Fo rce Report. Olson, D., T.J. Malterer D.R. Mellen B. Leuelling, and E.J Tome, 1979, Inventory of Peat Resources in Southwest St. Louis County, Minnesota: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Hibbing Mn., 76 p. Parker, G.G., 1974, Hydrology of the Pre-Drainage System of the Ever glades in Southern Florida, in P.J. Gleason, ed. Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, p. 18.

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100 BUR EAU OF GEOLOGY Peat Methanol Associ ates 1 983, PMA Update : News From Peat Metha nol Associates, Vol. 1 No 1 Peat Methanol Associates, Creswell N.C Pennsylvan i a State University, Coa l Research Section, 1 976, A Field Guide to Aid in the Comparative Study of the Okefenokee Swamp and the Everglades -Mangrove Swamp-Marsh Complex of Southern Flor ida: Coal Research Section, University Park Pa. Pohjonen V M., 1980, Energy Willow Farm ing on Old Peat Industry Areas in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, August 17-23, 1980: Internati onal Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., pp 439-440. Press, F., and R. Siever, 1974, Earth: W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco Ca. 945 p Pritchard, P.C .H., ed., 1978, Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida : Vol. 1 Mammals Vol 2 Birds Vol. 3-Amphibians and Reptiles, Vol. 4 F i shes : Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee Fl. Quinn, A W . and H.D. Glass, 1958, Rank of Coal and Metamorphic Grade of Rocks of the Narragansett Basin of Rhode Island: Economic Geology, v 53, pp. 563-576. Robinson, C W ., R.L Schneider, and A B Allen, 1983, Harvesting and Converting Peat to Methanol at First Colony: in Mining Engineer ing, July, pp. 723-726. Searls J.P., 1980, Peat: United States Bureau of Mines Bulletin 671, Washington D.C., pp. 641-650. Shih, S F., 1980, Impact of Subsidence on Water Management in Ever glades Agricultural Area, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress August 17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., 473 p. Snyder G.H., H.W. Burdine J .R. Crocket, G J Gascho, D. Harrison G. Kidder J W. Mishoe, D L. Myhre, F.M Pate, S F Shih, 1978, Water Table Management for Organic Soil Conservation and Crop Production in the Florida Everglades: Institute for Food and Agricultural Science, Uni versity of Florida Gainesville, Fl., 22 p. Soper E.K., and C C. Osbon 1922, The Occurrence and Uses of Peat in the United States: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 728, Wash ington, D.C. 207 p Spackman, W. D.W. Scholl and W .H. Taft, 1964, Field Guidebook to Environments of Coal Formation in Southern Florida: Printed for the Geo logical Society of America Pre Convention Fie l dtrip, November 67 p.

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SPEC IAL PUBLICATION NO 27 1 0 1 State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981, Florida Energy Resources: State of Florida Governor s Energy Office, Tallahassee, Flor ida, 111 p. Stein, J., L.C. Hauck, and P.Y Su, eds. 1975, Random House College Dictionary, Random House Inc., New York, N Y., 1568 p. Stephens, J .C., 1974, Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Florida Everglades-A Review and Update, in P.J. Gleason, ed. Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miam i Geologica l Society, Memoi r 2, pp 352361 Stephens, J.C., and L. Johnson, 1951 Subsidence of Organic So ils in the Upper Everglades of Florida: Soil Science Society of Florida Proceed i ngs Vol. XI, pp. 191 -237. Tate, R.L. 1980, Environmental Factors Limiting Microbi al A ctivity in Histosols, in Proceeding of the 6th International Peat Congress August 1 7 -23, 1980: International Peat Soc i e t y Duluth, Mn., p. 695. Tebeau C.W., 1974 South Florida Water Management District, in P.J. G l eason ed., Environments of South Florida: Present and Past : Miami Geologica l Society, Memoir 2 p 362. T urner F.J. and J. Verhoogen 1960, Igneous and Metamorphic Petrol ogy: 2nd ed., McGrawHill New York, 545 p U S Bureau of Mines, 1972-1981, Minerals Yearbook: U.S. Depart ment of In t erior Washington, D.C. U S. Department of Energy 1979, Peat-Prospec t us: Uni t ed States Depar tment of Energy Division of Foss i l Fuel Processing, Wash ington, D.C., 79 p. Weast, R.C ., ed. 1973, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 54th ed., CRC Press, C l eveland, Oh. White, W.H., 1970, The Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula: F l orida Bureau of Geo logy Bulletin 51, Tallahassee, Fl., 164 p.

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102 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY GLO S SARY OF TECHNICAL TERM S by Kenneth M. Campbell a b sorption Taking up, assimi l ation, or incorporation; e.g. of l iquids in solids or of gasses in liquids, sometimes incorrectl y used in p l ace of adsorption a ce tone A volati le flammable liquid (CH3l2CO, used as a solvent and in organic synthesis. a cid A compound, capable of neutralizing alkal i s, containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal or an e lectropositive group to form a salt or cont aining an atom that can accept a pa i r of e lectrons from a base. a c i d hydrolys i s Decomposition process in which peat is broken down into component compounds. Peat is slur ried with water and sul furic acid at elevated temperatures and pressure and allowed to react. a c t ivate d carbon Carbon which has been expanded by treating coke with steam at 1652201 2 F. The reaction causes generation of hydro gen gas and carbon monoxide with the physical effect of expanding the pore spaces in the coke, greatly inc r easing the surface area available for adsorpti on ad sorption Adherence of gas molecules or o f ions o r molecul es in solu tions to the surfaces of solids wit h which they are in contact. ald ehydes A class of organic compounds containing the group CHO, whi c h yield acids when o x idized and a lcohols when reduced alkali Any strongly basic substance, such as a hydroxide or ca rbon ate of an alkali metal (e.g. sodium, potassium) that neutralizes acid to for m salts. anhydrite A minera l consisting of an anhydrous calcium sulfate: CaS04 It represents gypsum without its water of crystalli zation, and it alters readily t o gypsum, from which it differs in crystal form (anhydrite is orthorhomb ic) and in being harde r and slightly less soluble. anthracite Coal o f the highest metamorphic ran k in which fix ed carbon content is between 86 percent and 98 percent. It i s hard black, and has a semimetallic luster and semiconchoidal fracture. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns w ith a short, b lue flame and without smoke. Syn: ha r d coal, stone coals. as h content The percentage of incombustible material in a fuel.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 2 7 1 0 3 bioenergy crops Crops which are grown for plant b i omass to p r oduce renewable energy sources. Plant biomass can be harvested and burned direc t ly or may be gasified to prod u ce liquid a n d gaseo u s fuels. biogasification A process w h i ch utilizes bacteria t o produce methane gas from organ i c mate r ia l. bituminous Coal whi ch contains up to 86 percent fixed ca r bon and whi ch gene r ates at l east 8300 BTU / Ib on combustion. I t is dark brown to black in color and is the most abundant rank of coal. Lower grades burn with a smokey flame, however, h i ghe r grades burn w ithout smoke. BOD ( Biological Oxygen Demand ) T he amount of oxygen (measured in p ar t s p er million) removed f rom aquatic e n vironments rich in organic matter by the metabol i c requ i rements of aerobic microor ganisms. bog A waterl ogged, spongy g r oundmass, prima rily mosses, containing acidic, decaying vegetation o r peat. brackish water A n indefinite term for water, the salin ity o f which is inte r mediate between that o f normal sea wat er and normal fresh water. BTU (British Thermal Unit) T he amount of heat requ i red to raise the temperature of one pound of water o n e ( 1 ) degree F. c arbohydrate A polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone or a compound that can be hydrol yzed to such a compound. Carboh ydrates, of which sugars, starches and cellulose are exampl es, are produced by all green plan t s and form an important animal food c arbonization (a) In the process of coalification, the accumulatio n of residual carbon by the changes in orga nic matter and decompos ition products; (b) T h e accumul ation of carbon of a car bonaceous substance such as coal by driving off the other components, either by heat under laboratory conditions or by natural processes. carbon -14 dating A method of de t ermining an age in years by mea suring the conce ntration o f carbon-14 remaining in an organic mate r ial usually formerly living matter, but also water biocarbonate etc. The method, work ed out by Willard F. Libby, U.S. chemist ( 1908). in the years 1 9 4 6 -1951, is based on the assumption that assimi l ation of carbon -14 ceased abruptly on removal of the material from the Earth's carbon cycle (i.e. the death of an organism) and that it the r eafter r emained a closed system. Most carbon-14 ages are calculated using a half li f e of 5570 + 30 years, t hus t h e method i s usefu l in determining ages in the ran ge of 500-30,000 or 40,000 years, although it may be e x tended to 70,000 years by using special techniqu es involving con-

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104 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY trolled enrichment of the sample in carbon-14. Syn: rad ioca rb on dating; carbon dating. car cinogen A substance which tends to produce a cancer. cell ulose A polymeric carbohydrate composed of glucose units, for mula !C6H ,005l x of which the permanent cell walls of plants are formed, making it the most abundant carbohydrate. c oal ification The alteration or metamorph i sm of plant material into coal; the biochemical processes of diagenesis and the geochemical pro cess of metamorp hism in the formation o f coal. See also: carbon iz ation. COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand ) The amount of oxygen r equired for the oxidation of all oxid iz able compounds in a water body. Cf: biochem ica l oxygen demand. Var: oxygen demand. co lloidal gel A transl u cent to transparent semisolid, apparently homogeneous substance being elastic and jelly l i ke (or sometimes more or l ess rigid), offering l ittle resistance to liqu id diffusion, and containing a dispersion or network of fine particles that have coalesced t o some degree. Colloidal part i cles are less than .0000094 inches in size (i.e. smaller than clay sized). core A cylindrical or columnar piece of solid rock or section of soi l usually 1 75-4.0 inch or so in diameter and f rom an inch up to 50 feet or so in length taken as a sample of an underground formation by a special hollow-type drill bit, and brought to the surface for geologic examination and /or c hem ical analysis. I t records a section of the rock or soil pene trated. crysta l A homogeneous, solid body of a chem ic a l e l ement, compound or isomorphous mixture hav in g a regularly repeating atomic arrangement that may be outwardly expressed by plane f aces. desiccation A complete or nearly complete drying out or drying up, or a deprivation of moisture or of water not chemically combined; e.g. the loss of water from pore spaces of soils or sediments as a result of com paction or evaporation. dewatering Processing which reduces the amount of water within peat or a peat deposit prior to min ing and processing. Ditching and pump ing are used prior to mining. Solar mechan i cal and thermal drying along with wet carboni zation a nd wet oxidation can be used prior to or in conjunction with processing. di c hloroethane A heavy, colo rless flammable liquid, C2H4CI2 a non polar organic solvent.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 105 element Any of a c l ass of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. E lements are the build ing blo cks from which all chemical compounds are formed. enstatite A common rock-forming mineral of the orthopyroxene g r oup: MgSi03 I t is isomorphous w ith hypersthene and may contain a little iron replacing the magnesium. Enstatite varies from grayish white to yellowish, olive green and b rown. It i s an important primary constituent of interm e d iate and basic igneous rocks. ester A compound produced by the reaction between an ac i d and an alcohol with the elimination of a molecule of water. estuary (a) The seaward end or the widened funnel-shaped tidal mouth of a river va lley where freshwater mixes with and measurably dilutes seawater and where t i dal effects a r e evident; e.g. a tidal river, or a partial l y enclosed coastal body of water where the tide meets the current of a stream; (b) A portion of an ocean as a firth or an arm of the sea, affect ed by freshwater; e.g the Baltic Sea; ( c ) A drowned river mouth formed by the subsidence of land near the coast or by the drowning of the lower portion of a nonglaciated val l ey due to the r i se of sea l evel. ethane A colorless, odorless water-insolubl e gaseous paraffin hydrocarbon, formula C2H6 which occurs in natural gas o r can be pro duced as a by-product in the cracking of petroleum. ethanol (alcohol) A colorless, volatile f l ammable liquid C2H50H, produced by fermentation of certain carbohydrates used ch iefly as a sol vent, and in organic synthesi s beve r ages, medi cine colognes and antifree ze. ethyl acetate A volatile, flammable liquid CH3COOC2H5 used as so l -vent for pa ints and lacquers. eutrophication The process by which waters become more eutrophic; the artificial or natural enrichment of a lake by an influx of nutrients requir ed for the g rowth of aqua t ic p lants such as a l gae that are vital for fish and animal life. evapotranspiration Loss of water from a land area through transpi ra tion of plants and evaporation from the soil. Also. the volume of water lost through evapotranspirati on. fen A waterl ogged, spongy groundmass containing alkal i ne, decay ing vegetation characterized by reeds or peat. It sometimes occurs in the sink holes of karst r egio ns Cf: bog.

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106 BU R EA U OF GEOL O G Y fiber A plant fragment in a peat or soi l which is greate r than 1 5 mm in any dimension. fuel grade peat (U.S. Department of Energy definition) Peat with less than 25 percent ash content, heat value greater than 8,000 BTU /Ib (dry weight) and which is found in areas with more than 80 ac r es per square mile of peat. at least 4 feet thick. Generally, hemic peats have the g r eatest heat value. fibric peat (U.S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat con taining more t han 66.66 percent plant fibers (see also hemic and sapric). fixed carbon In coal, coke and bituminous mater ials, the rema ining solid, combustible matter after removal of moisture, ash and volatile matter expressed as a weight percentage, following the procedures specified by the American Society of Testing and Materials. fluidized b ed boile r A boi l er design in whi ch the f uel is agitated or "boiled" by the introduction of air from beneath the fuel bed. g a si ficatio n In fuel technology, the conversi on of a soli d or liquid hydrocarbon to a fuel gas. g e o logy The study of the p l anet Earth. It is concerned with t he o r igin of the planet, the materia l and morphology of the Earth, and its h istory and the processes that acted (and act) upon it to affect its historic and present forms. g r a phite A hexagonal mineral, representing a naturally occur ring crystall ine form of carbon dimorphous with d i amon d It is opaque, l us trous, very soft, greasy to the touch and iron -black to stee l-gray in color; it occurs as crystals or as flakes scales laminae or g r ains, in veins or bedded masses or as disseminations in metamorphic rocks. Graphite conducts electricity and heat, and is used in lead pencils, pai nts, and crucibles, as a lubricant as electrodes, and as a moderator i n n u c l ear reactors Syn: plumbago; black lead g rate fire d boi l er Boiler design in which the fuel load is supported by a framework of metal bars g ypsum widely distributed mineral consisting of hydr ous calcium sul fate: CaS04.2H20. I t is the commonest su lfate minera l and is frequently associated w ith halite and anhydrite i n evaporites o r forming thick, extensive beds interstratified with limes t one shales and clays. Gypsum is very soft (hardness of 2 on Mohs' sca le) and is white or colorless when pure but can be tinted grayi sh, reddish, y ellowish, blu i sh o r brownish. It occurs massive (alabaster). fibrou s (sat i n spar) or in monoclinic cry stals

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S PECIAL P UBLI C ATI O N N O. 27 107 (selenite). Gypsum is used chiefly as a soils amendment, as a retarder in portland cement and in making plaster. h a r vesting The gathering of a c r op or yield of one growing season. Commonly refers to vegetable matter w h ich can be replanted at will. In refe r ence to peat, this term is used as a synonym for mining. hecta re A metric unit of land area equal to 10,000 square meters or 2.471 acres. h e mic pea t (U.S. Department of Agriculture classificat i on) Peat in which plant fibers compose between 33.33 and 66.66 percent of the material; more decomposed than fibric peat. humic a ci d Black, acidic, organic matter extracted from soils peat low rank coals and other decayed plant substances by alka l is. It is insolu ble in acids and organic so l vents. hyd rau l i c p e a t mining Peat mining methods which do not require prior drainage of the deposit. Typically, high pressure water guns or dredges are used to cut peat from the deposit. hydrocr acking A process in which relatively heavy hydrocarbons are broken up by heat into lighter products (such as gasoline ) in t he presence of hydrogen. hyd r o logi c b udget An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from and storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone, lake or reservoir (Langbein and lseri, 1960); the relationship between evapo r ation, precipitation, runoff and the change in water storage, expressed by the hydrologic equation. Syn: water balance; water budget; hydrologic balance. hydr o l o g y The science that deals with continental water (both liquid and solid), its properties, circulation and distribution, on and under the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, from the moment of its precipita tion unti l it is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or is discharged into the ocean. h ydroperiod (o f a wet l a n d community) A measure of the time (us u ally i n days per year) that water i s at or above the soil surface. h y drostatic h ead The height of a vertical column of water, the weight of whi ch, if of uni t cross section, is equal to the hydrostatic pressure at a point; static head, as applied to water. h y pnum m oss peat (American Society for Testing and Materia l s (ASTM) classif i cation) Peat which contains at least 33.33 percent plant fibers with one half of those identifiab l e as Hypnum moss. NOTE: ASTM

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108 BUREAU OF GEOLO G Y is presently in the process of revising thi s c l assification; the above term w i ll no longer be used. ion An atom or grou p of atoms with an e l ectric charge. i s opach ma p A map that shows the thickness of a b ed formation, sil l or other tabu lar body throughout a geographic area, based on a va riety of types of data. kar s t A type of topograp h y t hat is formed by the dissolution of l ime stone, dolom i te or gypsum rock by rainwater or r i vers. The topography is cha r acter i zed by closed depressions, sinkholes, caves and u nderground d r ainages. k e tone Any of a class of organic compou n ds containing a carbonyl group e.g. C = 0, attached to two organic groups, such as C H3COCH3 lagoon A shallow stretch of seawat e r such as a sound, channel, bay or saltwater lake, near or comm unicatin g with the sea and partl y or complete l y separated from it by a l o w na rrow, elongate str ip of land, such as a reef, barrier island, sandbank or spit. It often extends r ough l y paral lel to the coast and it may be stagnant. lignin An organic substance somewhat sim i lar to carbohyd r ates in composition t hat occurs with cellu l ose in woody plants. lignite A brownishblack coa l that is in t e r mediate in coalification between peat and bitu minous coal; consolidated coa l with a calo rific value less than 8300 B TU / pound on a moist, mineral matter-free basis. Cf: brown coal. marine environment Areas directly influenced b y n ormal salinity sea -water (approximately 35 parts per t h ousand). marl A n old term loose l y applie d to a variety of materials most of which occur as soft, loose, earthy and semifriable or crumbling unconsol idated depos its consisting c h ie fl y of an inti mate m ix ture of clay and calci u m carbonate in varying proport i o n s for med under either marine or freshwater conditi ons. marsh A water sa t urated, poorly d r ained area intermittently or per manently watercovered, having aquatic and grasslike vegetation. Cf: swamp; bog. megawatt A unit o f power equal to 1 million watts. metamorphism The mineralog ical and structural adjustment of solid rocks to phys i cal and chemical conditi ons w h ich h ave been i mposed at depth below t h e surface zones of wea t hering a n d cementation a n d

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 109 which differ from the conditions under which the rocks in question origi nated (Turner and Verhoogen, 1 960, p. 450). methane A col orless, odorless flammable gas which is the simplest paraffin hydrocarbon, f o rmul a C H4 The prin c ip al constituent of natura l gas. m ethano l A colorless, volatile water soluble poisonous liquid, CH30H, used primarily as a solvent, fuel, automobile antifreeze and in the synthesis of f ormaldehyde. Also called methyl alcohol, wood alcohol. milled peat mining Process in which the l eveled bog i s scraped to a depth of appro ximately one ha l f inch to 2 inches. The scraped material is collected. m i n e r a l A naturally formed chemical element or compound having a definite chemical composition and, usually, a characterist ic crystal form. A mineral is generally considered to be inorganic, though organic com pound s are classified by some as minerals. Those who include the requirement o f crystalline for m in the definition of a mineral would con sider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a mineraloid. mineraloid A naturally occurring usually inorganic substance that is not considered to be a mineral because it is amorphous and thus lacks characteristic physical and chemical properties ; e.g., opal. Syn: gel min eral. m ine r otrophi c Peatland s which are connected with t he regional groundwater system an d a r e nourished both by precipitation and ground water f low; contains al k ali ne, decaying vegetation on peat. See also: fen. mining The process of ex tracting mineral deposits or building stone from the E ar t h The term may also include preliminary treatment of the ore or building stone; e g. cleaning, sizing dressing. mire A general term for a section of wet s wampy ground. montan wax A bituminous wax extracted from lignite, u sed as an industrial lubricant and as an in g redient in furniture polish, shoe polish and electrical insu lation morbi d ity The proportion of sickness or a specific disease i n a geog rap h i cal area. mortality The r ela t ive frequency of death in a district or communit y.

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110 BUR EAU OF G E OLOGY muck Dark, finely divi ded, well decomposed, organic material inter mixed with a hi gh percentage of mineral matter, which forms surface deposits in some poorly drained areas. napthalen e A white, crystall i ne, water insol uble hydrocarbon, C1 0H8 contained in coa l s, peat tar and some crude oils. NPDES Permit ( National Poll u t ant Di s char g e Elim inat ion Sy stem) A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permit required for any operation which res ults i n a discharge into the surface waters of the U.S. oil s See benzene napthalene and phenol. ombrotro phi c Peatlands which are isol ated from the reg i onal ground water system and receive moisture only from precipitation; contains acidic decaying vegetation or peat. See also: bog. opa l A mineral (or mineral gel): Si02. nH20. It is an amorphous (col l o dial) form of silica containing a vary ing proportion of water (as much as 20 percent but usually 3 -9 percent) and occurring in near l y all colors. Opal is transparent to nearly opaque and typi cally e xhibits a definite and o ften marked iridescent play of color. It differs from quartz in be ing isotropic, having a lower re f ractive index and being softer and l ess dense. organi c s oil A ge n eral term applied for a soil or a soil hori zo n that contains at least 30 percent organic matter, such as peat so i ls, muck soils and peaty soil laye rs. oxidation The process of combining with oxygen. ozone A form of oxygen, 03 having three atoms per molecule, pro duced when ordina r y oxygen gas is passed through an electrical dis c h arge. peat An unconso l ida t ed deposi t of semicarbonized plant r emains occurring i n a watersaturated envi ronment, such as a bog or fen. It is considered an early stage or rank in the development of coal; carbon content is abo u t 60 percent and oxygen content is about 30 percent (dry weight). W hen dri ed, pea t b urns freely. It may contain no more t h an 25% ash. peat bitumens Those pea t components w hic h are soluble in nonpol ar o r ganic solvents (gasol i ne, benzene, dichloroethane, etc.). The peat b itu mens of commercial interest are waxes and resins. peat coal A fuel, derived from the wet ca r bon i zation of peat, contai n ing a heat va l ue of 12,000-14,000 BTU/Ib dry w eight.

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SPECIAL PUBLI CATION NO. 27 111 peat coke A carbon residue produced by the pyrolysis of peat which is a raw material for the production of activated carbon, in the production of high purity silicon and in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosi li con all oys. peat-humus (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) c lassification) Peat which contains less than 33.33 percent plant fiber. NOTE: ASTM is presently in the process of revising this classification; the above term will no longer be used. peat resin A peat bitumen, a byproduct of peat wax production uti lized primarily as a source of steroids for use by the pharmaceutical industry. peat tar A water immiscible condensate produced by the pyrolysis of peat. It is often recycled as fue l for the coking (pyrolysis) process. peat wax See peat bitumen. petroleum ether A flammable, low boiling point, hydrocarbon mixture produced by the fractional distillation of petroleum, used as a solvent. pH The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity (less correctly concentration), indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. phenol A white poisonous substance, C6H50H, derived from coal or pea t tar or as a derivative of benzene; used primarily as a disinfectant, as an antiseptic and in organic synthesis; also cal l ed carbolic acid. physiognomy outwardly. External aspect; characteristic or quality as revealed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Nonmethane hydrocarbons pro duced by the incomplete combustion of peat; they are carcinogenic at very low levels and are stab l e in the environment. potassium dichromate An orange-red poisonous powder, K2Cr207 used as a laboratory reagent, in dyeing and in photographic chemicals. power gas Gas utilized as fuel. proximate analysis The determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash using procedures prescribed by the American Soci ety of Testing and Materials pulverized fired boiler finely ground. A boiler design which uses fuel which has been

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112 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY pyrolysis Decomposition of organic substances by heat 1n the absence of air. quartz (mineral) Crystalline si l ica, an important rock-forming mineral: Si02 It is, next to feldspar the commonest mineral. Quartz forms the major proportion of most sands. radio carbon dating See carbon -14 dating. radiometric dating Calculating an age in years for geologic materials by measuring the presence of a short-life radioactive element, e g. carbon -14; or by measuring the presence of a long -life radioactive ele ment plus its decay product, e.g., potassium-40/argon-40. The term applies to all methods of age determination based on nuclear decay of natural elements reduced To change a chemical compound by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen so that the valence of the pos itive element is lower. reed -sedge peat (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) classification) Peat containing at least 33.33 percent plant fibers, half of which are reed sedge and other nonmosses. NOTE: ASTM is presently in the process of revising this classification. The above term will no longer be used. salt-water encroachment Displacement of fresh surface or ground water by the advance of saltwater due to its greater density, usually in coastal and estuarine areas, but also by movement of brine from beneath a playa lake toward wells discharging freshwater. Encroachment occurs when the total head of the saltwater exceeds that of adjacent fresh water. Syn: encroachment; saltwater intrusion; seawater encroachment. sapric peat (U. S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat con taining less than 33.33 percent recognizable plant fragments of any type; consists of the most extensively decomposed plant material. sapropel An unconsolidated, jellylike ooze or sludge composed of plant remains, most often algae, macerating and putrifying in an anaero bic environment on the shallow bottoms of lakes and seas. It may be a source material for petroleum and natural gas. sheet flow An overland flow or downslope movement of water tak ing the form of a thin, continuous film over relatively smooth soil or rock surYaces and not concentrated into channels larger than rills. silviculture The cultivation of forest trees.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 113 sod peat m i n i n g Peat minin g process in which the top layer of peat i s cut and compressed by the machinery before being extruded onto the field to dry. soil A natural three dimensional body at the Earth s su r face which has properties resulting from the integrated effect of climate and organic matter on present rock material as conditioned in response to topogra phy; capable of supporting plant material. solvent extraction Pro cess which selectively separates components of an organic substance by means of reacting with a solvent. The absorbed compounds are subsequently stripped from the solvent. sp hagnum moss peat (American Society of Testing and M aterials (ASTM) c l assification) Peat which must contain at least 66.66 percent Sphagnum moss fibers by weight. NOTE: The ASTM is p r esently in the process of revising this classification. The above term w ill no longer be used stoichiometric proportion s W ith reference to a compound or a phase. pertaining to the exact proportions of its constituents specified by its chemical formula. It is generally impl ied that a stoichiometric phase does not devia t e measurably from its ideal composition. sub sidence The lowering o f the upper surface of a peat deposit due to a reduction in volume; caused by a number of factors: shrinkage due to dessication, consolidation due to loss of bouyant force of water or loading, compaction due to tillage, erosion by wind, fire damage or bio chemical oxidation. sulfur An orthorhombic mineral, the native nonmetallic e lementS. It occurs in yellow crystals or in masses or layers often associated with limestone, gypsum and other minerals; used in the production of sulfuric acid, in petroleum refining chemical production, iron and steel paper industrial explosives and many other uses swamp A water-saturated area, intermittently or permanently cov-ered with water, having shrub and tree-type vegetation. synthesis gas Those gases produced during gas ification of peat which can be upgraded by hydrocracking to produce synthetic natural gas talc An extremely soft, whitish, greenish or grayish monoclinic m i n eral : Mg3Si4010(0H)2 It has a charcteristic soapy or greasy feel and a hardness o f 1 on Mohs' scale, and it is easily cut with a knife. Talc is a common secondary minera l derived by alteration (hydration) of non aluminous magnesium silicates (such as oli vine. enstatite and tremol i te)

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11 4 BUREAU O F GEOLOGY in basic igneous rocks or by metamorphism of dolomite rocks; and it usually occurs in foliated, granular or fibrous masses. Talc is used as a filler, coating pigment, dusting agent, and in ceramics, rubber, plastics, lubricants and talcum powder. t ar A thick, brown to black, viscous organic liquid, free of water, which is obtained by condensing the volatile products of the destructive distillation of coal, wood, oil, etc. It has a variable composition, depend ing on the temperature and ma teri a l used to obtain it. volatile matter In coal, those substances, other than moisture, that are given off as gas and vapor during combustion. Standardized labora tory methods are used in analysis. Syn: volati les; vol a t ile combust ible. w e t car boni z ation A process in which a peat slurry i s heated to 57 2 7 52 F at 501 00 atmospheres of pressure; p roduces a "peat coa l with a heat content of 12,000-14,000 BTU/Ib dry weight. wetland Areas inunda t ed or saturated by surface water or g roundwater at a frequency and duration to suppor t and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands can often be a transition zone between aquatic and terrestrial communities. wet mining methods See h ydraulic peat mining. wet oxidation Process for oxidation of many wet organic mater ials in whi c h air or oxygen is fed to the wet organ i c materi a l in a closed, heated vessel. Combustion is controlled by the rate o f oxygen feed and can be carried to completi on to produce energy or can be s t opped after the materia l is carbonized. wet re c l amation Any rec lamation p r ocess which results in a permanently or periodically flooded reclaimed a r ea. Definitions and information on terms in this glossa r y a r e taken from the following references: B rown, et al., 1983 Dravo Engi n eers and Constructors, 1 981 Fuc h sman. 1 978 Gary, et al., 197 4 U.S. Depa rtment of Energy, 1979 Langbein and lseri, 1960

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981 Neilson et al. 1939 Stein et al. 1975 Turner and Verhoogen, 1960 Weast 1973 115

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116 BUREAU OF G EOLOGY APPENDIX A-FEDERAL ENVIRONM E NTAL L E GI S LATION (App endix A i s ta ken from R King et al.. 1980) LEG ISLATION Nati ona l Legislation Policy Act of 1969 ( N EPAl PL 91-190 Clean Air Acts as amended PL 91-604 as amended by PL 92157 PL 93-15 PL 933 1 9 PL 95-95 Federal Water Pollut i on Con t rol Act Amendments of 1972 P L 9 2 -500 APPLICABILITY TO P E AT ENER GY Environmental Impact Statements lEI S) must be prepared for all major federal actions significantl y affecting the qual ity of the human environmen tal [sic). Environmental Impact Assessments lElA) are usua ll y done to determine which actions require an EIS." "Ambient air quality standards h ave been set to S02 TSP, N02 CO, and 03 ; more are being conside r ed Affects a ll peat e nergy faciliti es New Source Performance Standards INSPS) apply to coal f i red boilers and regulate S02 N 02 and particulates Lower emission levels are being considered, as are reg ulations for small particulates. Stricter standards specific to coal lique faction may be forthcoming." "Standards for hazardous air pollu tants limit mer cury, beryllium, and lead emissions, and currently limi t coal types that can be used for dem onstration plants." NSPS and regulations for the preven tion of significant deteri o r ation may affect plant siting. Nonattainment cri teri a may be extended t o N 03 which could affect plant siting." "Best Available Control Technology (BACT) may be r equired for peat energy demonstration f ac ilities." "Nation al Polluta n t Discharge Elimina tion System (NPDES) permits are require d to treat wastew a t er dis charges."

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 117 Toxic Substances Control Act (TOSCA) Pl 94-469 Noise Control Act 1972 Pl 92-574 National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 Pl 89-665 Endangered Species Act Pl 93-205 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act P L 85-624 MOU-1967 DOD & DOl E0-1977 Wildlife and Scenic Rivers Act Pl 90-542 Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 PL 92-583 "Since effluent guidelines have not been developed for most fossil energy technologies permit requirements are determined on a case by case basis by states or by EPA." "A "No Discharge" goal has been set for 1985." "Disposal of specific materia l s used in peat ene rgy process may be regu lated." "Control of ambient noise l eve l s and recommended standards for facilit ies regulated by state and local govern ments may be required in the near future." "Feder ally financed, assisted, or permitted projects cannot impact important historic or culture si t es unless no alternative ex ists." I dentification of endangered aquatic and terrestrial species at a potential construction site is required. May effect peat energy facility siting." "Any project requiring modification of bodies of water must be reviewed to prevent or reduce loss or damage to fish and wildlife." "Controls permit action by Corps of Engineers." "Project must not degrade the quality of wildlife habitats and scenic rivers. "State coastal zone management p l ans developed with Federal financial assistance may affect siting and design of harvesting and conversion plant."

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118 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Rivers and Harbors Act 3 3 u.s.c 401-413 Section of the 1899 Act Marine Protection, Researc h and Sanctuaries Act of 197 2 PL 92-532 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) PL 91-596 Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 PL 93438 Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (Section 13) PL 93-577 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1 976 PL 89-272 Floodplain Management Executive Order 11988 "Permits are requ i red for dredge and fill activities in navigable waters." "Project must be integrated with flood control river, and dam pro jects." "Permits are required for locating plants in wetl and areas w hich may restrict extraction opera-area l [ sic ] p eat conversion p lant siting." "Health and safety regulations must be met for worker s in peat energy products. Noise leve l s for compressors, pumps, etc.. are limi t ed and must be controlled Health regulations w i ll be forthcoming." DOE is required to ensure environ mental acceptability of the fossil energy and other technologies under development.'' "Water availabil ity assessments are required for demonstration and com mercial plants; assessments are rev iewed by Water Resources Council (WRC)." "Solid waste disposal must comply with most stringent air and w ater standards ; monitoring is required; s tate or EPA permits required; state or EPA permits required for all l an d f ill s by April 1 1988; must comply with states programs for non hazardous materials "Desi gnated to reduce as much as possible long and short term impacts assoc i ated with (sic] floodplain devel opment." "Requires each Fe d eral agency to review policies concerning acquiring and managing Fede r al lands, federal l y

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 119 Protection of We tlands Executive Order 11990 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality Executive Order 11 514 as amended by Executive Order 11911 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 30 usc 1201 regulated programs, and Federal activiti es affecting l and use." Reduce floodpl ain hazards and apply floodplain management practices "Each agency will p rovide leadership and action to minimize the destruction and loss of wetlands and will conduct activities so as not to adversely affect l and use and water resource planning efforts." Each agency must review possible alterna t ives and designate practicable measures to mitigate the impacts. " The Federal government shall pro vide leadership in protecting and enhancing t he environmental [sic] and quality of life." "Each agency must: monitor and evaluate its activities to protect the envi ronment; develop procedures to issue public information on Federal plans and programs; develop research and demonstration testing programs; and engage in data and research exchange with other agencies." Provides a mechanism for Federal and State review of all surface extraction of coal and other minerals (Peat may be considered to be a minera l)." Designed to issue and enforce regu lations for the surface mining industry, reduce environmental degradation and force reclamation of a surface mine area." The act declares that surface mining when conducted in an environmen tally safe and d iligent manner is a legal l y permitted activity."

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120 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Minerals leasing Act of 1920, as amended by 30 USC 1 81 Safe Drinking Water Act "Provides the controls and regulation of surface and subsurface minerals extraction from Federal Public Lands. "Wastewater discharges may require additional t reatment for heavy metals or organic waste if they impact drinking water supplies."

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State Lev el SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 APPENDIX B CLASSIFICATION OF WETLANDS IN FLORIDA ( Taken fro m Brown, et a l., 19831 1 21 "Several classification schemes have been developed for use in Flor ida. Monk (19681 classified communities by forest vegetation types. H e states, "Seven major forest vegetation types exist in North Central Flor ida: ( 1 )Clima x Southern Mixed Hardwood; (2)Sand Pine Scrub ; (3)Sand Hills ; (4)Pine Flatwoods; (5)Cypress Swamps; ( 6)Bayheads ; and ( 7)Mix ed Hardwood Swamps." Of these, three are used for wetlands classification-Mixed Hardwood Swamps, Bayheads, and Cypress Swamps. "In a classification scheme developed by Craig ( 1981 ), wetland areas were broken down into 11 categories. These include: ( 1 )Sloughs; (2)Freshwater Marsh and Ponds ; (3)Pitcher Plant Bogs; ( 4 )Shrub Bogs; ( S )Swamp Hardwoods; (6)Cyp ress Swamps; (7)Cabbage Palm Ham mocks; (8)Wetland Hardwood Hammocks; (9)Cutthroat Seeps ; ( 1 O)Cab bage Palm Flatwoods; and ( 11 )Bottomland Hardwoods. "Laessle ( 1 942) used associations for classifying vegetation types. He defines association as, "A cha racteristi c combination of plant species which i s repeated in numerous stands with but little If any change in the vigor and proportions of its principal components. "Laessle's classification scheme for wetlands included: I. Hydric Communities Dominated by Trees 1 Bayhead (Gordonia Tamala pubes/ens -Magnolia virginiana Association) 2. River Swamp (Taxodium distichumNyssa biflora Association) II. Herbaceous Aquatic Communities Bo rdering the River and Its Tidal Tributaries 1. Submerged Associations (Naias Ceratophyllum Association and Vallisneria Associa t ion) 2. Floating Associations (Piaropus Association and Pistia Salvina Association) 3. Emergent Vegetation "A report developed in part by the Northeast Regional Planning Coun cil classifies severa l communities associated with wetland areas. These include Swamp Hammock, Hardwood Swamp, Riverine Cypress, Cypress Pond Bayhead and Bog, Wet Prairie Freshwater Marsh (shallow and deep). and Tidal Flat (Jacksonville Area Planning Board 1977). "Under the aegis of the Florida Department of Administration, the State Division of Planning and the Bureau of Comprehensive Planning a committee was c r eated to increase the efficiency of land use planning by coordinating the collection, in t erpretation, and other use of land resource data. The resu l t was the Florida Land Use and Cover Classification Sys-

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1 2 2 BUREAU OF G EOLOGY tem ( 1976). Inventory of state land resources would be achieved through the coordination of remote sensing techniques (including aeria l photography ) and ground-based observations. Computer storage of such vast quantities of information could permit organizat i on of the data in a variety of ways that would expedite management decisions. Within this scheme, information from various sensors is organized into various levels of classification ranging from Level I to Level I V The levels are summa rized as follows in the technical report describing the classification sys tem: "Level I classification uses satellite imagery with very little suppl e menta l information. The mapping is usually at a rat i o of 1:1,000,000. A t this r atio only a general classification based on major differences in land cover can be made. "Level II classifications are based on high altitude and satellite imagery combined with topographic maps The mapping is normally at a ratio of 1 : 1,000,000 and transfe r able to 1:24,000 ratio. L evel Ill classif i cation are based on medium altitude remote sensing at a scale of less than 1:24,000 combined with detailed topographic maps and substantial amounts of supplemental information, i.e. field observatio n "Level I V classification uses low altitude imagery with most of the information being derived from suppleme n tal sou r ces. (This le vel is not included within this document.) 600 Wetlands: (level I) "Forested wetlands are areas that are subject to permanent o r pro longed periods of inundation or saturation and /or exhibit vegetative com munities characteristic of this hydroperiod. 610 WETLAND CONIFEROUS FOREST: (Leve l II). "These wetlands have a tree crown areal density of 1 0 percent o r more (Crown closure requirement), and have a dominant tree crown of the coniferous species, and are a result of natural seed ing. 6 1 1 Cypress: (level Ill) "These forested a r eas are dominated by a c rown clos ure i n either bald cypress or pond cypress. Principal associa t es a r e tupelo, gum and maple. 61 2 Pond Pine: (level Ill) "These a r e forested a r eas dominated by a crown closure in pond pine. Pond pine do m i n ates wetter f lats with low p H often assoc i ated with the inland reaches of marshes o r much swamps. 620 WET L A N D HARDWOOD FOREST : (level II) "These wetlands have a dominant tree crown of the hardwood species meeting the crown closure requirement and are a result of natural seeding

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO. 27 123 621 Freshwater Swamps: (level Ill) "River creek, and lake overflow areas. These communities will have predominantly one or more of the following species: Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens River cypress, Taxodium distichum Red maple, Acer rubrum River birch, Betula nigra Black willow, Salix nigra Coastal plain willow, Salix caroliniana Blackgum, Nyssa biflora Ogeechee tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche Water hickory, Carya aquatica Water ash, Fraxinus caroliniana Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis "Bogs and bayheads. These communities will have predominantly o n e or more of the following species : Pond pine Pinus serotina Loblolly bay Gordonia lasianthus Sweet bay, Magnolia virginiana Swampbay, Persea palustris Titi, Cyrilla racemiflora Spaghnum moss, Spaghnum sp. I nland ponds and sloughs. These communities will have predominantl y one or more of the following species: Pond cypress Taxodium ascendens Black gum, Nyssa biflora Water tupelo, Nyssa aquatica T iti Cyrilla racemiflora, C parviflora Black titi, Cliftonia monophylla Willow, Salix sp. Primrose willow, Ludwigia peruviana Pond apple, Annona glabra 630 WETLAND MIXED FOREST: (level II) "Incl udes all wet forest areas in which neither coniferous nor hardwood species domi nate. When more than one-third intermixture of either species occurs. the specified c lassification is changed to mixed. Where the intermixture is less than one-third, it is classified as the dominant type, whether wetland conife rous or wetland hardwood. 631 M i x ed Forest: (level Ill) These forested areas are a mixture of coniferous and hard wood wetlands where neither tree type dominates. W hen more than one-thi rd intermixture occurs, the mixed classifi cation should apply.

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124 BUREAU OF GEOLO GY Vegetative Communities for Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands 640 WETLAND VEGETATED NON FORESTED: (Level II) "These lands are found in seasonally flooded basins, meadows, and marshes. Wetlands are usually confined to relatively level areas. W hen forest crown cover is less than the threshold for wetland forest or is non-woody, it will be i ncluded in this category. Sawgr ass, Cattai l, and Wet Prair i e are p redominant communities in freshwater marshes, while Spartina and Needlerush are the pre dominant salt marsh communities. 641 Freshwater Marsh: (Level Ill) These communities will have predominantly one or more of the following species: Sawgrass Marsh Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicens is Arrowhead, Sagittaria sp Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon Cattail, Typha domingensis, T. latifolia, T. angustifolia Pickerel weed, Pontederia lanceolata, P. cordata Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis Spartina, Spartina bakeri Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum Cattaii Bulrush Maidencane Marsh "These communities have predominantly one or more of the following species: Cattail, Typha latifolia, T. domingensis, T angustifolia Bulrush, Scirpus americanus, S. validus, S. robustus Maidencane Panicum hemitomon Spartina Spartina bakeri Pickerel weed, Pontederia landeolata, P. cordata Water lily, Nymphaea sp. Spatterdock, Nuphar sp. Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis Bladderwort, Utricularia sp. Needlerush, Juncus effusus Common reed, Phragmites communis (australis) Wet Prairies "These communities will have predominantly one or more of the following species: Maidencane Panicum hemitomon Cordgrasses, Spartina bakeri, S. patens Spikerushes, Eleocharis sp. Beak rushes, Rhynchospora sp. St. Johns wort, Hypericum sp. Spiderlily, Hymenocallis palmeri Swamplily, Crinum americanum

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 Yelloweyed grass, Xeris ambigua Whitetop sedge, Dichromena colorata 125 "A wetl ands classification scheme was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) primarily to help delineate the boundaries of wetlands subject to federal jurisdiction. Specifically a series of eight prelim inary guides to major regions of wetland communities and domi nant plant associations was produced to aid USACOE regulatory person nel to recognize the critical boundaries of wetlands subject to dredge and fill permit regulation under Section 404 of Public Law 92-500 (Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendment of 1972). "One particu l ar guidebook, Preliminary Guide to Wetlands of Peninsu lar Florida serves as a classification key for wetlands south of St. Augus t i ne. In addition to the key, each of eight wetland types (Saltwater Aquatic, Saltwater Coastal F l at, Saltwater Marsh, Sa ltwater Swamp, Freshwater Aquatic, Freshwater Flat, Freshwater Marsh and Freshwater Swamp) are dealt with in detail. A brief description of each of the four f reshwater wetlands follows: a. F reshwater aquatic "Wetlands that are usually dominated by free -floating or rooted aquatic her bs and are semi-permanently or permanently flooded by freshwater (e.g. floating duckweed mats). b. Freshwater flat "Wetlands that have 25% or less vegetative cover and are occa sionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., mudflats). c. Freshwater marsh "Wetlands that have more than 25% vegetative cover of herba ceous plants but 40% or less cover by woody plants that are occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., cattail marsh). d. Freshwater swamp "Wetlands that have more than 40% cover by woody plants and are occasionally or regular l y flooded by f r esh water (e.g., cypress swamps). In addition to a short general descr iption of each wetland based on vege tative cover and water regime the abundance and normal locat ions of the wetl and within the region described. Growth fo rms and physiognomy are descr i bed briefly and then shown pictorially in a simplified floristic p r ofile that contrasts the distribution of "typical" species (those which gener ally occur as dominants) and the distributions of "Transitional" species ( those generally associated with transition zones). "Associated" species (those which commonly occur but not in sufficient abundance to be con sidered domi nants) are also l isted (both scientific and common names) as well as descr i bed in their relat ionships with dominant species. Env i ronmental conditions, usually the characteristics of the substrate, hydro-period, water regime, and water p H are described in order t o highlight the cluster of conditions that are critical to the distribution of dominant species.

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126 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY APPENDIX C FLORIDA STATUTES C ON C ERNING WETLANDS (Taken from Brown, et al., 1983) "How Wetlands are Perceived in Florida Law "A marsh or a swamp which is not physically connected to a la k e or stream by even occasional overflow is treated as surface water in spite of its permanence" (Maloney 1 971, in Brown, et al., 1983). Therefore, it is common to see wetlands characte r ized as "surface water" i n the F l orida Statutes, which adm i nisters authority to the various agencies. It is not until such agencies mandate specific actions that the actual ter m of "wetlands" is used. Florida Statutes that Administer Wetland Authority Chapter 380T h e Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972 "Section 380. 0 12Purpose It is the intent that, in order to protect natural resources and environ ment of this state as provided in s. 7 Art. II of the State Constitution, insure a water managemen t system that will reverse the deterioration of water qual ity and provide optimum util ization of our l imited water resources, facilitate o r derly and wellplanned development, and protect the health welfare, safety, and quality of life of the residents of this state, it i s necessary adequately to plan for and guide growth and devel opment within this state. In order to accomplish these purposes, it is necessary that the state establish land and water management policies to gu i de and coordinate loca l decisions relating to growt h and develop ment; that s u ch state land and water management policies should, to the maximum possib l e extent be implemented by l oca l governments through exis t ing processes for the guidance o f growth and developmen t ; and that all the existing rights of private property be preserved in accord with t he constitut ions o f this state and of the United Stat es. Section 380.05-Areas of critical state concern ( 1) (a) The state land planning agency may from time to time recom mend to the Administration Commission specific areas of critical state concern. In its recommendation, the agency shall include recommendations with respect to the purchase of lands situated within the bounda ries of the proposed area as environmentally endangered lands and out door recreation lands under the Land Conservation Act o f 1972. The agency a l so shall include any repor t or recommendation of a resource planning and management committee appointed pursuant to s. 380.045; the dangers that would result from uncontrolled or inadequate develop ment of the area and the advantages that would be achieved from the development of the area in a coordina t ed man ner; a detailed bounda r y

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SPECIAL PUBLI C ATION NO 27 127 description of the proposed area; specific principles for guiding develop ment within the area; and an inventory of lands owned by the state, federal, county, and municipal governments within the proposed area. "(2) An area of critical state concern may be designated only for: "(a) An area containing, or having a significant impact upon, environ mental or natural resources or regional or statewide importance, including, but not limited to, state or federal parks forests, wild life refuges, wilderness areas, aquatic preserves major rivers and estuaries, state environmentally endangered lands Out standing Florida Waters, and aquifer recharge areas the uncon trolled private or pub lic development of which would cause sub stantial deterioration of such resources. Specific criteria which shall be considered in designating an area under this paragraph include: ''1. Whether the economic value of the area as determined by the type, variety, distribution, relati ve scarcity, and the condition of the envi ronmen tal or natural resources within the area. is of substantial regional or statewide importance. "2. Whether the ecological value of the area as determined by the physical and biological components of the environmental system, is of substantial regional or statewide importance. "3. Whether the area is a designated critical habitat of any state or federally designated threatened or endangered plant or animal species. "4. Whether the area is inherently susceptible to substantial develop ment due to its geographic location or natural aesthetics. 5. Whether any existing or planned substantial development within the area will directly, significantly, and deleteriously affect any or all of the environmental or natural resources of the area which are of regional or statewi de importance. "Chapter 259-land Conservation Action of 1972 Section 259.04-Powers and duties of "Board": Definition: "Board" means the governor and cabinet, s1tt1ng as the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund. [(259.03(4)]. "(1) For state cap i tal projects for environmentall y endangered lands: "(a) The board is given the responsibility, authority, and power to develop and execute a comprehensive plan to conserve and protect envi -ronmentally endangered lands in this state. This plan shall be kept current through continual reevaluation and revision "Chapter 763Local Government Comprehensive Plan Act of 1975 Section 763.3767-lntent and Purpose: ( 1) This act shall be known and may be cited as the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act of 1975." "(2) In conformity with, and in furtherance of, the purpose of the Flor i da Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972, chap ter 380, it is the purpose of this act to utilize and strengthen the existing

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128 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY role, processes, and powers of local governments in the establishment and implementation of comprehensive planning program to guide and control future development. "(3) It is the intent of this act that its adoption is necessary so that local governments can preserve and enhance present advantages; encourage the most appropriate use of land, water, and resources con sisten t w ith the public interest; overcome present handicaps; and deal effectively with future problems that may result from the use and devel opment of land within their jurisdictions. Through the process o f compre hensive p l anning, it is intended that units o f loca l government can pre serve promote, protect, and improve public health safety, comfort, good order appearance convenience, law enforcement and fire preven tion. and general welfare; prevent overcrowding of land and avoid undue concentration of population; f acilitate the adequate and efficient provi sion of transportation, water, sewage, schools, parks, rec r ea t ional facili t ies. housing and other requireme nts and services; and conserve, develop, utilize and protect natural resour ces within t heir jurisdiction. Section 163. 31 77 (7) and ( 8) -Required and Optional Elements o f Comprehensive Plan: "(7) Such other elements as may be peculiar to, and necessary for, t h e area concerned a n d as are added t o the comprehensive plan by the governing body upon the recommendat ion of the l oca l planning agenc y "(8 ) All elements o f the comprehensive plan whether mandatory o r optiona l, shall be based upon data appropriate to the element involved. "Chapter 581 Plant Industry Section 581. 185 Pr eservation of flora o f Florida: "(1) PROHIBITIONS; PERMITS : (a) With regard to any plant on the Endangered Plant List provided in subsection (2), it is unlawful for any person : 1 To willfully injure or destroy any such plant growing on the private land of another w ithout first obtaining the written permission of the owner of the land or his l egal representative "2. To w ill f ully injur e or destroy any such plan t growing on any public land or water without first obtaining the written permission of the superintendant or custodian of such land or water, and a permit from the department as provided in this section. 4 To willfully harvest. collec t pick, or remove three or more individ ual plants of a given species listed on the Endangered Plant List from any native habitat without first obt aining the written permission of the owner o f the l and or his l egal representative or, in the case of public land or water, the written permission of the superintendent or custodian of such land or water. and a perm i t from the department as provid ed in this section. "(2) ENDANGERED PLANT LIST: The following plants shall be included in the Endan g ered Plant List:

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 (a) Asimina pygmaea (pink pawpaw). ( b) Asimina tecramera (four petal pawpaw). (c) Asplenium auritum (aur i cled spleenwort) (fern ). ( d ) Blechnum occidentale (s i nkhole fern ). (e) Campyloneurum angustifolium (narrow swamp fern ). (f) Cassia keyensis (Key cassia). (g) Catesbaea parviflora (dune lily thorn) (hl Catopsis sp. (bromeliad). (i) Cereus gracilis (prickly apple cactus) (j) Cereus robinii ( t ree cactus). (k) Chionanthus pygmaeus (fringe tree or granny-graybeard). (I) Clusia rosea (balsam apple). (m) Coccothrinax argentata (silver palm). (n) Cucurbita okeechobeensis (Okeechobee gourd ) ( o ) Cupan i a glabra (cupania) (p) Cyrtopodium punctatum (cowhorn or cigar orchi d). (q) Dennstaedtia bipinnata (cuplet fern). 1 2 9 ( r) Encyclia boothiana ( Epidendrum boothi anum) ( dollar orchid). ( s) Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus) (t) Guaiacum sanctum (lignum v i tae) (u) Guzmania sp. (bromeliad) (v) lonopsis utricularioides (delicate i onopsis orchid ). (w) M agnolia ashei (Ashe magnolia). (x) M agnolia phyra m idata (pyramidal magnolia). (y) M axillaria crassifolia (orchid) (z) Ophioglossum palmattum (hand fern ). (aa) Pamassia grandifolia (grass -of-Parnassus ) ( bb ) Pofyrrh i za lindenii (ghost orchi d). (cc) Rhododendron austrinum (orange azalea ). (dd ) Rhododendron chapmanii (Chapman s rhododendron). (eel Ribes echineffum ( M iccosukee gooseberry ) (ff) Roystonea efa t a (Florida royal palm). (gg) Sarracenia feucophyffa and Sarracenia rubra (pitcher plants ). (hh) Scaevofa plumieri (scaevola). (ii) Strumpfia martima (p r ide o f big pine). (jj) Suriana maritima (bay cedar). (kk) Taxus floridana (Florida yew). (II) Tif/andsia fascicufata (wild pine bromeliad) (included because of very high harvest rate) (mm) Torreya taxi folia ( Florida torreya). (nn) Tournefort i a gnaphafodes ( sea lavender ). (ool Triffium lahcifolium ( trillium). (pp ) Zephyranthes simpsonii ( zephyr lily ). Chapter 403Environmental Control Section 403.021 declares that, "the public policy of the state i s to conserve the waters of the stat e to protect, maintain, and improve the

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130 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY quality thereof for public water supplies for the p r opagation of wildlife, fish and o t her aquat i c l i fe, and for domestic, agricultural. industria l rec reational a n d other beneficial uses. It also prohibits the discharge of waste into Florida waters without treatment necessary to protect those beneficial uses o f the water." Section 403.062 dea l s w ith pollution control; underground, surface, and coas tal waters. "The Department of Environmenta l Regulation and its agents shall have general control and supervision over underground water, lakes, rivers. streams canals ditches, and coasta l water under the juris d iction of the state in sofar as their pollut i on may affect the public health or impair the interest of the public or persons lawfully using them." "Chapter 373Fior i da Water Resources Act of 1972 Section 373.016 declares it to be the policy of the legislature: "(a) To provide for the management of water and rel ated land resources; "(b) To promote the conservation development, and proper utiliza tion of surface groundwater; "(d) To prevent damage from f l oods, soil erosion, and excessive drainage; "(e) To preserve n atural resources, fish and wildlife; "(g) Otherwise to promote the health, safety, and general welfare of the people of this state. It is t h e intent of the Legislature to vest in the Department of Environ mental Regulation or its successo r agency the power and responsibility to accomplish the conservation, protection, management, and contr o l of the waters of the state and with sufficient flexibility and discretion to accompl ish these ends through delegation of appropriate powers to t h e various water management distr icts "St. Johns River Water Management Districts: Chapter 40C4 -(Fi orida Administrative Code hereafter referred to as F.A.C.)-Management and Storage of Surface Water Chapter 40C 4 i s currently under exte n sive modification. It is recom mended that, upon adoption by the St. Johns River Water Management Board, Chapter 40C-4 be thor oughly reviewed by Seminole County Staff, and po l icy, goals and objectives, and ordinances made to conform. "Chapter 372-Game and Fresh Water Fish Section 372.072-Endangered and Threatened Species Act of 1977: "(2) Declaration of Policy-The Legisla t ure r ecognizes t ha t the State of Florida harbors a wide diversity of fish and wil dlife a nd t hat it is t h e policy of this state to conserve and wisely manage these resources, with particular attention to those species defined by the Game and Fresh

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 1 31 Water Fish Commission, the Department of N atural Resources or the U.S. Department o f Interior, or successor agencies, as being endangered or threatened. As Florida has more endangered and threatened species than any other continental state. it is the intent of the Legislature to p rovide for research and management to conserve and protect these species as a natural resource. "(4) Establishment of an Advisory Council(a) The director o f the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission shall establish an Endangered and Threatened Species Advisory Council consisting of 10 members. Case Law: The Graham v. Estuary Properties Inc. (Fla. 399 So. 2d 1374 ) decision in F l orida i s the most progressive dec i sion to date concerning the use of land use regulations as an effective means o f protecting wetlands via development control. Background: I n compliance w ith Florida Land and Water Management Act of 1972, Estuary Properties submitted an application for a development permit for their development of regiona l impact (DRI) to Lee County Board of County Commissioners. The permit was denied due to an 1800-acre black mangrove forest which would be destroyed and therefore cause an adverse environmental impact. The developers appeal to the Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission was denied. Estuary Properties contended that the Commission had improperly denied its application because the various impacts of the development had not been balanced nor had the Commission made suggestions concerning ways to correct the i nadequacies of the DRI. "The developers also attacked the Commission's denial of the permit as an unconstitutional taking because the owner's right to use his property had been violated. "Following denial by the Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory Com mission, the developer next turned to the Florida District Court o f Appeals (Estuary Properties v. Askew [Fla. App. 381 So. 2d 1126]). "In December 1979, the Florida District Court of Appeals ruled ( l ater to be overturned by the Florida Supreme Court ) that a government agency that denies an application for developmen t of regional impact in an environmentally sensitive area must prove that the project has an adverse affect on the environment and moreover, a local government cannot deny an own e r o f wetlands all reasonable use of property without paying compensation (Land Use Law and Zoning Digest, April 1980). The court r easoned that: benefits to the general public should not be borne by a few property owners, therefore the development permit could not be denied unless compensation was administered. "The case pinpoints the judicial uneas i ness over ad hoc regulations of

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132 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY part i cular geographic areas for the purpose of promotin g publ ic benefits but without recognition of the obligation to compensate the owner. The case underscores the need for government to establis h balanced man agement programs such as development r ights transfers or bonuses and in centives to guide growth away from heavi l y restricted areas to des i red areas rather than requiring a single owner to suffer the cost of providing community benefits (Land Use Law and Zon ing Digest, April 1980). "The constituti onal question which arose from Estuary Properties v. Askew of "a taking" versus a va l id exercise of the police power, with regard to the regulatio n of development in wetlands, was further rev iewed by the Florida Supreme Court in April of 1981 as Graham v Estuary Properties Inc. The Florida Supreme Court held that the permit denial in response to Estuary's DRI application was a valid exercise of the police power but the Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission must provide Estuary Properties with the changes which would make the development eligible for approval. Regarding ba l ancing of publ ic versus private interests (protecting public health, safety, and welfare versus protection of private property interests), the court found that the adverse environmental impact and deviation from the pol icies of the p l anning council cou l d outweigh other more favorable findings in deciding a devel opment approval. "The court also reasoned that: if the regulation preventing the destruction of the mangrove forest was necessary to avoid unreasonable pollution of the water thereby caus ing attendant ha r m to the public. the exercise of police power would be reasonable. Since t h e Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission found that the development would cause polluti on in the bays and effect the county' s economy, t h e court ruled that: "The regulation at issue here promotes the welfare of the public, pre vents public harm and has not been arbitrarily appl ied. "In discussing the reasonableness of the regulation the court also relies on the "magnitude of Estuary's proposed development and the sensit iv e nature of t h e surrounding lands and water to be affected by it. In this situation i t is not unreasonable to place some restr ictions on the owner's use of the property." Furthermore the court found that Estuary did not have leg itimate investmentbacked expectations for use of the property but only "its own subjective expectation that t he land cou ld be developed in the manner it now proposes." In answer to the taking issue the court sa id t hat "Estuary purchased the property in question ... with ful l knowledge that part of it was totally unsuitable for development." The court said that there was no evidence supporting t he claim that Estuary could make no beneficial use of the l and. "It seems that in the Estuary case the court d id not agree that the property was rendered worthless by the exerc i se of pol i ce power. In

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 133 addition it found that reduction of the development by half was a valid exercise of police power. "The owner of private property is not entitled to the highest and best use of his property if that use will create public harm." Further: "We ag ree with the Wisconsin Supreme Court's observation in Just v. Marinette County, 56 Wis. 2d7, 201 N.W. 2d 761 (1972). where that court pointed out the involvement of exceptional circumst ances because of the interrelationship of the wetlands, swamps and natural environment to the purity of the water and natural resources such as fishing. The court also noted the close proximity of land in question to navigable waters which the state holds in trust for the public. Similar factors are present in the case at bar. We agree with the Wisconsin court that (a)n owner of land has no absolute and unlimited right to change the essential natural character of his land so as to use it for a purpose for which it is unsuited in its natural state and which injures the right of others, 56 Wis. 2d at 17, 201 N .W. 2d at 768."

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134 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY APPENDIX D WATER QUALITY Water Quality Par amete r s Measured in Conjunction with Peatland Development ; Minne s ota North Carolina and Florida. Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Baseline Studies by Minnesota. ( Taken from Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981 ). acidity alkalinity aluminum ammonia arsenic boron cadmium calcium chem i cal oxygen demand chromium color copper dissolved oxygen fulvic acid humic acid iron lead magnesium manganese mercury nickel nitrate nitrite organic nitrogen pH selenium sodium specific conductivity suspended sediment temperature total nitrogen total phosphorous zinc Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Monitoring in Conjunction with a Peat Mining Operation, Departmen t of Environmental Regulation, State of Florida. Alkalinity Aluminum Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Color Copper Dissolved Ortho-Phosphate Dissolved Oxygen Iron Lead Mercury Nickel Ortho Phosphate pH Phenols Selenium Specific Conductance Temperature Total Dissolved Solids Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Total O r ganic Carbon Total Phosphorus Total Suspended Solids Turbidity Zinc

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 135 Wate r Quality Measurem ents Prepared for Was t ewater D ischarge Assessment Peat -toMethanol Plant Creswell, North Caro lina In situ: Dissolved Oxygen, Field (mg/l) pH, Fiel d (standard units) Sechi Depth ( m ) Spec i fic Conductance F iel d (u mhos / cm) Water Temperature (Cl Class icals: Alkalin ity, Total (mg / l as CaC03 ) Ammonia (mg/L-Nl Antimony (ug/Ll BOD (mg / l 20 day -20 deg Cl BOD (mg / l 3 day-20 deg Cl BOD (mg / L 30 day -20 deg Cl BOD (mg / l 40 day -20 deg Cl BOD ( mg / L, 50 day -20 deg Cl BOD ( 1 0 day mg!l) BOD (5 day mg/ll BOD, CARB. (mg/l, 10 day -20 deg Cl BOD CARB (mg / l 20 day -20 d eg Cl BOD, CARB. (mg / l 3 day-20 deg Cl BOD CARB (mg/ l 30 day -20 deg C l BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 40 day -20 deg Cl BOD CARB. (mg / l 5 day -20 deg C l BOD CARB (mg/ L 50 day -20 deg Cl Calcium Total (mg!ll Chloride (m g / l l Chlorophyll a (ug/l, corrected) Cobalt Color !CPU) Copper Total (ug!l) Cyanide (mg / l l Metals: Arsen ic, Total (ug/ L ) Chromium Total (ug / L ) Chromium, ( + 6) (ug/Ll D isso lved Reactive Sili ca Flouride (mg/Ll Hardness (mg /Ll Iron Total (ug /LO Lead Total (ug / L l Magnes ium, Total (mg / L ) Mercury, Total (ug!ll Nicke l (ug!ll NO , ( mg / L N ) N03 (mg/L N ) N03 NO (mg/L -Nl Ortho Phosphate, Disso l ved (mg / L as P l Phosph orus Total (mg/ L as P ) Silica Total (mg!l as S i O l Silver Tota l (ug!ll Sod ium, T otal (m g/l) Solids Dissolved ( mg /Ll Sol i ds, Total Suspended (mg /L) Sulfate (mg/Ll T Org N (mg / L -Nl Thiocyanate (mg/ L as SCN ) TKN (mg/ L N ) Turb idity ( NIU ) Zinc Total (ug /Ll Cadmium, Total (ug/l) Magnesium, Total (mg / L ) Selenium, Total (ug/Ll

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136 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY APPENDIX E PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STATE OF MINNESOTA Elements of a Management Program for the Peatlands (Taken from Asmussen, 1980) "Following legis lative review and response in 1981 the Minnesota Peat Program must create a long-term management program for the peatlands. Some of the elements of a program are already in place. for example, the leasing of horticultural peat. Shoul d the energy and other peatl and development proposals discussed above be realized, management concerns and responsibilities will multiply. "One important element in an on going program is a routine siteselection process. Criteria are being established for identifying peatland areas suitable for one or another type of utilization A list of possib l e site selection criteria is presented in Table 3, below. "Table 3. Peatland Utilization Site Selection Criteria 1 Peat quality and depth 2. Accessibility 3. Watershed configuration 4. Ownership pattern 5. Proximity to exist ing development 6. Ex.isting bog disturbance 7. Presence of unique features 8. Presence of conflicting uses or management status 9. Regional benefit of proposed development 1 0. Regional costs of proposed development Site selection p r ocesses must be complemented with the designation of management units. In Minnesota, management units w i ll be defined primarily by watershed boundaries because water flow and directi on are the most critical impact vectors in the peatland ecosystem. Management units might coi ncide with smaller watersheds. In larger watersheds it may be possible to site developments at the downstream part of the watershed, thereby limiting total watershed dist urbance. "The mechanism for allocating peatland to various utilizations has been and will probab l y continue to be, leasing The state of Minnesota owns or manages over 50 percent of the peatland in the state and about 70 percent of the peat in northern Minnesota considered most suitable fer energy developments. Traditionally, the Department of Natural Resources has leased areas of peat for horticultural and agricultural uses and is likely to use this mechanism for energy u ti lization should it occur. "The lease is more than a simple covenant between owner and lessee

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 1 3 7 It spec i fies the f i nan ci a l term s o f the right t o use land (rents and royal ties) as well as minimum produ ction le v el s r e q uired. In addition, a lease may stipulate r eclamation staging and type a n d requi rements to monitor a peat mining or proce ssing v e n ture. Thus, t he lease is a compl ex man agement tool. "Other managem e n t e l ements include environmental review proce dures and permitting processes These a re shared by responsible agen cies, in Minnesota : the Depa rtmen t o f Natu ral R esources, Pollution Control the M innesota Energy Age n c y and the Env iron m ental Qual i t y Board Between them are admin is t ered water withdrawal and drainage permits air quality perm its, certi f icates of need for energy proposals and environmenta l impact s tatements. From the above elements a co m preh e n s ive management program tor Minnesota peatland s can emerg e. T hrough p roper site selection proce dures it should be possible to allocate peat la n d u ses t o avoid resource conflicts, areas o f environmenta l sensiti v ity, and unnecessary social and economic costs. A ca r eful leasing p r ocess should assure a fair return to the state tor making t h e res ource ava il a ble to the private sector and insure that the l and is r eturne d, or r e clai m ed, to a useful condition Per mits and environm e ntal rev iew p rocedures a r e the final safeguard against deve l opments i nimical to the environment." PEATLANDS MANAGEMEN T P ROVINC E OF NEW B R UNSWICK ( F ro m K eys, 1 9 80) Ownership o f P e a t l ands Peat is classified as a surficial d e po si t i n N e w Bruns wick under the provi s i on of the Quarriab l e Sub stanc e Act. A s such, o w nership of the deposits rests w ith the land owne r However, few peatlands were included in the or i g i na l appli cat ions for land grants. Hence ownership of an esti mated 80 percen t o f New Brunsw ic k peatlands rema ins with the province under the admi n istration o f t h e Department of Natural Resources. ''The t welve companies pre sently producin g h o rticultur a l peat p r od ucts in New Brun swic k lease all o r parts of their production areas from the provi nce. An a c r e age renta l an d a roy a l t y on production is pa i d annu ally The regulat i ons govern in g leasing of peatlands were recent l y rev i sed to ensure optimum management of the r e sou r ce (3 ) The objectives of the l easing policy are to maximize the contri bu tion o f the resource to t he economic development of the province and to h a v e d ev el o p m ent in a manner which does not jeopard ize f u ture utilization or rehabilita t ion of the peatlands To obtain a pe a t productio n lease, i t is first necessary to obtain a peatland explorat i o n lic ense T his license effectively reserves an area of 800 hecta r es (2 ,000 acres) to allow the applican t s ufficient time to ascertain that the quality and amount of peat in the prop ose d lease is suitabl e for the intended use. Th e e xploratio n l i cense is renewable annu-

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138 B U R EAU OF G E O L OGY ally to a maximum of three years provided all requirements are met. Approval of a peatland exploration license is granted only if the applicant: has no other l i cense in effect; can demonstrate the proposed develop ment will not adverse l y affect the future availabi lity of peat for an exist, ing leaseholder; and can market the product without jeopardizing the existing industry in the province. "After determining the portion of the exploration area bes t suited for the proposed use, the applicant may then apply for a peat lease of 250 hectares (620 acres). This application must include a drainage plan, a harvesting and future expansion p l an and an abandonment plan. If al l requirements are met a lease can be granted for a period of ten years Renewal for further ten year pe riods is possible if certain minimum pro duction requirements and other conditions are met. A security deposit to ensure compli ance with production and abandonment plans is requi r ed. "The s i ze and term of leases is designed to avoid the holding and under-utilization of large tracts of peatlands for extended periods. How ever, to ensure the opportunity for expansion, the holder of a lease may negotiate a time limited option on an adjacent buffer zone." PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STA T E OF NORTH CAROLINA (Recommendations prepared by the Peat M ining Task Force, Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, State of North Carolina, January 1983) "The DNRCD Peat M ining Task Force has completed its review of the department's permitting procedures for peat mining. It has also reviewed its own 1981 recommendations, updating them as necessary. In the recommendations be low, whenever a 1981 recommendation has been updated or repeated, it is so noted and major changes are explained. The task force considered the issues of peat use and has recons i dered the overa l l impacts of peat mining. From this effort have come the conclu sions and recommenda tions in this report. Specific recommendations follow. 1. Existing Permits "The review of the f i ve existing mining per m its for peat mines has led the task force to conclude that all five of them should be r evised to inc l ude the recommendations in this report. The three existing peat mines which do not have NPDES, air qua l ity, and water use permits should be required to apply immediately for these pe rmits. The Division of Land Resources, in coordination with the Division of Environmental Management, should immediatel y notify permit ho lders of this determi nation. In the case of these three, the revision of the mining per mit an d the appl ications for the three DEM permits should be treated as a pack age and publi c meetings held In addition to the mining permit revision, the other two mines (PEATCO and Whitetail) should have thei r water and air permits revised to reflect the contents of Table Ill.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION N O. 27 139 2. Role of Mining Permit "The mining permit should be the department' s primary management tool for peat mining. The four principal state permits required for peat mining -the mining permit, NPDES permit, air quality permit, and water use permit-should be processed as a package. "A public scoping meeting should be held on each package where there is significant public interest to identify the specific issues to be addressed in the permit applications and supporting information. A coor dinated public hearing should be held on these draft permits i n each package before they are issued. "The laws requiring these permits allow the State to require submis sion of detailed analyses of environmental impacts as part of the permit applications and this should be required in all cases. While the informa tion submittal need not be in the same format as a formal environmental impact statement, it should be detailed and complete enough to provide the department with sufficient information to assess the impacts of the proposed project prior to a permit decision. A standard set of information requirements for this analysis should be prepared by the Division of Land Resources in c l ose coordination with all other affected divi sion, and sup pl i ed to applicants early in preapp lication counseling. "Under the Mining Act of 1971, the significant impacts of peat mining can be addressed by a mining permit. Table Ill (in Chapter IV) identifies these issues and specifies which permits cover them directly and indi rectly. The requirements of the other permits can and should be incorpo rated into the mining permit, strengthening its umbrella or coordinating role "Treating the four permits for a peat mine as a package wil l ensure that all significant impacts will be addressed in a timely and consistent man ner. It will also increase the predictability of the permitting schedule The most efficient possible use of specia li zed resources in all for example, DEM's water quality expertise is needed to adv i se Land Resources on specific water quality issues and conditions which must be hand l ed in the mining permit. Different statutory timetables for vari ous permits and the variations with individua l projects may make complete coordination impossible. Natural Resources Plann ing and Assessment, on behalf of the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources, should prepare a detailed flow chart of permit hearing, meeting, and decision deadlines for each proposed peat mine operation. The department's existing peat permit application review group can extend its function to review the four permit package with little change of membership. "The package concept will also enhance the opportunities for publ i c involvement in the permitting process for peat mines. Shortly after appli cations for a peat mine are received a public scoping meeting may be convened by the department to discuss the questions and issues which should be addressed in reviewing permit applications. The scoping meet ing, which is not required by statute, represents an innovation for dea l ing

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140 BUREAU OF GEO LOGY routinely with permits in this department. In final review stages, the package of draft permits should be the subject of a public hearing to receive comments on the draft. The public hearing on a draft permi t is. already done for some OEM permits, and the 1981 amendments to the Mining Act provi de for a public hearing on any new mining application when signi fi can t revi sions of exis t ing m inin g permits wher e there is sig nificant public interest. "The task force recommends that the Division of land Resources with the Division of Environmental Management's assistance prepare packets of application materials and information, a NPDES permit appli cation, an air quality permit application, a water use permit app lication, a list of contacts on permitting matters, and a copy of this report. The task force does not recommend the development of any new combined appli cation. "Use of the mining permit as the state's primary management tool for peat mining requires that additional information be included in mining permits. Table t:l (in Chapter IV) enumerates the issues related to peat mining and specifies which permit covers each issue. Each issue which can be addressed by the Mining Act should be includ ed in a mining permit for peat. "Inasmuch as is possible, permits from other departments and permits for peat use activities should be included in this comprehensive review recommended for the mining and related permits. 3. Impacts of Peat Use Each proposed facility which will use peat should be carefully studied on its own merits. These facilities, by their highly specialized nature, are expected to have process -specific and site -specific impacts. For exam ple, in addition to DNRCD permit requirements, any electric generating plants will be closely controlled under North Carolina's util ities laws, and the proposed methanol p lant is sub ject to the special stipulations of the federal Energy Security Act. Other uses, such as ind ustria l process heat, are not so obviously covered. "All uses of peat, except horticultural peat, will probably involve facili t ies which require NPDES, air, and water use permits. The task force expects that these permits will cover the most serious impacts of such facilities. The immediate site related impacts of peat transportation from m ines to users should be covered under comprehensive mining permits. "In the specific case of Peat Methanol Associates' proposed m ethanol p l ant, the task force found no impacts which could not be cover ed by eithe r these permits or by the comprehensive mining permit to be applied to the mine supplying peat for the plant. The special environmental moni toring plans required under the federal Energy Security Act for this pro ject should be specif ically incorporate d into the related mining permit. These data will provide critical additional information rega rding impacts of peat mining and use. "The task force recommends that DNRCD continue to track closely

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 141 the development of peat-using facilities and to re-consider their impacts as more experience is gained. 4. General Policy on the Siting of Peat Mines "The task force recommends a four part general policy on the siting of peat mines: ( 1 .) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued for stream valley deposits which directly contribute organic matter to estuarine ecosys tems and for floodplain peat deposits a long major rivers. (2.) (2 ) "Permits for peat mining in areas where the bottom of the peat deposit l ies at or below sea level should not be issued unless and until adequate environmental safeguards are developed. (3.) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued on state park s and state-owned state gamelands, and no leases for peat mining on any state-owned lands should be issued w ithout a ful l review of the environmental impacts. (4.) "Mining in the rest of the peat deposits should be permitted under careful monitoring. "This basic recommendation is repeated from the 1 981 task force report. In the interim no mining permits have been issued which are not in accord with the recommendation, even though DNRCD has officially promulgated only the state parks portion of part (3). Careful mining with close monitoring has been the p rincipl e followed in issuing all five permits now in effect. "The permit for Whitetail Farms, at least on the northern half of the tract, is the only example thus far of a permit falling under part (2). not issuing permits pending adequate environmental safeguards. The Whitetail Farms m ining permit incorporates several safeguards which the peat mining permit application review group found to satisfy the requirement for "adequate environmental safeguards". In order to mine peat in a deposit which partly extends below sea level, Whitetail Farms is required to, among other things, m ine no lower than an e .levation of one foot above mean sea level direct all surface drainage from the part of the tract outside the Boundary Canal, build and maintain a dike reach ing eight feet elevation above mean sea level around the area in which the post-mining elevation will be between one and eight feet, install flood gates, and maintain a 300-foot wide buffer between the waterway and the mine. "These extensive measures should be taken as an example rather than a general policy statement. The principa l concern addressed i n part (2) is what type of reclamation is feasib l e and should be permitted where the peat deposits extend below sea level. If mining is s topped above sea level, deep organic soils may be left which make some types of reclama tion very difficult to implement. If mining extends below sea level, issues of wet reclamation and perpetual pumping are raised. The Whitetail

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142 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Farms mine does not involve either of the special issues -wet reclama tion or perpetual pumping -which are addressed below. These special issues will require expert consideration beyond the scope of this report or of previous mining permit actions. In any event, the reclamation ques tions presented by mining in such areas warrant the detailed attention called for in part (2). "The State can implement all four parts of this general policy on siting peat mines under the Mining Act on grounds of "unduly adverse" effects on freshwater, estuarine or marine fisheries. General Statute 113-230 may also permit the secretary to designate buffer zones to protect estuarine resources. The most noticeable effect of this recommendation, par ticularly part (2). would be to create a buffer zone for peat mining along both sho r es of the Alligator River in Dare, Hyde and T yrrell counties. Implementation of part (2) shou ld be rel ated closely to implementation of several recommendations of the Governor's Coastal Water Management Task Force. The resources inventory and mapping effort recommended there will be most useful in future peat deliberations. "This recommendation does not specifically address questions related to peat mining on federal lands in North Carolina. Most of the land in national wildlife refuges and in the bombing range in Dare County would fall under part (2). However, the larg e peat deposits in the Croatan National Forest would not. The task f orce recommends that coordination should be initiated with federal agencies concerning peat mining on fed eral lands, and that special attention be given to any changes proposed in the Croatan National Forest management plan. The pocosin in the Great Lake area of the national forest has been relatively undisturbed and the area may be a prime candidate for preservation as a natural area. "The task force has not specifically addressed the questionof mining peat in Carolina bays. As the recommendation is worded, Carolina bays would fall in part (4) and mining would be permitted. It seems unli k e l y that large scale mining will occur in Carolina bays because of the relatively small amount of peat in any one bay However, a ready market for peat to fuel power plants could put pressure on the bays due to their proximity to power plants. The task force suggests that the Carolina bays be included in those areas for which mining permits not be issued pending the completion of an ecological inventory of them as natural areas and the development of a protecti on and conservation plan for Carolina bays. 5. Need for Long-Range Policy on Peat M ining and Its Cumulative Impacts "DNRCD should develop a long-range policy on the ultimate extent of peat mining which will be allowed and on the total land area which can be disturbed at any given time. The issues of impacts on wildlife and primary nursery areas should receive special attention in this respect. This policy should be developed for the Secretary's consideration by the Department's peat w o rk ing group, working under the d i rection of the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 143 "A policy on the ultimate extent of peat mining w i ll resu lt, in large part, from DNRCD's implementation of the preceding recommendation in areas su i table for mining. Details e .g., the width of buffer zones along estuaries or the precise nature of environmental safeguards deve loped for m ining a111d reclamation in low lying areas -of this implementation and of permitting decisions will shape the u ltimate boundaries of the parts of peat deposits which may be mined. The other major DNRCD action which will influence the ultimate extent of peat mining will be the preservation or protection of natural areas and special wildlife populations. "The task force discussed the concept that limits should be placed on the total acreage actuall y disturbed by all active peat mines at any given time, but the task force did not find that sufficient information yet exists to provide the basis for a sound standard requiring this. Since aggregated disturbed area would most likely express its cumulative impacts most quickl y in particulate air pollution, o r perhaps eventually groundwater impacts, the task force concluded that air quality standards would oper ate to limit additional mining. This woul d happen, the task force pro jected, before other impacts create problems. However, the regular eval uation of monitoring results should endeavor to detect effects which contradict this conclusion. The Mining Act's provisions can be invoked to revise or revoke existing mining permits should unsatisfactory cumula tive effects be detected. "A specific long -term strategy is needed to ensure development com patible with the survival of wildlife. It should embody two distinct approaches: ( 1) identification and preservation of c ritical natural areas and (2) establishment of wildlife habitat by conditions imposed on mining and reclamation. There are areas in the peatlands which shou l d be left entirely in thei r natural state. These areas shoul d be identifi ed as quickly as poss i b l e, and a program to ensure the preservation of these areas shou l d be developed. State policy towards black bear habitat, in particula r cou l d greatly affect the extent of peat mining. The task force recommends that the Division of Parks and Recreation be directed to move as soon as possible to convert the recently completed natura l areas inventories in most of the peatl ands counties into a specific program for preservation o r conserva tion. Also, as a comprehensive wildlife protection program will necessar ily involve some land acquisition, the Division of Parks and Recreation and the Wildlife Resources Commission should be directed to prepare specific a lternati ves in this re gard, including identification of areas needed to be protected, prio r ities for acquisition, and mechanisms for acquisition. Particular attention should be g i ven to a lternatives such as donations, tax incentives, fee purchase and conservation easements. In close coordination with this review, the D i vision of Land Resources should be directed to review and establish a c l ear policy on the possible requirement, as a mining permit condition, to leave part of the a rea cov ered by a mining pe rmit in its natural state if needed to prevent undue

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144 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY adverse effects on wildlife. This specific alternative should be considered by the Division of L and Resources during the process ing of each mining permit. "Specific standards and permit conditions are n eeded for the estab lishment of w il dl i fe habitat as a requi r ed part of all reclamation p la ns. A mechanism should be implemented by the Division of Land Resources to ensure that t h ese wildlife mitigation measures continue on reclaimed land after reclamatio n is formally completed, even if ownership changes. Conservation easements may well be the most promising approach for general application. "Wildlife i s not amenab le to monitor ing standards as permit condit i ons. A modest wildlife resea rch effort sho u ld be instituted, the financial cooperation of the m in e operators shou l d be encouraged, and mitigation of impacts on wildli fe in c luded both in permit conditions and research efforts. T he recommendations of t he Governor's Coastal Water Management Tas k Force for the protection of nurse ry areas should be extended to incl ude the impacts of peat mining, and the recommendations should be implemen t ed as soo n as possible. Mining permit and NPDES permit con ditions should be used to protect nursery areas by means of monitor ing, control structures, buffer strips, and limits on the local and ultimate extent of mining. Reclamatio n plans should be des i gned to p romote the long -term protecti on of nursery areas and other estuarine resources. The advice of t h e Division of M ar in e F isher ies should be sought in formulating these permit conditions. "This recomme ndation reflects the task force's view that the overall, long -term impacts of m i ning peat in North Carolina will be greatly influ enced by the impacts of the reclamation activities that follow mining. The Mining Act of 1 971 recogn izes the importance of careful reclama tion and allows the mining permit to be conditioned upon state acceptance of reclamation plans and procedures to avo i d and minimize recla mation problems. Its reclamati o n provisions are adequate to ensure that rec lamation will include appropriate measu res to prevent or reduce these impacts. "The .>arne measures recommended for w i ld life can also be used to ma intain the long-term preventive measures necessary for protecti on o f primary nursery areas. An example of this is the use of conservation easements to protect forested buffer strips installed to fulfill mining per mit conditions. Similarly, estuarine buffer strips to protect nursery areas' water quality could come unde r a conservation easement. Other approaches also need to be investigated and when appropriate, imple mented. The D i visio n of Land Resources should receive the acti ve coop eration of the Division of Marine Fisheries in identifying key nursery a r eas, assessing the impacts of individua l project proposals and mitigation p l ans, and setting priorities for actions necessary to protect these vital areas.

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SPEC IAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 145 6. Completion of Reclamation "The acceptance of mined -out land as reclaimed shoul d be done on a case by-case basis. Each permit is likely to have many site-specific aspects in its reclamation p l an. This specificity has led the task force to change its 1981 recommendation to incorporate a general policy on rec lamation release in the mining regulations. The task force is confident that the permitting process. review procedures, and monitoring reviews will supply adequate information to support case by-case decisions on the release from reclamation bonds. The Division of Land Resources should, however, continue to monitor c l osely this question and, if it appears that general policies on reclamation completion can be formu lated, present appropriate recommendations to the Mining Commission. The particular issue of the release of part of a tract on a single mining permit as reclaimed while mining continues on other portions is difficult, but the task force concl uded that case -bycase consideration is the best way to resolve it. Monitoring results on existing mines shoul d eventually allow a sound decision on the best patterns-e.g. checkerboard, long strips, whole-area -fallow peat mining, and reclaimed areas to minimize environmental impacts. 7. Expansion of Capacity Use Area "Capacity Use Area #1, which covers the existing permitted areas for mining, should now be extended eastwards by the Environmental Management Commission to include the rest of Tyrrell, Hyde, and mainl and Dare counties as well as Roanoke Island. This action is necessary to ensure that the provisions of this law, particularl y its water use permit requirement fully app l y to all future mining proposals. Expansion of Capacity Use Area #1 should be considered if mining is proposed south or west of its present extent. "The water use permit, under the Water Use Act of 1971, is the Department's primary means of controlling dewatering and excavation activities in capacity use areas. It is the bas i s for the requirement of monitoring freshwater discharge volumes from peat mines. Until NPDES and groundwater regulations are revised to include volume controls and reporting requirements, the capacity use concept remains important. As groundwater classifications and standards are completed by the Division of Environmenta l Management, they should be incorporated in the peat mine permit package. "Development of nutrient and salinity standards should continue by the Division of Environmental Management, with active consultation with the Division of Marine Fisheries and the Office of Coastal Manage ment. The task force, however, is aware of the difficulties in developing workable salinity standards and urges that in the interim preventive mea sures such as outlet location and water control measures be fully imple mented as part of the mining permit conditions.

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1 4 6 BUREAU OF GEO LO GY 8. On -Site and Reg i onal Monitoring Systems Since the Mining Act addresses the full range of peat mining impacts, the Division of Land Resources should apply its provisions to require monitoring of the full range of impacts. These expanded requirements shou l d be incorporated as conditions on the mining permit. Also, the Division of Environmental Management should continue to expand its ambient air surface water, and groundwater monitoring system in the peat mining region "Incorporation of surface water, a i r and groundwater monitoring requirements in conditi on s of mining perm i t s does not diminish the pri mary role of the Division of Environmental Management in setting these requiremen t s and in ana l yzing the results. An advantage of the package approach to permi t s for peat mines i s that monitoring can be f ully coordi nated among the concerned agencies. The peat permit application review group should play a central role in this coordination. "As soon as the results of Skaggs and Gregory' s peat hydrology pro je c t ( See Tab l e I ) are ava i lab l e they should be thoroughly evaluated by the Department and where appropriate, incorporated in monitoring requirements. The surface and groundwater hydrology model developed by Skaggs and Broadhead may allow a predictive capability sound enough to r ela x some monitoring requi r ements. Even so, several years of very detailed monitoring results will be needed to verify the model. Fur ther effort will be needed to expand the model for general applicability since it is presently rather s ite-speci f i c for the 15,000 acre F irst Colony Farms site. Since the task force s 1981 report, mercury in drainage water from peat mines has arisen as a major concern In preparing their applications and analysis, P M A found mercury levels exceeding state standards in the wat ers receiving drainage from the F irst Co lony F a rms peat mine and PMA reported their data to the state. Questions have arisen about the sampling and analytical methodology which produced these values and a new sampling series has been proposed PMA has not yet appl i ed for nor received an NPDES perm i t for the First Colony Farms mine. The mercury issue reemphasizes the need to require an NPDES permit for each peat mine. The department should require detailed analysis of mercury issue as part of each peat mining permit and N PDES permit appl i cation. A ll m ining permits should require monitoring on -site and in receiving w aters by the mine operator. Laborato r y and fiel d experiments should be initiated by the Division of Environmental M anagement assisted by N C State University, to identify the chemical species of mercury present mechanism of release and transport mechanisms of mercury. These experiments should be supplemented with further and continuous biological monitoring by the Division of Environmental Man agement and M arine Fisheries. Finally, the Division o f Environmenta l M anagement s h ould resea r ch to de v elop any neede d w ate r treatment standards for mine drain water.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 147 The results of these efforts should be carefully evaluated by the state. If the resulting data show that mercury is not actually a problem in t he region some of the efforts can be terminated and the issue referred to the Division of Environmental Management for resolution for permitting questions which remain. 9. Evaluation of Monitoring Results Monitoring results from peat mines should be reported at least quar terly by the Division of land Resources in cooperation with the Division of Environmental Management. It is crucial to identity unacceptable trends as soon as possible, in order to incorporate remedial actions into the permitting process Evaluation of monitoring results will be especially critica l when monitoring is required in a mining permi t for substance or variab l es for which there are no presently estab l ished water quality stan dards. "Although the Department already has in house experts in a large number of disciplines which may be involved in peat evaluation, it is likely that some outside expertise may be needed to assist in evaluating monitoring results and to verify trends. The Assistant Secretary for Natu ral Resources should be charged with assuring that the requisite intrade partmen t al and outside exper t review are secured in a timely fashion "In addition to these technica l monitorin g reports, the D ivision of Land Resources in consultation with other divisions, should be directed to prepare an annual report on environmental changes in the peat mining region. This report should include a description of the year's activity in peat mining monitoring, use and research. It should also include the evaluations of the monitoring results for the year. The report should also include an evaluation of the effectiveness of departmental policies on peat mining and use. 10. Departmen t al Evaluation Plan "A DNRCD evaluation plan on the overall environmental impacts o f peat mining and t he control of these impacts should be developed as soon as possible. "The Department has sponsored or had access to a number of peat research projects, (See Table 1), but these have for the most part been aimed at major, generalized issues rather than at the specific issues. The mercury resea r ch effort rep r esents the first of the highly focused studies that may increasingly be needed. Other s w ill be needed as questions arise from monitoring resul t s and other observations. The peat mining working group should provide the Assistant Secretary f or Natural Resources with an overall research evaluation plan which gives priorities for research projects to address specific identif ied issues. Such a plan would allow the most efficient allocation of effort and funds, and it would minimize delays in allocating resear ch funds which often become available at very short notice, such as the Coastal Energy Impact program (CEIP) which is administered by the Office of Coas tal M anagement. "CEIP has funded most of the department's r ec en t and current

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148 B UR E A U O F GEOL OGY r esearc h on peat i mpacts, but CEIP's future funding is in doubt due to federa l cutbacks. Shou l d OCS revenue shari n g pass Congress it is likely that CEIP will be able to fund a significant portion of future research "The task force believes that the most urgent detailed research needs now apparent are: sources and mechanisms of mercury rel ease in t o drainage water; de li neation of the specific areas where peat mining shou l d be prohibited; development of improved water control techniques; deve lopment of improved reclamation schemes; impacts of wet reclamation; l ega l and institution a l i ssues of perpetual pumping; i mpacts of perpe t ual pumping; cumul ative impacts of multiple min ing activities. "Research efforts outside DNRCD should be closely followed, and interagency coope r ation should be sought. Peat -rel ated issues have been the focus of a recently intensified research effort by several federa l agen cies and o ther states (Minnesota, in particula r). A continuing, l ong -term effort to s t ay informed of their efforts, and to communicate our results to them, is recomme n ded. 1 1. A dditional Resou r ces Needed to Carry Out State Responsibility "The Depa rtment will e x perience significant costs for regional monitorin g, r esearch, supervising on-site monitoring by permit h olders, evalu atin g monitoring r esults, and the development of adequate environment a l safeguards. Funds to pay these costs shou l d be soug ht. "Possi ble sources of these funds a r e permit fees, leg i slative appropria tions, f ederal g r ants, severance taxes. and voluntary contributions from p eat min e operators. "In addition t o in creased costs, DNRCD's responsibilities towards peat m ini n g may impose significantly increased work loads and personnel r equi r ements. These may create problems in the regional DNRCD field offices w h ich deal with peat mines; this particularly applies to the Wash ington office. These needs should be carefully reviewed by the appropri ate divis i ons and action taken prior to major crises ar i sing. 12. Technica l Advisory Assist ance "DN RCD w i ll soon face t echnical issues related to peat mining and use which will require the advice of outside experts. The evaluation of moni t o r ing results and t h e resol ution of the questions of wet reclamation and per p etua l pumping are two such matters. T h e Assistant Secretary for Natur a l Resources s h ould be c h arged with oversight in securing the nec ess a r y outs i de technica l e xperti se. It is anti ci p ated that t h is expe rtise can be secu r ed on o ur ad hoc basis f rom universities, industr y, fede r a l agen ci e s and stat e agencies outside D N RCD. In the future, advisory commit t ees or consu lting services may be needed. 13. Link to State Energy Policy Council and Department of Commerce The s t ate Energy Policy Council should be informed on peat mining

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 149 impacts and urged to consider them in regard to developments which would stimulate or direct peat mining. "DNRCD can directly control essentially all of the impacts of peat mining and most of the impacts of peat use, but DNRCD cannot unilater ally develop a state policy on peat in general. Although the Council of State and the Cabinet would ultimately develop such a general policy, the Energy Policy Council would likely be the initial interdepartmental forum for d iscussions leading to a draft policy. Since energy needs and eco nomics usually drive the development of energy-related policies, it is important that DNRCD use every appropriate opportunity in the council to inform other agencies of the status of permitting and regulatory issues "DNRCD and the Department of Commer ce s h ou ld also cooperate closely on the siting of peat-using industrial fa cilities. "During the past thirty-months, Commerce's Industrial Development Division has worked very closely with DNRCD on the Peat Methanol Associates project. This cooperation has apparently been satisfactory to both departments and to the developer. It should serve as the model for future cooperation, and such cooperation should become a matter of routine. 14. Public Information and Educat ion Program on Peat "A public information and education program on peat mining and impacts should be developed and carried out. "This program should be designed to reach the general public, the public schools, landowners in the peat region, and potential r esea r c her s. A va riety of approaches may be needed. The industry should be invol ved in this effort. The Office of Natural Resource Planning and Assessmen t with assis t ance from the Division of Land Resources, should be assigned responsibility by the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resourc es for devel oping and implementing the public information and education prog r am for peat. 15. Need for Permanent DNRCD Peat Working Group A peat working group will continue to be needed within the depart ment to assure full coordination among divisions on permitting, monitoring, research, and policy development. A peat working group, appointed by the Assistant Secretary for Natu ral Resources and staffed by the Division of land Resources, could serve a signi ficant portion of this work, as it is already established and designed to handle intra-department coordination regarding the mining permit. Strong coordination will be even more urgently needed in the fu t ure. both to assure incorporation of other divisions' e xpertise in the mining permit and to assure a coordinated permit package. Coordination is needed beyond permitting issues per se. however. Monitoring and research coordination should be closely related to permi tting needs. but the involvement of other issues may well necessitate the involvement of personnel beyond the Land Resources peat working group. In these

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150 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY areas as well as the overall policy development and coordination area, the central coordinating role should be played by the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources with such supporting service from the divisions as is deemed appropriate. 16. Recommended Approach to Resolve Issues of Wet Reclamation and Perpetual Pumping "DNRCD, through the peat working group, with appropriate outside advice and expertise, should scope the issues which should be addressed in any permit applications for a peat mine which involve either wet reclamation or perpetual pumping. These are very important emerg ing issues which need to be addressed now, so that appropriate research and policy development can take place prior to review of individual permit applications The list of issues, or questions, thus produced would have to be addressed in the permit applications. Site-specific solutions to these problems would then be addressed in the individual permit applica tions and reviews. "Wet reclamation" includes all forms of reclamation which perma nently or periodically put the reclaimed area under either fresh or saltwa ter. Such uses as paddy culture, reversion to swamp forest or pocosin, reservoirs, aquaculture of fish or shell fish, artifically created nursery areas waterfowl impoundments, marinas, and recreational lakes would fall in this category. None of these has yet appeared on a mining permit application but they may do so as soon as 1 983. "Perpetual pumping" applies to any reclamation schemes which will require constant pumping to maintain land dry enough for productive use Intensive agriculture is apparently the only reclamation use which can financially justify the cost of pumping. In addition to hydrological questions, perpetual pumping raises many legal and institutional ques tions which must be resolved before a permit should be issued which involves perpetual pumping. "The approach suggested in this recommendation is fully consistent with the general permit package processing procedure recommended above The only difference comes from having advance scoping done prior to permit applications

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 151 APPENDIX F 1984 SUPPLEMENT TO FLORIDA STATUTES 1983 403.265 Peat m ining; permitting (1) Definitions-As used in this section, the term: (a) "Agricultural use o f peat" means the use of peat as a soil medium, add itive, enhancer or fertilizer. (b) "Peat" means a dark brown or black residuum produced by the partial decomposition and disintegration of mosses, sedges, trees, and other plants that grow in marshes and other wet places. (c) "Peat mining activity" means the extraction of peat or peat soils for sale or consumption or the disturbance of vegetation or soils in anticipation of the extraction of peat or peat soils for sa l e or consump tion. For the purposes of this part, the term "peat mining activity" does not include the removal of peat or peat soils for construction activities or the removal of overburden for other mining activities. (d) "Peat soi l means soil which contains at least 75 percent dry weight of peat mineral. Such soi l is rich in humus and gives an acid reaction. (2) Each department permit which authorizes the mining of peat or peat soils or any mining activity associated with the anticipation of the extration of peat or peat soils for sale or consumption shall require the permittee to institute and complete a reclamation program for the area mined, which program must include the following factors: (a) Control of the physical and chemical quality of the water draining from the mining area; (b) Soil stabilization, including contouring and vegetation; (c) Elimination o f health and safety hazards; (d) Conservation and preservation of remaining natural resources; and (e) A time schedule for the completion of the program and the various phases thereof. (3 ) The department may adopt rules which are consistent with the powers and duties listed in s. 403.912 to govern the mining of peat, including stricter permitting and enforcement provisions for the mining for sale or consumption of peat or peat soils within or contiguous to the areas which have been designated as Outstanding Florida Waters or which were under consideration by the Environmental Regulation Com mission for such designation on April 1 1 984. (4) The mining of peat or peat soils of less than 5 acres per year, and all peat mining activities for the agricultura l use of peat, are exempt from the provisions of this section. (5) Nothing in this section limits the permitting authority of the depart ment to regulate peat mining pursuant to other provisions of this chapter.




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


particular geographic areas for the purpose of promoting public benefits
but without recognition of the obligation to compensate the owner. The
case underscores the need for government to establish balanced man-
agement programs-such as development rights transfers or bonuses
and incentives to guide growth away from heavily restricted areas to
desired areas-rather than requiring a single owner to suffer the cost of
providing community benefits (Land Use Law and Zoning Digest, April
1980).
"The constitutional question which arose from Estuary Properties v.
Askew of "a taking" versus a valid exercise of the police power, with
regard to the regulation of development in wetlands, was further
reviewed by the Florida Supreme Court in April of 1981 as Graham v.
Estuary Properties, Inc. The Florida Supreme Court held that the permit
denial in response to Estuary's DRI application was a valid exercise of the
police power but the Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission must
provide Estuary Properties with the changes which would make the
development eligible for approval. Regarding balancing of public versus
private interests (protecting public health, safety, and welfare versus
protection of private property interests), the court found that the adverse
environmental impact and deviation from the policies of the planning
council could outweigh other more favorable findings in deciding a devel-
opment approval.
"The court also reasoned that:
if the regulation preventing the destruction of the mangrove forest was
necessary to avoid unreasonable pollution of the water thereby caus-
ing attendant harm to the public, the exercise of police power would be
reasonable.
"Since the Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission found that the
development would cause pollution in the bays and effect the county's
economy, the court ruled that:
"The regulation at issue here promotes the welfare of the public, pre-
vents public harm and has not been arbitrarily applied.
"In discussing the reasonableness of the regulation the court also
relies on the "magnitude of Estuary's proposed development and the
sensitive nature of the surrounding lands and water to be affected by it.
In this situation it is not unreasonable to place some restrictions on the
owner's use of the property." Furthermore the court found that Estuary
did not have legitimate investment-backed expectations for use of the
property but only "its own subjective expectation that the land could be
developed in the manner it now proposes."
"In answer to the taking issue the court said that "Estuary purchased
the property in question . with full knowledge that part of it was totally
unsuitable for development." The court said that there was no evidence
supporting the claim that Estuary could make no beneficial use of the
land.
"It seems that in the Estuary case the court did not agree that the
property was rendered worthless by the exercise of police power. In


132







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Figure 25. Topographic profile of St. Johns River marsh peat deposit
in southern Brevard County. (Prepared by the Bureau of
Geology for this report.)


The topography of other peat forming environments can be seen in the
cross sections showing the cypress dome type of peats (Figure 6).
These, however, are not typically mined.
The peat mining process is an excavation process which removes the
original surface vegetation and significantly alters the topography of the
terrain. Various types of equipment are used to remove the peat and
waste material, leaving a water filled (dry, if pumped) pit. During the
course of mining, the size of the existing pit may vary from less than one
acre to tens of acres. This depends on the areal extent of the deposit,
thickness of the peat and rate of production.
Stock piles and waste piles are the result of the mining process. The
stock piles are created to allow the peat to dry prior to shipping. These
piles vary in size and shape during the life of the mine and are not present
after mining is completed, having been depleted as peat is sold. The
waste piles, on the other hand, are not sold and remain after the comple-
tion of mining. The waste material generally consists of peat that is too
contaminated with weed seeds and sediment to be used. Generally, at
the completion of mining, the waste piles are leveled and spread around
the mine site. This is not always true since there are no required reclama-
tion procedures for peat mines. Field investigations suggest, however,
that most operators level the site at the completion of mining.
The post-mining topography resembles the pre-mining topography if







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


LAKE


0 KEE CHOB EE


0 2 4 6 8 10 MILES
SCALE


Figure 20. Soil depths predicted for 1980 for the Everglades Agri-
cultureal Area. Compare these with Figures 18 and 19.
(From Griffin, et al., 1982).


41


o
o
c
z
-I
L






Use of Peat as a Growth Medium .................. . 50
Horticulture ................................. 50
A agriculture .................................. 51
Energy Crops ................................ 51
Sewage Treatment ................................ 51
Economic Impact of Peat Mining-Kenneth M. Campbell ....... 52
Production, Value, and Price of Peat ............ ...... 52
Location of Peat Producers ......................... 53
Location of M markets ............................... 53
U se of Peat ..................................... 55
Permitting-Kenneth M. Campbell ....................... 55
County Level Permits .............................. 55
State Level Permitting ............................. 55
Department of Environmental Regulation ............ 58
Water Management Districts ..................... 58
Suwannee River Water Management District ...... 58
St. Johns River Water Management District ....... 58
Southwest Florida Water Management District ..... 61
South Florida Water Management District ........ 61
Department of Community Affairs ................. 62
Federal Level Permitting ............................ 62
Army Corps of Engineers ........................ 62
The Environmental Protection Agency .............. 62
Peat Revenue and Taxation ............................ 63
Potential Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining-Paulette Bond 64
The Effects of Peat Mining on Wetlands ................ 64
The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Quality .......... 66
The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Resources .......... 69
Water Resources in an Undisturbed System .......... 69
Water Resource Parameters Affected by Peat Mining ... 69
The Effects of Peat Mining on Air Quality ............... 73
The Effects of Peat Mining on Topography-Thomas M.
S cott ........................................ 7 5
Endangered Species Associated with Areas of Potential Peat
Mining-Thomas M. Scott ............. .............. 81
Reclamation of Mined Peatlands-Paulette Bond ............. 83
Peatland Reclamation in Minnesota ................... 87
Peatland Reclamation in North Carolina ................ 90
Peatland Reclamation in Finland ...................... 91
Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick ............... 92
Reclamation in Peatlands of Florida ................... 92
Summary and Conclusions ............................. 93
Mineral versus Non-Mineral ......................... 93
Harvesting versus Mining ........................... 93
Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining ................. 94
Reclamation of Peat Mines .......................... 94
Agricultural Use of Peat ............................ 94






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Figure 22. Location of current peat producers in Florida. (From a
Bureau of Geology survey for this report).


Location of Peat Producers

Peat production is concentrated in central peninsular Florida, in Sum-
ter, Lake, Orange, Pasco, Hillsborough, Polk and Highlands counties.
Additional producers are located in Madison County (Northwest penin-
sula), Clay and Putnam counties (Northeast peninsula) and in Palm Beach
and Dade counties (south Florida). The authors did not locate any active
peat producers in the panhandle of Florida.

Location of Markets

The majority of Florida peat producers market bulk peat and blend
potting soils for regional or statewide distribution. Two companies have
only local markets, 11 have regional markets and six have statewide






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


trolled enrichment of the sample in carbon-14. Syn: radiocarbon dating;
carbon dating.

carcinogen A substance which tends to produce a cancer.

cellulose A polymeric carbohydrate composed of glucose units, for-
mula (C6H10Os)x, of which the permanent cell walls of plants are formed,
making it the most abundant carbohydrate.

coalification The alteration or metamorphism of plant material into
coal; the biochemical processes of diagenesis and the geochemical pro-
cess of metamorphism in the formation of coal. See also: carbonization.

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) The amount of oxygen required for
the oxidation of all oxidizable compounds in a water body. Cf: biochem-
ical oxygen demand. Var: oxygen demand.

colloidal gel A translucent to transparent, semisolid, apparently
homogeneous substance being elastic and jelly-like (or sometimes more
or less rigid), offering little resistance to liquid diffusion, and containing a
dispersion or network of fine particles that have coalesced to some
degree. Colloidal particles are less than .0000094 inches in size (i.e.
smaller than clay sized).

core A cylindrical or columnar piece of solid rock or section of soil,
usually 1.75 4.0 inch or so in diameter and from an inch up to 50 feet or
so in length, taken as a sample of an underground formation by a special
hollow-type drill bit, and brought to the surface for geologic examination
and/or chemical analysis. It records a section of the rock or soil pene-
trated.

crystal A homogeneous, solid body of a chemical element, com-
pound or isomorphous mixture having a regularly repeating atomic
arrangement that may be outwardly expressed by plane faces.

desiccation A complete or nearly complete drying out or drying up, or
a deprivation of moisture or of water not chemically combined; e.g. the
loss of water from pore spaces of soils or sediments as a result of com-
paction or evaporation.

dewatering Processing which reduces the amount of water within
peat or a peat deposit prior to mining and processing. Ditching and pump-
ing are used prior to mining. Solar, mechanical and thermal drying along
with wet carbonization and wet oxidation can be used prior to or in
conjunction with processing.

dichloroethane A heavy, colorless, flammable liquid, C2H4CI2, a non
polar organic solvent.





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 115

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981
Neilson, et al., 1939
Stein, et al., 1975
Turner and Verhoogen, 1960
Weast, 1973






C'


W E
80i- 80
j_ OKLAWAHA RIVER
w70 DIKE 70
U-

60 F 60

50 PEAT DEPOSIT 50 C
m
I 0 I MILE
2 SCALE
100X VERT. EXAG. n

m
0
r-



LOCATION

MARION

CC'


Figure 26. Topographic profile of the Oklawaha River peat deposit in northern Lake and
southern Marion counties. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.)





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


impacts and urged to consider them in regard to developments which
would stimulate or direct peat mining.
"DNRCD can directly control essentially all of the impacts of peat
mining and most of the impacts of peat use, but DNRCD cannot unilater-
ally develop a state policy on peat in general. Although the Council of
State and the Cabinet would ultimately develop such a general policy, the
Energy Policy Council would likely be the initial interdepartmental forum
for discussions leading to a draft policy. Since energy needs and eco-
nomics usually drive the development of energy-related policies, it is
important that DNRCD use every appropriate opportunity in the council
to inform other agencies of the status of permitting and regulatory
issues.
"DNRCD and the Department of Commerce should also cooperate
closely on the siting of peat-using industrial facilities.
"During the past thirty-months, Commerce's Industrial Development
Division has worked very closely with DNRCD on the Peat Methanol
Associates project. This cooperation has apparently been satisfactory to
both departments and to the developer. It should serve as the model for
future cooperation, and such cooperation should become a matter of
routine.
14. Public Information and Education Program on Peat
"A public information and education program on peat mining and
impacts should be developed and carried out.
"This program should be designed to reach the general public, the
public schools, landowners in the peat region, and potential researchers.
A variety of approaches may be needed. The industry should be involved
in this effort. The Office of Natural Resource Planning and Assessment,
with assistance from the Division of Land Resources, should be assigned
responsibility by the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources for devel-
oping and implementing the public information and education program
for peat.
15. Need for Permanent DNRCD Peat Working Group
"A peat working group will continue to be needed within the depart-
ment to assure full coordination among divisions on permitting, monitor-
ing, research, and policy development.
"A peat working group, appointed by the Assistant Secretary for Natu-
ral Resources and staffed by the Division of Land Resources, could serve
a significant portion of this work, as it is already established and
designed to handle intra-department coordination regarding the mining
permit. Strong coordination will be even more urgently needed in the
future, both to assure incorporation of other divisions' expertise in the
mining permit and to assure a coordinated permit package. Coordination
is needed beyond permitting issues per se, however. Monitoring and
research coordination should be closely related to permitting needs, but
the involvement of other issues may well necessitate the involvement of
personnel beyond the Land Resources peat working group. In these


149





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the development of peat-using facilities and to re-consider their impacts
as more experience is gained.
4. General Policy on the Siting of Peat Mines
"The task force recommends a four part general policy on the siting of
peat mines:

(1.) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued for stream valley
deposits which directly contribute organic matter to estuarine ecosys-
tems and for floodplain peat deposits along major rivers.
(2.) (2.) "Permits for peat mining in areas where the bottom of the
peat deposit lies at or below sea level should not be issued unless and
until adequate environmental safeguards are developed.
(3.) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued on state parks
and state-owned state gamelands, and no leases for peat mining on
any state-owned lands should be issued without a full review of the
environmental impacts.
(4.) "Mining in the rest of the peat deposits should be permitted
under careful monitoring.

"This basic recommendation is repeated from the 1981 task force
report. In the interim no mining permits have been issued which are not in
accord with the recommendation, even though DNRCD has officially
promulgated only the state parks portion of part (3). Careful mining with
close monitoring has been the principle followed in issuing all five permits
now in effect.
"The permit for Whitetail Farms, at least on the northern half of the
tract, is the only example thus far of a permit falling under part (2), not
issuing permits pending adequate environmental safeguards. The White-
tail Farms mining permit incorporates several safeguards which the peat
mining permit application review group found to satisfy the requirement
for "adequate environmental safeguards". In order to mine peat in a
deposit which partly extends below sea level, Whitetail Farms is required
to, among other things, mine no lower than an elevation of one foot
above mean sea level, direct all surface drainage from the part of the
tract outside the Boundary Canal, build and maintain a dike reaching
eight feet elevation above mean sea level around the area in which the
post-mining elevation will be between one and eight feet, install flood-
gates, and maintain a 300-foot wide buffer between the waterway and
the mine.
"These extensive measures should be taken as an example rather than
a general policy statement. The principal concern addressed in part (2) is
what type of reclamation is feasible and should be permitted where the
peat deposits extend below sea level. If mining is stopped above sea
level, deep organic soils may be left which make some types of reclama-
tion very difficult to implement. If mining extends below sea level, issues
of wet reclamation and perpetual pumping are raised. The Whitetail






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Water Fish Commission, the Department of Natural Resources or the
U.S. Department of Interior, or successor agencies, as being endangered
or threatened. As Florida has more endangered and threatened species
than any other continental state, it is the intent of the Legislature to
provide for research and management to conserve and protect these
species as a natural resource.

"(4) Establishment of an Advisory Council-
(a) The director of the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission shall
establish an Endangered and Threatened Species Advisory Council con-
sisting of 10 members.

Case Law:
The Graham v. Estuary Properties Inc. (Fla. 399 So. 2d 1374) decision
in Florida is the most progressive decision to date concerning the use of
land use regulations as an effective means of protecting wetlands via
development control.

Background:
In compliance with Florida Land and Water Management Act of 1972,
Estuary Properties submitted an application for a development permit for
their development of regional impact (DRI) to Lee County Board of
County Commissioners. The permit was denied due to an 1800-acre
black mangrove forest which would be destroyed and therefore cause an
adverse environmental impact. The developers appeal to the Florida Land
and Water Adjudicatory Commission was denied.
Estuary Properties contended that the Commission had improperly
denied its application because the various impacts of the development
had not been balanced nor had the Commission made suggestions con-
cerning ways to correct the inadequacies of the DRI.
"The developers also attacked the Commission's denial of the permit
as an unconstitutional taking because the owner's right to use his prop-
erty had been violated.
"Following denial by the Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory Com-
mission, the developer next turned to the Florida District Court of
Appeals (Estuary Properties v. Askew [Fla. App. 381 So. 2d 1126]).
"In December 1979, the Florida District Court of Appeals ruled (later
to be overturned by the Florida Supreme Court) that a government
agency that denies an application for development of regional impact in
an environmentally sensitive area must prove that the project has an
adverse affect on the environment and moreover, a local government
cannot deny an owner of wetlands all reasonable use of property without
paying compensation (Land Use Law and Zoning Digest, April 1980).
The court reasoned that: benefits to the general public should not be
borne by a few property owners, therefore, the development permit
could not be denied unless compensation was administered.
"The case pinpoints the judicial uneasiness over ad hoc regulations of













I :*:*.*.

~


SCALE


LEGEND

WATER FRESH WATER MARL M PEAT E BEDROCK
Figure 7. Cross-section through a "Bay Head," Everglades National Park. (Modified from
Spackman, et al., 1964).






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


times of drought. Any data base for peat will require periodic updating if
it is to remain useful.

Current Estimates of Peat in Florida

The total peat resources available in Florida are difficult to estimate
and published values vary widely. The paucity of actual peat resource
investigations is an important hindrance to the development of accurate
figures. A few published studies are concerned with the entire state
(Davis, 1946; Griffin, et al., 1982). Several others concentrate on limited
areas (Stephens and Johnson, 1951; Gurr, 1972).
Individual county soil surveys vary in their usefulness due to apparent
inconsistencies in the terminology relating to organic soils and peats. The
more recent studies were used by Griffin, et al. (1982) to estimate fuel
grade peat resources. Unfortunately, these studies are not complete for
every county in the state. As a result, Griffin, et al. (1982) were unable
to provide a comprehensive inventory of the peat resources for the entire
state.
Another possible reason for the variation between resource estimates
may be the result of the specific material studied. Griffin, et al. (1982)
investigated "fuel-grade peats" (defined by the U.S. Department of
Energy for their peat resource study) while Davis (1946) inventoried a
variety of organic materials classified as peats. The United States Soil
Conservation Service studies soils in general and describes their organic
content in addition to other characteristics.
Griffin, et al. (1982) reported the discrepancies among the figures
from various studies but were unable to determine the reason for the
differences. Griffin, et al. (1982) also state that verbal reports from other
U.S. Department of Energy peat researchers indicate that they have
found similar discrepancies between the resource figures from the U.S.
Soil Conservation Service and their own figures in other states.
Published estimates of Florida's peat resources vary nearly by an order
of magnitude. Griffin, et al. (1982) provide the lowest figure of 677,688
acres (1,059 square miles) consisting of 606 million tons of moisture-
free peat. Davis (1946) estimated 2,240,000 acres (3,500 square
miles), comprising 1,750,000,000 tons of air dried peat. The highest
figure is provided by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (in U.S. Depart-
ment of Energy, 1979) and is 3,000,000 acres (4,700 square miles), or
6,900,000,000 (35 percent moisture by weight) tons of peat. The pub-
lished resource estimates vary significantly and thus should be used with
reservation.
The determination of a more accurate resource figure for Florida peats
would require a significant investment of time and money to complete.
The scattered nature of the deposits in north and central Florida (Figure
13) is such that there are literally thousands of sites to be investigated. In
south Florida, peat deposits cover broad areas which would have to be
examined in order for accurate estimates to be prepared.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


FUEL-GRADE
PEAT DEPOSITS


Figure 14. Fuel grade peat deposits in Florida. (From Griffin, et al.,
1982).


31


rk, I


NORTH DI
FLrORIDA






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


cited using the appropriate chemical formulae (Soper and Osbon, 1922,
pp. 6-7; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, pp. 5-6; Cameron, 1973,
p. 506). (As noted previously, the formulae cited here are based on a
generalization of the peat-forming process in which peat is derived from
a starting material of cellulose. Due to the complex composition of most
peats, this simplified approximation is not realistic).
The last criterion in Mason and Berry's definition of a mineral is that of
an ordered atomic arrangement; that is, a mineral should be a crystalline
solid. Mason and Berry (1968) note a group of compounds which are
considered minerals even though the crystalline state is not initially
attained: "A few minerals, the commonest being opal, are formed by the
solidification of a colloidal gel and are noncrystalline initially; many such
minerals become crystalline during geologic time". The mineral opal may
attain an ordered atomic arrangement only in the course of geologic time.
The coal-forming process is illustrated in Figure 1. As organic matter
(originally deposited as peat) is subjected to conditions of increasing
temperature and pressure it undergoes the changes associated with coal-
ification. The end-product of this process is the mineral graphite (Press
and Siever, 1974, p. 468). Graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system
and its formula is simply carbon (C). It is found in a number of occur-
rences including metamorphosed coal beds (Quinn and Glass, 1958).
The parallels with the case of opal seem apparent. Neither opal nor peat
initially attain the internal atomic ordering referred to in Mason and Ber-
ry's definition of a mineral. Opal will presumably achieve internal atomic
ordering in the course of geologic time (Mason and Berry, 1968). The
transformation of peat into the mineral graphite requires, in addition to
the passage of time, increases in temperature and pressure (Press and
Siever, 1974) and will be accompanied by the evolution of various liquids
and gases.
Geologists do not universally include crystalline form as a prerequisite
to classification of a material as a mineral. This is demonstrated in the
continuation of the AGI Glossary's definition of mineral. "Those who
include the requirement of crystalline form in the definition of a mineral
would consider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a 'mineral-
oid' (Gary, et al., eds., 1974)
The United States Geological Survey in its volume entitled United
States Mineral Resources (Brobst and Pratt, eds., 1973), devotes a chap-
ter to peat as well as chapters to petroleum, natural gas and coal. The
United States Bureau of Mines also considers peat to be a mineral
resource in addition to coals, petroleum and natural gas. These
resources, including peat, are all non-renewable.

Harvesting or Mining

Harvesting and mining are both terms which are applied to the extrac-
tion of peat. As was discussed in the section of this report "The Defini-
tion of Peat and Significance of this Definition" the term "harvesting"






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


approximately 30 percent water content after wet oxidation (Mensinger,
et al., 1980 in Minnesota DNR, 1981, p. 30).
Wet carbonization consists of heating a slurry of peat and water
(approximately three percent solids) to 300 to 4000F at 50 to 100 atmo-
spheres of pressure for 30 minutes. A "peat coal" with a heat value of
12,000 to 14,000 BTU/lb dry weight is obtained after the liquid is
removed (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).
Wet oxidation is an established process for the oxidation of many wet
organic materials. Air or oxygen is pressure fed to wet peat in a closed,
heated vessel. Combustion is rapid and is controlled by the rate of supply
of the oxygen or air. The process can be stopped after enough heat has
been generated to carbonize the remaining peat or can be carried to
completion to produce energy (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).
Solvent extraction reacts a heated peat-water slurry under pressure
with an organic solvent. The water is extracted from the peat by the
solvent. Subsequent to cooling, the absorbed water is stripped from the
solvent and after treatment is disposed of as waste.

Fuel Uses

DIRECT COMBUSTION

Direct combustion of peat is a method of producing energy which has
been utilized on a commercial scale in Ireland, Finland and the Soviet
Union for several decades. The Soviet Union had installed an electric
power station fueled entirely by peat as early as 1914 (U.S. Department
of Energy, 1979).
The U.S. Department of Energy has developed several criteria for fuel-
grade peat for use in its peat program. The criteria are: 1) heat value
greater than 8,000 BTU/lb (dry weight), 2) greater than 80 acres of peat
per square mile, 3) peat depth greater than four feet, and 4) ash content
less than 25 percent (Minnesota DNR, 1981). Hemic peats are generally
the most suitable for direct combustion usage. The more decomposed
peats (sapric) have been carbonized to a greater extent but often have
larger ash contents which reduces their fuel value. Fibric peats have been
less carbonized and thus have lower heating values.
Direct combustion of peat is accomplished in boilers designed or retro-
fitted for either peat fuel entirely or mixed fuel feed. Boiler design must
accommodate the characteristics of peat fuel: low energy density, high
moisture content. Both of these characteristics result in increased cost
(approximately 50 percent greater) of the boiler and feed system com-
pared with a coal or oil fired boiler of the same capacity (U.S. Department
of Energy, 1979). Grate fired and fluidized-bed boilers require pelletized
or briquetted feed. Pulverized-fired boilers require peat ground to be par-
ticle size compatible with the combuster design.
Direct combustion techniques can result in partial oxidation of the peat





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


"The results of these efforts should be carefully evaluated by the
state. If the resulting data show that mercury is not actually a problem in
the region, some of the efforts can be terminated and the issue referred
to the Division of Environmental Management for resolution for permit-
ting questions which remain.
9. Evaluation of Monitoring Results
Monitoring results from peat mines should be reported at least quar-
terly by the Division of Land Resources in cooperation with the Division
of Environmental Management. It is crucial to identify unacceptable
trends as soon as possible, in order to incorporate remedial actions into
the permitting process. Evaluation of monitoring results will be especially
critical when monitoring is required in a mining permit for substance or
variables for which there are no presently established water quality stan-
dards.
"Although the Department already has in-house experts in a large
number of disciplines which may be involved in peat evaluation, it is
likely that some outside expertise may be needed to assist in evaluating
monitoring results and to verify trends. The Assistant Secretary for Natu-
ral Resources should be charged with assuring that the requisite intrade-
partmental and outside expert review are secured in a timely fashion.
"In addition to these technical monitoring reports, the Division of Land
Resources, in consultation with other divisions, should be directed to
prepare an annual report on environmental changes in the peat mining
region. This report should include a description of the year's activity in
peat mining, monitoring, use, and research. It should also include the
evaluations of the monitoring results for the year. The report should also
include an evaluation of the effectiveness of departmental policies on
peat mining and use.
10. Departmental Evaluation Plan
"A DNRCD evaluation plan on the overall environmental impacts of
peat mining and the control of these impacts should be developed as
soon as possible.
"The Department has sponsored or had access to a number of peat
research projects, (See Table I), but these have for the most part been
aimed at major, generalized issues rather than at the specific issues. The
mercury research effort represents the first of the highly focused studies
that may increasingly be needed. Others will be needed as questions
arise from monitoring results and other observations. The peat mining
working group should provide the Assistant Secretary for Natural
Resources with an overall research evaluation plan which gives priorities
for research projects to address specific identified issues. Such a plan
would allow the most efficient allocation of effort and funds, and it
would minimize delays in allocating research funds which often become
available at very short notice, such as the Coastal Energy Impact pro-
gram (CEIP) which is administered by the Office of Coastal Management.
"CEIP has funded most of the department's recent and current


147










References ...................................... .. 95
Glossary of Technical Terms-Kenneth M. Campbell .......... 102
Appendices-Paulette Bond ............................ 116
Appendix A. Federal Environmental Legislation .......... 116
Appendix B. Classification of Wetlands in Florida ........ 121
Appendix C. Florida Statutes Concerning Wetlands ...... 126
Appendix D. W ater Quality ........................ 134
Appendix E. Peatlands Management .............. . 136
Appendix F. Florida Statute 403.265: Peat Mining;
perm hitting ........................... 151


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page

1 The process of coal formation .................... 10
2 The relationship of peat types to fuel grade .......... 12
3 A comparison of moisture content and heating value for
peat, wood and various coal types ................. 15
4 Peat provinces of southern Florida ................. 18
5 SW-NE cross-section from Cape Sable to vicinity of
Tam iam i Trail ................................. 19
6 Cross-section through a cypress hammock ........... 20
7 Cross-section through a "Bay Head" ............... 21
8 Cross-section through bay swamp and titi swamp ..... 22
9 Peat deposits bordering lakes ..................... 23
10 Cross-section showing peat filling lake .............. 24
11 Cross-section using cores to show buried peat layers at
Eureka Dam site, Oklawaha River, Marion County,
Florida ...................................... 2 5
12 Isopach map of the Everglades region showing thickness
of peat and some muck areas .................... 27
13 Peat deposits in Florida ......................... 30
14 Fuel grade peat deposits in Florida ................. 31
15 Peat deposits in Florida ......................... 32
16 Location map of the Everglades Agricultural Area ...... 34
17 Map of the Everglades Agricultural Area showing the
locations of profiles A-A' and B-B' ................. 37
18 Profile A-A' across the upper Everglades showing surface
elevations in 1912, 1940, 1970, 2000 ............. 38






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


extrude sods onto a conveyor which deposits them onto the field for air
drying. At a moisture content of about 75 percent the sods are win-
drowed. Windrows are periodically split and turned to facilitate drying
and at about 55 percent moisture, sods are considered dry and removed
for storage (Aspinall, 1980).
The milled peat mining method is one in which a peat layer one-quarter
to 2-inches thick is milled or shredded from the prepared surface of the
bog. The peat is periodically harrowed to expedite drying. At a moisture
content of 50 to 55 percent, the dried peat is pushed into ridges where it
is collected for transportation to storage facilities (Aspinall, 1980).
Several methods of hydraulic peat mining are in development. Exam-
ples of these processes are the slurry ditch, hydro peat and slurry pond
methods (Aspinall, 1980). In each of these methods, the surface must be
cleared; but drainage is not necessary.
The slurry ditch and hydro peat methods utilize high pressure water
guns to cut peat from a ditch face. The difference between the methods
lies in the post-mining dewatering process. The slurry ditch method uti-
lizes a dewatering apparatus; whereas, the hydro peat method is dewa-
tered by pumping the slurry to a drying field where it is spread to dry
(Minnesota DNR, 1981). The slurry pond method utilizes mechanical
excavators or a dredge to remove peat. Mining equipment is mounted on
a barge which floats on a pond excavated within the peat deposits as the
mining progresses.
The ultimate success of wet mining methods will depend on the suc-
cessful development of very large scale dewatering processes and upon
the environmental impacts of the mining process (U.S. Department of
Energy, 1979). These may be the preferred methods, however, in areas
where drainage of peat deposits is technically difficult or environmentally
unsound.

Mining Methodology Associated with the Agricultural Use of Peat

In order to obtain current information on Florida's active peat opera-
tions for the present study, the staff of the Bureau of Geology designed
and conducted a survey of producers. In the first stage of this survey, a
list of peat producers was compiled. In an effort to make this list as
comprehensive as possible, a number of sources were consulted includ-
ing: existing lists of producers (Florida Bureau of Geology, United States
Bureau of Mines, United States Mines Safety and Health Administration);
agencies contacting peat producers in conjunction with regular profes-
sional services (county agricultural agents, Florida Department of Agri-
culture); and numerous telephone directories. In the second stage of the
survey, peat producers were contacted by telephone and field visits were
arranged. The information which follows was contributed on a voluntary
basis by producers who were contacted during field visits.
Peat extraction methods vary with the size and nature of the deposit
being mined. Most deposits are mined using conventional types of earth-







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the ASTM include: 1) Sphagnum moss peat which must contain at least
66.66 percent Sphagnum fibers by weight, 2) Hypnum moss peat which
must contain at least 33.33 percent fibers with one-half of those identifi-
able as Hypnum moss, 3) reed-sedge peat which must contain at least
33.33 percent fibers, one-half of which are reed-sedge and other non-
mosses, 4) peat-humus must contain less than 33.33 percent fiber, and
5) other peat, which accounts for all peat not previously classified in
ASTM Designation D-2607-69 (ASTM, 1969).
The ASTM classification as discussed in the previous paragraph is
currently under revision. Two major factors were considered in this revi-
sion. The classification of peat should meet the needs of three major user
groups including engineers, energy users and agricultural users. In addi-
tion, the classification should be based on parameters which may be
measured objectively. These parameters include ash, botanical composi-
tion, pH, and water holding capacity. In order to be called peat, a material
will have to contain 75 percent or more organic material on a dry basis.
Although peats will still be categorized as fibric, hemic or sapric (based
on fiber content), these general terms will be modified by ash content,
botanical composition, pH and water holding capacity (A. Cohen, personal
communication, 1983).
One essential characteristic that is associated with peat is moisture
level, but there are no current regulated standards for moisture in peat.
The United States Bureau of Mines considers a "commonly accepted"
value in the United States to be 55 percent moisture by weight for air
dried peat (Searls, 1980).
The U.S. Department of Agriculture divides peat into three categories
(Searls, 1980). Fibric peat must contain more than 66.66 percent plant
fibers. Hemic peats are more decomposed than fibric peats. They must
have a fiber content which ranges between 33.33 percent and 66.66
percent fibers. Sapric peat consists of the most extensively decomposed
plant material. Sapric peat contains less than 33.33 percent recognizable
plant fragments of any type.
Peat in the United States has often been classified into three general
categories (Searls, 1980; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Moss peat
is comprised of Sphagnum, Hypnum and other mosses. Reed-sedge peat
is mainly the product of reeds, sedges and other swamp plants. Humus is
simply too decomposed for evidence of its origin to be retained.

Parameters Affecting Peat Use for Fuel

The parameters which bear most directly on peat's usefulness as a fuel
source are measured by proximate analysis. In this procedure, peat is
analyzed in the laboratory for its volatile content, fixed carbon, ash con-
tent and moisture. The volatile content of peat refers to substances other
than moisture which are emitted as gas and vapor when peat is burned.
Peat has a very high volatile content compared to coal. This is a positive
attribute for peat which is to be gasified since the reactivity of peat in the







AN OVERVIEW OF PEAT IN FLORIDA AND RELATED ISSUES



by
Paulette Bond, Kenneth M. Campbell and Thomas M. Scott

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Peat is a deposit of partially decayed plant remains which accumulates
in a waterlogged environment. It may contain some proportion of inor-
ganic material which is referred to as ash. Ash content is a critical param-
eter if peat is to be used as a fuel and may not exceed 25 percent of the
material by dry weight. In addition, fuel grade deposits must be at least
four feet thick with a surface area of at least 80 contiguous acres per
square mile. Fuel grade peat must yield at least 8000 BTU per moisture-
free pound.
Peat is removed from the ground in an excavation process. The proce-
dure is alternatively referred to as harvesting or mining. "Harvesting"
when used in conjunction with peat correctly refers to the nearly obso-
lete practice of harvesting living Sphagnum from the surface of a bog. In
this process, the Sphagnum was allowed to grow back so that repeated
harvests were possible in a given area. Very little or no true harvesting
occurs today. Thus, the extraction of peat is properly termed mining.
An important implication of the definition of peat is peat's classifica-
tion as an agricultural resource as opposed to a mineral resource. This
classification may have ramifications with respect to the sorts of regula-
tions which are applied to peat mining. Peat does not comply with the
conditions set forth in the academic definition of the term mineral. It is,
however, considered a mineral resource by the United States Geological
Survey and the United States Bureau of Mines. Peat may be ancestor of
the mineral graphite and is also viewed by earth science professionals as
nonrenewable. Thus it is considered appropriate to term peat a mineral
resource.
Peat accumulates and is preserved in wetlands, such as the Ever-
glades, marshes and mangrove swamps, river-valley marshes (St. Johns
river-valley marsh), and in sinkhole lakes. This strong association of peat
with wetlands occurs because the presence of water serves to inhibit the
activity of decomposing organisms which would normally metabolize
plant matter and prevent its accumulation.
Earth science professionals consider peat to be nonrenewable. In Flor-
ida an average rate of peat accumulation is 3.62 inches per 100 years.
Using this average rate, a deposit 4 feet thick (minimum thickness of a
fuel grade deposit) could accumulate in approximately 1,326 years or
approximately 18 human lifetimes (average lifetime of 72 years).
Florida is estimated as having 677,688 acres of fuel grade peat or 606
million tons. This estimate is based on material thought to contain no





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


which differ from the conditions under which the rocks in question origi-
nated (Turner and Verhoogen, 1960, p. 450).

methane A colorless, odorless, flammable gas which is the simplest
paraffin hydrocarbon, formula CH4. The principal constituent of natural
gas.

methanol A colorless, volatile, water soluble, poisonous liquid,
CH3OH, used primarily as a solvent, fuel, automobile antifreeze and in the
synthesis of formaldehyde. Also called methyl alcohol, wood alcohol.

milled peat mining Process in which the leveled bog is scraped to a
depth of approximately one-half inch to 2 inches. The scraped material is
collected.

mineral A naturally formed chemical element or compound having a
definite chemical composition and, usually, a characteristic crystal form.
A mineral is generally considered to be inorganic, though organic com-
pounds are classified by some as minerals. Those who include the
requirement of crystalline form in the definition of a mineral would con-
sider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a mineraloid.

mineraloid A naturally occurring, usually inorganic substance that is
not considered to be a mineral because it is amorphous and thus lacks
characteristic physical and chemical properties; e.g., opal. Syn: gel min-
eral.

minerotrophic Peatlands which are connected with the regional
groundwater system and are nourished both by precipitation and ground-
water flow; contains alkaline, decaying vegetation on peat. See also:
fen.

mining The process of extracting mineral deposits or building stone
from the Earth. The term may also include preliminary treatment of the
ore or building stone; e.g. cleaning, sizing, dressing.

mire A general term for a section of wet swampy ground.

montan wax A bituminous wax extracted from lignite, used as an
industrial lubricant and as an ingredient in furniture polish, shoe polish
and electrical insulation.

morbidity The proportion of sickness or a specific disease in a geo-
graphical area.

mortality The relative frequency of death in a district or community.


109







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Lucas, R., 1980, Mobility of Phosphorus and Potassium in Everglades
Histosols, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, Duluth,
Mn., p. 413.

Malterer, T.J., 1980, Peat Resource Estimation Project, in Peat as an
Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at
Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 69-75.

Mason, B., and L.G. Berry, 1968, Elements of Mineralogy: W.H. Freeman
and Company, San Francisco, Ca., 550 p.

McPherson, B.F., G.Y. Hendrix, H. Klein, and H.M. Tyus, 1976, The
Environment of South Florida, A Summary Report: United States Geolog-
ical Survey Professional Paper 1101, Washington, D.C., 81 p.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981, Minnesota Peat Pro-
gram Final Report: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St.
Paul, Mn., 93 p.

Monk, C.D., 1968, Successional and environmental relationships of the
forest vegetation of north-central Florida: The American Midland Natural-
ist, v. 79, pp. 441 -457.

Moore, P., and D. Bellamy, 1974, Peatlands: Elek Science, London, 221
p.

Naucke, W., 1966, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 35.

Neilson, W.A., T.A. Knott, and P.W. Carhart, eds., 1939, Webster's New
International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. unabridged, G
& C Merriam Company, Publishers, Springfield, Ma., 3210 p.

Nichols, D.S., 1980, citation in Minnesota Department of Natural
Resources, 1981, p. 44.

Norit, N.V., n.d., citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 112.

North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Devel-
opment, 1983, Peat Mining and Natural Resources: Peat Mining Task
Force Report.

Olson, D., T.J. Malterer, D.R. Mellen, B. Leuelling, and E.J. Tome, 1979,
Inventory of Peat Resources in Southwest St. Louis County, Minnesota:
The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Hibbing, Mn., 76 p.

Parker, G.G., 1974, Hydrology of the Pre-Drainage System of the Ever-
glades in Southern Florida, in P.J. Gleason, ed., Environments of South
Florida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, p. 18.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

absorption Taking up, assimilation, or incorporation; e.g., of liquids in
solids or of gasses in liquids, sometimes incorrectly used in place of
adsorption.

acetone A volatile flammable liquid, (CH3)2CO, used as a solvent and
in organic synthesis.

acid A compound, capable of neutralizing alkalis, containing hydro-
gen that can be replaced by a metal or an electropositive group to form a
salt or containing an atom that can accept a pair of electrons from a base.

acid hydrolysis Decomposition process in which peat is broken down
into component compounds. Peat is slurried with water and sulfuric acid
at elevated temperatures and pressure and allowed to react.

activated carbon Carbon which has been expanded by treating coke
with steam at 1652 20120F. The reaction causes generation of hydro-
gen gas and carbon monoxide with the physical effect of expanding the
pore spaces in the coke, greatly increasing the surface area available for
adsorption.

adsorption Adherence of gas molecules or of ions or molecules in
solutions to the surfaces of solids with which they are in contact.

aldehydes A class of organic compounds containing the group -CHO,
which yield acids when oxidized and alcohols when reduced.

alkali Any strongly basic substance, such as a hydroxide or carbon-
ate of an alkali metal (e.g. sodium, potassium) that neutralizes acid to
form salts.

anhydrite A mineral consisting of an anhydrous calcium sulfate:
CaSO4. It represents gypsum without its water of crystallization, and it
alters readily to gypsum, from which it differs in crystal form (anhydrite
is orthorhombic) and in being harder and slightly less soluble.

anthracite Coal of the highest metamorphic rank, in which fixed-
carbon content is between 86 percent and 98 percent. It is hard, black,
and has a semimetallic luster and semiconchoidal fracture. Anthracite
ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue flame and without
smoke. Syn: hard coal, stone coals.


The percentage of incombustible material in a fuel.


102


ash content




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


possible for that use". Stephens (1974) lits a number of suggestions
geared toward conservation of organic soil: "(1) provide adequate water
control facilities for keeping water tables as high as crop and field
requirements will tolerate; (2) make productive use of drained lands as
soon as possible; and (3) intensify research studies to develop practices
to prolong the life of the soils".
It has been suggested that extending the life of organic soils by plow-
ing under cover crops or litter (Snyder, et al., 1978; Stephens, 1974) is
probably not an effective conservation measure. The rate at which peat
forms is extremely slow and the volume of plant litter produced is very
small. Snyder, et al. (1978) discuss an example which clarifies this rela-
tionship. Sugar cane produces an amount of top growth exceeded by
few, if any, plants. An average cane crop (30 tons/acre) is estimated to
contain approximately eight tons of dry matter. If all of the dry matter
from an entire crop were added to the soil, it could be assumed that
about half of it would be decomposed rapidly. One acre-inch of top soil is
about the amount lost to subsidence each year in the Everglades Agricul-
tural Area. That amount of soil weighs approximately 50 tons. Thus, four
tons are replaced each year, which is still only approximately 1/12 the
amount which is lost.



The Near Future of the Everglades Agricultural Area


Snyder, et al. (1978) have included a discussion of land use in the
Everglades Agricultural Area through the year 2000. It is noted that the
predictions of Stephens (1951) have proved reliable (compare Figures 20
and 21). These predictions are presented in Table 2 (Snyder, et al.,
1978). Although land elevations are shown through the year 2000, sub-
sidence will continue. By the year 2000, only approximately 80,000
acres of soil three feet in depth or deeper will remain. It is predicted that
sugar cane acreage will decrease, pasture acreage will increase signifi-
cantly and vegetable acreage will remain essentially unchanged assum-
ing the economic viability of such operations. By the year 2000, over
500,000 acres will be less than three feet in thickness. Approximately
half of this will be less than a foot in depth (Snyder, et al., 1978). The
depth of three feet is significant because, at depths of less than three
feet, the use of mole drains becomes impractical. The soils which have
subsided to depths of less than one foot face an uncertain fate. Snyder,
et al. (1978) suggest that while some of those soils may be suitable for
pasture, the soils may be abandoned for agricultural uses. It is also sug-
gested that the remaining soils and the existing water-control structures
be used to produce aquatic crops. The authors suggest that such a usage
could greatly extend the useful agricultural life of the soils.




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


(a) Asimina pygmaea (pink pawpaw).
(b) Asimina tetramera (four-petal pawpaw).
(c) Asplenium auritum (auricled spleenwort) (fern).
(d) Blechnum occidentale (sinkhole fern).
(e) Campyloneurum angustifolium (narrow swamp fern).
(f) Cassia keyensis (Key cassia).
(g) Catesbaea parviflora (dune lily-thorn).
(h) Catopsis sp. (bromeliad).
(i) Cereus gracilis (prickly apple cactus).
(j) Cereus robinii (tree cactus).
(k) Chionanthus pygmaeus (fringe tree or granny-graybeard).
(I) Clusia rosea (balsam apple).
(m) Coccothrinax argentata (silver palm).
(n) Cucurbita okeechobeensis (Okeechobee gourd).
(o) Cupania glabra (cupania).
(p) Cyrtopodium punctatum (cowhorn or cigar orchid).
(q) Dennstaedtia bipinnata (cuplet fern).
(r) Encyclia boothiana (Epidendrum boothianum) (dollar orchid).
(s) Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus).
(t) Guaiacum sanctum (lignum vitae).
(u) Guzmania sp. (bromeliad).
(v) lonopsis utricularioides (delicate ionopsis orchid).
(w) Magnolia ashei (Ashe magnolia).
(x) Magnolia phyramidata (pyramidal magnolia).
(y) Maxillaria crassifolia (orchid).
(z) Ophioglossum palmattum (hand fern).
(aa) Parnassia grandifolia (grass-of-Parnassus).
(bb) Polyrrhiza lindenii (ghost orchid).
(cc) Rhododendron austrinum (orange azalea).
(dd) Rhododendron chapmanii (Chapman's rhododendron).
(ee) Ribes echinellum (Miccosukee gooseberry).
(ff) Roystonea elata (Florida royal palm).
(gg) Sarracenia leucophylla and Sarracenia rubra (pitcher plants).
(hh) Scaevola plumieri (scaevola).
(ii) Strumpfia martima (pride-of-big-pine).
(jj) Suriana maritima (bay cedar).
(kk) Taxus floridana (Florida yew).
(II) Tillandsia fasciculata (wild pine bromeliad) (included because of
very high harvest rate).
(mm) Torreya taxifolia (Florida torreya).
(nn) Tournefortia gnaphalodes (sea lavender).
(oo) Trillium lahcifolium (trillium).
(pp) Zephyranthes simpsonii (zephyr lily).

"Chapter 403--Environmental Control
Section 403.021 declares that, "the public policy of the state is to
conserve the waters of the state to protect, maintain, and improve the







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


extraction. Additionally, the method and equipment utilized in peat
extraction and the environmental impacts of peat extraction are synony-
mous with those commonly attributed to mining, not harvesting.
This study concludes that harvesting should be applied only to the
removal of living Sphagnum or other living plants and that the extraction
of peat should be categorized as mining.

Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining

Peat occurrence in Florida is, in nearly every case examined, coincident
with a current wetland area. Thus the environmental impacts associated
with peat mining may vary widely depending on the type of wetland, the
location of the wetland, the function of the wetland, the extent of min-
ing, the type of mining, and other physical parameters of the site.
This study concludes that an accurate assessment of the environmen-
tal impacts of peat extraction will be site specific and can be anticipated
to range from minor to severe.

Reclamation of Peat Mines

Reclamation or the return of mined land to a beneficial use is applicable
to most mining operations and would be so with peat mining. Restoration
or the return of mined land to the pre-mining function is only partially
applicable to most mining operations and would not be practical with
peat mining. The higher the ratio of overburden to the mined product, the
higher the percentage of original landform and contour that can be
achieved in reclamation. In peat mining, where the mined product typi-
cally has no overburden, the extraction leaves a hole which will typically
become a lake in areas where the water table is high.
This study concludes that reclamation of mined peatlands to a benefi-
cial use as an aquatic or uplands system is achievable; however, the
restoration of mined peatlands to premining contour and function is prob-
ably not financially feasible.

Agricultural Use of Peat

The in-place use of peat and related organic for agricultural purposes
such as in the Everglades Agricultural Area appears to be a nonconsump-
tive use of peat, while in fact, the exposure of peat to air allows aerobic
bacteria to oxidize the peat causing a gradual loss of peat accompanied
by subsidence of the land surface. It is predicted that by the year 2000,
approximately 250,000 acres in the Everglades Agricultural Area will
have subsided to thicknesses of less than one foot.
This report concludes that agricultural uses of in-place peat should be
viewed as a consumptive use of peat and that research and planning
should be carried out to determine the impact resulting from peat loss
and land subsidence on potential future land uses.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


gasification process increases with increased volatile content. The fixed
carbon content of the peat is responsible for much of its combustion
energy.
Ash is the amount of materials in a fuel which remains after combus-
tion. The amount of ash varies for different types of peat. Peats which
receive their moisture primarily from precipitation are usually lower in ash
than those which are nourished by surface waters. In times of flood,
surface waters may carry large sediment loads onto the peatlands where
sediment is trapped in the peat.
Peat's high moisture content can be a major problem which must be
considered in its utilization. Even a drained and solidified bog may con-
tain 70 95 percent moisture and for some uses peat will require addi-
tional drying which will, in turn, require energy.

THE ACCUMULATION OF PEAT

by
Paulette Bond

The Process of Peat Formation

Peat forms when the rate of accumulation of plant matter exceeds the
rate at which decomposing organisms metabolize it. The conversion of
fresh plant material to peat takes place over a period of time as peat
becomes enriched in fixed carbon while evolving water, carbon dioxide
and methane (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Peat is comparatively
increased in fixed carbon as opposed to cellulose, and the process by
which this takes place is referred to as carbonization. It is this enrichment
of carbon which makes peat desirable as a fuel source (Figure 3). The
Peat Prospectus (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) compares peat with
wood and various grades of coal in terms of fixed carbon and heating
value (in British Thermal Units, BTU). The following values are taken
from Figure 3 of the Peat Prospectus and are approximate (U.S. Depart-
ment of Energy, 1979). One pound of wood has a fixed carbon content
of approximately 20 percent and generates 9,300 BTU on a moisture and
mineral free basis. An equivalent amount of peat contains 28 percent
fixed carbon and generates approximately 10,600 BTU. These values for
peat and wood contrast with values for lignite which yields about
12,400 BTU and has a fixed carbon content of approximately 47 per-
cent.

Geologic Conditions Associated with Peat Accumulation

As was previously noted, peat forms when the accumulation of plant
material exceeds its destruction by the organisms which decompose it.
Since plant matter is usually decomposed before significant accumula-
tions develop, it is instructive to examine the set of circumstances which
allow peat to form. Certain geologic, hydrologic and climatic conditions






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 8 continued.


PLANTS


Acuna's Epidendrum
Anise (Unnamed)
Auricled Spleenwort
Bartran's Ixia
Birds-nest Spleenwort
Black Mangrove
Cedar Elm
Chapman's Butterwort
Climbing Dayflower
Coastal Parnassia
Corkwood
Coville's Rush
Cow-Horn Orchid
Cuplet Fern
Delicate lonopsis Orchid
Dollar Orchid
Dwarf Epidendrum
Fall-flowering Ixia
Florida Merrybells
Florida Willow
Fuzzy-Wuzzy Air-Plant
Ghost Orchid
Giant Water-Dropwort
Golden Leather Fern
Grass-of-Parnassus
Hanging Club Moss
Harper's Beauty
Harper's Yellow-eyed Grass
Harris' Tiny Orchid
Hartwrightia
Hidden Orchid
Holly (Unnamed)
Karst Pond Xyris
Lakeside Sunflower
Leafless Orchid
Lily (Unnamed)
Lythrum (Unnamed)
Lythrum (Unnamed)
Manchineel
Mexican Tear-Thumb
Naked-stemmed Panic Grass
Narrow Strap Fern


Epidendrum acunae
Illicium floridanum
Asplenium auritum
Sphenostigma coelestinum
Asplenium serratum
Avicennia germinans
Ulmus crasifolia
Pinguicula planifolia
Commelina gigas
Parnassia caroliniana
Leitneria floridana
Juncus gymnocarpus
Cyrtopodium punctatum
Dennstaedtia bipinnata
lonopsis utricularioides
Encyclia boothiana
Encyclia pygmaea
Nemastylis floridana
Uvularia floridana
Salix floridana
Tillandsia pruinosa
Polyrrhiza lindenii
Oxypolis greenmanii
Acrostichum aureum
Parnassia grandifolia
Lycopodium dichotomum
Harperocallis flava
Xyris scabrifolia
Lepanthopsis melantha
Hartwrightia floridana
Maxillaria crassifolia
Ilex amelanchier
Xyris longisepala
Helianthus carnosus
Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum
Lilium catesbaei
Lythrum curtissii
Lythrum flagellare
Hippomane mancinella
Polygonum meisnerianum
Panicum nudicaule
Campyloneurum angustifolium






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


quality thereof for public water supplies, for the propagation of wildlife,
fish and other aquatic life, and for domestic, agricultural, industrial, rec-
reational, and other beneficial uses. It also prohibits the discharge of
waste into Florida waters without treatment necessary to protect those
beneficial uses of the water."

Section 403.062 deals with pollution control; underground, surface,
and coastal waters. "The Department of Environmental Regulation and
its agents shall have general control and supervision over underground
water, lakes, rivers, streams, canals, ditches, and coastal water under
the jurisdiction of the state insofar as their pollution may affect the public
health or impair the interest of the public or persons lawfully using
them."

"Chapter 373-Florida Water Resources Act of 1972

Section 373.016 declares it to be the policy of the legislature:
"(a) To provide for the management of water and related land
resources;
"(b) To promote the conservation, development, and proper utiliza-
tion of surface groundwater;
"(d) To prevent damage from floods, soil erosion, and excessive
drainage;
"(e) To preserve natural resources, fish and wildlife;
"(g) Otherwise to promote the health, safety, and general welfare of
the people of this state.
It is the intent of the Legislature to vest in the Department of Environ-
mental Regulation or its successor agency the power and responsibility
to accomplish the conservation, protection, management, and control of
the waters of the state and with sufficient flexibility and discretion to
accomplish these ends through delegation of appropriate powers to the
various water management districts.

"St. Johns River Water Management Districts:
Chapter 40C-4--(Florida Administrative Code, hereafter referred to as
F.A.C.)-Management and Storage of Surface Water
Chapter 40C-4 is currently under extensive modification. It is recom-
mended that, upon adoption by the St. Johns River Water Management
Board, Chapter 40C-4 be thoroughly reviewed by Seminole County
Staff, and policy, goals and objectives, and ordinances made to conform.

"Chapter 372-Game and Fresh Water Fish
Section 372.072-Endangered and Threatened Species Act of 1977:
"(2) Declaration of Policy-The Legislature recognizes that the State
of Florida harbors a wide diversity of fish and wildlife and that it is the
policy of this state to conserve and wisely manage these resources, with
particular attention to those species defined by the Game and Fresh


130






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Peat waxes are produced commercially only in the Soviet Union where
they are used as release agents in foundry castings and on polyethylene
surfaces. Peat waxes are similar to montan wax which is derived from
lignite. Montan wax is a substitute for beeswax and carnauba wax and is
used as an industrial lubricant and as an ingredient in shoe and furniture
polish, electrical insulating materials and in candles (Minnesota DNR,
1981).
Peat resins are the primary byproducts of peat wax production. The
resins are of importance as a source of steroids for use by the pharma-
ceutical industry (Minnesota DNR, 1981).


CARBOHYDRATES

Peat carbohydrates consist primarily of cellulose and related materials
such as hemicellulose and starches (Fuchsman, 1978). Sugars are pro-
duced by acid hydrolysis for use in yeast culture. Yeast culture can be
optimized for the production of single cell protein or for the fermentation
of alcohol (Fuchsman, 1978).
Peat suitable for carbohydrate hydrolysis, according to Soviet criteria
are: Sphagnum peat with degree of decomposition less than 20 percent,
ash content less than five percent and at least 24 percent of the dry
weight of the peat recoverable as fermentable sugars from the easily
hydrolyzable carbohydrates (or 45 percent if difficulty hydrolyzable car-
bohydrates are included) (Fuchsman, 1978). Cellulose is classified as
being difficult to hydrolyze. The preferred Soviet process (Ishino, 1976,
in Fuchsman, 1978) is as follows: peat with a maximum grain size of 0.4
inches is slurried with water to 7 20 percent solids and mixed. The
suspension is then pumped at 5-7 atmospheres of pressure and con-
centrated sulfuric acid is added to give an overall acid concentration of
0.25- 1 percent. The slurry is heated to 2840F 3380F by steam injec-
tion and discharged to atmospheric pressure and reacted for 10-30
minutes. Volatile matter is flashed off, the fluid is diluted and reacts for
an additional 10 minutes at 2840F to allow hydrolysis completion. Solids
are then removed by sedimentation centrifuge or filtration. Yield by this
process is 34-40 percent of the peat dry weight.


HUMIC ACIDS

Fuchsman (1978) describes humic acid as "alkali-soluble, acid-
insoluble organic compounds, excluding bitumens and carbohydrates".
There are several lines of chemical modification of humic acid: pyrolysis,
oxidation and reduction (Fuchsman, 1978).
To date, there are no large scale commercial uses for humic acid.
Present industrial uses for humic acids include sizing for paper, tanning
agents, in fertilizers and as viscosity modifiers for oil well drilling mud






A

SW


160 LAKE ALTHA SWAMP


ALACHUA CO. BRADFORD CO.

HWY 325


SANTA FE SWAMP


140


S 0 I MILE
2
SCALE
100X VERT. EXAG.


A'


E 180

-160
S w
m
140 <
HWY 21A 140
I-20
120 LU-


Figure 27. Topographic profile of the Santa Fe Swamp peat deposit in Alachua and Bradford
counties. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.)


T1
m


"-



-o
0



0
,,






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


treated for disposal. Excess water is recycled to the fermenter (U.S.
Department of Energy, 1979).

Industrial Chemicals

Peat has been utilized as a raw material for the production of industrial
chemicals for many years in Europe and the Soviet Union. U.S. interest
has developed only recently. Peat bitumens, carbohydrates and humic
acids are extracted by processes at low to moderate temperatures. Peat
coke, peat tar and activated charcoal are produced by pyrolysis. The use
of peat for industrial chemicals does not pose major technical problems.
The technology has been developed in Europe and the Soviet Union. The
chemicals produced are similar to petroleum derived products. As petro-
leum becomes more expensive, the incentives to utilize peat will increase
(Minnesota DNR, 1981).

BITUMENS

Peat bitumens are those peat components which are soluble in nonpo-
lar organic solvents. The yield of bitumens depends on the extracting
solvent chosen. Yield increases from low to high in the following list of
solvents: petroleum ether, gasoline, dichloroethane, benzene,
ethanol:benzene (1:1) (Fuchsman, 1978). Although various solvents are
utilized for analytical purposes, gasoline is the solvent used in commer-
cial processes. Benzene is not used because of health hazards
(Bel'Kevich, 1977 in Fuchsman, 1978). The peat bitumens of commer-
cial interest are peat waxes and resins. The waxes are the most impor-
tant commercially (Fuchsman, 1978).
Peat, suitable for commercial wax production, contains at least five
percent gasoline extractable material and has an ash content less than
10 percent (Lishtvan and Korol, 1975, in Fuchsman, 1978). The wax
content of peat is higher in more highly decomposed peats (Naucke,
1966, in Fuchsman, 1978) particularly those with remains of shrubs and
trees (Fuchsman, 1978).
Dried peat particles in the size range of 0.02 inches-0.2 inches are
required for efficient solvent extraction. Wax extraction utilizes gasoline
as the solvent and extracts most of the wax but relatively few of the
resins (Bel'Kevich, 1977, in Fuchsman, 1978). Gasoline and peat are
mixed at 20:1. Approximately five percent of the gasoline is lost in the
process, with the rest being recycled after wax removal by solvent evap-
oration.
The crude wax contains some resins. Resins are partially removed by
treatment with an appropriate solvent (cold acetone, alcohol and ethyl
acetate) (Fuchsman, 1978). Further purification is accomplished by
treatment with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid at
1670F-2300F. The result is a fairly hard, light tan wax (Bel'Kevich,
1977, in Fuchsman, 1978).





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


621 Freshwater Swamps: (Level III)
"River, creek, and lake overflow areas. These communities
will have predominantly one or more of the following species:
Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens
River cypress, Taxodium distichum
Red maple, Acer rubrum
River birch, Betula nigra
Black willow, Salix nigra
Coastal plain willow, Salix caroliniana
Blackgum, Nyssa biflora
Ogeechee tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche
Water hickory, Carya aquatica
Water ash, Fraxinus caroliniana
Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis
"Bogs and bayheads. These communities will have predominantly one
or more of the following species:
Pond pine, Pinus serotina
Loblolly bay, Gordonia lasianthus
Sweet bay, Magnolia virginiana
Swampbay, Persea palustris
Titi, Cyrilla racemiflora
Spaghnum moss, Spaghnum sp.
"Inland ponds and sloughs. These communities will have predominantly
one or more of the following species:
Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens
Black gum, Nyssa biflora
Water tupelo, Nyssa aquatica
Titi, Cyrilla racemiflora, C. parviflora
Black titi, Cliftonia monophylla
Willow, Salix sp.
Primrose willow, Ludwigia peruviana
Pond apple, Annona glabra
630 WETLAND-MIXED FOREST: (Level II)
"Includes all wet forest areas in which neither coniferous nor hard-
wood species dominate. When more than one-third intermixture of
either species occurs, the specified classification is changed to
mixed. Where the intermixture is less than one-third, it is classified
as the dominant type, whether wetland coniferous or wetland
hardwood.
631 Mixed Forest: (Level III)
These forested areas are a mixture of coniferous and hard-
wood wetlands where neither tree type dominates. When
more than one-third intermixture occurs, the mixed classifi-
cation should apply.


123






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


literature supports the idea that significant recharge occurs in wetlands.
Some studies indicate that most wetlands are discharge areas while a
few provide limited recharge (Carter, et al., 1978).
Recharge in wetlands is not completely understood but is apparently
limited in its extent. Confusion in the literature suggests that generaliza-
tions concerning recharge in wetland areas should be made with caution
and that site specific studies may be needed in order to understand
individual systems.
In certain geologic settings, development of a wetland may indicate
favorable areas in exploration for groundwater. Carter, et al. (1978) note
that a wetland developed on a floodplain of water-saturated sand might
serve as an indicator of potential water supply while simultaneously
reducing groundwater levels by evapotranspiration and the inhibition of
downward percolation of water.
Wetlands have been cited as having a role in the control of both inland
and coastal erosion (Carter, et al., 1978). This role is dominantly related
to wetland vegetation which is described as serving three primary func-
tions: 1) binding and stabilization of substrate, 2) dissipation of wave and
current energy and 3) the trapping of sediment. Substantial evidence
exists suggesting that native plants are an effective part of natural ero-
sion control along river and lake shorelines. Limitations to that effective-
ness arise since vegetation can be undermined by wave and water,
severely damaged by floating debris or covered by debris and silt during
floods (Carter, et al., 1978). Vegetation performs a function in coastal
wetlands similar to that documented for inland lakes and rivers. It is
noted, however, that the ability of wetlands to mitigate the catastrophic
flooding from storm surge in combination with wind and high tide may be
relatively small (Carter, et al., 1978).
Brown, et al. (1983) list the following biological functions of wetlands:
1) wildlife utilization, 2) life form richness and 3) gross primary produc-
tivity. Wildlife use measures the diversity of species inhabiting a given
community. It is the summation of amphibians, reptiles, mammals and
birds which commonly inhabit any wetland community. Life form rich-
ness refers to diversity in the physical structure or growth habits of
plants. Various life forms comprise trees, shrubs, emergents, surface
plants and submergent plants (Brown, et al., 1983). Gross primary pro-
duction measures plant matter during the growing season that may even-
tually become food for various consumers. Gross production is important
since it is the first step in the food chain (Brown, et al., 1983).
Peat is frequently found in wetland environments, since waterlogging
is necessary in order for peat to accumulate and be preserved. The min-
ing of peat in wetlands will of necessity modify the wetland system from
which peat is taken. The hydrologic functions of a wetland are site spe-
cific (a wetland may or may not perform any given function) and, thus,
impacts of mining will also be site specific. Biologic functions of wet-
lands include the support of a diverse flora and fauna and also the gross
primary productivity of the environment itself. The modification of wet-






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


fiber A plant fragment in a peat or soil which is greater than .15 mm
in any dimension.

fuel grade peat (U.S. Department of Energy definition) Peat with less
than 25 percent ash content, heat value greater than 8,000 BTU/lb (dry
weight) and which is found in areas with more than 80 acres per square
mile of peat, at least 4 feet thick. Generally, hemic peats have the great-
est heat value.

fibric peat (U.S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat con-
taining more than 66.66 percent plant fibers (see also hemic and sapric).

fixed carbon In coal, coke and bituminous materials, the remaining
solid, combustible matter after removal of moisture, ash and volatile
matter, expressed as a weight percentage, following the procedures
specified by the American Society of Testing and Materials.

fluidized bed boiler A boiler design in which the fuel is agitated or
"boiled" by the introduction of air from beneath the fuel bed.

gasification In fuel technology, the conversion of a solid or liquid
hydrocarbon to a fuel gas.

geology The study of the planet Earth. It is concerned with the origin
of the planet, the material and morphology of the Earth, and its history
and the processes that acted (and act) upon it to affect its historic and
present forms.

graphite A hexagonal mineral, representing a naturally occurring
crystalline form of carbon dimorphous with diamond. It is opaque, lus-
trous, very soft, greasy to the touch and iron-black to steel-gray in color;
it occurs as crystals or as flakes, scales, laminae or grains, in veins or
bedded masses or as disseminations in metamorphic rocks. Graphite
conducts electricity and heat, and is used in lead pencils, paints, and
crucibles, as a lubricant as electrodes, and as a moderator in nuclear
reactors. Syn: plumbago; black lead.

grate fired boiler Boiler design in which the fuel load is supported by a
framework of metal bars.

gypsum widely distributed mineral consisting of hydrous calcium sul-
fate: CaSO4.2H20. It is the commonest sulfate mineral and is frequently
associated with halite and anhydrite in evaporites or forming thick,
extensive beds interstratified with limestone, shales and clays. Gypsum
is very soft (hardness of 2 on Mohs' scale) and is white or colorless when
pure, but can be tinted grayish, reddish, yellowish, bluish or brownish. It
occurs massive (alabaster), fibrous (satin spar) or in monoclinic crystals


106






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


S o. FIXED CARBON -12 A











COAL TYPES
WOOD PEAT LIGNiTE SUB-BITUMINOUS BIlUMINOUS ANTHRACITE

Figure 3. A comparison of moisture content and heating value
for peat, wood and various coal types. (Modified from
U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).



serve to inhibit decomposition by organisms. Ideally, areas should be
continually waterlogged, temperatures generally low and pH values of
associated waters should be low (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). It should
be noted that Moore and Bellamy (1974) primarily treat peats associated
with northern cold climates.
Certain geologic characteristics are associated with waterlogged sur-
face conditions. The tendency toward waterlogging is enhanced if topo-
graphic relief is generally low and topographic barriers exist which
restrict flow and allow water to pond. Additionally, waterlogging is
encouraged if highly permeable bedrock is covered with material of low
permeability (Olson, et al., 1979).
The chemical nature of the plant litter may also serve to reduce its
susceptibility to decomposition. Moore and Bellamy (1974) note the
association of cypress and hardwood trees in peats of the hammocks or
tree islands of the Everglades. These hammocks occur on peat deposits
wihnrhr cl lmts
Ceti elgccaateitc r soitd ihwtrogdsr
fac coditon. Te tndncytowrdwatrlogig i enaned f tpo





(1
0)


Table 3. Summary of County Level Permitting Requirements (Prepared by Bureau of Geology Staff).
Public
Title of Permit Administrative Hearing Hearing
County Ordinance Required Agency Required Body Comments


Clay Clay Co. Zoning
Ordinance 82-45




Dade County Zoning
Ordinance

Highlands County Zoning
Ordinance


Hillsborough County Zoning Code
and Borrow Pit
Ordinance


Lake


Lake Co. Zoning
Regulations 1971 -6


Borrow Pit Planning, Building
and Zoning Comm.




Excavation Building & Zoning
Permit Department

Special Planning and
Exception Zoning Department


Borrow Pit


Conditional
Use,
Operational


Development
coordination




Planning
Department


Yes Zoning Board
of Adjustment




Yes Zoning Appeals
Board

Yes Board of
Zoning
Adjustment


Mining is allowed only as a special
exception to zoning regulations. A
certified survey and site plan are
required. County regulations specify
setback and sloping requirements.
Public hearing approval by Z.A.B. is
required to obtain excavation
permit. No specific zoning required.
Permitted in industrial zoned areas;
and in agricultural zoned areas after
a special exception is granted.


Yes County Requires proper zoning, the
Commission issuance Borrow Pit Permit & the
approval of the Hillsborough County
Environmental Protection
Commission.


Yes Planning &
Zoning
Commission


C


0
'1

rn
m
O
I-
0


Allowable only agricultural zoned
areas after issuance of Conditional
Use Permit. Site plan is required.
Before final operational permit will
be granted all other permits required
(Ex. DER) must have been
approved.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


moving and excavating equipment. The machinery used includes drag-
lines, backhoes, grade-alls, front-end loaders and hydraulic excavators.
The majority of companies use a dragline for mining. A shredder is used
to pulverize the peat.
Most companies drain the immediate area of mining by ditching and
pumping which enables the deposit to be mined by dry processes.
Approximately one-third of the companies contacted conduct all or part
of their mining below the watertable.
Two companies utilize a variety of the milled peat mining process.
After surface clearing and ditching is complete, the surface peat is pul-
verized with a rotovater. The pulverized material is dried in the sun and is
turned by discing to help promote drying. The dried material is mechani-
cally windrowed using a front-end loader or bulldozer and is then stock-
piled or loaded for transport. There are no companies currently mining
peat by the sod peat method in Florida.

INDUSTRIAL USES OF PEAT

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

Industrial use of peat can be divided into two major categories: extrac-
tive and non-extractive (Minnesota DNR, 1981). The extractive uses
include direct combustion, gasification, industrial chemicals, horticul-
tural products and sewage treatment. The non-extractive uses include
agriculture, energy crops and sewage treatment (Minnesota DNR,
1981).

Preparation of Peat for Industrial Utilization

For most applications, peat must be dewatered before processing.
Uses for biogasification, some energy crops and sewage treatment proc-
esses do not require dewatering.
Solar drying in the field is energy efficient but is not suitable to wet
mining processes or to all mining plans. Its feasibility is strongly depen-
dent on climate, especially rainfall. Alternative dewatering processes
include mechanical presses and thermal dryers, in addition to pretreat-
ment processes such as wet carbonization, wet oxidation and solvent
extraction.
Mechanical methods are limited in the amount of water they can
remove. Most of the water contained in peat is held in chemical bonds,
colloidal suspensions and small pores in the organic matter. Mechanical
methods may reduce water content to 70 percent at best (Minnesota
DNR, 1981). Thermal dryers can be utilized to reduce the moisture con-
tent further. The efficiency of mechanical dewatering is greatly
enhanced by pretreatment processes such as wet carbonization, wet
oxidation and solvent extraction. Peat can be mechanically dewatered to








30 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY







"" ; -" :: .




A Muck n a . a d. .




B Loxahatchee Peat ..
C Loxohatchee Peat 0
D COASTAL MANGROVE &
SALT-MARSH PETS. -' -.




E CORKSCREW MARSH -- -
G ISTOKPOGA MARSH SWAMP .-



H UPPER STly JOHNS RIVER
FELLSMERE AREA -
D COASTAL MANGROVE ; \ *- A


SPACE CREEK DRAINAGE



DISTRICT AREA '
J CLERMONT MARSH V





L OKLAWAHA RIVER AREA"

M ORANGE LAKE -
FLORAHOME AREA ,. "


STATE OF FLORIDA
K LAKE APOPK SHed e-pi-t 'Fr m Dis 1
M ORANGE LAKE ......... p . . ... ..
N FLORAHOME AREA r .. " E \_ .--- ;[ .
SAMPLES TAKEN AND SMALLER .. i ...
F e PEAT AR EAtS A F .10 D. o i, .

T O. . .- ......f. .. ..-.
,, - -TAT FL RD ,\--- '-1 - --V.-


Fig.ue 1 .. -Peatdepo Sits Win F l o ,i a. F .i 1946)








Fgr13 Peat depsits Fi Fm a, 16.
Fiue 3 PeatE dRepoit inNG Flrd .(rm ai,14 )





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


200,000 acres of peatlands and five other large leases were requested in
which peat was destined for horticultural usage.
The Minnesota Legislature responded by funding the Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources to study some implications of peat
mining (Malterer, 1980). The Minnesota Study included consideration of
the following topics: 1) socioeconomic implications, 2) policy, 3) leasing,
4) environmental baseline studies, and 5) a separately funded resource
estimation of the state's peatlands. Environmental baseline studies
included air, water, vegetation and wildlife. Studies of utilization oppor-
tunities and constraints as well as studies of opportunities for reclama-
tion following mining were completed (Asmussen, 1980). These studies
pointed out a number of land-use options including: 1) preservation of
peatlands, 2) use of peatlands for agriculture, 3)forestry, 4) mining of
peat for horticulture, 5) mining and processing of peat for industrial
chemicals, and 6) mining of peat for energy and conversion. A panel of
peatland ecologists is working toward identification of bogs with preser-
vation value based on uniqueness, representativeness and recreation
value. Reclamation of peatlands for use as wildlife habitat has been
investigated in a study which monitored the evolution of recently exca-
vated ponds in peat.
Farnham, et al. (1980) note that the stability of any given crop
depends on climate, hydrology, chemical and physical properties of peat
and marketability of final products. The major limit to agricultural devel-
opment in northern Minnesota is the relatively short, frost-free period
each year (June 1-August 15). These authors (Farnham, et al., 1980)
report that studies dealing with grasses and grains show no significant
difference in yield and quality between crops grown on the surface of
developed or excavated peatlands.
Two reclamation options being considered by Minnesota researchers,
as well as worldwide workers, are agriculture and bioenergy (Farnham,
et al., 1980). Reclamation research aimed at agriculture has identified
vegetable and agronomic crops adaptable to northern Minnesota. Spe-
cies have been placed in mined and unmined environments with species
and fertilizer treatments varied to allow recognition of factors which
enhance productivity (Asmussen, 1980). Bioenergy crops (cattails, wil-
lows and alders, among others) are currently under investigation for
cultivation in wetlands since production of these crops would provide a
renewable energy resource. S.R.I.C. ("short rotation intensively culti-
vated") refers to the application of agricultural techniques developed to
promote growth of selected bioenergy crops (Farnham, et al., 1980).
The extensive peatlands of Minnesota have been the subject of inten-
sive research since 1975. The research program was devised to provide
information on which to base leasing decisions. One continuing thrust of
this research has been the identification of reclamation methods specifi-
cally adapted to the climate and geologic setting of Minnesota's
peatlands.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 7. Plant communities of concern-based on Nature Conservancy
recommendations.
FLOODPLAIN SWAMP SLOUGH
Water Elm/Ash Swamp Water Elm/Pop Ash Slough
Slash Pine Swamp Pond Apple/Pop Ash Slough

STREAMBANK THICKET BASIN SWAMP
White Cedar Bog Slash Pine Swamp

STRAND SWAMP BAYGALL
Cypress/Royal Palm Strand Everglades Bayhead



ward, black mangroves closer to shore and white mangroves furthest
inland. These swamps support large estuarine areas.
The Nature Conservancy has inventoried the plant communities in Flor-
ida and assigned each community a rank in relation to how commonly it
occurs. The plant communities of concern are listed in Table 7 (Linda
Deuver, personal communication, 1983).
It was suggested that specific native communities with tropical affini-
ties might be of such limited extent that peat mining in south Florida
could possibly lead to the destruction of certain groups (Linda Deuver,
personal communication, 1983).
The existence of endangered, threatened, rare or species of special
concern in areas of potential peat mining should be determined on a site-
by-site basis rather than a general habitat basis. Each site should be
investigated and the presence of species in question documented (R.
Kautz, personal communication, 1983). The site specific investigations
are necessary to avoid over generalization concerning the occurrence (or
nonoccurrence) of endangered species.
Table 8 is a compilation of species which are endangered, threatened,
rare or of special concern. This information was gathered from the series
entitled "Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida", from the official list of
the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission entitled "Endan-
gered and Potentially Endangered Fauna and Flora in Florida" and from
data supplied by the Nature Conservancy. Species whose habitat coin-
cides with areas of potential peat accumulation were included. This list-
ing should not be considered all encompassing and up-to-date on species
status. The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission updates their list
periodically and should be consulted for the most recent compilation.
Comments concerning individual endangered species in relation to
peatlands have been received by the staff of the Bureau of Geology.
Charles Lee (Florida Audubon, personal communication, 1983)
expressed concern for the Florida Panther and the Ivory-billed Wood-
pecker. He suggested that peat mining might disrupt portions of the
panther's habitat. Lee also noted that if any Ivory-billed Woodpeckers






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The organic soils of the Everglades are a collection of organic particles
and mineral particles which are interspersed with void spaces or pores.
When these pores are filled with water the micro-organisms which
actively decompose the organic soil are unable to function or function at
a greatly reduced rate (Snyder, et al., 1978). This is the condition that
allowed organic soils to accumulate before modification of natural drain-
age patterns. Biochemical oxidation of organic soils is facilitated by
warm temperatures, low water tables, high pH and high organic content
(Stephens, 1974).
Drained organic soils of the Florida Everglades Agricultural Area sub-
side at an average rate of approximately one inch/year (Stephens, 1974).
This rate varies with variation of depth to the water table. Rates of
subsidence for experimental plots with water table depths of 12 inches,
24 inches and 36 inches were measured to be 0.6 inches per year, 1.4
inches per year and 2.3 inches per year, respectively.
Subsidence has been documented in the Everglades using repeated
surveys of ground elevation along certain lines. In Figures 17, 18 and 19
(Stephens and Johnson, 1951), the solid lines represent the original
elevation of the surface of the ground and the elevation as measured in
1940. The dashed lines indicate the topographic elevations predicted
from subsidence rates. Stephens (1974) notes that subsidence was
measured to be 33.5 inches between 1941 and 1966 in the upper Ever-
glades which may be compared to a predicted subsidence loss of 33.0
inches in 25 years (Stephens and Johnson, 1951).
Rates of subsidence in the Everglades Agricultural Area vary with the
depth to which the water table is maintained. The depth at which the
water table is maintained depends on optimum conditions for each land
use. Snyder, et al. (1978) note that most vegetable crops produce high
yields when the water table is maintained at 24 inches below the sur-
face. Sugar cane normally requires a water table depth which is greater
than 24 inches; and in certain organic soils, a water table depth of 30 to
36 inches greatly improves sugar cane quality. Water tables for cattle
and sod production may be maintained at levels which would be consid-
ered too high for most crops. It is important to note that extremely high
water tables may cause problems specifically related to crop land use
even though high water tables allow maximum soil preservation (Snyder,
et al., 1978).

Conservation Measures

Researchers who have worked in the Everglades Agricultural Area sug-
gest that maintenance of high water tables is the most effective measure
available for conservation of organic soils. Tate (1980) notes that the
only feasible means of controlling subsidence is knowledgeable manipu-
lation of the water table. Snyder, et al. (1978) recommend: "For best
conservation organic soils should be kept flooded whenever not in use.
When soils are used, the water table should be maintained as high as is






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Vegetative Communities for Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands
640 WETLAND-VEGETATED NON-FORESTED: (Level II)
"These lands are found in seasonally flooded basins, meadows,
and marshes. Wetlands are usually confined to relatively level
areas. When forest crown cover is less than the threshold for
wetland forest or is non-woody, it will be included in this category.
Sawgrass, Cattail, and Wet Prairie are predominant communities
in freshwater marshes, while Spartina and Needlerush are the pre-
dominant salt marsh communities.
641 Freshwater Marsh: (Level III)
These communities will have predominantly one or more of
the following species:
Sawgrass Marsh
Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicensis
Arrowhead, Sagittaria sp.
Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon
Cattail, Typha domingensis, T. latifolia, T. angustifolia
Pickerel weed, Pontederia lanceolata, P. cordata
Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis
Spartina, Spartina baker
Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum
Cattail-Bulrush-Maidencane Marsh
"These communities have predominantly one or more of the
following species:
Cattail, Typha latifolia, T. domingensis, T. angustifolia
Bulrush, Scirpus americanus, S. validus, S. robustus
Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon
Spartina, Spartina baker
Pickerel weed, Pontederia landeolata, P. cordata
Water lily, Nymphaea sp.
Spatterdock, Nuphar sp.
Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis
Bladderwort, Utricularia sp.
Needlerush, Juncus effusus
Common reed, Phragmites communis australiss)
Wet Prairies
"These communities will have predominantly one or more
of the following species:
Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon
Cordgrasses, Spartina bakeri, S. patens
Spikerushes, Eleocharis sp.
Beak rushes, Rhynchospora sp.
St. Johns wort, Hypericum sp.
Spiderlily, Hymenocallis palmer
Swamplily, Crinum americanum


124






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Table 2. Proportions of the Organic soils of the Everglades Agricultural
Area falling into categories based on thickness (after Snyder,
1978).
YEAR 0 to 1 ft. 1 to 3 ft. 3 to 5 ft. over 5 ft.
1912 0 1 3 95
1925 1 3 7 89
1940 1 7 14 85
1950 2 7 28 78
1960 4 12 28 55
1970 11 16 41 45
1980 17 28 41 14
1990 27 28 39 7
2000 45 42 9 4



MINING TECHNOLOGY

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

Mining Methodology Associated with the Use of Peat for Fuel

Recently, several potential commercial users have been investigating
Florida's peat as a fuel source. This interest is prompted by the rising
cost of traditional fuels. Preliminary proposals for the use of peat as a fuel
in Florida suggest that peat will be air dried and burned directly. This
usage will require comparatively large amounts of peat which must be
dried before it is burned (this drying is in addition to the moisture reduc-
tion which accompanies bog drainage) (U.S. Department of Energy,
1979). The drainage of a peatland is an integral and necessary first step
in any large-scale peat mining operation utilizing milled peat or sod peat
mining methods. Moisture must be reduced to approximately 90 percent
for the bog to be considered workable (i.e., able to bear the weight of
machinery).
Drainage is accomplished by construction of a system of ditches and
waterways which are designed to capture water and route it away from
the portion of the bog to be mined (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). If
surface streams traverse the bog, they are diverted around it. Eventually,
surface vegetation and stumps must be removed.
There are several mining methods in common use in Europe. The man-
ual method is one in which peat is cut into blocks by hand, removed from
the bog for air drying and finally burned for home heating and cooking
(U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Manual peat harvesting is labor
intensive and probably will not become important in Florida.
The sod peat mining method is one in which a trench is cut into a
previously prepared field. These trenches are cut by excavator/
macerators which are specifically designed to cut, macerate, and


































Figure 11. Cross-section using cores to show buried peat layers at Eureka Dam site, Oklawaha
River, Marion County, Florida. (From Davis, 1946.)





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the discharge waters. Water resource parameters are not expected to be
severely affected by small scale operations but may be more seriously
impacted by larger scale development. The impacts of mining on air
quality arise from mining, processing, and utilizing peat as a fuel. They
are specific to an operation's size, mining method, and the intended use
for the product. Endangered species, both plant and animal, may inhabit
peatlands. The change in habitat brought about by peat mining might
lead to the destruction of certain stressed species associated with a
mined area.
Research in Minnesota, North Carolina, Finland, and New Brunswick,
Canada, show that reclamation techniques can be successfully applied
to peatlands; although, reclamation techniques are specific to those
areas and do not address problems inherent to Florida peatlands. Recla-
mation of Florida's peatlands may involve a change from wetland sys-
tems to other systems (probably aquatic systems). Restoration of mined
peatlands to their original state (for the most part wetlands) will, in all
probability, be financially unfeasible.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The initial outline for this study was read and improved by David Gluck-
man, representing the Florida Chapter of the Sierra Club; Charles Lee,
representing the Florida Audubon Society; and Katherine Ewel, Helen
Hood, John Kaufmann, and Marjorie Carr, representing the Florida
Defenders of the Environment. Richard P. Lee, Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation offered helpful comments on the outline and
sent valuable references concerning wetlands. Irwin Kantrowitz, United
States Geological Survey read the outline and offered assistance. Ronnie
Best of the Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, provided an excel-
lent perspective on the values attributed to wetlands provided a most
useful reference. Roy Ingram, Professor of Geology at the University of
North Carolina, Chapel Hill, provided work space, access to his personal
collection of peat reference works and the benefit of his research experi-
ence through numerous informal conversations concerning various
aspects of peat.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study was undertaken in response to a directive from the Florida
Legislature originating in the Natural Resources Committee of the Florida
House of Representatives. Florida is currently faced with immediate
expanding industrial interest in the exploitation of its peat resources for
fuel use. The study is primarily a compilation of literature pertinent to
peats of Florida and their use for agriculture and energy applications. It is
conceived as providing an information base for decisions concerning
both the utilization and conservation of Florida's extensive peat
resource.