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 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Preface
 Introduction
 History
 A survey of Florida’s mineral...
 Functions of the bureau
 Services to governmental agencies,...
 Looking ahead
 Bibliography
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


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The Florida Bureau of Geology
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000464/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Florida Bureau of Geology past, present, and future
Physical Description: iii, 48 leaves : ill., maps ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hoenstine, Ronald W
Weissinger, Sheila
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1983
Copyright Date: 1983
 Subjects
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Ronald W. Hoenstine, Jr. and Sheila Weissinger.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaf 48.
General Note: Florida Geological Survey special publication 26
General Note: "75th Anniversary, Florida Bureau of Geology."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - NOT FOU
notis - AER8310
alephbibnum - 000955681
oclc - 13021083
System ID: UF00000464:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    History
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    A survey of Florida’s mineral resources
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Functions of the bureau
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Services to governmental agencies, industry, and public
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Looking ahead
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Bibliography
        Page 48
    Back Matter
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Back Cover
        Page 52
        Page 53
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P K YONGE
LIBRARY
OF
FLORIDA
HISTORY























YONGE LIBRARY
:LORIDA HISTORY

ERSITY OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES





IN MEMORIAL
BERT W. PATRICK
1909-1967


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director


DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Casey J. Gluckman, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26

THE FLORIDA BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE


By
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Jr. and Sheila Weissinger


75th ANNIVERSARY
FLORIDA BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Prepared by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1983


Florida Bureau of Geology LiDrary
903 W. Tennessee St.
Tallahassee. FL 32304
PKY LIBRARY
OF FLA. HISTORY


/Vo.2












r''' '


FLORIDA BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


First row, left to right Paulette Bond, Mary Ann Cleveland, Randy Musgrove,
Dorothy Janson, Amber Mahaffey, Pauline Hurst, Joan Ragland, Jacqueline Lloyd,
Walt Schmidt, Sheila Weissinger. Second row left to right Ken Campbell, Susie
Coleman, Zoe Kulakowski, Sandie Ray, Tom Allen, Richard Seymore, Greg Daugherty,
Steve Spencer. Third row left to right Ron Hoenstine, David Curry, Ed Lane,
Bill Yon, Lee Sherwood, Lee Edmiston, Earl Maxwell, Al Applegate, Charles W.
(Bud) Hendry, Jr. Fourth row left to right Albert Phillips, Justin Hodges,
Bruce Greenwood, Ernest Bishop, Charles Tootle, Richard Howard, Steve Windham,
Ross McWilliams, and Jack Merriam.


'' k a` ; `;;
J", -!
.*:.






YANGE
LIB. OF
FLA HISl.


STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director


DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Casey J. Gluckman, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26

THE FLORIDA BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE


By,
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Jr. and Sheila Weissinger


75th ANNIVERSARY
FLORIDA BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Prepared by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1983


Florida Bureau of Geology Library
903 W. Tennessee St.
Tallahassee, FL 32304













DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES



BOB GRAHAM
Governor


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State


BILL GUNTER
Treasurer


RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


JIM SMITH
Attorney General


GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller


DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
March 17, 1983




Governor Bob Graham, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Graham:

The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource
Management, Department of Natural Resources, is
publishing as its Special Publication No. 26, "Florida
Bureau of Geology, Past, Present, and Future," pre-
pared by Ronald Hoenstine and Sheila Weissinger.

Respectfully yours,



Charles W. Hendry, Jr.
Chief
Bureau of Geology













TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

PREFACE-1907 Act Establishing the Florida
\ Geological Survey............................
INTRODUCTION*..............................
HISTORY........................................
State Geologists......... ..................
Elias Sellards, 1907-1919................
Herman Gunter, 1919-1958.................
Robert O. Vernon, 1958-1971...............
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., 1971-Present.....
A SURVEY OF FLORIDA'S MINERAL RESOURCES........
Phosphate........................... .......
Limestone and Dolomite.....................
Sand and Gravel ...........................
Heavy Minerals and Rare Earth Minerals.....


Oil and Gas................................
FUNCTIONS OF THE BUREAU........................
Geologic Investigations Section............
Geologic Data Base......................
Stratigraphy.............................
Applied Geology...........................
Publications ...... .....................
Oil and Gas Section........................
Reclamation Regulation Section.............
Office of Reclamation Research.............
SERVICES TO GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES,
INDUSTRY, AND PUBLIC.........................
Cooperative Studies........................
Educational Services.......................
LOOKING AHEAD..................................
SELECTED REFERENCES............................





iii













ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure
1. Organizational charts for 1907 and
present................................
2. Location of major known solid
mineral deposits........................
3. Production and value for phosphate
(1972-82)...............................
4. Production and value for crushed
limestone (1972-82) ....................
5. Production and value for sand and
gravel (1972-82)........................
6. Past, present, and projected oil and
gas production in Florida for years
1943-1990................................
7. Location of past and present Florida
oil and gas fields......................
8. Regional and county geologic studies......

Table
1. Mineral production in Florida for 1982....
2. Florida's ranking in U.S. nonfuel
mineral supply in 1981..................
3. Leading producers of phosphate rock
in the world............................
4. Estimated acres disturbed by mining.......










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


PREFACE
1907 ACT ESTABLISHING THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

The State Geological Survey was authorized by the
General Assembly of 1907. The act establishing the
,Survey reads as follows:
AN ACT establishing a Geological Survey for the State
of Florida,
to provide for the appointment of a State
Geologist, to define his duties, and to provide
for the maintenance of the survey.
Be it Enacted by the Legislature of the State of
Florida:
Section 1. That the Governor of the State
shall appoint a suitable person to conduct a
geological survey of the State; such person shall be
known as the State Geologist, and shall have his
office at the Capitol.
Section 2. The State Geologist shall appoint
subject to the approval of the Governor such
assistance as he may find necessary to enable him to
successfully, and with reasonable dispatch, accomplish
the object of the survey, and such assistance shall be
entirely under the control of the State Geologist.
Section 3. The State Geologist shall make to the
Governor annually a report of the progress of his
surveys and explorations of the minerals, water supply
and other natural resources of the State, and he shall
include in such report full description of such
surveys and explorations, occurrence and location of
mineral and other deposits of value, surface and
subterranean water supply and power and mineral waters
and the best and most economical methods of
development, together with analysis of soils, minerals
and mineral waters, with maps, charts and drawings of
the same; and it shall be the duty of the State
Geologist and his assistants, when they discover any
mineral deposits or other substance of value, to
notify the owner of the land upon which such deposits
occur. Failure of the said Geologist to notify the
owner of such deposit before disclosing to any other










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


person or persons, shall subject said Geologist to a
fine of one thousand dollars and six months
imprisonment.
Section 4. It shall be the duty of the State
Geologist to make collections of specimens
illustrating the geological and mineral features of
the State; one suit of which shall be deposited in the
office of the State Geologist, at Tallahassee, and
duplicate suits in the libraries of each of the State
Colleges; each suit to be correctly labeled for
convenient use and study.
Section 5. That for the purpose of expeditiously
and thoroughly carrying out the provisions of this
act, there shall be appropriated out of any moneys in
the Treasury not otherwise appropriated the sum of
seven thousand five hundred dollars per annum. The
Comptroller shall, upon the requisition of the State
Geologist, when approved by the Governor, draw his
warrant on the Treasurer for the amount so
appropriated in such sums as may be needed from time
to time for the purpose of said survey as herein set
forth; and for all such expenditures made under the
provisions of this act except for the payment of the
salary of the State Geologist, as herein provided, the
consent and approval of the Governor shall be
obtained, and the vouchers for all such expenditures
made from this fund shall be filed with the
Comptroller; and a statement of his receipts and
expenditures shall be printed in such annual report of
the State Geologist. Of the amount annually
appropriated, there shall be expended: First, for the
salary of the State Geologist, two thousand five
hundred dollars per annum, which salary is hereby
fixed at that sum. Second, for the contingent
expenses of the survey, including compensation of all
temporary and permanent assistance; traveling expenses
of the geological corps; purchase of materials or,
other necessary expenses for outfit; expenses incurred
in providing for the transportation, arrangement and
proper exhibition of the geological and other
collections made under the provisions of this act; for










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


postage, stationery and printing, and the printing and
engraving of maps and sections to illustrate the
annual reports, five thousand dollars, or so much
thereof as may be necessary.
Section 6. All chemical, analytical or assay
work shall be performed by the State Chemist and his
assistants, at the direction of the Governor, upon
request of the State Geologist.
Section 7. All laws and parts of laws
inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed.
Section 8. This act shall take effect upon its
passage and approval by the Governor, or upon its
becoming a law without such approval.
Approved June 3, 1907.


INTRODUCTION

During fiscal year 1982-83, the Florida Bureau of
Geology celebrates its 75th year of service. The
Bureau is an organizational unit within the Florida
Department of Natural Resources. One of the Bureau's
primary objectives. is to study Florida's geological
resources and to make the data and interpretations
derived from these investigations available to other
governmental agencies, the general public and the
scientific community. This information is essential
to the formulation and evaluation of effective
policies dealing with the management, utilization and
conservation of Florida's valuable resources. In
addition the Bureau is responsible for regulating
various phases of exploration and production of
hydrocarbons and to regulate the reclamation of,
certain mined lands.
Between 1852 and 1907, this organization twice
lost its struggle for existence. Even after existence
was assured in 1907, the Bureau experienced three
reorganizations and several name changes. These
changes reflect in part Florida's response to the
expanding demand for efficient utilization of its
mineral resources, and increased concern for the
environment.










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The Bureau's early beginnings date back to the
mid-nineteenth century. Florida, as well as other
states throughout the young nation, was struggling to
establish funding for its governmental activities.
Consequently, during this period the discovery and
development of mineral resource deposits on public
lands was of special interest. This concern continues
today, as Florida's future remains dependent upon the
identification and wise use of its limited natural
resources. Necessary to the effective management of
these resources is cooperation among such agencies as
the Florida Bureau of Geology, the legislature, city
and county planners, and the general public.
The way in which Florida, a state once thought to
have "no geology", came to discover and use its
mineral potential is closely interwoven with the
history of Florida's geological survey. The occasion
of the Bureau's 75th anniversary presents an
opportunity to review both past and present
accomplishments and look ahead to future needs and
concerns.

HISTORY

The beginnings of the Florida Bureau of Geology
can be traced to the year 1852 when the office of
State Engineer and Geologist was authorized by the
legislature. The man chosen to head this new office
was "General" Francis L. Dancy, a former militia
officer and mayor of St. Augustine. Although he
lacked a geological background, Dancy's extensive
experience in engineering and construction was useful
since his responsibilities included overseeing the
drainage of lowland areas for agricultural
development. Unfortunately, funding proved a problem.
When, in November of 1855, he requested $500 to enable
him to test soils in various parts of the state,, the
post was abolished.
It wasn't until 1880 when the Alabama State
Geologist, Eugene A. Smith, reported the presence of
phosphoric acid in a sample of Florida building stone
that the potential economic value of Florida's mineral










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


resources began to be recognized. Since phosphoric
acid is an essential substance which is easily
depleted from the soil by intensive cultivation, the
possibility of commercially valuable phosphate in the
state represented a windfall. Not only was phosphate
valuable as a fertilizer, but increased mining
activities would attract northern capital, provide
employment opportunities, encourage construction of
railroads, harbor facilities, and in other ways "open
up" the state for further development.
Because of the phosphate and the possible
existence of other valuable minerals, Governor E. A.
Perry appointed Dr. John Kost, a medical doctor and
amateur eeoloilst, as State Geologist in 1886. Upon
assuming his post, Kost initiated studies of phosphate
and other minerals in the state, of which a report was
completed in 1887. The report began:
"To His Excellency, E. A. Perry,
Governor of the State of Florida. Sir:
I have the honor to report that I
proceeded immediately to the work of
the State Geological Survey, after
receiving my commission, and that I
have improved (sic) all my time in,the
work of the survey that my other
professional duties permit...I am ready
now to state that the results of my
observations will fully justify the
Legislature this spring to provide for
a two year's work in a regular
geological survey of the State...."
However, Dr. Kost's recommendations suffered a fate
similar to General Dancy's and his request for funding
to extend the survey was rejected. As a result,
during the following two decades, the study of
Florida's geology was principally conducted by the
United States Geological Survey, mining companies and
other private industries.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Legislative action to provide a full-fledged
state geological survey was initiated in 1903 by
freshman Senator E. S. Crill of Palatka and
Representative DeWitt Webb of St. Johns County. This
legislation, which was finally passed in 1907,
provided for an autonomous permanent geological survey
and an office of State Geologist who, with his staff,
would conduct a geological survey of Florida. This
new organization was called the Florida Geological
Survey.
This law was exemplary in that the state was
willing to subsidize a geological survey which would
be permitted latitude in its choice of studies and
research (Act creating the Survey, see Preface). The
law remained unchanged until 1933, at which time the
Survey was placed under the newly-formed State Board
of Conservation. This organization was comprised of
the Florida Geological Survey, the Department of Game
and Fresh Water Fish, and the Office of Shell Fish
Commissioner. Though the administrative structure was
altered, the Geological Survey remained essentially
autonomous in function, as it had been since 1907.
The 1907 Florida Geological Survey organization and
the present organization are shown in Figure 1.






















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,- -.M [ 1 ,.l.Bii.l.-. I ........... 1 z------ -

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M.I.... I CI- I ."..III ...-..... I | '-' I










SFIgure 1. Organizational charts for 1907 and pre-
sent.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
STATE GEOLOGISTS













S .".














1907-1919

Since passage of the 1907 law, there have been
four state geologists. The first was Dr. Elias
Sellards who was appointed by Governor Napoleon B.
Broward. Sellards, who for two years was assistant
paleontologist with the Kansas Geological Survey,
received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University
of Kansas and his Ph.D. from Yale University. He
taught geology and mineralogy at Rutgers University
then, in 1904, became an instructor at the University
of Florida.
While at the University of Florida, Sellards
devoted a considerable amount of time to the study of
Florida's underground water resources, a subject of
special concern to the state's agricultural interests.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


tly, water resource studies became a primary
the early work done by the survey staff.
rly investigations, which included the
id water supply of central Florida and a
road materials, were directed toward serving
economic needs. In later years the emphasis
ore academic, and expanded to include
)gy and general Florida geology.
Sellards' guidance, the Geological Survey
as a permanent department of state
S and notably without political
ice. After Sellard's resignation in April of
joined the Bureau of Economic Geology of the
Texas. His former student and staff
Herman Gunter, assumed the position of
logist following Sellards' resignation.


Herman Gunter
1919-1958










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Herman Gunter's association with the Florida
Geological Survey spanned almost 52 years a length
of service unmatched by any other state geologist.
Gunter graduated from the University of Florida with a
B.S. degree in 1907 and in that same year joined the
Survey staff. His advancement to director in 1919
ensured that the position was staffed by someone
well-versed in Florida geology.
As the Geological Survey's second director, he
changed the survey's emphasis somewhat by making its
reports more diverse and less academic in outlook, and
by more closely relating the Geological Survey's work
to the needs of state government. In his role as
administrator, Gunter encouraged cooperation with the
state's public schools, enlarged the Geological
Survey's museum and library, and thereby acted on his
belief that a primary purpose of the Florida
Geological Survey was to serve as a highly accessible
source of information on Florida geology.
Under Gunter's direction the Florida Geological
Survey initiated a conservation campaign aimed at
exposing the gross damage being done to the state's
underground and surface water supplies by careless
drilling practices and misuse of water. In response
to this campaign, a bill was introduced in 1937 to
protect the state's water resources; however, it
failed to pass the legislature.
His interest in the preservation of the water
resources of Florida propelled him to the forefront as
an opponent of the Cross Florida Barge Canal
(originally conceived as a sea level ship canal across
Florida).. Also under Gunter, work was begun on
investigating Florida's mineral resources. He sought
and obtained funding for a cooperative venture with
the U.S. Geological Survey to complete topographic
mapping of the state.
His contributions to geologic research were
formally recognized by the University of Florida when,
in 1944, he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of
Science. His accomplishments were varied and
distinguished and laid a firm foundation for the
future. When he retired in 1958, Herman Gunter had










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


most 52 years with the Florida Geological
In recognition of his service, the building
houses the Florida Bureau of Geology is
Gunter Building.


Robert O. Vernon
1958-1971

in Gunter's successor was Robert O. Vernon,
d the survey as an assistant state geologist
Vernon received his B.S. from Birmingham
College, his M.S. from the University of
his Ph.D. from Louisiana State University.
sizing geologic research, Vernon conducted
ipated in a large number of investigations on
geology. Part of this emphasis resulted in
sion of the Florida Geological Survey U.S.
I Survey cooperative program in water









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


resource investigations.
Recognizing the need for conservation of
Florida's limited water resources, much of his time
was spent informing the public about Florida geology
and hydrology through numerous publications, public
forums, and presentations to schools and civic
organizations. The Florida statutes relating to
conservation of water resources are principally the
direct result of Vernon's efforts.
It was also largely through his efforts that the
legislature authorized and funded the construction of
a geologic center comprised of the Florida State
University's Department of Geology and the Florida
Bureau of Geology. The proximity of these entitles,
which are housed next to each other on the campus of
Florida State University, has provided for a
cooperative use of scientific equipment and library
facilities, and has encouraged an open and stimulating
exchange of ideas between the university and the
survey over the years. It also has enhanced
opportunities for student employment at the Florida
Bureau of Geology and has benefited the survey staff
by supplying skilled, knowledgeable graduate students
to assist in areas involving practical geological
research.
In November of 1971, Vernon resigned as Bureau
Chief and accepted the position of Director of the
Division of Interior Resources in the Department of
Natural Resources. Robert Vernon is remembered as a
dedicated professional, who devoted many years of
thought and energy to Florida geology.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


LI


Charles W. Hendry, Jr.
1971-Present

Upon Vernon's resignation in 1971, Charles W.
"Bud" Hendry, Jr., assumed the post of State Geologist
and Chief of the Bureau of Geology. An employee of
the Florida Geological Survey since 1949, Hendry has
held a number of positions including draftsman,
stratigrapher, director of water resource
investigations, and assistant state geologist. In
addition to earning his B.S. from Florida State
University, Hendry had the distinction of receiving
the first M.S. degree in geology awarded by Florida
State University.
Aware of a growing population and its increasing
impact on Florida's environment, Hendry has recognized
the importance of the role of the Bureau of Geology in
providing the geological data necessary to evaluate
and mitigate these impacts. Consequently, under
Hendry's direction the primary focus of the programs
of the Bureau has been on "applied geology." This
approach directs the efforts of the Bureau to seek
answers to questions and problems concerning man's
impact on the state's geologic environment. In the
process of pursuing this objective, the Bureau has










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


significantly increased its geologic data base. These
data and their interpretation are provided to other
governmental agencies and the general public through
publications, seminars and service as geologic
consultants. A prime example of the type of
geological data offered the public is the recently
completed statewide Environmental Geology Map Series,
which were designed to present geologic data and their
interpretation in a manner easily understood by the
general public.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


A SURVEY OF FLORIDA'S MINERAL RESOURCES

Florida is more than just the Sunshine State, for
below its surface lie valuable minerals which add
significantly to the State's economy. The value of
these commodities, illustrated in Table 1, contributes
in excess of $3 billion annually to the state in the
form of sales, salaries, and taxes. The mining
industry employs thousands of workers, with the
phosphate industry alone employing more than 14,000
(1981 data, Florida Phosphate Council). Florida's
importance as a mineral producer in the United States
is presented in Table 2. The locations of Florida's
major mineral deposits are illustrated in Figure 2.





Phosphate

Phosphate represents the most important mineral
in Florida in terms of both sales and production
(Figure 3). Florida is the largest producer of
phosphate rock in the world, accounting for over 80
percent of total U.S. production, and one-third of
world production (Table 3). Florida's estimated
reserves are enormous, totaling more than 4 billion
tons.
Although pebble phosphate was mined from the
Peace River in central Florida as early as 1881, it
wasn't until the late 1880's that land surface mining
began in Florida. The production of phosphate, which
totaled several thousand tons in 1888, increased to












BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 1 PRELIMINARY DATA MINERAL PRODUCTION N


1982
Value
Mineral Quantity Thousand
I Dollars


Cement, masonry...thousand short tons...... 235 17,200
Cement, portland...thousand short tons..... 2,600 149,800
Clays........................do............ 680 31,9152
Lime................ do ...do ........... 150 9,354
Peat...............thousand short tons..... 160 2,937
Sand and gravel....thousand short tons..... 11,110 27,800
Stone (crushed)..............do............. 52,4003 178,4003
Combined value of kaolin, magnesium
compounds, phosphate rock, rare-earth
concentrates, staurolite, stone
(dimension), titanium concentrates
(ilmenite and rutile), and zirconium
concentrates............................. XX 845,808

TOTAL...................................... XX 1,263,2194



XX Not applicable
1Production is measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production
(including consumption by producers).
Excludes value of kaolin; value included in 'Combined value' figure.
3Excludes dimension stone; value Included In 'Combined value' figure.
4lncomplete total; excludes value of natural gas, natural gas liquids, and
petroleum (oil and gas production shown In Figure 7).
51982 Preliminary Data, James Boyle, U.S. Bureau of Mines (Personal
Communication).



TABLE 2 FLORIDA'S ROLE IN U.S. NONFUEL MINERAL SUPPLY IN 19812




Share of
U.S. Output, Rank In
Major Comnodity Percent Nation Reserves

Fuller's earth................. 31 2 Moderate
Phosphate rockl................ 86 1 Moderate
Staurolite..................... 100 1 Small
Stone (crushed)................ 7 2 Large
Titanium minerals.............. W 1 Moderate
Zircon........................ 100 1 Small


WWithheld to avoid disclosing individual
includes North Carolina.
2United States Bureau of Mines.


company confidential data.


i . . . . . . . i -


L~RIYn ~01


LF ORIDA 19821,5










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


three million tons by 1920 and by 1981 Florida's
annual production was over 46 million metric tons of
phosphate rock. Today, as in the early days, most
phosphate is mined using the open-pit method.
Previous mining utilized such equipment as hydraulic
pumps, steam shovels and dredges to remove the
overburden and expose the matrix (ore body). However,
in 1929, this extractive machinery was replaced by the
more efficient dragline, which increased the tonnage
of ore mined.
Phosphorus. is important to both domestic and
world-wide agriculture since it is essential to plant
growth. Almost 90 percent of the phosphate produced
in Florida in 1981 was used in making fertilizer.
Although the primary use for phosphate is for
agriculture, other uses include animal feed
supplements, cleaning compounds, leavening agents,
food preservatives, and insecticides.
World demand for phosphate is expected to
increase dramatically in the coming years. Using
present technology and known reserves, Florida has
enough remaining phosphate to meet projected demand
for the next 200 years (Florida Phosphate Council,
'1982).










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


LEGEND

C CLAYS
LS LIMESTONE
P PHOSPHATE
PT PEAT
SG SAND AND GRAVEL
HM HEAVY MINERAL
CONCENTRATION
0 OF MINERAL


Figure 2.


Location of major known solid mineral
deposits.













QUANTITY (MILLION METRIC TONS)

VALUES (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)

P PERLIMINARY DATA


-Figure 3.


Production and value for phosphate
(1972-1982).


a.
CL






00

















1982


YEAR












BUREAU OF GEOLOGY



TABLE 3 LEADING PRODUCERS of phosphate rock (In the world) are listed In
millions of metric tons. The reserve base Is phosphate rock that
could be mined under existing economic conditions (after Sheldon,
1982).




MILLION METRIC TONS

1980 PRODUCTION RESERVE BASE

U.S. 54.4 8,000
U.S.S.R. 26.1 8,300
MOROCCO-SAHARA 18.8 44,000
CHINA 6.7 10,000
TUNISIA 4.6 500
JORDAN 4.2 1,100
SOUTH AFRICA 3.3 700
TOGO 2.9 110
BRAZIL 2.9 800
ISRAEL 2.6 150
NAURU 2.T 20
CHRISTMAS ISLAND 1.7 62
SENEGAL 1.4 75
SYRIA 1.3 833
ALGERIA 1 1,000
NORTH KOREA .5 90
INDIA .4 108
VIETNAM .4 100
MEXICO .3 1,034
ZIMBABWE .1 50
FINLAND .1 565


-, (s










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


Limestone and Dolomite

Coquina, a variety of limestone, was the first of
Florida's mineral resources to be utilized by early
European settlers. It was used in the construction of
forts and missions; one of which, the Castillo de San
Marcos in St. Augustine, is a National Park. Florida
is underlain by sedimentary rock, predominantly
limestone and dolomite, to depths ranging from 3,500
feet in the north to over 20,000 feet in the Keys.
A major producer, Florida ranked second in the
nation in the production of limestone and dolomite in
1980, producing over 66,000 tons with a value of more
than $215 million (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1980).
Figure 4 shows total production and value for crushed
limestone in Florida for the period 1972-82. This
production of limestone and dolomite is by open-pit
mining, with the highest concentration of quarries
located in Broward, Dade, and Marion counties.
The growth of this industry is clearly
illustrated by comparing 1907 production, which
totaled 6,000 tons, to 1980 production of 66,000 tons.
This rapid development over the past 50 years can be
attributed to a number of factors including a marked
increase in highway construction, the building
construction industry, and a significant expansion in
the metallurgical, chemical and processing industries
in which limestone is an important ingredient.
The principal uses of limestone in Florida are for
portland cement, concrete aggregate, and road base
material which account for over 80 percent of the
limestone produced. Smaller but significant amounts
of limestone and lime are used in agriculture.
Although subject to fluctuations caused by changes
in the economy, certain trends may be projected. Road
base and concrete aggregate usage in highway
construction is expected to show a moderate increase
due to the construction of new roads and
rehabilitation and resurfacing of existing roads. In
addition, the use of limestone for agricultural needs















EI QUANTITY MILLIONSS OF SHORT TONS)

I VALUE (MILLIONSOF DOLLARS)

P PERLIMINARY DATA


Cl!
Co In


0so- T m
aC

h, 6 -n
40 T C
S140 o
LL m

30O-




20
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
YEAR


Figure 4. Production and value for crushed
limestone (1972-1982).










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


should experience substantial growth due to the
world's expanding population and consequent need for
higher crop yields. New uses in the environmental
field which include desulphurization of flue gas,
neutralization of acid mine drainage, and use as a
substrate in waste treatment plants, should result in
increasing demand for this commodity.

Sand and Gravel

One of our most abundant natural resources, sand
represents more to Florida than just an attraction for
tourists. Covering virtually the entire state, quartz
sand, in conjunction with gravel, constitutes the
largest non-fuel mineral industry in the United
States. Mined extensively in Florida, the state's
sand and gravel industry extracted more than
11,000,000 tons in 1982 with a dollar value exceeding
$27 million (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1982).
Sand in Florida is produced from stream alluvial
deposits, terraces, fluvial, beach, and dune deposits.
All sand and gravel produced in Florida is by open-pit
mining with the largest sand quarries located in Polk,
Putnam, Hendry, Broward, and Lake counties. In
contrast, most of Florida's gravel production is from
the panhandle, with concentrations occurring in
Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Bay counties. Present
mining is being conducted primarily along the Escambia
and Apalachicola rivers. Sand and gravel and their
products have a multiplicity of uses. The production
of sand and gravel can be divided into two groups:
construction usage and industrial usage. Construction
sand and gravel, the largest usage by far, now
accounts for 95 percent of the total sand and gravel
produced in the United States. Specific uses include
mortar, plaster, paving and fill. Though accounting
for only 4 to 5 percent of total production,
industrial uses of sand and gravel include glass and
foundry sands, abrasive products, and filtering media.











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 4 ESTIMATED ACRES DISTURBED BY MINING


(Based on (Based on
State Data State Data)
Acreage Acres Mined
Comnodity Thru 1981 Annually

Phosphate 187,000 7,000

Stone** 31,500* 500


Sand/Gravel** 11,100* 300

Clay 2,450 100


Heavy Minerals 8,750 400


Peat** 1.050* 50


TOTAL 241,850 8,350


*(Based on State Data Acreage through
1979-81).


1978 plus annual estimates for period


** Not subject to mandatory reclamation.

Source: DNR and U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
The Status of Lands Disturbed by Surface Mining in the United States.


Figure 5 shows total production and value of sand
and gravel in Florida for the period 1972-1982. The
data show fluctuations in production which, in
general, can be attributed to changes in the economy,
especially as reflected in the construction industry.
From a 1976 base, total national demand for sand and
gravel is forecast to increase at an annual rate of
1.6 percent (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1979), thus
demonstrating a need for continued industry expansion
in Florida.

Heavy Minerals and Rare-Earth Minerals

An important producer of heavy minerals
(accessory minerals that are a product of weathering
of parent rocks and distinguished by their high











QUANTITY (MILLIONS OF SHORT TONS)

E VALUE (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)

P PERLIMINARY DATA


Figure 5.


YEAR
Production and value for sand and gravel
(1972-1982).









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


specific gravity), Florida not only ranks first in the
nation in the production of titanium but is also the
only producer of zircon and staurolite in the United
States (Table 2 ). In addition, Florida is a major
producer of rare-earth metals, which are increasingly
in demand in the electronics and aerospace industries.
Mining of heavy minerals in Florida began in 1916 when
ilmenite was mined near Mineral City (now known as
Ponte Vedra) in St. Johns County. Today, mining of
Florida's heavy minerals is confined to the Trail
Ridge and Green Cove Springs heavy mineral sand
deposits that occur in parts of Clay and Bradford
counties, where some 400 acres are mined annually.
The industry has expanded, especially in the
years since 1940, as demand for heavy minerals and
rare-earth metals in the aeronautics, nuclear power,
and construction industries increased. An added
stimulus to the expansion of the heavy mineral
industry can be directly attributed to the development
of the Humphreys Spiral Concentrator, a device which
significantly improved the refining process by which
heavy minerals are separated from the associated
quartz sands, based on their higher specific gravity
(a measure of density as compared to water).
Heavy minerals have a diversity of uses; for
example, staurolite is widely used in the manufacture
of portland cement, and zircon is used in the ceramics
and foundry sands industries. Two of the most
significant ore minerals, rutile and ilmenite, are
necessary ingredients of titanium dioxide paint
pigment, alloys and carbide.
An important by-product in the recovery of the
titanium minerals is the mineral monazite, from which
the rare-earth elements cerium and thorium \are
extracted. Thorium is used in commercial high
temperature, gas-cooled reactors and experimental
nuclear reactors to produce fissionable U-233. Cerium
is used in the production of iron alloys and carbon
arc electrode cores.
Certain trends are evident based on known heavy
mineral reserves. Specifically, important heavy
minerals such as ilmenite and rutile have experienced
declines in production in recent years due to
26









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


diminishing reserves. Although demand for rare-earth
concentrates is expected to increase, Florida's known
reserves are small and production has correspondingly
decreased. However, the production of zircon and
staurolite should increase in the coming years in
response to a growing demand and moderate remaining
reserves.

Clay

An abundant natural resource, clay deposits are
widely distributed throughout much of Florida. This
fine grained material is mined in Florida by the open
pit method.
Compositional differences as well as the presence
of impurities such as silica, iron oxides, and calcium
magnesium carbonates accounts for a wide variation in
the properties of each clay deposit. These difference
in turn effect their usage. As a result, clays mined
in Florida may be classified into four types:
adsorptive clay, white firing clay, expanding clay,
and common clay.
Florida's production of fuller's earth (clays
which are naturally highly adsorptive) ranked second
in the nation in 1981. The mining of fuller's earth
in Florida is concentrated in Gadsden, Brevard, and
Marion counties. These clays are principally used as
fillers, pesticide carriers, drilling mud, filters
aids, absorbents and animal litters. Other clays
mined in Florida are used in the manufacture of
building brick, pottery, tile, cement, and light
weight aggregate.

Peat

Producing more than 154,000 tons, Florida ranked
second nationally in the production of peat in 1980
(Table 2). Florida's known peat reserves, totaling
more than 6.7 billion tons, are the fourth largest in
the U.S., and are estimated to contain the equivalent
of 82 quadrillion BTU's of power, enough energy to
satisfy Florida's energy needs for 38 years (AAPG









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explorer, June 1982). Although the largest peat
reserves are located in the Florida Everglades,
primary production occurs in Hillsborough, Polk, Lake,
and Putnam counties.
Most of the peat mined in Florida is used for
potting soils and general soil improvement; however,
the vast peat deposits in the Everglades are utilized
in farming, and represent some of the most productive
farmland in the United States. Presently, studies are
being conducted to determine the feasibility of using
peat as a primary fuel for a proposed 400 megawatt
power plant in Florida.
Factors such as peat's estimated slow rate of
accumulation (9.1 centimeters per 100 years, Kuehn,
1980) and loss of peat to urban expansion point out
the need for conservation and wise utilization of this
valuable resource. Demand is expected to continue to
increase at a moderate rate for present uses, but may
increase significantly if peat is used in the future
as a primary energy source.

Oil and Gas

Although not generally perceived as an oil
producing state, the most recent data (Florida
Department of Natural Resources Annual Production
Report, 1982) shows Florida produced more than 25
million barrels of oil in 1982. This same report
shows that Florida's total oil production over the
years has amounted to more than 440 million barrels.
Past, present and projected oil and gas production In
Florida is shown in Figure 6.
Prospecting for oil and gas in Florida began as
early as 1892, but it wasn't until 1943 that the first
successful well was drilled. This well, located ',in
Collier County, was drilled to a depth of 11,626 feet
and ultimately produced 20,550 barrels of oil. Since
1943, 15 fields have been discovered and, to date,
more than 400 million barrels of oil and more than 400
billion cubic feet of natural gas have been produced.
Today there are 12 producing oil fields located













OIL IN THOUSANDS OF BARRELS
GAS IN THOUSANDS OF MCF


RACCOON POINT
6-28-78


45.000- BAXTER ISLAND
8-11-77
SWEETWATER CREEK
S4-22-77 ESTIMATED GAS PRODUCTION
LEHIGH PARK
7-30-74
SEMINOLE 11-14-73 -/
"v
S35.000 FIELDS BEAR ISLAND m
SAND 12-5-72
AND ESTIMATED OIL PRODUCTION
DISCOVERY DATES BL ACK C
o BLACKJACK CREEK
0
c 2-14-72
C
STOWNSEND CANAL
25.000 MT. CARMEL 6-27-82 O
K5 11-27-71
JAY >
---O
6-1-70 \ \\

15,000
LAKE TRAFFORD \
3-3-69

WEST SUNOCO FELDA
SSUNNILAND FIELD 8-2-66 o0
,000 9-26-43
FORTY MILE BENDSUNOCOFELDA
OR--664

YEAR 1943 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Figure 6. Past, present, and projected oil and gas
production in Florida for years
1943-1990.











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TOWNSEND CANAL
MID FELDA --
LEIGH PARK- :- Z
WEST SUNOCO FELDA
SUNOCO FELDA
LAKE TRAFFORD
SUNNILAND
BEAR ISLAND
* BAXTER ISLAND (ABN JAN. 1980)-
* SEMINOLE (ABN APR. 1979) -
RACCOON POINT
* FORTY MILE BEND (ABN MAR. 1956).

0 20 30 40 s0 nm

* PLUGGED & ABANDONED


Location of past and present Florida oi
and gas fields.


Figure 7.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


in south Florida and the panhandle which provide a
significant source of income to the State of Florida
(Figure 7). According to Department of Natural
Resources data, revenues from this oil and gas In the
form of royalties, taxes, and leases totaled more than
$2.6 million, with additional severance taxes totaling
more than $78 million for the fiscal year 1981-82.

FUNCTIONS OF THE BUREAU

Ranking first in the nation in the production of
phosphate rock and titanium concentrates, second in
fullers earth and peat as well as number 10 in oil
production in 1982, Florida's natural resources
contribute billions of dollars annually to the state's
economy. Over the years, the Florida Bureau of
Geology has evolved and diversified to meet the
challenges and sometimes conflicting demands of
developing the state's mineral resources while
protecting Florida's environment. The Bureau has
responded to these needs by establishing three
sections (Geological Investigation Section, Oil and
Gas Section, Reclamation Regulation Section) with















GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

First row left to right Kelly Frierson, Tom Allen,
Walt Schmidt, Paulette Bond, Ken Campbell. Second
row left to right Ron Hoenstine, Ernest Bishop, Justin
Hodges, Steve Windham, Tom Scott, Albert Phillips,
Steve Spencer, and Al ADDlegate.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


specific responsibilities of evaluating and
determining the extent of Florida's mineral resources,
as well as monitoring the reclamation of certain mined
mineral lands. A short discussion of each section is
included here.

Geologic Investigations Section
Geologic Data Base

The function of investigating the geology of the
state is carried out by the Geologic Investigations
Section of the Bureau of Geology. The ability of this
section to carry out this function is highly dependent
on the Bureau's substantial data base. Collected over
decades, these data include over 4,500 geophysical
logs, more than 15,000 sets of well cuttings, and
approximately 300 cores, in addition to core chips
representing hundreds of thousands of feet of
sediments from exploratory oil and gas test wells.
These samples, which have been collected from
locations throughout the state, are essential to the
study of Florida's geology.
The majority of these samples are well cuttings,
which upon receipt at the Bureau are washed, dried,
catalogued, and stored for future reference. Detailed
lithologic descriptions of these well cuttings, as
well as cores, are prepared by Bureau geologists who
then enter coded descriptions into a computer. These
data are accessible to Bureau staff, government
agencies, industry, and the general public. The well
cuttings and core collection are stored in the
Bureau's warehouse and are available for study by
visiting scientists.
Another significant source of data is the
Bureau's paleontological collection. Included in this
collection are more than 20,000 labeled slides and
specimens representing microfossils, including many,
holotypes (original type specimens), invertebrate
macrofossils, thin sections, and sediment samples.
This collection, which is used by scientists from
around the world, serves as a valuable source of
information in the study of Florida's stratigraphy and
past environment.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


Stratigraphy

Stratigraphy is the study of the formation,
composition, sequence and correlation of rock layers
in the earth's crust. Florida has minor topographic
relief, yet Florida's relatively featureless surface
masks a complicated subsurface containing faults and
extensive cavernous zones as well as sands, clays, and
carbonates overlying igneous and metamorphic basement
rocks.
With few surface outcrops, the study of Florida's
stratigraphy is especially dependent on the
availability of subsurface data which are used to
identify and quantify Florida's substantial mineral
resources. Just as a road map shows the location of
surface features such as roads and towns, Bureau
geologists construct geologic maps that depict
subsurface formations and prominent structural
features, which are based'on information obtained from
limited surface outcrops supplemented by cores and
well cuttings. Continually being updated, these maps
serve as valuable tools useful in locating mineral
deposits, oil, and water supplies hidden below
Florida's land and water surface.

Applied Geology

In the past, geologists emphasized pure research
relating to the structure and composition of the
earth. However, as in many other fields, the pure
science of yesterday has become the applied science of
today.
As part of this process, the Bureau of Geology
continues to lay the groundwork of basic geological
investigations, while placing increasing emphasis on
the practical application of this accumulated
knowledge. For example, due to the rapid urbanization
and development of Florida, geologic processes that
were in the past relatively unnoticed, such as natural
drainage and sinkhole development, have taken on added
importance where increased building due to urban
expansion has significantly altered the natural









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


environment and the processes operating on it.
Specifically, in many Florida communities increased
building construction and paving have reduced the area
available for water infiltration. This has resulted
in additional runoff, increased erosion and water
pollution, as well as a greater frequency of flooding
than would occur under more natural conditions. As a
result of the urgent nature of these and other
problems state and local governments are frequently
called upon to make decisions on the basis of data
that are incomplete and sometimes apparently
conflicting. For this and other reasons, a broad
understanding of an area's geology is essential to the
formulation of effective land use planning Dolicies.
To meet these needs, the Bureau's continuing
core-drilling program has enabled Bureau geologists to
provide more complete geologic information to various
city and county planning departments. Such
information is essential in the development of plans
to minimize adverse impacts on the environment, while
permitting growth.
Of increasing concern to the general public Is
the occurrence of sinkholes, which in recent years
have emerged as a significant problem, causing
considerable damage and economic loss. Sinkholes are
especially prevalent in Florida because of abundant
rainfall and a terrain underlain by thick sequences of
limestone. To address this concern, the Geologic
Investigations Section has devoted increased effort
toward identifying probable areas of sinkhole
development as well as providing technical expertise
to state and local governments on existing sinkholes.
Another important role of the Geologic
Investigations Section involves locating and
identifying areas of economically valuable mineral
deposits. This function is wide-ranging and includes
gathering and interpreting data from geological field
reconnaissance and examination of cores and well
cuttings.
To summarize, the Bureau's role in the areas of
land use planning, studies of sinkhole development and
location of potential mineral deposits represents a
valuable contribution to Florida's present and future
34










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


LEGEND

[M' COUNTY BULLETINS
P-1 MINERAL RESOURCES STUDIES
WATER RESOURCES STUDIES
7 COUNTIES ADDRESSED
IN REGIONAL STUDIES


",b tO.


Regional and county geologic studies.


Figure 8.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


economic well-being. This ever-evolving role is,
however, dependent on the continued acquisition of
basic geologic data.

Publications

Since the Florida Geological Survey was formed in
1907, a primary goal has been the publication of the
results of its geologic investigations. Numbering
more than 400, these publications contain information
and data gathered and compiled by Bureau staff and
others and are published in the form of Bulletins,
Reports of Investigations, Information Circulars,
Special Publications, and a Map Series. To date these
various publications include specific detailed
geologic studies of 12 counties, hydrogeologic water
resource studies of 35 counties, as well as regional
and county mineral resource studies (Figure 8).
Designed to address varying needs, these
publications are used by both the public and private
sectors. For example, county geologic bulletins are
used by various county agencies as guides in
developing long range plans related to zoning and
protection of areas of natural recharge to underground
aquifers. Other reports on general stratigraphy and
paleontology are used by industry as an aid in
locating mineral resources, as well as by the
scientific community in the study of Florida's geology
and natural resources.
A very popular group of publications, the
Bureau's Special Publications series is intended for
the general public as a source of information on
specific subjects. Much requested, these
publications, such as Special Publication No. 8,
"Guide to Rocks and Minerals of Florida," are
frequently used as reference material by schools,
clubs, and interested individuals.
A publication with a different format, the
extensive Map Series, depicts various aspects of
geohydrology, physiography, and mineral resources.
Included in this group is the recently completed
Environmental Geology Series which describes the









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


near-surface geology and other environmental
characteristics of areas throughout the state in a
manner designed to be understood and useful to the
general public, as well as the scientific community.
These publications are distributed to schools and
libraries throughout the United States and several
foreign countries. A listing of all the Bureau of
Geology's publications, with instructions for
ordering, is available on request.




























OIL AND GAS SECTION

Left to right David Curry, Gwen Manning and Charles Tootle.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Oil and Gas Section

In 1945, the legislature mandated the regulation
of oil and gas drilling and producing operations in
Florida. The responsibility for enforcing these
regulations was placed with the Bureau of Geology.
This law, which was revised in 1981, requires that the
Bureau, through its Oil and Gas Section, make
systematic inspections of oil drilling rigs,
production and service wells, and other production
facilities. The Bureau's field office personnel,
located in Ft. Myers, in Lee County, and Jay, in Santa
Rosa County, conduct predrilling site inspections
prior to permitting and monitor all drilling,
cementing and plugging operations. In addition, they
monitor all testing, completion and production
operations and conduct final site restoration
inspections at the conclusion of drilling. These
inspections are made in order to evaluate and effect
necessary changes to mitigate possible damage to the
environment as a result of the operations.
In addition to these responsibilities, the Oil
and Gas Section maintains permanent oil and gas
records and samples. These core samples and well
logs, which are examined by geologists from all over
the United States, are a significant aid in the search
for oil and gas in Florida.
Figure 7 illustrates the estimated decline of
Florida's known oil and gas reserves. This decline
points out the importance of the Oil and Gas Section
as a depository for existing geologic data. The
evaluation of such data is basic to the exploration
for and location of additional oil fields.
Reclamation Regulation Section

Increased public awareness and concern for
preserving Florida's environment resulted in the
passage of a tax bill by the 1971 legislature which
encouraged, through fiscal incentives, the reclamation
of certain mined lands. This law has been
strengthened by legislation over the years so that
today all lands which are subject to the tax are
38









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


L r I~ VP~r


RECLAMATION REGULATION SECTION

First row left to right Randy Musgrove, Amber
Mchaffey, Joan Ragland, Jacqueline Lloyd. Second
row left to right Susie Coleman, Lee Edmiston, Zoe
Kulakowski, Lee Sherwood, Greg Daugherty, Jack
Merriam. Third row left to right Ross McWi I I i ams,
Bill Yon, and Bruce Greenwood.

subject to mandatory reclamation and restoration. In
1978, another law incorporating fiscal incentive-based
provisions was enacted to provide for the reclamation
of non-mandatory phosphate lands, which total more
than 149,000 acres.
The Reclamation Regulation Section is charged
with the responsibility of overseeing and monitoring
approved reclamation and restoration programs. The
primary goal is to ensure that lands disturbed by
surface mining will be reclaimed and restored. The
Bureau's responsibility also includes the development
and enforcement of rules and regulations pertaining to
the reclamation and restoration of lands mined for
solid minerals which are subject to the severance tax
(primarily phosphate, heavy minerals, clays).
Considerations include the physical and chemical
quality of surface bodies of water, vegetation, soil
stabilization, elimination of health and safety
hazards, and the time schedule for completion of the
39










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 4 ESTIMATED ACRES DISTURBED BY MINING
(Based on (Based on
State Data State Data)
Acreage Acres Mined
Commodity Thru 1981 Annually

Phosphate 187,000 7,000

Stone** 31,500* 500

Sand/Gravel** 11,100* 300

Clay 2,450 100

Heavy Minerals 8,750 400

Peat** 1,050* 50

TOTAL 241,850 8,350

*(Based on State Data Acreage through 1978 plus annual estimates for period
1979-81).

** Not subject to mandatory reclamation.
Source: DNR and U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
The Status of Lands Disturbed by Surface Mining In the United States.

various phases of the program. Conceptual and
detailed reclamation and restoration plans must be
submitted to the Bureau's Reclamation Regulation
Section for review and must be approved by the
Executive Board of the Department of Natural Resources
(made up of the Governor and Cabinet) prior to
disturbing an area. The reclamation and restoration
efforts, based on the approved plans, are monitored by
staff geologists at regular intervals until
completion.
Phosphate and heavy minerals are the primary
solid minerals affected by this program. As Table 4
shows, phosphate is the major mineral commodity
subject to mandatory reclamation and restoration with
approximately 165,000 acres of land having been mined
or disturbed prior to 1978 and 5,000 acres being mined
annually. Although only 28 percent of this disturbed
land acreage has been reclaimed, approximately 149,000
acres are not subject to mandatory reclamation and
restoration. 40









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


A 10 percent severance tax is imposed on solid
minerals mined and exported by the phosphate and heavy
mineral Industries. A 5 percent tax is imposed on all
other mineral industries. This severence tax
generated more than $77 million for the fiscal year
1981-82 (Florida Department of Revenue, 1982), with 75
percent going into the General Revenue Fund, 20
percent going into the Non-Mandatory and Mandatory
Trust Funds, and 5 percent going into the Phosphate
Research Trust Fund.


OFFICE OF RECLAMATION RESEARCH


Left to right Bill Yon and Monnie Beach


Office of Reclamation Research

A related reclamation function of the Bureau
Involves studies of present reclamation techniques as
well as new and proposed reclamation procedures.
These investigations are conducted by the Bureau's
Office of Reclamation Research and provide important
data ultimately used in the formulation of









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


recommendations by the Reclamation Regulation Section.
In addition, this research group offers assistance in
the form of information and recommendations to the
regulated companies. Such advisory assistance is
directed primarily toward evaluating the impact of
proposed mining and reclamation on the environment.
Other objectives of the Office include promotion
of reclamation research aimed at enhancing and
accelerating the process of reclamation, and
determining what can be realistically accomplished by
reclamation of lands disturbed by surface mining.
Future programs include the utilization of computers
to assist in the retrieval and analysis of reclamation
data.

SERVICES TO GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES,
INDUSTRY AND THE PUBLIC
Cooperative Studies

Since 1907 the Florida Geological Survey has
consistently pursued a policy of cooperation with
various state and federal agencies such as the
National Geological Survey (now the United States
Geological Survey), the Florida Department of
Agriculture, and other state geological surveys.
Today, the scope of cooperative programs has expanded
in terms of both magnitude and applicability and
involves many other state, local and federal agencies.
For example, a study with the U.S. Bureau of
Mines was recently completed which investigated the
phosphate-bearing sediments of the Hawthorn Formation
in peninsular Florida. This study not only enhanced
our understanding of this complex formation, but may
serve as a catalyst for further exploration and
eventual mining of the formation's associated
phosphate. In the area of water resources, the Bureau
provides extensive geological data to individual Water
Management Districts concerning the geological
parameters of Florida's aquifers (water-bearing
sedimentary rocks). This information is essential to
an evaluation and understanding of Florida's water
resources, especially in such critical areas of









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


concern as saltwater Intrusion and groundwater
contamination. Recently, the Bureau of Geology
provided assistance to municipalities in central
Florida in evaluating probability and extent of
sinkhole development in the area. Upon request,
Information is provided to the general public
regarding the potential for mineral resource
development on private lands.
These cooperative programs are of continuing
scientific and economic value to the state. As a
result, the Bureau's role in sharing both data and
expertise provides benefits to the public as well as
to the scientific community.

Educational Services

Since 1908, when the first Annual Report was
published by the Florida Geological Survey,
continuing emphasis has been placed on the importance
of disseminating information on Florida geology to the
general public, other government agencies and the
scientific community. For this reason, members of the
Bureau frequently give talks and slide presentations
to various groups including schools, civic
organizations, and scientific gatherings. These talks
serve to increase public awareness, understanding, and
appreciation of Florida's valuable natural resources
and the geologic processes operating on the
environment.
The Bureau's numerous publications are
distributed worldwide to public and university
libraries. Publications are continually being
generated by the staff and vary in scope from highly
technical bulletins to generalized special
publications and leaflets. Inprint publications can
be ordered for a small postage and handling fee.
Out-of-print publications are on file in the Bureau's
library and are available through Interlibrary Loan to
public, academic, or company libraries.
Containing approximately 1,000 volumes in 1908,
the Bureau's library has experienced growth in both
size and scope over the years. Today, the library
contains more than 24,000 volumes and provides









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


immediate access to basic research materials including
books, state and federal documents, maps, and
periodicals. These publications deal with a variety
of geologic subjects, including general geology,
mining and mineral resources, petroleum engineering
.and production, climatological data, and water
resources. In addition to the material available at
the Bureau, the library participates in a nationwide
interlibrary loan network through which Bureau staff
have access to other library collections.
In addition to these educational services, the
Bureau offers geology graduate students part-time
employment. This work provides students with valuable
experience in data gathering and its interpretation,
while providing important assistance to Bureau
geologists in their geologic investigations.


TECHNICAL SUPPORT


First row left to right Jim Jones, Mary Ann Cleveland,
Dorothy Janson, Pauline Hurst, Albert Phillips.
Second row left to right Steve Spencer, Richard
Howard, Ed Lane, and Justin Hodges-

LOOKING AHEAD


The pressures of population
accompanying urban development will


growth and
increasingly









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


involve Florida in facing important public policy
issues of technical and scientific content. Examples
of these issues include the problems of sinkholes,
hazardous waste disposal, and reclamation of mined
lands, areas of concern which require a balance
between the need for development and growth and the
necessity of ensuring a high quality environment for
all of Florida's citizens. A diversity of interests,
which include the public, Industrial and agricultural
sectors, are competing for Florida's substantial yet
limited natural resources. It is therefore imperative
that state and local governments have sufficient
geologic data to formulate responsible policies
concerning the allocation of these resources.
Accordingly, the role of the Bureau in the future is
expected to acquire added significance in providing
much of this essential information.
One of the major issues facing Florida is the
wise management of its fresh water resources. Basic
to this process is a knowledge of such geologic
parameters as the depths, distribution, permeabilities
and porosities associated with the rocks comprising
Florida's aquifers. Such specialized geologic
information is vital to the formulation of effective
policies concerning this major source of the state's
fresh water supply.
An additional area of concern is the need for the
location of suitable sites for hazardous waste
disposal. Disposal methods include both deep well
injection for liquid wastes and burial of solid
wastes. An extensive knowledge of the subsurface
geology of the state is required in order to project
possible adverse effects associated with waste
disposal. Such a knowledge requires the continual
acquisition and assessment of geologic data by the
Bureau.
The Florida Resource and Management Act was
enacted by the 1974 state legislature to establish and
maintain a comprehensive solid waste management and
resource recovery program. This' act recognized the
vast quantity and variety of solid wastes being









"BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


generated throughout the state by an ever-expanding
population. The safe disposal of these wastes takes
on added importance in Florida in light of the state's
heavy dependence on groundwater. Once an aquifer is
contaminated, it is extremely difficult and time
consuming to return it to its former purity. In order
.to implement an effective solid waste program, a
comprehensive understanding of the state's geology is
essential. This underscores the Bureau's present and
continuing role in providing assistance in the form of
basic geological information and its interpretation to
appropriate government agencies, information which
will enable these agencies to make sound and
responsible decisions.
Another highly visible problem is that of
sinkholes which pose a hazard to life and property.
In order to-aid in effective planning for construction
and urban development in potential sinkhole areas, a
thorough knowledge and evaluation of the local geology
is required.
In this day of diminishing mineral reserves, it
is of increasing importance to develop a knowledge of
the state's mineral resources. Because of the rapid
encroachment of Florida's land surface by
subdivisions, industry and recreation, unmined
resource reserves need to be considered. Likewise, a
knowledge of the mineral resources underlying
state-owned lands is essential in determining fair
market value, assuring the state an equitable return
on the sale or lease of these lands. To aid in this,
an inventory which includes the identification and
evaluation of state mineral reserves is expected to be
an important objective of the Bureau in the coming
years.
To help meet these and other needs, Bureau
geologists must have access to the latest geologic
studies and data. This access to current geological
studies is significantly enhanced through the use of
computers. As a result, one projected area of
expansion is the computerization of the Bureau's
library services, including on-line data base










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 26


searching, computerized card catalogue access and
document retrieval. One response in dealing with an
ever-expanding data base is a continuing program of
placing lithologic descriptions in computer storage.
This program has significant potential for future
expansion as a tool for permitting the staff to
generate computer models of cross-sections, geologic
unit thickness maps, and structure maps based on this
stored information.
In summary, the Bureau in its 75 year history has
contributed in great measure to Florida's economic
well being and environmental integrity. This
contribution, assessed in terms of providing geologic
data and expert advice to state and local governments,
water management districts, and regulatory agencies,
cannot be overestimated. Its impact today as well as
in the future should be significant in preserving the
environment and aiding in an enlightened utilization
of Florida's natural resources.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


BIBLIOGRAPHY



American Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Explorer, June, 1982.

Beck, Robert J., 1983, Demand, Imports to Rise in 83;
Production to Slip, 011 and Gas Journal, p. 71-
90.

Florida Department of Natural Resources and U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
Service, 1981, The Status of Lands Disturbed by
Surface Mining in the United States.

Kuehn, D. W., 1980, Offshore Transgressive Peat
Deposits of Southwest Florida: Evidence for a
Late Holocene Rise of Sea Level; Unpublished
Master's Thesis submitted to the Pennsylvania
State University.

Sheldon, R. P., 1982, Phosphate Rock, Scientific
American, p. 45-52.

U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1970-79, Annual Commodity Data
Summaries.

U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1980, The Mineral Industry of
Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology Information
Circular No. 95.

U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1982, The Mineral Industry of
FLorida, Annual Preliminary Report.

















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Steel derrick of the Oil
Florida. "South Lake Well"
#2 about 14 miles south of
Spudded in February 26, 1935.


Development company of
on Florida State Highway
Groveland, Lake County.


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1 s ;~ s ~~;~~7'~ T~.
A~,(; "-


This large sinkhole, which developed May 8-9 in Winter
Park, Florida, measures about 115x100m. In this
photo, taken May 13, the water level was about 13m
below the land surface. (Photo by Rich Deuerling.)









DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

SThis public document was promulgated at a total cost of
$88.65 or a per copy cost of SO.18 for the purpose of
disseminating geologic data.


















YONGE
LIB. OF
FLA. HIST.


P. K. YONGE LIBRARY
OF FLORIDA HISTORY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES







IN MEMORIAL
REMBERT W. PATRICK
1909-1967