Guidelines for authors with comments for editorial reviewers ( FGS: Special publication 23 )

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Title:
Guidelines for authors with comments for editorial reviewers ( FGS: Special publication 23 )
Physical Description:
vi, 47 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Lane, Ed ( Edward ), 1935-
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher:
Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Editorials -- Handbooks, manuals, etc ( lcsh )   ( lcsh )
Technical writing -- Handbooks, manuals, etc ( lcsh )   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Florida Geological Survey special publication 23
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ed Lane.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - NOT FOU
notis - ACM3826
alephbibnum - 000460801
oclc - 07902544
System ID:
UF00000462:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    List of Illustrations
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Typed of publications issued by the bureau of geology
        Page 2
    Notes to authors
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Editorial review of manuscripts
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Standard format for publications
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Preparation and review of illustrations
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Geologic symbols and colors
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Abbreviations for Florida county names
        Page 30
    Metric system
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Appendices
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Back Cover
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text





















F;-35Y[
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Ato 23





















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES


P K YONGE
LIBRARY
OF
FLORIDA
HISTORY








STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Execu tive Director

DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Casey J. Gluckman, Division Director

BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 23


GUIDEllNES FOR AUIRORS
WflR COMMENIS FOR EDITORIAL REVIEWERS

by

Ed Lane













Published by
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1980





















DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES



BOB GRAHAM
Governor


JIM SMITH
Attorney General


GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State


BILL GUNTER
Treasurer



RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director














LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee

June 10, 1980




Governor Bob Graham, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Graham:

The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Department
of Natural Resources is publishing as its Special Publication No. 23, "Guidelines
For Authors With Comments For Editorial Reviewers," by Ed Lane, a geologist
with the Bureau.

These guidelines are being published to ensure the high editorial stand-
ards required for the scientific publications produced by the Bureau of Geology.
Excellence of presentation, scientific accuracy, clarity of meaning, and technical
superiority in printing are the traditional goals against which each manuscript
proposed for publication will be measured.

Respectfully yours,



Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology







































Printed by the
Bureau of Geology
Division of Resource Management
F~lorida Department of Natural Resources



Tallahassee
1980










CONTENTS


Page


Introduction ............... ........... .... 1

Types of Publications Issued By The Bureau of Geology. .. .. .. .. .. 2
Notes to Authors .............. .. ............... 3

Editorial Review of Manuscripts . . . ... .. . ... ... 5
Guidelines for critical reviewers. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. 6
Standard Format For Publications . .. .. . .. .. .. 7
Title .............. ........... .... 8
Letter of Transmittal. . .. ..... . .. .. .. .. . 8
Contents and Headings. .. ....... .... .. .. . 8
Acknowledgements. ......._ . .. .. . .. ... 9
Full joint authorship .. .. .. ..... . - - - 9
Contributed authorship . ... .. .. . .. . ... 9
Introduction. .............. .............. 10
Text .......... . .. .. .... .. .. .. 11
Summary and Conclusions. . . .. .. . . ... .. .. 11
References, Selected Bibliography, or Bibliography .... .. .. .. .. 11

Appendix .............. ................ 13
Illustrations ......... . . . . . 13
Index ................ .......... .. 14

Preparation and Review of Illustrations ......... . .. .. .. 14
Review Procedure. .. .. .. . ... ....... 14
Standard Dimensions For Illustrations . .. ...... . .. 15
Foldout Pages and Pocket Material . . .. .. ... 18
Locality and Well Numbering System . .. .. .... . .. 18
Geologic Symbols and Colors .. . .. . . ... 21......

Map Legends ................ ... ... .. 21...
Geologic Maps, Stratigraphic Columns, and Cross Sections .. .. .. .. 21
Lithologic and Stratigraphic Symbols . .. ...... .. 2
Letter Symbols For Geologic Systems . .. ... . .. . .. 24
Florida systems ......... . . . 2
Geologic Color Codes. . .. ... .. 25.....
Geologic column and geologic time scale. . . .. .. 25
General lithologic or stratigraphic columns . .. . .. 27
Florida stratigraphic column. .. .. ..... . .. 27
Precedence of color selection .. . ..... . .. 27
Abbreviations For Florida County Names . ........ . .. 30
Metric System. ......... . . ...... .. 31





















Appendices Page

Appendix A. Examples of Cover and Title Pages For
Bureau of Geology Publications. .. .. ... .. .. .. 33
Appendix B. Chart of Graphic Symbols for Lithology,
Stratigraphy, Accessory Minerals, and
Other Components ........... ---_...... 37
Appendix C. Letter Symbols For Names of Florida
Geologic Formations and Members. ... .. .. . .... 44




ILLUSTRATIONS





Figure


1 Layout for a standard page .. . ... .... .. .. . 16
2 Proportional reduction graph .. .. . .... . .. .. 17
3 Locality and well numbering system diagram .. .. .. .. .. . ... 20
4 Map showing necessary legend information .. . .. .. .. .. .. 22
5 Format for an explanation column to accompany
geologic maps, columns, or cross sections .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23
6 Color code for geologic column or geologic time scale .. .. .. .. .. .. 26
7 Color code for common lithologies in Florida. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28
8 Color code for the Florida stratigraphic column . .... .. .. .. .. .. 29



Table


1 Abbreviations for Florida county names. . .. ... . .. ... . 30
2 Typical insert of metric conversion factors ... .. .. . . .. 32








GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS
WITH COMMENTS FOR EDITORIAL REVIEWERS




Ed Lane


INTRODUCTION


The editorial standards for every Bureau of Geology publication --
excellence of presentation, scientific accuracy, clarity of meaning, and
technical superiority in printing -- remain as the traditional goals against
which each manuscript proposed for publication will be measured.
The primary intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach
to the mechanical processes that are necessary to prepare manuscripts for
printing.
It is recognized that the final printed products will be diverse. Much
of this diversity is in the content, the message, the author's style, and the illus-
trations. By standardizing symbology, procedures, and materials, it will be
possible to decrease production time -- thereby saving money. The techniques
set forth will produce dividends for both the Bureau and the authors. Such
techniques will produce a standardized format for publications, hence, a more
professional look. They will decrease the labors of authors, draftsmen, editors,
and printers.
This guide speaks only briefly to grammar, writing style, or related
topics. It is not intended to answer every question that may arise as to proper
geological terminology or manuscript writing. There are many authoritative
publications that may be consulted on these topics -- in fact, it is recommended
that they be consulted -- for any questions not answered herein. Several such
publications are listed below.







Glossary, of G'eology M. Gary, R. McAfee, Jr., and C. L. Wolf (editors).
American Geological Institute, Washington, D. C., 1972.

Sucggestions To Authors of` thle Rep~orts of the Unlited States Geological
Surrey. U. S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D. C., 6th ed., 1978.

Field Geologyv F. H. Lahee. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1961.

Stanldardl Handbook for Secretaries Several editions. These are excellent
references for grammar and punctuation.

TYPES OF PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The Florida Bureau of Geology is concerned not only with academic
geological research, but also has statutory responsibilities to make surveys of
and explorations for the minerals, water supply, and other natural resources of
the state; it regulates the exploration for and production of hydrocarbons;
the reclamation of mined lands; and it is required to prepare
reports and maps pertaining to these activities. The Bureau produces a variety of
publications to meet the needs of its diverse activities and the needs of industry,
the scientific community, the public, and governmental agencies. They range
from classic studies that represent major contributions to the knowledge of the
State's geology, to interim data publications or general information leaflets
which inform the public about geology and its application. No matter what
their nature, all Bureau publications are subject to critical review. Final assign-
ment of a publication to one of the following series rests with the Bureau Chief.

BULILETINS are comprehensive reports on geological or related studies. The
scope of the report is usually of a broad regional nature, for example: "Springs
of Florida," "Geology of Jackson County," or "Stratigraphy and Zonation of
the Ocala Group." They may be of any length, but are usually a final report
of some phase of a research project and are illustrated in a manner suited to
the subject. Subjects may include, but are not restricted to, county reports,
systematic areal mapping, water resources reports, paleontological reports,
geomorphological reports, and economic minerals reports.
REPOR TS OF INVESTIGATIONS are comprehensive reports on geological
or related studies, but which are narrower in scope than Bulletins. Reports of
Investigations usually present the results of localized studies, or are reconn-
aissance reports, for example: "Geology of the Western Part of Alachua
County," or "Ground-Water Resources of the Hollywood Area."







SPECIAL PUIBLICATIONS are publications not readily assignable to other
categories, but which contain geological or related information of significant
interest to the scientific community or the general public. Examples are:
"Summary of the Geology of Florida and a Guidebook to the Classic Ex-
posures," "Guide to Rocks and Minerals of Florida," and "Environmental
Geology and Hydrology of the Tallahassee Area." They may be illustrated
in any suitable manner.


INFORAL4TION CIRCUrLARS may be reports of a preliminary nature, such
as interim reports on continuing projects, or reconnaissance reports. They may
be final to the extent that further work is not anticipated, such as inventory
reports or data tabulations. They may be illustrated with maps or figures.
Some examples are: "Reconnaissance of the Ground-Water Resources of the
Fernandina Area, Nassau County," "Directory of Mineral Producers in Florida,"
"Interim Report on the Progress of an Inventory of Artesian Wells in Florida,"
"Surface-Water Resources of Polk County," and "Public Water Supplies of
Selected Municipalities in Florida."


MAP SERIES are maps consisting of single sheets of one of two standard sizes:
17 X 21 inches or 22 X 34 inches. They may be in color and may be printed on
both sides of the sheet. They have a brief, accompanying text of an explanatory
or summary nature, and may include cross sections or other diagrams. Examples
are: "Bouguer Anomaly Map of South Florida," "Top of the Floridan Artesian
Aquifer," "Drainage Basins in Florida," and "Environmental Geology Series -
Pensacola Sheet."


LEAFLETS are publications of usually only a few pages and relate to general
areas of interest. The text is of a general, public-interest nature. They may be
illustrated, with limited use of color. Some examples are: "Water For Thirsty
Industry-lt's Your Problem," and "Salt Intrusion Can Be Controlled."


NOTES TO AUTHORS


Any author who wishes to submit a manuscript to the Bureau of Geology
for consideration for publication should first review it in light of these guide-
lines. The guidelines presented here should be considered only as minimum
requirements. Deviations from these guidelines should first be discussed with
the Bureau's editor.







While this is not intended to be a manual to dictate styles of writing,
authors should note the following common errors and proofread their manu-
scripts with an eye towards eliminating them.
Use of slang, trite expressions, buzz-words, and bureaucratese is cate-
gorically wrong for scientific writing. Scientific writing has no use for poor
grammar that is in everyday use. By its nature, technical writing must be pre-
cise. An author's work must be capable of being understood by his peers.
Anything that allows the reader to ambiguously interpret an author's words
destroys the main objective of the writing, which is to communicate facts.
Buzz-words, bafflegab, and bureaucratese create an opposite effect; they
obscure, water-down, or destroy precision.
It is not possible to list all such grammatical errors in this limited space,
but a few examples will illustrate what every author should attempt to elimi-
nate.



"The sand overlying the limestone was fairly thick."
(Fairly is dimensionless and adds nothing of value to the
description of the outcrop. If the author had examined
the outcrop, he should be able to state whether the sand
was six inches or six feet thick.)

"Quantities of good rock are available along the river."
(Good is interpretive, depending upon the reader's back-
ground and experience. In this case, perhaps the author
should have described the rock's mineralogy, chemistry,
and other physical features, and then stated, "Quantities
of rock are available along the river that are good for
rip-rap and road-base.")

A multivariate approach to optimizing the obfuscatorial
nature of an author's circuitous rendition of a manuscript
would probably be a non sequitur. (What more need be
said regarding this writing style?)

Buzz-words and bureaucratese are prevalent in all types of
written, oral, and visual communications. The "-ise"
syndrome is evident everywhere: costwise, procedure-
wise, optimize, and so on. (Every author should take
care not to achieve the dubious honor of coining a new
buzz-word.)







The use of the first person is prohibited; authors should use the passive
form. Instead of "I discovered that ...", write, "It was discovered that ...".
In scientific writing what is discovered or proposed is usually more important
than the discoverer.
It is good practice to devote the opening paragraph of each chapter or
major section to a statement of what the section contains.
Avoid internal cross-references using page numbers. The correct page
number cannot be determined and inserted until the final page-proof stage of
typesetting. Inevitably, a number will be missed or an incorrect number will
be inserted.
A company name, trademark, or other proprietary material should not
be used in Bureau reports unless there are compelling reasons to do so; and
then only after permission to do so has been obtained from the proper company
authority. This rule applies also to photographs of a company's equipment,
property, or operations that are intended as illustrations.
A convention followed by the Bureau is that only the singular names
of geological formations or counties are capitalized, e.g., Miccosukee Formation,
Suwannee Limestone. When more than one formation or county is referred
to, the words "formations or counties" are in lowercase, e.g., "...the Miccosukee
and Citronelle formations in Leon and Jefferson counties."
West-to-east geological cross sections and topographic profiles should
be constructed as though viewing from the south (west is on the left side).
North-to-south cross sections and topographic profiles should be constructed
as though viewing from the west (south is on the right side). Composite English-
Metric scales must be included.

In paleontological listings or references the formal generic and specific
names must be underlined in the text by the author -- this is necessary because
these names will be typeset in italics. Suprageneric and anglicized names are not
italicized, e.g., the author would write: "The genus Spirifer is in the family
Spiriferidae which includes the true spirifers." It would be typeset as: "The
genus Spirifer is ...."

EDITORIAL REVIEW OF MANUSCRIPTS


Critical review plays a major role in ensuring high quality of scientific
reports. Review should be thorough and it should address all aspects of a manu-
script.
All manuscripts submitted to the Bureau of Geology for publication
will be reviewed by the Bureau's staff. The Chief of the Bureau may request
further review by scientists or professionals outside the Bureau. Such review
by the staff members is a part of their normal duties, and it is not necessary







to acknowledge their review. However, for significant contributions to the
report, it may be desirable to briefly acknowledge a reviewer.
As the last step in the review process the manuscript will go to the
Bureau's editor, who will mark it with instructions for layout, format, or
style.
Typeset (justified) manuscripts that are to be pasted-up for camera-
ready copy by draftsmen must be proofread again by the author, before sub-
mission. It is very difficult to cut-and-paste corrections after the original has
been laid down; corrections can be made more easily before final paste-up.
The modern carbon-tape typewriter ribbons present additional difficulty in
trying to do this kind of patch-up, since they smudge and the letters separate
easily from the paper.

GUIDELINES FOR CRITICAL REVIEWERS


1) A critical reviewer is not a "ghost writer." and no author should expect
his report to be rewritten for him. Peer discussion prior to submission of the
manuscript may generate new ideas and material, but critical review should not
be expected to substitute for such discussion.
2) All data and factual information must be presented clearly, concisely,
and unambiguously. While authors and reviewers may disagree on the con-
clusions which can be drawn from the data presented, there should be no dis-
agreement about the data themselves.
3) Authors may present new hypotheses or variations of previously accepted
points of view. Reviewers must ensure that such hypotheses are based on and
supported by the data contained in the report. In some cases the facts may lend
themselves to more than one conclusion -- such alternative interpretations
should be presented.
Critical reviewers have a duty to point out alternative interpretations or
hypotheses to authors, if the scope of the report warrants it. However, the
review process is not the place to try to resolve all aspects of different hypo-
theses. It is not necessary that author and reviewer agree on a common conclu-
sion. The author is entitled to state his preference among different hypotheses,
but he must also be prepared to state the basis for his preference. His preference
should be supported by the data presented in the report.
4) Does the report present data or results that would be more suited to a
different mode of publication, perhaps in a technical journal? If so, the re-
viewer should suggest to the author that he consider it.
5) If the author has made use of material already published, have proper
credit and references been given? Cross-check the reference list. It is the respon-
sibility of the author to search-out complete references -- all the reviewer need
do is point out suspected errors or omissions.








6) Is the report too long? Too short? The reviewer should have no hesita-
tion in commenting on apparent wordiness or needless repetition. On the
other hand, a more thorough discussion of some topic may be more enlighten-
ing to the reader.
7) Pay careful attention to scientific terminology. Do all terms, equations, or
analytical procedures conform to accepted standards? If in doubt, a reference
should be requested by the reviewer. It may be prudent for the author to so
reference the text.
8) The reviewer should not hesitate to question the value of any illustration.
Perhaps the information could better be shown in a tabular listing.
(9) Does the author present data, locations, or other important information
in the text, which are not shown on the illustrations? Are data shown on the
illustrations which are not referenced in the text? The reviewer should point
out suspected inconsistencies for the author to check.
Drafting is time-consuming, expensive, and often complex. Changes in
illustrations should be made at the beginning of the review procedure, not
during final proofing.


STANDARD FORMAT FOR PUBLICATIONS

One of the main advantages of following a standard format for publica-
tions is that it helps the author to present his material in a logical and orderly
manner. Authors should study recent, previously published reports of the
Bureau of Geology in order to better understand the following discussion. With
the exceptions of map series and leaflets, all Bureau publications have a format
that closely follows the Contents page given below. Examples of Cover, Title
page, Florida Cabinet Members Listing page, Letter of Transmittal, and Publica-
tion Data page are illustrated in Appendix A.

CONTENTS



Page
Acknowledgements
Introduction 1
Main body of text 2
Subsections



Summary
Preferences
Appendi.\
Illustrations
IFigures
Tables
P'late`s







TITLE


Authors need to choose the title of their report with care, and in accord-
ance with the following requirements. Explicit titles and headings are necessary
due to increasing use of computerized indexing and information retrieval
systems.

1) The title of the report should state concisely the nature, major discipline,
and the location of the study.
2) Chapter headings and subheadings should state all major concepts in their
respective sections of the report.


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


A letter of transmittal is included in all Bureau publications, except map
series and leaflets. It is not an abstract. Its principal purpose is to briefly in-
dicate the purpose and nature of the study, and how the report helps to meet
Bureau or departmental objectives. The author may be asked to provide a
rough draft for the letter.


CONTENTS AND HEADINGS


The Contents page lists the headings of the main divisions of the report.
The author's rough draft of the Contents page of the manuscript must show
the relative importance of all sectional headings used. This is done by success-
ive indentations, which will be used as a guide in typesetting.


GEOLOGY
Physiography
Northern Highlands
Tallahassee Hills






ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


These should be collectively at one place in the report. Assistance
rendered by persons outside the Bureau (or the author's organization) should
be acknowledged.
As a convention, members of the Bureau of Geology are not thanked.
Every investigation or report is assumed to have had the benefit of suggestions
and discussions by the author's colleagues as a part of their routine work, and
such contributions need not be noted unless they have been of major import-
ance. Where appropriate, their contribution should be recorded in such matters
as photographs or some particularly useful laboratory support.
In some cases, acknowledgement may be given to co-author, as discussed
in the following sections on joint and contributed authorship.
Full joint authorship. Each author named should have made a substantial con-
tribution, both to the research and writing of the manuscript. Names are
usually arranged alphabetically.

Cited as: Johnson, J.G. and Smith, R.L.
1967 Geology of Fellesmere
Quadrangle: Fla. Geol.
Survey Bull. No. X, 120 p.

Common sense must prevail if there were many joint authors. Listings
on the cover of a publication of more than three contributors create difficulties
for library cataloguers and others who wish to cite the work. Another style
of citation for multiple authors is:

Hatch, W.T., et al...
1978

Contributed authorship. The leader of a project is normally the senior author
and has had the major responsibility for assembling the text. In other cases
senior authorship must be decided by mutual consent.
There may be instances where there is only one senior author, but where
the contributions of colleagues may warrant citation in future references. For
example, the senior author may wish to acknowledge significant contributions
by student assistants to research projects, such as the compilation or prepara-
tion of tables of analytical data (mineral analyses, fossil determinations, gravity
charts). The legend or caption for the compilation should clearly state where
the work was done, the compiler's name, and the method used. Where possible,
this information should be grouped together in tabular form or as an appendix,
and preferably as a separate item at the end of the report under the name of
the persons) responsible, so that it may be cited in other publications, as shown
in the third example below.






In this example, the title might be:


GEOHYDROLOGY OF A POROUS FORMATION


E~d Lane

Florida Bureau of Geology
Bulletin Y
1978

And the main reference would be cited as:

Lane, E.
I 978 Geohydrology of a porous formation: Fla. Bur. of Geo.
Bull. Y, I50 p.

If someone wished to cite a particular portion of the study that had been contri-
buted by W. T. Hatch, then it would be cited as:

Hatch, W. T.
1978 Mineral Analyses of the Key Largo Limnestone, in Lane,
E., Geohydrology of a porous formation, Fla. Bur.
of Geo. Bull. Y, pp. I30-134.


INTRODUCTION


The first paragraph of the Introduction should set forth the tudy's
objectives and how the study contributes to the work of the Bureau or depart-
ment. The nature and scope of the study should be described, as well as in-
vestigative techniques used.
Other topics that are usually included in this section are the location
and size of the study area, an explanation of the locality and well numbering
system, previous investigations, transportation, climate, population, economics,
geomorphic features, drainage, and any topic that is of peripheral value to the
main study.
If any units of measurement have been discussed in the report, a table
showing English-Metric conversions must be placed at the end of this section.
The author must prepare the table and include every unit that is used in the
report. An example of a typical table is given as Table 2 in the section titled
"Metric System."






TEXT


The arrangement of the sections of the main body of the text will
vary due to the nature of the report. In most cases, however, successive sections
of a report will pass logically from general information (Introduction, General
Geology, etc.), to specific topics and back to general (Summary).
The largest subdivision of a Bureau publication, the chapter, is designated
by a major heading, as shown by the example in the above section on Contents
and Headings. In the example, "GEOLOGY" is a chapter heading. Also, note
how in this example the successive subheadings go from general to more specific
topics.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


In this section the author brings together all of the notable points or
conclusions of the report, which have been scattered through preceding sections,
and, in a logical manner, uses them to emphasize important points or data.
This section is not an abstract to describe why or how the study was
done, such information should have been put in the Introduction.

REFERENCES, SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY, OR BIBLIOGRAPHY


Proper and complete references and acknowledgements are very import-
ant parts of any scientific paper. Every quotation or use of any part of another's
work for reference must be acknowledged. It is illegal to plagiarize, and it is
also a matter of professional ethics. The recent revisions in copyright laws make
this a potentially more serious offense than ever before.
It is the responsibility of every author to completely acknowledge all
sources of data. In cases of joint authorship, it is the duty of the senior author
to insure that these requirements are met.
Nothing is more liable to arouse the ire of one's colleagues or peers than
to make a clumsy or negligent error in misquoting or misreferencing their work,
or in misspelling their names.
The style adopted by the Bureau of Geology for reference lists or biblio-
graphies is shown by the following examples. Authors must submit their manu-
scripts with the references arranged accordingly: alphabetically and in this
format. Do not expect others to rearrange them as this only promotes errors
of transposition.








Sever, C. W.
1964 Relation of economic deposits of A trapulgite to geologic
structure in southeastern Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 501-B, p. B116-B118.

Simpson, G. G.
1929 The extinct land mammals of Florida: Fla. G~eol. Survey
20th Ann. Rept., p. 229-294.

Southeastern Geological Society -- Mesozoic Committee
1949 Four charts of cross sections through Alabama, Georgia
and Florida.

Stephenson, L. W.
1911 (see Veatch, O.)

Swinnerton, A. C.
1942 Hydrology of Limestone terranes: in Hydrology, edited
by O. E. Meinzer: McGraw-Hill Book Co., N.Y., p. 656-
677.

Tallahassee, City of
1963 Population and economy, a comprehensive plan for future
development: prepared by the Planning Dept., City of
Tallahassee, Fla.

Todd, D. K.
1959 Ground water hydrology: John Wiley & Sons, N. Y.,
336 p.

Unklesbay, A. G;.
1959 (and Heath, R. C. and Peek, H. M.) Bibliography and index
of articles relating to the ground-water resources of Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. No. 4, 104 p.

U. S. Bureau of Census
1960 18th Decennial Census of U. S.
1965 Special Census for city of Tallahassee and urbanized area.

U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau
1964 Climatological data Florida: Weather Bureau, U. S. Dept.
Comm., monthly and annual summaries.







To cite references in the text, the Bureau uses the style with names
and dates in parentheses, e.g., ".....the rocks were found to be 15,000 years
old (Roberts, et. al., 1976, and Pauli, 1978)." However, if the author's name
is part of the sentence, it should not be in parentheses, e.g., "The Floridan
Aquifer, as defined by Parker (1955, p. 185), consists of limestones."
The Reference section follows the main body of the text and may be
entitled "References, Selected Bibliography, or Bibliography," in accordance
with the following categories.
1) The term "References" is used when each publication in this section was
referred to and cited at least once in the text.
2) The term "Selected Bibliography" is used when the author adds to a
"References" list some other publications that are directly related to the subject
of the report, but which were not cited in the report.
3) The term "Bibliography" is used when the author has attempted to list
all references bearing on the subject, even if they only indirectly relate to the
report.
Only material that has been published or is "in press" should be cited
in a reference list or bibliography.
Unpublished material (W.T. Door, unpubl. rept., 1978) or personal
communications (D. Crockett, pers. comm., 1979) should be identified as
such in the text, but they are not included in the reference list.
Material of limited circulation (theses, open-file reports, consultant's
reports, etc.) may be included, but it must be stated where they may be
obtained.
If no author's name is given for a publication, the agency responsible
for the report should be substituted.


APPENDIX

An appendix is the place for detailed or voluminous information that will
not fit readily in the main text. Such information includes analytical procedures,
lengthy stratigraphic columns or descriptions of measured sections, tabulations
of numerical data, and the like.
ILLUSTRATIONS


Illustrations include figures (photographs or drawings), tables, and plates.
Authors should carefully consider the final size of their illustrations, and they
should study the section on "Preparation of Illustrations."
All photographs are referred to as "Figures," except grouped photo-
graphs of fossils or grouped microphotographs, which are called "Plates."
Titles for illustrations that are listed on the "Contents" page should
not be longer than two typed lines. Longer titles can be condensed from the
complete captions that are used on the actual illustration.








Fold-outs, tip-ins, and pocket material should be avoided.
In cases where an author uses a previously published illustration, acknow-
ledgement must be clearly shown, either on the illustration or in the caption.
Copyright clearance may be necessary, in which case the author must obtain
it. The following rules apply to acknowledgement of illustrations, and should
be cited as: "Adapted from Gilluly, 1977, p. 10."

after: possible redrafting, but no changes in information
modified: some changes in information
adapted: radical changes


INDEX


Certain publications may require an index, such as Bulletins or Special
Publications. If an index is required, the author will need to prepare one at the
time he checks the page-proofs of his report. Commonly included subjects are
personal names, geographic names, company names, names of rocks and min-
erals, geological processes, geological units, formations, or provinces.


PREPARATION AND REVIEW OF ILLUSTRATIONS


REVIEW PROCEDURE

All preliminary or rough illustrations must be reviewed thoroughly
before submission for drafting. All authors (if more than one), staff, and at
least the section supervisor should review the work before submission for draft-
ing or editing. Changes to be made after drafting has been done will inevitably
result in delays to your project. Other authors' work is scheduled and they
should not be expected to wait on your mistakes.
Reviewers should check maps and diagrams thoroughly to make sure
that all captions, titles, legends, or lettering agrees with and is consistent with
the text and table of contents.
Drafted illustrations for manuscripts that are submitted by outside
authors must be provided to the Bureau in finished form by the author, and
be consistent with these guidelines. Photographs should be unmounted, and
suggested crop-lines may be indicated in the margins with blue pencil.







STANDARD DIMENSIONS FOR ILLUSTRATIONS


Most publications of the Bureau of Geology will be done as Bulletins,
Special Publications, Reports of Investigations, or Information Circulars. The
bound and trimmed dimensions of these publications are 6 inches wide by
9 inches high. The layout and dimensions for a standard page in these
publications are shown on Figure 1. The dimensions within the margins of a
standard page are 41/ inches wide by 7 inches high. All material must fit this
format. To ensure that illustrations will fit the size of Bureau publications,
the authors should plan their dimensions by using the following procedure.
Photographs may need to be cropped or original art reduced; it is better to
plan this as early as possible, preferably while the author is drawing the rough
copy or when specifications are given to the draftsman.
Because most artwork is photographically reduced from large originals,
the following procedure provides an easy way to ensure that originals are pro-
perly dimensioned for proportional reduction. Use Figure 2 to determine the
dimensions of an illustration that will reduce proportionately to 4% inches by
7 inches. Figure 2 is to correct scale, and although reduced in size, the derived
scalar values are true. To work with bigger drawings a full-scale graph can be
constructed on larger paper and divided as shown on Figure 2, with the basic
441 by 7 inch rectangle in the lower left corner.
The following explanation is for laying-out full-page illustrations.
Illustrations of smaller size (such as half-page figures) must also be planned
so as to have their maximum dimension fit within the margins. By using this
procedure an author can study alternative layouts, and can plan illustrations
that will utilize maximum allowable space. Before an original illustration is
drafted, the author should lay out the rough copy as follows.

1) Choose any horizontal or vertical dimension. For example, you may
want to prepare a drawing whose maximum dimension will be 8 inches on
one side.
2) Trace horizontally from 8 on the vertical scale (at left margin) to the
diagonal, then downward to the baseline and read 5.1 inches.
3) The original illustration must be 5 by 8 inches, or less, to fit the standard
page after reduction. The preliminary illustration will have to be modified if its
dimensions exceed 5 by 8 inches.
4) Remember to leave room for the figure's caption along the bottom, and
any scales that may need to be added along the axes. A suggested minimum is
'A inch for the caption (for about three lines of type). Requirements for scales
will vary, but legibility after reduction should be the primary consideration.

























4 /2




************************************
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************************************

.......... TEXT -------------





7 n :-:-:-:-:-:-:-; -:-: on :-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-: z

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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * sess .
** ** ** * * * * ** * * * * * * ** * *
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** ** ** ** * * *** * * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * so
**** ** ** * * * * * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * we * * * * * e . .
* * * * * * * * * * see a . so . . .
* * * * * * * * * * e * soa * * * * *
* * * * * * * * so . . . . . * e * *
* ** * * * * * s.. .. . .. .,,, 4 .., .
** ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * e . so .
* e * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * .
* * * * * * * * * e * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * e * * * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * e * * * * * . .
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * . . . .
* * * * * * e * * * * * * * * * so
* * * * * * * * * * * * * e * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * we * e * *
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* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
* * es ease * * * * * * * * * * * * *





11


MARGIN










6







Figure 1. Layout and dimensions for a standard page

in Bureau of Geology publications.























---------t----------
)----.i -----;--------CI----i-


:~___i__

::rrlS~EP r--.-.-~--~---i-
:__~:~_!r___------





----- ----~---- ----;----------C-, -----~
---------i------t-----t


:_--ll_~I~_-~~,__~___-~ _
-~ -i.
I_-II~If__ t_____~-~:T __ _I_~f-iZ


j__I ----.~i"i:i -i 1 I-I_1 ~:__LI I_
1-----


.~ --i---
i


PS_



2 4 6 8 10 12 14
INCHES





Figure 2. Proportional reduction graph to be used to

determine dimensions of original ilustrations

to fit Bureau of Geology publications.






17


LT-~.l_ Ili___~j~-l, .~I
(------- i--------;----- --
I:.rT~ ..fl~:I_2-L_; t~__~ ~:~:~L


... j i I __ -:rlle 1_...



~.T:-171t~....


_I_ / _~_ __~___
------- -------- ----- --(
1_
-----------?----------- -- r


.__r__ I_
---- ---I------ ---------I---
1--
--4"-1 ----------i ------i-~--


.11T::IT-:_~i_~
~~~~~------~
I
-------1-----


L--.-------i---


-- --- -l-----------C----L. ~-~- t
----. --,
--~ ---c--------- f -
~..__.. e------ -I--


Ti
1-
i


-i -----------







Conversely, for enlargement, Figure 2 can be used to determine the
dimensions of any illustration that is smaller than 41% by 7 inches which will
enlarge proportionately to fit the standard page. The above procedure is used,
but the dimensions are checked within the 41A by 7 inch rectangle.


FOLD-OUT PAGES AND POCKET MATERIAL


Fold-out pages (also called tip-ins) should be avoided. They are difficult
to produce-both from the standpoint of drafting as well as for printing and
binding--and are consequently more time-consuming and costly. Judicious
planning by an author can eliminate most tip-ins.
Occasionally, though, a map or table is too big to fit a standard page,
and may be a tip-in. Tip-ins are to be laid out by the author so the bound
edge lies along the left side. Accordingly, all text, legends, or captions must
be oriented for normal left-to-right reading. If it is necessary to have the reader
turn the book to read the tip-in, all text must be oriented so that only one
90-degree turn is necessary for all text to be oriented for left-to-right reading.
Pocket materials may be included in the same general category as tip-
ins-they are costly and difficult to produce and bind--and should be avoided,
if possible.
LOCALITY AND WELL NUMBERING SYSTEM


Any publication that makes reference to localities or to well locations
must include the standard explanation of the locality and well numbering
system used in Florida. This system is illustrated in Figure 3, and the explana-
tion is presented below in its entirety. This will be inserted automatically into
any manuscript as deemed necessary by the Bureau. The prospective author
will not have to draft or type this explanatory section; it will be provided by
the Bureau as needed. However, authors need to be aware that it may be added,
and they should plan their manuscript for its inclusion. If in doubt, check with
the Bureau's editor.

*****
Locality and Well Numbering System

The locality and well numbering system used in this report is based on
the location of the locality or well, and uses the rectangular system of section,
township and range for identification. The number consists of five parts. These
are: 1) a prefix of three letters designating L for locality or W for well and
county abbreviation, 2) the township, 3) the range, 4) the section and 5) the
quarter/quarter location within the section.







The basic rectangle is the township, which is 6 miles on a side and
encompasses 36 square miles. It is consecutively measured by tiers both north
and south of the Florida base line, and an east-west line that passes through
Tallahassee as Township ? North or South. This basic rectangle is also con-
secutively measured both east and west of the principal meridian and a north-
south line that passes through Tallahassee as Range ? East or West. In record-
ing the township and range numbers, the T is left off the township numbers,
and the R is left off the range numbers. Each township is divided equally into
36 one-square mile blocks called sections, and are numbered I through 36 as
shown on figure 3.
The sections are divided into quarters with the quarters labeled "a"
through "d" as shown on figure 3. In turn, each of these one-quarter sections
is divided into quarters with these quarter/quarter squares labeled "a" through
"d" in the same manner. The "a" through "d" designation of quarters may
be carried to any extent deemed useful.

The location of the well W-14108 as shown on figure 3 would be in the
center of the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 1, Town-
shlip I S, Range 15W, Bay County.

















































Figure 3. Locality and well numbering system used by
Bureau of Geology. (After Geology of Bay
County, Florida. Walter Schmidt and Murlene
Wiggs Clark, Fla. Bureau of Geology Bulletin
No. 57, 1980, Figure 3.)







GEOLOGIC SYMBOLS AND COLORS


MAP LEGENDS

Every map must have the following minimum information, as shown on
Figure 4.

1. North arrow.
2. Composite scale of miles and kilometers.
3. A legend that briefly explains the map's functions(s), e.g., county road
map, well location map, or line of cross sections.

The map's legend may be necessarily brief due to space limitations.
In such cases note that the figure's caption does not simply repeat the map's
legend, but is used to expand and clarify the map's function.
Figure 4 also demonstrates the manner in which additional informa-
tion may be added to a location map to enhance its value to the reader. Loca-
tions of cross sections should be distinctively identified. Township and range
markings may be added around the margins to facilitate well locations.

GEOLOGIC MAPS, STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMNS, AND CROSS SECTIONS


In addition to the minimum information required in its title and legend,
a geologic map also should have an explanation column. An example of the
conventional format for an explanation column to accompany a geologic map
is shown as Figure 5. It is usually placed down the right side of the map.
This conventional format also may be used on stratigraphic columns
or cross sections.
LITHOLOGIC AND STRATIGRAPHIC SYMBOLS

There are literally hundreds of zip-a-tone, or press-on, black-and-white
patterns available, many of which can be superimposed to create even more
varieties of patterns. The use of standardized symbols that are available as
press-on patterns can save considerable time and money. They eliminate hours
of repetitive drafting; they save authors' time by providing patterns that can be
specified, not drawn or sketched on the rough maps; they produce a profes-
sional look to the publication-- and that's what every author wants.














































Figure 4. Map showing necessary legend information.
(After Geology of Bay County, Florida.
Walter Schmidt and Murlene Wiggs Clark,
Fla. Bureau of Geology Bulletin No. 571,
1980, Figure 30.)





EXPLANATION


lite

o Limestone

~mpson Formaties


I~~-:Pinecrt Sand member
AF-Z lva Clay member


Formlation
Formation


e Limestone


rk Limestone

Limest~one


Cedar Keys Formation


Tuscaloosa Formation
Lower Cretaceous


I~~Ej SunnLland Limestone

I (pIPunta Gordo Formationl


Upper Juressic
Lower Jurassic


Y

sII


11 I
w
o I1 I
Y
u,
v,
4
0:
3
-r
O

I


Triessic


Permien

Ordovician


I




i
,,
pm
r
4
O


Undlivide Precembrian
grealtic rocks


Figure 5. Conventional format for an explanation column
to accompany a geologic map, stratigraphic
column, or cross section. This is an illustrative
section only and it is not meant to represent
all stratigraphic units found at any given
location .


M iamli Oo


SL Fort Tho



" Hawton 1 I t horn o l






Av ~on Pa~Od~~








All drafted diagrams that are intended to explain lithological or strati-
graphical relationships, such as cross sections, well logs, or columnar sections,
should use the standard lithologic symbols shown in Appendix B. Some of these
symbols are also suitable for use on black-and-white or colored geologic maps,
but there may be problems with clarity if they are to be overprinted on other
base map information.
In the event that it is not possible to choose a pattern from the given
examples, the author may create his own. Criteria used in creating new patterns
should be: (1) dominant lithology is to be clearly indicated over (2) lithologic
subtypes, accessory minerals, fossils, or other components. Clarity of the
symbols and availability of standard press-on patterns are also important.
For optimum clarity the author should carefully consider the type of
base map to be used, and how much geological, cultural, or other details it is
necessary to illustrate, and whether colors are to be used. Perhaps two or more
illustrations would be better than one cluttered map.
If questions arise, consult with the Bureau's editor and draftsmen;
many problems can be solved before you put your pen to the paper.

LETTER SYMBOLS FOR GEOLOGIC SYSTEMS
Standard letter symbols used by the Bureau of Geology on geologic
illustrations and maps consist of (1) a capital letter that denotes the system,
and (2) one or more lower case letters that designate the formation and mem-
ber. The letter symbols for the systemic terms are as follows:

0 Quaternary M Mississippian
T Tertiary D Devonian
K Cretaceous S Silurian
J Jurassic 0 Ordovician
'R Triassic e Cambrian
P Permian pE Precambrian
IP Pennsylvanian


FLORIDA SYSTEMS

Appendix C shows the letter symbols for the names of formations and
members that are in current usage by the Bureau of Geology. Proposals for
new geological names or symbols must be approved by the Bureau. If an author
needs to create a new letter symbol, the following guidelines should be used.
The new symbols should be based on practicality. No symbol should include
more than four (4) letters. Important factors to be considered in coining a new
symbol are the number of units or members shown and the rock types of the
area under discussion.







The second letter of the symbol is the first letter of the formation name,
as in Tt for Tamiami Formation of Tertiary age. If a formation name consists
of two or more words, such as Fort Thompson Formation of Quaternary age,
there is a choice of symbols -- in this example Qft or Qf. If members of the Fort
Thompson Formation are mapped, the first letter of the formation name is
commonly used with the first letter of the member name, as in Qfc for the
Coffee Mill Hammock member of the Fort Thompson Formation. This method
keeps the symbol from becoming too long and unwieldly. To dispel possible
confusion in some cases, it may be necessary to use more than one letter from
each formation or member, as can be seen from the several members of the
Tamiami Formation. For clarity, symbols for the Buckingham Limestone and
the Bayshore Clay members use the first letters of both words of their names,
Ttbl and Ttbc, respectively.

GEOLOGIC COLOR CODES


Color is a very effective way of depicting information, to show distin-
guishing characteristics, or to emphasize some aspect of a report or map.

In selecting colors, and in specifying them to printers, preference must
be given to light, transparent color values, and to pastel shades. Not only are
they more aesthetically pleasing than dark, solid colors, but more importantly,
lighter colors allow for the retention of legibility of overprinted legends, text,
contours, and other information. Special care must be taken with color selec-
tion if any map information is to be printed in light halftone.
If more than one diagram or map is to appear in a publication, the
colors should be coordinated. Units of the same or a similar age on the differ-
ent illustrations should have the same or similar colors.


GEOLOGIC COLUMN AND GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE


The color scheme shown on Figure 6 is generally accepted to represent
the different divisions of the standard geologic column or the relative geologic
time scale. The older units within each major division tire solid or darker, with
younger units being distinctively lighter.











Figure 6. Colors to be used to represent the standard geologic column
or the relative geologic time scale.

Recent lighter yellows



I Quatrnary Pleistocene darker yellows


I

I

e

r


II



I



I 1



I 1











8~1


orange

green

gray

lighter blues

darker blues

bluish purple

red

purple

browns

obives


Tertiary



Permian

Pennsylvanian

Mississippian

Devonian

Silurian

Ordovician

Cambrian


MESOZOIC




0
O


PRECAMBRIAN







GENERAL LITHOLOGIC OR STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMNS


Certain colors are customarily used to denote different lithologies on
columnar sections, cross sections, and on geologic maps. The color scheme on
Figure 7 is suggested to denote the common lithologies found in Florida.
Sub-types may be shown by combination of the respective black-and
white accessory symbols with the color of the dominant lithology. For example,
sandy limestone would be light blue with the sand symbol (dot pattern). Marl
would be tan with the marl symbol.

FLORIDA STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN

Most of the rocks encountered at or near the surface in Florida are of
Cenozoic or Tertiary ages. The color scheme shown in Figure 8 is suggested
for use on geologic maps or cross sections of Florida.


PRECEDENCE OF COLOR SELECTION

The choice of colors for the units on a map or diagram is based on the
following decreasing order of preference.

1. Standard geologic column or geologic time scale.
2. Florida stratigraphic column.
3. General lithologic or stratigraphic columns.

For example, if a geologic map is being constructed to show strictly
lithology (such as a surface lithology map), with no reference to specific geo-
logic age or formational names, then colors should be selected in accordance
with category three, above.

However, if a stratigraphic colum is constructed that shows various
lithologic strata in one or more formations, such as limestones and dolomites
in the Suwannee Limestone, then the colors would be selected from the second
category. In this example, the limestone and dolomite strata would be different
shades of purple, and overprinted lithologic symbols would complete the identi-
fication.







Figure 7. Colors used to denote the common lithologies found in Florida.


I I


Quartz sand or gravel

Quartz silt or clay

Chert

Limestone (coquina, chalk)

Dolomite

Shell beds or marl

Sandstone

Shale

Anhydrite

Gypsum

Peat

Igneous or metamorphic


yellow

green

light gray

light blues

dark blues

tan

orange

brown

red

purple

symbol or black

olive











Figure 8. Color code for the Florida stratigraphic column.


Quaternary








Tertiary <


L 1



L 1




I I

II

aa

~s~R


Recent



Pleistocene


Pliocene

Miocene

Oligocene

Eocene

Paleocene


light yellow



dark yellow


gray

green

purple

blue

orange


reds, browns


pre-Tertiary







ABBREVIATIONS FOR FLORIDA COUNTY NAMES


When space is at a premium, such as on maps, graphs, or tabular list-
ings, the conventional abbreviations for Florida county names shown in Table I
may be used.




Table 1. Abbreviations for Florida county names.


Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf


Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau


Hm
Hd
Hy
Hr
Hi
Hi
Ho
Ir
Ja
Jf
Lf
Lk
Le
Ln
Lv
Lb
Md
Mn
Mr
Mt
Mo
Na


Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Suwannee
Sumter
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington







METRIC SYSTEM


The National Metric Conversion Act of 1975 provided for the orderly
transition of the United States' system of measurement from English units to
metric units. The metric system is also known as SI (Syst'eme International or
International System).
In order to prevent much awkward duplication of parenthetical conver-
sion of units in the text of reports, the Bureau of Geology has adopted the
practice of inserting a tabular listing of conversion factors. This table is placed
in the body of the report at the end of the Introduction section. The author
must compile the table and include every unit that is used in the report.
An example of such an insert is given in Table 2, which shows some
typical units; only a partial listing of the more common units and conversion
factors are given. If other units are needed, authors may consult standard refer-
ence books. Of course, each report will differ and may require either more or
fewer units than shown.
The following conventions should be observed in using the metric
system.






1) The symbols are always in roman type.
2) Symbols are never pluralized, e.g., millimeters mm, not mms.
3) A period is not used after a symbol, except to end a sentence.
4) When a unit is comprised of letters, a full space is left between the
number and symbol, e.g., 45 kg, except when a symbol such as the
degree symbol directly follows a number, e.g., 32oC.
5) Symbols for metric units should always be used; unit names should
not be written out except in general terms, such as "several meters
west."
6) Where a decimal fraction is used, a zero should always be placed to
the left of the decimal marker, e.g., 0.78 kg.







Table 2. Example of a typical insert of conversion factors to be used in
Bureau of Geology publications.


TO OBTAIN
METRIC UNITS

hectares
sq. meters
cu. meters
liters
cu. meters/sec.
cu. meters
meters
centimeters
meters
millimeters
kilometers
kilograms
kilograms/sq. meter
sq. meters
kilograms
meters


MULTIPLY


0.4047
4047
0.0283
28.32
0.0283
0.7646
0.3048
2.540
0.0254
25.40
1.609
0.4536
4.882
0.0929
907.18
0.9144


acres
acres
cubic feet
cubic feet
cubic feet/sec.
cubic yards
feet
inches
inches
inches
miles (statute)
pounds
pounds/sq. foot
square feet
tons (short, 2000 lbs.)
yards






APPENDIX A. EXAMPLE OF COVER AND TITLE PAGE FOR
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS.



STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executrive Director

DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Casey J. Gluckman, Division Director

BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. HendrIy, Jr., Chief











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 23


GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS
WITH COIMMENIS FOR EDTIORIAL REVIEWERS

by

Ed Lane













Published by
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1980






APPENDIX A (CONTINUED). EXAMPLE OF FLORIDA CABINET
MEMBERS LISTING PAGE.





DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES



BOB GRAHAM
Governor


JIMl SMITH
Attorney General


GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agniculture


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State



BILL GUNTER
Treasurer



RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director






APPENDIX A (CONTINUED). EXAMPLE OF LETTER OF
TRANSMITTAL.


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee

June 10, 1980




Governor Bob Graham, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Graham:

The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Department
of Natural Resources is publishing as its Special Publication No. 23, "Guidelines
For Authors With Comments For Editorial Reviewers," by Ed Lane, a geologist
with the Bureau.

These guidelines are being published to ensure the high editorial stand-
ards required for the scientific publications produced by the Bureau of Geology.
Excellence of presentation, scientific accuracy, clarity of meaning, and technical
superiority in printing are the traditional goals against which each manuscript
proposed for publication will be measured.

Respectfully yours,



Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology






APPENDIX A (CONTINUED). EXAMPLE OF PUBLICATION DATA
PAGE. DATES WILL CHANGE AS
APPROPRIATE.

















































Printed by the
Bureau of Geology
Division of Resource Management
Florida Department of Natural Resources


Tallahassee
1980







APPENDIX B. CHART OF GRAPHIC SYMBOLS FOR LITHOLOGY,
STRATIGRAPHY, ACCESSORY MINERALS, AND
OTHER COMPONENTS.

This chart illustrates the main lithologies and the usual sub-types
encountered in Florida. The patterns may be modified by adding accessory
symbols as needed to describe lithologies in more detail. Care should be taken
not to over-embellish the main pattern; the legend can be used to describe the
details and to distinguish between similar lithologies. Accessory symbols are
given at the end of the chart.
Some patterns have alternates; usually these represent differences of
scale to compensate for reduction in printing. Also, they may be used to re-
present characteristics of bedding or strata, or facies changes.

NOTE: Bureau of Geology Lithologic Specification Numbers should always
be given on every rough drawing for each lithic unit -- even if the author sketches
in patterns -- the Specification Number will be used as the primary drafting
guide.




Main Lithology
Sub-Types
LT=Letraset or or Remarks
similar press- Alternate (numbers are BOG lithologic
on pattern Pattern specification number)




.. ..on oo n o

o .0 a s Og o.e Conglomerate


LT141 LT182
GRAVEL








LT90 LT907
SAND








LT90 or
LT907 wit~h
random pattern
added to disting-
uish from chalk.


LT907
calcareous
sandstone


SILT


LT953 LT121
CLAY


LT152
SHALE



VVV
VVVV
VVV
VGVVV
VVV
VVVV
LT240
CHERT










as ** *







LTI47L11





LIMESTONE



10


LT242
dolomitic
limestone



-L 11 LT 123 with
-L chalk symbols


LT238 LTI23
chalky
CHALK
limestone


12 PT 23 sath



LTI23
FORAMINIFERAL coquinoid, reef,
LIMESTONE or shelly limestone









LT 123 with
13 oolitic circles
(not dots)






or
LT 116 or
14
LT 123 with
sand symbols







LT 123 with
15
chert added


cherty
limestone


LT 164 with
random shells,
limestone, and
and clay added







combine with
accessory
symbols as
with limestone


LT244
DOLOMITE


oolitic
limestone







LT165
sandy
limestone


LTI64
MARL








note orien-
tation as
compared to
gypsum





note orien-
tation as
compared to
anhydrite


LT957
ANHYDRITE







LT957
GYPSUM


+ +





LT958
SALT


PEAT


LT995
MAFIC BASEMENT
ROCKS


+++++
++++++
++++++
++++++
++++++

LT959










I-/\L,23


LTI31
FELSIC BASEMENT
ROCKS


METAMORPHIC


NO SAMPLE or
SECTION COVERED







GRAPHIC SYMBOLS FOR ACCESSORY MINERALS
AND OTHER COMPONENTS


These may be used in any combination to indicate included components or
sub-types of lithology, but they should be used sparingly.
C COCCOLITHS

D DIATOMS

Fe IRON or ironstone

G GLAUCONITE

H HEAVY MINERALS

M MICA

P PHOSPHATE or phosphatic limestone or material

T TEETH shark or other

** SAND small, solid random dots

SSHELLS or coquina

ICALCAREOUS cement or streaks

DOLOMITIC

CLAY

\ICHERT

co OOLITES small, open circles

6bFORAMINIFERA or foraminiferal limestone

c0PLANT REMAINS

O PYRITE

0 CONCRETIONS or nodules







APPENDIX C. LETTER SYMBOLS FOR NAMES OF FLORIDA
GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND MEMBERS.


SYSTEM FORMATION or MEMBER LETTER SYMBOL


RECENT or PLEISTOCENE

undifferentiated units Qu
Lake Flirt Marl Qlf
SPamlico sand Qp
Anastasia Formation Qan
Miami Oolite Qmo
Key Largo Limestone Qkl
Cr Fort Thompson Fm Qf
Coffee Mill Hammock member Qfe
Okaloakoochee member Qfo
Caloosahatchee Fm. Qc
Ayers Landing member Qca
Bee Branch member Qcb
Fort Denaud member Qcf


PLIOCENE

Citronelle Fm. Tci
Miccosukee Fm. Tm
Jackson BluffFm. Tjb


PLIO-MIOCENE

Intracoastal Limestone Til










MIOCENE


Red Bay Fm. Trb*
Yellow River Fm. Tyr *
Tamiami Fm. Tt*
Ochopee Limestone member Ttol *
Pinecrest Sand member Ttp *
Buckingham Limestone member Ttbl *
Alva Clay member Ttae
LaBelle Clay member Ttl
Ortona Sand member Ttos
Murdock Station member Ttms
Bayshore Clay member Ttbc
Bone Valley Fm. Tby
Alachua Fm. Tal
SFort Preston Fm. Tip
E~Hawthorn Fm. Th
Bruce Creek Limestone Tbc
SPensacola Clay Fm. Tpc
Escambia Sand member Tpce
Shoal River Fm. Tsr
Oak Grove member Tsro
Chipola Fm. Tc
St. Marks Fm. Tsm
Chattahoochee Fm. Tce



OLIGOCENE


Suwannee Limestone Ts
Duncan Church beds Td
Byram Fm. Tb
Bucatunna Clay member Tbb
Marianna Limestone Tml
Chickasawhay Limestone Tch






* Exact epocal affinities for these units are uncertain in sorne instances. May be
in part Pliocene Miocene.








EOCENE


Ocala Group (Crystal River, Williston, & Inglis) Tog
Crystal River Fm. Tcr
Bumpnose member Tcrb
Steinhatchee Dolomite member (informal) Tcrs
Williston Fm. Tw
Inglis Fm. Ti
Avon Park Fm. Tap
Lisbon Fm. TI
Lake City Fm. Tlc
Tallahatta Fm.Tt
Hatchetigbee Fm. The
W Bashi Marl member Theb
Oldsmar Fm. To



PALEOCENE


Cedar Keys Fm. Tck
Midway Fm. Tm






Lawson Limestone KI
Eutaw Fm. Ke
SAtkinson Fm. Ka
Pi WTuscaloosa Fm. Kt
d Pilot Sandstone member Ktps
Upper member Ktu
U Middle member Ktm
Lower member Ktl
Massive Sandstone member Ktms





onDollar Bay Fm. Kdb
p~OLake Trafford Fm. Klt
W WSunniland Fm. Ks
O Punta Gorda Fm. Kpg
Ft. Pierce Fm. Kfp
SHosston Fm. Kh









Cotton Valley Fm. Jcy
Haynesville Fm. Jh
rnBuckner Anhydrite Jba
Smackover Fm. Js
L)Norphlet Fm. J
Louann Fm. Jl




Eagle Mills Fm. 'Item





Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks are known from a few wells, but
their ages and systemic affinities have not been established.
In these cases the author may assign them standard systemic
letter symbols as research data indicates, in accordance with
the section entitled "Letter symbols for geologic systems."




I