Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida no. 4. ( FGS: Geological Bulletin 28) (1945)

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Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida no. 4. ( FGS: Geological Bulletin 28) (1945)
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Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
    Front Matter
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Main
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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    Index
        Page 155
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Full Text



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT Fro,


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PHOTO BY S. MONTY DOUGLASS, CITY OF TALLAHASSEE, POLICE


Pumping station City of Tallahassee water well No.


6 in Lafayette Park






STATE OF FLORIDA


DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION
Florida Geological Survey


E. RICE, Supervisor of Conservation


HERMAN GUNTER, Director, Geological Survey






GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN No. 28


STRATIGRAPHIC


AND


PALEONTOLOGIC


STUDIES


OF WELLS IN FLORIDA-No. 4
City of Tallahassee water well No. 6
Dale Mabry Field water well "B"


Ravlin-Brown,


G. Philips No. 1 well


W. STORRS COLE, Ph.D.
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY


,7~(j3






Manuscript received October


January


Published May,


1944


1945


1945


FLORIDA GROWER PRESS


, Tampa







LETTER


OF TRANSMITTAL


HONORABLE S. E. RICE
Supervisor of Conservation
Florida State Board of Conservation

Sir:


I have the honor to transmit a
PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES
Dr. W. Storrs Cole of Ohio Statr
lished as Geological Bulletin No.


report entitled STRATIGRAPHIC AND
OF WELLS IN FLORIDA-No. 4, by
e University, Columbus, Ohio, to be pub-
28.


This is the fifth of the series of bulletins sett


Dr. Cole's studies of samples from wells in ]
the cuttings from two water wells-City
Dale Mabry Field water well "B" and the cu
oil, namely, the Ravlin-Brown V. G. Philips
The general area in which these wells are l


Florida
of Tal
things
No. 1
Stated


ing forth the results of
. This bulletin considers
lahassee well No. 6 and
and cores from a test for
well in Wakulla County.
is one which has offered


considerable difficulty in studying cuttings and arriving at definite conclu-
sions as to the geologic age to which they should be assigned. Some of these
difficulties may be because of the paucity of data available for study. But


the area has been subject
On this account determi


be made, or if
lation of data
it is therefore
to preserve cul
The region is
tural point of
data from wel
present study


opinion


that


t


made
the p
hoped


only
roble
that


:tings from
one that oi
view and
Is, particul
by Dr. C
he area mi


ed to weathering agencies, particularly solution.
nation of the micro-fossils frequently can not
with doubt and reservations. With the accumu-
ms which now give concern may be solved and
those who drill wells in this region will arrange
t the surface to the completed depth of the well.
offers difficulties both from a geologic and struc-
much light can be given through the saving of
arly those of a few hundred feet in depth. The
;ole indicates the difficulties and confirms the


ght very app


ropriately be


termed


tion between those of the predominant plastic character of
the almost entirely calcareous character of the peninsula.


one of transi-
the north and


The report, too, contributes definitely to the larger problem of structure
and stratigraphy of the whole State of Florida.
Let me thank you for the cordial cooperation you have always shown in
the investigations made by the Geological Survey. Your uniform courtesy
has made our work lighter and one of pleasure.







CONTENTS


PAGE


Introduction


Acknowledgments -
City of Tallahassee water wel
Stratigraphy -
Miocene -


Hawthorn


-453)


formation


Tampa limestone -
Oligocene -
Suwannee limestone


Upper Eocene


Paleontological


record


Dale Mabry Field water wel
Stratigraphy -
Miocene -


(W-


95)- 1
95) 1


Hawthorn
Tampa lin


formation


nestone


Oligocene -
Suwannee limestone


Paleontological


record


-95)


Comparison of the City of Tallahassee


water wel


and the


Dale Mabry


Field


water


well


Descriptions of species
Valvulinidae -


Coskinolina
Dictyoconus
Camerinidae -


Opercldinoides
Orbitoididae -


floridana
cooktei


Cole -
[Moberg)


vicksburgensis


Vaughan and Cole


Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina)


parvula


Cushman


yurnagunensis Cushman


yurnagunensts


Cushman,


variety morganopsis
Vaughan


(Ne


phrole


pidina) leonensis Cole,
sanfernandensis
and Col
tallahassee


n. sp.
Vaughan
e, variety
nsis Cole,


var.


suwanneensis C


(Eule


pidina) favosa


Cushman


1


=





Ravlin-Brown


Philips No. 1


well


(.W-440)


(continued)


PAGE


Location -
Stratigraphy
Miocene


Tampa
Oligocene


limestone


Suwannee limestone


Upper


Eocene


Ocala


Middle


limestone


Eocene


Lisbon formation


Lower


Eocene


Wilcox


group


Paleocene


Midway


formation


Upper Cretaceous


Selma


formation


Eutaw formation


Tuscaloosa


Paleontological


Descriptions
Descriptions


formation


record


cores


species


Valvulinidae


Lituonella floridana Cole


Coskinolina


floridana


Cole


Dicyoconus americanus
cookei (M


Eodictyoconus cubensis
Miliolidae -


(Cushman)
oberg) -


(Cushman and Bermud


Fabtdaria vaughani Cole and Ponton
Camerinidae -


Camerina jacksonensis


Gravell


Hanna


moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna
vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt)


Operculinoides cooked


vaughani
willcoxi


(Cushman)


(Cushman)
(Heilprin)


Opercudina


barkeri Vaughan and


Cole


Heterostegina texana Gravell and Hanna
Rotaliidae -


Camagueyia


perplexa Cole and Bermudez


Orbitoididae -
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton


cedarkeysensis


Cole


I 4


-


dI


l f f.


J







ILLUSTRA


TIONS


Figures


PAGE


Frontispiece


Figure 1


Index


map


showing


location


City


Tallahassee


Dale Mabry Field wells


Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.


Log of the City of Tallaha


ssee


water wel


Log of the Dale Mabry Field water well -


Drilling rig Ravlin-Brown,


Index


map


showing


Philips No.


location


1 well


Ravlin-Brown


.G.


Figure 6.
Figure 7.


Philips No. 1
Log of Ravlin-Brown,


Spudding-in


activities


well


I. G. Philips No.
at Ravlin-Brown


well
well


.G.


Philips


well


Figure 8


Schlumberger
well


log of Ravlin-Brown,


.G.


Philips


Plates


Plates


Foraminifera from City of Tallahassee


and Dale Mabry


Field


wells


Plates 1


Foraminifera


from


Ravlin-Brown,


Philips


well


ABLES


Table


Measurements of Operculinoides vicksburgensis and Oper


culinoides


lmumlrS


Table


Measurements of verti


nandensis var.


al sections of L
tallahasseensis


epidocyclina sanfer-


var.


Table

Table


Measurements of the embryonic apparatus of Lepidocyclina
sanfernandensis var. tallahasseensis, n. var. -


Measurements


horizontal


sections


Helicol


epidina


Table


paucispira -
Measurements of vertical sections of Helicol


epidina pauci-


Table
Table
Table


spira -
Measurements of Cantmerina moodybranchensis


Measurements of
Measurements of


Operculinoides


Operculina


barker


____ C C. -i A


willcoxi


I


q


L*ll





Tables


(continued)


PAGE


Table 14.


Measurements of vertical


sections of


Lepidocyclina mac


donaldi


Table


Measurements


horizontal


sections


Lepidocyclina


macdonaldi


Table


Measurements


transverse


sections


Lepidocyclina


m ortoni


Table 1


Measurements


of horizontal section of Lepidocyclina mor-


toni






STRATIGRAPHIC


AND


PALEONTOLOGIC


STUDIES


OF WELLS


FLORIDA


No.


City of Tallahassee water well No. 6


Dale


Mabry


Field


water well


Ravlin-Brown,
W.S


G. Philips No. 1 well


;TORRS COLE


OHIO


STATE


UNIVERSITY


INTRODUCTION


Four bulletins


sent a


detailed


which an attempt has been made to


analysis of


selected


well


in Florida have


pre-
been


published. This bulletin i
Tallahassee are analyzed i
of the wells studied for


n which three wells in the vicinity of


the fifth in the series.


this


bulletin


The locations


are shown in Figures


and 5.


Samples fro
Tallahassee


No.


6 (W


ied first.
Oligocene


well


were


not present
problems,


water
were


City
well
stud-


The Miocene and


portions
normal
t any pa
but th


of
and


FIGURE


this
did


,rticular
le final


S- Loco ion of


-wll,


0 t


-~r
N--. .r
^/*"L-- ,-


samples from this well con-


tainted


specimens


larger


Foraminifera representing
upper Eocene species which


have


not


been


previously from t
Eocene of Florida.


reported
:he upper


-.. *


Figure 1.


Location of City of Tal-


lahassee well and Dale Mabry Field
water well "B".


Although these species conclusively demon-


state


that


this


well


penetrated


upper


Eocene,


the exact


tratigraphic


zones in


fore,


Mr,


relationship


the upper
. Gunter


this


zone


Eocene could not


suggested


to other


well


ascertained.


that the samples


from


known
There-


Dale


-453)


im




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


Mabry Field water well "B"


(W-95)


should be examined as


they might yield more information.


Unfortunately, the Dale Mabry Field water well "B" was
not drilled deep enough to furnish the desired information,
but a very large and well preserved fauna of larger Foramini-
fera was found in the Oligocene portion of this well. In order
that this fauna might be recorded the decision was made .to
study this well in detail.
Mossom' indicates that the top of the Ocala limestone should
be encountered at approximately 450 feet below sea level in
the vicinity of Tallahassee. The data available to Mossom were
quite meager and poor. The present study shows that at Tal-
lahassee the top of the upper Eocene occurs at approximately
220 feet below sea level. Whether the upper Eocene repre-
sents the Ocala or a new formation in this area will be dis-
cussed later in this bulletin.


fr(
M


All of the types and other specimens described or identified
om these wells are filed in the Florida Geological Survey
useum at Tallahassee, Florida.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


It is a distinct pleasure to acknowledge the assistance that
has been received during the progress of this study. Mr. Her-
man Gunter has given many valuable suggestions and his con-
stant encouragement has been a source of inspiration during
the tedious phases of this problem. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan


examined


certain


specimens


and


wrote


detailed


opinions,


many of which are quoted in later sections. The U. S. Geo-
logical Survey and Dr. John W. Wells took the excellent pho-
tomicrographs of the external views. Mr. James R. Galbraith
Jr. described most of the samples from the City of Tallahassee
water well. The writer made the thifi sections and took the
photomicrographs of these.










STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


* :'***** ** *-** *
j'jt ..;,:.,
- -
--
-
--
-
-I -r -
- -~i


** *

*3 ***i * *


S! I* I S. I
I I-".'
*IE-EIPI


r-x--




mix
*~ Lr-

ri-mh--



m il.:.,-J


. 1 1U. 1


. *I. *"* l" ..
S S~ i '. i" *r I


* *S St ..* S
5 0


l 1 .
r-9 S -rz.* '-S


Il r m-rL
5irc3a- r -=J


I 1


UTI II


Surface sand, iron stoined

Greenish, yellow, orange


No simple


White


Cream-colored, compact


SCan


level


White, hard


Cream-colored, hard


White, hard, gronular


I


Smaol


Foraminifero


Brown, hard, doom tic


~White, porous
Tan to brown


Wh/e, porous, foromin/feral


0


EOCENEI


WAll II 5


I


wFv


I


IW





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


County, Floi
Township 1


post


office


:ida.


The exact location of this well is section 30,


N., Range 1 E., about 4100 feet northeast of the
nd the elevation of the well is 186.6 feet above


sea level.


This well was started
first to a depth of 310 f
The drilling was done b


tion of J
gineer of


vey /
driller


a


acksonville,
Tallahassee,
moles which


1.


Fl


on June 19
:eet and late


y the Gray
orida. Mr.


presented to th
were given th


1939.


r deepened
Well and P
Miller Wa
ie Florida (
le file numl


was


drilled


to 413.5


feet.


ump Corpora-


Iston,


city


en-


;eological Sur-
ber W-453. A


's log was not furnished to the Survey.


STRATIGRAPHY


The formations penetrated


cally on Figure 2.


lated


with


known


by this well are shown


The section to a depth of


surface


units,


but


graphi-


404 feet is corre-
remainder of the


well (404 to 413.5 feet). is not correlated definitely with sur-
face formations of Florida because a fauna appears which has
not been recognized previously in the state.


U


A. -,


MIOCENE


HAWTHORN FORMATION.-The geologic map of Florida3
shows that the area in and adjacent to the city of Tallahassee
is underlain by the Hawthorn formation. Cooke and Mossom'


state:


"Although nearly al


of Hawthor
everywhere


lime


bee


of Leon Count


1. 1


I


y is


n age, tne unaltered rocK is ex
the formation is so deeply weat
n removed by solution, leaving


sandstone and sandy clay."
The first sample at


feet


underlain 1
posed at fe
hered that
behind loc


by sandy limestone
ew places. Nearly
practically all its


ose sand


or friable


contains iron stained sand


and


some particles of weathered clay.


encountered at a depth of


appear at a depth of


60 feet.


100 feet,


The first sandy limestone is
Although shell fragments


the first identifiable Foramini-


al


D


b






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


to yellowish-brown clays, certain of which resemble fuller's
earth. The lower 60 feet of the Hawthorn is dominated by a
white, arenaceous limestone, some beds of which contain shell
fragments.
TAMPA LIMESTONE.--At a depth of 130 feet a few speci-


mens


which


were' recovered.


referred


Peneroplis


the next sample


proteus


140


feet


d'Orbigny
abundant


specimens of P. proteus d'Orbigny were found in association
with Sorites sp. Normally, Archaias floridanus (Conrad) ac-
companies these species, but in this well A. floridanus was not
recovered from any of the samples.
The top of the Tampa limestone is placed at 120 feet rather
than 130 feet at which depth Foraminifera appear because of


the lithologic change which occurs at 120 feet.


The sample at


110 feet contains numerous fragments of a white, soft, arena-
ceous limestone, but at 1'20 feet cream-colored hard compact


limestone is encountered.
of 190 feet.


This limestone continues to a depth


White, hard, arenaceous limestone is found between 190 to


210 feet. At 220 feet the sample contained abundant
brown flint fragments. This sample is believed to m
top of the Oligocene. If this is correct, the Tampa lii
in this area would have a thickness of about 100 feet.


gray to
Lark the
mestone


OLIGOCENE


SUWANNEE LIMESTONE.-The sample at 220 feet which
contained the flint had a fauna of smaller Foraminifera. Un-
fortunately, these were preserved so badly that identifications
a 4* 1 A - aI F


were impossible. At 230-240 teet specimen
which were identified as Rotalia mexicana


is were recovered


Nuttall,


variety


mecatepecensis Nuttall (see figure 10, plate 11). In the study





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


mecatepecensis


Nuttall.'


Galloway


and


Heminway


Figure


choctawensis from the San Sebastian formation which they


assign


middle


Oligocene


and


mextcana,


variety


mecatepecensis from the Ponce formation which is assigned in
part to the upper Oligocene and in part to the lower Miocene.
The Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) waylandvaughani zone
of the Meson formation exposed in a quarry on the golf course


Huasteca


Petroleum


Company


Tampico,


Mexico


contains numerous specimens of R. mexicana,


variety mecate-


pecensis


from
sippi.


as well


beds
It


as Elphidium


Chickasawhay


would


appear


that


rota


age of
both


Ellis,


Wayne


a species


County,


choctawensis


described


Missis-


and


mextcana,


variety mecatepecensis are Oligocene species.


Although


sample


taken


240-


250


feet


contained


few specimens assigned to Elphidium rota Ellis in addition


more


specimens


mexicana,


variety


mecatepecensis,


moderately


complete


fauna


was


not


found


until


the sample


at 280


-290 feet was examined.


This fauna indicates definitely


Oligocene age for this sample.
The sparingly fossiliferous zone


from


220


feet to


280


feet


included


in the


Oligocene


and


assigned


Suwannee


limestone, but study 'of other wells may cause this portion of
the well to be classified in a different manner.
Between 324 and 404 feet specimens of Lepidocyclina were


found at 349, 354 and 356 feet.


At 362 feet there were found


pecimens


representing


Coskinolina


ftoridana


Cole


and


Dic


tyoconus
these spe


cookei


cies


(Moberg)


occurred


. At


depths of


in abundance.


The


365


and


370


individual


feet
peci-


mens were well preserved.


floridana and D.


cookei occur


in two


zones


in Florida,


namely, in the middle Eocene as indigenous specimens and in
the Oligocene as reworked specimens although there is a differ-


ence


opinion


with


regard


origin


Oligocene






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


The section assigned to the Suwannee limestone in this well
has a thickness of about 184 feet.

UPPER EOCENE
At 404 feet there appears a white foraminiferal limestone
which contains many specimens of Helicolepidina paucispira
Barker and Grimsdale and abundant specimens of a new va-
riety of Lepidocyclina which is closely related to L. (Nephro-
lepidina) sanfernandensis Vaughan and Cole. Neither H.


paucispira


nor


san fernandensis,


varnet)


r tallahasseensis,


var., have been reported from Florida.
H. paucispira is known from Mexico
the base of the upper Eocene in the Tan
from the uooer Eocene of Trinidad."


"1 where it occurs near
ipico Embayment and
L. sanfernandensis is


known only from its type locality at San Fernando,
in deposits assigned to the upper Eocene.'"


Trinidad,


In all the wells so far examined, except the City of Quincy
water well (W-4)," the upper Eocene has been recognized by
the appearance of a typical Ocala fauna of larger Foramini-
fera. In the City of Quincy water well (W-4) only smaller


Foraminifera
types which
Coastal Plain.


name


c


Ocala


.1 .


1


vere present, put tne species represented were
haracterize the Jackson deposits of the Gulf
Therefore, it was logical to use the formational
or this portion of the section in the City of


V


Quincy water well


(W-4).


Although the section from 404 to 413.5


feet


(the last sam-


pie) in the City of Tallahassee well represents the upper
Eocene, there is considerable doubt concerning the exact cor-
relation because the two species present have not been recog-


nized


previously in Florida, nor is there evidence of their re-


lationship


conservative


known
treatmer


Ocala an
it of this


d


Jackson


faunas.


section is to ass


;12n


The
it t(


most
)the


I
I


1A





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


Future work may indicate that thi


is a phase of the Ocala,


that


represents


appearance


new


unit


upper


Eocene age.


PALEONTOLOGICAL


RECORD


(W


-453)


Peneroplis proteus


Peneroplis
Sorites so.


d'Orbigny


proteus d'Orbigny


Peneroplis proteus d'Orbigny
Sorites sp.


Smaller Foraminifera


(badly preserved; not identified)


30-240


Rotalia mexicand Nuttall
250 feet
Elphidium rota Ellis
Rotalia mexicana Nuttall


, variety mecatepecensis Nuttall


, variety mecatepecensis


Nutta


Amphistegina cf.
Asterigerina sp.


Discorbis


Elphidium rota Ellis
Eponides ellisorae G
Lepidocyclina (Eule


chipolensis Cushman and Ponton


irrett


pidina)


favosa Cushman


Nonion sp.
Operctdinoides vicksburgensis V
Planorbulina larvata Parker and
Rotalia mexicana, variety mecai
Reussia spinulosa, variety glabra


raughan and Cole
Jones
tepecensis Nuttall
fa (Cushman)


0-300


Discorbis sp.
subpatelliformis Cushman and McGlamery


Cibicides


mexicanus Nuttall
pseudoungerianus


(Cushman)


Discorbis subaraucana Cushman


ubaraucana Cushman






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


349


Lepidocyclina


(NeP]frolepidina)
(Eilepidina) fav


'0


suwanneensis Cole
sa Cushman


, n. sp.


Lepidocyclina (Nephrol


epidina)


suwanneensis Cole, n. sp.


Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina)


Coskinolina floridana Cole


Dictyoconus cookei


(Moberg)


Coskinolina
Dictyoconus


floridana Cole


cookei


(Moberg)


(abundant)


(abundant)


Gypsina sp.
Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis,


variety tallahasseensis Cole,


n. var.


405-413.5


Gypsita sp.
Helicolepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale


Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis,


variety tallahasseensis Cole,


n. var.


DALE MABRY FIELD


WATER


WELL


(W


-95)


The United States Army drilled at the Dale Mabry


Field a


water well, samples from which were presented to the Florida


Geological Survey
west-southwest oi


. The location of this well is about 3


Tallahassee,


Leon


County,


Florida


i miles
in the


NE of the NW '/4 of section 4,
The elevation of this well is 86.1 j


Township


1 S., Range


feet above sea level.


The well was started on December 9


1940 and drilled to a


depth


239


feet


December


1940.


The drilling


was


done by the Stevens Southern Company of Jacksonville,


ida.


In December of


1942


this well


was


deepened


Flor


to a depth


of 316.5


feet by the Layne-


Atlantic Company


STRATIGRAPHY


suwanneensis Cole, n.


"B"





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


which are coated with a reddish stain. Below this reddish zone
there occurs a section in which the individual grains are cov-
ered by a yellowish film of staining material.


A bed of greasy, yellowish gray fuller'


p


the sandstone section at 45 feet. Below
bed of yellow-stained sandstone similar to
ler's earth except the lower sandstone is ,


earth intervenes
this there occur1
that above the f
slightly indurate<


s a
ul-
d.


This sandstone is followed by another bed of fuller's earth


with the first limestone appearing at a depth of 65 feet. In
the sample taken at 70 feet there are many large, rounded
pebbles of an orange-colored quartzite, many of which have
a diameter of one-half inch or more. This same sample con-
tains fragments of a white, arenaceous, silicified limestone.
Below this zone of quartzite pebbles there are two samples
which contain a gray to white, arenaceous, dense, greasy clay
which resembles fuller's earth. At a depth of 90 feet the sam-
ple contains a mixture of this clay and fragments of a white,
dense, hard limestone.
TAMPA LIMESTONE.-At 100 feet a light brown, dense
limestone, certain fragments of which show numerous sec-
tions of smaller Foraminifera, appears. This limestone con-
tinues to a depth of 139 feet, except for the appearance of two
beds of clay at 117 feet and 137 feet. This clay may represent
the filling of cavities in the limestone rather than actual beds
as shown on the graphic log (See Figure 3).
In this interval (100 to 139 feet) there were not any fossils
which could be identified definitely. Many of the fragments
show that the limestone was composed largely of the tests of
miliolid types of Foraminifera. An occasional small fragment
of an echinoid was encountered in these samples.


The
n n* 4- n


lithologic character
a, 4 d-:, n nn -f


and the stratigraphic position indi-
I| A L,. :f ^. : .. :..








STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


medium


coarse o fine,


ZYelow/sh gray, greasy
Yellow stained, sl/gh/y indurated
fetose, gresy


sil/cified


greasy


brown, dense, mi/io/id


dense,


cryslolline,


forami feral


dolomitic


oabundant


larger Forminifera


Foronrnmfera


LEGEND


Sandstone


Quar/fite


pebbles


I. .*
* ** *


Ar gil


I--
I--'
I-.--'


aceous


Red o yellow stained,
Subongulor


compact


colored,


dense,


dense


cored,


porous,


semicrys


dolomific


ao//ine,





22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

tains abundant smaller Foraminifera, but most of them are so
badly recrystallized that specific identifications are impossible.
However, several specimens of Elphidium rota Ellis and a few
questionable specimens of Rotalia mexicana Nuttall, variety
mecatebecensis Nuttall were found. Associated with these


.5


there are numerous specimens representing the genera Am-
phistegina and Asterigerina. This sample represents the top
of the Suwannee limestone.
The Suwannee limestone in this well is in part a cream-col-
ored, dense, foraminiferal limestone and in part a light to dark
brown, semi-crystalline, dolomitic limestone. There are three
fossiliferous zones which yield identifiable fossils. The first of


these includes the samples from 139 to 150 feet; the second,
the samples from 212.6 to 232 feet and the third, the final


sample at 308 to 316.5 feet.


The smaller
cussed above.


Foraminifera recovered


144 and


139


feet


are dis-


150 feet rather numerous speci-


mens of Operculinoides vicksburgensis were found,
specimens of Lepidocyclina at 144 feet.


with two


The interval between 212.6 and 232 feet contains abundant
and fairly well preserved specimens of Lepidocyclina. In addi-


tion, numerous specimens of
were found from 226 to 232 fe


Coskinolina and Dictyoconus


The index species of Lepidocyclina in this interval are: L.
(Eulepidina) favosa Cushman, L. (Eulepidina) undosa Cush-
man, L. (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunenss Cushman and its va-
riety morganopsis Vaughan, and Lepidocyclina gigas Cush-


man.


These species t
mncan Church,


numerous


other


have


been


reported


fror


m1


Washington County, F
localities in Washington


an outcrop
'lorida't and


County.


10


near
from
These


species, moreover, have a wide distribution elsewhere as they
I P 1^ 1 A P P* A 5


Di


'


* *


J






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


The last sample (308-316.5 feet) contains numerous speci-
mens of orbitoidal Foraminifera. The state of preservation
of these specimens is decidedly different from that of the speci-
mens encountered in the zone from 212.6 to 232 feet. The
specimens from the upper zone were not replaced, whereas


those in the last sample were. The sp,
were light brown to cream-colored,
sample were white. Therefore, th


ecimens of the upper zone
whereas those of the last
ese' specimens in the last


sample were in place and do not represent cavings from above.
The species identified from the last sample represent well
established Oligocene species with the exception of two speci-
mens assigned to Helicolepidina paucispira Barker and Grims-
dale. This genus is known only from the Eocene and this spe-
cies has been reported from upper Eocene localities outside of
Florida.


fe<
pa


The most abundant specimens.in .this sample (308-316.5
et) have been identified as Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina)
rvula Cushman. There were rather numerous specimens of


Lepid
riety
Lepid
crosp
thin s


ocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnag
morganopsis Vaughan, one specir
Socyclina (Eulepidina) undosa Cu
heric individual ( figure 7, plate 9)
sectionn was made. This specimen is


n
S


u I1


izenszs uusnman, va-
len of unquestionable
hman and a laige mi-
from which a vertical


referred to Lepidocy-


clina (Eulepidina) fat


>osa Cushman.


As the dominant species in this sample are Oligocene forms,
the question arises concerning the two specimens of Helico-
lepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale. The presence of
the specimens may be explained in two ways: 1. they repre-
sent reworked Eocene material in the base of the Suwannee
limestone, 2. the drill had just entered the upper Eocene and
these specimens were recovered.


Either explanation is possible as.the top of the upper Eocene
I 1 . 1 i -. .1 i 1 s ...


C





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


PALEONTOLOGICAL


RECORD


(w


-95)


(abundant)


Elphidium rota Ellis
Rotalia mexicana Nuttall


, variety mnecatepecensis Nuttall


(Eulepidina)


Operculinoides vicksburgsensi


Operculinoides vicksburgensis


favosa Cushman
is Vaughan and Cole


Vaughan and Cole


> feet
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman
(Eulepidina) favosa Cushman
undosa Cushman


16.6


Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina)


yurnagunensI


is Cushman,


variety


morganopsis


Vaughan


18.6


Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina)


suwanneensis Cole


, n. sp.


Lepidocyclina gigas Cushman


Coskinolina floridana Cole


Diclyoconus
Lepidocyclina


C'


ookei (Moberg)
(Nephrolepidina)


leonensis Cole


, n. sp.


308-316.5


Helicolepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yarnagunensis (


Cushman,


variety


mnorganopsis
parvula Cushman


undosa

COMPARISON


Cushman
Cushman

OF


Vaughan


THE CITY OF TALLAHASSEE WATER


WELL


(W


-453)


AND THE


DALE MABRY FIELD


WATER


WELL


"B"


(W


-95)


-a-~~~~I - -a a-A- --


Asterigerita sp.


Lepidocyclina


(Eulepidina)


favosa


-- -r U a a






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


feet of Tampa limestone and 1


5 feet of Suwannee limestone


in which formation drilling stopped.
The relationship of certain points in these wells to sea level
is illustrated by the following:


Well number


Top of


Tampa limestone


Top of the Suwannee limestone -
Top of the upper Eocene -
First appearance of 0. vicksburgewsis
Abundant L. undosa


Below


- 13.9'
- 52.9'
-230.4'
- 57.9'


-453
66.6'


- 33.4'


- 93.4'


First


appearance of


The City


undosa


of Tallahassee water well


is structurally slightly


higher than the Dale Mabry Field water well if the formational


boundaries are used.


If fossil zones in the Suwannee limestone


are used, the Dale Mabry Field water well would appear to be
structurally higher.

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES
FAMILY VALVULINIDAE
Subfamily EGGERELLINAE
Genus COSKINOLINA Stache, 1875


Coskinolina floridana Cole


Plate


, Figures 3


1928


Coskinolina cookei Moberg (part)


Florida Geol.


Survey


19th Ann.


Rept.,


pp. 166-168,


3, fig.


(not figs.


,7-8).


1941.


Coskinolina floridana Cole, Florida Geol.


, figs. 1


4, figs. 1


pl. 5, figs.


Survey Bull.


-5, 11


19, pp.
8, fig.


Coskinolina floridana Cole, Florida Geol.


figs.


Survey Bull.


4, 5.


Entirely typical specimens were


found.


The


axial


section


is typical of Coskinolina as the chamberlets are not subdivid-
ed, but the horizontal section is similar to the primitive types


- -





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


Genus DICTYOCONUS Blanckenhorn


1900


Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)


Plate


, Figures 1


Coskinolina cookei Mober


Florida Geol.


19th Ann.


Rept.,


pp. 166-


,ngs.


(not fig.


1941


Dictyoconus cookei


26. 27


, ngs.


(Moberg).


-13; pl.


Cole, Florida Geol.


10, 12, 13


Bull.


, figs.


Dictyoconus cookei


(Moberg


Cole, Florida Geol.


Survey Bull.


,25, pl.


,ng.


, ng.


D.
but


larger,


cookei


and


readily
broader


Coskinolina


recognized
and lower


floridana


from


cone


each


than


occur


other


in association


as D.


floridana.


cookei


The


axial


sections of D.


ed by a


cookei have the marginal chamberlets subdivid-


ingle horizontal plate.


First appearance
lahassee water well


depth of


At a depth of 362


(W-453)


feet in the City of Tal-


and abundant at


365


226 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well


feet
(W


at a


-95)


Occurrence


Suwannee limestone.


FAMILY


CAMERINIDAE


Subfamily CAMERININAE


Genus


OPERCULINOIDES


Operculinoides


vickslmrgensis


Hanzawa
Vaughan


1935


Cole


Plate


, Figures


Plate


, Figures


Plate


, Figures 4


1936.


Operculinoides vicksburgensis


Museum,


996, pp.


Vaughan and Cole, Proc.


,491, pl.


Nat.


all fi


1939.


Operc


ulinoides vicksburgensis


Vaughan and Cole.


Barker


Proc.


S. Nat.


; pl.


Museum,
9, figs. 8,


86, No. 305


,fig.


,fig.


1939.


Operculinoides muiri Barker, idem,


, pl.


, fig.


, fig.


,fig.


1944


Operculinoides


-.---_--- -n11


vicksbtrgensis


4~


Vaughan
a -1


Cole.


Florida


Ir-11 1 h 1 1 r- J I I f- i-i fL' * I I l i- T


\Ir ~m rr w -~


n" m --


r,,,l






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


Cole in the type description of 0. vickburgensis.


In this fea-


ture these specimens resemble 0. muiri Barker which was de-
scribed from Mexico.


In the discussion of specimens assigned to O.


vicksburgensis


from the City


of Quincy well


(W-4)


Cole stated


that O.


muiri was probably the same as 0. vicksburgensis. Vaughan
in commenting on this proposed combination wrote:"


"The types of this species (0. vicksburgensis) and of Barker'


sO.


mtuiri


are in the U. S. National Museum;


and I have again compared them.


0. muiri is not merely thicker than 0. vicksburgensis, it has a marginal
keel which I have not seen in the latter species."

Later, Cole wrote Barker requesting a few topotype speci-
mens of 0. muiri for comparison with the Florida material.
Barker replied that most of his material was not available, but


that he had found a small sample of the type material


(col


election of E.
specimens. ]


Gevaerts no.


269)


from which he was sending 9


[n this letter Barker stated:'"


"they are by no means as large or as typical of the species as the original
lot I picked from the sample."
From the material which Barker so obligingly sent, a median


(figure


7, plate 5) and a transverse (figure 8, plate 5) section


were prepared.


mens.


A keel was not observed on any of the speci-


The Mexican specimens were compared with a large


suite of 0. vicksburgensis from the Byram marl which had


been arranged from thin, compressed individuals


plate


to thick, lenticular individuals


(figure


(figure 4,
, plate 5).


The Mexican specimens fitted into the series and at no point


could


series


broken


into


two


separate


and


distinct


species.
Although some doubt must exist because direct compari-
sons with the type specimen of O. muiri have been impossible,








TABLE


-- PART


Measurements of Operculinoides vicksburgensis


Operculinoides


mwuiri


LOCALITY


Height


Width


Thickness


Number of whorls


Number of chambers
in final evolution


Internal diameters
of initial chamber


Operculinoides vick.sburgensis


W-95


144 feet


2.1+ mm.


0.98 mm.


1.5 mm.


0.7 mm.


1.5 mm.


1.4 mm.


120 p


2.14 mm.


0.96 mm.


80


1.4+ mm.


0.72 mm.


120 u


2.24 mm.


2.1 mm.





4/2



26


150 feet


W-9


_ _


I_ I







TABLE


- PART


Measurements of Operculinoides vickslmburgensis and


Operculinoides muiri


LOCALITY


Height


Width


Thickness


Number of whorls


Number of chambers
in' final evolution


Internal diameters
of initial chamber


Operculinoides vicksburgensis


BYRAM,


2+ mm.


0.38 mm.


70


mm.


2.3 mm.


MISSISSIPPI


mm.


1.0 mm.


2.36 mm.


2.28 nnm.


100


AFTER


VAUGHAN


AND


COLE


1.2-3.0 mm.


1.3-3.1 mm.


0.3-0.6 mm.


33/4-4



1 8-26


60 u


Opercu


I


2.02 mm


0.78 mm
0.78 mm.


110


- 1 1 1 I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN. TWENTY-EIGHT


A few


see
tail


pecimens which were found in the City of Tallahas-


water well


from


pecimen


from


(W
Dali


-453) ar
e Mabry


the


e identical


Field


former well


water


those studied in


well


(W


are illustrated


-95)


de-
The


vertical


and a horizontal thin section.


The specimen from


which


vertical


section


was made


had


a diameter


mm.


and


thickness of 0


mm.


The horizontal section represents a speci-


men


with a


diameter of


mm.


There are


24 chambers


the final evolution


with 4 V2


whorls comprising the test.


Fir
Field


t appearance


water well


(W


At a depth of 144 feet in the Dale Mabry


-95)


City of Tallahassee water well


at a depth


280


-290


feet in


(W-453)


Occurrence


Suwannee


FAMILY


limestone.


ORBITOIDIDAE


Schubert


Subfamily


ORBITOIDINAE


Genus LEPIDOCYCLINA


Giimbel


Subgenus LEPIDOCYCLINA Giimbel,


Lepidocyclina


Plate


(Lepidocy


7, Figures


clina)


Plate


parvula Cushman


, Figures


1919.


Lepidocyclina
291, p. 58, pl,
Lepidocyclina
Amer. Pal.. v<


and R


Douvill6,


parvula Cushman,


, ngs.


Carnegie


Inst.


Washington Publ.


4-7.


morgam


1904).


, pp.


Lem.


Douvill6.


, pl.


,fig.


Cole,


Bull.


(not Lemoine


1930.


Lepidocyclina


(Lepidocy


clina)


parvula Cushman.


Cole and Gilles-


pie, Bull.


Amer. Pal.


No. 5


7b, p. 3,


(list)


1, figs. 4,


1930.
1933.


Lepidocyclina


Cole and Gillespie, idem,


Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina)


sonian Miscell.


Coll.


9, figs. 1-4


parvula Cushman.


89, No. 10, pp. 16,
ol. 10. fies. 1-6.


(list), pl.


Vaughan,
7, figs. 1-


, fig.


Smith-


1938.


Geol.


1944


Geol.


Survey Bull.


Survey Bull.


n r 4


(Lepidocyclina)


16, p.


46, pl.


(Lepidocyclina)


b, pp. /


parvula
11, figs.
parvula


Cushman.


Cole,


Florida


2-5.


Cushman.


, fig.


44^


rkf In fi *- 9 C-i * ftn i I .


Cole,
, figs.


Florida


Lepidocyclina


Lepidocyclina






STRATIGRAPHIC 'AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


Vertical sections


(figures 9, 10,


13, plate


made from


Mexican


pecimens assigned to L.


parvula Cushman are intro-


duced for comparison.


In these


pecimen


the lateral chamber


are n'ot as appressed as
tain respects the later


those in the Floridian
al chambers of the F


pecimens.


In cer


'loridian specimens


resemble those of L.


pressed lateral


supera


chambers with


(Conrad)


as L.


thick roof


supera has
and floors.


low, ap-


Although these specimens d'o posses


lateral chambers which


resemble


those of


super,


the other features are similar


those found in L.


parvula, particularly the very strong devel


opment of


pillars.


The


vertical sections of


microspheric


individuals are not at all suggestive of L. supera, but are very


similar to many vertical section


of L.


parvula.


First appearance: A
Mabry Field water well


t a depth of


(W


308


-316.5


feet in the Dale


-95)


Occurrence


Suwannee limestone.


Lepidocyclina


(Lepidocyclina)


yanrnag


untensis


Cushman


Plate 6


, Figures 5


1919.


Lepidocyclina canellei var.
Washington Publ. 291, p.


yurnaguncensis Cushmah,


, figs.


, 8, text-fig.


trnegie Inst.
6.


Lepidocyclina yurnagunensis Cushman.


, Quart.


Jour.


82, p. 391


Vaughan,
, figs. 2-6.


Geol.


Lon-


1934.


Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman.


Pal.,


1, pp.


24. 25


4, figs.


Cole, Jour.
8, 9.


1941


Lepidocyclina


and Cole


(Lepidocyciina)


Geol.


Amer.


yurnagunensis
Paper No. 30,


Cushman.


pl. 38,


Vaughan


figs.


This


is a widely


tribute


species.


The


diamond


-shaped


equatorial chambers are characteristic.


It wa


desc


ribed from


Cuban
maica,


pecimens,


Trinidad


but


and


First appearance


been


the Cayman
At a depth of


reported


from


Antigua,


Island


.6 feet in the Dale Ma-


/V-T


rA Va1r A nrnl tar Lra Ud* U


nr\


1 ar


tI * f I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


1933.


1934.

1941.


Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis,
Vaughan. Vaughan, Smithsonian Miscell. Coll.,


pp. 22, 23,
Lepidocycli
Vaughan.


pl. 11, figs. 5-9; pi. 2J
ina (Lepidocyclina)
Cole, Jour. Pal., vol. 8,


Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina)
Vaughan. Vaughan and Cole,
p. 72, pi. 39, figs. 1, 2.


var.
vol.


I, figs.


yurnagunensis, var. morganopsis
No. 1, pp. 25, 26, pi. 3, figs. 1-3.


yurnagunensIs,


var.


Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper


This variety occurs with typical specimens of L.


yurnagun-


ensis at all the localities from which it has been reported. The
equatorial thin sections of specimens of L. yurnagunensis and
its variety morganopsis exhibit the same features, but the ver-


tical sections
heavy pillars,
nagunensis.


are different in that the variety possesses
whereas the pillars are weak or absent in L.


very
yur-


First appearance:
bry Field water well
Occurrence: Suw


At a depth of 216.6 feet in the Dale Ma-
(W-95).


rannee limestone.


Subgenus NEPHROLEPIDINA H.


Douville,


1911


Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina)


leonensis Cole, n. sp.


Plate 5, Figures 11-17; Plate 11, Figure 3


Test of medium size, evenly


lenticular or with


central area bordered by a narrow rim
test is covered with distinct oaDillae


about


polygonal


240


The


rim


pits occur between


without
the pap


; the cent
which ha
papillae.
illae with


an inflated


ral area of the
ve a diameter
Rather deep,
shallower de-


pressions on the rim. From most 6f the papillae radiate nar-
row prolongations which form the boundaries of the pits. The
largest specimen has a diameter of about 7 mm.


The


embryonic


chambers are


nephrolepidine


type


though one specimen which had the external appear
the others had embryonic chambers of eulepidine type


ance ot
(figure


morganopsis
89. No. 10.


morganopsis


t






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


to the equatorial layer are composed of small, appressed cham


bers with


thick roofs and floors.


The other


lateral


chambers


are open with


the chamber cavity as high or


higher than


adjacent floors are thick.


Distinct


heavy


pillars


present,


irregularly


spaced


and


concentrated in the inflated portion of the test.


Measurements of 2 vertical and 2 horizontal sections follow:
Diameter 3.7 mm. 4.5 + mm.
Thickness 1.8 mm. 1.9 mm.
Number of lateral chambers on each side
of .the equatorial layer - 11 11
Embryonic chambers:
Internal length 600 480
Internal height 420 p
Thickness of surrounding wall 40 40/
Height of equatorial layer (including
floor and roof):
At center 140 CA 120
At periphery 1400/ 180
*Lateral chambers:
Internal length 140-300 p. 140-200
Internal height 40 40
Thickness of floors and roofs 30-50 20-40 p.
Surface diameter of pillars - 180-240 p 160-240 p
At periphery and directly over embryonic chambers



Diameter 4.4+ mm. 3.2+ mm.
Embryonic chambers:
*1T an.lrk nn-r ne krh r-kdl-,1Cr c - RA 1 S440 11





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


Type locality: Dale Mabry Field water well "B"
at depths of 226 and 228 feet.
Cotypes: (Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-3009)
Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.


(W-95)


This species is related to Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina)
tournoueri Lemoine and R. Douvill6. To show the relationship
between the two species a vertical and a horizontal section of
. L tournoueri are illustrated figuress 18 19, plate 5). These


specimens were
Mexico.


collected


Arbol Grande, near Tampico,
Arbol Grande, near Tampico,


L. tournoueri has equatorial chambers which are much more
elongate than those of L. leonensis. The floors and roofs of the
lateral chambers in L. tournoueri are much thinner than those
of L. leonensis, the lateral chambers near the equatorial layer
in L. tournoueri are not appressed like those in L. leonensis and
the pillars in L. tournoueri are much smaller.
The external appearance of L. leonensis is similar to that of
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) sp. figured by Vaughan.'"
The embryonic chambers of the two species are very similar,


but the equatorial chambers of L.
decidedly hexagonal in shape, and
rhomboid to short spatulate.


(Nephrolepidina) sp. are
those of L. leonensis are


Lepidocyclina


(Nephrolepidina) sanfernandensis


Vaughan and Cole,


variety tallahasseensis Cole, n. var.


Plate 1, Figures 16, 17; Plate


Figures


5-7;


Plate 3, Figures 1-6


MEGALOSPHERIC FORM.-Test of medium size, slightly sel-
liform, central part inflated, without or with a rim. The test
of some specimens slopes regularly from the central area to the


periphery, but in others the inflated central portion is sur-
rounded by a relatively wide flange which is distinct from the
1 /1 1 I. " 11 1* .1


r ___ ___ _________






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


as the specimens which slope regularly from the central area
to the periphery have weakly developed papillae. The dimen-
sions of five typical megalospheric specimens are given in


I L J -L A


_-


Table


The embryonic chambers are large, of nephrolepidine type,
the larger chamber slightly embracing the smaller. The outer
wall is very thick, but the wall between the chambers is thin.
In certain horizontal sections the outer wall of the embryonic
chambers has a fringed appearance due to the presence of radi-
ally arranged alternating light and darker areas. Measurements
of the embryonic apparatus are given in Table 3.
The equatorial chambers vary in size and shape, but nor-
mally they are short spatulate with the radial and tangential
diameters nearly equal. An average chamber of this type has
diameters of about 120 jx. Other chambers are slightly more
elongate tangentially than radially, and certain chambers are
the reverse of this.


Measurements of five transverse thin sections are given in


Table


There is considerable variation in cross-section shape


from robustly
(figure 7, plat


lack a rim


lent


e2)


(figure


:icular individuals with a distinct flange
to compressed lenticular specimens which
5, plate 2). The lateral chambers are ar-


ranged in rather regular tiers.


In some specimens these cham-


bers are appressed with


very low


chamber openings,


but in


others the chamber cavity is rather high.


The pillars are variable in their development and regularity.
Some specimens have very large, strong pillars, but others are
virtually devoid of this feature. However, some pillars are
found in every specimen examined.


MT.RnoPt R a ORnM. ---Test of large size with a diameter


- -- v


1










TABLE


Measurements of vertical sections of Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis


var.


tallahasseensis,


n. var.


SPECIMEN

Diameter

Thickness


Width of flange

Height of equatorial layer:
At center

At periphery

Lateral chambers:
Number at center on
each side of the
equatorial layer

Internal height

Internal length

Thickness of the
floors and roofs

External diameters of pillars


8.8 mm.


4.24 mm.


about
1.8 mm.


100/


200 y


30-40 pt


200p


30-40 pf


140-300 p


7+ mm.

2.4 mm.


about.


1.0 mm.


80O


130 p


40 p

140-160 p


40p


140-180 p


4.5+ mm.


2.8 mm.


none


60 i
80 S




17

20-40 tA

100-160 /


40-60 p


300-360 a


5+ mm.


2.3 mm.


about
0.7 mm.


60 p

140 p


a


a


40-80 p

120-220 p.


20-40 p
ia


100-200 p


_
.. __ :1 -- rr







STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


TABLE


Measurements


embryonic


apparatus


Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis var.


tallahasseensis


var.


HORIZONTAL SECTIONS
i


SPECIMEN


Internal diameter across both cham-
bers at right angles to the par-
tition between the chambers


Maximum
larger


internal
chamber


width
parallel


to the


partition between


Internal width of the smaller cham-


between


embracing


Internal


diameter


chamber at right


points


chamber


the
angles


smaller
to the


partition


Internal diameter of the larger cham-
ber at right angles to the parti-


tion


Thickness of the outer wall


0.86 mm.


0.94 mm.


0.78 mm.


0.5 mm.


0.36 mm.


o50


0.68 mm.


0.66 mm.


0.6 mm.


0.38 mm.


0.3 mm.


601


1.0 mm.


0.96 mm.


0.84 mm.


0.61 mm.


0.4 mm.


100 A


VERTICAL SECTIONS


SPECIMEN


across


both chambers


InternaJ length of the


0.82 mm.


0.70 mm.
mmI


0.72 mm.


0.88 mm.


the chambers


Internal


length





38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

The equatorial chambers have the same shape, size and ar-
rangement as those of the megalospheric generation.
The lateral chambers occur in rather regular tiers when pil-


lars are present,


but in


the areas between


chambers overlap from one tier to another.


pillars the lateral
Adjacent to the


equatorial layer the lateral chambers are very appressed, but
near the periphery of the test they are open with a distinct
cavity. In general, the roofs and floors of the lateral chambers
have the same thickness as the height of the chamber opening
in the peripheral area of the test.
Pillars are irregularly developed, some extending from the
equatorial layer to the surface of the test, but others go only a
portion of this distance.


Type locality:


City of Tallahassee water well


(W-453)


a depth of 407 feet.


Cotypes:


(Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-3011).


First appearance


At a depth of 404 feet in the City of Tal-


lahassee water well (W-453) and abundant at 406 feet.


Occurrence:


Upper Eocene.


DiscussioN.-These specimens were referred to L. sanfer-


nandensis Vaughan and Cole


during the preliminary study.


The size, shape and arrangement of the features of the equa-
torial sections prepared from the Florida specimens is very
similar to those illustrated by the Trinidad specimens. (Com-


pare figure


5, plate 3


with


Vaughan and Cole's illustration,


figure


2, plate 43, Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30)


. Cer-


tain differences, however, were apparent in the general size of


test and


vertical sections.


Therefore,


Cole sent


Vaughan


Florida specimens


that


direct


comparison


could be made with the types of L. sanfernandensis.


Vaughan


very kindly made the comparison and wrote as follows:





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


"All of the Florida specimen
of them almost selliform. None


undulate.


s, except one, are distinctly undulate, some
of the specimens from Trinidad is markedly


Another difference is that the megalospheric form of the Florida


specimens is much more inflated
the Trinidad specimens.


than any of


the megalospheric


forms of


"The roof


of the lateral


hambci


in the vertical


section of the Florida


specimens are decidedly thicker than those of the


Trinidad specimens."


Vaughan and Cole jointly and separately have demonstrat-


the variability which may


clina; and Vaughan


occur in a species of Lepidocy-


22 has stated that


"it is obvious that to attach a different spe


lot of Lepidocyclina is


cific name to every variant in a


an absurdity.


The differences between the type specimen


and


specimens


under


discussion


sofL.
from


satfCjernan-
Florida are


not major ones,


yet they are sufficient to cause one to hesitate


before applying the same specific name to the
the two widely separated localities. Vaughan


specimens from
" in another let-


gave his views which


reproduced


demonstrate


perplexities which are encountered:


"I scarcely know what to say about a name for the specimens of Le


pido-


cyclina from the Florida well


(W-453)


you recently sent me.


If you refer


the specimens


varietal


to L.


designation


L. sanfernandensis.


balance


to L.


sanfernandensis
to indicate the


If you should


should


think


difference


apply
d be


that


they


between
cr


a new spec
made clear.


:inc


should be
them an
name, tl
i general,


rather apply a species name which may later become a synonym rath
confuse two different species under one name."


For the present it seems desirable to utilize


e given a
d typical
he resem-


would
er than


the first sugges-


tion of Vaughan rather than the second one which he recom-


mends
Florida


more


strongly.


specimen


varietal


expresses


close


designation


relationship


given


that


exists


with typical L.


sanfernandensis, but at the same time indicates


that there are minor differences.


Lepidocyclina


(N eph rolepidina)


suwanneensis Cole,


n. sp.


densis


sanfernandensis





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


The surface of the specimens available is smooth, without
ornamentation, but this condition is caused undoubtedly by
the state of preservation. As an initial surface is ground on
the specimens in the preparation of horizontal thin sections,
numerous white pillars were observed which contrasted with
the tan color of the remainder of the test. Uneroded speci-
mens would possess small papillae well distributed over the
surface of the test.
The embryonic apparatus is nephrolepidine in type as illus-
trated by two horizontal sections (figure 9, plate 4 and figure
14, plate 7). In the horizontal section chosen for a paratype
(figure 9, plate 4) the internal diameter across both chambers
at right angles to the partition between the chambers is
0.6 mm.; the maximum internal diameter of the larger cham-
ber parallel to the partition between the chambers is 0.64 mm.;
the internal width of the smaller chamber between the points
of the embracing chamber is 0.5 mm.; the internal diameter
of the smaller chamber at right angles to the partition is
0.34 mm.; the internal diameter of the larger chamber at
right angles to the partition is 0.26 mm. and the thickness of
the outer wall is 50 JL. Two other horizontal sections have the
partition between the chambers destroyed. The internal di-
ameters of the combined embryonic chambers are 0.5 by
0.46 mm. and 0.54 by 0.52 mm. These specimens have slightly
smaller embryonic apparati than the specimen described first.
The three horizontal thin sections have equatorial chambers
with curved outer walls and pointed inner ends adjacent to
the embryonic apparatus. In the section with the greatest di-
ameter these inner annuli grade outward to chambers of short
spatulate shape. Average chambers in the inner annuli have a
tangential diameter of 100 to 120 A' and a radial diameter of
60 to 80 p. The spatulate chambers of the outer annuli have
a tangential diameter of about 80 u and radial diameters of


1n(1 r n 1l o


1 N t',' 1,4(I ,,





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


ments include the floors and roofs. There is practically no in-
crease in height of the equatorial layer from the center of the
test to the periphery.
The lateral chambers are low, appressed with thick roofs
and floors. The roofs and floors are gently curved so that they
have a convex side towards the periphery of the test and a con-
cave side directed toward the equatorial layer. They occur in
more or less regular tiers, with but a slight amount of overlap-
ping. There are about 9 layers of lateral chambers to a tier on
each side of the equatorial layer at the center of the test. The
periphery has two or more layers of lateral chambers on each
side of the equatorial layer. An average lateral chamber at
the t eriDherv of the test and over the center has an internal


height of about 20 p, and a length of about 14
Floors and roofs have a thickness of about 40 p.


0


160


Wedge-shaped pillars are present. They vary considerably
in size, some have a surface diameter of as much as 280 u, but


others have a surface diameter of as little as


Material available:


160 .


Nine thin sections, three of which were


made from specimens recovered at a depth of
from specimens from 354 feet and two from s
356 feet in the City of Tallahassee water well


349


feet, four


pecimens from


(W-453)


and


six thin sections made from specimens from
Field water well (W-95).


Type locality: City of Tallahassee water well
a depth of 354 feet.


the Dale Mabry


(W-453)


Holot3
No. S-30
vey Cat.


Transverse section


07); paratype:
No. S-3008).


(Florida


Median section


Geol. Survey
(Florida Geol.


Cat.
Sur-


Subgenus


EULEPIDINA


Douvill6,


1911


Lepidocyclina


(Eduepidina)


favosa Cushman


>pe:





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


Lepidocyclina


(Nephrolepidina)


crassata Cushman.


Vaughan,


Geol.


Soc.


Amer. Bull.,


Lepidocyclina


35, p.


(Nephrolepidina)


34, figs. 3, 4.
chatlahoocheensis


Cushman.


Vaughan,


1924.


Lepido


idem


cyclina


, p. 798,


(Eulepiditm)


34, fig.
favosa


Cushman.


Vaughan,


idem,


, pl.


, fig.


1924.


Lepidocyclina


(not


926.


(Eulepidina)


Schlumberger,


formosa S
1902).
formosa Sc


hlumberger


hlumberger.


. Vaughan,


Vaughan,


idcm,


Quart.


Jour.


Geol.


Soc.


London


,p. 395


(not Schlumberger,


Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) undosa var.


tumida Vaughan,


idemt,


,396, pl.


, figs.


926.


Le'pidocyclina


marginata


(Michedoti)


. Vaughan,


idemr


, figs.


(not Michelotti, 1841).


1930.


Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) crassata Cushman.


Cole and G


Bull.


Amer.


No. 5


7b, p. 3


(list)


, figs.


1933


Lepidocyclina (Enlepidina)


favosa Cushman.


Vaughan, Smithsonian


Miscell
figs. 1-
bably)


9, figs.
,fig. 4


, pp. f>i
!0, figs.


, pl.
; pl.


7, figs.
1, figs.


,3,4 (pro-


1933


Lepidocyclina


(Eule


pidhna)


favosa Cushman.


Gravel


Smithsonian


No. 11


, fig.


pidina) favosa Cushman.


,fig.


Jour. Pal.,


4, figs.


1941


Lepidoc
Gcol. So


yclina


(Eulepidina)


li


Amer. Sp. Paper No.


ivosa
30, 1


Cushman.
p. 75, pi. 4(


Vaughan
,figs. 1-4.


Cole,


1944.


Lepidocyclina
Survey Bull.


(Eulepidina)
6, p. 74, pl. 3


' favosa
, fig. 14


Cushman.


Cole,


, fig.


Florida


Geol.


, figs.


Vaughan


a de


that


tailed


" has stated "This is an amazingly variable


and


crassata, L.


well


illustrated


analysis


chattahoocheensis and L.


Vaughan


favosa


species."
" proved
belonged


to one 5
tumid a


Vaughan


species.


Previously,


the sj
wrote,


species,


Vaughan
undosa


" had erected


the variety


Cushman.


time


"There is some similarity between L.


favosa


and the extreme forms of L.


undosa var.


tumida."


As
n-l-


thin
K tL


sections were
ST 12-a j,..


made
11


from


I lrT


the specimen


aa%


from


1 *


S -- M V --. -**.- S. .. -* I J.. _.


Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina)


Lepidocyclina (Eul,


, )'





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


mens


were


recogni


zed


lundosa


var.


tumida


(figure


plate 10)
4, plate 1


and others were tentative


. As more


pecimen


named L.


were studied


favosa


(figure


and sectioned,


it became evident that there was complete gradation between


the individuals to which were assigned the name L.


tumida and those which were named L.


favosa.


Moreover,
L. undosa


examination and


var


tumidda


cbmpari
figures


on of the type figure


, plate


, Quart.


Jour


Miscell


nificant
var. tim'j


jeol. Soc.
Favosa Cu
. Coll., vo


character


n;ida from L.


London,
shman (


89, No.
which


vol. 82, 1
see figure


1933)


would


26)


with


, plate
failed


serve


an illu


station


Smithsonian


to reveal any sig-


separate


undosa


favosa.


It ha


bers of L.


been recognized a long time that the embryonic cham-


undosa grade from nephrolepidine to eulepidine.


would seem that the


ame feature is present in L.


favosa.


A number of vertical and hori


zontal sections are presented


to illu


trate the writer'


concept of


forms that


should


ferred to L.


favosa from this well


. Study of these


photograph


as well as those given by other workers will serve to emphasize


amazing


variability


this


species,


there


is complete


gradation from one form


to another.


First appearance:


Field water well


a depth


280


At a depth of


144 feet in the Dale Mabry


(W-95); abundant at a depth of


-290


feet


in the


City


Tallaha


ssee


6 feet;
water


well


(W-453)


Occurrence


Suwannee limestone.


Lepidocyclina


(Eul idina)


undosa Cushman


Plate 1
1919.


, Figures


Lepidocyclina
291, p. 65, pl.


Plate


undosa


, Figure 8
Cushman


Plate 8


, Carnegie


, Figure


Inst.


Plate 11


, Figure 8


Washington


,fig.


- -- n a C 'In a a


undosa var


I*


-


C


*


I n Al (.


I


c- *





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


1930.


Lepidocyclina


(Ncphrolepidina)


undosa Cushman.


Cole and Gilles-


pie, Bull.


Amer. Pal


Lepidocyclina


(Eulepidina)


, No. 57b, p. 3, pJ
undosa Cushman.


, figs. 1


Gorter and van der


Vierk, Leidsche Geol.


Med


Deel 4


Aflev.


2, p.


15, figs.


1933


Lepidocyclina
sonian Miscell.


(Nephrolepidina)
Coll.. vol. 89. N


undosa Cushman.


, pp. 30,


Gravell


6, fig.


Smith-
4.


1934.


Lepidocyclina
8, No. 1, p. 24


(Eulepidina)


6, pl. 4,


figs.


undosa Cushman.


, 5, 10,


Cole, Jour. Pal.,


11, 13, 14.


1938


1941


Lepidocyclina
Survey Bull. 1
Lepidocyclina


Geol.
figs.


(Eldefpidina)
i, p. 48, pi. 1
(Eldlepidinaw)


undosa


Cushman.


Cole,


Florida


Geol.


, figs.


undosa Cushman.


Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30, pp.


Vaughan ai
>l. 34, fig. 5


Cole,


1944.


Lepidocyclina
Survey Bull. 1


(Eldepidinta)


6, pp. 74,


undosa


75, pl.


Cushman.


, fig. 9; pl.


Cole,
,fig.


Florida


Geol.


This


species


recognize.
well T.3


is widely
Florida it


a depth


Quincy water well


(


of
'W


distributed


101
-4)


been i
'-1035


L


and


Found
feet


at a depth of


at the surface at Duncan Church,


relatively


in
and
61


the
I in


Port
the


feet.


easy to
St. Joe
City of


It occurs


Washington County, Flor


ida.


Vernon


" lists this species at numerous localities where the


Suwannee limestone is exposed at the surface.


This species occurs


in great


abundance


in certain


samples


from the City of Tallahassee water well


plate


(W-453).


1 illustrates a transverse section of a specimen


Figure 14,
with very


few


layers of


lateral


layer, but figure


chamber


on each side of


of this same plate shows a


the equatorial
transverse sec-


tion of a mature individual with a number of layers of lateral
chambers on each side of the equatorial layer.


First appearance:
lahassee water well


At a depth of 319 feet in the City of Tal-


(W-453); at.a depth of


212.6


feet in


Dale Mabry


Field


water well


(W


-95)


Occurrence


Suwannee limestone.


75, 76,





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


1920.


Lepidocyclina 8igas Cushman,


var.


mexicana Cushman,


S. Geol.


Survey Prof.
figs. 1-3.


Paper 125, p. 63, pi. 19,


fig. 5


, figs. 1, 2


1926.


Lepidacyclina
London. vol.


gigas


Cushman.


, p. 396, pl.


Vaughan,


Quart.


Jour.


Geol.


25, figs.


1933.


1934.


Lepidocyclina gigas Cushman.


vol. 89, No. 10, pp.
Lepidocyclina gigas
vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 27


, 42, pl


Cushman
, 28, pl. 3,


Vaughan,
22, figs.


var.


Smithsonian Miscell.


Cole,


Jour.


Coll.


Pal.,


4, fig. 1


The varietal names mexicana and duncanensis were used by


Cushman


and


Cole


designate


specimens


which


possessed


minor differences.


As extreme variation occurs in the species


of larger


Foraminifera,


these varietal names do not serve any


useful


purpose.


Moreover,


is now


rather


evident


that


gigas is the microspheric form of L.


undosa.


Vaughan expressed


this opinion as early
First appearance:


as 1924."


In the Dale Mabry Field water well


(W-


at a depth of 220.6 feet.


Suwannee limestone.


Lepidocyclina


Plate


, Figure


A single specimen
was found at 218.6 3


representing a
eet in the Dale


microspheric


Mabry


Field


individual
water well


(W-95).


This specimen


was made into a


vertical section.


description of this specimen follows:


Test small, inflated with a narrow rim; diameter


thickness 1


.2 mm.;


.24 mm.; width of rim about 0.6 mm.


The equatorial layer has an internal height of about 30 C& at


the center of the test and an internal height of about 80
the periphery of the test.


At the center of ,the test there are


C d C


- a


p at


lateral chambers to a
- *s t e


-* U rs* .*


duncanensis


95)


Occurrence





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


an internal height of
of 30 to 40.


Floors and roofs have a thickiiess
*


Pillars are irregularly d
inflated portion of the test.
of as much as 180 o


developed


and concentrated


They may have a surface diameter


First appearance: In the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-
95) at a depth of 218.6 feet;.
a


Suwannee limestone.


There is a slight resemblance
and one published by Gravell"0


S')n


e between this vertical section
(Lepidocyclina sp. indet. [b]).
* s4


Subfamily


HELICOLEPIDINAE


Tan


Genus


HELICOLEPIDINA


Tobler,


1922


Helicolepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale


Plate


1, Figures


1-11


Plate .4, Figure


1; Plate 8, Figure 4


1936.


Helicolepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale, Jour. Pal.,


1941.


p. 243, pl. 31, figs. 11, 12; pl. 33, figs..4-6; pi. 3
fig. 4.
Helicolepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale.
Geol..Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30,' p. 76, pl. 45


6, figs. 1, 3


p.. 38,


Vaughan and Cole,
, fig. 2.


Test of megalospheric individuals small, robustly lenticular,


with or without a narrow encircling rim.


Surface ornamenta-


tion consists of a central apical group of small papillae beyond
which a reticulate mesh is developed to the periphery' of the
test.


Test of microspheric individuals is large, robustly lenticu-
lar, with a flange surrounding the central inflated portion. An
apical crown of papillae is well developed and the papillae are
larger than those developed by the megalospheric generation.
The rim is smooth, pitted or covered by a reticulate mesh.


Measurements


of 6


horizontal


sections


(Table


and


vertical .sections are piven (Table


Occurrence:


=


.


. .






TABLE 4
Measurements of horizontal sections of Helicolepidina paucispira


A-FORM


DIAMETER


Embryonic aF
*Diameter


>paratus:
of, initial


chamber


*Diameter of second chamber


Total length of both chambers


Thickness of bounding wall


Equatorial chambers:
*Tangential diameter


*Radial diameter


Number of


(periphery)


(periphery)


coils in spiral


portion


1.0 mm.


80 p


35x80 p


160 u


20 u


60-100 FL


40g


.1 mm.


100 o


40x80 pt


200 u


20


60-100 pg


40 u


.1 mm.


80 p


40x100/z


160 u


60-100 pL


40 u


1/4+


B-FORM


4 mm.


100-140 p

60-80 Fp


mm.


100-160 u


60-80 p'


*Internal measurement


I
_ I (( I I


_I -------


18p


' i 4









TABLE


Measurements of vertical sections of Helicolepidina


paucispi r


A-FORM


Diameter


----- --------


Thickness


Embryonic
Height


apparatus:


t I I


1.0 mm.


0.54 mm.


1.0 mm.


1.2 mm.


-. .--- -.- I I


0.6 mm.


0.5 mm.


0.9 mm.


0.62 mm.


_____--- I --. ... I I.----


140


--- --,_ -___-_


Length


m mmI


Equatorial
Heigh


layer:
t (center)


200 a


100 ot


160 p


80


140 A

190 p


80 p,


180 t

160 p


100p


1.0 mm.


0.6 mm.


100 t


------___-- -II- I- I


Height


(periphery)


120 p


100$


Number of lateral chambers
over center of test 4


Lateral chambers:
Height


30 f


Length 60-80 t


Thickness of floors


Surface diameter-of pillars


20-30 up


30-40 ,

40-100 p'

40-60 pt


100 p


30p


80-100 pt


20 p


__-------_----(.--


160 p


160 p


none


120 p


30-40 p


80s


30-40 pt


very weak


120


20 p

60p
30


80 p


2.66 mm.

1.28 mm.







60p
160 p


6


20 p

40-100 p

70

none


B-.


- -- 1 -----


I_


__- ---- ---- -I ---


_ I_ -- 'le~e~e~--ee~e~"~L~~~
---


160 p





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


square than the normal equatorial chambers, but the more
distal chambers of the spire grade into the typical equatorial
chambers.
The equatorial chambers have curved outer walls and trun-
cated inner ends, or are rudely hexagonal. Most of the cham-
bers are more elongate tangentially than radially. In some sec-
tions the chambers are arranged in a distinct radial manner
and in all cases increase regularly in size toward the periphery.


The lateral chamber
thick roofs and floors,
between individuals.
feature is not constant


rs are low, compressed, between rather
although there is considerable difference
Pillars are normally present but this
t between individuals.


First appearance: At a depth of 405 feet in the City of Tal-
lahassee water well (W-453); at a depth of 308-316.5 feet in
the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-95).


Occurrence:


Upper Eocene.


Appearance elsewhere: This species was described from the
upper Eocene of Mexico, and Vaughan and Cole" figure one
horizontal section assigned to this species from Trinidad.
























.Tl~ e~m 'c-l ~rc~r t~ I P w' rrmc.-- .~ .. .- -- ,


PLATES


1-11







PLATE


All specimens from the City of Tallahassee water well;


1, 2, 7,


at a depth


, 17, at a depth of


feet;


at a


depth of


406 feet


, 13, at a depth of


280-29


, at a depth


feet.


ures


Figures
Figures


, 6, 8,


FIGURE


H clicolehpidina


megalospheric


Barker


specimens;


Grimsda


exteriors


exteriors


two


microspheric


specime.
median


ns;


3, median


sec tonf


of a


microspheric


sections of two megalospheric individuals;


individual;


8, transverse


sections of two microspheric individuals
tions of four megalospheric individuals.


9-11


transverse


sec-


Operculinoides


z'icksbu rgensis


Vaughan


Cole;


transverse


section;


13, median section.


14, 15


Lepidocyclina


(Enlepidina)


uIlndosa


Cushman;


transverse


sections


-of-two megalospheric -specimens.--


16, 1


Lepidocyclina


Cole,


variety


(Nephrolepidina)
tallahasseensis Cole


sanfernandensis


var.;


transve:


Vaughan
rse sections


two megalospheric
and the lateral cha


individuals; 16, the
Timbers are appressed;


pillars are well developed
17, the pillars are weakly


developed and the lateral chambers are open.


paucispira






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-EIGI1,T


PIRATE


i












PLATE


specimens


depth of


from the City of Tallaha


5, 7, at a depth of
24 feet.


;see water well;
6, at a depth of


1-4, at a depth of
413 feet; 8, at a


FIGURE


. Dic yoconus
. Coskinolina


cookei


(Moberg)


floridana Cole;


axial


3, axial


section


section


zontal


horizontal


section.


section.


. Leplidoco'clina


(N ehbrolephina) )


sanfcrnaindeC


Vaughan


Cole,


variety tallahasseensis Cole, n.


var.; transverse sections of three mega-


lospheric


specimens


to illustrate


difference


in inflation


between


individuals;


,cotype.


Lepilocoyclina
megalospheric


(Eulepidlina)
individual.


1undosa


Cushman;


median


section






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-EIGHT


PLATE


J ", ,'
j" .. ',
"ai~
hL.


Ei%
|?A
^3-~.


S- Vi
4 2'












PLATE


All specimens from the City of Tallaha


ssee


water well;


, at a depth of


406 feet;


at a depth of 413 feet


, at a depth of


407 feet.


figure
figure


ure 3


Figures 4,
Figure 6,


FIGURE


variety
spheric


talla ha


ssCeClsIs


cimens;


Cole,


n. var.


exteriors


Vaughan and


exteriors


seven


four


megalospheric


I


Cole,
nicro-


specimens,


cotypes (F. G
specimens; 4,


S. No.


S-3011); 4


embryonic


median


chambers have


sections of megalospheric
a very thick outer wall;


, cotype,


tion of


section


L. sanfernandensis


Amer.


is virtually identical


Vaughan and Cole


Paper No. 30)


6, transv


to the


(see
erse


type
figure


median


, plate 43


section of a micro-


spheric individual.


(Nephrolepidinan)


sanfernandensis


Lepidocyclina







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-EIGHT


PLATE


9
/-
'4^


'c It
I C


.: :'
















I)


,. .1

:AUez


-4










PLATE


All speci
407 feet:


mens from
2. 6. at ad


the City
epth of


, at a depth of 349 feet
356 feet.


of Ta


130 feet; 3


, 9, 10,


ahassee water well;


7, at a depth of


12, at a depth of 354 feet


at a depth of
0-290 feet; 4,
; 8, at a depth


Figures
Figures


7-12


FIGURE


Helicolepidina


pancispira Barker and


tion of a median section of


a mic


Grimsdal


rospheric


central


individual


por-


to illus-


trate the


initial spiral and equatorial chambers.


Peneroplis proteus d'Orbigny
section.


, transverse section;


median


Lepidocyclina


(Eulepidina)


sections of megalospheric
of megalospheric individ


ou


favosa


individual


Cushman;
s; 4, 7, tra


, 11,


nsverse


median
sections


ia


Lepidocyclina


transverse


(Ne phrolepidinad)


sections;


, median sections; 9,


suwanneensis Cole, n.


, holotype
paratype I


sp.
300


3008)


-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 4



















2
TI





1











ii


II
..1.










1.1














aI






9I
.
3I

*1


'1 1

r I
5 ,








x St
6
I&




I









I

ioJ L
l I]





PLATE


Figures


-4, of


ures


specimens


9-17


5, 9, at a depth of
at a depth of 226 1


from


of specimens
144 feet: 6. 1


Feet


, 14, 17,


Byram marl


from


Dale


, at a depth of
at a depth of


near 1
Mabry


Byram,
Field


Missi


ssippi.


water well


150 feet;
28 feet.


ures


Vera Cruz


8, of specimens from Al
, Mexico, collection of E.


formation


Gevaerts No.


southern


Miahuapam,


, donated by


Wright Barker;
Figures 18, 19,,


collection of W


specimens


. Storrs Cole.


from Arbol Grande near


Tampico,


Tamau


Mexico


section of W


. Storrs Cole.


figures,


FIGURE


Operculinoides


section
Barker
treated


specimen; 4,


l'icksbuzrgensis


a robustly


median
figure


transv


lustrated by fig


lenticular


Vaughan


individual


section of an individual


median


erse section oi


ure 3


, ",


section
f an ind


median secti


(


Cole
the


transverse


type


n uliri


similar to the one illus-


a compressed,


fragile


ividual similar to the one
ons of robustly lenticular


individuals:


, topotype


Barker introduced for


text)


comparison


7. median


specimens of


section;


muliri


transverse


section;


transverse


sections of robustly


enticular individual


Lepidocyclina


(Nephrolepidina)


leonensis


Cole


, n. sp.


vertica
section
No. S-


sections


megalospheric


s of megalospheric
3009).


individuals


individuals;


14-1


horizontal


, cotypes


Lepidocyclina


(Ne phrolepidina)


horizontal


section;


vertical
vertical


i Lemoine and R.


section;


introduce


Dou-
d for


comparison with L.


leonensis Cole


, n. sp.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-EIGHT


, PLATE


A&
I'


-i
111
I






PLATE


specimens


from the Dale Mabry Field water well


5, at a depth of


feet;


-4, 8


a depth of


at a depth of 308
16.6 feet.


-316.5 feet


at ad


epth of


4.6 feet


All figures,


FIGURE


1-4,


Lepidocyclina
,organopsis


variability


(Lepidocyclina)


Vaughan


in strength of


vertical


the pillars


sections


variety


to illustrate


, portion of


a horizontal


section of a microspheric individual


to show


the initial


coil and


rhomboid


equatorial


chambers


horizontal


section


megalospheric individual.


Lepidocyclina


vertical section of


(Lepidocyclina)


a megalospheric


yurnagunensis


individual;


Cushman
horizontal


sec-


tion of


a megalospheric


individual


3yrnagunensis Cushman,






ifLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-EIGHT


PLATE 6


8


. S *
* -
* .


tI

1P




PLATE


Figures 1
depth of
Figure 9,


pany


, of specimens from


220.6 feet


the Dale Mabry


2-8, at a depth of 308-


a specimen from a quarry


s golf course,


316.5


Field
feet.


water well;


on the Huasteca Petroleum


Tampico, Mexico; collection of WN


1, at a


Com-


Storrs Cole.


Figures


8-13


specimens


collected


between


kilometer


posts


on the Aguila Petroleum Company


s narrow-gauge railroad between Potrero


and Tanhuij
Figure 14, o
of 349 feet.


Mexico


collection of W


. Storrs Cole.


specimen from the City of Tallaha


ssee


at a depth


Figures
Figures


FIGURE


Lepidocyclina


(Nephrolejpiduina)


suwanneensis Cole


, ver


tical section of a megalospheric individual showing appressed later


chambers between thick roofs


and floors


section of a megalospheric individual to


14, portion of a horizontal
illustrate the nephrolepidine


character of the embryonic chambers and the shape of the equatorial
chambers which are normally short spatulate.


. Lepidocyclina


(Lepidocyclina)


parvula Cushman


vertica


sec-


tons
latera
with


megalospheric


chambers;


strongly


individuals


vertical


developed


which


section


pillars


have


elongate,


a microspheric


horizonta


sections of


appressed
individual


mega-


lospheric individuals;


, vertical section of a microspheric


individual


with


weakly


developed


pillars


9-13


, comparison


specimens


from


Xico;


pillars
spheric


vertical


irregularly
individuals


section of a microspheric individual with


paced


, 12,


to illustrate


, vertical
variation


sections
between


I


strong
negalo-


individual


horizontal


section of


a megalospheric individual.


water wel






*LORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-EIGHT


PLATE









PLATE


specimens


from


Mabry


Field


water


well;


, at a depth


214.6 feet;
depth of 3
224.6 feet.


, at a depth of


-316.5


feet;


, at a depth of


at a


depth of


feet;


18.6 feet;


at a


depti


at a
h of


figures,


, except figure 4 which


FIGURE


Lepidocyclina


(Eulepidina)


from a fragment of the


fa vosa


Cushman


oblique


specimen illustrated by figure 9,


plate


section
10, to


show the equatorial


chambers and


the zone of


the later


chambers;


, oblique section of a megalospheric individual to illustrate embryonic


chambers


equatona


chambers and the


zone of the lateral chambers.


Lepidocyclina sp.


vertical section of an unidentified


species illustrated


for future reference.


Helicolepidina


pancispira


Barker


Grimsdale;


horizontal


section


of a megalospheric


individual.


5,6.


Lepilocyclina gigas Cushman


5, portion of the same individual illus-


treated by figure 6
spheric specimen; 4


Lepidocy'clina


to illustrate


vertical


(Eulepidtina)


the equatorial


section.

itndosa


Cushman;


chambers of


vertical


a micro-


section


typical


megalospheric individual.






I:LORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


}
i
i
I





A
I
I










j
1
I5
I4


TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE I


1













S4


5


BULLETIN












PLATE


All specimens


from the Da


Mabry Field water well;


1, at a depth of


18.6


feet; 2,
depth of


, 5, at a depth of


16.5 feet


0.6 feet:


7, at a depth of 308


, at a depth of


-316.5


14.6


feet.


All figures,


FIGURE


Lepilocyclina
of megalosphe]
individual; 6,


(Eulepidina)
ric individual
7. vertical se


far osa Cushman


vertical


actions


-4. horizonta


section


microspheric


sections


a megalospheric


individuals.


The


thin sections
which had th


illustrated by


figures


same external appearance.


5 were made from specimens
The thin section illustrated


by figure


was


made from a


specimen simliar to


the one


illustrated


the vertical


by figure


was


section


, figure


injured during


, plate 10.
the growth


The


period


ecimen illustrated
as the equatorial


layer and lateral chambers show by their peculiar bending on the left
hand side.










FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


PLATE 9


* tO1 (I '
- ---- r <


J^^-
'K '1
-I


- -


I















PLATE


All specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well;


218.6


depth of


, at a depth of 220.6 feet;


6 feet


,9, at a depth of


5, at a depth of
14.6 feet.


, 6, at a depth of
144 feet; 7, at a


All figures,


FIGURE


1-9. Lepidocylina


megalospheric


(Enllpidina)


individuals


favosa Cushman
to demonstrate


vertical sections of


variability


in shape;


vertical sections of microspheric individuals.






I LORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 10





,1


\

f I


3 Ci.,-4 wBL 5















/5







YI



iI
.4

I








'I
i



atr
*1
I








I
I


if




6











I





PLATE


Figures


11, of


specimens from


the Dale


Mabry


Field water well;


1, 2. at a depth of 308-316.5 feet; 3, at a depth of 228 feet


of 144 feet; 7,
9. at a depth of


11, at a depth of
!16.6 feet.


220.6 feet;


at a


depth of


at a depth
12.6 feet;


Figure


of a


specimen from the City of Tallahassce water well at a depth


356 feet.


Figure


10, of specimens from well No.


-12)


of the Bonheur Develop-


ment


Company,
feet.


located


at Burns,


Wakulla


County,


Florida,


a depth


Figures 1
Figures 2
Figures 5
Figures 7
Figure 1(


, 3, 8, 9,


4. X


I:GUREI


1, 2.


LepiJloryclina


(Lepidocyclina)


Cushnman;


external


view of a specimen with well-developed papillae; 2, external view
of a specimen with small papillae.


view


a cotype


leotnensis
S-3009)


Cole,


n. sp.;


to show


external
well-de-


veloped
without


apical


crown


papillae


surrounded


a rim


papillae.


This specimen


was


ground


on one


to cx-


pose the embryonic and equatorial


chambers.


rlicksb nrgensis


Vaughan


Cole;


external


view;


5, transverse section.


6, 7,


Lcpidocyclina
portion of a


(Ne phroleIpidicina)


vertical


section,


s iuannc'ns'IIs


greatly


magnified,


Cole, n. sp.
to illustrate


embryonic and lateral chambers


vertical sections.


Lcpidocyclinai

Lepidocyclina


(Eulepililna)

(Elepielina)


undosa Cushman;


cxterna


view.


fat'osa Cushman; external view show-


ing the inflated central portion of the test bordered by a wide rim.
This specimen is similar to the one from which the vertical sec-


tion, figure 6, plate


was made.


IRotalia


minxicana


Nuttall,


variety


mrcalepecens/


is Nuttall;


series


of specimens to illustrate ornamentation and degrees of serration


the periphery.
orfln. Ii _fl nr *A.,


These specimens are called


C,


"71l A


Anomalina


'%1'1 \


Tn - A-


) by


'* -nf rl*1 rI i n n(Ir r/ r , I Ii


3. Lepidiocyclina


(Nephrolepidina )


5. Operculinoides


parzn la


which






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-EIGHT


PLATE






















































t
















RAVLIN-BROWN,


V. G.PHILIPS No.


1WELL (Wo440)


TEST FOR OIL


~CC~fl3-rrurru~HL-~. -u err - -- ~--L-





T.I--
r *-X :''
1.- '


1' S* -.
- 4'


* '


et


4-' .
- - 4


I --


.-.;
; jI .. *.; C ~''. 4 c- *- -2
A *7 */'.m-: 2- I~


4. -: ~

At'




,, -' -

-. .i - --



,. -,~~:..-z:`
-r I


-4



.t





a.j.:t -i 'N

*~l if ,I, -
- -I -, .

*~'] *..lR4 if* Pt

--
t~~ --- f
''.7
4.
~ ~ ~ n~I 'j A'&' t~icE-
S- *C


-~* ~ # i-:>~ ~ '4
'S* t"-4> i
-g .d-~ *



*~ - if N.
A ..............................................................................
4---.




4 -




*- t '1
-i --7 .;*>i

-- 5. 4

7 4 I '-.-' .rr
-:-4' -.i'


*i -r A.


4.4~- .- .lr~ai.l~w~tr~~~~~~
-At4'~- "-"





RAVLIN-BROWN, V. G. PHILIPS NO. 1 WELL (W-440)



INTRODUCTION


The Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) 3 is
the eleventh well to be analyzed since the initiation of the
project in 1936, to determine the subsurface stratigraphy and
micropaleontology of critical areas within Florida.


The location of the


V. G. Philips No.


well


(W-440)


shown on Figure 5. This
well lies between two areas
which were reported in


previous
Granberry


Jackson


bulletins;


No.


County


well33
in


the
in
the


northern portion encount-
ered formations which are


LF/tRE S
> Locotion well
Rodaf-bpr VS PMW Au.


similar
bama,
nee P


those


Ala-


whereas the Suwan-


etroleum


Corpora-


tion's Sholtz No. 1 well and
the Florida Oil Discovery
Company's Cedar Keys No. 2"8


. ^*u-' -


well


southern portion penetrated format


those of peninsular Florida.


It was


in Levy County in 1
ons which are similar
thought that a study


the
to
of


the samples from the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) might
produce valuable information concerning the gradation from
the plastic faces of the Eocene of Alabama to the limestone
faces which characterizes the Eocene of peninsular Florida.
As will be demonstrated subsequently, the section from the
top of the Paleocene down is rather similar to that found in
the Granberry No. 1 well, but the portion representing the
upper, middle, and lower Eocene is composed of limestones
similar to those which characterize the upper, middle, and


1 nn-C fl, A-we, ,r ,:,. i,-.:A


A t- l-irU nrt omnll flrrnln




78 FLOR IDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-B-ULLETIN TWENTYlEIGHT

fauna is identical to a fauna" described from the Southern
States Oil Corporation No. 1 well in Jefferson County, Florida.
The Calhoun Gas and Oil Company's No. 1 well in Calhoun
County" was completed at a depth of 1320 feet in gray, cal-
careous, glauconitic sand which is known now to represent
the middle Eocene. The change from these middle Eocene
sands to limestones occurs somewhere between Calhoun and
Wakulla Counties. A well in Liberty County should exhibit
an interesting middle Eocene section.
It may be noted here that at a depth of 995-1000 feet in the
Calhoun Gas and Oil Company's No. 1 well Discocyclina
(Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton and Lepido-
cyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton were found.
In this same well specimens of Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina)
antillea Cushman (formerly called L. gardnerae Cole) occur
at 1020-1030 feet in association with Operculinoides sabinen-
sis Cole.
All types and other specimens from this well are filed in
the Florida Geological Survey Museum at Tallahassee, Florida.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is a distinct pleasure to acknowledge the assistance which
the writer has had in the preparation of this bulletin. Mr.
Herman Gunter has continued his interest and support be-
sides permitting free access to the tremendous reservoir of
information concerning the geology of Florida which he has
amassed through the years. Mrs. Helen Jeanne Plummet ex-
amined and discussed the smaller Foraminifera of the Paleo-
cene and Upper Cretaceous with the writer during a visit
which he made to Austin in September 1944. Mrs. Plummer's
intimate knowledge of the Foraminifera of these ages assisted
greatly in the preparation of the faunal lists of this portion
of the well. Mr. W. E. Wrather, Director of the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey, permitted his technicians to prepare the ex-
cellent photomicrographs of the external views. Dr. Lloyd
Henbest loaned topotype specimens of L. macdonaldi Cush-
man from the U. S. National Museum collection for com-
"a Cole, W. Storrs and Ponton, Gerald M., New Species of Fabulirlr, Astrrocyclina and
I.epidocycltn from the Florida Eocene, Amer. Midland Nat., vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 138-
147, 2 pIs., 1934.
Mossom, Stuart, A Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of Florida, Plorida
Geol. Survey 17th Ann. Rept., pp. 206, 207, 1926.




STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEON'IOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


prison with the specimens assigned to this species. A pre-
liminary description of the samples prepared by Sidney A.
Stubbs and Robert 0. Vernon for the Florida Geological Sur-
vey was of considerable value in directing special attention
to certain critical samples. The thin sections and photomicro-
graphs of these were made by the writer.

PREVIOUS STUDIES OF WELLS
IN WAKULLA COUNTY
In 1919 Cushman" published a brief account of the Bon-
heur Development Company well No. 1, located at Burns
Station, Wakulla County, Florida. The samples from this
well were collected at wide and irregularly spaced intervals.
Although Cushman did not give any specific identifications
in this article, he lists a number of genera which were found
in the samples.
In 1921 in a brief article Cushman"' identified certain of
the specimens from the Bonhcur Development Company well
No. 1 specifically and figured one specimen from the depth
of 325 feet.
Mossom"' in 1926 gave a description of the lithologic char-
acter of the samples from the Bonheur Development Com-
pany well No. 1 and listed by genera only some of the For-
aminifera found. The only definite stratigraphic conclusion
reached by Mossom was that certain specimens at a depth of
700 feet resembled Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) and,
therefore, indicated that the Ocala limestone had been pene-
trated at this depth.
Certain samples from this well were examined by the writ-
er. The following species were identified:
-50 feet
Lepidocyclina (llpiocycliti) yurnagunl'nsis Cushman
150 feet
Jlepidocyclina (Lepidoyclina) parvula Cushman
supra (Conrad)
Syurnagunensis Cushman, variety mor-
ganopsis Vaughan
at Cushmaun, Joseph A., Tho Age of the Underlying Rocks of Florida as Shown by the
Foraminifera of Well Borings, Florida Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept., pp. 82-84, 1919.
n" Cushman, Joseph A., Foraminifera from the Deep Wells of Florida, Florida Geol.
Survey 13th Ann. Rept., pp. 40, 42, 44, $3, 54, 59, pl. 1, fig. 5, 1921.
"a Mossom, Stuart, A Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of Florida, Florida
Geol. Survey 17th Ann. Rept., pp. 213-216, 1926.





80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

180 feet
Rotalia nmxicana Nuttall, variety mecatepecensis Nuttall'"
l.epidcoyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagutnensis Cushman
325 feet
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Elplidium rota Ellis
Rotalia mexicana Nuttall, variety mecalepecensis Nuttall (very
abundant)
700 feet
Camerina vanders/oki (Rutten and Vermunt)
1.clidocyclina (Pliolepldina) cedarkeysensis Cole
1820 feet
Lcphlocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton
Figures are given of certain of these specimens on plate 22.
The specimens identified as Rotalia mexicana Nuttall, variety
mcratepjcensis Nuttall are illustrated by figure 10, plate 11
of this bulletin.
The re-examination of the upper samples from the Bonheur
Development Company well No. 1 shows that the section
encountered from 50 feet (the first sample) to a depth of
325 feet is definitely Oligocene in age and correlates with the
Suwannee limestone. The first Eocene species is Camrerina
vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) at a depth of 700 feet.
Recently P. L. Applin and E. R. Applin" presented an
interpretation of the section exhibited by certain wells in
Florida. The formations which they recognize in the V. G.
Philips No. 1 well (W-440) and the depths at which these
occur follow:
Miocene .... ..undivided .............. Surface to 390(?) feet
Oligoccne ...undivided ..................390(?) to 750 feet
SUpper Ocala limestone ..........750 feet to 920 feet
ate Middle Avon Park limestone ..... 920 feet to 1200 feet
Eocene Tallahassee limestone ......1200 feet to 1750 feet
Early middle ....Lake City limestone ...... 1750 feet to 2122 feet
Lower .Beds of Wilcox age .......2122 feet to 2665 feet
Paleocene .....Beds with Tamesi fauna 2665 feet to 2715 feet
"' This species was called RotalIa armata d'Orbigny by Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey
13th Ann. Rept., p. 54, 1921.
Applin, Paul L. and Applin' Esther R., Regional Subsurface Stratigraphy and
Structure of Florida and Southern Georgia, Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., vol. 28,
No. 12, p. 1736, fig. 23, 1944.





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS,


Beds of Navarro age .....2715 feet to 2745 feet
Beds of Taylor age ...... 2745 feet to 3482 feet
Upper Cretaceous i
S Beds of Austin age .......3482 feet to 3672 feet
STuscaloosa formation ....3 672 feet to 4270 feet
Lower Cretaceous --.... .undivided .... .4270 feet to bottom

Reference to the graphic log (figure 6) shows that the
interpretation here presented is considerably different from
that given in the preceding table. It may be helpful to state
here one difference and the evidence on which this is based.
The index Foraminifera for the Avon Park limestone are
stated by the Applins to be Coskinolina floridana Cole and
Lituonlla floridana Cole. As the Avon Park limestone is
placed between 920 and 1200 feet, it is difficult to reconcile
this fact with the fauna which occurred in the samples be-
tween 945 and 1050 feet in the set examined in the prepara-
tion of this bulletin. This fauna represents a typical Ocala
fauna, therefore, this interval is included in the upper Eocene
rather than assigned to the middle Eocene as the Applins have
done. 4

RAVLIN-BROWN, V. G. PHILIPS NO. 1 WELL (W-440)
The Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) is
located in the center of the NWI4 of section 14, Township
3S., Range 1E., near Wakulla, Wakulla County, Florida. (see
figure 5) The elevation of the well head is 28 feet above sea
level. Drilling began April 8, 1942 and was completed March
26, 1943 at which time the well was abandoned at a depth of
5766 feet. The Florida Geological Survey received 498 sam-
ples which represent the interval from 399 to 5746 feet.
STRATIGRAPHY
The formations encountered in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well
(W-440) and their lithologic characteristics are shown on
figure 6."
The depths marked on the samples and used throughout this article are in error
between the depths of 2505 and 4002 feet. This error was discovered during a
Schlumberger run which potved that the well had reached a depth of 3920 feet although
the driller was recording a depth of 4002 feet at this point. The amount of error was 82
feet. A check on the amount of casing used indicated that the error occurred somewhere
above 2500 feet. Therefore, all depths given between 2500 and 4000 feet should have
80 feet subtracted from them in order to give as close an approximation as possible to
the true depth.


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STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


MIOCENE
TAMPA LIMESTONE.-The geological map of Florida"
shows the area adjacent to Wakulla to be underlain by the
Tampa limestone which is covered by undifferentiated Pleisto-
cene and Recent. Cooke and Mossom" state,
"Tampa limestone lies near the surface over all of the eastern part of Wa-
kulla County."
Mansfield" lists a number of stations in Wakulla County at
which he found Tampa faunas.
Inasmuch as the first sample from the V. G. Philips No. 1
well (W-440) was taken at a depth of 399 feet, information
concerning the thickness of the Tampa limestone could not
be ascertained from this well. However, the first sample at
50 feet in the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1
(W-12) contained Lepidocyclina. Certain of these speci-
mens were identified as L. (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis
Cushman, a species found in the Suwannee limestone" on
the outcrop. A horizontal section of one of these specimens
is illustrated as figure 2 on plate 22.
The Tampa limestone in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-
440) would be relatively thin as the data from the Bonheur
Development Company well No. 1 suggest that the Tampa
limestone has a thickness of less than 50 feet in this portion
of Wakulla County.

OLIGOCENE
SUWANNEE LIMESTONE.-Reliance must be placed on the
samples from the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1
for the age and characteristics of the upper portion of the
section assigned to the Oligocene. In this well characteristic
Oligocene Foraminifera were found at 50 feet, 150 feet, 180
feet, and 325 feet. The fauna recovered from these samples

1" Cooke, C. Wythe and Mosson, Stuart, Geology of Florida, Florida Geol. Survey
12th Ann. Rept., map in pocket, 1929.
Idem, p. 92.
Mansfield, W. C., Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee Limestones of Florida,
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 15, pp. 25, 26, 1937.
Cole, W. Storrs, Oligocene Orbitoids from near Duncan Church, Washington
County, Florida, Jour. Pal., vol. 8, No, 1, pp. 21-28, pls, 3, 4, 1934; Vernon, Robert O.,
Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 21,
p. 63, 1942.


8)





84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

indicates that the well penetrated rocks which should be
correlated with the Suwannee limestone.
The first sample from the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440)
was taken at 399 feet, the second covered the interval from
399 to 409 feet after which the samples were taken so that
they covered approximately 10 foot intervals. The sample
at 399 feet contained larger Foraminifera representing three
genera. All of the specimens were smoothed on the surface
and gave the appearance of having been eroded.
Four specimens were found which were identified as Dic-
/yoconus cooked (Moberg). It has been noted previously that
at 32 feet in the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1
(W- 12) D. cookei (Moberg) occurred with the Oligocene
species Ro/alia inexicana Nuttall, variety inecatepeceinsis
Nuttall. The other specimens found in the 399 foot sample
in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) represented the
genera Hecerostegina and Lepidocyclina. There were very
few specimens of Heterostegina, but Lepidocyclina occurred
in considerable abundance.
The surface ornamentation of the Heterostegina was com-
pletely destroyed, but moderately satisfactory thin sections
could be made (figures 9, 10, plate 15). Cushman" reports
the occurrence of Heterostegina ocalana Cushman at a depth
of 50 feet in the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1
(W-12). The specimens from 399 feet in the V. G. Philips
well No. 1 (W-440) may represent the same species which
Cushman had from the Bonheur Development Company well
No. 1 (W-12). The specimens from the V. G. Philips well
No. 1 (W-440) are referred to Heterostegina texana Gravell
and Hanna although some doubt must be entertained con-
cerning the validity of this identification because of the poor
state of preservation of the specimens.
The Lepidocyclina associated at 399 feet in the V. G. Philips
well No. 1 (W-440) with D. cookei (Moberg) and H. texana
Gravell and Hanna have many features similar to specimens
referred to L. (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton. Inas-
much as D. cookei and L. ariana are considered to be indige-
nous to the middle Eocene, this sample would appear to con-
tain a mixed fauna of one Oligocene and two Eocene species.
Op. cit., (13th Ann. Rept.) p. 40,





STRATIGRAPHIC AND IALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


The samples from 409 feet to 516 feet are devoid of sig-
nificant Foraminifera, but the sample recovered at 516 to 546
feet contains a well developed and easily identified fauna.
Specimens obtained from this sample represent the following:
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole, Dictyoconus americantus (Cush-
man), D. cookei (Moberg) and Eodictyoconus cubensis
(Cushman and Bermudez). In the samples representing the
next 68 feet such characteristic species as Eponides gunteri
Cole, Lituonella floridana Cole and Pseudochrysalidina flori-
dana Cole are found. The preliminary examination suggested
that the top of the middle Eocene occurred at 516 feet and
that the Ocala was not present in this area. However, as
deeper samples were examined, the preliminary conclusions
concerning the middle Eocene age of the section starting at
516 feet became questionable.
Examination of the samples from 745 to 1030 feet revealed
a number of species which are confined to the upper Eocene.
The following were recorded between these depths: 1. at
745-755 feet Camerina vandersfoki (Rutten and Vermunt) ;
2. at 945-955 feet Camierina moodybranlchensis Gravell and
Hanna; 3. at 975-985 feet Operculioides willcoxi (Heil-
prin); 4. at 985-995 feet Operculina barkeri Vaughan and
Cole; 5. at 995 -1005 feet Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mor-
toni Cushman; 6. at 1015-1016 feet Camerilna jacksonensis
Gravell and Hanna and 7. at 1018-1030 feet Operculinoides
vntughani Cushman.
Thus, the distribution of the various species in this well, if
taken with their known ranges in other wells, would suggest
that the middle Eocene overlies the upper Eocene. Four in-
terpretations might be offered to explain this anomalous situ-
ation: 1. the samples were mixed, 2. a fault occurred, 3. pre-
vious interpretations of age have been erroneous, 4. the mid-
dle Eocene forms have been reworked into younger deposits.
Analysis of the samples from the Bonheur Development
Company well No. 1 offered rather conclusive proof that
the samples from V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) were in
proper sequence and had not been mixed. The distribution
of specimens as "cavings" in the samples from the V. G. Philips
well No. 1 (W-440) was supplemental proof that these sam-
ples had not been mixed.





86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

There is no evidence from surrounding areas or in the
known geologic history of the Coastal Plain or peninsular
Florida to suggest that the inversion of the faunas was pro-
duced by translocation of the rock units.
The third possibility involves first that some of the faunas
previously considered middle Eocene in age are in reality up-
per Eocene in age and second that there are recurrent faunas
in Florida which occur in the middle Eocene and Oligocene.
It is well established from previous work" that certain middle
Eocene species occur in the Oligocene of Florida. Never,
however, have so many middle Eocene species been found in
the Oligocene as were recovered from this well.
Although it has been suggested above that interfingering
might be the explanation and that in the area of the V. G.
Philips well No. 1 (W-440) the Ocala fauna extends as a
tongue into faunas previously classified as indigenous to the
middle Eocene, there is no proof to substantiate this conten-
tion from rthe other areas examined in detail in Florida.
The information which has been collected to date indicates
that such occurrences of middle Eocene species above upper
Eocene faunas is most reasonably explained by reworking of
middle Eocene deposits during Oligocene times. The section
in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) between 516 feet
and 745 feet is placed in the Oligocene.
Historically, it is of interest to note that Mossom" in dis-
cussing the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 states:
"The presence of the Dictyoconus sp. does not tell a great deal. Vaughan
states that this genus has been found in surface samples at Live Oak and in
many wells it has been found in the Ocala."
It must be emphasized again that the occurrence of a middle
Eocene species or even a rather complete middle Eocene fauna
in Florida must be viewed with suspicion in determinations
of age.
UPPER EOCENE
OCALA LIMESTONE.-The top of the upper Eocene occurs
at a depth of 745-755 feet with the appearance of Camerina
vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). The species of upper
Op. cit., (Bull. 19) pp. 11-16, 19, 20.
Op. cit., (17th Ann. Rept.) p. 211,





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


87


Eocene age and the depths at which they were recovered have
been recorded previously in discussing the Oligocene and need
not be repeated here. It may be noted, however, that the top
portion of the section assigned to the upper Eocene is rela-
tively barren of fossils. It is not until the depth of 945 feet
is reached that abundant specimens are found.
Between 975 and 1030 feet there are abundant specimens
of representative species which occur in the Ocala limestone
or its equivalent elsewhere in Florida and the Coastal Plain.
The base of the upper Eocene is not defined clearly in this
well as a fauna of unmistakable middle Eocene age does not
appear until the depth of 1757 feet is reached.
The most definite lithologic break below 1030 feet occurs
at 1290 feet. This point is tentatively chosen to mark the
base of the upper Eocene. If this is correct, the Ocala lime-
stone in this area would have a thickness of 545 feet which
seems to be excessive. The problem encountered in the V. G.
Philips well No. 1 (W-440) is similar to that found in the
City of Quin'cy water well (W-4) in which it was concluded
that the Ocala limestone might have a thickness of 690+ feet..0

MIDDLE EOCENE
LISBON FORMATION"'.-There is only one faunal zone
which contains larger Foraminifera in the section assigned
to the middle Eocene. This zone which is first discovered at
a depth of 1757 feet contains Discocyclina (Asterocyclina)
monticellensis Cole and Ponton, Fabularia vaughani Cole and
Ponton and Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and
Ponton. This fauna is identical to the one reported at a depth
of 1740 feet from the Southern States Oil Corporation well
No. 1 (W-19), located one and a half miles north of Monti-
cello, Jefferson County, Florida.
"o Op. cl/., (Bull. 26), pp. 16, 17.
"' Article 17 of the "Classification and Nomenclature of Rock Units" (see: Geol.
Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 44, pp. 440-441, 1933) states: "Subsurface units shall be given
formal names only where names are necessary for adequate presentation of the geologic
history of the region." In the remarks under this article the following appears: "When
it becomes possible to correlate a named subsurface unit with a named surface unit, the
name of the surface unit is to be applied, even though the subsurface name has priority."
Careful consideration of the problems of correlation indicate that these are wise
considerations to govern the creation of new names for subsurface units inasmuch as the
type locality and knowledge of the subsurface unit must be fragmentary. It would seem
that more confusion would result from the indiscriminate adoption of names for sub-
surface units than if the policy stated in article 17 were strictly followed.




88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

A preliminary and hasty examination of the entire set of
samples from the Southern States Oil Corporation well No. 1
proves that the faunas and lithologies in this well are very
similar to the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440).
In the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336)
the Discocyclina montiicellensis-Lepidocyclina ariana zone
occurred between the Dictyoconus anericanus and the Lepi-
}locyclina antillea zones"'. The correlation and relative posi-
tion of the D. monticellensis-L. ariana zone in the V. G. Philips
well No. 1 (W-440) with other wells in Florida can be de-
termined because of its known relationship in the Hilliard
Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336), and in this well
this zone was correlated with the Lisbon formation of Ala-
bama and Mississippi. Thus, this section in the V. G. Philips
well No. 1 (W-440) is assigned to the Lisbon formation.
Below the section assigned to the Lisbon formation there
is an interval without fossils which is considered to represent
the lower part of the Claiborne. The top of this section has
been placed tentatively at 1860 feet.
LOWER EOCENE
WILcox GRouP.-There does not seem to be a paleonto-
logic basis on which to separate the middle from the lower
Eocene. In fact, in peninsular Florida the division of the in-
terval from ithe top of the upper Eocene to the top of the
Upper Cretaceous appears to fall naturally into a threefold
division. This division of this interval into upper, middle and
lower Eocene has been used in previous studies.
In order to conform to the usage of the United States Geo-
logical Survey, the interval which would have been assigned
to the lower Eocene previously is placed in this bulletin in the
Paleocene. No attempt is made to delimit the upper bound-
ary of the interval that would represent the lower Eocene
except that a tentative boundary is suggested on the graphic
log at 2285 feet where a change in lithology occurs.
PALEOCENE
MIowAY FORMATION.--At 2535 feet the samples contain
a dark gray, compact, slightly micaceous, calcareous shale
O(). nil., (Bull. 26), p. 34.




STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF1 WELLS 89

which has a very small poorly preserved fauna of Globigerina
and calcite casts of forms which belong to the family Ellip-
soidinidae, probably to the genus Ellipsolagena. This depth
is considered to mark the top of the Midway formation.
Between 2675 and 2715 feet the fauna of small Foramini-
fera becomes larger with certain critical species appearing
for age determination. Certain of these species are known
from the Midway, such as Anomalina acuta Plummer, Glo-
borotalia membranacea (Ehrenberg), Globorotalia wilcox-
ensis Cushman and Ponton, Globigerina triloculinoides Plum-
mer, and Spiroplectammina mexiaensis Lalicker. Others are
recorded from the Aragon, formation"" of the Tampico Em-
bayment of which Nuttalides triimpyi (Nuttall) may be
mentioned.
The Midway formation in this well has a thickness of 180
feet, whereas in the Granberry well (W-285) the thickness
of the Midway was 210 feet." The total thickness of the
Eocene and Paleocene in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440)
is 1970 feet.
UPPER CRETACEOUS
SELMA FORMATION.-At 2715 to 2725 feet the first For-
aminifera of Upper Cretaceous age were encountered. The
faunal break is sharp although there is very little difference
in the lithology between the lower portion of the section as-
signed to the Paleocene and 'that which is referred to the Up-
per Cretaceous.
The most abundant specimens at 2715 to 2725 feet are
Globotruncana area (Cushman), but other well-known Cre-
taceous Foraminifera were recovered from this sample of
which Gilibelina punctulata Cushman, Lituola taylorensis
Cushman and Waters and Pseudotextularia varians Rzehak
are the most diagnostic. This sample contained also rather
numerous Inoceramnts prisms.
The next two samples covering the interval between 2725
and 2745 feet have many more species. This faunal assem-
blage is similar to the one encountered in the Granberry well
"t Nuttall, W. 1. F., I ocene Foraminif'era from Mexico, Jour. Pal., vol. 4, No. 3,
pp. 277-293, 1930.
Op. c/l., (Bull, 16), p. 28.




90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

No. 1 (W-285) between 1940 and 2050 feet although the
fauna of the Granberry well No. 1 had a greater number of
species." This zone in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440)
is the equivalent of the zone found in the Suwannee Petroleum
Corporation's Sholtz well No. 1 (W-166)" at 3175 to 3267
feet, in that, such species as Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge
and Stensioina americana Cushman occur in both wells. These
species are found between 3165 and 3295 feet in the Hilliard
Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336)"' in a zone which
is the age equivalent of the interval under discussion in the
V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440).
In the Florida Oil Discovery Company's Cedar Keys well
No. 2 (W-355) "' above the Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge-
Stensioina americana Cushman zone and below the interval
assigned to the Paleocene there occurred a section assigned to
the Upper Cretaceous which contained Lepidorbitoides. This
section has an approximate thickness of 634 feet. In the Hil-
liard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336) there occurs
a zone containing such species as Pseudorbitoides israelskii
Vaughan and Cole and Vaughanina cubensis D. K. Palmer
above the Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge-Stensiiiina ameri-
cana Cushman zone. At the present time this zone in the
Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336) is be-
lieved to be the equivalent of the Leidorbitoides zone in the
Cedar Keys well No. 2 (W-3 5). The thickness of this zone
in the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336) is
approximately 180 feet. However, above the horizon of
Vaughanina cubensis D. K. Palmer there was an interval of
200 feet assigned doubtfully to the Upper Cretaceous. Thus,
there is in this well the possibility of a thickness of 380 feet
between the base of the Paleocene and the Gyroidina alabam-
ensis Sandidge-Stensidina americana zone.
This interval characterized by Cretaceous orbitoidal For-
aminifera is missing in the V. G. hilips well No. 1 (W-440).
In this well the Paleocene lies upon the Gyroidina alabamensis
Sandidge-Stensi6ina americana zone. In general terms this
zone of smaller Foraminifera would be the approximate age
Op. cit., (Bull. 16), pp. 34-36.
Op. cit., (Bull. 20), p. H5.
Of. cit., (Bull. 26), p. 34-31 .
Op. cit., (Bull. 20), p. 16.




STrATIGR APHIC AND PALEON'OLOGIC STUDIES O1 WELLS 91

equivalent of the Taylor marl of Texas. The V. G. Philips
well No. 1 (W-440) has virtually the same conditions and
fauna at the Paleocene-Cretaceous contact as occurred in the
Granberry well No. 1. There is a considerable section of Up-
per Cretaceous missing in these wells which occurs in certain
wells in peninsular Florida.
The upper portion of the section assigned to the Selma for-
mation in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) is largely
chalk which grades downward into chalk interbedded with
gray shale. The lower portion of the Selma formation in this
well is composed of dense, light gray, calcareous shale below
which occurs some green shales which are included in the
Selma, but these green shales might represent the upper por-
tion of the Eutaw.
The Selma formation in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-
440) has a thickness of 877 feet. In the Granberry well No. I
this same formation had a thickness of 942 feet. The Cedar
Keys well No. 2 (W-355) had a thickness of about 650 feet
from the top of the Gyroidina alabamenlsis Sandidge-Stensibina
americana Cushman zone to the top of the Eutaw.
EUTAW FORMATION.-At 3592 feet the sample contains
fragments of a micaceous, glauconitic sandstone which re-
sembles material from other wells in which the Selma-Eutaw
contact could be ascertained with considerable certainty. The
appearance of this sandstone certainly indicates,that the drill
had penetrated the Eutaw, but the green shale which appeared
at a depth of 3432 feet might be included in the Eutaw. In a
well of this type it is virtually impossible to be absolutely cer-
tain of a contact which must be chosen by a change in lith-
ology for two basic reasons: 1. the samples are all cuttings
and contain many "cavings" which obscure the primary
characteristics of the material, and 2. the distance between
authenticated wells is too great to be sure of the change in
conditions which might take place.
The section assigned to the Eutaw is composed dominantly
of shale, most of which is dense, waxy and greenish in color
in the upper portion and brownish gray to black or speckled
in the lower portion. There are some thin sandstone beds, but
it is difficult to delimit these exactly.
The section assigned to the Eutaw in the V. G. Philips well





92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

No. 1 (W-440) has a thickness of 578 feet. The thickness of
the Eutaw in the other wells studied to date is: Granberry
No. 1, 575 feet; Cedar Keys No. 2 (W-355), 573 feet; Hil-
liard Turpentine Company No. 1 (W-336), 820 feet.
TUSCALOOSA FORMATION.-At 4170 feet fragments of a
dark red, micaceous shale appeared. As there is a considerable
lithologic change between this sample and the one above it,
this depth was chosen as the top of the Tuscaloosa formation.
The Tuscaloosa formation in this area consists largely of
shale with numerous rather thin sandstone beds and two or
more thick sandstones. The general characteristics are shown
on the graphic log. Therefore, a detailed description is super-
fluous, particularly in view of the fact that the character of
the samples would permit only generalization.
Certain reports which have come to my attention consider
that many wells of this type have penetrated the Lower Cre-
taceous. This may be true. In 1938 I wrote regarding the
lower portion of the Granberry well No. 1:
"The lithologic character of certain portions of the section encountered in
the Granberry well below the Eutaw corresponds rather closely to the
Trinity described in the Mississippi well.
"Until more evidence is obtained it is futile to speculate regarding the
possibility that the well under discussion actually penetrated the Lower
Cretaceous.""'
The lower portion of the Granberry well No. 1 was rather
completely cored so that one had optima conditions for study.
The conservative treatment seemed to be that this entire
lower section in the Granberry well No. 1 should be assigned
to the Tuscaloosa formation until more positive proof of
Lower Cretaceous age can be established. Nothing has yet
appeared to cause me to believe that these wells did not end
in the Tuscaloosa.

PALEONTOLOGICAL RECORD (W-440)
399 feet (first sample)
Dictyocomns cookei (Moberg)
Heterostegina texana Gravell and Hanna
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton

Op. cit., (Bull. 26), pp. 26, 27.






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS

516-546 feet
Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman)
cooked (Moberg)
Discoritopsis gunteri Cole
Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
546-554 feet
Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman)
cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) macdonaldi Cushman
Pseudochrysalidina floridana Cole
578-584 feet
Eponides gunteri Cole
Lituonella floridana Cole
615-625 feet
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole
625-635 feet
Coskinolina floridana Cole
Textilaria coryensis Cole
655-665 feet
Spirolina coryensis Cole
675-685 feet
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole (abundant)
745-755 feet
Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt)
945-95 feet
Camerina moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna
975-985 feet
Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin)
985-995 feet
Operculina barker Vaughan and Cole (rare)
995-1005 feet
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman
1015-1016 feet
Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna
Operculina barkei Vaughan and Cole (abundant)
1018-1030 feet
Operculinoides cookei (Cushman)
vaughani (Cushman)
1757-1768 feet
Camagueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Falndaria vaighani Cole and Ponton
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton


93






94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

1799-1809 feet
Lepidocyclina (Pliolfpidina) ariana Cole and Ponton (very abundant)
2535-2545 feet
Ellipsolagena (?) sp.
Globigerina sp.
2675-2685 feet
Anomalina sp.
Cibicides blanfiedi Toulmin
Eponides sp.
Nonionella insecta (Schwagcr)
Planulina marialana Hadley
2685-2695 feet
Anomalina acuta Plummer
dorri Cole
sp.
Bunliina sp.
Eggerella trochoides (Reuss)
Eponides sp.
Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer
Globorotalia snembranacea (Ehrenberg)
Nuttallides trilmpyi (Nuttall)
Pseudoglandulina manifest (Reuss)
Spiroplectammiina mexiaensis Lalicker
2695-2705 feet
Anomnalina sp.
Cibicides sp. cf. C. pseudoungerianus (Cushman)
Gyro/dina sp.
Siplonina sp.
Spiroplectammina expanse (Plummer)
2705-2715 feet
Globigerina sp.
Globorotalia mnembranacea (Ehrenberg)
willcoxensis Cushman and Ponton
Nuttallides trilmpyi (Nuttall)
2715-2725 feet
Bolivina incrassata Reuss
*Globorotalia membranacea (Ehrenberg)
Globotruncana area (Cushman)
cretacea Cushman
Giimbelina punchtlata Cushman
Lituola taylorenis Cushman and Waters
'*Nonionella welleri (Plummer)
Pseudotextularia varians Rzehak
Pulleiia americana Cushman
273 -2745 feet
Anomalina henbesti Plummer
nelsoni W. Berry
sholzensis Cole
sp. (same as figures 9, 10, plate 2, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 20)






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


Arenobulinmina americana Cushman
lolivina incrassata Reuss
Bolikinoodps drcnnoraa (Jones)
Buliminella carseyar ri,..mr.%er
Cibicides steplensoni Cushman
Clavulinoides trilatera (Cushman)
Dorothia stephetnsoni Cushman
Eggerella trochoides (Reuss)
Globotruncana area (Cushman)
fornicata Plummer
Gilmbclina coslulata Cushman
plummerae Loetterle
Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge
Pseudotextularia varians Rzehak
Pullenia americana Cushman
StensiOina americana Cushman
2745-275 .feet
Anomalina pinguis Jennings
Gyroidina globosa (v. Hagenow)
nitida (Reuss)
Helerostomella antericana Cushman
2755-2765 feet
Anomalina taylorensis Carsey
Buliminclla carseyae Plummer
'GGloborotalia membranacea (Ehrenberg)
Giimbdlina costulata Cushman
excolata Cushman
Gyroidina depressa (Alth)
globosa (v. Hagenow)
Marssonella oxycona (Reuss)
Planulina cedarkeysensis Cole
Pseudotextularia varians Rzehak
Rcussella cushmani Brotzen
Valvulineria allontorphinoides (Reuss)

DESCRIPTIONS OF CORES (W-440)
1966-1983 feet.-Motitled gray and brownish, slightly
crystalline limestone with many scattered grains of glauco-
nite and a few small flakes of lignite; some Foraminifera and
shell fragments.
2127-2137 feet.-One fragment of light brown silicified
limestone; one fragment of light brown, soft, compact lime-
stone with small lignite streaks.
2137-2142 feet.-Brownish gray, compact, soft limestone
with few scattered grains of glauconite.
Specimens so marked may represent species from the Paleocene occurring as savingss".


95





96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

2147-2152 feet.-Brownish gray, compact, semi-crystal-
line, non-fossiliferous limestone with an occasional e- ia, of
Lilacrnnire.
2152-2157 feet.-Brownish gray, porous, granular lime-
stone with occasionally streaks which contain numerous dark
to light green glauconite grains.
2157-2162 feet.-Mottled tan and gray, hard limestone
with occasional small grains of glauconite and molds of fossils.
2162-2175 feet.-Fragment of light brownish gray chert
with soft, light brownish gray limestone attached to one side.
2198-2205 feet.-Light brownish gray, porous, crystalline,
foraminiferal limestone with an occasional small glauconite
grain.
2205-2210 feet.-See 2198-2205 feet.
2288-2293 feet (Core?).-Several fragments of light
brownish gray, soft, porous, crystalline limestone.

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES
FAMILY VALVULINIDAE
Subfamily EGGERELLINAE
Genus LITUONELLA Schlumberger, 1905
Liluonella floridana Cole
Plate 12, Figures 4, 5
1937. Lituoncila sp. (?) Cushman, Cont. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res. Sp.
Publication No. 8, p. 185, pl. 22, fig. 14.
1941. Litunella floridana Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, p. 23, pl. 3.
figs. 14-17; pl. 4, fig. 10; pl. 6, figs. 9-11.
The axial thin section (figure 4, plate 12) of a specimen
from the Ravlin-Brown well (W-440) is identical with
that of a paratype specimen (see figure 9, plate 6, Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 19) from the Carpenter's Home well (W-
448).
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well at a depth
of 578-584 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


Genus COSKINOLINA Stache, 1875
Coskinolina floridana Cole
Plate 12, Figures 2, 6, 8
1928. Coskinolina cookei Moberg (part), Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann.
Rept., pp. 166-168, pl. 3, fig. 6, (not figs. 1-5, 7-8).
1941. Coskinolina floridana Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 24, 25,
pl. 3, figs. 1-7; pl. 4, figs. 1-9; pl. 5, figs. 1-5, 11; pl. 18, fig. 9.
1942. Coskinolina floridana Cole. Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20,
p. 21, pl. 4, figs. 4, 5.
Typical specimens occur, but not in great abundance.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
at a depth of 625-635 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.

Genus DICTYOCONUS Blanckenhorn, 1900
Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman)
Plate l1tFigure 3
1919. Conulites americana Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ.
291, p. 43, text fig. 3.
1942. Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 20, pp. 21-24, pl. 3, figs. 12, 13; pl. 6, figs. 1-9; pl. 7, figs. 1-5;
pl. 16, figs. 14, 15 (references and synonymy).
1944. Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 26, pp. 36, 37, pl. 4, figs. 1-6; pl. 8, figs. 12, 13; pl. 18, fig. 11.
Entirely typical specimens of this species were recovered.
This species has been described and discussed in previous bul-
letins so that additional remarks are not required.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
at a depth of 516-546 feet; abundant in the next sample at
546-5 54 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.

Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Plate 1l.Eigures 1, 7, 9
1928. Coskinolina cookei Moberg, Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept.,
pp. 166-168, pl. 3, figs. 1-5, 7-8 (not fig. 6).
1941. Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19,
pp. 26, 27, pl. 3, figs. 11-13; pl. 5, figs. 6-10, 12, 13; pl. 6, figs. 1-8;
pl. 18, fig. 12.





98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

1942. Dictyoconns cookei (Moberg). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20,
pp. 24, 25, pl. 3, fig. 10; pl. 4, fig. 8.
The first sample at 399 feet contained four specimens which
the thin sections prove should be assigned to this species. The
horizontal plate which subdivides the chambers can be seen
distinctly on the right hand side of figure 7, plate 12. Abun-
dant specimens were not found until the sample at 516-546
feet was examined.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
at a dept> of 399 feet (first sample); abundant at a depth of
516-546 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.

Genus EODICTYOCONUS Cole and Bermudez, 1944
Eodictyocotus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
Plate 12, Figures 10, 11
1936. Pscuilorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez, Contrib. Cush-
man Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 12, p. 59, pl. 10, figs. 27-30.
1941. Psendorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez. Cole, Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 22, 23, pl. 2, figs. 5-11.
1942. Pselcorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez. Cole, idein., Bull.
20, pp. 18, 19, pl. 3, fig. 4; pl. 5, fig. 1.
1944. Pscudlorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez. Cole, idem., Bull.
26, pp. 35, 36, pl. 2, fig. 7; pl. 8, figs. 14, 15; pl. 13, figs. 1, 2.
1944. EoIlictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez). Cole and Ber-
mudez, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 28, No. 113, pp. 6-10, pl. 1, fig. 1;
pl. 2, figs. 1-12; pl. 3, figs. 1-5.
The specimens from this well have been compared with
topotype specimens from the middle Eocene, Jabaco forma-
tion of Cuba, as well as with specimens previously assigned to
this species from other Florida wells. There are no significant
differences.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
at a depth of 516-546 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.
Family MILIOLIDAE
Genus FABULARIA Defrance, 1820
Fabularia vanghani Cole and Ponton
Plate 15, Figure 6; Plate 16, Figures 1-10
1934. Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton, Amer. Midland Nat., vol. 15,
No. 2, pp. 139-141, pl. 1, figs. 1-9.





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


1937. Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton. Hanzawa, Jour. Pal., vol. 11,
No. 2, pp. 111-113, pl. 20, figs. 1-4.
1942. Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton. Cole, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 20, pp. 25, 26, pl. 3, fig. 14; pl. 15, fig. 1.
At 1757-1768 feet in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
a few specimens representing the genus Fabularia were recov-
ered, and at 1789-1799 feet, numerous individuals were en-
countered. To date, the only species of Fabularia described
from North America is F. vaughani Cole and Ponton. Cole
and Ponton had specimens assigned to this species from the
Southern States Oil Corporation well (W-19) located about
one and a half miles north of Monticello, Jefferson County,
Florida. Cole and Ponton state
"there occur at 1740 feet (in W-19) specimens of Fabilaria which appear
to be identical to those found in the Jacksonville wells. These specimens are
not as well preserved as those from the Jacksonville wells, but apparently
exhibit the same characters."
These specimens of Fabularia in the Southern States Oil
Corporation well (W-19) were associated with Lepidocyclina
ariana Cole and Ponton and Asterocyclina monticellensis Cole
and Ponton. As these species occur with the specimens of
Fabularia in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440), it was
desirable to compare the specimens of Fabularia from W-440
with those from W-19, and, then, compare the entire group
with specimens from the type locality of F. vaughani.
Four poorly preserved specimens were available from the
Southern States Oil Corporation well (W-19). One axial
(figure 10, plate 16) and two transverse (figures 2, 8, plate
16) thin sections were made from these specimens. One trans-
verse section with a maximum diameter of 1.16 mm. has a
nearly spherical central chamber with internal diameters of
320 x 340 /A. This section has 5 biloculine chambers following
the central chamber. The other transverse section with a
maximum diameter of 0.95 mm. has a subspherical central
chamber with internal diameters of 260 x 320 p/. There are
4 biloculine chambers disposed around the central chamber.
As these specimens were eroded, the diameter and number of
biloculine chambers would be increased in uneroded speci-
mens. The axial section was cut from a specimen with a length
of 1.56 mm. and a height of 0.95 mm. Unfortunately, the
central chamber was lost in the preparation of this thin sec-


99





100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

tion. The eroded surface of these specimens exhibited costae
with a width of about 60 /A which anastomose.
Five thin sections were prepared from specimens from the
V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440). All of these specimens
were eroded. Therefore, the measurements given of gross
diameters are smaller than those which uneroded specimens
would have. Of the two transverse sections available, one has
a maximum diameter of 0.98 mm. with a subspherical initial
chamber with diameters of 400 x 460 a around which there
are 3 biloculine chambers; the other has a maximum diameter
of 0.74 mm. with a subspherical initial chamber with diam-
eters of 360 x 320 A. This specimen also has three biloculine
chambers surrounding the initial chamber. The dimensions
of the axial sections follow:
Length -- 1.24 mn. 1.3 mm. 1.4 mm.
Height - - -0.74 mm. 0.93 mm. 0.86 mm.
Diameters of initial chamber 240x320 p 3 310x320 /t 360x440 j
Number of biloculine chambers 5 5 3
Eroded specimens from the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-
440) have the same appearance as the specimens from W-19,
exhibiting rather heavy, anastomosing costae. The conclusion
was reached that the specimens from the Southern States Oil
Corporation well (W-19) represent the same species as do
those found in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440). There
remains, however, the problem of whether these specimens
should be assigned to F. vaughani.
In the Cole collection there are five specimens from the
well (W-72c) drilled by the Gibbs Dry Dock Company,
South Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida. A transverse
section with a maximum diameter of 0.94 mm. has 5 bilocu-
line chambers surrounding a central chamber with an internal
diameter of 140 A. A note on this thin section states that it
was not ground to the center of the specimen. Therefore, it
is probable that only the top portion of the central chamber
is shown on this thin section. Another transverse thin sec-
tion with a maximum diameter of 1.32 mm. has 6+ biloculine
chambers, but the central area is destroyed. The third trans-
verse section is broken, but a portion of this broken section
has a maximum diameter of 0.96 mm. with 4 biloculine cham-
bers. The only axial section available has a length of 1.2 mm.






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


and a height of 0.94 mm. The central chamber has diameters
of 140 x 180 p. There are 6 biloculine chambers exhibited in
this specimen.
The uncut specimen from W-72c has a length of 2.76 mm.,
a width of 1.5 mm. and a height of 1.7 mm. Anastomosing
costae with widths from 60 to 80 / are present.
The specimens from the Jacksonville wells (type speci-
mens) apparently have a smaller central chamber, at least,
in those examined to date. Many specimens from the Jack-
sonville wells have a greater size than any recovered from W-
19 or W-440. But, in no other significant manner do the
three lots of specimens differ. Therefore, they are all assigned
to the same species.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
at a depth of 1757-1768 feet; abundant at a depth of 1789-
1799 feet.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene, Lisbon formation.

Family CAMERINIDAE
Subfamily CAMERININAE
Genus CAMERINA Brugi&re, 1792
Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna
Plate 13, Figures 3-6
1935. Camterina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna, Jour. Pal., vol. 9, No. 4,
p. 331, pl. 29, figs. 1-5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14.
1939. Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna. Barker, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., vol. 86, No. 3052, p. 324, pl. 13, fig. 6; pl. 20, fig. 8; pl. 22,
fig. 9.
1942. Camerina jacksoncnsis Gravell and Hanna. Cole, Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 20, pp. 26, 27, pl. 8, figs. 3-5.
Test small, lenticular, some specimens with a very nr.rrow
flange, others without this feature, completely involute; sur-
face ornamentation consists of a group of beads of clear shell
material. The beads have a diameter of about 100 u and are
raised above the surface of the test. These beads are radially
arranged from the apex of the test and normally do not occur
on the flange.
The septa are oblique and gently recurved at their distal
ends. Transverse sections show a strongly developed axial


101





102 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

plug which has a surface diameter of 140 to 200 g. On cer-
tain transverse sections the surface beads may be observed
projecting above and penetrating into the shell wall (figure
5, plate 13).
Measurements of two transverse and one median section
follow:
Height - 1.96+ mm. 1.46 mm. 1.84 mm.
Width -- ----- -.1.6 mm.
Thickness - 0.72 mmi. 0.56 mm.
Number of whorls -.. 3
Number of chambers
in the last evolution 2 1 21
Internal diameter of
the initial chamber 30 p 80I p 80 a
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
at a depth of 1015-1016 feet.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

Canmrina moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna
Plate 13, Figures 2, 7-9, 12
1935. Cnamerina m oodybratnchensis Gravell and Hanna, Jour. Pal., vol. 9,
No. 4, p. 332, pl. 29, figs. 15, 22-24.
1939. Caiemripa moodybrancrlnsis Gravell and Hanna. Barker, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 86, No. 3052, pp. 323, 324, pl. 13, fig. 5; pl. 20,
fig. 2; pl. 22, fig. 2.
1941. Cartmrina .moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna. Cole, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 19, p. 28, pl. 9, fig. 9; pl. 11, figs. 9-15.
1942. Camrerina mtoodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna. Cole, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 20, p. 27, pl. 8, figs. 6-8.
Test small, completely involute, lenticular in cross section
with a rather sharp periphery. Uneroded specimens are with-
out ornamentation except for a mass of clear shell material
over the poles. Slightly eroded specimens show raised septa
which are straight and radial from the central boss. The di-
mension of the four uncut specimens illustrated on plate 13,
figure 2 follow:
Height - 1.7 mm. 1.5 mm. 1.7m. 1.7 m mm.
Width - 1.5 mm. 1.3 mm. 1.5 mm. 1.7 mm.
Thickness 1.0 mm. 0.8 mm. 0.8 mm. 1.0 mm.
Median sections show the tight coiling with very gradual
expansion of the whorls. The septa are oblique and are very





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS


slightly recurved at their distal ends. Transverse sections
show a very prominent wedge-shaped plug of darker material
on each side of the initial chambers. The distal end of this
mass of shell material forms the polar boss observed on the
exterior of the test. The dimensions of four thin sections
follow:
TABLE 6
Measurements of Camterina oodybranchensis

TRANSVIIRSE SECTIONS MEDIAN SECTIONS

Height 1.8+ mm. 1.9+- mm. 1.54 mm. 1.6 mm.

Width 1.6 mm. 1.56 mm.

Thickness 0.84 mm. 0.84 mm. -

Number of whorls 4 4

Number of chambers in
the final evolution 19 20
Internal diameter of
the initial chamber 80 L 60 L 70 / 60 j
Thickness of the outer
wall of the test 60-100l 40-100 i 100 I 60-80
Surface diameter 300 300340 -
of axial plug

First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)
at a depth of 945-955 feet.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt)
Plate 13, Figure 1; Plate 1;, Figures 11, 12
1932. Nunmnlifes vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt, Kon. Akad. Wet-
ensch. Amsterdam Proc., vol. 3 p. 240, pl. 1, fig. 8; pl. 2, figs. 6, 12.
1939. Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Barker, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 86, No. 3052, pp. 322, 323, pl. 13, fig. 7; pl. 18,
fig. 3; pl. 22, figs. 10-12.
1941. Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Cole, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 19, pp. 28, 29, pl. 8, figs. 2-10.


103