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Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida, with a discussion of the ground water ( FGS: Bulletin 27 )
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 Material Information
Title: Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida, with a discussion of the ground water ( FGS: Bulletin 27 )
Series Title: Geological bulletin (Tallahassee, Fla.)
Physical Description: 119 p. : incl. illus., tables, plates (part fold.) maps (5 fold. in pocket) diagrs. ; 24 c.m. .
Language: English
Creator: Parker, Garald G ( Garald Gordon ), 1905-
Cooke, C. Wythe ( Charles Wythe ), b. 1887 ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida Geological Survey
Dade County (Fla.)
Miami (Fla.)
Miami Beach (Fla.)
Coral Gables (Fla.)
Publisher: Published for the Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1944
Copyright Date: 1944
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Geology, Stratigraphic -- Cenozoic   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological survey, Dade county, and the cities of Miami, Miami Beach, and Coral Gables."
General Note: "References": p. 113-115.
Statement of Responsibility: by Garald G. Parker and C. Wythe Cooke.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 002037003
oclc - 01397917
notis - AKM4764
lccn - gs 44000154
System ID: UF00000455:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    List of Illustrations
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Abstract
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Main
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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        Page 113
        Page 114
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    Index
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
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Full Text

STATE
DEPARTMENT


FLORIDA


RICE,


HERMAN GUNTI


OF
OF


GEOLOGICAL


Supervisor
ER, Director


SURVEY


Conservation


, Geological Survey


GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN


LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA,


WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE GROUND


WATER


GARALD G.


PARKER AND C.


WYTHE


COOKE


UNITED STATES


GEOLOGICAL


URVEY


Prepared


United


States


Geological


Survey


cooperation


with


Florida


Geological


Survey,


Dade


County,


and the Cities


Miami


Miami Beach and Coral Gables


PUBLISHED


FOR


rn r


FLORIDA
CONSERVATION


-^J


n" r^











Manuscript received March 4, 1944


Published, September


1, 1944






LETTER


OF TRANSMITTAL


Honorable S.


Rice, Supervisor,


Florida State Board of Conservation.

Sir:


I have the honor to


Geology
Water"


States


Southern


Garald


Geological


transmit a


Florida
Parker


Survey,


report


With


and


entitled


"Late


Discussion


Wythe


published


Cooke


Geological


Cenozoic
Ground
e United
Bulletin


11 connection
southeastern


with


a detailed


Florida


investigation


United


States


water resources


Geological


Survey


cooperation with Dade County and the Cities of Miami, Miami Beach,


and


Coral


Gables an


excellent opportunity


presented


itself


to study


the geology of that region.


This was done by Garald G.


the progress of the water supply studies.


Cooke,


Parker during


who has studied


the geology of Florida for many years, accompanied Mr.


Parker in the


field for three


weeks.


This report is


an outstanding


contribution


our knowledge of the geology of


southern Florida.


It is replete with


photographs, graphs, and cross sections illustrating the succession and


thickness of the formations of


to unravel


the complicated and


region.


This report will


difficult geology


that area.


much
Com-


ing as it does at this time when there is much interest in the geology
of Florida I feel certain that it will receive an enthusiastic reception.


The


Florida


Geological
It comes to


Geological


Survey


Survey


is indebted


opportunity


Florida Survey without


to the


publishing


cost other than


United


this
that


States
report.


pub-


fishing.


Respectfully


submitted,


HERMAN


GUNTER,


Director





CO


NTENTS


Page


Abstract

Introducti

Previb

Presei


011 ............

)us investigations

nt investigation


. ...... ........ ... ... ......... ...... .... ... ..


* . .*S ...... *. S....... *....................S... ...
* C ** ** S C* ** S S *SO 5S *C S S .. .5 5. .

*a ** ** SO * 50 5 50 C a S


Acknowledgments


Floridian


Plateau


....... ... . ............................... . 1


Late Cenozoic history


Pliocene


Pleistocene


Recent


Solution


General features


Sink-hole lakes


Drainage


Arch


29


.. .C. S SSS.. S...CS. .S C.. C.. S .. .. ... .S. . . . 35


Creek


Topographic-ecologic


divisions


. ... ... .. .. .. .. .. . . . . 38


The Sandy Flatlands


General


. ... .. .. .. .. ... ........ .. .... . .. . ..... . .. .. 3


features


Okaloacoochee Slough and Devil's


Garden.


Allapattah and Loxahatchee Marshes...


...............O*....*....

.. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ..S S * S


Sandy flatlands

Lake Trafford


south


of Loxahatchee Marsh


The Big Cypress Swamp


General


features


Everglades


General


features


. .. .. .. . .. ....... ....... .....





CONTENTS-Continued


Page


Topographic divisions-Continued


The Atlantic Coastal Ridge


General


features


Origin of the Coastal Ridge and the Transverse Glades


. . .. . .. 5


"Bottomless holes" in New


River


. . . . .. .. .. . 5


Coastal marshes


mangrove


swamps


S. .. .. .. . ........ . ... 5


rocks


Caloosahatchee marl


Historical summary

Development .....


S.. . .. . .. . ... . . . 56


5
...... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...... ....


* C ....... .. .. .................. ........ ..

................................ S SC SSS CSC. ..S......C ......*


Water-bearing characteristics


Buckingham marl


Historical


summary


Age and development


Water-bearing

Tamiami formation


Historical


. ............ .. . . . . . ...... 6


characteristics.


summary


*.C .. ...S . ..C. .S. ...C..S..C.C...*.S.. ...C. .S. ... . ..*.C.S. .S S C

S. C....C ..... CCS..... ....SS.. ..C.......S*...... ....C..C..S.S S


Development


Water-bearing characteristics


Pleistocene rocks


Anastasia


formation


Historical summary


Development

Water-bearing


characteristics


Largo


limestone


. .. . . . ... . . . . .... . .. 6


Historical summary


Development


Water-bearing characteristics


Miami


oolite


Historical summary


U nI


Pliocene


Im


I





CONTENTS--Continued



Pleistocene rocks-Continued


Page


Pamlico formation


Historical summary


Development

Water-bearing


characteristics


Talbot and Penholoway

Historical summary


formation:


S . ....... .. ... . .... ..
s *. * 0 * m ......... .... .... .... .... ....


... .... 75


Development


Water-bearing characteristics


Correlation studies


General


statement


Sections on and near Caloosahatchee River


Correlation


of Fort


Thompson


formation


. .......... .................. 9


Correlation of formations by means of exploratory test well data


General

Section

Section


statement


A-A'

B.B'


.. .. .S. . S S S96


S. . . 106


Summary

References


Index





ILLUSTRA


NS


FIGURES


Page


Generalized NNW-SSE geologic cross


section from


vicinity


Ocala to


Florida


City, Florida


. ... .. .. 1


Map showing contours on the floor of Deep Lake


Map


showing contours on the floor of Lake Okeechobee


Geologic cross


section at Station 3


. . . . . .
. . .. .. ..


, type localit


Thompson


formation


PLATES


Page


. Map of Floridian Plateau


showing co


tours on0


ocean


ttom


and area covered by this
Tentative correlation chart


report


of formations in


southern Florida


Hypsometric


map


southern


Florida


showing


approximate


distribution of Pleistocene terraces


and shore


lines..


Pocke


Recent and latb
in southern
Solution effects


Pleistocene wave-cut


benches and(


notches


Florida


in limestone in southern Florida


Deep Lake and Still Lake, Pleistocene sink holes


. Arch


Creek natural bridge and Hillsborough


Lakes


Mars


Everglades


Topographic.Ecologic


southern


Florida


In Pocket


Views of


the Sandy


Flatlands and


s Garden.


Views in the


Big Cypress Swamp.


Views in the Everglades


Map showing contours on the rock floor of the Everglades


Map of the Everglades


Drainage


District


showing


directions


surficial


drainage


Surficial deposits of


southern


Florida


exclusive of


organic soils


Pocket


Geologic map of


southern


Florida


exclusive


surficia


sands


Pocket


Sections


of Pleistocene and


Pliocene rocks expo


sed alone






ILLUSTRATIONS -Continued


PLATES


Page


Map of


stations


along the Caloosnhatchee River used


geologic


section C-C'


Geologic


section along the Caloosahatchee River, C-C'.


Map


southern


Florida


showing


location


geologic


cross


sections


certain


test wells


Pocket


Geologic


section from Lake Okeechobee to Miami Spr


Geologic section along


Tamiami Trail from Monroe-Dade County


to Miami,


B .B .......................











































































































































































































































































































































I
























k





ABSTRACT


Southern


Florida


gives


evidence


repeated


oscillations


sea leve


little


structural


Caloosahatchee


deformation.


marl,


Caloosahatchee consists


e Buckingham
predominantly


oldest
marl


sand


outcropping


formations


re Tamiami
shell marl:


formation.


Buckingham


of calcareous clay with phosphate grains


and the Tamiam


of calcareous


sandstone


sandy


limestone with beds and


pockets


quartz


sand.


Well


records


show


the Caloosahatchee


marl


Tamianmi


formation


interfinger


essentially


contemporaneous,


though


outcropping


tongue


Tamiami


overlies
merges


overlying


faces


represented


the Caloosahatchee.


These


Pleistocene formations


Caloo


sahatchee.


Pliocene


formations


an erosional


Buckingham
are separated


unconformity


which


marl
from
indi-


cates that they were above sea


level


during


middle and


Pliocene


time


earliest


(Nebraskan


stage)


Pleistocene time.


They


have been


very


slightly


tilted toward the west at the time of their emergence.


Fort


Thompson


formation


(including


Coffee


Hammock


marl


member at the top)


consists of three thin marine shell beds separated


from


another by two fresh-water limestones


or marls, each of


the younger beds


filling


solution


feet.


holes in


marine


the older.


beds


The total


thickness


interpreted


at the


deposits


type


formed


locality


during


is about 8
Aftonian


Yarmouth, and Sangamon interglacial stages,


when the region was flooded b


sea to depths apparently


as great


as 270


100 feet.


solution


holes


the fresh-water


Kansan and Illinoian


limestones


glacial


stages,


marls
when


apparently


were


sea temporarily


formed


withdrew


coIln


siderable distances


below its present level.


Anastasia


formation


(predominantly


sand(


shells


Largo


limestone


extinct


coral


reef)


Miami


oolite


are contemporaneous


Pleistocene formations


which apparently accumulated on and along the southeastern


coast mainly during the Sangamon interglacial stage and therefore are equivalent


to only part of the Fort Thompson formation developed in the Everglades


and the


Caloosahatchee


River area.


Penholoway


Talbot


formations


which


coast


terrace


shore currents


deposits,


during


consist


sand


middle and


swept


down


parts


from


same


north


interglacial


long-
stage.


A thin sheet of sand


, the Pamlico formation,


was spread over part


of the


shallow


sea floor during a mid-Wisconsin invasion by the


sea.


. nIon P1- nr ntn I l rlt.nn.,-, il.nnn e- tn t c


are


one


tn tr ot im t a-l ttll^L-lACODCc


J-kll


T'l^- II nn,, I ,,1rtfr< nn


Jt- "





west.


northern


lowest


basin


is niow


occupied


Lake


Okeechobee, which,
southward across th


before drainage and diking operations


ie open Everglades more or less as


changed it, overflowed


a sheet flow that imposed


an aligned drainage pattern on the organic deposits of the Everglades.

Tests made in ground water investigations of the Miami area indicate that the


Tamiami formation is among the most productive


water bearing formations ever


investigated


Geological


Survey.


coefficient


permeability


about 3


which indicates


that through


a section of the formation a mile wide


and a foot thick 35,000 gallons


of water a day, at 60F,


would pass through under


a hydraulic


gradient


one foot.


Large areas


considered


of salty


to be


ground


remnants


water in1


sea water


the northern part


during


Pleistocene


Everglades are
sea invasions


and now altered by


dilution with fresh


water and by


chemical reaction


s, mainly


the base-exchange variety,


with the enclosing rocks.




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


URVEY


BULLETIN


PLATE


PLATE


1-Map


Floridian


Plateau


area covered by this report.


showing


contours


ocean


bottom






















































































































































t




LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


OF


SOUTHERN FLORIDA

with a


DISCUSSION


GARALD


THE


PARKER AND


GROUND


WYTHE


WATER


COOKE-"


INTRODUCTION

Previous investigations-Interest in the geology of southern Florida


began
about


in the


first


region


half


was


nineteenth


confined


many


century


years


information


what


could


learned by making boat traverses along the coastal waters.


The interior


remained inaccessible.


The


first notable speculation


and geologic history was that of Louis Agassiz


(1852)


as to its origin
later modified


and


given


wider


circulation


in Joseph


LeConte's


(1878)


"Elements


Geology.
latitude


These


had


writers supposed


been


built


that


peninsular


successive


Florida


growths


south
coral


reefs on a sea bottom 12 to 20 fathoms deep, and that the waves and


winds


had


heaped


detritus


upon


reefs


a height


few feet above sea level.


They


assumed that Florida has now


ceased


to grow southward because the depth limit at which corals can grow


and flourish has been reached by the advancing reefs.


Later informa-


tion about the composition of the interior amply disproves this theory.


Angelo


Heilprin


(1887)


was


first


geologist


describe


interior of


southern Florida.


He explored


Caloosahatchee


River


in 1886 and recognized the Pliocene age of the shell beds in its banks.


These


beds


richest


collecting


ground


Pliocene


fossils


the United States.


"observations


failed to


bring forward


a single


fact


confirmatory


coral-reef


theory


formation


peninsula
LeConte"


such


a,3 had


(Heilprin,


been


advocated


1887, p.


. Dall


* Louis
(1887)


Agassiz
visited


and


Prof


region


about the same time and confirmed the Pliocene age of the


"Caloosa-





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


Alexander


Agassiz


(1895,


1896)


examined


coastal


outcrops


formation now


posit is of


known


aeolian


as the


origin.


Miami


Griswold


oolite
(1896)


and


decided


examined


that the


oolite


only


at the shore but also at


inland outcrops


and rejected


Alexander


Agassiz


's theory.


The keen observations of


amuel Sanford,


while acting


as geologist


Key


West


extension


Florida


East


Coast


Railway


1907


and


1908,


brought


to light


many new facts


contradicting


Louis


Agassiz


speculation.


paper


on "The


Topography


and


Geology


of Southern Florida


(Sanford,


1909)


presents an excellent summary


the physical features of


that region.


same


volume


Matson


and


Clapp


(1909,


123-128)


wrote


first formal


description


Caloosahatchee


marl.


The cutting of


drainage canals across


Everglades gave Sellards


1919)


first


opportunity to


compile


a geologic


section


from


Gulf


Mexico


Atlantic


Ocean.


described


several


new


Pleistocene


and Recent formations.


Descriptions


geologic


formation


southern


Florida


were


included in Cooke and Mossom


(1929)


"Geology


of Florida.


" They


were


first


geologists


Highway


mapped


area


The


cross
map


of Pliocene


state


along


accompanying


rocks


their


far south


Tamliami


report


formerly
9


Trail


extends
known


limit.


Richards


(1938)


made


a study


Pleistocene


stratigraphy


Florida and suggested a correlation of


certain formations and terraces.


Mansfield


(1939)


aided by


MacNeil, made a


correlation


posits


along


Caloosahatchee


River.


However,


MacNeil


(1942)


did not concur with Mansfield on the published description.


MacNeil'


correlation, especially


lower


argillaceous


beds,


is very


similar


to that of the present writers.


Cooke


(1939)


interpreted the


"Scenery


Florida


sea level


" in


and


light


Parker


(1942)


of individual beds in the Fort
glacial and interglacial stages.


long-known


first


noted


Pleistocene


possible


Thompson formation


with


oscillations
correlation
Pleistocene


PrPof n t


nI I-f" i' a l V i St fl i t III -me I a I-Iiii


S, St I- t. fl /


ifltW, tfi rtif j;v--Th 1i


f rn r]


+I.',,


***/^ *- /- **ft


J~r*-^J-




LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


to the Gulf


of Mexico.


The extensive studies in the Everglades have a


direct bearing


on the


water resources


problem


of Dade


County


and


the municipalities within


thus the study was extended


northward


as far as the north


end of Lake Okeechobee.


Acknowledgments-This


water-resources of


paper


southeastern


results


from


Florida


investigation


made


Geo-


logical


Survey


in cooperation


with


Florida


Geological


Survey,


Dade County, and the Cities of Miami,


Miami Beach and Coral Gables.


To the officials of these cooperating agencies we are grateful for serv


ices, help,


and data contributed.


We have profited by the advice and


encouragement of O.
Water Division of the


Meinzer,


Geologist in


Charge of


Geological Survey, and V


of that Survey, under whose supervision


both have critically reviewed


proJect


this paper.


the Ground
Stringfield,


was carried


Unklesbay


Geological


Geological


Survey,


Survey,


and


Herman


John


Gunter,


Davis,


Director


that


Survey,


Florida
we are


especially grateful for helpful advice and for critically reviewing both
the manuscript and the interpretations of the geology in the field. In


addition,


library,


andl


SFlorida
museum


Geological


facilities


Survey


contributed


Tallahassee.


are


laboratory,


grateful


Harold T. Stearns for


his review


the Pleistocene


historical section


and helpful ideas and criticism.


Julia


Gardner


and


Richards


identified


fossil


mollusks,


. Cushman


Henbest


and


Storrs


Cole


identified


foraminifers, and Remington Kellogg identified tile cetaceans.


Water


samples were analyzed under the supervision of S. K.


Love.


Acknowl-


edgments


due


Nevin


Hoy


assistance


in field


and


laboratory


and


to Russell


Brown,


under


whose


direction


line of


test


wells


was


drilled


through


Everglades


and


who,


with


Goddard


sounded both


, aided in contouring Deep


Still


Lake


and


Salt Spring.


Lake.


The


Carlton
drawings


Lingham


were


made


by Ross A.


Ellwood and Robert


Hardin.


We are particularly indebted to C. K
both of the Soil Conservation Service,


;ay Davis and John C.


who made


Stephens,


possible and helped


the drilling of 15 exploratory


wells


in remote


heretofore


painstaking




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


was accompanied in the field for three


weeks by Cooke,


who


worked for many years on the geology of the Coastal Plain and who
has long been a student of the Pleistocene oscillations of sea level.

FLORIDIAN PLATEAU

The peninsula of Florida is the emerged part of a much wider pro-


jection f
Vaughan


:rom


continental


mass


(1910) the Floridian Plateau


North
(Plate 1)


America


named


. The Plateau sepa-


rates the deep water of the Atlantic Ocean from the deeper parts of


the Gulf of Mexico.


Its core is probably composed of metamorphic


and igneous rocks like those underlying the Piedmont region of the
Eastern States (Mossom. 1926; Campbell, 1939a), of which it seems


to be the southern extension.


The steep submarilie slopes that bound


it on the east, south, and west presumably represent fault scarps or


monoclinal folds


original


basement


complex,


though


their


outlines may have been modified by the accumulation of


sediments


upon them.


The core of the Floridian Plateau is overlain by a cover of


mentary formations that ranges in thickness from


sedi-


about 4,000 feet


in north-central Florida


(Marion County)


to more than 11,000 feet


in southern Florida,


where no


well has yet reached


basement


complex.


A deep well, drilled to a depth of 10,006 feet in the north-


eastern part of Monroe County about 50 miles west of Miami, began


in Pliocene calcareous sandstone (Tamiami formation)


and ended in


limestone and anhydrite supposed to


be Lower Cretaceous


(Camp-


bell, 1939b; Cole, 1941)


. Since that time two more wells have been


drilled to more than 11,000' in Collier Co., near Sunniland, Florida.
The first of these wells, drilled near the Sunniland railroad station


was 11,62
and has


deep


produce


(See Fla.
I oil in


C<


Geol. Surv. Bull. 26, pp. 162-163, 1943)
commercial quantities. The second well


about a mile west of the Sunniland railroad station is below


feet but has not been a producing well.


12,000


The rocks penetrated were


dominantly limestone. No sand or clay is reported below the Miocene
Hawthorn formation-an indication that southern Florida was long
remote from sources of elastic sediments.


/


,




LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


is less than the slope of


many


sea bottoms,


doubtless involves


some deformation.


A further hint at deformation is found in the asymmetrical


profile


the Floridian


Plateau


and


pattern


geologic


map


Florida


the eastern


(Sellards, 1919, pp.


part of


105-131


Plateau


Cooke and Mossom, 1929)


stands


above


level


Only


western


half
fore


slopes gently out beneath


plunges


to greater


waters of


depths.


This


Gulf


suggests


Mexico


that


Plateau


FIGURE 1-Generalized NNW-SSE Geologic cross section from vicinity of


Ocala to Florida City, Fla.


Greatly foreshortened.


been


between


This,


Plateau


canted


successive


however,


was


westward.


geologic


indicate


deeper


might


eroded


Moreover, t
formations


merely


than


trend


that


eastern


boundaries


beneath
western


while


Gulf.


side


sea


stood


lower


on the


land


than


now


The


sloping


surface


Plateau


--- --n -^ --- i-A -- --- _- - *-. A


p








FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN 27.


PLATE


TENTATIVE


CORRELATION


FORMATIONS


SOUTHERN


FLORIDA


PLIOCENE


TO RECENT)


GARALD


G PARKER


a C WYTHE


COOKE


'1


IZ




;Iz


W ,z
h s

i
1,I;


Wi'I
S1-
o

i >
5





Or
in






61
z
I




IL
.4



z
4


en
C
UJ
m
z


COASTAL
TERRACES


NOTE TERkACES ABOVE'
THE PENHOLOWAY ARE


PRESENT


AREA COVERED


IN THE
SBY THIS


REPORT BUT OCCUR TO
THE NORTH AS FAR AS


NEW JERSEY.


PAMLICO


LEVEL


+ 25 FEET


SOUTHWESTERN
COAST


SOLUTION AND EROSION.


FORMATION


RIDGES
MARL,
SOILS


OF BEACH


OYSTER


MUCK,


SOLUTION AND


EROSION


DUNES


PAMLICO


FORMATION


AND EROSION


CALOOSAHATCHEE
RIVER AREA


SOLUTION


SAND BARS AND OLD


CHANNEL


FILLS


TINUED DEPOSITION OF
LAKE FLIRT MARL AND
ORGANIC SOILS.


SOLUTION AND EROSION
RIVER CUTS AND FILL
LAKE FLIRT MARL


BED 8,


STA 325


PAMLICO FORMATION
BED 7. STA 325


EVERGLADES
TAMIAMI TRAIL
AREA

SOLUTION AND EROSION.
LAKE FLIRT MARL.


FORMATION


OF ORGANIC


SOILS:
PEAT AND MUCK


SOLUTION AND EROSION
LAKE FLIRT MARL


PAMLICO
(LOCALLY


FORMATION
PRESENT)


SOUTHEASTERN
COAST


SOLUTION AND EROSION.
FORMATION OF BEACH
RIDGES. LAKE FLIRT MARL.


MUCK, GROWTH OF


ER CORAL


REEF.


SOLUTION AND


LAKE


FLIRT MARL


DUNES


PAMLICO


FORMATION


z SOLUTION AND EROSION. SOLUTION AND EROSION SOLUTION AND EROSION SOLUTION AND EROSION
DUNES BLACK CARBONACEOUS DEEP CUTS IN MIAMI
SAND (IN PART). OOLITE


TALBOT


SEA LEVEL


+ 42 FEET


PENHOLOWAY
SEA LEVEL + 70 FEET
WICOMICO


LEVEL


ANASTASIA
AND TERRA


SOLUTION


SUNDERLAND
SEA LEVEL t 170 FEET ANASTASIA
COHARIE FORM ACTION
SEA LEVEL t 215 FEET



SOLUTION AND EROSION


BRANDYWINE


SEA LEVEL


+ 270 FEET


MISSING


COFFEE MILL HAM-
MOCK MARL


(MARINE
BED 6, G


HIGHEST
WATER L
LEDGE M
TO SOFT


SHELLS)
STA 325


FRESH-


IMESTONE
ERGING IN
FRESH-


MIAMI OOLITE
AND


LOCAL
MARINE


SOLUTION


WATER MARL B
BEDS 5A & SB.


OCJ,TE


ANAST AS'

KEY LLRGC


SOLUT:ChN


MARINE SHELL MARL
"PECTEN HORIZON" MISSING UNDIFFERENTIATED
BEO 4 STA 325.

LOWEST FRESH-
WATEl MARL LOCAL-
LY INDURATED MAK- SOLUTION AND EROSION I SOLUTION AND EROSION
ING A SHELF
BED 3, STA. 325


MARINE SHELLS


LOCAL.


BED 2. STA 325


MISSING


UNDIFFERENTIATED


SOLUTION AND EROSION


TAMIAMI


LOOSAHATCHEE
ARL


IAMIAMI

FORMATION


0<


EPOCH:


AND EROSION


OUT-


EROSION


RMATION
SAND


+ 100 FEET


PATCHES
SHELLS


AND EROSION


AND EROSION


TAMIAMI


CA
MJ




LATE

LATE


CENOZOIC

CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY

HISTORY


Inasmuch as the development of the surface and subsurface features


southern


Florida


was


profoundly


influenced


relations


land and sea


during late


Cenozoic time, it seems


desirable


to sketch


history


Floridian


Plateau


during


that


epoch


before


mining
Florida.


in more


Such


interpretation


detail


a general
f specific


topography


resumln


should


and


make


features.


geology


more


southern


intelligible


tentative


correlation


chart.


Pliocene-During


were


early


submerged,


Pliocene


time


west-central


southern


Florida


and


eastern


remained


Flor-
land.


The shore
to Sebring,


and


line


probably


thence


northwestward


formation


(Sellards,


circled


extended
1 westwar


across
1914,


southward
d through


Gulf


161.162)


through
Arcadia


to Tallahassee.


and


Bone


Lake
and
The


Valley


County
Sarasota
Alachua


gravel


(Sellards, 1915, pp.


-44)


both of which enclose early


Pliocene land


animals


deltas


(Simpson,


while


1928,


shell


marl


257),
beds,


accumulated


sandy


on the


limestone


and


land


and


calcareous


clay of the Caloosahatchee and Buckingham


marls and the


Tamiami


formation


were


being


deposited


sea.


The


The


late


Pliocene


was1


time


widespread


crustal


instability


Atlantic seaboard and other large areas in North America


were


variously warped


and


tilted.


was


probably then


that


Coastal


Plain north


Cape Hatteras was strongly


downwarped


towards


cast.


The


previously


northern
a plateau


and


eastern


about


extremities


thousand


feet


Coastal


high


crossed


Plain,
deep


gorges,


was completely submerged,


and its gorges became


submarine


canyons
more of
the west


(Cooke,


1930a, p. 589


Floridian


Plateau


1930b, pp.


emerged,


392-393)


was


probably


During this time


tilted


toward


, and was actively eroded.


Pleistocene-During


Pleistocene


epoch


Atlantic


seaboard


south
level


glaciated


areas


repeatedly


remained


and


relatively


rose


upon


stationary,
t responsive


to the


-t


---i-- _- -- 1 -. 1


ex-


1


'ql i


I


',It


1





FLORIDA


and marshes occupiedC


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN


Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression.


These five stages appl, ear to corresl)ond


to the


and Illinoian glacial stages, and to two sub-stages of


Iowan


(early


Wisconsin i


and tilhe


Post


Iowan


(late


Nebraskan, Kansan,


Wisconsin:
Wisconsin)


ICooke. 1935, p. 333)


. In the glaciated regions they are represented


by glacial drift, moraines, and other ice-borne and water-borne debris.


Florida


they


are


indicated


erosion


surfaces,


solution


holes.


soil zones. and fresh-water limestones and marl (Parker, 1942; Parker
and Hov. 1943).


Between each of


these major low-water stages came a mIajor stage


of high water. during which the sea stood upon the present land (see


Plate 3


These four major high-water stages appear to correspond to


Aftonian.


Yarmouth, and Sangamon interglacial stages and to a


Post-Iowan retreat of the Wisconsin ice referred to hv Cooke (1935. p.


333:


1943


, p.


1714)


"Peorian


interglacial


sub-st age"


Evi-


dence for these times of


deglaciation is yielded by deeply weathered


soil zones and by erosion within the glaciated regions and by


iment arv


deposits and shore-line


features


within


areas


sedi-


invaded


hv the sea.


The


location of


the former shore lines is indicated


beach ridges, dunes, the nip of the sea or wave-cut benches in sea-


cliffs, or by a change in slope.

Although only four intervals


(See Plates 4 and 18).

of deglaciation in the northern States


here cited at


least


seven


high-level shore


lines in1


southeastern


united States had been detected


Cooke, 1931) prior to the present in-


vestigation. Since then one more has been found.


The extra three or


more appear to record intermediate levels between the highest flood
of the interglacial sea and the lowest of tile succeeding glacial stage.
They may represent causes in the growing of the ice sheets or, possi-


blly. inactive periods in the intermittent enlargemnen


of the oceanic


1)asins.


The eight shore lines,


which still remain horizontal in tile south-


eastern states, stand at altitudes of approximately 270, 215, 170, 100,


, 25, and 5 feet above


present sea


level.


They form


inland boundaries of marine terraces (emerged sea bottoms)


naImed


are






LATIEk CENOZOI( (GEOIO(Y 23



RECENT AND LATE PLEISTO(:ENE WAVE.ClJT BENCHES
AND NOTCHES IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA


mi














-- -f -- *
vfr
m 5- .~~~r~--
I 9s
$a~~l~


d '~3.
10 '
i~r~~ A









~~B;d~s m ~r~a~\as ~ ~,Jj~j/PS~G~;=~E~~T~~r~f~BfJL
r~s'
rv - r .


aF


PLATE 4

FIGUIRE a--Vave-cut bench a(d notch developed inl the Key Largo lime-




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


boundaries of


the terraces as shown


on the hypsometric


map


in pocket)


and


except as they have been modified by subsequent erosion


solution.


Stearns


(1942),


Hawaiian


Islands,


records


high-level


Pleistocene


+70),


shore


and


Kaena


which


(+100oo)


Waimanalo


correspond


exactly


(+25),
to the


Laic


Panilico


Penholoway


and


Wicomico


shorelines.


teams


also


records


Kapapa, a wave-cut bench at +5 feet.


bench


likewise


5 feet


present at


above


Silver


level


Bluff


here


Miami,


and


named
I there


Miami


also


a wave-


cut notch at


+8 feet


(Plate 4)


. The Miami bench is traceable north-


ward from Miami toward Fort Lauderdale where


the highway


follows


feet


and


cut as the sea


closely


head


along


it for


wave-cut


withdrew


several
bench a


miles.


during latest Pamlico


The


feet


time.


notch


may
Both


have
may


been
have


been


developed


simultaneously,


8-foot


notch


storm


waves


anid


wave-cut


bench


may record separate


halting


tide


and


stands of


normal
the sea.


wave


action


or both


These features are preserved in southeastern Florida because of


ing developed in consolidated rocks.


Such features are not preserved


along


a sandy


ridges si
Counties


shore;


irmounted
were sue


however, it


dunes


cessively


is entirely


in Palm


Beach,


possible


Martin


built


that
and


withdrew


beach


St. Lucic
from its


8-foot and later 5-foot stands, but the difficulty of


establishing former


mean


sea


blown sand
-pretation.


level


at the base of


or obliterated


these old


by slump,


ridges,


is too


since


great


filled


prove


this


wind-
inter-


Nebraskan


tinmele


sea


withdrew


from


land


area


and


long interval of solution and erosion ensued.


There are no recognized


terrestrial


deposits


in southern


Florida


that


mark


this


interval


unconformity


between


Pliocene


and


later


Pleistocene


deposits


is quite


marked.


Brandywine


time


(Aftonian


interglacial


stage


nearly


Florida


was


"I _: 1 -


beneath


(Cooke,


1


1939,


1


and


much


a


m.


*1 *uIalul n E n |fl n" 0 flf lU. t h .fr nc wa n n nad n Jl t *L* S r I * *..


..~L ,,,,


-I


I


__ _





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


Florida


was occupied by


lakes andl
I


lllmarshes,


in which


thin


sheets of


marl


and


limestone


containing


fresh-water


shells


were


deposited.


Much of this deposit was probably removed


sea


(Yarmouth


interglacial


stage)


during the next invasion


which


stopped


first


height


land epoch)


feet


(during


receded to


Coharie


epoch)


and


later


170 feet above the present sea level.


(Sunder-
Sources


sediment


were


again


remote,


and


only


a thin


marine


shell


narl


and


calcareous


sandstone


Fort


Thompson


formation


ferred


tloni


to these epoch


they were once


partly removed them before


next


thicker,
deposit


erosion
was laid


and solu-


down.


Another


bed


fresh-water


marl


and


limestone,


in places


4 feet


thick,
stage.


was probably


These


deposited during the succeeding


fresh-water


beds


very


Illinoian glacial


conspicuous


along


Caloosahatchee


River


from


Fort


Thompson


eastward


Lake


Flirt.


When the sea next invaded southern


interglacial stage


present


lands


level,


and


Peninsula,


(Wicomico time)


a long


remained


narrow
above


Florida


during the


it reached only


peninsula,


water


here


in the


100 feet
named


adjoining


angainon
above its


High-


Highlands


County


. This


peninsula


was


attached


to the


mainland


at the


north


near


Avon Park,


and


Penholoway time


when


Highlands


water fell
Peninsula


to 70 feet


was only


above


sightly


sea level
enlarged.


However,
separated


broa d


from


area


south


Highlands


mainland


Peninsula


became


a narrow


gulf


nowV


land


oc-


cupied by the headwaters of Fisheating Creek.


The further


lowering


sea level to 42 feet in


Talbot time expanded the


land surface


into


Glades and


Charlotte Counties


(Cooke


1939, figs.


13-15)


During


glacial


part


this


stage)


southern


constituting


Wicomico-Penholoway-Talbot


oolite
while


was


; Miami
Florida


Anastasia


tunle


deposited


sandy


formation


were


(Sangamon


inter-


southeastern


limestone


and


shell


accumulating


beds
along


East


Coast north


Broward


County.


same


tunlllle,


multi-


tudes of the little clam Chione cancellata and numerous other marine


mollusks.


whose shells comniose the Coffee Mill Hammock marl merm-


are


|




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


oolite


became


deeply


pitted


solution


holes.


Sand


worked


southward along the shores, and bars and


dunes


were built in many


places.


Rise of


the sea


to the 25-foot level in Palmlico


southern Florida again


(Cooke,


1939, fig.


time flooded


. Most of the


much
region


north
island


Caloosahatchee


here


River


called Immokalee


was


land,


Island,


and


extended


south


river


beyond


Innnokalee.


A peninsula terminating south of Indiantown partly enclosed the site


Lake


During


Okeechobee,


Pamllico


time


which


was


(probably


open


relatively


short


duration)


south.
long-


shore


currents brought


sand


from


north


and


distributed


over


the Anastasia formation and


uneven surface of


Miamii


oolite


as far


south


as Miami.


The


channels


across


oolite


were


choked


with sand.
post-Iowan


Here and


sea


and


there


was


the sand


built


bar reached


into


dunes.


surface o
interior,


this
sand


covers


some


northern


part


Big


Cypress


Swamp,


it has only


Late


a slight


Wisconsin


extent into


time


was


he Everglades.
comply aratively


short


duration.


The


sea receded slowly


193'3)


25 feet or more


and as it did so left a series


below present sea level
of parallel beach ridges


and


bars


in parts of


southern Florida


east


coast,


beach


(Plate
ridges


13).
nIow


surmounted


dunes


were


built


prominently


Martin


Lucie


and


Palm


Beach


Counties.


west


coast


sand


was


carried


southward


beyond


town


Everglades,


and


dunes


were


built


there


and


at Marco.


The


dunes


near


Everglades now


foundation for


some


wholly


Tenl


or partly
Thousand


submerged


Islands,


and


make


at least


one


the Marco dunes stands as


high as 52 feet above


present


sea level,


and


another is


almost as high.


During


this


interval


solution


limestone


was


resumed,


Lake


Flirt
were


marl


began


to be


partly re-excavated,


deposited,


some80111


sand-filled


and several short streams on


channels


the east coast


were formed.


On the west coast the Caloosahatchee


River and Peace


Creek


cleared channels that had


probably


been


cut long before,


and


many shorter streams came into


being.


Stear ,COO





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


lakes, the largest being Lake Okeechobee.


Saw-grass took root


where


water


was


not


deep,


and


its compacted


remains


make


much


of the


peat and muck


Everglades.


Widespread


deposits


of fresh-water marl


(Lake Flirt marl)


continued to accumulate where


conditions were suitable.


Part of


higher


lands west


Ever-


glades proved congenial to cypress trees and became the


Swamp.
merged
broken


Mangroves


into


invaded


Gulf.


shells were


shifted


tidal


Along


east


zone
and


southward


where


west


coasts


currents


and


Big Cypress
Everglades


sand
built


and


present beaches, and a


new coral reef began to fringe the


keys.


SOLUTION


General--A


stone


and


other


large


part


calcareous


southern
deposits,


Florida


an(d,


as the


underlain


surface


lime-


waters


are


highly


charged


with


organic acids,


solution


plays a


conspicuous


role


development


features


andl


dominant


over


abrasion.


The same was true in previous epochs.


At times in the past when the


Floridian


Plateau


stood


high


carved in it by running water,


above
which


deep


carried


little sand


gorges


were


to act as an


abrasive.


Rather,


surface


was


etched


waters


carrying


cor-


rosive


acids,


and


much


run-off


passed


downward


through


solution


holes into


caverns.


excellent


illustration


corrosive


effect


acid-charge


water was noted near the Big Cypress


Swamp 40 mile


west


of Miami


where the


Miami


oolite has been etched


to a


depth


almost


a foot


leaving a lacy surface network supported


lars


ually


that


crumble


proJects


under


above


water


foot.


The


level


y jagged


surface


is better


preserved


and
rock


uneven
. which


than


us-


sub-


surface.


Solution


passages


several


feet


deep


comnulon


area,


and some


extend


deeper


(Plate


5a).


Apparently


though


no original


existence


cavity


is needed


a ready-made


hole


to start
hastens


a solution


hole,


process.


has been suggested that many vertical solution holes


began to


be dis-


solved


along tap


roots,


and


possibly


some


originate


in this


fashion


I


1 1 'I.r -~rr


.~ ... - ar ** n -r a~~ SL -A~I a -. Ilnr a -Il---t ~- *


-. n- .ta n e a Cl


.1 "


1 t


1 *


r~~ln


I


i





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY--BULLETIN


SOLUTION


EFFECTS


LIMESTONE


SOUTHERN


FLORIDA


. 4. _.

=t ~


PLATE 5


FIGURE a-Effect of acidic
a place where


ground waters
the water table


011
is


limestoi
generally


ie (Miami oolite) in
Sa few inches below






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


large areas of southern Florida it is evident that at least one-fourth


the total volume of limestone, once


miiore or


less solid rock, is


now occupied by solution holes, generally filled


with sand.


Trees


blown over by hurricanes rip up rock with their roots, thus leaving


a new and localized


depression for concentration


surface


water


and the start of more active solution holes.


Adjacent holes enlarge,


coalesce, and become increasingly effective in draining surface water
under ground. Many solution depressions of this kind, some as much
as 150 feet in diameter, may be seen in the pineland and wet prairies
south of Miami.


In certain areas, such as near S.


12th Avenue and the


Trail in Miami, some apparently solid foundations occasionally give


way beneath buildings.


The area is one of very active solution and


erosion.


In such a


place


water may


be heard


trickling in


caverns


underground, and


rain


water vanishes


quickly


dowIn


these sub-


terranean courses, often taking along with it the soil and larger rock


particles from the surface.


Test wells have shown some of these un-


derground solution channels to be as much as 11 feet from roof


floor;


their


horizontal


extent,


however,


is unknown.


These


chan-


nels occur, in some places, within a few feet of the surface; the largest


one noted at shallow


depths occurs between


10 and 21 feet


below


land


surface


and


was


penetratedI


exploratory


well


(G-189)


in the Silver Bluff area of Miami.


The effects of solution are. at times an aid and at other times a


hindrance in working out the stratigraphy in a limestone area.


For


example,


area


along


many


Caloosahatchee


the older


Pleistocene


River


deposits


have


Fort
been


Thomlpson
alhnost en-


tirely removed, but remnants still fill solution holes in a lower bed.


In this way the former presence of these deposits is proved.


Further,


a younger filled solution hole may partly penetrate an earlier filled


one,


thus defining three separate


deposits


unconformities


within a very


small


area.


Locally


an overlvingr


only


fills


vertical solution holes but also spreads out, filling a cavern below.


Close


scrutiny


is needed


to discern


actual


relationship.


Such


L .. . .. . .... . . . .. -... . . --1 ... __


Tamiami






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


DEEP


LAKE AND


STILL LAKE, PLEISTOCENE SINK HOLES


-I I C. *-
* C~
A;
-;t.~.-


!A























" !rt
,, ,.Z .gl~h~


PLATE 6


r... -- - U T_ *- C--. - .. .. .. - I. 1 nn .. ,, 4 .






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Frc. 2-Map showing contours on floor of Deep Lake.

are Deep Lake in Collier County, Rocky Lake in Hendry County, and


Still Lake in Lee County.


The other two, just outside the boundary


this report,


are Salt Spring


and


Little Salt


Spring


in Sarasota


County.


Most accessible of these is Deep Lake (Plate 6a)


in the Big Cypress


r.~~~~ - n rr. rn r





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


Still Lake lies about 16 miles east and slightly south of Fort


Soundings made in May


Myers.


1943 show that its general form is that


funnel, and that the


face,
face.
filled


which,


This


at that


depth


to about


greatest


time,


occurs


feet


depth


stood


is 208 feet


about


in a sort


with


soft


five


feet


elliptical


organic


ooze.


below


below the


drain


The


water
land


sur-
8ur-


or "chimney


diameters


drain


are


about


and


40 feet.


The


floor


lake


deepens


rather


uniformly


with


gradually


increasing


slope


about


feet,


then


drops


abruptly


drain


or "chimney


The


average


diameter of this lake is about 600 feet, and the area is approximately
6.5 acres.
Rocky Lake lies in the Big Cypress Swamp about 17/2 miles east of


Immokalee.


nearly


circular


and


average


diameter


about 840 feet


area


is about


12.7


acres.


The


depth


is unknown.


All three of these sinks contain


potable water, normal for the area


which


each


is found.


Salt


Spring,


in Sarasota


County,


is about


miles


northwest


Murdock, and Little Salt Spring i


Both springs yield


aline


waters.


1.9 miles northeast


The greatest


depth


of Salt Spring.
in Salt Spring,


when sounded


in October


1942,


was


feet.


surface


then


stood


about
cular:


3 feet


below the


level


land.


The


its average diameter is about 250 feet


spring


is almost


and its area is approxi-


mately
shore,


acres.


then


floor


slopes


drops abruptly to


gently


about


to about


feet


where


feet


from


a shoulder


30 feet in width slopes to a


depth of 50 or 60 feet,


then falls precipi-


tously to the bottom.


Apparently the deepest part of the sink is along


and


near


includes


southeastern


a brief


wall


description


. A


Salt


report
Spring


and


Stringfield
a chemical


(1933b )
analysis


a sample


water.


The


chloride


content


was


9550


ppm


time


sample


was


collected.


However,


Stringfield


states


that


composition


water may vary


with


rainfall


in view


fact that relatively large quantities of surface water may flow through
the spring in rainy seasons.


Little


Salt


Spring


been


sounded.


ahnost


circular,


1,1 ;d fnlat ntrtnrl +n b0 n ntr- tit In f l 0+ Vnl+ Qn4 n r I n a w f


lr ,L


vtrot n,.





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


It may be that the difference in salinity of


33

their waters accounts


for their names, or it may be due to the difference in their flows.


Areal size has nothing to do


with it since


they


are essentially


the same diameter.
Few chemical analyses of their waters have been made; however,


in January


1943, Capt. A.


DeWolf,


U. S. Army


Engineer Corps,


collected samples which were analyzed by K.


Brehmi of


the City


of Miami laboratory.


This analysis follows; for others see page 34.


Big Salt Spring
No. 1
(ppn)


Chloride (Cl)...
SIardness (Soap)


little Silt Spring


(ppm)


9,300


Sulfate SO4 (Gravimetric


) . ... .. . .


1,615


Alkalinity (CaC(


) . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .


011 CO3 IICOa3
0-0-125


OII COa IICOs
0-0-134


C olor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C olor ...............................


These salty springs flow


because


tesian aquifer (Hawthorn formation)


their


bottoms


penetrate


which has a piezonetric head


higher than the rim of


the spring.


Salty zones above the


artesian


aquifer, probably remnants of sea water trapped during Pleistocene
invasions of the sea, contaminate the artesian water as it rises to the


surface.


The water in the artesian aquifer is probably not much dif-


ferent from that supplied by the various shallow artesian


the vicinity.


wells in


This artesian water is hard, sulfurous, and only slightly


saline; only near the Gulf shore is it high in chloride


(Stringfield,


1933b, p. 222-7, and Table 2).

The occurrence of deep sink holes in southern Florida gives 1)re-


sumptive evidence of former stands of


the sea much lower than the


present, for it is not likely that such sinks could develop much below


-*. n 4- n e +a. 1. 1 a


1..... "I


* i* li I** 11 | It. I *v f ItII S& '.'* *ESI l tFUrl ItilO


1 ..1


<"I^ritirr nn -I- r]- /- nn j \**-j^w *I k ^J








ANALYSES


WATERS


FROM


BIG


AND


LITTLE


SALT


SPRINGS


Feb. 10

Aug. 4,

Aug. 11


,1927..

1930..

,1943.

, 1943.


Total
Dissolved
Solids


17,812

17,770

17,670

3,220


Silica
(SiO2)


Iron
(Fe)


0.07


Cal-
cium
(Ca)


766


Mag-
nes-
lum
(Mg)


Sodium
and
Potassium
(Na&K)a


5,124

5,288

5,250

779


Bicar-
bonate
(HCO.3)


Sul-
phate
(S04)


Chlo-
ride
(Cl)


9,350

9,550

9,450


Ni-
trate
(NO3)


Total
hard-
ness as
CaCO.,a



3,846

3,853

3.,820


Tem-
pera-
ture
F.


a Calculated

b F, Margaret D. Foster, U. S. Geological Survey
L, S. Kenneth Love, U. S. Geological Survey
P, Garald G. Parker, U. S. Geological Survey
S, George W. Simons, Jr., Fla. State Board of Health

c No. 1 Big Salt Spring
No. 2 Big Salt Spring
No. 3 Big Salt Spring
No. 4 Little Salt Spring


No.c


Date of
Collection


r


(





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


tlone
sonme


that
of t


probably


other


corresponds


four


stands


to the


may


hav<


Illinoian
e been a


glacial


s low


stage,


as 1800


and
feet


below sea level


(Stearns, 1942)


If the holes were formed at an early


stage, subsequent submergence did


destroy them, for the supply


of sediment was too scanty to fill the sinks.


There are dry sinks of


Florida.


Falling


comparable


Water


depth


Washington


lime-sink


County


and


district
Devil's


Mill Hopper in Alachua


both


are


drained


County


are


underground


both


deeper than


channels


100 feet,
bottom.


and
The


Devil's


Mill


Hopper


apparently


extends


about


to the


water


table


for the bottom is sometimes dry, sometimes wet.
of such a sink is largely dependent upon the depl
channels that carry away the flow below the botta


The ultimate depth
th to the horizontal
omrs of the sinks.


DRAINAGE


Southern


Florida


is so


low


and


flat


that


drainage


most


is very


sluggish.


The


largest river is


Kissimmee,


which


flows


southeastward


into


Lake


Okeechobee


carrying


large


volume


water


from


seating


the central h
Creek. a much


ighlands
smaller


beyond
stream,


the
also


highlands and enters Lake Okeechobee from


northern


rises
west.


boundary.


central


The


outflow from


Lake


Okeechobee


passes


eastward


through


Lucie


Canal,


westward


-through


Caloosahatchee


Canal


and


River,
other


and


canals


, during


that


part


terminate


year,


between


southeastward


West


Palhn


through


Beach


and


several
Miami.


The St.


Lucie Canal


Lake Okeechobee


and the Caloosahatchee Canal


and River form links in the Intracoastal Waterway


Before the canals


were


and


high


dike


around


lake


was


built,


water


from


Lake Okeechobee overflowed into the
ward and southeastward more or less as


Everglades and


drained south-


a sheet through interconnected,


nearly parallel


courses.


On land


adjacent to the lake,


ditches,


dikes,


and pumps have been installed,


and a lowered controlled water


level


is maintained


lake.


This


resulted


in a greatly


reduced


outflow to the south from the lake


in fact


, during some


parts of


. -


J


I


f


_





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BIULLETIN


tidal part of


tlihe river froni its headwaters


and has lessened tlie damage from floods.


(Heilprin, 1887.


The Caloosahatchee


221,


River


IlowV


idal to Ortona Lock.


The estuaries of Peace Creek and Miakka River, both leading


iarlotte


Harbor. cross the northwestern part


southern


Florila.


The directions of surficial drainage are shown on 11 e Ilaplt of


Everglades


Drainage District


Plate 13.


which is based on lmany field


data and careful studies of


the airpllane


all e II


for the


Conservation Service in 1940


. The arrows indicate linoriial


drailn-


directions in the area before the installation of thle canals.


In lost


instances the canals have affected


the greaterr part


Iallns


the iar'ea


tClllporarilY reverse


drainage


waVS.


this


lpatt ern


verve


reniainis u1chali1edl.


(directionl


season.


flow


Junlle


little


and


However.


hese


through


over
local
Ilat-


()cto


when tle lands are flooded and canals are overtaxed. thle flow


tern


indicated is


especially applicable.


A-rch Creek--Arch
waV in Dade Countyl


Ib)eneath


the only


Creek


(Plate


5 miles south of the


natural


bridge


crossetl'


Dixie


Broward County line, flows


lloIlida.


leads in a low llarshv


atca con(lliected(l with


Everglades. crosses


a ridge
t


F1ianmi


oolite


a vertical-waledh1


through
f111'11"t


onei place lv a narrow natural bridge, and


marshes to Biscavne Bay


STlie strieamn


thence wanders through
is tidal throughout most


2-inile


course.


rock


bridge


l)ro)bably


oriIinate( as follows:


The.


oolite


Archl


Creek


is p)erl'orate(d


I11any


vcrtlia.1


tubuila solutioll holes


leading" down to tle water table and


Fnlarieient


there


coalescence


with


a maze


su ch


horizontal


horizolt al


passages.
resulted


tle formation


ia cOlltllll OuIS


tunnel


through


oolite


ridge,


which permitted surface water and ground water back of


tlhe ridge


to pass through it as through a culvert into the tidal marshes beyond.
This sIwaipI water, being highly charged with or'galnic acids. deeply


southern


High-


TIe1


streIall


photograph hs


covered


The


thle vicinlity


connected


passages







LATE


CENOZOIC


CREEK NATURAL
LAKES MARSH


GEOLOGY


BRII)GE AND HILLSBOROUGH
OF THE EVERGLADES


dp


so










a -
d



IJ
YI I -a 1


* t -'a





t. .



a~~jl; -- ,----t~
::- -*


.3~~ $ c SI.C
5:
|

''.r~,
r2


PLATE 7


FIcGUiE a--The


L-a


natural


ii~hwav pass


bridge of Arch Creek over which the old Dixie
ses. The swamov acidic waters undercut the banks.


ARCH


Jk l.





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN


TOPOGRAPHIC-ECOLOGIC DIVISIONS

THE SANDY FLATLANDS


General features-Within the area of


this report


the sandyV


flat-


lands


(PI.


range


altitude


from


somewhat


than


above sea level to nearly 80 feet.


The greater part is lower than


feet


and forms


part


lowest


Pleistocene


marine


terrace,


Pamlico, whose shore line is now about 25 feet above sea level.


areas above 25 feet are not quite so flat.


The


They are called by Sanford


1909, pp. 185-186)


"Rolling Sand Plains.


These higher areas


within


Talbot


terrace


(shore


line


about


feet


and


Penholowav terrace (shore line about 70 feet).

The sandy flatlands surround Lake Okeechobee except on the south-
ern and southeastern sides, where the wide expanse of the Everglades


meets the lake.


On tile west the sandy flatlands extend


1)racticallv


without interruption to the Gulf of Mexico.


this western area beyond Naples,


They continue south in


where coastal marshes begin.


landI


they


extend


from


this


coastal


strip


irregular


llargilns


of tile Big Cypress Swamp and,
meet the western boundary of t


passing north
e Everglades.


East


Big Cypress,
Lake Okee-


chobee they extend as a broad belt alhnost to the ocean, limited on
the east by the narrow coastal ridge with its Pleistocene dunes, and


on the southwest and west by the eastern border of


Everglades.


This


strip)


contlllues


southward


between


Everglades


and


coastal ridge to Coral Gables, in the Miami area, with an occasional


break through the ridge north of Miami,
of old drainagewavs and tidal channels.


These


directly


sandy


flatlands are


into the surficial


poorly


sailnd


where they form the floor


drained


or is stored(


. Rainfall


shallow


either
pools.


sinks
The


whole


flatlands


area


is dotted


with


these


shallow


circular


ponds,


generally only a foot or so deep and rarely over 4 feet deep. Diameters


the ponds range up to several hundred feet.


The


ponds alpp)ear


over areas of deep sand as well as over areas where only a thin sand


mantle


covers


underlying


limestones


and


sh ell


marls.


Thev


1 1


1 -a


1 1


1


1


1 1


U - - -I -. ..- -I -r. *... *. -l r---- I -. ---- ~ r - r l r -*V


are





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


VIEWS OF THE SANDY FLATLAINDI)S AND


IN THE DEVIL'S GARDEN


PLATE 9


FH;.I-: a T -T pical view of tlie Sandy Flatlands west of Lake Hicpochee
with the Caloosahatchee River meandering to the west.





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


Clayton, Neller
a


and Allison


(1942)


have shown


that


transpiration


and evaporation may exceed rainfall, the deficiency being accounted
for by seepage and run-off from contiguous areas.
Drainage is sluggish and, except in the rainy season when lower


parts are inundated, there is generally


little or no surface run-off.


Though the surficial sands are


quite


permeable,


nmovemlent


ground


water is very slow


because the land is flat


and the


unlne-


diately underlying shell marls, calcareous marls, and clayey marls are
relatively impermeable.


In some


drainageways


more or


inherited


well-marked


from


past


areas oni


and


sandy


modified


flatlands
present


conditions are still used by surface waters.
are the Okaloacoochee Slough and Devil's


Most important of these
Garden, the Loxahatchee


Marsh, and the Allapattah Marsh.


Okaloacoochee


Slough


and


Devil's


Garden -The


Okaloacoochee


Slough and Devil'


Garden


(Plate 8)


form


a marshy


drainagewav


on the sandy flatlands south


of the Caloosahatchee


River,


west of


the Everglades, and, in general, north


Big Cypress Swamp.


The Okaloacoochee Slough extends southward about 50 miles from


vicinity


LaBelle


into


Cypress


Swamp.


average


width
Devil'


little


more


than


miles,


wide


prong,


called


Garden, extends northeast of Immokalee.


The northern end of the Okaloacoochee Slough has a number of


branches


mostly


discharging


into


little


creeks


flowing


into


Caloosahatchee


River.


The


southern


end


branches


out


likewise


but is lost in the maze of intertwining courses in the


Big Cypress


Swamp.


Fahkahatchee


Slough


southwestern


branch


Okaloacoochee.
The Okaloacoochee Slough drains both northward and southward


from about the latitude of the Devil'


Garden.


The Devil'


Garden


itself largely


drains westward


Okaloacoochee, but


times


of high water it may overflow in all directions-into the flatlands on
the north, the Everglades on the east, and into the Big Cypress on


the south.


See Plates 8 and 13 on which arrows indicate directions


of surficial flow.





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Drainage from the Okaloacoochee Slough and Devil's Garden and


from


Allapattah


and


Loxahatchee


Marshes


retarded


rank growth of vegetation and by an accumulation of


organic peat


and muck that clogs the channels; therefore, the movement of water


is, at times, difficult to discern.


Direction of flow in the channels


may be changed, too, by local rains.


"Spot showers,


which typify


rainfall


in southern


Florida,


may


cover


only


a fraction


square


mile


or several


square


miles,


they


may


intense


that surface-water gradients are temporarily reversed in the sluggish
drainageways.

Allapattah and Loxahatchee Marshes-The Allapattah Marsh splits


into


two southern


prongs,


one


that


discharges


waters


Lake


Okeechobee north and west of Indiantown, and another that formerly
drained almost due south of that city into the Everglades, but is now
cut by the St. Lucie Canal.

The Loxahatchee Marsh is shaped like a wishbone with the apex


pointed toward Jupiter Inlet and with


glades.


prongs leading to the Ever-


Drainage usually flows in both directions from a low divide


in the middle of the northern prong, and also usually flows in both
directions from another divide in the southern prong not far west


of Kelsey City.


The southern prong drains directly into the Hills-


borough Lakes Marsh at a point a few miles southeast of Loxahatchee
(Plate 8).


Sandy


flatlands


south


Loxahatchee


Marsh-Southward


from


the Loxahatchee Marsh the sandy flatlands extend a short distance


past


Coral


Gables,


where


they


abut


against


coastal


ridge


oolitic


limestone


and


overlapped


Everglades soils.


Appar-


ently the sand never did extend farther south because the currents
that swept the sand southward lost their efficiency there.


Between


Fort


Lauderdale


and


Miami


several


low,


shallow


valleys, floored with sand of the Pamlico formation,


that reach


present


shore.


These


are


called


transverse


glades


because


their orientation and their characteristic vegetation.


They


occupy






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-- BULIIETIN 27


,:(


1- --;
^;^^ -- *





IATE


(ENOZOI(:


VIEWS IN THE BIG CYPRESS SWAMP






PLATE 10

FIGURE a-Turner River, in the southwestern part of the Big Cypress
Swamp. Picture taken from a bridge of the Tamiami Trail
(U. S. Highway 94). Trees are bay, willow and cypress.


FIGURE b-A hammock in the Big Cypress Swamp showing
tion, and a "glades-buggy" used to get around in


typical vegeta-
the area.


FIGURE c-Typical view of
Swamp. A cypre
peripheral trees
where the talles
canal bank and
is on the margin
merge.


he stunted
ss "head"
ringing lar
trees arn
saw-grass
where tile


cypress g
appears to
*ger ones i
e found.
covers the
Everglade


growth in
the right
intil the c
Pickerel
Sinterven
s and Big


the Big Cypress
side with small
enter is reached
weed lines the
ing area. This
Cypress Swamp





FLORIIDA


(;EOlO(;GICAI SUTRVEY-


ported to 1be not deeper than 20 feet.


I1UL1,ET1N


It covers ao1)l0


5 square riiles,


tii area varVying g great wilth the stage of thle after .


Thli


)asill.


which


lies Inear tile


11111r llargill of


IPallico


race..


Ibottollm.


- represell
However.


original


hollow


soluble


calcareous


marl


SBuckinhanm miarl
L.


its bottom mav have been lowered I) solution.


Th'e presence of


numerous small circular lakes nearby


that


appear


o le solution features lend credence to this possibility.


THE BIG CYPRE


SWAMP


General


indefinitely
southeast b


fe(latures-The


defined area.


Everglades,


Cyp)ress Swamip


(Plate


a very


In general, it is bounded on the east and


which


is distinguished


its organic


soils. sedges. and lower-lying area.


The sandy flatlands adjoin it


the north.


where they are higher, and on the


west,


where they are


lower.


On the southwest and south the Big Cypress grades into the


low-lying


coastal


marshes


mnangrove


swamps.


marked


colln-


trast to the surrounding areas of mucky, sandy, and marly soils with
no outcropping rocks. the Big Cypress has large areas with rock at
thie surface. or where thin marly soil lies in shallow pockets in the


rock.


In old drainagewavs


this marly soil is suitable for truck farm-


water


table


adequately


controlled


ditches,


dikes,


dams and pumps.
Drainage is very defective, and in the rainy season the larger part


the Big Cypress is more or less flooded;


but even then the only


movement of water di


scernible is


in shallow, Ipoorly defined drainage


courses


locally


called


sloughs,


rivers,


or creeks.


Near the


Gulf


Slexico these courses are better defined though so intricate that the


service of


a guide is required by a stranger.


The Big Cypress is not a vast morass of huge moss-shrouded cypress


trees as


is supposed by many people unfamiliar with the area.


Rather,


it is an area of


alternating swailmpy


and higher land


(hammocks)


former


type.


Davis


1943 )


relationships and lists the principal members of'


describes


thie flora.


these


She dif-


r ------------- i- l- i- : -1 *


..I - _1 1 .... 1 < __ .. . 1 1


with


Illd-Wiscon sini


underlain


prevalent







,ATE


(IENOZOI(


(;'OI,O(; Y


VIEW S


N TIlE EVER(;IADES


r a

-R


PLATE 11


of ilie cmllril


Mia1nii


(X11111i


fro011


tol) of


lverglIdaes


looking


thit airpllln


lit


liv\e'r (anal.


\Sin
?


Ilnort Ies
ill (1((O f


a;1lon1


tihe ,onIflUInI(C 1


- -


So illh


NOw


I*


I;1 ;I--( ;cn Gc 0l'i] vicw





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


THE


EVERGLADES


General features-The Everglades, a region of


occupies an


surrounded by


irregularly


slightly


defined


higher


areas


area


on all


over
sides


organic soils


4,000


square


south


(Plate
miles


and


southwest.


An arm of


the Everglades borders the western side of Lake


Okee-


chobee,
eastern
pattah


and
side


Marsh


a narrow


about


and


tapering


Canal


cypress


arm


Point,


swamps.


extends


where


The


northward


merges


Everglades


along


with


extend


Alla-


south-


ward
miles


and


wide


southwestward


and


mile


from


long,


lake


merging


in a vast


near


sweep


Bay


about


Florida


and the Gulf of Mexico into salt-water marshes and mangrove swamps.


The


boundary


between


Everglades


and


surrounding


areas


very indefinite.


may


regarded


as the


place


where


sedges


Everglades


give


way to


true


grasses


and


pines


or cypress


to salt-marsh


plants


and mangroves.


Large


areas


in the


northern


and


eastern


parts


Everglades


almost


treeless


expanses


saw-grass


(Mariscus


jamaicensis)


sedge,


willow,


growing


bay,


as tall


and


as 10


custard


or 12


apple


feet.


Low


appear


shrubs
slightly


wax-myrtle,


higher


areas,


generally


alined
Trees


isolated


in accordance


grow


perennial


in the


water


clumps


with


Everglades


table


called


general


where


to allow


tree-islands,


drainage


there


more


pattern


is enough


less


(Fig.


height


aeration


above
along


spoil banks conditions are very favorable, and trees and shrubs grow


there in rank profusion


(Plate 11).


Floor of the Everglades-Sanford


(1909, pp.


192-193)


thought that


rock floor in


northern


part


Everglades


slopes


westward more steeply than in the southern


part;


that


depth


bed rock 5 miles west of the eastern rim


back


of Fort Lauderdale


probably not less


than 20 feet


and that the Everglades probably occu-


pies a series of comparatively shallow rock hollows. He states,"'Whether


these hollows were as deep


when


Everglades first occupied


them


as they now


are,


that is,


whether they


have


been


deepened by


solu-


. =


--I ___ V V








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


PLATE 12


UPITER


W. PALM
BEACH


ALL CONTOURS


DATUM


WHICH


U 5.C. A


SUBTRACT 5.44 FEET I
HERE TO CONVERT TO


DELRAY


MPANO


DERDALE


/ f I *,, J


I JF


* \





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN


limestone believed to be nearly


level.


Rarely, if


ever,


does it


below sea level, and nowhere, ini the Everglades proper, does it reach


the surface.


The fact


that it reaches


surface


margins,


except along the shore to the southwest, suggests that the Everglades


may owe their existence to an original rock basin.


slightly more uneven in


The rock floor is


the north than in the south, and various


explanations
deformation.


have


been


offered,


based


erosion,


solution,


Data gathered by the U. S.
erous exploratory test wells,


Geological Survey while drilling num-


and by the Soil


Conservation


Service


while making soil surveys in the


Everglades, shows that


Sanford'


observations were very


good.


Beginning


along the


eastern


rl'ni


the Everglades, from Lake Okeechobee to the latitude of Boca Raton,
there is a rapid descent from the Atlantic coastal ridge to the shallow
basin which contains the Hillsborough Lakes Marsh in its southern


end


(see Fig. 3 and Plate 8)


. Elevations drop off from +10 to +3


feet (M.S.L. U.S.C. & G.S. datum) within a distance of about a mile


a slope which, in southern Florida, is distinctly scarp-like.


Leading


into the shallow basin of the Hillsborough Lakes Marsh there is a


shallow


trough


from


southeastern


side


Lake


Okeechobee.


Southward


from


Hillsborough


Lakes


Marsh


this


trough


coln-


tinues to old spillways and tidal channels emptying into the Atlantic


Ocean


between


Fort


Lauderdale


and


Miami.


Some


these


channels have been deeply eroded in the rock and were later filled


with


sand;


and


was


these


sand-filled


channels


that


Sanford


alluded when he said that depth to bed rock west of Fort Lauderdale


is not less than 20 feet.


Sanford, however, did not know that these


depths exist only in channels because sufficient data were not avail-
able to him.


\West of


this trough,


which lies along the eastern margin


Everglades,


rock floor forms a


domelike


surface


with


about


10 feet


above


mean


sea level.


This


"high"


centers


Pahl Beach-Broward County east-west line about 6 or


7 miles east


of tile Pahn Beach-Hendry County north-south line, and due south
of Lake Okeechobee. From the top of this low dome the floor slopes


and





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Cypress on the west and the Atlantic coastal ridge on the east, tilhe
floor of the Everglades slopes gently from the sides toward tile cen-
ter where a low, broad, flat valley swings gently to the southwest.


These major features of


marked by smaller


the floor


basins and higher


Everglades


areas.


general


are locally
, the floor


sags from the sides into the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression,


within


which


there are local ridges and


basins, none


higher than


the lands surrounding the Everglades, and few deeper than sea level.

Solution is actively engaged in etching out the floor of the Ever-


glades at the present time,


the ridges.


deepening the hollows and roughening


Deposition, too, is taking place in some parts, especially


in the soils of the hammocks where calcium carbonate is being de-
posited, making a carbonaceous marl that locally hardens to friable,
impure limestone.


The floor is composed


of Fort


Thompson formation


fresh-water


and marine marls and limestones in the north, Miami oolite in the
south, and Tamiami formation in the central, western, and southwestern
parts. A blanket of thin gray calcareous Lake Flirt marl covers large
areas of the rocky floor, and along the eastern and western margins


of the Everglades a thin mantle of Pamlico sand occurs.


are several kinds of peat and muck


Over these


(Evans and Allison, 1942)


Origin of the Everglades-This gently sloping basin was originally
the Pliocene sea bottom, which was not perfectly flat but had slight
inequalities. During the earlier Pleistocene glacial stages of the north-
ern states this floor was subject to erosion, solution, then deposition
of the first four beds of the Fort Thompson formation, and possibly


slight folding.


Then, probably


during Sangamon interglacial


tine,


Miami oolite, Anastasia formation, and


Coffee


Mill


Hanmmock


marl member of the Fort Thompson formation were deposited over


much of it.


Later, these younger deposits were subjected to erosion


and solution and still later were partly covered by sand of Pamlico


age.
area


During latest


that


became


Wisconsin time the sea withdrew, leaving a large


occupied


fresh-water


marshes


lakes





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


growth


plants


dies


and


sinks


below


surface


shallow


water and is incorporated in the organic mass below.


continue on a much steeper gradient than


And it


that existent in the


would
Ever-


glades


were


man


interference


through


drainage


and


farming.


Fenneman


(1938,


discussing


origin


Everglades says


and that of


: "The tendency of
moving water to cut


accumulating vegetation to


down


are


necessarily in


build


opposl-


tion.


In Dismal Swamp,


moving water is helpless on a gradient much


steeper than


that in


Everglades.


Vegetation


shown


what it can do in southern Florida.


If given a free field and no inter-


ference it would build much higher in the interior


before the steep-


ening slope would serve as a


check.


Meantime the vegetation


would


change,
steadily


though


larger


slowly.


and more


The


tree-clad


hammocks


numerous and should


would


ultimately


become


domi-


nant.


many


and


pattern


elongated
separated


in the


Everglades-In


tree-islands, arranged


from


one


more


another


Everglades


or less in


shallow


there


parallel


swaless,


are


rows


"runs,


"slough


s," or "lakes,


as they are variously called locally


. These tree-


islands and swales trend northwest-southeast in the upper part of the


Everglades


as far


south


spillways


through


Coastal


Ridge
begin
Miami


between
to bend


Miami


and


Fort


south,


, they swing abruptly to


and


Lauderdale


finally


(see


about


48),


miles


then


they


south


the southwest.


The


cided


linear
r, from
"grain"


arrangement


which


this


as Dickerson


a broad


sweep


pattern
(1942)
country


is most


says,


noticeable


"They


. . as if


reveal


a great


from
a de-
coarse


broom had been rudely brushed over the low-lying Everglades region.


This


arrangement is noticeable to one crossing the


Everglades along


Tamiami


Trail


where,


toward


western


side,


development


is best and


one crosses


alternate strips of


tree-islands


and


saw-grass.


Dickerson postulates that this "grain"


may be the result of Pleisto-


cene ocean


currents during Pamlico


time


when


this


whole area


was


a shallow sea bottom


. He notes that


"off the east coast of Florida


- -w - -


Drainage



















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_ I_1 1 / 12 21





_ \ / / / 'V,/ iI cani I.





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


currents, is developed entirely


on fresh-water peat and


miuck,


does not reflect an underlying pattern of marine bars.


It represents


merely a drainage pattern produced on a very gently sloping plain.


"grain"


is composed


tree-islands


and


swales that


trend


right angles to tile regional slope, just as one would expect of conse-


quent drainage.


Streams flowing across the Sunderland terrace into


()kefenokee Swampl
a similar pattern of


in Clinch and Warren Counties,


parallel lines.


terrace, especially in St. Lucie


rangcment of


On certain Iparts of
Martin Counties, a


dunes, beach


Georgia, show


the Pamlico


parallel


lagoons is notice-


able.


This pattern is directly


shore-line environment


a p)rodluct


is not


the saIIeIC


of lowering sea level


as t


!i a


the organic


Everglades soils.
The drainage pat tern in the Everglades is gradually being changed(


b)y mlan


s operations there.


"Subsidence valleys


[Evans and Allison,


1942,


have


developed


along


principal


drainage


canals,


and direction of flow in the northern end of the Everglades at certain
limes of the year is northward into the Lake, exactly opposite to the
original condition (Stephens, 1942) .


Lake Okeechobee--Lake


Okeechobee


occuliesi


northernmost


and largest of the interconnected series of basins and shallow troughs


which makes up the Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression


and Plate 12)


(Fig. 3


It is an original hollow in the Pliocene sea floor, possi-


,ly modified by solution, erosion, and deposition of sediments during
lihe Pleistocene and Recent epochs.
The lake is a little less than 30 miles in average diameter. At a


stage


of 20 feet


above


level,


Okeechobee


datumi


(Okeechoeec


datuim is 1.44 feet below U


.C. & G.


M.S.L.


it has an area of


square miles; at a stage of 16 feet the area is about 710 square miles.
As the lake ranges in stage from about 13.5 to 20 feet its area changes
accordingly.


The lake is very shallow


its deepest.


parts


are approximately


sea level


(Fig. 3)


It is saucer-shape(d, andl


because of its physical


characteristics is subject to violent wind tides and wave action dur-


A 1 7 T 71 & / 1 P*r / ?


The


ridges, hars, and


-- r





I I


tr






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


records show that hurricanes with much greater wind velocity than


th at of 1928 have occurred


, notably that of the Florida Keys in 1935,


which hiad an estimated wind velocity of


approximately


and a maximum hurricane tide of 16 to 18 feet."

From these data it is easily understood that the bottom is rather


thoroughly scoured by tilhe action of


effectivelyv


cast


detrital


material


storm
loose


waves, and, since


sandl


these


scarce


I)ottonm.


Around portions of


lihe lake, especially oni


lie north western,


1 r ..-_ -


200 m.p.h


^


%.


f `




LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


northern, eastern, and southeastern borders, a definite


53

"sand ridge"


has been built up.


This is a beach ridge,


waves, and lies outside the hurricane levee.


probably built by storm
It is the dwelling place


of most of the rural families who live around the eastern margin of


the lake.


Shallow sand-point wells, driven into this deposit, furnish


family supplies.
The accompanying map, Fig. 3, shows contours on a 5-foot interval
on the bottom of the lake.


Hillsborough Lakes Marsh-Hillsborough


Lakes Marsh


(Plates 8


and 7b)


is a Ioggy area occupying approximately 55 square miles in


Panlm Beach County.


It lies north of


the Hillsborough Canal, south


West Palm Beach Canal,


west of the strip of sandy flatlands


11that


borders the


Atlantic coastal


ridge,


and,1


in general,


east


north-south line drawn through
and West Palmn Beach Canal.


the confluence of


the Cross Canal


occupies one of


thie larger


and(l


(deeper


basins in


floor of


the Everglades


a basin that is now nearly filled with peat and muck.


These organic soils are being constantly


huilt up over the greater


part of


this area by aquatic and semiaquatic vegetation.


1panses of open water are dotted with small tree-islands of


Large ex-
peat and


nuck, and here and there are flotant masses or "floating islands."
In shallower portions sawgrass grows thickly; in deeper water pond
lilies and pickerel weed are the most common plants.


excavation


Hillsborough


Canal


along


southern


margin of


Hillsborough


Lakes


Marsh


lowered


water table


considerably and rejuvenated the better established drainage courses,
some of which already have become streams that have stripped off
the organic deposits from their channels and exposed the bed rock.


Ilndian


Run


(P1.


a good


example.


The


Soil


Conservation


Service is damming the outlets of


these streams, raising the


water


able, and


attemptillng to


restore conditions once


more


to approxi-


lately


their


original


status.


area


such


Hillsboroughli


Lakes Marsh is


valuable as a water an d wild-life preserve.


rl.nr1


A rlT A TITrm-rT


C/r A em A T


FlTTfCTr


r i U 5. l UT .-n


The





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


Jupiter.


Silver


Bluff


is notched


by wave


action


that


occurred


former higher stands of the sea; one notch is at 8 feet and the other
at 5 feet above present mean sea level (P1. 4b).
The highest parts of the coastal ridge (50+ feet above sea level)
are the summnnits of Pleistocene sand dunes, which lie in a series of
more or less parallel and discontinuous rows back from the present
shore. The southern end of the dune area lies in northern Broward
County, where the dunes are much lower and broader than in the


vicinity of West Palm Beach, Jupiter and Hobe Sound.


Northward


from


Hobe Sound, and


extending


into


Lucie


County,


belt


dunes surmounts old beach ridges, and is still better developed.


These


dunes


now"


quiescent


and


are


largely


overgrown


with


1,unch grasses, low shrubs, pines and palmettos.
South of the dune area sand extends as far south as Coral Gables.


This veneer of sand


(Pamlico formation)


was spread out


over the


limestone


bedrock


ocean


cu rrent s


during


mid-Wisconsin


The coastal ridge almost everywhere has a rock foundation.


tiune.
North


of Boca Raton it consists of


sandy


limestone and


calcareous sand-


stone


Anastasia


formation;


south


Boca


Raton


Miami oolite.


The oolite


lies at


or near the surface almost


every-


where from Miami southward to the point where the ridge finally


dies out on the mainland southwest of Florida City.


The height of


Coastal


Ridge


south


Fort


Lauderdale


averages


probably


feet above sea level with maximum altitudes of


about 25 feet on the


western shore of Biscayne Bav near Coconut Grove in Miami.


The


Coastal


Ridge


disappears


southwest


Florida


City


series of low "islands,


often called


"Everglades Keys,"


surrounded


Everglades


soils.


The


Coastal


the lower Florida Keys, Big Pine


Ridge
Key to


reappears


Key


West,


once


where


again


Miami


oolite is again the bedrock.


The highest


altitude observed on


Pine Key is less than 7 feet; that of Key West about 13 feet.


Cutting


across


coastal


ridge


several


places


are


marly


imucky strips called by


Harper


(1927,


176)


Stransverse


glades,


i I in b li lT I i ccoo i bl nur nf nluuita 1n1 t1 n Li nC tho 4I1 r-llr 1, r; t-l /r





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


It took the form of


an irregular limy bar, oolitic south of Boca Raton


and sandy and shelly farther north.


This bar,


which probably reached


slightly


above


ocean


surface,


between


broad


shoal


Lake Okeechobee-Everglades depression


and


deep


along


lie edge


Floridian


Plateau.


The


whole


area


southeastern


Florida was then much like the present


Bay


of Florida-Florida Keys


area


, but on a larger scale.


The surface of'


never


was


level


and1


probably


was made


more


uneven


accumulation


low


dunes


oolitic


material


heaped upon it above sea level,


and by tidal scour and wave erosion.


While


scoured
between


was


falling


and


Miami


lets until sea


and


level


at the


gaps


Fort


end


across


Lauderdale.


below


them,


Talbot


STihe
then


spots


gaps


thev


time,


tidal
bar,


persisted


became


currently
notably
as tidal


fresh-water


outlets during the early


Wisconsin


(Iowan)


glacial substage.


During


post-Iowan


spread sand over


choked


tidal


deglaciation


coastal


channels.


sea level


ridge
When


as far


, in late


rose


south


and


as Coral


Wisconsin


Pamlico
Gables


lllle,


and
sea


again
filled
more


withdrew


with


became


fresh


and


Lake


water,


Okeechobee-Everglades


lower


discharge outlets to


tidal


sea for


excess


depression


channels


water


once


from


northern


part


basin,


and


this


condition


continued


ever


s111ce.


Occasional


hurricanes


have


shifted


sand


about


invaded these low areas, but,


during Recent times,


the main changes


configuration .of


coastal


ridge


and


transverse


glades


has been brought about by solution.


South


with oolite.
Pleistocene


coastal


Coral
They
tidal


ridge.


Gables


transverse


represent modern


channels


They


were


, most
short


that


drainageways that are


which


tidal


runways


reach


ill the


) floored
modified


across


waning


stages


Talbot sea


(Pamlico)


, and again were likewise used by the mid-Wisconsin


sea.


"1Bottomless


holes"


New


River-New


River


a short


two-


forked stream that


nJls


i iat, a


connecting


occupies one of


the Lake


the old spillways and tidal


Okeechobee


deVression


with


Sa a /


chan-
ocean.


sea


glades


_ __


h


I






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


distant


past,


whence the name


"New


River."


Many


deeper


holes are situated at the outer edge of bends, and were scoured out


by the river, but others appear to
more or less modified by scour. Th<


be partly filled solution holes,
ey may have had their beginning


during the early Wisconsin time when sea level was lower than it is


no0w,,


were largely filled with sand during Pamlico time, and partly


re-excavated and modified in late Wisconsin and Recent time.
There are numerous sand-filled solution holes in the Miami oolite
ridge that may have had a similar history.


COASTAL


MARSHES


AND


MANGROVE


SWAMPS


The coastal marshes extend around the southern end of


the Pen-


insula


from


Naples


South


Miami


and


continue


northward


Fort Lauderdale as a narrow band behind the present sandy beach


ridge.


They are separated from


the sea


by the


mangrove


which fringe the coast and tidal lagoons and inlets throughout south-


ern Florida


(Plate 8)


and are best developed in the


Ten


Thousand


Islands and along the northern shore of Florida Bay.
The coastal marshes are characterized by marly soils mixed locally


with muck and sand.


In the strip bordering salt water the vegeta-


tion consists of


the usual salt-marsh subtropical assemblage,


which


gives way to fresh-water marsh plants at the outer edge of tli sandy


flatlands,


the Everglades, and


the coastal


ridge.


The general


rela-


tionshtlu of all these plants


and assemblages is discussed in a recent


paper


Davis


(1940).


Where


properly


controlled


water


table


(ban i)e maintained the coastal marshes are excellent for truck-farming_.


PLIOCENE


ROCKS


Rocks of Pliocene age lie at or near the surface in the southern


1)parts of


the Big Cypress Swamp and the


Everglades;


elsewhere


Southern Florida they are overlain by


trials (see Plate 14)


Pleistocene and Recent ma-


. From the Big Cypress Swamp Pliocene rocks


slope gently out under the Everglades to the Atlantic coastal ridge,


I I 11 1 1 i 1 U r


swai )ps


T1





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


neously;


the Caloosahatchee


as a


sandy, marly facies,


a favorable


habitat for mollusks,


Buckingham


as a


clayey


faces,


and


Ta miami where limy ooze mingled with


the sand.


Apparently the


locus of lime deposition migrated several times back and forth over
a distance of possibly 30 or 40 miles so that the Caloosahatchee marl


and the


Tamianmi formation interfinger at depth.


In its final phase,


however, the Tamiami overlaps


the Caloosahatchee marl in tile lati-


tude of Fort Lauderdale and


to the north


as far


as the


Tamiami


f oration


extends


(Plate 25,


cross section A-A')


CALOOSAHATCHEE MARL

Historical summary-Shell beds exposed on the upper reaches of


the Caloosahatchee River


(then spelled


Caloosahatchie)


were first


recognized as Pliocene by Heilprin


(1887, pp. 26-33), who proposed


to call them Floridian.


This was the first recognition


Pliocene


beds in the
after, Dall


United States east
(1887, pp. 161-170)


Pacific slope.


confirmed the


Shortly


there-


Pliocene age and re-


erred
marls.


deposits as


The


formation


Caloosahatchie


lnamel


beds


Caloosahatchee


nmarl


Caloosahatchic


wa s


adopted


Matson and Clapp

An extension of


(1909, p.


mnarl


123)


along


and has since been generally used.


tributaries of


Charlotte


Harbor


was noted by Dall in 1892


(pp. 140-149)


and later


(1903, pp. 1603-


1605) he listed species from Shell Creek, Alligator Creek, and Myakka


River.
report


The


map


shows


accompanying


Caloosahatchee


Matson


marl


Clapp


these


(1909,


creeks


and


along


Caloosahatchee River for about 15 miles below LaBelle.


Sellards


and


Gunter published in


1922


by the


Florida


A map1 by
Geological


Survey connected these areas and extended the formation somewhat
beyond them.


The opening of the


Tamiami


Trail in1 1928 permitted Cooke and


Mossomn


(1929, p.


156) to examine the rocks that underlie the Ever-


glades and the Big Cypress Swamp in Collier and Monroe Counties.
These rocks proved to consist of sandy limestone or limy sandstone


conutainino-


sim .


Caloosahatchee


fossils


though


-----


characteristic


_


\/VllbHIIIIIIL UVILIV VML\)VL yrLU V1V





FLORIDA


SECTIONS
EXPOSED


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


OF PLEISTOCENE AND PLIOCENE
ALONG THE CALOOSAHATCHEE


ROCKS
RIVER


qa*"i I j 2 j~







,;I


PLATE 16


FIcuRE a-Banana Creek
sand (Pamlico
I ;a tnn- i f


cuts down
formation)
tih Pliarnoa


through almost 4 feet of Pleistocene
to the basal conglomerate that here
n Colonankiionbna mn-ml tPMa follao 1a





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


Development-The


sandy


Caloosahatchee


marl


underlies


most


southern


Florida.


interfingers


with


or grades


into


Tamiami


formation at depth in a zone


possibly


40 miles


wide centered in


latitude of Fort


Lauderdale.


The


Caloosahatchee


underlies


most


tile Everglades and is present in the subsurface


between


Lake


Okee-


chobee


and


Atlantic


coastal


ridge.


is probable


that


it inter-


fingers with or grades into the


Tamiami formation


under the coastal


ridge in the vicinity


of West Palm Beach.


See section A-A


The Caloosahatchee marl is a littoral and neritic deposit


', Plate 25.
composed


sand,


silt,


clay,


shells,


and


often


enough


calcareous


material


make


a true


mnarl


sand or clay, but


. It


contains


usual


many


condition


local
just


beds
what


or lenses


one


would


pure


expect


a deposit where constantly shifting


currents acted


upon a shallow


sea bottom and shores
only fine sediments.


adjacent


a low


land


mass


that


contributed


Many


exploratory


wells


have


been


drilled


through


Caloo-


sahatchee


in southern


Florida.


Preliminary


study


cuttings


from


these wells indicates that it thickens to the east, southeast, and south.


It ranges from about 30 to 50 feet in


thickness


zone


where


interfingers


with


Tamiami


formation.


Water-bearing


characteristics-The


permeability


Caloo-


sahatchee


whole
wells


marl


varies


formation


ending


with
is of


in it yield


lithologic


relatively


no water.


low


Where


characteristics
permeability,


and


formation


some


is more


permeable,


hard;


and


inland,


near


around


coast,


Lake


water


Okeechobee


is apt


and


to be
upper


potable


part


Everglades,


the water is always hard and often so highly mineralized


as to


be unfit for


human


consumption.


These


variously mineralized


bodies of
invasions


water near the lake are


during


probably the


interglacial


stages


result


and


Pleistocene
subsequent


partial
during


flushings


glacial


dilutions


stages,


and


fresh


various


percolating


chemical


ground


reactions,


water


especially


base-exchange


variety,


that


have


taken


place


and


are


still


going on.


- ~. n -.


*~~~~~~ II~ CI~C





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


Caloosahatchee


River underlain


soft


clayey


marl


that


hardens


into limestone on exposure.


Ten


years later,


Mansfield


(1939,


11-16)


proposed


the name Buckingham limestone


for the


deposits


so mapped, which he retained in the upper Miocene and described


as "chalky


limestone


that


contains


a little


sand


and


many


small


grains of brown phosphorite."
Age and development-Mansfield'


identification of the Bucking-


ham


Miocene


was


based(


more


affinities


than


definitely


identified species.


In his list of


mollusks


(Mansfield, 1939, p.


the only


definitely identified


species


that


was supposed


to be


stricted to the Miocene is Chione ulocyma.


All the other previously


described


species


range


from


Miocene


Recent.


Comparison


Foraminifera


from


Buckingham


with


Caloosahatchee


faunas


leads J


A. Cushman to report that the Buckinghain fauna includes


species that are common to both Miocene and Pliocene, but none that


are definitely restricted to the Miocene.


. Storrs Cole, who examined


foraininiferal faunas from Buckingham and from the Caloosahatchee


River at stations 24 and 390


(see


pp. 84 and


83), reports that


would liave little hesitation in placing the Buckingham marl in the
Pliocene, as he found no species restricted to the Miocene. He identi-
fied Rotalia beccari tepida Cushman, Diocibicides biserialis (Cush-


man and Valentine)


Discorbis subaraucanus


(Cu shman)


Cibicidcs


lobatus
gerilna


gny


(Cushmunan)
occidentalis


, Elphidium
(Cushman).


, and Elphidium incertum


fiimbriatulum
Buliminella
(Williamson).


(Cushiman), Angulo-


elegantissima


(d'Orbi-


A well-preserved jaw bone of a whalebone whale collected at station
24 was examined by Remington Kellogg, who finds that it represents
an undescribed species whose affinities are closer to known Miocene


than to Pliocene whales.


This same relationship, however, exists be-


tween tlihe pelagic mammals of the early Pliocene Bone


Valley gravel


of Florida and the Miocene of Europe (Kellogg, 1924, p. 765)


as Kellogg


cites


European


Pliocene


faunas


containing


mammals, the basis for his statement that those in the Bone


though
pelagic
Valley


are older than Pliocene is not apparent.


*1n /


ii .- ,- *1.- /--1..- -._1 __n "- _P





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Uneven weathering in the transition zone has locally given a false
appearance of unconformity to the contact between the Buckingham


and the overlying tongue of the Caloosahatchee marl.


On Caloosa-


hatchee


River east of


the mouth


Banana


Creek


and


elsewhere rain water and waves from passing boats have washed away
the less cohesive sand and shells from above the sticky, more resistant


Buckingham marl,


which


projects as an undulant shelf


just


above


water level. At first glance this uneven surface suggests unconformity,


but more careful


examination


shows


that


clayey


Buckingham


merges gradually upward into the sandy Caloosahatchee.

Well records show that the Buckingham commonly lies on sandy


Miocene limestone similar to that on which the Bone


Valley gravel


lies unconformably.


(Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p.


166)


The Buck-


ingham is overlain nearly everywhere by thin deposits of Pleistocene
sand.

The Buckingham marl extends southward from the type locality


through


Lee


and


Hendry


Counties


into


Collier


County,


Where


is cut into by shallow ditches along Florida Highway


164 as far as


a point 17 miles north of the


Tamiamil


Trail, south of which point


it is succeeded by the Tamiami formation into which it presumably


merges.


northward limits


have


been


accurately


traced


cause of the cover of Pleistocene sand.


Nearly


everywhere


green calcareous clay.


case-hardened


and


ie Buckingham
Where exposed


stained


into


marl


to the


light-brown


a creamy


white


weather it has


solution-riddled


been
limie-


stone.


This facies was more conspicuous at Buckingham before tihe


pit there had been deepened and widened to its present extent and


accounts


for the


name


Buckinghamn


limestone


originally


given


the formation.


A notable feature of
phatic grains within it.


the Buckingham is the abundance of


phos-


These are noticeable in the pit at Bucking-


ham and increase in quantity


and size


with depth. The abundance


of phosphatic grains allies the Buckingham


with


Bone


Valley


'-1* 1o fl T bn oi nhn oA 1f'- ini roto fo m Olih' ii'I-li


rrifno m I


fl17 ~ll tJl


1 1l ^1


*






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


Depth


Pamlico formation


Absent front this well but consisting of as much a,


to creamy gray sand


feet of gray


in other nearby wells.


Biuckingham marl:
C:ream-colored, shelly lna
grains at a depth of


feet,


more


marl


containing


small


10 feel, larger grains and


material.


30 percent of total sample, at bottom..


hosphatic
odules at
perhaps


0- 30


shelly
0 ..S S


plhosphatic


marl
S S S


plus
. . . .


greenish
S. S . .. . S


:ream-colored, shellyv phosphatic marl, no green clay, at


iHa\\thorn formation:


Greenish-gray
phosphatic


sandy
marl


limestone
probably


mixed
fallen


withI
from


cream-colored,


above)


colored near bottom


lighter
......45-111


If ater-bearing


characteristics-The


Buckinghami


marl


very


>oor aquifer.


It is so impernleable that it acts as a seal to the under-


Iyin g


more


1)ermeable


beds.


which


artesian


head


A few of the shellier and sandier parts of the Buckingham


vield
point
S-c~c
J)OI lt


relatively


smial


quantities


water


wells


equipped


with


or screens, but most of the residents of the Buckingham area


collect rain water in cisterns or use the artesian sulphur water from


deeper formations.


TAM1AMI FORMATION


Historical


summa ry--The


Tamiami


formation


Mansfield,


1939,


was first noted by Sanford


(1909, pp. 222-224)


who named it


the Lostmans River limestone from exposures near the head of tha


water course.


He noted that the formation underlies the gray sands


I now called the Pamlico formation)


that mantle the margins of


mainland, and that it also underlies the marls of the coastal swamps,


the keys of


the southern border of


Ten


Thousand Islands, and


that


extends


along


southwestern


order


Everglades.


He did not ascertain the relationship with the Miami oolite


eline


-n -. -\


(Pleisto-


but correctly thought that the oolite was younger.


-a r


C-


* T - 1 I E L ff &n r \ I I *


abundant


phosphatic


(:ream-colored,
clay at....


built up.


^


_





LATE CENOZOIC GEOIO(Y 63




CONTACT OF THE MIAMI OOLITE AND THE TAMIAMI FORMATION













Ig i *


PLATE 17

1F1(;ulE a- -- A dredged rock fragment along the South New River Canal sio\-
wn1 ,t rll rihl t n1lftr PR to tih, w\ itP r :rf :1 tlrt .ilo onf im IP IIt-





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


the road bed of the Tamianmi Trail over a distance of about 34 miles


in Collier and Monroe Counties, Florida.


This was the same lime-


stone that


Cooke and Mossom


(1928,


p. 207)


had


correlated


with


the Caloosahatchee marl.


Mansfield


(1939, pp. 8-10)


assigned it to


the Pliocene and placed it tentatively below the Caloosahatchee marl


and above the Buckingham marl.


He had never observed this re-


lationship but correlated it thus on the basis of fossils from a spoil
bank.


The


Tamiaini place name is preferred to Lostmans River because


the exposures on the


Tamiami Trail are much more accessible than


those of the Lostmans River area, and further, the rocks along the


Trail


are exposed


above


water in spoil


banks and


canals


whereas


Lostmans River


area


they


are submerged.


The


term


lile-


stone


is not


appropriate


because


the formation


generally


contains


too much sand.


Parker


(1942, pp. 64-66)


correlated the


Tamiami formation with


highly


permeable


rocks


underlying


Miami


oolite


Atlantic coastal ridge


that had


previously


been


variously


assigned


to tile Pleistocene or to the Pliocene.
Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp


He noted that in the western


Tamlniami formation


over-


lies the Caloosahatchee marl and on this basis arrived at the conclu-


sion that the


Tamiami is younger than the Caloosahatchee.


Subse-


quent study of well cuttings and the drilling of additional exploratory
test wells showed that there is also an interfingering or grading to-
gether at depth of these two formations.


De velopm ent-The


Tamiami


formation


composed


principally


of white to cream-colored calcareous sandstone, sandy limestone, and


beds and pockets of


quartz sand.


Where it is exposed on and near


the surface


in Monroe


and


Collier Counties


is grayish-white


tan and is riddled by solution holes,


which are usually filled with


marly soil.


To the east of its outcrop area the


Tamiami formation


slopes gradually under the Miami oolite, and for several miles the
contact of the two formations is visible in big pieces of rock dredged


from the


Tamiami Canal.


At times of


extreme low water this con-


.. .. .. L . .-. *1 .. .1 . L .. I -- 0 --- r L. ?--.L- tT -" ....





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


west it is about 45 feet thick; 8 miles west it is about 80 feet thick;
and near the shore of Biscayne Bay at Silver Bluff it is about 100 feet


thick.


On a line due south from the 19-mile point


(Kronie Road, 19


miles west of Miami)


Tamianmi


holds its


thickness of


feet,


neither thinning nor thickening as far south as Florida City, at least.


Due south of the outcrop area of the


Tamiami very little is known


of its attitude or lithology because of lack of reliable well cuttings.


Water-bearing characteristics-In thile vicinity of Miami the


Tarni-


alli is one of the most highly permeable formations ever investigated


by the


U. S.


Geological Survey,


and


ranks with


clean,


well-sorted


gravel in its property of transmitting water.


Tests made by two dif-


ferent


methods indicate


that


each


foot


mile


of hydraulic


gradient,


water will pass through a section of the formation a mile


wide and a foot thick at the rate of


about 20,000 to 40,000 gallons


a (lay,


or more.


Thus,


about


1,500,000


to 3,000,000


gallons


a day


would pass through a section


75 feet thick.


Many 6-inch


dianleter


wells along the coastal ridge from Miami to Florida City yield 1,000
gallons per minute without measurable drawdown.


Everglades


and


north


Fort


Lauderdale


Tamiianmi


formation contains more sand than to the south of Fort Lauderdale,


therefore


yields


generally


In the Fort Lauderdale area


lower


drawdown


wells are often finished


with


greater.
Ecreenls,


whereas


southern


and


eastern


Dade


County


most


wells


"open hole"


wells, i. e., uncased and unscreened in the last 5 to 20


feet of the hole.


The quality of


the water is very good except


where it


has been


contaminated by sea water in a zone about 2 miles wide along the


shore, in Miami, and in narrow tongues that follow up


the uncon-


trolled drainage canals


(Cross and Love,


1942;


Parker and


others,


1940; Parker and others, 1944)


Undoubtedly contamination has oc-


curred elsewhere along the southeast Florida coast as a result of drain-
ing the Everglades and lowering the fresh-water head, but detailed


studies have not been made north of Dade County.


It has been neces-


sary to abandon many wells in these areas of contamination.


are






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


grew along the southern


edge of


Floridian


Plateau


from


Miami


to Big Pine Key.


relate.


These formations have been


Many geologists have


worked


with


most


them


difficult to
he past, but


cor-


lack


sufficient


data


hertofore


been


principal


handicap


arriving


at the


conclusions


reached


by the


present


writers.


ANASTASIA FORMATION


Historical


summary-The


Anastasia


formation


was


named


Sellards
near St.
deposit
Mossomn


(1912)


from


typical


Augustine, Florida.


coquina


(1929,


rock


199)


development


He applied


found


along


expanded this to


name


East


include


Anastasia


to "the


Coast.


"all


Island,


extensive


Cooke
marine


and


posits
the ea


Pleistocene


st coast of Florida


County."
a strip of


that


north


In the geologic map
Anastasia formation


underlie


lowest


the southern


plain


part


bordering


Palm


accompanying their text they


along the


west


coast


of Florida


Beach
showed


as far


north
eludes


Pamlico


west


as Tampa


Bay.


coquina,


The


sand,


Pleistocene


coasts.


This


Anastasia


sandy


that


excludes


formation


limestone


along


surficial


and


both
sand.


as here


helly


defined


marl


; Florida
Pamlico


east
age.


pre-
and
The


upper


part


Anastasia


is contemporaneous


with


Miami


oolite, the upper part of the Key Largo limestone,


and the Coffee Mill


Hammock


marl


member


Fort


Thompson


formation


which might be considered as facies of the Anastasia formation.


The


lower part


probably is


contemporaneous with


lower


part of


Key Largo limestone and with the older marine members of the For


Thomp


formation.


Develop ent-On


the eastern


coast


southern


Florida


Anas-


tasia
Boca


composes


Raton


backbone


andi


extends


Atlantic


westward


coastal


Lake


ridge


north


Okeechobee-Ever-


glades


depression,


where


merges


with


marine


members


Fort


Thompson


formation.


wedge-shaped,


thin


toward


interior


and


thick


toward


coast,


where


may


as much


60 feet thick.
I ~ a- -f - A


On the west coast it is a very thin irregular deposit ex-


*II I- *-


n~ a nn


-- r


r, -t


n fl -.


*S S*11r11t1 I | I 'W| -USS-i *ll** i l-il Ii*Yll L *11 iii *U '* U i |~1 iil ira i* i


a -* n ab I nr a)


T.,1. 1





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


cites


Vaughan's


(1910,


169)


study


a fauna from a


depth


feet at Delray, and


concludes that it


"indicates a


considerable


thick-


ness of the Pleistocene and may well represent an
the Miami-Anastasia."


earlier stage than


Study of


cores and sand


cuttings from S-394, a


test well


drilled


1940 near the Delray Beach c
20 feet above mean sea level,


ity water tower, at an altitude of


gives the


about


following lo


Pamlico


formation


Quartz


Depth
(feet)
0- 10'


sand


Anastasia formation


Quartz sand
formation


Calcareous sandstone
Coarse coquina


Calc.
Calc.
Calc.
Calc.
Calc.
Calc.


sandstone and
sandstone


42 42.5
42.5- 43


coquina


sandstone and shell
sandstone


sandstone and
sandstone


shell


Cale. sandstone and shell


Calc.
Calc.
Calc.


Coquina
Chalky
Calc. sai


sandstone
sandstone
sandstone


limestone
ndstone


Shells and sand
Quartz sand and shell
Soft rock, shell, sand
Sand and shell
Soft rock, shell, sand


shell


- 93
.108
-108.5


108.5-109


135 .140


This


agrees


with


Vaughan


's log


except


that


"quicksand"


between 43 and 108 feet is represented here by


calcareous sandstone,


shell and sand.


The well


Vaughan reports may


have


been


drilled in


an old solution hole filled


with sand.


Water-bearing


characteristics-The


Anastasia formation


is a good


aquifer, especially in its consolidated


screened)


must
yield


- -


wells, may


with
arge


finished
usually 1


developed.


well
and 1


points or


- --


portions,


the


screen


drawdown


where open-hole


sandier


and


small.


gravel


The


portions


packs.


aualitv


(un-
wells


The
the


's, L


Tamiami


t






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN


and has a maximum surficial width of about 3 miles; however,


its base


oolite.


is much


wider


It rests on the


and interfingers at
Taniami formation


depth


with


and may


Miami


be 50 feet


more thick.


Its upper part is definitely


contemporaneous with


Anastasia formation and the Miami oolite, but its lower part is older
and underlies part of the oolite.


The limestone contains a large amount of


coral, andl


the spaces


between and around the coral heads are filled with amorphous lime-


stone or detritus from wastage of the reef


(Plate 18a)


. These frag-


ments apparently fell or were washed into holes, and were then in-
corporated in the rock as a limestone breccia.


Water-bearing characteristics-Solution holes and


caverns,


which


are common in the rocks, allow sea water to move freely in and out


permllit


rain water to escape


rapidly


to the sea.


The Key


Largo limestone yields water freely, but it is


salty.


About the only


use made of tile water is for fire-fighting or flushing.

MIAMI OOLITE


Historical summ nl8ary--The


limestone deposits of


southern Florida


were first noted by


U. S. Armv officers during the Seminole Indian


Wars.


Later, Buckingham Smith


limestone, and on the basis of


(1848)


a study of


noted marine shells in the
these shells dated the de-


posit


as post-Pliocene.


Tuomecy


(1851


described


outcrops


rock along Miami River, and Louis Agassiz


them


describing


Florida


reefs.


(1852
Shaler


gave an account


(1890)


accepted


tile views of


Louis Agassiz and regarded the oolite as having been


formed on a coral reef.


He included tile oolite with other rock, pos-


siblv coquina, in his Miami Reef.


Alexander


Agassiz


his observations of


(1895)


was next to describe the oolite.


outcrops along Biscayne


Bay


Miami


From
River


he came to believe that the oolite was formed by acolian processes,


and in a later paper (1896


he presented his reasons fully.


Griswold


1896i


examined these outcrops of'


the oolite, but he also examined


them


as miiuch


as 20 miles


inland, and from


his observations


COIl-





LATE


CENOZOIC


GEOLOGY


VIEWS OF


CUTS IN THE KEY LARGO


LIMESTONE AND MIAMI


OOLITE


PLATE 18


FIcUtIE a-A quarry in the Key Largo limestone shows the porous, solution-
pitted characteristics of this coral reef rock. Windley's Key,
Floridan.





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


De velopm en t-The


ridge from a


Miami


transition zone


oolite


near


underlies


Boca Raton


Atlantic


to Florida


coastal


City


floors


Bay


Florida


and


reappears


above


water


level


once


again in the lower keys from Big Pine Key to and beyond Key West.
It is thickest along the coast, possibly reaching a maximum thickness
of 40 feet in places, and thins out in the Everglades to a feather edge.

To thle north and northwest the Miami oolite thinly overlaps the


Fort


Thompson formation and in some places is itself


overlain by


a thin fresh-water marl and limestone.


This latter relationship led


Parker


(1942)


and


possibly


Richards


(1938,


1280)


that at least part of the Fort Thompson formation is younger than


the Miami oolite.


However, the youngest fresh-water marl and lime-


stone is now classified as Lake Flirt marl,


very


late Pleistocene or


Recent in age.

The contact between the Miami oolite and the underlying Tamiami


formation is visible


in many places in


Everglades and in


southeastern part of the Big Cypress.
on a clean, solution-pocked surface


The contact (Plate 17) is often


calcerous


sandstone,


many places a limestone breccia or conglomerate separates the two.
This breccia is probably a result of erosion, solution and redeposition
that took place in some of the Pleistocene glacial or interglacial stages
preceding the deposition of the Miami oolite.

The Miami oolite is soft, cross-bedded to massive, and grades from
ahnost pure calcium carbonate to sandy limestone, becoming sandier


northward.


The


gradation


sandvy


Anastasia


formation


visible along the Hillsborough Canal a few miles west of Deerfield.


The


occurrence (
cross-bedded


large,


portion


well-developed


is notable.


cone-in-cone


Tarr


reports


structures


(Twenhofel,


1932) that heights of cones in limestone range from 1 to 200 milli-
meters; that those from 10 to 100 millimeters are most common, and


that


basal


diameters depend upon the heights and


angles of


slope


of the cones.


The cone-in-cone structures in the Miami oolite are all


suppose




LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Study of the structure of the oolite throughout its areal distribution


indicates


right.


that


both


Apparently


Alexander


steeply


Agassiz
dipping


and


Griswold


450)


were


partly


cross-bedded


portions are remnants of


calcareous dunes or


beach


ridge


posits, and the parts that are massive or have low-pitched dips and
contain numerous marine fossils are marine. Stearns (1943) observed
that the cross-bedded parts of the oolite are counterparts of Pleisto-
cene calcareous dunes as found on Maui, T. H., and elsewhere in the
Pacific.


some


places


steeply


dipping


cross-bedded


portions


truncated by horizontal beds including numerous marine shells.


The


occurrence suggests fluctuating sea level at the time of deposition so
that the ocean rose above previously deposited dune or beach ridge
material on the low oolitic bar, and new deposits of the same nature


containing marine


animals


were


laid


down.


Near the


large
oolite,


western shore of Biscayne


pieces


proof


cross-bedded


that


oolite


previously


formed


Bay


at Silver


embedded


oolite


was


Bluff


several


structureless


broken


away,


washed into the sea, and incorporated into the latter portions of the
deposit.
This might indicate that conditions were right for the formation
of oolite in this area during parts of two or more interglacial stages,
or it may simply indicate that calcareous dunes formed in an early


part of a stage were later attacked


(after consolidation)


and incor-


porated in the later-formed portion, all occurring within one stage.


The oolite is the product of


deposition in a marine environment


on a shoal or bar just about at sea level, so that at times and in cer-
tain places calcareous dunes or beach-ridge deposits may have been


built up above sea level.


Most of the building of this bar probably


took place in the Sangamon interglacial stage either at the beginning


of the stage (early Wicomico time)


or at the end


(near the close of


Talbot), or both.


However, the


basal


parts of


the oolite


may


represent low-sea-level deposits of the older


Pleistocene interglacial


stages.
rr *s * F1 1 *. - 1






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


VIEWS SHOWING DEVELOPMENT OF THE
FORT THOMPSON FORMATION


t:~t "1*
., -"
.: .1






-- -~~-2:





~3 "'i
* .0 o -
;,i;rr~~.
;c


:. t ..;
ya.' -

.* .;~ LC.F=:
.,y.,i
-L:'
I







I -
a9


PLATE


FIGURE a-View showing general development
tion across the Caloosahatchee R


of
ive


the Fort Thompson forma-
r from the type locality.


=





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


FORT


THOMPSON


FORMATION


Historical summary--Sellards (1919, pp. 71-72) proposed the name


Fort


Thompson Beds for the alternating fresh-


and


brackish-water


and marine shell marls and limestones typically exposed at old Fort


Thompson, about


miles east of


LaBelle.


noted


that


these


beds


underlie


a persistent


marine


shell


bed,


which


called


Coffee Mill Hammock marl from its typical development at Coffee
Mill Hammock about one-fourth mile west of the Atlantic Coast Line


railroad bridge at Goodno.


Cooke and Mossomn


1929, pp. 211-215


changed the name Fort Thompson beds to Fort Thompson formation,


and included the Coffee Mill Hammock marl in it.


They indicated


that the Fort Thompson lies unconformably on the Caloosahatchee


marl Pliocen
Recent age.


and is overlain by the Lake Flirt marl, of probably


This definition is followed in the present paper.


Development--The


Fort


Thompson


formation


thin,


not over 20 feet in its greatest thickness, and it averages


probably
less than


10 feet. It has its typical development at the site of old Fort Thomp-


son, between LaBelle and Lake Flirt,


where a thickness of


about 6


feet of alternating fresh-water and marine beds is exposed (Plate 19).
The beds differ in thickness from place to place within a very short
distance, and some may be altogether missing or only preserved in


solution holes in a lower bed.


Sections at Station 325 and at Station


(pp.


89 and 90)


indicate the lithologic composition along that


stretch of the river where the Fort Thompson formation has its best


exposed development, and they are typical of the formation


all or most of its members are present.


where


The inequalities of the sur-


face of the underlying Caloosahatchee marl give unequal thickness


to the Fort


Thompson, since it usually is thicker in the


low parts


and thinner on the high parts.


The


Fort


Thompson


formation


extends


eastward(


westward


from the type locality


but has only


a limited


development


west where, beyond


tron;


floors


Denaud,


Lake


merges


with


Okeechobee-Everglades


Anastasia
depression


forma-


south as the latitude of Fort Lauderdale and as far east as the Atlantic


e)





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN


However, the present writers favor the view that they represent al-
most uniform deposition over the inequalities in the Pliocene floor
on which they were deposited, possibly modified by sagging where


ground


water has removed soft calcareous marl


that gave support


to the overlying less-soluble beds.
beds lie almost perfectly flat for


In some areas the Fort Thompson
miles; however, since in most of


the area of its development the Fort Thompson formation is covered


with water, peat and muck, or sand, the structure of


the beds can


not be ascertained definitely.


Water-bearing


characteristics-Stringfield


(1933)


first


reported


on the water-bearing characteristics of the Fort Thompson formation.


is a


poor


aquifer;


its limestones


are


dense


and


hard,


and


calcareous muds or marls have very


low permeability.


The


freest


movement of water is in the sand and shell beds, but these commonly


have a low coefficient of
fine sand, silt and clay.


permeability because of the admixture of


Water is apt to be of


poor quality because


of residual mineralization from various invasions by the sea of the
area underlain by the Fort Thompson during the several interglacial


stages. Chloride ranging from 16
some of the exploratory test wells


to 3150 ppm. has been found in


(Parker and Hoy, 1943).


Treasury standards allow maximum chloride of 250 ppm in public


supplies,


and


most


people can


definitely taste


400-500


ppm.


The


fact


that some


wells drawing from


Fort


Thompson


formation


find usable water is due to the circumstance of having been drilled
in more permeable beds that were flushed of their highly mineralized


waters.


Heavy pumping on certain of these wells, however, has caused


mineralized water to be drawn in from adjacent mineralized zones,
and some of the wells had to be abandoned.

PAMLICO FORMATION
Historical summary-The Pamlico formation was named by Ste-


phenson


(1912, pp. 286-290)


Carolina, of fine sandy


and described as consisting, in North


loans, sands


and


clays,


and,


limited


extent, gravels.


The surface of these deposits forms a


nearly


level


wi1,.;k arlnn- ,014 i n,,, 1 n--n,, nf.l_ 1 i -.- 1 _A1_1- . _-_. . -1- nt .




LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY 75

the Pamlico formation into Florida and include in it all marine
Pleistocene deposits younger than the Anastasia formation. The
Pamlico generally lies at altitudes of less than 25 feet above sea
level on the east, south, and west coasts of Florida, and consists
chiefly of sand (Plate 3). Where dunes or beach ridges were formed
above the Pamlico shore line the deposits are higher than 25 feet.
Development-The Pamlico formation in southern Florida grades
from almost pure quartz sand to sandy shell deposits, which are locally
consolidated. The sand grains range in size from very fine to coarse
with medium-sized grains predominating. Most of it is white, though
in some places, especially in old spillways from the Lake Okeechobee-
Everglades depression, the sand is commonly stained black by an
organic material on the surface of the grains.
The Pamlico deposits extend down the east coast to Coral Gables,
mantling the Atlantic coastal ridge, and are in places overlapped by
Recent muck, marl, or sand beds. Pamlico sand is present on the
western fringe of the Everglades almost to the latitude of Fort
Lauderdale and mantles a large part of the surface of the western
part of southern Florida, including the northern part of the Big
Cypress. The formation usually does not extend above the 25-foot
contour, which was the approximate location of its shore line. The
Pamlico extends from the Gulf coast eastward up the Caloosahatchee
River Valley, where it is present except in abandoned cuts or fills
of the Caloosahatchee River. It is generally covered by muck, marl
and organic material in the swampy area near Lake Okeechobee.
Along the coasts it is in places preserved in dune form. The thick-
ness ranges from a feather edge to possibly 50 feet; the greatest thick-
ness being in the old beach ridges now surmounted by quiescent
dunes.
Water-bearing characteristics-The Pamlico formation is the source
of many small domestic water supplies along the coasts of southern
Florida. They are usually obtained by driving sand-point wells of
small diameter. The quality of the water varies in different localities
depending upon whether it has flowed through organic soils or sand.
Usually the water is good when derived from the sand distant from
swamp deposits.

TALBOT AND PENHOLOWAY FORMATIONS

Historical summary-The Talbot formation was named by Shat-
tuck (1901, pp. 73-75) after Talbot County, Maryland. The formation
is now recognized as extending from 'Delaware into Florida.
The name Penholoway was first applied to a terrace by Cooke
(1925, pp. 24-26; 1931, pp. 509-510) who later (1932, pp. 5, 8) ex-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27

VIEWS OF TALBOT TERRACE AND OF SCARP LINE WHERE
IT ABUTS UPON THE PENHOLOWAY TERRACE


vrr!~.:~
"5'


I a.
-":-t


PLATE 20


FIcGtRE a-Sandy flatlands developed on the Talbot terrace near the inner
boundary with the Penholoway terrace. Looking south from
Florida Highway 18, the Okeechobee-Arcadia road, about 4
miles west of the Kissimmee River.


FIGURE b-Inner boundary of the Talbot terrace where it adjoins the
Penholoway terrace. The scarp here is plainly visible. Along
the scarp line a woody-peat deposit is developed in the old
lagoon that once occupied this zone. This old shore line with
most of its features is plainly visible from the air, and still
looks like many modern sandy shore lines. Looking west along
Florida Highway 18, 3 miles east of Childs.


u,
~ 'i

:'; , '
.. .r


-.;i
:...~?. :0~. ; ;::




LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY 77

tended the name to the deposits formed when the Pleistocene sea
stood 70 feet above the present level. The name is derived from
Penholoway Creek in Georgia.

Development-The Talbot, Penholoway, and Wicomico formations
comprise a conformable sequence of deposits whose differentiation
is based mainly on the location of their respective shore lines, namely,
42, 70, and 100 feet above present sea level (Plates 2 and 3). Pre-
sumably the Penholoway everywhere merges downward into deposits
of Wicomico age, and the Talbot into Penholoway and Wicomico,
successively. The surficial deposits consist mainly of poorly sorted
gray to white quartz sand of various degrees of fineness and angu-
larity. Below the surface, the sands are gray to orange, tan, and
brown. In some places iron oxide has stained and cemented the
grains to make a hard reddish-brown to black sandstone.
The sequence unconformably overlies the Caloosahatchee marl.
It is likewise separated by a stratigraphic break from the Pamlico
formation, which fringes around it. Because the terraced surface
was very slightly dissected in this region before the invasion of the
Pamlico sea upon it, the boundary between the Pamlico formation
and the Talbot formation is very inconspicuous. The scarp at the
shore line of the Talbot terrace is very noticeable in many places,
and is seen to good advantage where one crosses it on Florida High-
way 18, the Childs-Okeechobee road (Plate 20b). The Talbot forma-
tion occupies Immokalee Island (Plate 3).
North of Caloosahatchee River there is a wide lobe of the Talbot
and Penholoway formations west of Lake Okeechobee. Another
lobe northeast of the lake extends almost to the latitude of Canal
Point. The boundary between the Talbot and the Pamlico forma-
tions is more conspicuous west of Stuart and Salerno, where it was
probably steepened by wave erosion. Streams, such as Fisheating
Creek, Taylor Creek, and Kissimmee River cut into these lobes and
occupy wide indentations in their borders. Old bars and inner lagoons
exert primary control on the direction of flow of surface runoff. and
are responsible for the existence of certain of the sloughs or sales
now filled with organic soils.
Water-bearing characteristics-Little is known of the water-bear-
ing properties of these formations, inasmuch as the present ground-
water investigation has not been concerned with the area in which
they occur. The area is sparsely inhabited, and most supplies are
obtained by driving wells of small diameter equipped with well points.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27



VEHICLES OF TRANSPORTATION USED IN THE EVERGLADES


,,/ .:/, /.i r! '' i i~ -'.I


t b m
.. : - .


PLATE 21


FIGURE a-A "glades-buggy" used to transport men and equipment over
the swampy soils covered with marsh plants, especially saw-
grass (a sedge, Mariscus janwmaicensis). These vehicles have a
wide bearing surface of many tires. Designed and built by
the Soil Conservation Service.

FIcGURE b-An "air-boat" used in those parts of the Everglades too wet to
support a "glades-buggy" or a tractor with wide-cleated treads.
A pusher-type propeller scoots them over weedy water at speeds
up to about 35 miles per hour. Designed and built by the Soil
Conservation Service.





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


CORRELATION STUDIES

General statement-Good exposures of rock are scarce in southern
Florida except during short periods of extreme low water. Continu-
ous exposures are rare; the land is so flat and the water table so high
that only a few feet of rock is exposed anywhere; indeed, most of
the exposures are in canal and spoil banks. Correlation of strati-
graphic units must therefore depend largely upon studies of data
gathered by drilling exploratory test wells. Both surficial outcrop
and exploratory test-well data have been fully utilized in these
studies, but neither is wholly reliable.

Changes in lithology often take place rapidly both horizontally
and vertically. The area has long been one of shallow-water deposi-
tion with shifting shore lines and currents. Bays, lagoons, and
estuaries with silty, clayey or marly bottoms and mangrove-covered
shores alternated with open sandy shore lines. On the very gently
sloping surface of the Floridian Plateau slight shifting of sea level
caused the shore to migrate many miles and thus brought about the
re-establishment of shore line features many miles away. Under
these conditions areas that had lately been under a marine environ-
ment became, with a drop in sea level, a part of the fresh-water
province in which marls or sands of fresh-water origin were laid
down. With even a slight rise in sea level great areas of land and
fresh-water marshes once again came under marine influences.
Furthermore, the swinging of the shore line back and forth over
southern Florida not only brought about a deposition of sediments
in any given place peculiar to the conditions prevalent there, but
caused a mixing of previously deposited materials with those being
deposited.

The changes of shore line have tremendously influenced the faunal
distribution. Ecologic conditions resulted in a number of dissimilar
faunas living not far apart; the fauna of an open sandy beach was
considerably different from that along a marshy mangrove shore;
that of a shallow ocean bottom was different from that of a shallow
brackish bay bottom; that of a tidal lagoon was different from that
of a coral reef. In addition to these original differences in faunas
a considerable amount of mixing of faunas has resulted from the
several advances and retreats of the sea, and from the action of hur-
ricanes, which whip up huge storm waves that thoroughly scour the
shallow sea bottom, and which, by shifting bars and sediments about,
as well as the faunas thereof, may actually change ecologic conditions.
Too, hurricanes often cause the flatlands to be inundated temporarily
by salty water, thus bring about the death of countless fresh-water





I FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


LOCATION OF STATIONS USED IN CORRELATION STUDIES ALONG CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER


BUL'LET IN 27. PLATF.r 2'"




LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


mollusks and sweep their shells into the ocean or bay, where they
mingle with those of marine animals. Floods caused by heavy rains
may likewise sweep fresh-water animals into marine or brackish
water and bring about their death.
Fossils in southern Florida are generally so perfectly preserved
that it is not uncommon to find them in better condition than many
shells picked up on existing beaches. Some Caloosahatchee fossils
(Pliocene) still retain their color. At the present time fossils are be-
ing washed out of Pleistocene and Pliocene sediments and are being
incorporated in modern deposits. Doubtless such mixing of faunas
took place in each succeeding deposit, at least since the Eocene. Cole
(1941, pp. 12-16) cites evidence of reworking of foraminiferal faunas
from mid-Eocene deposits by the Oligocene sea. Another method of
mixing is by the intrusion of later shells into solution holes or caverins
(see p. 89, fig. 4, and PI. 19b).
These conditions may be recognized and due allowance made for
them in the study of outcrops, but where it is necessary to rely upon
well cuttings and their fossils the task is more difficult. Cuttings from
many wells contain only long-range fossils; the well cuttings are such
a small part of the total formation that chances of getting representa-
tive fossil sampling are slight. Micro-faunas offer much better sam-
pling coverage, but owing to the conditions enumerated above they
are none too reliable in southern Florida.


SECTIONS ON AND NEAR CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER

Exposures are almost continuous along the Caloosahatchee River
and Canal from Ortona Lock to Caloosa, below which the banks arc
very low. To study them adequately a boat traverse must be made
because of the rapid lithologic transitions. All of the following sec-
tions are in the river or canal banks except the first two, which are in
rock pits not far from the river.
Station 26-Buckingham pit, a borrow pit on south side of Florida
Highway 26 about half a mile west of Orange River near Bucking-
ham. This is the type locality of the Buckingham marl. Estimated
height of the land surface about 9 feet above low tide level in Caloosa-
hatchee River.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
2b. Gray quartz sand 1/
2a. Brown quartz sand 1


81





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


Feet
Buckingham marl:
Ib. Tan-brown limestone, hard, irregular 1
la. Soft white to creamy fossiliferous
calcareous clay marl, contains brown
grains of phosphate; practically im-
permeable. To water level in pit 21/
Most of the fossils at Buckingham are preserved as casts or molds.
The ones commonly retaining their shells are species of Ostrea,
Anomia, and Pecten. Most of the Turritellas are strongly compressed.
The species are listed by Mansfield (1939, p. 11).
Station 365-Caloosa pit, an old borrow pit 0.2 mile south of Flor-
ida Highway 292 on the river road to Heitman Groves No. 3. This
road is 2.3 miles west of the bridge at Alva. Land surface about 71/%
feet above low tide level in Caloosahatchee River.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
2b. Gray quartz sand 1/
2a. Brown to black carbonaceous sand %
Buckingham marl:
1. Creamy clayey marl with a few chunks
of nodular limestone and many phos-
phatic grains. The same fossils as at
Station 26. To water level in pit 5%
Station 363A-Alva, Florida, on left bank near southwestern corner
of southern bridge abutment.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
2. Grayish-white quartz sand 1%
Buckingham marl:
lb. Tan-brown hard limestone ]/4-
aI. Creamy-white soft calcareous clay marl
or marly clay, as at Station 26. To low
tide level 11
It was near Alva that Dall (1892, p. 146) first noted that "The
uppermost strata of the Pliocene begins to appear above the level
of the river at low water .. "
Station 25-Right bank, across the river from the main grove
buildings at Floweree Grove. This is the place about which Mans-
field wrote (1939, p. 15) "The information so far obtained indicates
that the Buckingham limestone forms an arch that crosses the
Caloosahatchee River, the highest point of the arch being near
Floweree Grove." Top of bank about 61/2 feet above low tide level.












365






EXPLANATION
---- TOP OF LAKE FL RT MARL O"
TOP OF PAML/IG FORMATION (AND RECENT SANDS/ "QOp"
TOP OF FORT THOMP$ON FORMATION '*Qf
T OP OF ALOOSAHATQHEE MARL 'Pc'
------ TOP OF UCKINGHAM MARL "Pb"


go n* *m 9f
U-~s ...U,.
-'S U- U- U


SCALE IN MILES, BETWEEN LOGS
. . . . . . . . . . .. .: .i .


!1


2


SOp
00V00


LOGIC SECTION Al


RIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


26

z

ax
ss


12


3"A



4


w
.J


C


2S

W w
o >
J ^


3


4


Pb


0


- .. ---. -- ---- - - ------- --r---~ --------.--~---- ---;----: ---- ----. -- -- -- ----- ---












358 24


49
4t w
Z w


386


384


a

h
a


20




ao


350


345


U

to
g


318
.w
hi
4


320


322 325

U)
0.
0
S ?L


LONG THE CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER FROM


BUCKINGHAM TO
o . . . . .. . _


ORTONA


LOCK, FLORIDA,


14 330


327
z w
W x
J o.
(0 w


(0



02~p


C-C'


I


_ _


_ --- -- --





BULLETIN 27. Plate 23


322 325 327 14 330
z a U)
o zw

U o 0 U 0
= w
I- ...O
rn wYoz


332 334


IN THIS AREA THE LAKE
FLIRT MARL IS MIXED WITH
SAND OF THE PAMLICO FORMATION
A"-"-'=---- ---"--- "


338


341 343 343A
x 02

S<, oj


LEGEND

SAND

l LIMESTONE
t MARL

CLAY
MUCK
E SHELL BED
j SHELL MARL

SSHELLY SAND
I SANDY LIMESTONE
^ CLAY MARL
SANDY CLAY MARL
SMARLY CLAY

SMUCKY SAND
E 0 MARLY SAND
J SHELLY LIMESTONE

S SANDY CLAY
COVERED
SBASAL CONGLOMERATE
BLACK CARBONACEOUS
SAND


INA LOCK, FLORIDA, C-C'






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
3c. Gray quartz sand 1
3b. Black carbonaceous mucky sand 10/
3a. White marly sand 1/
Caloosahatchee marl transitional to Buckingham marl:
2. Grayish-green to brown quartz sand,
white oti surface due to wash from
marly sand above l1/'
1 Creamy-white sandy clayey marl, like
that at Station 26. To low tide level 2
Speaking of this same station, Mansfield (1939, p. 14) says: "Th'l
top of the Buckingham limestone is about five feet above water level
at Floweree Grove ." The writers visited this station at extreme
low tide during the dry season and found only 21/2 feet exposed at
the crest of the "arch." It appears likely, therefore, that Mansfield
included the overlying beds, No. 2 and No. 3a (section above) in his
Buckingham. This "arch" is apparently not constructional but is
produced by differential erosion in beds, the lower one of which is
clayier than the upper.

Station. 390-Goober Farm (also known locally as the "Turkey
Farm"). Station is at west end of an old cut-off at a point where it
joins the dredged section of the Caloosahatchee. Two small drainage
ditches from the groves empty into the river at this point. A fairly
complete whale skeleton was discovered at the base of this section.
Top of bank about 10 feet above low tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
4b. Gray quartz sand 11/
4a. Cream to brown to white sugary quartz
sand with lenses of black carbonaceous
to mucky sand 2
Fort Thompson formation:
3. Basal conglomerate containing mixed
fresh water and marine shells in
pockets 1/4 to %/0
Caloosahatchee marl transitional to Buckingham marl:
2. Gray-cream sandy marl as at Station 24.
Weathers out at base to give appear-
ance of being deposited on an uneven-
ly eroded surface. This is only superfi.
cial, however, for there is very little
difference between sediments above
and below this line except that there is
more clay in the lower part 3%1/ to 41/2
1. Creamy-white clayey marl, as at Sta-
tion 26 and 24. To low tide level 21/ to 21/1


83





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


Station 358-Left bank of Caloosahatchee River about 1/ mile up-
stream from mouth of Ft. Simmons Branch. Top of bank about 8
feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
5d. Gray quartz sand 2-1'
Sc. Black carbonaceous sand
5b. Gray to tan quartz sand 2
5a. Black carbonaceous sand
Fort Thompson formation:
4. Gray sand and broken marine shells 0-%
3. Basal conglomerate or remnants of
former thin hard limestone bed. Thin
layer of Rangia cuneata shells above
and mixed in with the rounded lime-
stone cobbles 1
Caloosahatchee marl transitional to Buckingham marl:
2. Grayish-cream sandy clay marl 2/%.3%
1. Gray-tan.cream marly clay that disap-
pears below water level a few feet
west. To low tide level 0-1%
Station 24-Left bank of the Caloosahatchee River about 120 yards
upstream from the mouth of Banana Creek. Top of bank about 13
feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pailico formation:
5b. Gray quartz sand 2
5a. Black carbonaceous sand %
Fort Thompson formation:
4. White, gray to orange sand, marly in
places 1%
3. Basal conglomerate
Caloosahatchee marl transitional to Buckingham marl:
2b. Gray-cream sand 4
2a. Gray-cream sandy clayey marl; con-
tains cetacean bones 3%
1. Greenish-gray marly clay, very finely
sandy, contains cetacean bones. To low
tide level 1%
As at Station 390 there is a differential weathering process which
proceeds at uneven rates between beds 1 and 2 due to differing amount
of clay in the sediments. A fresh cut right across this false erosionall
unconformity" shows no change in lithology, nor are the fossils dif-
ferent; they are the same here as at Buckingham (Station 26) and at
other stations to the west. Samples taken 11/2 feet, 4 feet, and 8 feet
above low-tide line at Station 24 contain Foraminifera that have
been identified by J. A. Cushman as species that are common to both






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Pliocene and Miocene but none that are definitely restricted to the
Miocene. Foraminiferal faunas from samples taken at 0, 2.5, 4, and
5.5 feet above water level were later examined by W. Storrs Cole. His
findings corroborate those of Cushman.

Station 385-Denaud, Florida, right bank near northwest corner
of northern bridge pier. Top of bank about 81/2 feet above low-tide
level.
SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
5. Black carbonaceous sand 1
Fort Thompson formation:
4. Gray fresh-water calcareous marl 1/
3. Marine shells and fine sand, locally
mixed with bed 4 1
Caloosahatchee marl transitional to Buckingham marl:
2. Hard gray nodular sandy limestone
and shells; indurated, weathered, and
perforated by solution holes. Upper-
most portion makes a ledge, and
younger material from above fills
solution holes in it 4
1. Soft sandy marl, appears to grade up-
ward into Bed 2. To low tide level 1
Station 384-Walker farm, 0.7 miles east of Denaud store by way of
old road to LaBelle. Station is on left bank of Caloosahatchee River
about 50 yards east of Walker house. Top of bank about 10:3 feet
above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
6b. Gray quartz sand 14-2
6a. Black carbonaceous sand 1-1%
Fort Thompson formation:
5. Marine shells 0-.
4. Grayish-white sandy marl 2-2%
3. Hard, tan, fresh-water limestone ledge;
may be equivalent of basal conglomer-
ate at other stations. Some parts en.
tirely separated from others and
rounded by solution %
Caloosahatchee marl transitional to Buckingham marl:
2. Shell marl, hardened in places to a
calcareous sandstone with nodular
structure. Many coral heads. Toward
base many fresh-water and land shells.
At contact with bed 1 an oyster bed
overlies a Barnea zone 5
1. Whitish marly clay. Fossils as at Buck-
ingham outcrops. To low-tide level 1


85






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


It is worthy of note that here, as elsewhere, the beds vary greatly
in a short distance, and rise and fall with respect to water level. For
instance, in less than 50 yards to the west bed 1 dips completely out
of sight below water level, and all the rest of the beds lose altitude
likewise; bed 3 is discontinuous; bed 5, about 15 or 20 yards west,
contains a few cobbles of rounded, fresh-water limestone, probably
remnants of a former thin overlying bed.

Station 20-LaBelle Chamber of Commerce Picnic Grounds. Two
miles southwest of Court House by Florida Highway 25, thence 0.6
mile by Denaud Road to entrance to grounds. Top of bank about
9 feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
5b. Gray (quartz sand /2
5u. Black carbonnceous sand '/2- 1'
Fort Thompson formation:
4. Marine shells (more or less mixed
with overlying sand in many places) 1~/l
3. IaIrd tan-to-gray limestone ledge A-l
Caloosahatchee marl:
2. Hard nodular sandy, shelly limestone;
probably a consolidated shell marl
altered by solution and redeposition 2
1. Creamy-tan shell marl, weathers out
very rough on exposed surfaces. An
excellent area for collecting Caloosa-
hatchee fossils. To low-tide level 4

This station is located in an area where wide variations in lithology
are common. In some places nearby the entire Pliocene section con-
sists of soft unconsolidated shell marl; in other places the top layer
of ledge rock is entirely missing, or is represented merely by scattered
cobbles. The Caloosahatchee contains many coral heads at this station
and nearby.

Station 350-Right bank of Caloosahatchee River at a point a few
yards west of the mouth of Bee Branch, about 11/2 miles west of
LaBcelle. Top of bank about 81/2 feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
7. Gray quartz sand and marine shells 2%]
6. Black plastic muck 1/1






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Feet
Fort Thompson formation:
5. Gray calcareous fresh-water marl in
places stained black from overlying
muck %
4. Black carbonaceous sand
3. Marine shell bed mainly preserved in
solution holes in underlying rock 0.1
2. Fresh-water limestone layer riddled by
solution holes generally filled with
marine shells 1
Caloosahatchee marl:
1. Grayish-cream shell marl with oyster
zone at top and bottom. A good fossil
collecting station. To low-tide level 2

Station 345--Right bank of the Caloosahatchee River about % mile
west of the bridge at LaBelle. Top of hunak about 121/% feet above low-
tide level.

SECi(:TION
Feet
Pamlieo formation:
3d. Gray quartz sand 1%
3c. Black carbonaceous sand /
31. Tan sand grading down into grayish-
white sand 21
3a. Black carbonaceous sand 1
Fort Thompson formation:
2. Marine shells, somewhat mixed at base
with sand from bed below 1
Caloosahatchee marl:
1. Grayish.green or light greenish-gray
sand containing considerable calcare.
ous material and a fine assemblage of
Caloosahatchee fossils. A Vermicularia
zone is prominent here 2%
Covered by talus. To low-tide level 21

Station. 318-Right bank of Caloosahatlchee River about 75 yards
east of the bridge at LaBelle. lop of bankk about 131/ feet above
low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
5c. Gray quartz sand /
5b. Black carbonaceous sand, unevenly
distributed laterally A
5n. Gray quartz sand mingled with black
carbonaceous material 2.3
4. Black carbonaceous sand that follows
the old erosion surface on top of the
underlying Fort Thompson






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


Feet
Fort Thompson formation:
3. Broken marine shells underlying and
in places mixed in with carbonaceous
sand above 0-1
Caloosahatchce marl:
2. Greenish-gray clayey sand or marl. Very
few fossils 61/2
1. Stratified greenish sandy clay; no fos-
sils. To low-tide level 21/

Station 320-Right bank of the Caloosahatchee River 0.7 mile east
of bridge at LaBclle. Top of bank about 9 feet above low tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Panllio formation:
5c. Gray quartz sand 1/.34
51. Black carbonaceous sand 0.1/4
5n. Gray quartz sand 2-21/
Fort Thompson formation:
4. Fresh-water shell bed 0.1/4
3. Marine shell bed. In places the fresh-
water shells from bed 4 are mixed in
with the marine shells 0.1/
Caloosahatchee marl:
2. Gray-cream calcareous shelly marl,
with a few lenses of clayey marl; a
hard, irregular, calcareous sandstone
layer near the base 2-2%
1. Greenish-gray marly clay; no fossils
noted to low-tide level 31/%

Station 322-Right bank of the Caloosahatchee River about 11/
miles cast of the bridge at LaBelle. At this point the first hard lime-
stone ledges of the Fort Thompson formation appear. Top of bank
about 9 feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl and Pamlico formation:
7. Black carbonaceous sand %
6. Gray quartz sand with admixed fresh.
water shells. Apparently this resulted
from a mixture of materials by waves
of a fresh-water lake working on a
floor of Pamlico sand 1%
Fort Thompson formation:
5. Marine shell bed 2
4b. Fresh-water hard limestone ledge l
4a. Fresh-water soft calcareous marl 3
3. Marine shell bed 34






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Feet
Caloosahatchee marl:

2. Consolidated shell marl of linearly
aligned concretionary structure con-
taining an excellent fauna of Caloosa-
hatchee fossils 1/
1. Creamy-gray shell marl, to low-tide
level 21/2

Station 325-Type locality of the Fort Thompson formation. Left
bank of the Caloosahatchee River near site of the old fort, 1% miles



STA, 325

25 FT.

"------ ---------- -------- T'--. -r- ---9----L-- T -- "-T



















cl1 SPOIL. DREDGED OUT IN DEEPENING ,,^"-, .j MARINE SHELL BED WITH MIXTURE
Sb

6 5b 6 6 Sb
'6

66





LOW TIDE




EXPLANATION

SPOIL, DREDGED OUT IN DEEPENING MARINE SHELL BED WITH MIXTURE
AND STRAIGHTENING CALOOSAHAT- OF FRESH WATER SHELLS AT
SCHEE RIVER. BASE. YARMOUTH INTERGLACIAL
STAGE.
.m~4 ~ ~ '" u


S BLACK CARBONACEOUS SAND,
S OF THE LAKE FLIRT MARL.


GRAY CALCAREOUS QUARTZ SAND
7 WITH A FEW FRESH WATER SHELLS,
HELISOMA AND AMERIA SPS., WASHED
IN FROM NEARBY LAND AREAS.
PAMLICO.

[fz o MARINE SHELL BED, THE COFFEE
6 MILL HAMMOCK MARL. SANGAMON
S. INTERGLACIAL STAGE.

5 FRESH WATER GRAY MARL (5 )
CONSOLIDATED IN UPPER PORTION
TO MAKE A HARD FRESH WATER
LIMESTONE (Sb ). HELISOMA AND
AMERIA SPS. ILLINOIAN GLACIAL
STAGE.


FRESH WATER GRAY CALCAREOUS
T7's i MARL, LOCALLY HARDENED IN UP-
PER PORTION TO A HARD GRAY
LIMESTONE. HELISOMA AND AMER-
IA SPS. KANSAN GLACIAL STAGE.

MARINE SHELLS, FOUND ONLY LO-
i 2 CALL IN SOLUTION HOLES OR DE-
PRESSIONS IN BED NO. I, OR LY-
ING ON OR MIXED IN WITH A THIN
BASAL CONGLOMERATE, AFTONIAN
INTERGLACIAL STAGE.

7 --"- MARINE SHELL MARL. CALOOSA-
k I TI HATCHEE MARL. PLIOCENE.


NOTE: CORF


RELATIONS TENTATIVE.


GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION
at Sto.325- Type locality of the Fort Thompson formation

FIGURE 4-Idealized geologic section at Station 325, old Fort Thompson,
Florida, showing relations of formation and various members.
(See also PLATE 19 for photographs of this station.)






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


east of the court house at LaBelle. Section is about 30 yards east of
the big gap through the high spoil bank. Top of bank is about 81/2
feet above low-tide level. See Fig. 4.

SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl:
8. Black carbonaceous sand 1/-1

Pamlico formation:
7. Gray quartz sand with fresh-water and
land shells mixed in A/-l

Fort Thompson formation:
6. (Coffee Mill Hammock marl mem-
ber): Marine shell bed usually pre-
served only in solution holes or caves
in lower beds but in places is a few
inches thick over the top of the under-
lying rock 0-3
5b. Hard fresh-water limestone riddled
with solution holes usually filled with
overlying marine shells 2-3
5a. Soft fresh-water calcareous marl cut
through by solution holes and usually
filled with overlying marine shells 1-2
4. Marine shell bed 0-1
3. Fresh-water shell marl locally harden-
ed in top 6 inches to a hard limestone 11/.2
2. Marine shells, present only in low and
protected areas in the underlying bed.
Probably remnants of a once much
thicker bed. Associated with the shells
is a thin basal conglomerate 0-1

Caloosahatchee marl:
1. Creamy-gray shell marl with an oyster
zone at top. To low-tide level 0-1

This section is further discussed on page 73.

Station 327-Right bank of the Caloosahatchee River. This station
is at the western end of the Lake Flirt basin; it is about %/ mile east
of Fort Thompson. Top of bank is about 10 feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl and Pamlico formation:
7. Black carbonaceous sand '
6. Gray quartz sand with admixed fresh.
water shells %
Fort Thompson formation:
5. (Coffee Mill Hammock marl mem-
ber): Marine shell bed that fills solu-
tion holes in underlying limestone and
has a thickness of about 3-31% feet
above it 3.5


90






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Feet
4. Fresh-water hard limestone ledge with
many solution holes usually filled
with overlying shells. Partially ad.
mixed at base with underlying marine
shell bed 1%.2
3. Marine shell bed 0-1
2. Fresh-water marl 11.3
Caloosahatchee marl:
1. Creamy-gray soft shell marl. To low.
tide level %.

Station 14-On left bank of the Caloosahatchee River at a point
reached by driving 3.0 miles east of court house at LaBelle on Florida
Highway 25, then through fields to the river at right angles to road.
Top of bank about 61/ feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl and Pamlico formation:
5. Gray non-carbonaceous to black car-
bonaceous sand 0-1
4. Creamy-gray fresh-water calcareous
marl 2-2%
3. Black carbonaceous sand 1-1%
Fort Thompson formation:
2. (Coffee Mill Hammock marl mem-
ber) : Marine shell bed 1-
1. Grayish fresh-water marl consolidated
in place to a hard limestone. To low-
tide level 1.2
300 yards upstream bed 1 disappears below water level by dipping
east and bed 2 is partially hidden.

Station 330-About 25 yards east of Station 14 and on opposite
(right) bank. Top of bank about 51/4 feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl and Panilico formation:
6. Black carbonaceous sand 0-%
5. Gray quartz sand with admixed fresh-
water shells 1%-2
4. Black carbonaceous sand 1
3. Fresh-water marl or calcareous mud 0-%]
Fort Thompson formation:
2. (Coffee Mill Hammock marl mem-
ber) : Marine shell bed 1-2
1. Fresh-water marl. To low-tide level %
Station 332-Right bank of Caloosahatchee River about 1% mile
east of old Lock No. 3. Top of bank about 71/2 feet above low-tide
level.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl:
7. Black, compact, sticky muck '
6. Fresh-water, gray, calcareous marl 11/'
5. Black sandy muck '/
4. Fresh-water gray calcareous marl 1
3. Black carbonaceous sand with con-
siderable humus '/2.1
2. Fresh-water gray calcareous marl 1-2
Painlico formation (?) :
1. Black carbonaceous sand. To low-tide
level 11/2.2

Station 334-Right bank of Caloosahatchee River about 11/2 miles
east of old Lock No. 3. This point lies at the east end of a big bend
in the Caloosahatchee River. Between it and Station 332 the sequence
of alternating mucky, carbonaceous, and marly beds is fairly constant,
but the beds thicken and thin irregularly, and in places the section
is almost entirely marl. Top of bank about 8 feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl:
8. Black compact sticky muck /
7. Grayish quartz sand 1/
6. Black compact sticky muck '/4-
5. Fresh-water gray calcareous marl
4. Black muck .1/
3. Fresh-water gray calcareous marl 1
Pamlico formation:
2b. Brown to black carbonaceous sand 1%
2a. Brown to gray quartz sand 2
Fort Thompson formation:
1. Gray sand with a nodular, calcareous
sandstone layer about three inches
thick at top. To low-tide level 11/

Station 338-Right bank of Caloosahatchee River at a point about
3 1/3 miles east of old Lock No. 3. Top of bank about 61/2 feet above
low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Lake Flirt marl:
3. Gray fresh-water marl 4-41
Pamlico formation:
2. Black muck and carbonaceous sand 3%-
1. Gray to brown quartz sand 1-1
Upstream, 200-300 yards, the section is the same except that the
upper foot is occupied by a black compact muck layer.






LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


Station 341-Right bank of Caloosahatchee River about 25 yards
west of Atlantic Coast Line railroad bridge. Top of bank about 11
feet above low-tide level.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
8e. Black carbonaceous sand 0-1
8d. White sugary quartz sand l
8c. Black carbonaceous sand 1/4.1
8b. Light-brown quartz sand 1-1
8a. Dark-brown quartz sand 1/4'l-

Fort Thompson formation:
7. (Coffee Mill Hammock marl mem-
ber): Marine shell bed 2-21/2
6. Fresh-water gray calcareous marl 1/1
5. Marine shell marl, fills solution holes
that cut through all the lower beds.
Panope zone at base 2.6
4. Gray sandy limestone containing mix-
ture of fresh-water, brackish, and
marine fossils 1-11/
3. Marine shell marl 0-1

Caloosahatchee marl:
2. Hard marine sandy shelly limestone 11/.2
1. Creamy calcareous shell marl. To
low-tide level 1.2

Station 343-Left bank of Caloosahatchee River in and adjacent
to the cut at the end of the road from Florida Highway 25 at Goodno
store. Top of bank very irregular due to spoil heap but averages
about 111 feet above low-tide line. The spoil covers top portion of
section so that it can not be determined here.

SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
Covered by dredgings (spoil) com-
posed of mixed sand, shells, and lime-
stone, Pliocene and Pleistocene 4.51

Fort Thompson formation:
7. (Coffee Mill Hammock marl mem-
ber) : Marine shells generally partially
or completely hidden by spoil 1(?)
6. Hard gray marine limestone ledge 1-11/2
5. Creamy-gray shell marl, a mixture of
both marine and fresh-water shells 3/4.11/
4. Hard gray sandy limestone 3%-1/

Caloosahatchee marl:
3. Vermicularia bed 3.1
2. Hard gray sandy limestone %'11/4
1. Creamy-gray shell marl. To low-tide
level 1.-2


93






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


Station 343A-East end of U.S.E.D. Reservation above Ortona Lock.
SECTION
Feet
Pamlico formation:
Black carbonaceous sand. To water level 1/-I
CORRELATION OF THE FORT THOMPSON FORMATION
Figure 4, which is drawn to scale with no vertical exaggeration, is a
graphic section of the left bank of Caloosahatchee River at the site
of Fort Thompson, 13/ miles cast of LaBelle. This section at the
type locality of the Fort Thompson formation (Station 325, p. 89),
is especially instructive because it gives indisputable evidence of the
repeated oscillation of sea level during the Pleistocene epoch. Four
separate Pleistocene marine invasions of this region are attested by
beds 2, 4, 6, and 7; and five withdrawals of the sea are shown by
erosion surfaces and fresh-water deposits below, between, and above
them. These alternations agree in number with and presumably cor-
respond to the oscillations of sea level recorded by the marine ter-
races along the Atlantic coast.
The first withdrawal of the sea is indicated by the erosional un-
conformity that separates the marine Caloosahatchee marl (bed 1)
from the overlying Pleistocene deposits. This unconformity probably
represents late Pliocene time and the Nebraskan glacial stage.
The earliest Pleistocene marine invasion deposited a bed of marine
shells (bed 2) that is now represented only by patches filling hollows
in the surface of the Caloosahatchee marl and often mixed with the
overlying fresh-water shells of bed 3. This bed presumably was
deposited during Brandywine time (Aftonian interglacial stage?).
Bed 2 was eroded and then covered by fresh-water marl (bed 3)
containing numerous fresh-water shells. Still later the bed became
perforated by solution holes and the water drained off. Bed 3 in-
dicates an epoch of low sea level that may correspond to the Kansan
glacial stage.
The second Pleistocene invasion by the sea filled the solution holes
in bed 3 with marine shells (bed 4) and also spread them over the
top of bed 3, which has been locally hardened into limestone. The
lower part of this marine shell bed includes some fresh-water shells,
which doubtless were reworked from the bed below it. Bed 4 prob-
ably accumulated during Coharie and Sunderland time (Yarmouth
interglacial stage).
Bed 4 is covered by fresh-water marl (bed 5) the upper part of
which is consolidated into hard limestone. This fresh-water deposit


94





LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY


is perforated by solution chimneys, some of which extend only through
the hard upper limestone, others extend to the porous shell bed (4)
below it, and still others reach all the way down to the Caloosahatchcc
marl. This indicates that when the Yarmouth sea withdrew the region
became at first occupied by a fresh-water lake or marsh, which later
drained away, then the area was subjected to the solvent activity of
downward percolating ground water. This may have happened dur-
ing the Illinoian glacial stage.
The solution holes in the fresh-water marl and limestone (bed 5a
and 5b) are filled with an accumulation of Chione cancellata and(
other marine shells (Coffee Mill Hammnock marl member of the
Fort Thompson formation, bed 6), which also overlies bed 5 in dis-
connected patches. This third marine invasion probably corresponds
to Wicomico, Penholoway, and Talbot time (Sangamon interglacial
stage).
Evidence for a fourth withdrawal of the sea (early Wisconsin glacial
substage) is found in the uneven surfaces of beds 5 and 6, from which
part of the Coffee Mill Hammock marl has been stripped off, leaving
it in disconnected patches.
Return of the sea in post-Iowan (Pamlico) time brought with it
chiefly barren sand (bed 7) and a few fresh-water shells washed in
from the land, which was only a mile or two away on the north
and 3 or 4 miles on the south. The scarcity of marine shells during
this epoch may indicate that the water was too cold for the warm-
water mollusks that had inhabited the region during the earlier
interglacial epochs, or that the currents and food supply may have
been unfavorable. This was the only Pleistocene epoch during which
sand accumulated in notable quanttities at this locality, which, during
Pamlico time, lay in a strait between Immokalee Island and the main-
land. The depth of the water in this strait was only 15 to 20 feet, and
sea level stood about 25 feet higher than now.
Sand of the Pamlico formation is overlain by a layer of black car-
bonaceous sand, which probably is a swamp deposit of late Wiscon-
sin or Recent age and corresponds to the Lake Flirt marl and the
peat and muck of the Everglades.
The typical Fort Thompson formation, as here interpreted, com-
prises all of the Pleistocene deposits older than the Pamlico forma-
tion. These include marine and brackish-water shell beds that may
represent the Aftonian, the Yarmouth, and the Sangamon interglacial
stages and marls and limestones deposited in fresh-water lakes and
marshes during the intervening glacial stages. Most of these beds are
of very local occurrence because they were subjected to solution and


95





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 27


erosion whenever the water table was low enough to permit the active
circulation of ground water-or whenever the overflow from the
interior through ancestral Caloosahatchee River became of great
enough volume.

CORRELATION OF FORMATIONS BY MEANS OF
EXPLORATORY TEST WELL DATA

General statement-In the course of this investigation more than
60 exploratory test wells have been sunk for the purpose of obtaining
data on the occurrence of water, which, of course, is dependent upon
the geology; therefore considerable effort was made to collect and
identify fossils and to gather complete data on lithology.

These test wells are scattered over southeastern Florida. Reference
to other papers (Parker, 1942; Parker and Hoy, 1943; Parker and
others, 1941) will give data on many of these. The present paper
is concerned with two lines of wells, a northwest-southeast line A-A'
and an east-west line B-B' (Plate 24 shows these lines and gives the
location of the wells).

The formations involved have already been discussed in their re-
spective sections. Following is a description of the well logs:

SECTION A-A' (front northwest to southeast)
WELL GS-3 (4" DIAM.)

Site is near the south corner of the water tower at the U. S. Sugar
Corporation, South Shore Camp, Bean City, Florida, sec. 8, T. 44 S.,
R. 36 E., Palm Beach County. Land surface about 15 feet above mean
sea level.
LOG
Thickness Depth
in referred
feet to M.S.L.
Recent organic soils:
Black muck (may include a thin layer of Lake Flirt
marl at base but cuttings did not definitely
prove this) ................................ 7.4 +7.6
Fort Thompson formation:
Hard limestone layer ...................... 0.8 +6.8
Shell marl ................................... 2.1 -4.7
Hard limestone layer .............................. 0.9 +3.8
Shell marl, sand, and shell beds .................... 12.3 -8.5
Caloosahatchee marl:
Dark-gray shell marl and sand with a few strata of
hard rock in layers an inch or two thick ...... 11.8 -20.3
Hard sandy limestone layer ........................ 1.4 -21.7
Very fine shelly sand to bottom of hole ........... 14.0 -35.7


96







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BU LETIN


27.


Plate 25


rt)
I0
10
!


N
0)


Ni

z


AS

M-

M.S.L.


0Qo


Ua tt -64i H H


6 -20



o -30'
F-

0
Li -40
X

S-50-


F-
S-60



z -70


c. -80,
-Jj
0-


-1101


Of


Pc


t d

CcI



i a

Qo
-- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---


Of






PC


SCALE IN MILES
SI 2 3 4 0 20





LEGEND
o o-QUATERNARY, RECENT ORGANIC SOILS
01 -QUATERNARY, LAKE FLIRT MARL
Qp QUATERNARY, PAMLICO FORMATION
Qm QUATERNARY, MIAMI OOLITE
Of *QUATERNARY, FORT THOMPSON FORMATION
Pt -PLIOCENE, TAMIAMI FORMATION
Pc PLIOCENE, CALOOSAHATCHEE MARL
Mh=MIOCENE, HAWTHORN FORMATION


- -- -. -------- --- 7 0


0
0)


0
I
N


0


3cLJJ -1

lo 4 t
492 wa a
cu 0 >

> h w O;w


)BISCAYNE BAY


0)
01
o3


P-
0D
0


OD
00
0


tO to
cc ac



0 0U
5r i
>,
ac >1
ww
F- 2
znzi
N~
Zt i2


NORTHWEST-SOUTHEAST CROSS SECTION ALONG FLA. 26 FROM LAKE OKEECHOBEE TO MIAMI SPRINGS, THENCE EAST TC

SECTION A-A'