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Florida mineral industry, with summaries of production for 1940 and 1941 ( FGS: Bulletin 24 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000454/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida mineral industry, with summaries of production for 1940 and 1941 ( FGS: Bulletin 24 )
Series Title: Geological bulletin (Tallahassee, Fla.)
Physical Description: 207 p. : incl. front., illus. (incl. maps, diagrs.) tables. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Vernon, Robert O ( Robert Orion ), 1912-
Publisher: Published for the Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1943
Copyright Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Directory of the Florida mineral producers for 1941-1943": p. 185-199.
General Note: Bibliography: p. 177-183.
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert O. Vernon.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA1596
notis - AEG2063
alephbibnum - 000865285
oclc - 00689352
System ID: UF00000454:00001

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Copyright
        Page 4
    Front Matter
        Page 5
    Foreword
        Page 7
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
        Page 10
    List of Illustrations
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Main
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
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    Index
        Page 201
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Full Text

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN


TWENTY-FOUR--FRON


rus


Aerial photograph of the Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Company's hard rock phosphate mine, near Hernal
County. In the lower left corner are piles of washed phosphate in wet storage preparatory to shipment to


dina for dr


which have


ying


been


exportation.


built long


ramps


The waste o
that extend


overflow
to two


shown in


dredges.


the left


These dredges


center and


the quarry in


dig rock with a 1


the cer
yard she


maximum depth of 35 feet.
.Photo furnished by the Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Company.










STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION
Florida Geological Survey
S. E. RICE, Supervisor of Conservation
HERMAN GUNTER, Director, Geological Survey


GEOLOGICAL


BULLETIN


NO.


FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY
WITH SUMMARIES OF PRODUCTION FOR 1940 AND


1941


ROBERT O. V
Assistant
Florida Geol


ly
/ERNON, Ph.D.
Geologist
ogical Survey





4oo


AGRI.


*I


CULTURAL
LIBRARy


Published August 1,


194:1


.z


1





LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Honorable


S. E. Rice, Supervisor


Florida State Board of Conservation

Sir:


have


honor


to transmit


a report


entitled


"Florida


Mineral


Industry,
Robert O.


with


Summaries


Vernon,


of Production


Assistant Geologist,


for 1940


Florida


Geological


1941


Survey, and


recommend


that it be published as Geological Bulletin No.


This


report contains


a discussion


of the most


important


mineral


resources of the


State, including phosphate,


limestone,


dolomite,


marl,


clays and


other


nonmetallic


resources


of Florida


briefly


called rare earth minerals.


It contains many statistical tables showing


the output .and value of the various mineral products of the State as a


whole and by counties.


The principal features of each variety of min-


eral deposit are appropriately described.


The distribution of the leading


resources is shown on a generalized map.


It is


felt that


report


prove


of considerable


interest and


value


to property


owners,


those


actively


engaged


in mining


Florida, to the teachers in the schools


interested in


of the State and especially to all


the development of our mineral resources.


Respectfully submitted,


Herman
Florida


Gunter,
Geologice


Director
bl Survey


Tallahassee


Florida


May 28, 1943




FOREWORD


The


Florida


Geological


Survey


receives


many


inquiries


concerning the State's
and mining methods.


mineral resources


, names of producers,


This paper has been prepared with the


view


of placing such information in available form.


The re-


port provides a general library of reference for the use of the


mineral industry and others interested,


and serves as a fore-


cast
For


trends


those


specifically


industries


interested


future


broad


investment.


bibliography


appended for


each


mineral


substance.


hoped


that


this


paper and the bibliography will stimulate research toward the


improvement and refinement of Florida mineral


products


suiting in the establishment of special


an industrial netw
fuller exploitation


plants to


rork utilizing the State's


will


the end that


raw products to a


be built in Florida.


R.O.V


1943


Florida Geological Survey


Tallahasse


Florida.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Florida Geological Survey cooperates with the United
States Bureau of Mines in obtaining statistics on the mineral


production output and value in Florida.


The writer has used


the Bureau of Mines data freely and has supplemented them


with


data


obtained


through


generous


help


Florida


producers in response to


requests for information.


Many


producers


and interested


persons


have


kindly


sub-


mitted photographs, and where these have been used as illus-


trations in this report the use i


gratefully acknowledged.






Contents


~Foreword ................
Acknowledgments
Introduction ..........
Production by sub
Production by cowl
Transportation ......
Total mineral prodi


Land fori
Structure
Oil and
Florida
Aim


Florj


'ms


and g(


*stances ...................................................... .... .......................
cities ........................................-.......... .... ... ... ...........................

action for Florida since 1900 .... ..............................
(ology ............................................................................


gas ................ ............... ............... ....................................................
m mineral products in agriculture ..... ................................................
is and practices of soil conservation ........................................


Soil building allowance
ida mineral resources
Mineral pigments ......
Occurrence in Fl<
Mining ............. ...
Hardpan ...............
Clay and clay product


(e


............................a.... ........ ............a. ...asa a a a....
a.a.....-....-.a.c.-a.a..... p....... S......5 0. 55 5...a..........S.............a.....5


)rida


.a a .. .a.aas ..a...-.* .... ....5*..*.a.....a.a.a......... .....
.....p.5.. 5...a.p ...5.... P.....-..S aa ..5 ....50.0....aa....a.a-.a......... ....


ts ....


Page
7
7
15
16
18
19
20
23
28
31
34
35
35
37
37
38
40
S41
S43


Types of clay ............................................a...................-........-
Kaolin ..................... .............................. ..................................
Bleaching clay ........................................ ........................
Other clay ....................................................
Production and m market ............................................................
Cem ent ........................... .... ................................ ....... ............................
Diatom ite .............................. c--a .........................................


Description
Mining and
Occurrence
Uses ...........
Marketing .
Production
t and muck
Description
Distribution


processing ...............


..a..-.a............... -..-....-.a....a.........-.... ..... .....5.....a..a... a..a..-a .......a.a....a.
.....a.a..5.P ..- a .p.as ... .......a5 C ..S aa .a.aa .a .a ... aS .. 5....a. a- a.a ... ..- aa.......CS a. a.a

........... -. aa.s. ap.s...- -.a-.p a- a. .s. .s.a ..... ... -a...as.5.5..5..c- .a a ..a a5 .s a .......5 w a.s .
*.-a-------------------.-.-a a-.aa.-...........a........ ...........55........ 5......-------------..........
sa -a *p Cas s a- -S Css aas SS ....a a a a 5a a aa Ssa aas- 5* *5 SS


O origin ................................................
Chemical changes in the formation
U ses ....................................................
Mining and production .....................
shed stone ...........................................
Introduction .....................................
Types of crushed stone in Florida


Expan
Uses


of peat ............. .............
*saa...c.......a.... a....... -a-a. a.a.-.-a.a.-.aaS.a..


-...S .a.a................S...........a.......-.
..a.-.............. ... ..a ce.........a.a.........
.......................... aa ......... -aa....


sion and opening new quarries ....................................
a.pa..C..... 5.......s....a.a..........S........... .... .............-........... s.a........... ........spa


Concrete aggregate
Road base material
Railroad ballast ....
Florida East Cc
Atlantic Coast
Seaboard Air I


oast Railway ....................................
Line Railroad Company ...............
ine Railway .................................


R iprap ........................... .. .. ....
O their uses p... ... ........ a. ...........-...............a... ... .........a




CONTENTS--( Continued)


Florida mineral resources-(contir
Lim estone ..................................
Introduction ...................
Kinds and origin ..............
Coquina ......................
Oolitic limestone
Marl
Dolomite or magnesi
Travertine ..................
Cave limestone depo:


Page


......... .... .......... ....m~ ooIw w~ ................. ..OO..
... ... .. ...- ... .. . .a ... .. ... .. ... ..... )111111..
... ... .. ... a ... ... .. ... ... .. .... a... a .. ..
* a... ... .. aa . a... a aa a... ... .. B-a -a *a. ..a a- aa ..
.............. a a 11 1 .111... . . .. . aa. .a. .aa.


limestone


sits


a-
a


Loose, granular limestone
Crystalline limestone ... ...
Distribution .......


Mining .................................
Limestone processing .....
Lime processing ...............
Quarry problems
Uses .....................................
Markets and production .
Dolomite and dolomitic limest


Description
Mining and
Uses ...........
Production
Coquina .............
Shells, produced
water lakes
M arl ...................
Distribution
Uses ...........
Sand and gravel
Definition .
Composition
Classification
Uses- .......
Building
Groutinj
Paving
Molding


1060QQQQQB 6 OQ OgIm6 O Q
i.. ........ ... .... .. ...........


S.. C .* 4.... ........ .... ...... ...... .... .. a ...
.... ...... .... ... a .....- ....a .... ......


* a a -- a* a aa. --aeqa1a a -a eq.... -C C a aa a.. -
.... ... C a... ... ... a a a .....a. aC- a a ...a .. a
* a- -a a a aa. aa C* ** .... a aa aa aa.- -- .a -a --
....... .... ... ..11111)1...a.. aa- C a.. a .


... a-......C * a a C a a.a. a a a a a .. ...
....a a ... a aa ...... ... .. a a- a ..... a... ..


tone


and occurrence
transportation

and marketing


............. C. C.......... ... aa..... .......... ...... a-a.. .
a a a .. .. *a- a a . aa a . aa aa a ..... aa -a a a..
...a a- .. a a -.a C-- a ... a .. a- .. a- aa ...a aa aa

* .. .... a ... .... .... -c- ..... -....-------------- -


from oyster bars, Indian mounds and fresh-
* aa -a * - a a - .. . e-a w e a a a a e a B a e a e s a. a a a a a a a C a ..... a.
a.a .. .. C- a- -.. a- a-.*.. ..a a a .. .. aa a* aaa .. aa aa.a -- ..


and origin ........ ...............................................

aggregate ............................................................
Sand ......................................................................
aggregate ..............................................................
sand .............................


Glass sand
Engine sand
Abrasive sat
Blast sand
Filter sand a
Fire or furn
Ceramic qua
Fill material


Filler
Railroad
Other
Mining anm
Tests and
Uses in Fl
Marketing
Pmrndlinnn


nd 1

ind gravel .......... ............ .............................

;rtz .................. aaaaaaaaaa................. a aaaa.. .....a
1


sand
id ballad


st ZZZZZZZJZZZZZZZZZ.


and special uses
d preparation ..
properties
orida ... .................
and prices ........


i 4 ft


a.aa .


.


I


. .




CONTENTS--(Continued)


Florida mineral resources-(continued)
B bottled w after ................................... ............. ....... .......... ............
P hosphate ................. .. ... ................ .......... ... ... ...... .....................
Introduction .......................................................... ....


Types and descriptions .... ............ ... ......
Land pebble phosphate .....................
Hard rock phosphate .......................
Soft rock phosphate ...........................
River pebble phosphate ...................
Distribution and occurrence ....'..............
O rigin ..........................................................


Estimates of reserves ............
M inning ........................................
Soft rock phosphate .....
Hard rock phosphate .....
Land pebble phosphate
Oil flotation recovery ..........
M marketing ................. ...................
U ses ................ .........................
Production ...............................


C m.m.m me m -. *. ..


Bibliography


. .me.....-.me em.*c.cce me....c...-c...
c.. ... -.-..*-.. -...--.-....---...... -


* m. ec.e.m.ee..c...m....c.cmc..mm.
a Q60Om. O6OI*O 0 IQ*Iw l on.4 w o1


..... ..... m ..m ..m ......C m e.. cc m ..mC -. .. .. ..mm .. cm m m m
em...mmc..... m..............mmcm....... m....a..... me..c
*. ........m . -. m. m m ..m em .. .... m.... C......- mm .. .. m m
.... C ... ... ......... .mm. .mCm .... m .. m-C...............
mm m c.m. ... m.. m..m . .m m.m..m. ... C ...... m.m.. m .. a m. C m
. ..C...... ....mmmc m.. C9 mC .....m... ...... ......... .. ..
. ..........e....m.m. m. .......... C9m. C......C... c m C *
... ... Cc1mmm mm c .m m-----------m mm m -- m -m -m m m


m -C m m- m mm .m mc -m mm ...m. .. .m..m m. m m ..m m m C cm m C m -.m c.. m . .. m..mc ..


Appendix-Directory of Mineral producers for 1941-1942
Index ........................ ...... .........................................................


Page
146
148
148
149
149
151
152
152
153
154
158
159
159
161
162
166
169
171
172
177
. 185


ILLUSTRATIONS

Frontispiece-Aerial photograph of the Dunnellon Phosphate Min-
ing Company's hard rock phosphate mine, near Hernando,
Citrus County.


Figure
1

2
3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10


Graph of total
1900-1941 ..........
Key map to the
Kaolin pit of th<
ley, Putnam Cot
Aerial view of tl
pany, near Quin
Fuller's earth m


Gadsden
Clay pit
County
Clay pit
County,
Air view
Tampa


County
of the


mi]


neral


Figures
production


Page


of Florida


for period


... .... .................. ........... ......... ......................... ......... 21
mineral resources of Florida ........................24-25
e United Clay Mines Corporation at Cross-
inty ................. ....... ........ ............. ....... 46
he fuller's earth plant of the Floridin Com-
cy, Gadsden County ....................................... 47
line of the Floridin Company, near Quincy,


Taylor Brick Company, Molino, Escambia


of the Florida Portland Cement Company, Citrus
about 60 miles north of Tampa ......... ..........................
, of the Florida Portland Cement Company plant at
*.mC.*.......... c c.....m. a........e...... C m....m c......m..- C ..* e....c..c .......-..e.m .... m .....c....... .


Loaded cars of materials used in the production of cement,
Florida Portland Cement Company, Tampa -. .......................
Diatoms from a deposit 15 miles south of Clermont, Lake
County. 1. Surirella oblonga Ehrenberg. x 929; 2. Gen-
eral view of strewn material, x 100; 3. Pinnularia major
(Klitzing). x 488; 4. Pinnularia gibba Erhenberg. x 592
(from McLeod Basin, Santa Rosa County); 5. Pinnularia
'nirid.to (Nftfanh1 v 19Af






Figure
14

15

16

17

18


19

20

21

22

23

24
25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32
33


34

35


36
37

38


39


ILLUSTRATIONS- (Continued)


Figures
Limestone Formation in the Florida Caverns State Park,
M arianna, Jackson County .... ................................. ............ .......
Cable pulled dump car commonly used in the limestone pits
of F lorida ............................................. ........ ................. ............... ...
Pit of The McDonald Corporation, near Brooksville, Her-
nando County........................................
Building block quarry of Richard Hartsfleld in the Mari-
anna limestone, Jackson County .. .................... .. .. ................. .......
Building blocks sawed from the Marianna limestone at
Marianna, Jackson County, by Limestone and Lumber Com-
pany ..................................................................................................
Limestone pit of the Miami Lime and Chemical Company,
M iam i, D ade County ......................................................................
Operating equipment of the Florida Dolomite Company,
near Sarasota, Sarasota County .................................................
The Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (Old Fort
Marion), St. Augustinie, St. Johns County ................................
Fort Matanzas Monument, 14 miles south of St. Augustine,
St. Johns County ................. ... ............. .......... .............................
Indurated, cross-bedded coquina in an abandoned beach
ridge, Flagler Beach, Flagler County ........... ............... ...........
Shelter and band shell built of coquina at Daytona Beach ....
Dry sand filled valley of the intermittent Allapaha River,
north of Jasper, Hamilton County ............................................
The Ruth Jeannett, a tug used by the Florida Gravel Com-
pany, Chattahoochee, Gadsden County ......................................
Dredge, washer, and screens complete on one barge of the
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee, Gadsden County
The Mammoth Sand Company pit and washer, :3 miles
northeast of Lake Wales, Polk County ...................... ...............
Sand pit of the Tallahassee Sand Company, Inc., near Talla-
hassee, Leon County ......................................................................


Sand at the United Clay Mines Corporation, Crossley,
nam County -.............. ........... ........... .. ...... ............. ...................
Soft phosphate prepared for drying at Soil Builders',
plant, Hernando, Citrus County ................. .......................
Typical flow sheet of Florida hard rock washer ...........
Typical quarry operation in the land pebble phosphate


Put-
c......en
Inc.,

. ..eld,
field,


Page

92

97

97

99


99

101

109

112

113

114
115

124

129

129

130

131


by Swift and Company Fertilizer Works, near Agricola,
Polk County .... ......................................................................
Washer of the land pebble phosphate field, Swift and Com-
pany Fertilizer Works, Agricola, Polk County ........................
Log washers of the type used in the land pebble phosphate
field, Swift and Company Fertilizer Works, Agricola, Polk
County ................................ ...........................................................
Typical flow sheet of Florida land pebble phosphate washer
Rotary drier recently installed by the International Min-
erals and Chemical Corporation, Mulberry, Polk County ....
Part of the table feed section at International Minerals and
Chemical Corporation Flotation Plant No. 6, near Pem-
broke in Peace River Valley ........... ............... ................
Graph of the production of phosphate for the period 1900
through 1941 ..................................... ........ ... ..................................





Table
1
2


TABLES


Mineral production in Florida for


Mineral production,


Approximate


mineral


by counties,


1940 and 1941


during 1940 and 1941 ........


tonnage distribution for shipments of Florida


products during


1940 and 1941


Geologic formations of Florida .................................
Analyses of ocher and limonitic sands of Florida
Analyses of Florida clays ...........................................


Value of


1937


clay and


clay products produced in Florida since


Page
17
18

20
29
39
44


Characteristics of Florida diatomite


Production of peat, muck, and diatomite for 1940 and 1941
Abrasion and accelerated soundness tests made by the Divi-
sion of Tests, State Road Department of Florida ........ .... .......
Unit weights of coarse aggregates made by the Division of
Tests, State Road Department of Florida .....................--.........
Chemical analyses of limestone for use as road base courses


Comparative


values


of different


on the Florida East Coast Railway


materials


used


as ballast


Production
Production


of flint since
of limestone


1935


by use in 1940 and 1941 ....


Production of dolomitic limestone for 1940 and 1941
Production of coquina for 1940 and 1941 ....................


Figures
mounds


for shell


, produced


from


oyster


bars


*. .. -.....


Indian


Grade terms of plastic particles


Apparent


specific


gravities,


unit


weights,


absorption


percentages of various concrete aggregates produced in


State


Average
1940 an(


of Florida


sales prices of
1941 ................


various


sands


gravels


sold in


Production of sand and gravel in 1940 and 1941 ....... ............
Production of water in 1940 and 1941 .........................................
Production of phosphate in 1940 and 1941 ...............................







FLORIDA


MINERAL


INDUSTRY,


1940 and


Robert O.


1941


Vernon


INTRODUCTION


Although


state


has


Florida
produced


is not


generally


in excess


considered


461,000,000 dollars


a mining


worth


of mineral products since 1900.


The total value from mineral


output


during


$4,980,584


over


1941
that


was


$21,112,277


1940


, which


being


was


increase


$16,131,693.


This


increase is due to greater domestic demands principally from


military


uses.


Nineteen


mineral


substances


were


produced


in Florida in 1940


and


1941


, including the


various usages of


the different


clays,


and


counties


contributed


State's


totals.


The mineral resources of Florida are largely non-metallics


exception


being the


heavy


minerals


ilmenite


rutile


and


zircon


recovered from


beach sands along the


East


Coast


Riz


Mineral


Company.


These


sands


have


been


worked


irregularly since


1916 and substantial


deposits have recently


been


prospected in


western Florida and in Duval County


latter
time.


is expected


Ilmenite


in production


within


a reasonable


rutile and zircon have been classified as either


strategic


or critical


minerals


by the


War


Production Board


and


this


added


interest


has


centrations of these minerals


phate


has


been


mined


and leads the State


stimulated


in Florida


in Florida since


in the value of


prospecting f
beach sands.


its discovery in


output of minerals,


con-


Phos-
1888,
being


48.0 per cent of the total value of mineral production for


and


48.5


cent


total


value


production for


1940
1941.


The quantity


phosphate


increased from 2,678,784 long


tons in 1939 to 2,847,481 long tons in 1940 and 3,367,797 long


tons


1941.


The


value


this


phosphate


decreased


from


- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I 1 a -- a- u,- a fll


1I


_ L_


1_ _


I


J.


~hln


nnr





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


Limestone ranks second in value of output, its


sale realiz-


ing $6,862,966 in 1941 as compared to $5,093,677 in 1940, the
increase being due almost entirely to the use of crushed lime-


stone
State.


construction


Sand and gravel


military


bases


throughout


were likewise used more extensively


1941


than


1940,


selling


$1,161,675


compared


$743,928.


With clay, coquina, dolomitic limestone,


diatomite


muck


, peat,


sand


, gravel,


shells,


and


water


showing


creases,
second


industry.


total


highest


This


production


yearly


1941


output


compares


was


history


with


output


$21,112,


277


, the


mineral


$23,435,804


1920


and


$20,724,487


1926,


both


which


were


post-war-


boom years.
Production of Substances
The following table shows the quantity and value of min-


eral


substances


produced


Florida


during


1940


and


1941,


as compiled from the United States Bureau


of Mines mineral


statistics, and from a survey of the Florida mineral industry


by the Florida Geological Survey


both


part-time and full-time employees


The approximate


is given for


total
each


dustry


extreme


right column.


Figures


on production


and


value


those


reported


operator


and


include


estimates


made


such


operator


where


book


records


were


not kept or were not available.





Table 1-Mineral Production in Florida for


1940


and 1941


Product


Clay


Brick and


Cement,
kaolin,
Coquina 1
Dolomite


Flint


tile 1 ......-.....
fuller's earth,
d pottery 1 -......


(agricultural)


rock


I Limestone 1
.4


. .. .. .... .. ... ...


Diatomite, muck 1 and peat


Phosphate


Sand 1
Shells 1
Water I
Totals


gravel


..... ..... . .-- . ... ... .... .. ... -

.. .... .. ..... ... ..... - . .. .. .. ... ...
1IanII,

~*I1(~111111


1940


Amount


37,683,157


units


117,508 short tons


.19,888 cubic


68,777


yds.


short tons


80,814 short tons
3,726,218 short tons


34,622


cubic


2,847,481 long


yds.
tons


1,040,365 short tons


230,050 cubic


1,729,942


gallons


Value


$ 1,666,170
430,669

1,235,501
24,264


174,709
5,093,677
98,052

7,747,395
743,928
198,821
161,773
$16,131,693


1941


Amount


32,027,668 units


111,579 short tons
27,073 cubic yds.
86,453 short tons
48,600 short tons
5,266,148 short tons


56,156
3,367,797


cubic yds.


long


tons


1,613,346 short tons


308,217


cubic yds.


1,824,498 gallons


Value


$ 1,825,570
336,227

1,489,343
30,083
279,650
113,385
6,862,966
125,548
10,239,778
1,161,675
304,592
169,030
$21,112,277


1 Contains a few values that were estimated
2 Estimated from the number of barrels of c


by the
:ement.


producer,


where no


books were kept.


3 Contains an estimate of the limestone used in cement,
stone that was sold as concrete aggregate and building stone.


based on the number of barrels, and includes the


* Tonnage includes an estimate of the tonnage of art and dimensional stone, reported in cubic feet.


Mineral





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


Production by Counties


Table 2-Comparative


Values of Mineral Products,


During 1940 and 1941


Counties,


Value
County Mineral Products
1940 | 1941


Alachua


Bay


Bradford
vard

Broward


Calhoun


Bre-


Clay


Citrus



Dade

Duval

Escambia


Flagler,
and


Hamilton
lendry


Gadsden

Hernando

Hillsborough


Indian


River


Lafayette

Jackson

Lake

Lee and Leon

Levy

Manatee


386,406


9,341


96,172

156,569

910,977



1,148,929

130,560

204,200

1,566


444,300

2,570,853

867,428


16,250


8,249

55,012

85,197

410,601

41.274


428,172


50,400

65,183*


129,608

53,577

1,194,659



1.391.535


204,509

208,954

265,617


606,050

3,141,289

1,589,442


133,702


6,616

59,650

128,179

480,201

39.644


Flint rock, limestone,
phosphate clay, wa-
ter.


Peat,


sand


Coquina, n
water.

Limestone,


Brick c

Clay, di
stone,


, gravel.


ruck


, sand,


water.


lay, wE

olomite,
hard


phosphate,


phatic c
Limestone


Coquina,
water.


Brick


clay,


Coquina,


sand,

Brick
earth


Limestone.


Land
phate


water.


Sand,


,lay.
. sand


sand,


clay,
sand,


Lter.


lime-
rock


pho


Wa-


shells,

pottery
gravel.


limestone,


brick

clay,


clay.

fuller's


, sand, gravel.


pebble
, sand,


phos-
shells,


limestone.


Limestone,


gravel,
Diatomite
mound
Limestone
shells


Dolomite,

Dnnlomite


sand,


brick


clay.


, sand,
shells.
, sand,


limestone.

limnatnnp


I


I


I





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


Table


(continued)


; Value
County Mineral Products
1940 I 1941

Orange 99,712 107,674 Peat, sand.

Palm Beach, Pasco 71,795 76,024 Limestone, water.

Pinellas 34,412 60,235 Coquina, sand, water.

Polk 6,869,869 8,596,425 Land pebble phos-
phate, sand, phos-
phatic clay.
Putnam 330,277 421,918 Kaolin, peat, sand,
water.
Saint Johns 6,398 10,388 Coquina, sand, water.

Santa Rosa, Semi- 82,145 236,198 Flint rock, limestone,
nole, Sumter pottery clay, water.

Sarasota 60,884 103,885 Coquina, dolomite,
limestone, sand,
water.
Suwannee, Taylor, 39,856 29,502 Brick clay, sand, wa-
Washington ter,

Volusia 32,737 46,437 Coquina, sand, shells,
muck, water.
Unapportioned 45,080* 130,901 Li-mestone, sand.

Total values $16,131,693 $21,112,277


Summary:


almost
These
Citrus,


three


Polk C
times


counties


countyy


led in value


the value


are followed


Hillsborough,


counties for


Marion,


of output for


for Hernando


order


Gadsden


County,


of production


, Levy,


both


years,


the next


value


Alachua,


1940, and this order is the same for 1941,


with


being


highest.
y Dade,
Putnam


the excep-


tion that Hillsborough moved up to third place.

Includes the heavy minerals produced from beach sands.


t County totals
less than three, to
operators.


are grouped,


where


avoid revealing production


the number of producers


total


figures of the individual


Transportation


The


during
roads


mineral
1940 and


handling


substances


1941


57.8


were


that


were


produced


shipped largely


cent


total


-by rail,,
tonnage


Florida
the' ailr-


1940,


4 f\ A 4


Srd A


A


n.3 on - - En Tu,.. nin ,~ A ~nu ne*- a la--


a


nn~ YIH ^


m,,i,,


_.- I -3 I


put


~U, YI illn


'I C~ AU


h j





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL'SURVEY4-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


refining


plant,


or frdm 'mine


to export


depots.


The


proximate


tonnage


distribution. for


1940


and


1941


shown


the following chart:


Table 3-Approxitnate Tonnage Distribfition Mineral Products


1940


1941


Total S
:* Short
1940
1941


shipments
tons *:
8,602,012
11,422,337


Railroad
4,973,552
7,169,448


Truck:


1,593,144
2,620,920


Waterway
938,057
1,083,751


Unapportioned
1,097,259
548,236:


Includes
diatomite' and


estimates


of tonnages


dimension stone,


for water,


shells,


does not include


peat,


muck,


tonnages


brick and tile.

Total Mineral Production for Florida Since 1900


The


following


production


graph


Florida


gives
year


total


since


value


1900.


The


mineral


valhe


limestone
products,


and
also


phosphate,


graphed.


two


From


most


important


a value


mineral


$128,381


1900,


limestone


production


increased slowly until


1922


when


industry


rapidly


expanded


during


post-war


period,


reaching the all-time


stone


output


industry


dropping


was


high
very


as early


$7,277,806


sensitive
as 1927.


when


1926.


The


lime-


depression,


building


and


road


construction sharply


declined.


The


production


phosphate


during


period


1900


1931
when


increased steadily up


the first


exports were almost stopped,


and


years of World War


production


depended


largely on domestic demands.


Following 1918,


foreign buyers


rushed
boom


replenish


sky-rocketed


their
sales,


stocks


and


reaching


abnormal


peak


post-war


phosphate


produition'in 1920 at $19,464,362,


after which the production


returned


normall.


Phosphate


sales


increased


steadily


through the early years of the depression and not until 1931


did sales


sharply


,decline.


The
1 Q. O tA


output


mineral


industry


increased


I
IQ2Rt who~n 1im~pq'nnA *fnrianpazt t-hf^ rnoflmnnn1


from


19nrvaQ.


in






__~~~~~~ U _i I~/_~_ _


*. t-t..* 1


4I I * -*| ^* f - ^ -
23,43^.804 ,. .t
.** -. .. .34*0
. .................... . . t .- .. 4

-- ANNUAL VALUE --

--~ -r ;- -* -* *-- - - at -'tff{ -
*
.OF .I12 2T
O .-2,4 ,48 20724, 487

MINERAL PRODUCTION .- -

IN I 9,464,362 \ '

FLORIDA 1900-1941 -

I TOTALI : .


F.













10,646,628 10,790,30
---- ---- L- --- -- ----/ -39,- ---
J7 -V9,563,084 | \ / \

\ I I! / /: 1
.---..-^ .^-J'- ^V-^ ^
--










S- ------ -- ---- --- ----- ---- ---- -
*









/~ / 4277,806





.035,010^ / J \ Y4.779,612

- - -. - -- - -2
^~~~~~~~ ZI.PHSHTE4.7229
1,^ //~~~~~~~ i __ l _____ L- -----


--


ti --. -


--I-


- -


LIMESTONE


--- -


a - I


- - -


- ---


* r U U *


S. -I


S**


- - -


- a - -





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


The


degree


which


a mineral


is commercial


depends


upon


market


demand,


which


turn


partly


controlled


by the availability and


degree of its competition


ultimate cost of


with related materials.


product and


Thus some


of the fine beach sands along the East Coast sell for concrete


aggregate,


waste


product


when


the
has


Lake


coarser


Wales


increased


sharper
district.


sale


sands
The
muck


discarded


availability


Brevard


County


and lowered


nando


County


Miami


ie value of
limestone


oolitic


peat


competes


limestone


only


Orange


County.


The


production


through


Her-


area


absorption


heavy


freight


charges,


and


Birmingham


slag


competi-


tion has decreased the margin


of profit of


each.


Population


insofar


centers of


as the


centers
location


population,


and


mineral


mineral


industries


producing


as the phosphate


industry


areas


has


related
develop
in Polk


County,
mineral


or where the growth of towns has locally stimulated


development


as Miami


has


Miami


oolitic


lime-


stone.


The mineral industry in Florida is exceeded in


tourist


trade


and


agriculture,


and


value only
geologist,


industrialist,


between


and


farmer


industries


agreed


will


benefit


that


each.


better


balance


achieving


this


balance the role of mineral resources in industry far exceeds


the annual value of


output, and the future of agriculture and


tourist


trade


depends


a large


extent


upon


future


of the mineral industry


For illustration


the limestone used


to build better roads to stimulate travel in Florida


greater


trade


farmer.


Materials


will result
industrial


housing and military


construction


peat,


limestone


and


dolo-


mite for soil conditioning


phosphate for chemicals,


fertilizer


and explosives; and white-burning clays for pottery are avail-


able in large quantities in the State.


One pinnacle of Florida


future


lies


produced


assembling


outside


State


these


raw


build


products
Florida


with


those


a diversified


;n Vicfrn;n 1 rtn +nvnrl7


4-ha n air#-nin4 aPf nrhrnh n1n1 h 1,t .-a4-nA^^ avlu





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


unimproved


roads,1


and


different


railroads


operating


in Florida


with


a combined


track


mileage,


exclusive of


yard


tracks


5,371 miles.2


LAND


The


FORMS


surface of Florida


AND


GEOLOGY


largely made


a series


flat surfaces that ascend in a step-like pattern from the coast


toward


have


been


* interior.
produced


These
directly


step-like


changes


surfaces


in the


or terraces


elevation


level.


These


Pleistocene epoch,


changes


or ice


age,


were


and


very


were


active


world-wide


during


in effect


as terraces


have


been


reported


and


described


from


coastal


regions of scattered


portions of the


world.


(see Cooke,


1939


and


lated
well


Vernon


1942a


many


and


our


consider these


1942b)


deposits
features


Terraces
minerals


in some


so closely


that


would


detail.


Five such terraces have been described by Vernon


(1942a,


pp. 5-28)
cates that


in western


these


Florida


terraces


are


and


reconnaissance


present


over


work


whole


indi-
State.


Each terrace is represented by a deposition stage composed of


two


parts,


a coastwise


terrace and its contemporaneous


allu-


vial extensions up stream valleys.


The coastwise portions are


possibly


carpments,


marine
parallel


origin


as they


have


seaward


present coast, and have


facing


beach ridges


resting upon them in the position of the present Recent beach


ridge.


However


marine shells


have not been found in any of


these deposits except
has been questioned.


tinuous
present
such as
on the


patches
on both
natural


lowest so


that


their


marine


origin


Extensions up stream valleys are discon-


alluvium


sides
levees


lower alluvial


and


marked
streams.


rim


surfaces and


swamp


were


surfaces


Alluviation


streams


are


and


features
present


probably present on


The oldest of these terraces


is believed to be the landward


remnant


a delta


that


formerly


covered


most


Florida






S-.


I
,..i t:


O 0 O10 20


S- iA C

I ie
r --< o


S -- -. -
*I


----st


- -


30 40


IN MLS


FL


LEGEND


KEY MAP


DA TA FROM


PEBBLE PHOSPHATE
HARD AND SOFT ROCK PHOSPHATE


OR


TmT --


DA


MINERAL RESOURCES


- 42 SURVEY


OF MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


PHOSPHATIC AREAS COMPILED FROM MANSFIELD'S


"PHOSPHATE


LIMESTONE


DOLOMITE
FULLERS EARTH
KAOLIN
RARE MINERALS (ILMENITE,RUTILE,AND ZIRCON)
PEAT AND MUCK
BRICK AND POTTERY CLAY
MARL (U.FLc CEY)


RESOURCES


OF FLORIDA


," U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF THE INTERIOR, GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 934.


COOUINA


FWPROCERS


QUARRY LOCATIONS ARE SHOWN BY THE SYMBOt, a, FOLLOWED BYA
NUMER WHICH INDICATES THE TYPE OF MATERIAL. NUMBERS IN
PaRETHESES SHOW MORE THAN OdE QUARY WITHIN THE DESIGNATED
AREA, i. e., e-34) SYMBOIZES FOJUR LIMESTONE QUARRIES IN THE
AA DESIGNATED BY THE BLACK DOT.

I- PEBBLE PHOSPHATE
2 HARD OR SOFT ROCK PHOSPHATE
3- LIMESTONE
4-OLOMITE
5 FULL EARTH
6-KACLIN
7 RARE MINERALS (ILMENITE, RUTILE, AND ZIRCON
8 SILICEOS AGGREGATE
S-SAND
G- MEL


I / 1 5 I at
"
B V FAm


7-!
iJ

2






I




4
(1




*II

3.
Vs
-J
'1

I eS


I SR





EE INSERT


AREAS


OF" POTENTIAL


COwMERCIAL


FCrTICO


eslm


S


I






S-.


I
,..i t:


O 0 O10 20


S- iA C

I ie
r --< o


S -- -. -
*I


----st


- -


30 40


IN MLS


FL


LEGEND


KEY MAP


DA TA FROM


PEBBLE PHOSPHATE
HARD AND SOFT ROCK PHOSPHATE


OR


TmT --


DA


MINERAL RESOURCES


- 42 SURVEY


OF MINERAL INDUSTRIES.


PHOSPHATIC AREAS COMPILED FROM MANSFIELD'S


"PHOSPHATE


LIMESTONE


DOLOMITE
FULLERS EARTH
KAOLIN
RARE MINERALS (ILMENITE,RUTILE,AND ZIRCON)
PEAT AND MUCK
BRICK AND POTTERY CLAY
MARL (U.FLc CEY)


RESOURCES


OF FLORIDA


," U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF THE INTERIOR, GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 934.


COOUINA


FWPROCERS


QUARRY LOCATIONS ARE SHOWN BY THE SYMBOt, a, FOLLOWED BYA
NUMER WHICH INDICATES THE TYPE OF MATERIAL. NUMBERS IN
PaRETHESES SHOW MORE THAN OdE QUARY WITHIN THE DESIGNATED
AREA, i. e., e-34) SYMBOIZES FOJUR LIMESTONE QUARRIES IN THE
AA DESIGNATED BY THE BLACK DOT.

I- PEBBLE PHOSPHATE
2 HARD OR SOFT ROCK PHOSPHATE
3- LIMESTONE
4-OLOMITE
5 FULL EARTH
6-KACLIN
7 RARE MINERALS (ILMENITE, RUTILE, AND ZIRCON
8 SILICEOS AGGREGATE
S-SAND
G- MEL


I / 1 5 I at
"
B V FAm


7-!
iJ

2






I




4
(1




*II

3.
Vs
-J
'1

I eS


I SR





EE INSERT


AREAS


OF" POTENTIAL


COwMERCIAL


FCrTICO


eslm


S


I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


large


part


sediment


underlying


later


terraces.


The


youngest


depositional


stage


represented


present


flood
sand


plains
dunes


along
along


streams


coast


and


lines.


Recent


Each


deposit


beaches


and


making


terrace


delimited


erosional


escarpments,


one


rising


above and one descending from


These


today


terrace


had


levels and


level


changes


the surface of the


deposits
always


would not


been


terrace.
separable


same


mag-


nitude.


Fortunately the sum of sea level changes throughout


the Pleistocene has been a successive lowering of sea level, so
that today older terraces are higher and descend to lower and


younger


terraces


in steps.


The


progressive


lowering


sea


level i


most easily explained by a continuous uplift of Florida,


probably


resulting from


compensation


overloading


Mississippi


Delta


sediment,


although


Cooke


(Vernon,


1942a


believed that the progressively lowered sea level


was due to the formation of oceanic deeps combined with pro-
gressively smaller deglaciations of the land.


While


Vernon


(1942)


has described five terraces in


west-


Florida


, Cooke


(1939)


has


described


least


eight


the whole State.


The problem to


be considered in


this paper


is not whether there are five or eight surfaces in Florida


but


rather
Florida


are


understand


mineral


largely


their


resources.


depositional,


relationship


then


these


as interpreted


terrace
Vernon


origin


features
(1942a,


1942b),


and


interpreted


partly


Cooke


depositional


(1939,


and


deposit


partly


that


erosional
underlies


and


forms


each


terrace


more properly
sidered. Thus


Pleistocene
, large con


same
than


nmerci


age


as the


Pliocene as
al deposits


surface


, and


Previously


peat,


con-


muck,


sand
marl


and


gravel,


, pottery clays,


diatomite,


flint


boulders


kaolin


, limestone,


and phosphate would be closely associated


with the origin of these terraces and are possibly of the same


age.


these


For


this


terraces


reason
would


a more


detailed


advisable


state-wide


as a knowledge


study


their


nrTioamrn Qn i relnTrr n-F fnrr fn ritinr


ixrrlrl fnoili-t a *th1w l~PvPlnn-





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


cestral
muck,


lakes


diatomite,


concentrating


and


source


they


sand


Florida's


have


been


commercial


commercial


locally
quality,


peat,


instrumental


Lake


Louise in Lake County.
While these sinks of Florida are the result of the localized
solution by natural acids of the limestone that underlies most


of the


Florida surface


depth


which


this


solution


was


effective


was


certainly


increased


fluctuations


ground-water table throughout the Pleistocene epoch.


Thus,


decreasing


level


lowered


ground-water


levels


that


deep sink


were formed.


The


Recent and latest


rise


level


elevated


ground-water


surface


present


position


, so that


today


large


part


these


sinks


are


effect drowned sink holes.


The


Ocala


oldest


limestone


rock


that


and


outcrops
youngest


Florida


Recent


Eocene


floodplain


and beach


neath


deposit.
surface


Older rock


rock


from


are known


cuttings


taken


present


from


wells.


These older rocks are not important economically


except for


possible


sources


, gas,


and


water


so that


they


considered
commercial


fully


this


production


report.


derived


The


from


large


part


Pleistocene


Florida
or Plio-


cene rocks which are distinguished at the surface by terraces,


mentioned above.


In these rocks are included the Melbourne


bone 1
Miami


bed


Fort


oolite


, Ke


Thompso:
y Largo


formation,


limestone


Anastasia


formation


Charlton formation


Cit-


ronelle


formation


Caloosahatchee


marl


, Alachua


formation


and Bone


Valley


western Florida.


gravel,
These


and


terrace


beds contain


sand


and


commercial


gravel


deposits of


phosphate,


flint boulders


, sand and gravel,


pottery


clay,


brick


clay


kaolin


, coquina,


marl


limestone


, dolomite


muck


, peat,


diatomite


, oyster shells and sandstone.


Florida


limestone


Tampa


Miami


oonlitic


commercial
le Suwannee
formation. t


il mestone.


limestone
limestone.


Key


Fuller


comes


from


Marianna


Largo
earth


limestone,


is mined


Ocala


limestone,


and


from


beds


~~V-~~~~---~~~ ------- I-- -~-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


age


unknown


but


could


Pleistocene.


Shells from


oyster bars,


and peat; muck,


and diatolmite from lake deposits


produced


though


lower


partially
portions


from


Recent


accumulations


these. deposits


are


probably


Pleistocene in age.
The following chart of


geological formations is that


gen-


erally
writer


accepted
considers


Florida


beds


Geological


younger


Survey


than


but


Miocene


equivalents of the sand and gravel deposits of western Florida


as all


distinguished


terrace


features,


and


therefore


they are more properly Pleistocene in age with the possibility


only the oldest being Pliocene,


as has


been interpreted


the writer


(1942a)


STRUCTURE3


In all studies dealing with water supplies,


artesian aquifers,


especially from


and with the possibilities of the production


oil and gas both minor and major structures must be con-


sidered.
anticlines


structures


dips,


and


Major


and
are
more


structures


large


more


readily


those


large


diWnwarpings


limited


serve


extent


as traps


oil and as local recharge areas for artesian


upwarpmgs


synclines.


usually


with


commercial


water.


Minor
steeper


pools
These


minor structures are sought by the oil geologist,


and include


salt domes
lapping of


, wedges of porosity, faults,


discordant dips,


sediment over unconformities and


over-


buried land


masses,


small folds


rock


and


many


others.


Some


these have


been


discussed


by Campbell


(1941a)


The


regional


structure of Florida


is that


a south


dip-


pmng


monocline


modified


large


"Ocala


uplift"


northwest


uplift"


Peninsula


in northwest


, and 1
Florida


smaller


giving,


"Chipley-Marianna


a structural


section


along the axis of the Peninsula,


the appearance of an arrested


anticline.


The


regional


structure


further


complicated


28


Its




Table


4-Geological


Formations


Pt -r -~ I .


Recent

Pleistocene
or Pliocene i-












MViocene


Oligocene


Eocene


Upper
Cretaceous
Lower
Cretaceous


Jurassic ?
Triassic ?
Paleozoic ?


Bay,


beach,


Formation or Giroup


floodplain and lake


deposits,


unnamed.


Melbourne bone


Relative


stratigraphic


positions are not fully
known.


Terrace deposits, possibly contemporaneous with
the Pleistocene-Pliocene formations listed above.
(see Vernon, 1942 a)
Choctawhatchee formation Buckingham marl
Alum Bluff group Hawthorn formation

Tampa formation
Suwannee limestone Vicksburg group in part
Marianna limestone VICKSBURG group
Ocala limestone Jackson group
Claiborne group
Wilcox group
Midway group


Series


Limestone,


flint,


dolomitic


limestc


Undifferentiated deposits report
cuttings.


: Fort Thompson formation
Anastasia formation
Miami oolitic limestone
Key Largo limestone
Charlton formation
Citronelle formation
Alachua formation
Bone Valley gravel
Caloosahatchee marl


Mineral Resources
Clay diatomite, gravel, muck, o3
shell, peat, phosphate and san<
Vertebrate remains.
Limestone, marl.
Coquina, sand.
Limestone.
Limestone.
Limestone ?
Clay, gravel, sand, kaolin.
Phosphate.
Phosphate.
Marl, limestone.
Coquina, clay, diatomite, dolor
flint, gravel, kaolin, limestone,
oyster and mound shell, sand,
Clay, marl.
Clay, fuller's earth, limestone,
stone.
Clay, limestone.
Limestone.
Limestone.


of Florida





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


tilting


westward


Florida


being


a somewhat


remote


limb


the active


geosyncline


about the Mississippi Delta.


The ob-


V1oUS


structures


present


State


may


tabulated


follows:


Regional
Southward monoclinal dip
Westward tilting
Major


Ocala


uplift


Marianna-Chipley uplift


Synclinal flexures associated with
and Marianna-Chipley uplifts
Minor
Unconformities
Buried land masses


the Ocala


a structural


section


plotted


along


center


Florida


Peninsula


from


Georgia


line


keys,


beds
Polk


would 1
County


almost


from


horizontal


which


point


vicinity


they


south


Bartow


about


9 feet


mile.


However,


portion


this


section


northern Peninsula


does


along the


not represent the dip.


The


local


strike


regional


beds


here


has


and
been


modified


uplift


elongate
western


parallel
portion


folds


and


made


a more


Ocala


or less


paralleling


synclinal flexure in the eastern portion.


The axis of the Ocala


uplift


trends


northwest-southeast


and


folding


is present


from Madison County south to Hardee County


The synclinal


flexure is evident as far south as Seminole County where the


axis


trend
trend


axis


parallels


Ocala


uplift.


northeast-southwest


However,


northeastern


Florida


where


creases south


gentle


pitch


Jacksonville


and


then


syncline
flattens


abruptly


north


of the


city


. The dip of the strata on the limbs of the folds probably


does not exceed 15 feet per mile and 10 feet per mile is nearer
the average.


In western Florida


the original regional


the same as that of the Penins


, W


dip was probably


gentle south dip with the





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


plicate the regional structure.


is present in Florida,


Only the nose of the anticline


this portion being known as the Chipley-


Marianna


uplift.


evident


Holmes


Jackson


, Walton,


and


Washington


counties.


The


axis


both


anticline


and


syncline


trend


northeast-southwest


into


Georgia,


and


strata


syncline
pitches


on the


lies


gently


limbs


as much


east


southwest


as 20


feet


Chipley-Marianna


across


Madison


mile.
uplift


Jefferson


The
and
and


Wakulla counties.


Minor


structures


unconformities


possible


present


significance


rocks


are


Florida.


known
uncon-


formity can be defined as a buried surface of erosion,


although


rare


types


formities


are


other
known


origins


are


known.


present at the


Regional


base


uncon-
Upper


Cretaceous


and


Ocala


Florida.


The


unconformity at the base of the


Upper Cretaceous is


import-


because


hides


geology


older


rock


that


Ocala is important as this


plane


well


and
may


bed is
Ocala


or may


the common structural data


limestone


true


top,


as encountered


and


structures


are


merely reflected by this


bed and are


not actual.


addition


to unconformities


, Campbell


(1939a,


1940)


and Gunter


(1923,


1928)


, have


described


land


masses


now


covered


younger


rocks


and


geologists


view


such


structure


with


confident hopefulness.


OIL


AND


GAS


Florida ha


never


had a commercial


or gas well.


Va-


rious


attempts


discovery


have


been


made,


considerable


impetus


having


been received recently


by the discovery


new


oil field near


Jackson


, Mississippi


and from


encourage-


ment


by the Florida Legislature with


the appropriation


$50,000 fee to be paid for the first commercial well discovered


Florida.4


The


possibility


production


petroleum


Florida has been discussed and well logs described in various


publications


which


reference


can


made.


Levorsen






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


(1941,


1-7)


picked


Florida


as a possible


future


during State not on any positive evidence but rather


because'


the meager


knowledge of the


petroleum geology of the State


does


oppose


presence.


likewise


knew


that


State is underlain by thick sediments that could: provide both


source


been


beds and


reported


that


reservoirs;
favorable


that


and


petroleum


gas shows


geology


have


could


present,


though hidden


under regional


unconformities known


to be present in the State
form of wedges possibly


and that differing porosities in the


hidden in


the rocks may provide oil


reservoir traps.


Florida


's importance as a potential producer has increased


with
East


new


Coast


demands


and


now


on oil


tankers


engaged


, formerly


in military


supplying


duties


, causing


gas shortage.


Many


companies are leasing


land and sev-


eral


wildcat wells are


now


being drilled in


the State


, arising


out of respect of the possibility of new markets and a greater


opportunity


higher


priced


During


November,


1942


the following wildcat test wells were being drilled in Florida


Consumer's


Fuel


Company,


State


, 39


miles west of Miami


, Dade County.


(Located but not


drilling).


Brown


Ravlin


miles south


Florida


Trustees


of Wakulla


Oil Development


. G.


Station,
Company,


Philips


Wakulla
Putnam


County.
Lumber


Company No.


, 6 miles southeast of Cross City, Dixie


County.


H. H. Givan, Marion Corporation No. 1,


near Portland,


Walton County.


Sanford and Arrington,


et al


Walton Land and Tim-


ber Company
of DeFuniak


No. 1, approximately 10 miles southeast


Springs,


Walton


County.


William


G. Blanchard,


et al., Everglades


miles west of Miami, Dade County.

In addition the following had located and were drilling in


pro-





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


Hunt


Company,


sec.


T26S


, R32E,


Osceola


County.


Thompson and Pollard Associates, sec. 16,


T13S


, R16E,


Levy County.


Prospecting


physical
viduals.


crews
with 1


seismographic


being


, employed


use


methods:


actively


both


'magnetic,


past


conducted


companies


electrical


both


several


arid


, gravity,


prospecting


geo-
indi-


and
and


drilling


locations ha i'been made rather


haphazard,


even


larger companies,


detailed
mined.
besides


prospecting i


There
those <


but now
i carried


many


greater care


is exercised


on before locations


factors


a geological


that


nature


should


but evidence


and


deter-


considered
elsewhere


indicates that all oil fields of size are governed by structures.


The


outlining


structures


and


prospecting


should


pre-


cede any well organized venture in


drilling.


locate struc-


tures


in Florida


, where


surficial


Pleistocene


sediment


masks


underlying


rock


safest


method


drilling


prospective


test


holes


easily


identifiable


key


bed,


possibly


bed


a zone


outcropping


erosional


zone


would


require


in the
in F


is not a
d be ex


a careful


expenditure,


and


Ocala
lorida.


good


tremel


study
would


limestone


The


structural
y helpful.


geological


time


datum
Such


most


the
but


distinctive


Ocala


a definite


a program


conditions


consuming


and


, being


key


would
a large


as well.


favor


however


, many points


control


would be established,


and


a potential


drilling,


structure


resulting


could


in a large


condemned


saving


on lease


or approved


holding


penses.


The ultimate test for any prospect is the penetrating


of the potential


bed,


interpretation


but the use of geological knowledge and


rock


structures


will


have


been


portant factor in locating the hole to the best advanta


lowering the po


an im-


and


sibility of the dry hole.


Cheaper


but less


reliable


, ways of locating rock structures


are available through geophysical methods.


These have been





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


FLORIDA


MINERAL


PRODUCTS


AGRICULTURE


Accurate


production figures for the utilization


of mineral


products


in agriculture are not available as production figures


are not traced to the ultimate consumer, and many small pits
are operated by the farmer for his own use, where no records


are


kept.


Peat


, phosphatic clay


phosphate,


limestone,


dolo-


mitic


limestone


and


oyster shells are


being used


extensively


in agriculture as chicken and stock feed, soil conditioners and


fertilizer


Florida


and


1941


fertilizer


tags


87,550


tons of mineral


products to be used on soils were sold by the


State
able


Department o:
t is estimated


Agriculture.'
on a tonnage


From


basis


figures


that


more


avail-


than


per cent of


mineral


products


in Florida are


used


in agri-


culture.


The


dolomitic


limestone


, high


calcium


limestone,


and phosphate has been greatly stimulated though the Grant-


in-Aid
ment
these


Program,


Administration


products


administered


which


place


Agricultural


allows


payment


farmer


Adjust-
receive


participation


program.


The


farmer


is supplied


with


these


soil


con-


serving materials at the time when they are needed and their


costs are deducted later from


payments


due


him for


hearing to the soil conservation program.


The grantee thereby


has


advantage


applying


these


materials


throughout


the growing season,


and he saves the interest that


would


have paid had he


purchased his


ducers with arrangements to


fertilizers directly from


make


payments after


pro-


harvest.


Owner operators


have a greater stimulus


to cooperate


conservation


soils


than


tenant


operator


and share


cropper


This


tendency


has


been


overcome


certain


degree, however


by providing a division


of the allotments to


landholder,


tenant,


and


share


cropper


proportion


which
Both


interest


they


share


tenant


both


in the


and


share


greater yield


harvest


and


cropper


and


profits


thereby


soil


find


conservation,


season.


their
par-





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


larly acid.


Some counties


, especially in the central Peninsula


where


underlying rock


limestone


are


particularly


deficient in limestone and


dolomite.


The application


of lime-


stone
when


dolomite


used


and


phosphates


with legumes,


cover


especially recommended


crops,


and


pasturage.


There


is a recent provision in the government conservation program


for the application


of humus


, peat,


and muck


and their use-


fulnes
year.


is becoming widely recognized and has increased each


Aims and Practices


of Soil


Conservaflon


The


practices


selected


differ


county


and generally


those


The


most needed and not


aim


soil


usually


conservation


employed


program


by the


is not


farmer.
employ


normal


farming practices,


but


particularize


in conserving


and improving soil


fertility,


preventing soil


erosion


and


couraging the economic use of the land.


The program allows


for payment to


on such a


the farmer for part of


program,


the costs of


carrying


and these allotments are especially


ful in Florida where the farmer's


yearly


cash income i


help-
very


low


Building


Allowance


The


soil


building


allowance


maximum


payment


made


for adherence to


practices of


soil


conservation


program.


"This allowance


for each farm shall be the sum of the follow-


ing:


cents


sum


acre


of the cotton,


of cropland


peanut,


excess


tobacco,


of the
potato


allotments


for which


payments


computed,


cropland in commercial orchards,


and sugar cane


sugar;


$2.00


acre


for commercial


orchards


on the


farm in 1941;





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


$1.00


acre


of commercial


vegetables


grown


on the farm in 1941 where the acreage is 3 acres


or more.


"In addition


to the


soil-building


allowance


computed


for the


farm


as outlined above,


a forestry


allowance of


may


earned


only


by planting forest trees." 7


Soil building practices include the application of approved


fertilizers


limestone


dolomitic


limestone,


phosphate,


and


muck,
crops,


in connection


Natal grass,


with


full


seeding


permanent pasture,


of legumes,


cover


or green manure crops


in orchards.


Any mineral substance to be applied for soil


building pur-


pose
and


must


ground


payments are


sufficiently


based


fine


on the amount


easily


available


available,
n the soil


first


year


case


phosphate,


and


on the


cent


calcium in the case of limestone.


The


$10


application


and


percent


other


grades


will


superphosphate


pay


will


in proportion.


earn
Raw


rock
less


phosphate


than


or colloidal


cent


phosphate


phosphorus


clay


pentoxide


containing


(P205


earns


$4.80 per ton,


phosphorus


and


that


pentoxide


containing not less


earns


$4.20


per ton.


than
The


cent


application


of dolomitic limestone
limestone $3.00 per ton


will


earn


$4.00


per ton


high


calcium


and muck or peat will earn $1.50 per


acre when 2 or more tons are applied to the acre.


Participation


1940


Grant-in-Aid


Program


included


2.273 farms out of a total of


48,443 farms in the State


signed


Agricultural


Conservation


Program.


The


1941


participation


included


2,680


farms


a total


50.640


farms cooperating in soil conservation.
The following counties have participated in


the program: :


1940


Brevard
DeSoto
Gadsden
Hardee


Highlands
Hillsborough
Jackson
Lake


Orange
Osceola
Pasco
Pinellas


Lucie


Sarasota
Seminole
Volusia





FLORIDA


MINERAL INDUSTRY


1941


Alachua
Bay
Brevard
Calhoun
DeSoto


Gadsden


Hardee
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough


Indian


River


Jackson
Lake
Madison
Marion


Orange
Osceola
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk


Putnam


Lucie


Sarasota
Seminole
Volusia


FLORIDA


MINERAL


RESOURCES


MINERAL


PIGMENTS to


A mineral


pigment is any mineral


that may be used,


with


or without


treatment


and fillers to form


as a color


paint.


when
much


mixed


with


drying


the same as a mmn-


eral


filler with


difference


that


filler


imparts


little


no color to the paint and is used as an inert extender.


commercial


pigment is insoluble in


paint or stain


A good
vehicle


or in chemical


resistant


should


requires.


or other


mineral


decomposition


bright


The


and


clear


texture


pigments.


atmospheric


or dull


a good


and


IS S


table


conditions


opaque


pigment


as the


is granular


and
and
case
and


fine'


and


medium
cation.


when


pigment


paint should


ground


capable


into
easy


vehicle


and


even


appli-


Mineral


pigments


are


especially


important


war


effort and the government i


anxious


to locate all the mineral


deposits


which


could


possibly


commercialized


under


war


necessity.


Throughout


present


war


large


quantities


brown,
ouflage
jected 1


, green,


military


attack.


and gray


and


colors


civilian


Because of


will


areas


required for


which


transportation


might


difficulties


cam-
sub-
local


pigments


desired


and


quantity


and


covering


power


may be


below present commercial standards if the colors are


uniform.


The


pigment


should


granular and should have


a fine body or texture.


Thus some of the Florida clays would


require firing to fusion and then grinding before the required


texture


and


color


n -j-


developed.


....1 1


Brown
-^ --- -


and


dark


- -- Li - A


colored


A,, L. -, a -


n l n Un lnnn .In nlnr 1sni f*r111rT'turll If *lE7 If rUUI* .me, T rruLl rur


- -- -I,1


rtn nr





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


green


color


Department


can


used


tries


under


war


colors


conditions,


which


most


but


closely


War
cor-


respond


their standard


color


chart


, which


can


secured


from any local Army


or Navy office.


eral


n addition
pigments


emphasized


in camouflaging,


min-


"find their main outlet in low-priced paints, both alone and mixed
with chemical pigments. Iron oxide pigments are used exten-
sively in the preparation of paints for the protection of iron
and steel work from rust, competing with graphite and red lead


for this


cars,


purpose.


barns,


coloring
leather,
filler. .
as a pil


agents
shade


Ocher,


nment


as a pigment in


cement,


stuccos,


Iron
Other


and
cloth,


oxide
uses


fillers


shingle


in addition


(toned


up with


paints
for iro]
n the n
stain, a
to its uw
dyes) 3


are also
n oxide


used


pigments


manufacture
nd paper ai
3e in paints,


on freight


are as


of imitation


cardboard


is also


for linoleum and


wood stains and wood fillers,
and mortars.11


and in


used


oilcloth,
coloring


Occurrence in Florida


There


is no commercial


production


mineral


pigments


in Florida


, but


during the


was operated at Inglis,


last


World


Levy County


War


a chemical


and considerable


plant
pyrite


was


imported for use in


this


plant.


The


refuse


dumps


have


a high


content of iron


oxide which


was formerly sold locally


pigments.


Some


this


refuse


still


present


and


sufficiently high in iron oxide to


make a suitable pigment.


Yellow and yellow-brown pigments may be produced from


ocher,
as it


iron


comes


oxide


mixed


from


with


ground


clay,
and


grinding


eliminating


material


sand


purity
slight


screening.


variations


Red


color


and reddish-brown


can


produced


pigments


with


calcining


raw ocher in kilns before grinding.


The higher the iron-oxide


content the darker the brown color, and the deepest shade of
brown in Florida is found in Levy County where limited beds


of limonitic ores analyze


high


iron


oxide.


Ochers and limonitic clays and sands


(bog


iron


ore)


known to occur along the canal


on the road from Fort Myers


fla -,


-


T a


U' glfrul .i ll l I W W t l S n U


r-


flf rUtN T- 9 l


nrvnvi4-


T -At tt


2 w~nnrC


llr1




FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


near


Jacksonville


Duval


County


miles


east


Seville,


Volusia


County


, Estero


Bay,


Lee


County


(see


Wilson


1933


89-90)


and


terrace


sands


northern


Escambia


County.


The Levy County


possibilities,


deposit


limonite


covering


has the


best commercial


approximately


acres


and
from


being
this


Another


high


deposit


deposit


iron-oxi
in small
f possible


content.


quantities fc
commercial


Iron


was


produced


*the Confederacy
development is al


Bunnell


small


, Flagler


amount


County,
pigment


where


High


1938


produced


problem


pro-


duction


and


marketing


should


thoroughly


studied


before


attempting commercial production.


A small pilot plant might


give


favorable


The


results.


following analyses are


by the State Chemist and are


more


or less


typical


ocher


and


limonitic


sands


Florida:


Table 5-Analyses of Ocher and Limonitic


Sands of Florida


Bunnell


, Flagler County
F. B. High


Yellow


Limoni-


Pigment Pigment tic Ore


Iron


Oxide as Fe20,


........ 37.88


Aluminum Oxide as Al20,
Manganese Oxide as MnO


Moisture
Water of
Insoluble
SiO2)
Gangue .


Combination .... 18.02


Matter


(largely


34.04
-a.......


55.22


0.05
1.66
12.82

26.39
....a....


34.24%
0.64
0.01
0.44
6.54

58.12
........


Escambia
County
near
Century


14.63
8.34
. ....
13.48
6.23

56.09
........ a


Levy
County
near
Chiefland


71.80%




14.88





13.32


Brown


crushing


pigments


for war


dolomitic


camouflage


limestone


can


occurring


provided
scattered


nosits alona the


western


coast from


Tavlor County to Char-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


deposits


western


Florida


contain


brown-


and


tan-colored


gravel and


coarse sand which


can


be crushed for


brown


pig-


ment.


Likewise,


fuller's


earth


Gadsden


and


Manatee


- counties


might,


after


treatment


very


serviceable


light earth


color.


The earth


would have


vitrified


and


then


ground,


vehicles


otherwise


, having


would


a tendency


rather unstable


react


with


oils.


paint
Some


of this


fuller's


earth has a greenish


tint which possibly could


be retained


or, if vitrified,


would be some shade of red.


There


northern


with


a number


Florida
single


which


brick


burn


clay


exception


companies


from
Hall


local
Brick


in western


deposits,


and
and


Company


Chipley,


Washington


County,


whose


brick


buff


color,


the resulting brick is some shade of red.


This brick could be


ground for mineral


ture


common


pigments,


along


and


present


clay for


flood


plain


manufac-
western


Florida streams and in terrace deposits associated with


Green


colors


less


common


Florida


, but


them.
high


content of glauconite in some of the marls and clays of west-


ern Florida


marl


will


give dull


green


are common in Holmes


colors


when


, Washington


ground.


(Vernon,


These
1942a),


Walton


and


Okaloosa


counties


(Cooke


and


Mossom


, 1929)


and
are


thicknesses


common


80 feet


in these


exposed


counties.


bluffs


Except


and


marl


steepheads


, existing


producers of possible pigments may..be found listed under the


individual topic in the directory


(Appendix).


basic


will


colors


available


necessary


Florida,


camouflage


Florida


production depending


upon


the tools and machinery necessary for mining and processing.


a mineral


pigment


industry


were


started


Florida


em-


phasis should also


placed


on the


production


extenders


or fillers.


High-calcium limestone,


silica


sand, and diatomite


could


used


and


in many


cases


pigment


and


filler


can be produced from the same area,


if not from the same pit.


-Mining


L





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


hammer mills


and


jaw


crushers


would have


be employed.


Overburden
,very thin.


would not


The


a great


problem


will


problem


as it


lack


is generally
a sufficient


cheap


power for processing,


and fuel for drying the


pigment


where a


wet process


is necessary.


Sand


and


gravel


could


mined


dredge


limestone,


clay and coquina by dragline excavator or mechanical shovel


crushed


and


pulverized,


and


sized


screen


or by


air cur-


rents.


Where


burning


necessary


material


may


burned in


vertical


shaft kilns


as well


as in rotary furnaces,


first


being


cheaper


and


requiring


material


under


priority.


Hardpan


Of special


but related interest to


mineral


pigments


hard


brown


applied,


sandstone


underlying


which


nearly


name hardpan has


low


lands


Florida


been
and


embedded in some of the


composed


largely


silica


high


sand


terrace deposits.


that


has


been


Hardpan
cemented


humus


and iron


oxide.


is a zone


concentration result-


ing from the deposition of iron oxide and humic acid, leached


from


overlying


sands


iron


salts


probably


reacting


with


'the humic


acid


cause


precipitation.


Ground-water


surfaces


appear


control


position


deposition,


and,


as hardpan


is impervious,


formation


one


hardpan may


create


a new


ground-water


surface


which


results


in a second


ing material


and higher


of hardpan


contain


hardpan.


a high


Where


content of


cement-
nitrogen


it has
two of


been


used for making


Vandyke


brown


and sap


brown


azine dyes.


For a short period


during the last


World War sap


brown


was


produced
Haseman.


plant


Prior to


near


the first


Fort


Walton


World War,


, operated


Germany sup-


plied all of the


sap-brown dye used in


this country and after


the end of hostilities this supply was reopened and the Florida


plant closed.


The


use then


as now


was


primarily


as a dye





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


vats


and


then


dried


in ovens


where


controlled


heat


would


keep volatilization of the organic matter at a minimum.


The


dried


material


is known


as Vandyke,


a rather


general


term,


and is the raw source of


sap brown.


Watered Vandyke brown


dissolved


in a cheap


sodium


alkali


form


an organic


sodium


salt


which


was


given


commercial


name


, sap


brown


,by


Haseman.


Before


World War II


, Germany supplied the United States


with 95 per cent of the imports of Vandyke brown and Czecho-


slovakia


supplied


remainder.


Approximately


900.000


pounds valued at $30,000 were imported annually during 1935


1939


but


this


import


dropped


sharply


with


start


the war, and in 1940 only


14,362 pounds valued at $722 were


received


United


States.12


The


cessation


these


ports


may stimulate a renewed


production


sap-brown


dye


in Florida.


Domestic


with


production


National


these


Aluminate


dyes


has


Corporation,


recently


6225


started
r. 66th


Place, Chicago,


Illinois


and the New York Color and Chemical


Company
Company


brown


Belleview
Bound B


dye.


The


manufacturing


have


come


from


New


rook


Jersey


New


source


is not


North


definitely
Dakota.13


and


Jersey,


Vandyke


known,


Calco-Chemical


manufacturing


brown


but


survey


used in


sap-
this


believed


mineral


industry


by the Florida


Geological


Survey


has discovered no


production


of Vandyke


brown in Florida.


The


Bureau


Mines


has


investigated


these


dyes


and has found that the domestic varieties of Vandyke


. . though usually of a fine, rich hue, is likely to


brown


be fugitive,


especially in


increase


roast
more


water color.


its commercial


raw


permanent.


material


It may


value:
gently,


The result is


be treated in


simplest


making
known


the color
as Cologne


ways


method


darker
earth.


another method a


water-soluble .stain,


sap-brown,


may


tracted.


While precise details have been guarded carefully by


the German


manufacturers,


the general


procedure,


according


ex-





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


brown and soda ash in


10 or


the ratio of 100 pounds of pigment


15 pounds of alkali are mixed with about 460 pounds of


water in a


vat fitted with an agitator.


During the


first half-


hour of
parently


mixing


involves


carbon


dioxide is


the conversion


given
of the


reaction


humicc


acid'


dium


'humate'


. Experiments


with


production


of the material


in edgerunner mills


have


proved


unsatisfactory


owing


to this


effervescence,


while


attempts


to replace


the soda


with


caustic soda have


the stain


been


produced.


abandoned


If the stain


owing


to the inferiority


is desired


the form


scales,


the mix is run over steam-heated roller dryers.


Control


of temperature


sired


mix


is very important.


is dried


Sap-brown stains
manufacture, but


in steam-heated


are used


small


mostly


amounts


a granular form


ovens
paper


are also


at about


is de-
70C.


cardboard


used


for staining


wood.


CLAY


AND CLAY PRODUCTS


A precise definition of


clay is hard to formulate,


everyone understands what is meant


by the term.


although
However,


clay


a finely


divided


mineral


substance,


possessing


property


plasticity when


wet and


originally


derived from


weathering


ites


and


gneisses.


aluminous


With


crystalline
application


rocks,


heat


chiefly


clay


gran-
looses


most


water


combination


and


mineral


particles


coalesce to


form a hard stony mass upon


cooling,


the degree


of hardness depending largely upon the chemical


composition


of the


clay


and


intensity


of heat.


The


clays


of Florida


are a mixture of several minerals


but the fundamental


com-


position


is some


form


hydrous


aluminum


silicate


closely


corresponding to the minerals kaolinite,


halloysite, montmor-


illonite


or bentonite.


Various minerals


, such as quartz,


mica,


limonite,


calcite,


gypsum


garnet,


zircon


, ilmenite,


rutile


are


commonly


The


embedded


following


chemical


fundamental


analyses


matrix.
typical <


types


of Florida clays





44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

Table 6-Analyses of Florida Clays

1 2 3

SiO .......................... ........ 62.83 46.95 45.69
A103, ................................ 10.35 36.75 34.00
FeO .......................-........ 2.45 0.80 3.40
CaO ................................... 2.43 0.15 2.95
MgO .................................. 3.12 0.20 0.21
K ,0 .................................. 0.74
0.24 0.29
NaO .................................. 0.20
Loss on Ignition ........... 14.13 14.95 12.20
Total ...................... ........ 96.25 100.04 99.64


Analysis


fuller's


earth


from


Gadsden


County,


Geol. Survey, 17th Annual Report, p. 880, .part 3,


Kaolin
Florida.


Edgar
Brick c


Analysis


sample


from


Edgar


Analysis from


Plastic


"A little


Kaolin


book


Florida.


1896.


Company


on clays


Plastic Clay Company, Metuchen, !New
:lay from the Taylor Brick Company,


Jersey
Molino,


mine, Edgar,
clay miners,"


Florida


by State Chemist.


mine.


Types of Clay


The types of


clay in Florida may


be divided according to


their


fuller's
kaolin.


uses


thus


earth


there


bleachin


pottery,
clay;


brick]
and.


and


white


These clays fall into two general groups


cement
firing .


clays;


Jlay


transported


and residual


, depending upon the place of their accumulation.


Both


groups


are


secondary


and


sedimentary


having


been


derived


from


previously


existing


rock.


The


most


common


and


commercial


, clay


Florida


has


been


trans-


ported into


as a matrix


the State and


other


deposited in


sedimentary


thin


rock.


beds


These


between,


beds


either of alluvial or marine origin, having been depositsed by


streams along their flood


plains and in


older


alluvial


terrace


deposits.


or having been transported and reworked by marine


I





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


transported


water,


so that


ultimately


State's


clay is transported.


Kaolin


almost


pure


hydrous


aluminum


silicate


and


quartz,


white


color


and


white-firing.


used


manufacturing of paper, china


ware


, glazes,


pottery, and


in any


clay


product


where


whiteness


a desirable


factor.


Two
1941


Plastic
Edgar


companies


The


produced kaolin


United


Kaolin


Clay


Company


Plastic Kaolin


Mines


Edgar,


Florida
Crossley


both


Company formerly


during


and


Putnam


operated


1940


and


SEdgar
County.


a mine


Okahumpka,


operation.
peninsular


Lake


Kaolin
Florida


County


but


known


generally


now


occur


being


maintains


over


only
wide


correlated


one


area


with


physiographic


type


known


as the


Lake


Region,


and


thin beds are present in the high alluvial deposits in


smaller
western


Florida.


The


kaolin


now


being


mined


Florida


composes


matrix of some of the coastwise terrace deposits of the north-


central


Peninsula.


Water-worn


quartz


gravel


and


sand


are


embedded


kaolin


can


this


matrix


marketed.


and
The


must


minable


removed


bed


before


is generally


tween 20 and 55 feet in


thickness and the


recoverable


kaolin


content averages generally from 12 to


underlie:
oxidized


variable


sand


which


thickness o
is removed


15 per cent.


stained


as overburden


This


leached,


bed
and


dragline


excavators


and


loaded


railroad


cars


Atlantic


Coast


Line


using most of it as sand ballast.


be as thick as


100 feet


This overburden may


, but the present mines have to remove


less than 20 feet of this sand.


The


kaolin-bearin


sand


mined


hydraulic-suction


pumps,
20-30


mounted


feet


below


on dredges


as the


ground-water


bottom
table.


The


sludge


pumpe
of the


d


over


screens


and


clay


sand and gravel embedded in


balls (
them)


eliminated


because


together with the


coarse sand and gravel are removed.


Finer sand is


removed


by oumoinE the sludge over


a series of


cone-tanks,


the sand


w






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


finest
moves


sand


slowly


allowed


down


troughs


settle


that


sludge


equipped


with


baffles,


or this


finer


material


is screened


kaolin


100


mesh screens.


Figure
Crossley, I


u


showing the


3. Kaolin pit of the United Clay Mines
itnam County, in the center SW Sec.


method of the


removal


of the overburden


Corporation


T1OS


R23E


by dragline


ex-


cavator in the background, and the method of mining by suction pumps


on dredges in


the foreground.


The kaolin is de-watered in large settling vats,


water


being


slowly


drained


or pumped


pipes


that


can


lowered


near
slud:


settles


as the clay settle


surface


below
more


pipe


rapidly


so that the


sludge


intake


The


pipe


clear


intake


water


agitated


clay


further


and


is always


Thus


kaolin


de-watered


draulic filter presses or on large suction rolls,


the water being


pressed


out or


sucked


through


fine


mesh


cloth.


Drying


is completed in rotary


driers or


by stacking the


moist filter-


press block


of kaolin on shelves of pipe through which steam


forced.


The


kaolin


pulverized,


crushed


to 1A inch di-


__


r_





FLORIDA


MINERAL INDUSTRY


oils


, cleaning fluids and gasoline.


Any


clay that is naturally


adsorptive i


a fuller's


earth


, a loosely used term that got its


name from the original


use by fullers to


remove grease from


woolen


cloth


during


process


fulling.


Where


Figure
Company,
facing sou


4. Aerial view of the fuller's earth plant


near


theast


Quinc!
; and


Y,


Gadsden


County.


the pit lies approximately


of the Floridin


photograph


one


mile


was


taken


to the east.


Printed


by courtesy of the Floridin Company.


sorptive


capacity


leaching


with


clay


mineral


can


acids


improved


known


or increased


as an activable


clay.


The basic composition of both groups is that of benton-


ite which


largely made


up of the


mineral


montmorillonite


with the kaolinite mineral group being almost absent.


Mans-


field


(1940a,


believed that naturally leached decomposed


volcanic ash


(bentonitic


fuller's


earth


and


differs


from


activable clay
Fuller's ea


only in
rth was


being naturally leached.
discovered in Florida in 1893 at Quincy,


Gadsden


County


where


is still


produced


The


Floridin


Company.


Two companies produced fuller's


during 1940 and 1941


: The Floridin


earth in Florida


Company at Quincy and


Jamieson


, Gadsden County


and The Superior Earth Company


-- w





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


The


fuller's


earth


Florida


Miocene


age


and


equivalent to


the Alum Bluff


group


(see


It is


inter-


bedded


with sand and


phosphatic


limestone


that contain


remains of marine organisms,


and is believed to have accumu-


lated


under marine conditions.


The


earth


now


being mined


underlies
thickness


a Pleistocene


and


both


sand


mining


overburden


areas


there


two


feet
beds


fuller's


earth which are separated by a thin bed of bentonitic


phosphatic sand


as in


Gadsden


County


or a thin


phosphatic


limestone as in Marion County


The earth is


therefore mined


benches,


a steam


shovel


or dragline


usually


operating


each


bench


, one each removing overburden,


mining and load-


ing the


upper fuller's


earth,


and


removing


intermediate


bed and mining the lower fuller's


earth


, (figure 5)


The


material


is hauled


processing plant


dinkey


engines
allowed


Gadsden


dry


County


and


storage


by trucks


sheds


and


Marion


further


dried


oil fired rotary driers.


The fuller's


earth is ready to


market


.4 it

113i ri







*'1
I~ -" -RI~~~1W~4e'C~WI~ rm


Figure


Fuller's


Earth mi


ne


of the Floridin


Company


located





FLORIDA MINERAL. INDUSTRY


after being'crushed or pulverized,


different grades,


a 300 me
part now


sh; screen,


and bolted or sized.


from grit to as fine as that which


are


being freighted


sold


in sacks


or. in


bulk


t


will
:he 1;


Eight
pass
arger


bulk.


The


fuller's


earth


Ellenton,


Manatee


County,


was


formerly
built by


r


mined


this


mine


was


closed


McCloskey and Company for the


1925.


plant


United States Mari-


time Commission to fire this material for use as a lightweight


concrete


Tampa


aggregate


has


recently


in the


been


construction


of fused argillaceous aggregate in


in operation.


concrete


cargo


While


is new to


vessels


use


Florida


has


been


practiced


United


States


least


years.


Fuller's


in Florida


earth


, although


best


requires


material


grinding


available


this


and mixing to


pro-


duce a


thick


paste.


This


paste


forced


through


meshes


form


rods


that


are


form


raw


aggregate.


This paste must be dry


adhere


must


through


and


added


fired


should


this


rotary


enough
contain


case.
kilns


that the aggregate-pellets do


some


The


organic


clay


matter,


aggregate


temperatures


high


which


run


enough


cause


escape
matter.


quick
gases


This


incipient
formed 1


then


fusion


and


a seal


prevent


volatilization


causes


organic


expansion


clay


leaving gas


pockets that increase


lightness of the aggre-


gate.
point


The temperature used in the kiln depends on the fusion


clay


and


is regulated


heat


clay


point that it


just begin


to fuse.


Higher temperatures result


in the


formation


a clinker,


which


has


strength


lightness.


This


after


plant


war


should


find


in pre-cast


gate for pavement,


a steady


lightweight


and in heat and


market


concrete


units


water insulation


product
, aggre-
as it is


more


resistant


both


heat


and


water


penetration


than


dinary


concrete.


Furthermore


, concrete made only with


this


aggregate


can


sawed


and


nails


can


driven


into


Zr f j I -" r


I


I


I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


concrete


made


with


limestone


or sand


and


gravel


aggre-


gate.
Activable clays are not commercially produced in Florida,


Bay


and


Munyan


(1940)


discovered


large


deposits


these


clays


outcropping principally


Holmes


Jackson,


and


Washington


counties


but also


present in Leon and Jefferson.


This
these


clay


is a new


areas shows


asset


State


an extensive


and


deposit,


prospecting


should


support


large industry.


The significance of the discovery is that the


better grades of these clays,


when properly treated,


are from


two


five times as efficient in


bleaching action


as the


com-


mercial


grades


decomposed


fuller's


volcanic


ash


earth.


and


Activable


is commonly


clay


called


contains


bentonite


and must


adsorptive.


be chemically


Naturally


leached


active


before


clays


can


(fuller's


used


earth)


wise bentonitic but have been leached by natural acids.


as an
like-
Gen-


erally


activity


fuller's


earth


as a bleaching


agent


improved


artificial


leaching


and


most


tests


activity was


decreased


(Bay


and


Munyan,


1940).


Other


called


Clay


common


Clays having no special


clay"


properties


and are composed largely


are often


of kaolinite


r 1
i4
tr s. ~t
411





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


containing


one


or more


limonite, feldspar, mica,


following


impurities


vegetable matter, and water.


quartz,
These


clays


are


used in


Florida for the


manufacture of brick


pottery,


and


cement


, and


their


most


important


property


their


burning


quality


in particular


as to


color


, shrinkage,


and porosity after firing.


Almost every county has a deposit


common


clay


but


good


structural


and


pottery


clays


rare


, being present only in the north Peninsula and in western


Florida.


Silt


sand


and


vegetable


matter


high


in some


these


deposits,


but in


manufacture


brick


and


pottery the vegetable matter burns out,


and sand and silt are


of little importance


if the plasticity is


high.


Iron


oxides are


disadvantageous where whiteness


desired as they


give


fired product a red color.


Alluvial


posits,


clays,
used


either in


eight


flood


plains


companies


or in


terrace de-


manufacture


brick


and tile.
colored


These brick are red with the exception of the cream


brick


Hall


Brick


Company


Chipley,


Wash-


ington County


and compare favorably with


those


of Georgia


and


Alabama


structural


qualities.


Brick


production


seasonable 'in


Florida


no kilns


being


burned


where


there


danger


freezing


green-formed


brick


while


drying


open-air drying sheds.


Most brick producers try to fire their


kilns
trade.
draft
kilns.


summer


There are


kilns


and


and


stock


four companies


four


that


The permanent kilns


their


brick


that fire


temporary


winter


permanent down-


updraft


or scove


are constructed of brick and have


advantage


reuse


heat


a more
a closed


uniform


product.


circulation.


The


They
kilns


likewise


are


fired


largely with


wood but some companies are now using


The ease of starting a brick kiln has resulted in the aban-
donment of many enterprises which met unforeseen economic


difficulties


, and


Florida


has several


these.


Most of


these


failures resulted from the lack of a thorough investigation


raw


product,


especially


extent


, uniformity,


mining


and


burning


qualities


clay.


This


combined





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


There


five


kilns


that


being


fired


Florida


produce pottery


but only two companies mine their own clay


The Santa Rosa Pottery Company operate


a pit at Gonzalez,


cambia


County


and


combines


this


clay


with


other


clays


from the State


and from out of State


, to manufacture glazed


pottery


fires


glazed
alluvial


and
clay
and


bein


ware.


Jay


glazed


The


anta


Johnson


Rosa


pottery


interbedded


Pottery


County,


Both


terrace


mines


produce


these


sand


and


clays


gravel


and
un-
are
and


are


mined


pick


and


shovel.


The


Crary


Brothers


Bluff


Springs,


Escambia


Hillsborough


County


County


and


The Floramics Company


Merritt Island


Potters


Tampa
Cocoa


Brevard County


mine


pottery
and art


, manufactured


clay


while
ware.


Crary


other


pottery


Brothers


companies


and art
produce


produce


ware


salt


glazed


1941


glazed
pottery


Clay


is mined


near


Floral


City,


Citrus


County,


Florida Portland Cement Company and is freighted to Tampa


where


calcined


with


limestone


mined


Hernando


County to


make cement.


This


clay is a


greenish light gray


blocky,
phatic


slightly sandy


limestone


and


silty


clay


boulders


containing white


bottom.


phos-


There


weathered zone from 3-15 feet in


thickness which i


removed


as overburden.


The clay


is approximately


feet


thick


and


is loaded directly into


gondola railroad


cars from


the quarry


by a


dragline excavator


, (figure


This clay is thought to


Alum


Bluff


group,


Miocene


in age,


and


was


deposited


marine water.


Production and Market


Accurate


clay
ment


used


production


tonnages


manufacture


of brick


available
, pottery,


and


, as these materials are not marketed as clay and records


are


not available


extent.


The


quantity


clay


used


in pottery and


cement have


been


estimated


tons


from


number of pieces shipped in the case of pottery and from the


nui m bar


of barrels


namiant


ahinnerl


from


nloanl-


. .. .., ,..


. . ... ...


I





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


Almost


construction
centage has


brick


buildings,


been


and


used in military


used


1940-41


bases.


locally


an increasing


per-


Pottery production


is small


Florida


in spite


large


deposits


kaolin


Figure 7. Clay, a basic ingredient of
Florida Portland Cement Company from a
60 miles north of Tampa in the NW'4, Sec.


cement,
pit in C


, T21S,


obtained


!itrus County,


y the
about


R19E.


Photo furnished


the R.


E. McCarl


by the Florida
thy Advertising


Portland Cement
Agency.


Company


through


ball


clay


and


pottery


producer


silica


is sold
honey


that


are


locally


available
tourists


marmalades


, jellies


State.


, merchants


and


such


or large
products,


containers.


The


kiln


frequently


operated


under


con-


tract


a particular


one


merchant


or the


potter may execute a design for a hotel


ever
tion


or individual.


, these contracts are small and irregular and the


will


vary


with


tourist


How


produc-


season.


Both


markets


kaolin


and


fuller's


earth


center


outside


the State.


Most of the kaolin shipments are made


the New
Pottery


York


and


Ohio


chinaware


and New


Jersey


industry


while


areas


the center of


almost


entire


- a l C a. t .Ut i .


* I


l J


11


JI f


|


ft





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


absorb a freight rate from


the mine to


the export depot,


ocean rate, and an import duty


but American producers have


to combat a


prejudice


in favor of the English


clays.


Today


no imported fuller's


earth


is used in


petroleum


industry


but some producers of edible oils still prefer the English clay.
The war has greatly aided domestic clay producers as the


scarcity


of bottoms


prevent large


imports and


producers are


looking to domestic producers for suitable clays. Refinement
of processing and mining methods produce a kaolin that wil1


compare


favorably


with


any,


and


this


refinement


is rapidly


erasing the prejudice for


English


clays that arose out of the


former domestic production of low grade kaolin.


Fuller's


earth has strong and increasing competition from


activable clay and other bleaching agents,


and largely due to


this competition and


the increased


usage of


colored


gaso-


line


production


of Florida fuller's


earth


1941


had


creased to almost one half


of its tonnage and one third of its


value of ten years ago.


used
and


in cement during


1940.


ment cla
so that


Ly


Production
and pottery


The production of kaolin and


1941


show


figures


slight


kaolin


increases


, fuller's


over
earth


clay are tabulated together in


individual figures will


clay
1939


table


be divulged.


Table 7-Value of Clay and Clay Products
Produced in Florida Since 1937


1937 1938 1939 1940 1941
Brick and tile $ 148,366* $127,606* $ 193,110* $ 430,669 $ 336,227
Cement, t ful-
ler's earth,
kaolin, and
pottery ........ 1,359,604 828,963 1,106,350 1,235,501 1,489,343
Total ................$1,507,970 $956,569 $1,299,460 $1,666,170 $1,825,570


Bureau


census


of 1939


, probably


represents


only


sales value of the clay that was produced during those years.
t Estimated on the basis of the number of barrels of cement sold.


CEMENT 1G


The


history


cement


in Florida


began


w -


1898 when




FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


rels of natural hydraulic


cement from


Tampa formation


Chattahoochee,


Florida.17


The


deposit


extensive,


and


cement


was


said


high


quality


but


no further


production


factured
Portland


is reported.


Florida


Cement


from


cement


1899


Company's


until


large


any


1927


kind


was


when


and modern


plant


manu-
Florida
burned


its first clinker.
this plant Octobe


The first shipment of cement was made from


r


1927.


Florida portland cement is made by


calcining to


incipient


fusion a finely powdered mixture of limestone from Hernando


County,


clay


burned
clinker.


and


clay


ground


kilns


The


from


with


Citrus


water


(figure


clinker


with


then


County.
produce


powdered


ground


with


The


limestone


a slurry,


coal


gypsum


and


which
make


or other


materials to


control


the setting time and


give


the cement


special properties.


The final product is


tested by mixing with


sand to make pats, from which the setting time and character


determined


and


make


bricquettes,


from


which


tensile strength is determined under a series of standard con-
ditions.
Production figures cannot be given for the one producer of


cement


Florida


, but


approximate


limestone


and


clay


tonnages and value are included in


the figures for those sub-


stances.


However


Florida


industry


has


enormously


creased its production in the past years,


and throughout 1940


and


1941


activity


has


accelerated


meet


large


demands of military construction in Florida.


barrels of


The number of


cement produced in 1940 and 1941 shows increases


and


cent


respectively,


as compared


with


1939.


Florida cement is marketed almost entirely within the State,


and the price of the local


from


cement determines the competition


plants outside the State which must absorb the freight


rate differences.
ner barrel in 1941


The national


was $1.47


average


factory price


an increase of 1


bulk


cent compared


with 1940.
production


Florida cement sold slightly higher due to larger


and transportation


costs.








r-- 'tr1^"-
a" ~a
^^fclr


Figure


Air view of the Portland Cement Company plant at Tampa.


smokestack are each 11 feet in


diameter,


high as 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit are


175 feet long,


developed in


and inclined


producing


The three large rotary kilns in


inch in 12 inches of length.


a clinker clay and limestone.


Tem





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


imports


nor


stock


on hand


warehouses


distributors


and
rels


contractors.


capital


Florida


1940


used 2,442,623


and


3.172.179


barrels or


or 1.67


1.29


bar-


barrels


capital


during


1941.


Figure 9.


Thirty cars of limestone and


eight cars of clay are re-


quired


for a single


day's


Company plant at Tampa.


operation


at the Florida


The limestone


Portland


is quarried near


Cement


Brooksville,


Hernando


County,


clay


near


Floral


City,


Citrus


County.


Photo
fur'ni1


is printed
;hed by the


through


the courtesy


R. E. McCarthy


of the Company,


Advertising


was


agency.


The us


cement has


been greatly stimulated by


a thor


ough


promotion of the use of prepared or precast cement


products


construction.


These


products


made


mixin


and


, coquina,


limestone,


combination


three aggregates with


cement and either pouring or pre


ssmg


blocks
mated


or ornamental


that


ornamental
$2,500,000


where
pieces
a 1941.


pieces


from


producers mined


and


concrete


This


blocks


represents


only


concrete.


is esti-


their own aggregate,


more


than


a fraction


total sales value of


concrete


products in Florida,


as the num-


- ^ j. .-, -


producers that


buv their


assreeate


a t,-


exceeds


those





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

DIATOMITE 19
Description


Diatomaceous earth


, or diatomite,


occurs in Florida asso-


ciated


with


peat,


and


basic


composition


a hydrated


amorphous silica.


Diatomite


is of vegetable


origin


and con-


sists


almost


entirely


microscopic


silica


shells


that


were


secreted
posed ol


by small


Stwo


plants called


valves which fit o


diatoms.
ne upon


Each


shell is


the other,


muc


com-
ithe


same as a small pil
designs and shapes,


box.


These shells are made up of many


some of which are confined to one locality


and all grew in either fresh or brackish water but rarely both.


When


these


shells


deposit on


small


which


plants


they


organic


had


the bottom of the


secreted


pond in


about
which


matter


them
they


decays
build
lived.


and


This


deposit


diatomite.


The diatom shell


is so small


that it can not


be seen


with


naked


eye,


and


it can


identified


only


by the aid


high-powered


microscope.


has


been


estimated


that


it re-


quires between 40 and 70 million diatoms to make up a cubic


inch.


The sharp edges of the diatom make it an excellent pol-


fishing and cleaning agent which


can not scratch any surface


because of the minuteness of the particles.


The prepared dry


diatomite


which


will


makes


absorb


from


an excellent


cent


chemical


and medicinal


moisture


carrier


and filler.


The Florida diatomite is especially clean and pure.


Organic impurities are burned out,


and the little sand that is


present


eliminated


currents.


The


salient


features


refined


diatomite


Diatomite Company


advertised


the only producer in Florida,


American
are shown


in table 8.


Table 8-Characteristics


of Florida Diatomite


Silica


(SiO2)


....98.50 per cent


Specific gravity


Iron


Oxide


(Fe,O,)


Alumina


(A2O3,)


Bulking value: 11.50 per solid gal-


Lime


CaO)


Magnesia
Phnsnha t


(Mg)


Packages


(Pn=


Pn rtinln


...........25


and 50 pounds


195


* ** I


9..F2 22.. And


19..


Slr


||al





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


The Florida diatomite is unique in that it is one of the few


fresh-water diatomites


that i


commercial.


The fresh-water


diatomite has a higher silica analysis and a more porous phys-


ical


structure


than


marine


diatomite.


loose


packed


cubic


foot


fresh-water


diatomite


weighs


approximately


pounds,


whereas


marine diatomite


weighs 20 pounds for


same


angularity


measure.


and


The


light


absorptiveness


weight,


makes


chemical
Florida


purity,
product


indispensable in


some industries.20


Mining and Processing


The


American


Diatomite


Corporation


operates


only


diatomite


plant


and


mine


Florida.


They


have


a prelimi-


nary processing plant at the mine 18 miles south of Clermont,


Lake


County


, and


a finishing


plant


Clermont.


this


vicinity the corporation owns and has lea


es on several bogs,


which


have


been


thoroughly


prospected


bore


holes.


The


present deposit is from 3 to 6 feet in thickness,


and overlies a


thick


peat


bed.


There


is no overburden


sense


that


miners


term


but


shallow water that


covers


bog is pumped over a dam so that the mining area is


kept dry


The raw diatomite is cut by hand shovels and loaded to dump


trucks
plant.


which


dump


into


bins


preliminary processing


The material is fed into a hydraulic press from the bin,


where it is pressed into thin sheets,


thereby eliminating most


mechanically


small
they


square


cakes


sun-dried.


held
and i
The


water.


placed


initially


These


on open


sheets
drying


processed


are


racks


cakes


ar(


into


where
Then


hauled by truck 18 miles


to the finishing plant where the


mining volatile


material


, peat and


water


largely,


burned


out in


wood-fired kilns.


The


residual


silica is shredded


in a


revolving


drum


lined


with


baffles.


constant


temperature


of approximately


150 degrees Fahrenheit is maintained in the


drum


keep


diatomite


dry


suction


pulls


shredded diatomite across a sand trap,


allowing the sand and


diatomite clusters to
removed periodically.


settle out into


a cone


from


which


it is


The diatomite is blown into silos from


_ 1. _1 J _. 1 _ _- _-


.--.--- -U- -- i -u


II I I


I q





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

Occurrence


reported


deposits


diatomite


Florida


composed


fresh-water


diatoms


and


intimately


mixed


with


peat.


Peat


material


and
that


water,


in fact,


is mined


compose
recovery


large


being


part


approxi-


mately


10 per cent after the organic matter and moisture have


been


volatilized.


present


production


comes


from


Lake County
ponds which


where the diatomite occurs in shallow bogs and


must be drained


before


mining


is feasible.


The


adjacent counties, especially Polk County


are reported to have


deposits, but the large


peat and muck


area of the Everglades


apparently


western


has


Florida


deposits


commercial


counties are a


diatomite


along


deposits
potential


Blackwater


diatomite.


producing


River


area
have


The
and
been


described by Gunter and Ponton


(1933).


Florida


diatomite


occurs


brownish


gray,


porous.
usually
section,


light,
under
a bore


peaty


aggregate


variable


hole


interbedded


depth


American


water.


with
The


Diatomite


peat,


and


following


Corporation


18 miles


south of Clermont


Water,


in depth.


Diatomaceous earth,
Peat, 10 to 20 feet in


, Lake County, is typical


in thickness.


thickness.


Diatomaceous


spicules.


This


earth,
bed i


thin layer
3 not mined.


with


siliceous


Uses


Approximately


two-thirds


production


Florida


diatomite
naphtha.


is used


The


among which


insulation,


filtering


diatomite


are


especially


filler in


wine,


has numerous
paint, varnish,


against heat;


coatin


liquor,


specialized
cosmetics, i


paper;


milk


and


usages
plastics ;


hardening


and increasing the life of rubber and leather


abrasive in fine


polishes


carrier for pharmaceuticals and insecticides;


and as


light


aggregate


concrete


increase


density


and


strength.


Tlh,


nhy1, onn 1


cfrnrltirir and th ohpm ionl


onmnnniti nn


* | | If- || | I 7 | -* |


II .






























































""i


'U
5


- *.r -


B 1 .1 M


m


1





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

Marketing
The chief physical properties that make the Florida diato-


mite


marketable


high


porosity


and


relative


inertness of the material.


The high silica content is its most


valuable


chemical


property.


Filtration


and


heat


insulation


demand a high porosity and the chemical inertness of Florida
diatomite is valuable when used as a filler of paints and as a


carrier of


drugs and insecticides.


The Florida diatomite is sold to specification,


can be sure of a uniform


product.


Four grades,


and a buyer
the particles


varying from


are


high


125


silica


500 mesh


content


and


in diameter


contain


no grit.


sold
The


and


largest


market


this


material


filtration


and


as the


light


weight and great bulk of the diatomite carries a high freight


rate


most of


it is sold locally


Because of the necessity for


selling the product nearby, the market area is limited and the


chances of successful competition are low.


Likewise competi-


tion from foreign sources is improbable as diatomite is not a


desirable water cargo,


and bottoms are scarce at present.


The relative inaccessibility


of the deposit,


being small


and 18 miles from a railroad, has held the price of the Florida


diatomite high


but its special properties,


as compared to that


other diatomites


, allow a higher sales price.


Production
No yearly production figures can be given for Lhe diatomite


industry in Florida.


The 1940 and 1941 figures have been in-


cluded with those of peat and muck because of the close asso-


ciation of these materials.


Although the United States leads


world


production of


diatomite,


Florida


contribu-


tion to this total is small.


Pit and Quarry


(No.


6, 1941,


reported


4 tons of


American


finished


opened


Diatomite


diatomite


1936


Company


per day.
marketed


had


Since
1,044


a capacity


the Company


short


tons


finished diatomite at a value of $99,790.


PEAT


AND


MUCK 21


Description




FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


mulations.
disintegrated


Peat is the p
remnant of


)artly


decomposed and


organic


matter


more


or less


produced from


arrested


decomposition


vegetation


covered


or saturated


with


water.


It is fibrous and retains the plant structures,


which small droplets of wax adhere.


Arrested decomposition


has enriched the carbon


content by releasing a large


part of


oxygen


and


hydrogen


as gases,


a large


portion


original


carbon remaining.


The


peat is acid in reaction and


contains much less


inorganic matter than


organic.


Muck


approximately


equal


mixture


inorganic


and


organic


matter


, formed much the same as peat,


but as peat and muck


are


gradational


names


are


used


interchangeably


posits


of either.


Generally, if the deposit ignites freely when


dry it is peat,


but the common use of the terms in Florida is


to call all highly organic lands under cultivation muck lands.


The


deposit


applied


land


deficient


in organic


content


labeled


peat if it has


been


dried and sacked


and


compost or


muck if


term


decayed


is applied in


"humus


and


differs


oxidized


bulk
from


organic


directly to


the land.


peat and muck


matter


The


third


that it is the


accumulated


that have been exposed to the air most of the time.


It com-


poses the


"top-soil"


of the farmer and is a fine organic powder


intimately mixed


with


soil.


Humus


is properly


more


interest


the agriculturist


than


geologist


andi


eluded here in


comparison to


peat and muck.


Distribution


Nearly


every


county in Florida has deposits of muck and


peat suitable for local application to soils or use as a filler in


fertilizers.
of streams


These deposits occur along the floodplain margins


, in shallow


lakes, lagoons,


the Everglades and


marshes of the coast.


Some of the large shallow


lakes have


little


margins,
199-200)


organic


and


peat


content
between.


believed that Florida


centers


Soper


probably


and


muck


Osbon


(1922,


contained more peat


than
j A


any


other


PtI A


State


- -I it t' a~ t+s itr a -n w' a teI


except


1I


Minnesota
h -*


and


Wisconsin


an anh a an an aa


, and


1t


a + an new -.u *u ** ** *I *UEU S U* ** n -I aa.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

Origin


Conditions


Florida


almost


ideal for the


accumula-


tion of


peat.


Lakes are plentiful and generally


Florida lakes


have no surface streams emptying into


them


so that a high-


grade peat with little impurity has been formed.


also in the mangrove swamps,


Peat occurs,


along the streams of the State,


and


extends


seaward


into


salt


marshes.


The


overflow


streams


into


these


back


swamps,


and


action


waves


on the


marsh


flats


, has


mixed


peat


with


and mud so that the marsh and floodplain
organic matter and approaches a muck.


peat is high in in-


Peat requires for its formation a relatively


water which


receives or carries little sediment


quiet


and


body of
which is


not so


deep as


prevent


plant growth.


The


plants making


the peat deposit require both sunlight and water and a fairly


permanent


water


level


one


that


does


fluctuate


tremes


alternately


drowning the


plants


and


then


drying to


the extent that the roots and decaying vegetation are exposed


to aeration.


Deep


bodies of water


have little vegetation and


their margins are so disturbed that the peat is contaminated


with


mineral


matter.


Small


shallow


bodies


water dry up


and allow the vegetation


which has accumulated in the


basin


oxidize,


preventing


peat


formation.


Small


lakes


, spring


heads


, back swamps along streams,


and marshes and lagoons


are ideal for plant accumulation.


addition


a place


accumulation


, peat


requires


climate


that


is wet


enough


provide


permanent


bodies


water


, warm enough for vigorous vegetation, and one in which


rainfall


and


evaporation


are


balanced


so that


there


are


large


fluctuations in water


levels.


Also


, the large accumula


tions from


the annual


plants are desirable


in peat formation


over the smaller volume


produced by


biennial


and


evergreen


plants.


The most common peat-forming plants,


which usually


predominate


over


other


types


vegetation


(see


Harper


1910)


are trees


heath shrubs


weeds and grasses,


lilies


reeds


mt-ft jia


'l* nro a


S r'1i


* *r -u*s ra ** *


0 Vt/


n11|





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


a combination


carbon,


oxygen,


and hydrogen.


Because of


complex


structure


and


chemical


composition


cellulose


easily


decomposed when


attacked by bacteria and


oxygen so


that


new


combinations


chemical


formed and the plant decays if it fall


elements


on aerated soil.


rapidly
Where


plant is covered or


saturated


by water the


rate of


decay


is slow as atmospheric oxygen is largely excluded and the dis-


integration


organisms


depends


on the


amount


oxygen


present and necessary for their existence.


In fact the disin-


tegration


usually


slow


that


chemically


active


elements


, such as nitrogen,


oxygen,


and hydrogen,


are released


so much more rapidly than carbon,


the least active element in


cellulose


that most of the carbon remains.


In the formation


peat


(C62H72024)


from


cellulose


72H1o2060o)


oxygen


and


hydrogen are released as water


and


oxygen


are


combined


(H,O)


various


and carbon


gases


such


, hydrogen,
as carbon


dioxide


(CO,


and methane or marsh


gas


(CH4)


Soper


and Osbon


,1922)


The following


simplified chemical reaction


peat formation is typical:


C72H 120o0
(Cellulose)


CH0
2H(Peat)
(Peat)


24 +


HO


(Water)


0, NH,
(Gases)


Uses


Both


uses


and


problems


been discussed fully by Davis


(1911)


production c
and Haanel


peat


(1926)


have


and


the following comments concern Florida specifically


tries deficient in


a fuel.


There


coal and


is no commercial


e principal
production


use of


. In coun-
peat is as


of peat as a fuel


Florida


coal and


which


because


with fuel


have


would


oil from


advantages


have


the Gulf


higher


compete
Coast oi


heating


with


1 fields


Alabama


both


capacity


and


lower production


portation


costs.


difficulties


However,


during the


arising


war


present
a small


trans-
plant


could possibly operate at a profit in Florida should the short-


age of


coal


and fuel


become


more


acute.


After the


war


this
coal


plant would have


and


coke


and


possibilities


refining


production of


resultant


tars


char


and


n 4 . 1 1


q '






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


use of both muck and


peat in Florida is in agriculture either


as a fertilizer


humus,


or used


filler


direct


directly


application


as a soil


When


soils
used


deficient


soil


land is called hammock


or muck land and utilized for pastur-


age


and


celery


cultivation


and


sunflower


sugar


seed.


cane,


Where


vegetables,


grain


deposit


crops,
applied


directly to the soil without drying or treating, care should be


taken to


test the soil and,


dolomite should be used with it.


when applied to acid soils,


Peat and muck


lime or
used to


some extent in Florida to retain moisture in lawns, as a stable


litter,


compounding


stock


feed,


and


when


mixed


with


manure,
Panama


compost.


City


has


Kimbrel's


recently


Florida


experimented


Humus


with


Company,
manufac-


ture of peat fiber pads to be used as a building insulation and


has


reported


considerable


success.


Mining and Production
Mining of peat and muck is comparatively simple as there


is no overburden


other than


water and green


plants.


Where


is possible


one


company


peat


finds


and
less


muck


pits


are


expensive


drained,


mine


under


although


water


Where the


pit is drained and


the material is applied


soils


green


vegetation


is found to


be detrimental


because of


tendency


undecayed


material


"burn"


the crop,


and


it is removed with great care by some producers.


ducers


their


The


have


not found


product,
drained


and
peat


this


green


is mined


and


plant
with


muck


material


Other pro-
detrimental


peat or muck.


mined


hand


shovels


and


cable-bucket


diggers,


while


that


covered


water


mined by a dragline excavator
to dry and then be shredded, o


. The material may be allowed
r it may be loaded' directly into


trucks
drying


delivery.


platforms


The


(fig.


larger


and


companies


drying


sheds


have


concrete


in which


moisture content of the peat is reduced to a minimum.


drying


fertilizer t


material


make


shredded


compost.


and


muck


cooked,


or mixed


companies


After
with
their


I91 a. ~a r- j


I __ _


I _


d


I1~_ J




FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


pits


adjacent to


large cities have an


economic advantage


over those more distantly located.


In counties which have no


commercial


production the farmer may supply


his own needs


from


local


swamps


and


bogs.


record


kept


this


I? rl *I 9



t -~:r.
1 --S


Figure 11.


Concrete


drying area of the Florida


Humus Company,


Zellwood
in July


, Orange County,
19. 1932.


showing method


of drying.


Plant


as it was


material


, and the production figures do


not represent the full


volume of humus that is mined and


used in Florida.


Six companies were producing peat and four were produc-


muck


Florida


1941.


Two


each


were


located


Orange,


Brevard


, Bay


and Putnam


counties


and one each in


Volusia and Sarasota


duction


went


into


Counties.


agriculture


The larger part of this


fertilizer


filler


and


pro-
soil


conditioner, but no attempt is made to separate the production


according to its uses.
that of diatomite, inc


The production of peat and muck with
luded here because of its association and


as there is only one producer of diatomite in Florida,


is shown


table


Table 9-Production of Peat


1940


, Muck
d 1941


, and Diatomite for


Ain 1


1QA1





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


CRUSHED


STONE 23


Introduction


The crushed stone


industry


has


expanded


greatly


during


last


increasing
short tons


few


years,


from


approximate


1,359,350


in 1940 and


short


tons


volume


1939


to 5,014,753 short tons


production
> 3,460,609


1941.


The


value of this stone was $1,257,115 in 1939,


$3,035,483 in 1940,


and


$4,533,478


1941.


This


increase


has


been


due


greater use of


concrete


building industry


and


con-


struction


military


projects


Florida.


Crushed


stone


is produced from


limestone


, dolomite,


and


flint


rock


Florida


and


large


part


this


material


used as


concrete aggregate,


road


base courses


and for


road


surfacing.
portation,


Each industry has problems of production,


and


crushed stone is


marketing


that


no exception.


The


peculiar
industry


itself


trans-


and


has to compete


with the Birmingham slag, a by-product of the iron industry,


which


can


be marketed at a low price.


In fact,


price of


crushed stone in Florida is so
a large part of the market price


low that the freight charge is
e, and transportation is there-


fore
and


important


failure


tractors


and


and


may


an enterprise.


temporarily


abandon


them


lease
when


difference


For


pits


their


this


between


reason


success


many


vicinity


purpose


has


been


con-
job,


served.


Sometimes mining is continued in such


pits to supply a small


local


broader


demand


market.


permanent


struction


rarely


However,


plant


may


a highway


there


also


attempt


demand
fluctuate


or building


greatly


in the


) supply
product


The


marketing


con-
area


may


create


a large


demand


a time


which


will


drop


project


is completed.


The


centralization


of the


industry near


Ocala


and Miami


has


simplified


marketing,


but


same


time


large


number
portional


f plants
market


grouped


each


so closely


plant.


The


has


reduced


crushed


pro-


rock


Miami area competes with


that of the Tamna-Ocala area and




FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


rock are conditions that are not


desirable.


Flint layers and


boulders


occurring


soft


limestone


in the


Ocala


area


are bothersome because they are numerous,


break machinery,


and increase the labor and


production


costs


by the


necessity


of their removal.


This flint might become an asset if it were


sold to local flint crushers or if


a flint crusher were operated


limestone


company


There


is no such


arrangement,


in spite of the fact that local


flint crushers often


not run


at capacity because of the lack of material, generally supplied


by farmers from


boulders


in their fields.


Another


difficulty


in mining the soft Ocala limestone is the large number of clay


filled
stone.


holes


The


and


solution


channels


inclusion


which


much


penetrate


clay


lime-


lowers


value of the limestone as a binder in road bases


chief use.


removal


removed
around t
material.


is at
hand,


a right


and


objectionable


cost


as most


an excessive


area


clay


amount


waste


entails


in labor,


must


mining


time


and


These


difficulties


mining,


marketing,


and


location


quarries


and


crushers


differ


with


locality


but


must


overcome for the enterprise


be successful


and


with


care-


study


methods


may


devised


solve


them.


The


solution


a difficult


problem


gives


producer


economic


advantage
problem.
excessive


Where


cost


competitor
production


who
and


product


has


failed


marketing


solve


problems


is proportionately


higher


and


decreases


as problems


overcome.


Limestone


Types of
flint rock


Crushed Stone in Florida


and dolomite are crushed in Florida.


This crushed stone includes rock


either with a high


crushing


strength


used


as aggregate


concrete


and


road


surfacing,


or with a high


calcium


carbonate


content


used


in road


base


courses.
hard cr


flint


High


'ystalline


rock


crushing
limestone
Alachua,


strength


characteristic


Brooksville-Tampa


Marion


and


Sumter


area


counties


nur?'a o 1 Hinn ilni mE-n nfd P^O n


Mor nnl-ci


o n/i so ro avf'o nnrinti na


I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


for road


bases


and for surfacing


county


roads


and


which


known as "Ocala Road Base Material


or "Ocala Lime Rock


and


harder


and


more


sandy


limestone


known


as Miami


oolitic


lime


rock.


The


"Ocala


Lime


Rock"


is mined


mid-Peninsula


counties


and


"Miami


Oolitic


Lime


Rock"


in Broward and Dade counties.
Expansion and Opening New Quarries


Florida,


outcrop,
operators


where


prospective


about


surficial
operator


problems


sands
should


mining,


generally


consult


hide


established


marketing,


and


transportation.


Before


expensive


plant


erected


money


invested


in expansion


producer


and


pros-


pect


should


sure


an adequate


deposit


suitable


purpose.


The


general


aspects


area


can


obtained


from the Florida Geological Survey


but in areas where there


few


mines


and


outcrops


proposed


quarry


should


thoroughly


problems
available


prospected


should
should


before


anticipated
estimated.


any
and


money


amount


Where


invested;


material


deposit


used


road


base


courses


and


a high


calcium


carbonate


content is


desired


, a churn drill may be used to obtain samples


chemical


analyses,


provided


free from cavings of the overlying sand


samples


and


are


clay


collected
However.


where the rock to be mined is to be used in concrete,


strength


and abrasion tests are necessary and core drills must be used


to obtain a sample of sufficient size.


The State Road Depart-


ment


has


estimated


operating


cost


core


drilling


between


$0.22


per foot for a


and


$1.61


period


foot


years.


and


This


an average
cost includes


$0.51


the cost


relocating


other
feet.


less


and
The


and


drill


based


costs


churn


changing


on holes
operating


drill


from


varying


a churn


should


drill


one


project


depths


are


employed


an-
400


considerably


where


possible


because of the saving in


production costs.


Once


extent


a deposit


known


approximate


__






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


tons


present in


the deposit.


However,;.care should


taken


estimate


tonnage


unusable


material


such


as flint


rock


and


clay


and


sand


filled


cavities


limestone


, and


subtract this from the total.
The thickness of the overburden can be determined by the


drill holes


or by trenching the overburden


top of the


rock.


Trenching


has


advantage


in mining


Florida


careous


rock


that an


estimate of the


volume of


clay-


and


filled


cavities


commercial


can


rock


has


more
very


easily
little


determined.


this


Some


cavity


and


overburden of nearly all is


less than 25 feet.


Once the over-


burden


has


been


removed


depth


which


rock


can


be mined governs the amount of profit.


In Florida


, the depth


of mining corresponds closely to the proximity of the ground-


water


surface


and


mines


on high


elevations


generally


have economic advantage over those at lower elevations. In
the limestone mining the overburden is generally less on hills


than
runs


in valleys,


higher


but


because


amount


quarry


presence


waste


a large


generally


number


clay-filled caves and fissures.


Uses


The


Florida


State


Road


Department


used the greater part of the production of


has


past


crushed rock


years
of all


types,


have


been


increases


largely


in production


absorbed


military


during


1940


and


construction.


1941
Soft


limestone was used


principally in 1941 in road bases,


airport


runways,


bindin


g agent


fills


harder


limestone


, flint,


and dolomite in


concrete aggregate and road surfacing.


The


Federal


and


State


specifications


rock


approximately


same


product


phasis,


and


must


road


compete


pass


base


a producer


qualify


materials


and


must


know what


a contract.


binding


The


agents,


test
em-
on a


high


content


calcium


and


important characteristic of


. S


. -


magnesium


concrete


* S


carbonate
aggregate


*


-.


whereas
sa high


- --- -- --------- ---A- U1I1, -- IU.- A---A


q'





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


that


each


issues


covering


crushed


rock.


State


and


federal


specifications are


practically the same,


and for completeness


State


tion


Road


Department


are included in


and


various


railroad


the discussions of the specific


specifica-
uses that


follow:


Figure 12.


Kendrick
massive
methods,


The Ocala Lime Rock Corporation's limestone pit, near


, Marion County, in the SE


occurrence of the Ocala


machine


for drilling


sw 4


limestone,


shot


Sec. 23
mining


holes


, T14S, R21E. The
and transportation


are shown.


ramp


leading to the crusher is in the lower right corner.


Concrete


aggregate


Local


stone


has


compete


with


slags


from


Birmingham


iron


district


and


Florida


superphosphate


industry


as a


concrete aggregate,


and speci-


fications for each aggregate differ


In general,


specifications


include


limits


on the


cent


loss


due


abrasion


degree of


soundness or the


presence of


incipient cracks,


and


the breaking strength of a concrete made with the aggregate.


Abrasion


Laboratory,


tested


Gainesville


State


Florida


Road


, by


Department


rotating


Testing


approximately


rouigh


cubes


ag~re~gae..


waiPhinp"


a.nnrnximra.telv


SJ.


. .. ... ...






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


Miami


oolite


whose


thin-bedded,


cavernous


angularity


gives


an excessive


abrasion


loss.


The


Miami


oolite,


when


crushed
material


size


aggregate,


and


use


abrasic
d will


dislocates


tests


compare


made


nearly
on the


favorably


friable


aggregate


with


any


limestone


aggregate.


Soundness


might


result


a measure


disintegration


incipient


cracks


concrete.


which
regular


test


is made


soundness


State


Road


Department,


the Deval


abrasion


test


replacing it,


and


generally no


speci-


fiction


soundness


issued.


There


is no need


soundness


freezes in
cracking
aggregate
soundness


Florida


concrete.


may


alternating


rarely
When


weak


The aggregate is


freezing


severe


other


and


enough


tests


material


thawing,


cause


indicate


then


that


tested


soaked in sodium-sulphate solu-


tion


lizing,


and


dried


the solution


pores and


thereby causing great internal stress.


cracks crystal-
The amount of


disintegration


and


number


treatments


necessary


complete


While


disintegration


some


estimate


determines


degree


strength


E soundness.
materials is


gained


from


abrasion


test,


best


and


final


test


concrete


aggregate


test a


block


concrete


made


from


the aggregate.


and


This


tested


test is made


block


has


under standard


a strength


equal


conditions
or higher


than


a similar concrete


block


made


with


same


amounts


cement


and


water


but


with


a standard


aggregate,


passed.


For


limestone


flint


and


dolomite


qualify for the


con-


create aggregate in the State roads the type A aggregate when


subjected


loss


Deval


exceeding


abrasion


cent,


test for


and


Type


stone


shall


aggregate


show


shall


show a los


not exceeding 6 per cent.


The dry rodded weight


cubic


foot


when


tested


standard


methods


shall


not less than 90 pounds for concrete aggregate or 85


pounds


test





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


substances


(see State Road Department specifications)


. The


dry


rodded


weight


cubic


foot


shall


less


than


pounds


use


bituminous


mixtures


and


surface


treat-


ments


, and not less than 75 pounds for use in Portland cement


concrete.


The


slag


shall


show


a loss


greater


than


per cent when subjected to


the Deval abrasion


test.


The


State
rock


round


following


Road


that


charts


Department


have


gravel


been


and


(table
tests


used


and


made


concrete


Birmingham


averages


on limestone


aggregate.


slag


have


been


and


flint


Florida
included


for comparison.


Concrete


free
and


from


aggregate


disintegrated


adherent


coatings.


should
pieces,


The


hard


salt,


, strong,


alkali


following


durable


, vegetable


taken


and


matter,


from


specifications of the


Florida State


Road Department.


"The


weight


of extraneous substance


shall


lowing percentages:


not exceed


Per Cent


Coal
Clay
Soft


and lignite ......................................................................
lum ps ...........................................................................
fragm ents ........................................................................


Cinders and
Free shells


Sticks


clinkers


0.05
10.00
0.50


Loss


(wet) ............
v decantation


"The sum of the percentages of all materials noted in above table


shall


not exceed


The State Road Department has made an


extended study


of the sizes and


concrete.


The


after setting,


State


density


denser


rock


concrete


greater the strength


Road Department recommends


necessary to


or the


make


less


of the


that


voids


concrete.
greatest


best
t has
The
dens-


can


be obtained from a mix


a fine with a large aggre-


gate.


This works a hardship on some producers as they have


stock


intermediate


sizes


or sell


them


a low


price,


thus lowering their margin


of profit.


This disadvantage has


been


overcome


by a few producers who sell


intermediate





Table 10--Abrasion
Division


and Accelerated


of Tests,


State


Soundness Tests made


Road


Department


by the


of Florida.


Producer


Florida


Crushed Stone Co.


M. M.


Thomas


Ocala


Standard Rock Co., Standard

Alachua County Stone Co.,
High Springs



Central Rock Co., Linden

Fernald and Gray Quarries,


, Tarpon


Springs


Composite


Composite


Material


Limestone


Limestone


Limestone


Flint


Flint


Flint


Flint


Flint


Limestone


Limestone


Limestone


Slag


Source


Brooksville


Per cent wear


Deval


Quarry

Camp, quarry

Camp, stock pile

Zuber, stock pile

Standard, stock pile


High Springs

High Springs

I. Berner siding

New Port Richey

New Port Richey


Miami

Birmingham, Alabama


Accelerated


soundn


affected by sodium


18

Passes

48

44
(average of 7 s;


16.4
'average of 6 samples)
12.5
average of 4 samples)





Table 11-Unit


Weights


Division of Tests,


of Coarse


Aggregates


made


State Road Department of Florida


June 23


1939


Grade
no.*


Weight in
pounds
per
cubic foot


Brooksville
limestone
(Tampa
formation)


Birmingham
slag


Thomas
lint rock
Ocala


Newsom


flint


rock


Williston


Griffin


flint


rock


High
Springs


Miami
oolitic


lime


rock


Dry rodded


Dry rodded


Dry rodded


Dry rodded


Dry rodded


Damp loose


Dry rodded


Dry rodded
Damp loose


(30) 94.0

(2) 92.0

(15) 94.0

(23) 85.7

( 1) 83.0

(11) 83.2


(11)


(23)
(21)


(24) 79.2

(34) 83.3

(18) 72.6


(10)


( 4) 73.0

( 9) 77.8



(11) 63.5

...........--.... -


...... -... --.----------

( 1) 75.5

* ... .. - .. --

- - ... .. - .... -

. ..--------......-.-... .


( 5) 76.8

( 1) 71.0

( 2) 64.7


* ............. .

7.................

( 4) 75.0



-- .......... *.

.............. ....


................ ..


Note:


above


are unit


weight


submitted to the Division of Tests over a


are compiled


weights


to give


of these


calculations.


The:


averages


of samples


period of years and


a fairly accurate indication


materials
y do not


for
cover


ise


in estimates


all conditions


of the unit


and
and (


rough
circum-


stances since the coarse aggregate from any source may vary


from


time


to time


as the character of


the stratum


of rock,


or the ore from


which


the slag


comes


varies


limits of gradation permissible for the above g
aggregate are such that the unit weight of an


same
period.


source


may


vary


Figures shown in


of tests used in


appreciably
L parentheses


determining the


for the
repress


unit weight.


* See


Standard


specifications


for road


bridge


construction. Florida


State Road Department.


194


tf





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


has


been


found


that


flint


has


disadvantage


smooth


that


glassy sides


crushed


in a similar


which


limestone


manner


has
The


lower the
a coating


sharp


cementing


fine


edge


quality,


dust


flint


that


and
acts


likewise


quire


a greater


use


sand.


Slag


has


best


cementing


quality


but


local


slags are expensive


production


in peninsular


slag


small


Florida


and


and local


imported
products


are preferred over those out of State.


Road


base


material


Almost


road


base


courses


are


constructed of limestone in


peninsular


Florida but in western


Florida
cheaper


stone


sand-clay


and


fillers


substitute


production


western Florida


base


are


sometimes


limestone.


centered


the largest


limestone


about


potential


Holmes


more


The


Ocala


available


road


and


producing


Washington,


base


Miami.
area of


and


and


lime-


road


Jackson


counties
courses.


where


this


most


limestone


roads
were


have


sand-clay road


developed


Florida


base


would


have


three strategically


located areas


from


which


road


base


- S a





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


limestone


could


supplied


Florida


a minimum


transportation


costs.


Because of the nature of its occurrence


, the specifications


for road


base course


material


vary for each limestone.


The


State Road Department has specifications for two limestones,


"The


The


Ocala


Lime


"Ocala Lime


Rock"
Rock"


and
is a


Miami


general


term


Oolite


Lime


originally


Rock.


applied


to the limestone near Ocala and it formerly included only the


Ocala


formation


but


now


applies


soft


limestone


beds


the younger Suwannee limestone and Tampa formation.


The


limestone outcropping in


western


Florida


qualifies


as "Ocala


Lime


Rock.


The


"Miami


Oolite


Lime


Rock"


outcrops


Broward


Dade and Monroe counties


, and it is generally lower


calcium-magnesium


carbonate


than


"Ocala


Lime


Rock


" the exception


transportation


costs


being in


and


the vicinity


availability


of Miami.


make


Where


feasible


State


and


courses,


Road


Department


coquina


especially


has


mined


Anatasia


Collier


Caloosahatchee


formation


County.


Several


road
cities


marl
base


and


counties of the East


Coast have found


coquina


very


service-


able for this purpose,


but the


material


is not


crushed


gener-


ally


The high per cent of impurities in both of these forma-


tions
stone


make them a poor binder when


used for thi


compared to. other lime-


purpose.


qualify


tions


undergo
material


limestone
chemical


should


road
must


change
graded


base


courses


show


under


under


tendency


exposure


uniformly


from


State


specifica-


air-slake


weather


inches


The


down


to dust and all fine materials shall


fracture.


meet


specifications,


consist entirely


"Miami


Lime


dust of
Rock"


has to


be mined from its pits from


which all


overburden has


been removed prior to


blasting,


and must contain a minimum


per cent


calcium-magnesium


for number one rock,


carbonate


and a minimum


of 70 per


(CaMg (C03


cent for the


number two.


Oxides of


iron


and aluminum shall


not exceed


2 per cent


and any other mineral constituents shall be silica.


f





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


surface.


clum
cent


and


shall


must


magnesium


almost


stone from


of "Brooksville
qualify for use


least


weight,


free


from


Tampa formation,


stone


in road


cent


and


organic


sold


is generally too


base courses


carbonates
i remaining


matter


The


under the trade


high


table


cal-


lime-
name


insoluble


and


can


be sold at a higher price for use as concrete aggregate.


Table


12-Chemical Analyses


of Limestone


The first seven analyses


were


of the State Road Department,
five analyses as reported by M


for Use


made


by the


the eighth


ossom.


as Road
Testing


Courses.
Division


is the average


(1925).


% %
Rock insolubles carbonates Remarks
and oxides of Ca
and Mg.
Ocala Lime Rock, Levy County
Average of 4 samples 0.62 99.38 Passes
Ocala Lime Rock, Alachua County
Average of 5 samples 2.08 97.92 Passes
Tampa formation, Pasco County
Average of 4 samples 17.40 82.60 Rejected
Ocala Lime Rock, Marion County
Average of 6 samples 0.80 99.20 Passes
Miami Oolite Lime Rock, Broward
County, 3 samples 14.40 85.60 Passes
Miami Oolite Lime Rock, Dade
County, average of 6 samples 10.80 89.20 Passes
Jackson County limestone
One sample 0.33 99.98 Passes
Washington County limestone
Average of 5 samples 2.99 97.11 Reported
by Mossom
(1925)
| __--


Railroad


ballast


The


tendency


Florida


best material that is


available on


the line of the


railroad for


ballast,
cations
western


and


there


each


Florida


a considerable


railroad.


and


here


Gravel


elasticity
is scarce,


railroads


in the
other


near


specifi-


than


enough


Birmingham


district


use slag for


ballast


so that


it is


seldom


used,


gravel


producer


preferring


product for concrete aggregate at a higher price.


-- - I


I_ _


A






Table


13-Comparative


Values


of Different


Materials


Used as Ballast on


the Florida East Coast Rai


Method


Year:


: American


Railway


Engineering


Association


railroad ballast rock


1937


Apparent specific gravity


Weight in pounds per cubic foot


145.00


131.00


167.00


167.50


Absorption at 96 hours


3.09%


2.70%


1.12%


Compression


(Ibs.


per sq.


inch)


389.00
15.25


Hardness-Loss in weight-grams
French coefficient of wear


Cementing value


Toughness


(blows


800.00


197.00
19.35


753.00


270.00
14.17
16.90
74.20


to fracture)


18,460.00


10.70
14.10
56.00
15.50


Per cent of wear


11.52


11.09


Sample


From E. P. Maule Rock Company,


From Naranja Rock Company,


Ojus,


Naranja,


Dade County.
Dade County.


Brooksville


limestone,


Brooksville,


Hernando


County.


Camoa rock, Jamaica,


Cuba.


Key


Largo


limestone


, Windleys


Island,


* A compilation of two charts, from L. C. Froham,


Monroe


County


Chief Engineer.


stE


I






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


Engineering


Hernando
it. The I


Association


County


Miami


'(Tampa


oolite


specifications,


formation)


Ojus


limestone


and Naranja, Dade


Brooksville,
approaches


County


used if the harder portions are selected, and the Florida East
Coast Railroad Company has tested the Key Largo limestone


on Windley


Key


as a possible


ballast


on their


former


Key


West


extension.


general,


the specifications


limestone


ballast


require


only


size


and


degree


hardness.


The


softer varieties


high


cementing


of limestone


value


and


are


upon


objected t
exposure


as they


weather


have


they


harden


and


consolidate


so that


maintenance


track


made difficult.


Specifications


limestone


ballast


each


railroad


differ,


and those of the three most important railroads oper-


ating in Florida are quoted on the following pages:


Florida


East


Coast


Railway


Company


"Florida East Coast Railway uses


for ballast purposes that rock


which is


available on


its line and is securing rock for


ballast


from


points


a quarry


being


Ojus


located on


from


the lower


a quarry


East


at Naranja,


Coast


both


This rock


cannot be classified as a good ballast rock


However, it is


material


and,


available


in Florida


on the line


of this


therefore, it is used and its deficiencies accepted.


railway
Under


the conditions


on this railway the deficiencies of the material


are not serious as they would be in the northern latitudes and
under railway track of a much greater traffic density.
'... We accept the quality of rock as it comes from the quarry


specify


it to be crushed


to a size


which


pass


a 2%


inch ring and be retained on a


/2 inch ring. ..


"In the past we have used a rock from the Camoa quarries lo-


cated at Jamaica,


(Cuba)


. .. and have also used crushed slag


from


the Birmingham


district.


Each


of these


materials


was


used in


very


large quantities some years ago,


the Cuban rock


being
north


used
end."


on the south


of the line


slag


on the


The Cuban rock


(Sample 4 in Table 13)


is the best quality


ballast


and


approximates


very


closely


specifications


v







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR


Atlantic Coast Line


Railroad


Company


"The ballast to be furnished shall be prepared after the follow-


manner;


: The


ledges


of stone


from


which


ballast shall be taken are to be hard ledges in the quarry.


hard


ledges


are defined


as those


ledges


which


when


struck


with a sledge hammer shall cause the sledge hammer to ring


"The


broken


stone


ballast


shall


the specifications


be manufactured


American


Railway


to conform
Engineering


Association


for stone


ballast,


with


proviso


that


the maximum


size of broken stone


ballast shall


be 2/2


inches and


the mini-


mum


remove


shall


be %


the%


inch


inch.


stone


contractor


by pa


ssing


may,
same


his option,


over


a screen


with one inch


perforation.


inch stone so


removed will


not be loaded into ballast cars.
"The material which will conform strictly to these specifications


satisfactory


for ballast.


The softer


rock


compacts,


partially


consolidates


hardens


under


the ties


upon


con-


tinued
ballast.
cations


exposure


air and


is not


satisfactory


as material for


We have not attempted to draw any strict specifi-


for hardness and


durability


other than


as provided


the accompanying


above specifications.


Seaboard


Air


Line


Railway


we are using the crushed


limestone from


the Brooksville


territory and Ojus rock from the Miami territory


. . ur spec-


fications


, covering ballast, are only applicable


to the limestone


and Ojus rock for size, since these specifications were


ily made for stone, slag and gravel


primar-


ballast.


"Specifications for


stone


ballast are


as follows:


"Stone


use in the manufacture


of ballast


shall


break


angular fragments


which


range


with


uniformity


between


the maximum and minimum size specified; it shall test high in


weight,


toughness,


wear,


and soundness


but low in


cementing


qualities and will be free from dirt,


dust


loam or rubbish.


"Tests may be made from time to time at the option of the pur-


chaser and shall


be made


at a


testing


laboratory


selected


the purchaser,


made


quarry


necessary.


Tests


but visual


prior


for weight,


inspection
shipments


toughness,


other


as often


wear


tests


shall


as considered


soundness


shall be in accordance


with A. R. E.


A. Specifications for Stone


Ballast.






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


"Class 'B' Ballast will range between the size which
will in any position pass through a one and one-half
(11/) inch ring, and the size which will not pass
through a three quarters (%4) inch ring."
Riprap: Riprap is a general term applying to large ir-
regular stones which are used in construction to buttress
land from waves, currents, and tides. Its chief use is along
breakwaters, jetties, spillways for dams, or for shore pro-
tection. Almost any hard, durable stone will serve as riprap
and ship ballast is often used in Florida. Coquina blocks
from the Anastasia formation and the harder limestones
about Tampa make suitable riprap. The nearest deposit of
hard rock is usually used because transportation is such a
large part of the delivered cost, riprap bringing a very low
market price, and the flint from the soft Ocala limestone
cannot compete in the riprap market for this reason. Riprap
quarries are usually opened near the construction project and
closed at its termination. Only occasionally are established
producers able to sell their by-product as riprap.
Other Uses: Under this head are included the by-products
resulting from the production of crushed stone for use in
concrete aggregate and as road base materials. Large ton-
nages of limestone are used in the manufacture of cement
and lime but these are not part of the crushed stone business
and are not included here, but under separate headings. The
alert producer of crushed stone is anxious to market his
entire production at a profit. His entire output may be
utilized in concrete aggregate, road base materials or riprap,
but where there is a tendency to over stock certain sizes, or
where unsuitable rock has to be moved in mining, outlet in
by-products should be sought. The flint rock in the soft
limestone road base mines could be crushed for concrete ag-
gregate and a variety of other uses, outlined in the chapter
on flint rock. The concrete aggregate producer usually has
an accumulated stock of fines which can find an output as
agricultural lime for soil conditioning or as stock feed and
chicken grit. The fines and some of the larger aggregate
could be used in concrete blocks and tile, and some com-
panies have realized this possibility and operate a concrete
products plant in conjunction with their mine and crusher.
Some have found this cement concrete by-product so suc-


83






84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

cessful that the large part of their income now comes from
it.
Competitive Conditions and Markets
The markets for the Florida crushed stone are entirely
local and vary as business conditions and construction varies.
Almost the entire output has been used by the State Road
Department and by county and city road utility crews in past
years, but military construction in Florida has more than
doubled the output since 1938. As has been shown, the
Florida crushed limestone does not meet rigid specifications
for railroad ballast yet it is used because of the low cost of
its delivered price, in competition with better out-of-State
materials which must include freight charges in their de-
livery price. The general procedure of the railroad is to
use the materials that are located on the line regardless of
its suitability, the low cost of the material more than off-
setting the increase in maintenance costs. Crushed flint is
not used for ballast as its quantity is limited and flint pro-
ducers prefer to sell their product for specialized uses, thereby
bringing a higher price per ton.
The hard variety of limestone and dolomite used for
concrete compete with slag from the Birmingham district
and the degree of success of such competition increases in
ratio to the distance from Birmingham. Thus hard limestone
producers are more successful in the Peninsula than in
western Florida. However, the potentially successful pro-
duction of limestone road base course material from Holmes,
Washington, and Jackson counties of western Florida again
must be emphasized.
FLINT
Flint, or chert, is a cryptocrystalline form of silica or
quartz which occurs in limestone in the form of boulders
and as replacements of fossil shells and skeletons. Complete
weathering of limestones has left this flint as residual
boulders, in some instances, which have been incorporated in
younger sands, clays, and gravels. The color of flint is gen-
erally some shade of brown or gray, and while the texture of
the rock usually is compact a small amount has a high poros-
ity. Crushed flint generally has sharp edges, either splintering
or breaking into rounded cusps. The sharp edges increase
the need of sand when flint aggregate is used in concrete and





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


the general opinion is that flint is hard on tires when used
in surfacing roads.
For the use of the purchaser: desiring to know the char-
acteristics of Florida flint the following salient features have
been determined by the Testing Division of the State Road
Department at Gainesville, Florida, over a period of years.20
Due to the extreme variability of this flint these figures
should not be used where strict values are necessary. The
apparent specific gravity of flint is from 2.25 to 2.34, its dry-
rodded weight ranges from 72 to 84 pounds per cubic foot,
and the per cent absorption of the aggregate is from 3.0 to
7.0. These figures may be compared with those for crushed
limestone and slag in the charts on pages 71, 72, and 75.
Occurrence and Distribution
Flint boulders and layers are common in the soft lime-
stones of Florida, and their removal constitutes a mining
difficulty of the road base material industry. No commercial
use has been made of these boulders mined from the lime-
stone pits as all of the present production is from boulders
of the flint embedded in the sand and clay terrace deposits
outcropping principally in Alachua, Marion, and Sumter
counties. These boulders have been reworked into the terrace
deposits from their original positions in limestone, and their
occurrence is very irregular.
The largest potential area lies in Holmes and Washington
counties (Vernon, 1942a, pp. 130-133) where boulders occur-
ring in alluvial deposits are particularly abundant. With
present mining conditions a small crusher could be operated
here at considerable profit, being assured of a substantial
deposit. The writer estimates that enough boulders have
been accumulated by farmers from their fields to produce
50,000 short tons or approximately 5 years production at
present methods. This area is one of the few in Florida
which offers possibilities of shallow mining at places where
the boulders have been concentrated, and such mining should
uncover a large reserve.
Mining Methods
The flint producer depends entirely upon buying the raw
product from local farmers and woodsmen. The small flint
20 Letter dated Sept. 22, 1939, from H. C. Weathers, Testing Divi-
sion Engineer.






86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

boulders are turned up in plowing and accumulate at the
field edges. Large boulders are dug out by hand or dyna-
mited, and in some sections a considerable part of the cash
income for a season may come from digging these boulders
from fields and flatwoods. The boulders are hauled by truck
and wagon to the crusher by the farmer who is paid on a ton-
nage basis. The large boulders are hand broken and the
flint is crushed in a jaw-typed crusher, screened to specifica-
tion, washed, and loaded on either gondolas or trucks.
Uses
All of the flint produced in Florida is used locally, and
all may be classified as crushed stone. Its use in Florida is
as a concrete aggregate or for surfacing small secondary
roads and walks. Generally there is a preference for a non-
calcareous aggregate where concrete is to be used adjacent
to sea water or where resistance to abrasion is a desirable
factor, as on concrete steps or walkways.
The fines from flint crushers are overstocked as there is
little demand for fine crushed stone aggregate in Florida.
Some of this material could be used in the manufacture of
abrasives; especially is there a need for abrasive paper and
cloth in Florida, and a plant in peninsular Florida should
find a ready market.
While the lack of a dependable source of flint would not
support the expense of erecting a permanent kiln, the possi-
bility of producing ceramic flint should be investigated.
Flint for use in pottery is calcined in a kiln much the same
as limestone to produce lime, and then ground to pass a 140
mesh screen. With further pulverizing to pass a 200 or 300
mesh screen the flint can be used for an inert extender in
paints and varnishes and as a filler in wood paste.
Nodules of flint are used in tube and pebble mills for
grinding various minerals because of its hardness and re-
sistance to abrasion and the lack of iron stain which results
with the use of steel balls. Formerly all of this flint was
imported, being brought over as ballast, and whether an
enterprise making these nodules succeeds in Florida will
depend largely upon the price of the material and the dis-
tance to the industrial centers where it is used. These
nodules could be produced in Florida by roughly crushing the





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


flint to the size desired and then rounding in abrading ma-
chines.
Because of the limited supply and difficult mining condi-
tions the future of the flint industry in Florida is in the
specialization of the use of flint, and not in competition with
other crushed stone aggregate which can be produced in
volume from bedded deposits of known extent at a price
so low as to reduce the flint producer's margin of profit below
successful competition.
Flint or chalcedony replacements of fossil shells and
corals in the Tampa formation and Alum Bluff beds are
particularly abundant in the vicinity of Tampa and in the
vicinity of White Springs along the Suwannee River. Hookers
point and Ballast Point in Hillsborough Bay were formerly
the classic collection localities for both replaced shells and
corals but war industries and reservations have nearly ob-
literated these. However, excellent silicified coral heads are
abundant along the Hillsborough River in Hillsborough
County, and near White Springs in Hamilton County.
These animal shells and coral skeletons were composed
of calcium carbonate when the animal secreted them, but this
material has been replaced by chalcedony in such a manner
that even the finest detail of the original is preserved. Exact
replacements of shells by chalcedony are rare and the abun-
dance and preservation of these are unexcelled. They are,
therefore, valued for student study sets and collectors items,
and good collections are in the possession of the Florida
Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida, through the gener-
ous gift of James G. Manchester (1941) who also maintains
a collection, and Ernest Weidhaas of New York City.
Some of these replacements of coral heads are not com-
plete and are in the form of closed cavities or geodes, the
insides of which are lined with crystals of quartz or with
round, mammillary, and irregular growths of chalcedony.
These are likewise valued as collectors items, and lately there
has been developed a trade in cutting and polishing the
chalcedony, from both geodes and full replacements, as semi-
precious stones.


87






88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

Production and Market
Flint production in Florida is limited by the availability
of the flint which occurs as irreglar boulders in sand and
clay deposits, and which is produced only through the acci-
dent. of its discovery. Most plants do not work to capacity,
partly because of lack of material, and partly due to a low
market. This irregularity does not establish confidence in
the industry and a strong effort should be made to stabilize
the production. The failure of several producers is directly
due to the overestimation of their potential supply. Pro-
duction on a large scale is not feasible and only the small
inexpensive plant, where the margin between cost and selling
price is high enough to insure a profit, is successful. The
low selling price and high transportation costs do not allow
competition in distant markets. Instead production should
be based upon local and specialized uses. Such a limited
market area in itself creates an irregular production in that
building projects within the area cause a large demand that
ceases with its completion.
The location of flint crushers have been influenced by the
centralization of purchases of concrete aggregate in the
vicinity of Ocala and Tampa. While centralization aids the
consumer in his purchases, the market area of each producer
is thereby decreased, but this centralization offers the possi-
bility of a coalition of the flint production where large con-
tracts can not be supplied by an individual producer.
In the area of present production it is doubtful that the
flint market would support another crusher, but there is the
possibility of expansion by developing a new market in
western Florida with production of the flint boulders in
Holmes and Washington counties. Such a market would
compete with the Birmingham slag, but a small crusher
should be successful in supplying a limited area where trans-
portation costs give it an economic advantage.
Five producers crushed flint in 1941, The Alachua County
Stone, Inc., and Coy Thomas in Alachua County, M. M.
Thomas Flint Rock Corp., and Standard Rock Co., in Marion
County, and the Central Rock Co., in Sumter County. Their
combined production, sold as road metal and concrete aggre-
gate, showed a considerable drop in 1941 as compared to





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


1940. The production of flint in Florida since 1935 is given
in table 14.

Table 14-Flint Production Since 1935
Amount Value
1935 ........................................................ 7,500 short tons $ 17,475
1936 ....................................................... 44,490 short tons 93,444
1937 ........................................................ 43,327 short tons 93,328
1938 ........................................................ 43,820 short tons 100,033
1939 ....................................................... 59,290 short tons 130,980
1940 ....................................................... 80,814 short tons 174,709
1941 .......................................................... 48,600 short tons 113,385

Flint is the only mineral product in Florida which dropped
in the amount and value of its production in 1941. All other
products show gains for this year, and the decrease of flint
production came at a time of increased use of concrete and
a strong constructional program.
LIMESTONE 3o
Introduction
Limestone is the calcareous end member of a calcium-
magnesium carbonate group of sedimentary rock, the other
end being the magnesium portion or dolomite. The series
ranges from pure dolomite, which is a mixture of 45.7 per
cent MgCO, and 54.3 per cent CaCOs, to pure limestone, or
CaCO.,. Limestones with less than 5 per cent MgCO3 are
called high-calcium limestones, those with less than 40 per
cent MgCO3 are dolomitic limestones. The separation of these
carbonate rocks is purely arbitrary as all gradations between
the extremes exist, and in Florida the rock that is more than
40 per cent MgCO, is called dolomite. All of this calcareous
series may contain impurities of clay and sand, being a sedi-
mentary rock, and as these increase in percentage they
qualify the limestone or dolomite, with the predominant im-
purity making part of the name, as sandy limestone or ar-
gillaceous dolomite. Where these impurities approximately
equal the per cent of carbonate and the rock is soft and
earthy it is called a marl (see pages 119-121). Marls

so Problems of mining, marketing, utilization, and the occurrence
of limestone in Florida are discussed in these publications listed in the
bibliography: Bowles (1918, 1919, 1923a, 1923b, 1923c, 1942), Bowles
and Banks (1936), Bowles and Jensen (1941), Bowles and Myers
(1927), Burchard and Emley (1914), Lamar and Willman (1938),
Mossom (1925), Myers (1924).


89






90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

contain impurities, such as glauconite which contains potash,
that make the marl commercially important, although none
is mined in Florida. Sometimes the shells and marine or-
ganisms are preserved and commonly the limestone is largely
composed of these remains, as are the coquina (see pages
111-116) and coraline rocks of Florida.
Florida is underlain by limestone and outcrops are com-
mon. The oldest rock outcropping in Florida, the Ocala, is
a high-calcium limestone that generally analyzes less than
3 per cent impurities. In fact limestone, dolomite, and marl
compose the large part of every formation known in Florida,
with the exception of the surficial sand and clay terrace
deposits.
Kinds and Origin
Carbonates, though practically insoluble in pure water,
are slightly soluble in water containing natural acids, notably
humic and carbonic. Thus the waters of all Florida streams,
lakes, and adjoining oceans contain small amounts of dis-
solved carbonates in the form of bicarbonates. When this
material is precipitated as a carbonate by the release of
carbon dioxide as a gas it accumulates as deposits of lime-
stone. Carbonate rocks are precipitated by chemical re-
actions, changes in physical state of the solution such as
changes in temperature and pressure, agitation of the water,
or by the use of the carbonate in the metabolic processes of
organisms whether in their tissues or whether secreted as
shells which are deposited as the organisms die.
Such precipitates may form beds of great thickness, which
upon consolidation make the rocks of the calcareous series.
Some of these still contain the fossil shells indicating their
original source, while others contain no evidence of life, its
having never been present or having been destroyed in de-
position or by later solution and replacement.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock and includes many and
varying types, different in origin, structure, texture, compo-
sition, and color. However, all have their mineral composi-
tion in common, being composed of the mineral calcite
(CaCO,), the mineral dolomite (Ca (Mg,Fe) (CO,),) or a
combination of the two. No limestones in Florida are chemi-
cally pure carbonates but contain varying percentage of im-
purities, the more common of which are iron oxides, clay,





FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


silica, alumina, vegetable matter, and sand. The color of
limestone is white and that of dolomite pink, when pure.
White limestone is common in the Peninsula, but even more
common are yellow, brown, and gray colors in both limestone
and dolomite. These colors are due to the impurities in the
rock, iron oxide making most of the colors, and vegetation
causing some of the gray.
Some of the special varieties of limestone occurring in
Florida are described below. It must be borne in mind that
these varieties grade into each other and some rock may be
made of several of the varieties either combined or inter-
bedded.
Coquina (see pages 111-116) is a lagoonal and beach
accumulation of whole and broken animal shells and sand
that is thin-bedded and has been locally and irregularly in-
durated. It outcrops on the East Coast from Duval County
south to Palm Beach County, and on the West Coast in
Pinellas, Manatee, and Sarasota counties. This material is
suitable for road base courses, building and ornamental
stone, and chicken feed.
Oolitic limestone is a granular limestone composed of
small round concretionary grains cemented together. The
name oolite was given for the resemblance of the rock to
fish roe and means egg-like. The grains are thought to have
been formed by the successive accretion of calcium carbonate
about a nucleus. Many students believe some oolites are
precipitated, and Thorp (1939, p. 292.) reported that arti-
ficial oolites have been precipitated by passing air free of
carbon dioxide through sea water. The Miami oolitic lime-
stone outcrops in Dade, Broward, and Monroe counties and
is the source for a large part of the commercial limestone
of the southern Peninsula.
Marl (see pages 119-121) is a loose, earthy mixture of
calcium-magnesium carbonates and clay in approximately
equal proportions. It is being deposited from Florida sea
waters and is present in many of the older formations.
Dolomite or magnesium limestone (see pages 106-111)
in Florida consists of a mixture of calcium and magnesium
carbonates in a brown, porous, friable to hard, crystalline
rock. The magnesium carbonate content averages better


91





92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

than 36 per cent, and the material is used almost exclusively
as a soil conditioner, with only small amounts of the harder
crystalline dolomite being used as concrete aggregate. Com-
mercial deposits outcrop intermittently on the western Pen-
insula coast between Taylor and Sarasota counties.
Travertine is often called calcareous tufa and is deposited
by water along stream and spring courses. There is a gray
to brown, laminated, hard dense rock that occurs in the dolo-
mitic limestone of Florida which has been advertised as
travertine. The upper portion of this limestone has been
secondarily hardened and changed through partial crystal-
lization, and it has some of the structural appearances of
travertine and will take a polish. It has been used as polished
ornamental and building blocks, and is present along the
west coast of Florida from Pasco County south to Sarasota
County.
Cave limestone deposits (figure 14) are of commercial
interest only where admission is charged for entrance to the
cave. Stalactites are the icicle-shaped forms hanging from
the roof of caverns, stalagmites are similar forms rising from
the floor, and columns are formed where the two join. Cave
deposits are formed by calcium carbonates being deposited


Figure 14. Limestone Formation in the Florida Caverns State
Park, Marianna, Jackson County.






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


from dripping water in caverns. Calcium carbonate charged
water is partially evaporated by air currents in caves, and
the pressure is less than in the rock from which it seeps, so
that carbon dioxide is given off as a gas. Both decreased
pressure and loss of carbon dioxide tend to precipitate cal-
cium carbonate, some of which is deposited on the roof and
some upon the floor from fallen drops of water. The chemical
reaction resulting in the precipitation of calcium carbonate
is as follows:
Ca(HCO3)2 >- CO2 + H2O + CaCO3
Calcium bicarbonate Carbon dioxide Water Calcium carbonate
(dissolved in water)
Loose, granular limestone is best known under the trade
name "Ocala Lime Rock" and includes limestone of several
geologic formations, the Ocala limestone, the Marianna lime-
stone, and the Suwannee limestone. Generally it is high in cal-
cium carbonate and will analyze as much as 99 per cent CaCOs.
Its commercial development centers in Alachua, Marion, and
Levy counties with a potential area of development in Wash-
ington, Holmes, and Jackson counties. It is known as a
high-calcium limestone as compared with the dolomitic or
magnesium limestones and is principally used for the manu-
facture of lime and for road base courses.
Crystalline limestone is largely derived from the Tampa
formation and is hard brown limestone, which may have
enough clay impurity to be known as argillaceous limestone,
or enough sand or silica to be an arenaceous or siliceous lime-
stone. The hard rock character is probably due to recrystal-
lization of the calcite after its deposition so that the material
was firmly indurated. The production is centered in Her-
nando County near Brooksville, and it has the trade name of
"Brooksville stone." A rock, similar in texture but approach-
ing a dolomite in composition, outcrops in Pasco, Manatee,
and Sarasota counties. Both rocks are largely used as con-
crete aggregate.
Distribution
Of the several types of limestones in the preceding dis-
cussion this chapter is concerned with oolitic, loose granular,
and crystalline limestone, the others are either noncommercial
or have been discussed on other pages as noted. All of
Florida is underlain by limestone, shell marl, and dolomite,






94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

but these deposits are covered, for the most part, by younger
terrace sand and clay deposits which either prevent mining
or must be removed as overburden in the process of mining.
There are limestone production centers in Alachua, Brevard,
Citrus, Dade, Hernando, Levy, and Marion counties and a
potential production center in Washington and Jackson
counties. The areas of actual and possible production are
shown on figure 2. In general, western Florida, the mid-
Peninsula, and the East Coast have outcrops of limestone
suitable for road base course material, while Hernando
County, Dade and Brevard counties to a less extent, produces
concrete aggregate and railroad ballast.
The rock of all the keys of Florida is limestone and most
of the beaches of the Peninsula are formed of coral and
shell sand. The key limestones are porous and white and
fracture with difficulty, having a spongy tenacity. This rock
is believed to be of the same age as the Miami oolite.
Mining
All limestone is mined from open pits and either the dry
or wet process may be used. The quarrying method used
depends upon the use to which the rock is to be put, and
upon the specifications made for that use. Where a high
purity is desired as in lime manufacture, road base course
material, and in chemical and refining uses, care must be
taken that all overburden and impurities are kept at a mini-
mum, but impurities are of less importance where the use is
of a physical nature.
Whatever the use, there is usually an overburden present,
the removal of which increases both the mining costs and the
value of the rock. The cost of removal of the overburden
decreases in ratio to its thinness, the depth of mining, and to
the increase in value of the final product. Where high purity
is desired the overburden should be kept stripped well back
from the face of the quarry as the sand and clay topping the
limestone wash into the pit, over the pit face as well as the
broken stone on the pit floor, thereby contaminating and dis-
coloring the stone. This is especially bad where the lime-
stone is to be burned for lime and a high-quality, white lime
is desired.
The overburden is removed almost universally in Florida
by piling the material back from the quarry face by means






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


of a dragline excavator, and occasionally by a bulldozer
tractor. Where an old pit adjoins the quarry the overburden
is piled into it unless it is being used as a water sump, other-
wise it is piled over waste land. In areas where the over-
burden is sand it is sold as fill sand or washed and sold for
aggregate. This is especially true where good structural
sand is scarce and the demand is great, as in the vicinity
of Miami. Where the product is to be concrete aggregate an
occasional producer mines the overburden and rock together
and eliminates the overburden in washing and screening the
aggregate. Small producers of building blocks and agricul-
tural limestone remove the overburden by hand, using wheel-
barrows and shovels.
After removal of overburden, care should be taken to
clean out all clay filled fissures, caves and other solution pits
to prevent this material from washing and falling into the
pit after the face is shattered in mining. This cavity filling
is very objectionable because the irregular occurrence forces
its removal by hand labor and results in a high quarry waste
and increased production costs. These caves and openings,
originally formed by circulating water and later filled with
sediment, are very irregular in plan, and the quarryman can
not avoid them but must take them as they come. Where
the product is a high-calcium limestone for use as road base
courses, up to 3 per cent of this material can be absorbed,
but in lime manufacture a high content of this material in
the quarry forces the producer to hand pick the rock.
It is generally preferable and more economical to work
as thick a bed of limestone as possible, see figure 12. In
Florida where the limestone is very homogeneous a high
quarry face can be maintained and the depth of the quarry
is controlled almost entirely by the permanent ground-water
table, the producer mining to this table and then following
the bed horizontally. The efficiency of some quarries could
be increased by changing from a dry to a wet process of
mining and using dredges where the rock extends below
ground water.
Where crushed stone is to be produced, the face of the
quarry is usually shattered by dynamite placed in holes
drilled by a churn drill. After the material has been shot,
however, the handling differs with the company and with


95






96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

quarry conditions. The material is commonly loaded by
dragline excavator or mechanical shovel into cable-pulled
tramcars (figure 15) or dump trucks or a combination of
the two, (figure 16) in which the material is carried to the
processing plant. Some companies pile the shattered rock
with a bulldozer tractor before loading, thus keeping the
necessity of moving the heavy dragline excavator or shovel
and the loading tracks at a minimum. In the Miami area
where some of the quarry bottoms extend below the ground
water surface the rock is mined from dredges. In one such
quarry a mechanical shovel loads into a sump on the barge
from which the mined material is pumped to the crusher.
In another, a rotary disk is mounted on the intake of a suc-
tion pump which can be elevated to the desired height, where
the disk cuts the rock and the pump forces the cuttings to
the plant on the shore. Maule Industries, Incorporated, at
Ojus have one pit where both shovel and the processing plant
are mounted on barges, the material thus being mined,
crushed, screened, and loaded on barges for transportation to
the stock pile. This company also is operating a recovery
barge in the same pit by pumping from refuse dumps into
settling vats on the barge, where the fines are washed over
the top, and the coarser particles are pulled out by cable
drags. The Mills Rock Company of Miami, has found a
rotary ditchdigger serviceable in digging the soft Miami
oolite. This method has the advantage of digging and load-
ing the rock onto trucks in one operation.
For the manufacture of lime, Florida limestone is hand
picked, not only for a high chemical purity, but for size of
pieces as well. In mining, large pieces are generally broken
and then loaded by and into dump trucks for transportation
to the kiln. Pieces too small for mining are sold for road
base courses and soil conditioning. Limestone for use in
cement is mined the same as that for use in road bases, but
less trouble is taken to clean out clay filled cavities as this
material is objectionable only insofar as the clay affects the
uniformity of the cement mix. The limestone with its im-
purities is loaded directly into gondola cars for transporta-
tion to Tampa where it is mixed with more clay in the
manufacturing of cement (see pages 54-57).





























Figure 15. Cable pulled dump car of the type commonly used in
the limestone pits of Florida.
Photo by the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company in their
limestone pit at Kendrick, Marion County.


Figure 16. The pit of The McDonald Corporation near Brooksville,
Hernando County, in the NI/2 SW1/4, Sec. 19, T22S, R20E. This pit is
greatly extended and the limestone is loaded into trucks by shovels and
reloaded to cable pulled dump cars for final transit. The truck dump
ramp is shown in the upper center.

Photo by the company.


97





98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

Limestone Processing
Limestone for road base courses is used as it comes from
the mines, or is crushed to sizes ranging uniformly between
the fine and coarse particles and then applied. Hard crys-
talline limestone, as the Brooksville stone and some layers
in the Miami oolite, which are to be used as aggregate are
crushed in large jaw type crushers, washed, screened, and
stored in stock piles for drying. The Camp Concrete Rock
Company and the McDonald Corporation load from their
stock piles by means of a power operated belt running in a
tunnel beneath the stock piles. Individual sizes are loaded
onto the belt through trap doors opening into the tunnel.
Blocks, locally called chimney rock, are cut from the
Marianna limestone in Jackson County by numerous indi-
viduals using crosscut saws (figure 17). Only the Limestone
and Lumber Company of Marianna uses a power-driven saw,
the mechanism of which is shown in figure 18. The blocks,
as cut, are soft and friable but with weathering they case-
harden and are very serviceable for construction of small
buildings and homes. However, they have a low crushing
strength and are not readily transported. The white ap-
pearance of stone makes an attractive design when used with
red brick, and many good examples occur in the vicinity of
Cottondale and Marianna, Jackson County. Limestone build-
ing blocks have never become an important industry in
Florida because of excessive quarry waste, due to the variable
character of the rock, making it difficult to produce a uniform
product in competition with other less expensive building
products. The Marianna limestone is the most extensively
used rock because of its soft, dense character and ease of
mining.
Three companies, Mizner Products, Inc., Keystone Art
Company, and John B. Orr, Inc., mine the Key Largo lime-
stone on Windleys Key. The method of mining consists of
cutting the stone with compressed air and sand or by chan-
neling machines and outlining a block weighing approxi-
mately 10 tons and which is approximately 4 feet thick and
6 feet square. This block is jerked out and loaded onto
trucks by means of a guy derrick and transported to Miami
and West Palm Beach, where it is shaped into ornamental,
art, and dimensional stones. The stone is very porous and




































Sr-- 4,q


Figure 17. Building block quarry of Richard Hartsfield in the
Marianna limestone, in NW14, Sec. 30, T5S, R9W, 2% miles north of
the junction of Florida Highway 90 with Florida Highway 1, Jackson
County. Method of cutting slabs and blocks by crosscut saws is shown.


Figure 18. Building blocks sawed from the Marianna limestone
at Marianna, Jackson County, by a power-driven disk, shown in left
foreground. This pit is operated by the Limestone and Lumber Com-
pany of Marianna and is in the NWi4 SE14, Sec. 3, T4N, R10W, just
north of Florida Road 1. The limestone is white, soft, granular, and
massive.


99


''""~5~k ~a
~cib~ ~L~
Q -~:
s ~~ ., il~i
*~ r~l: '~
t .

Sqii~t .-LLI- I
L
L





100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

absorptive so that it is easily colored, and where density is
desired it is impregnated with cement. The stone is polished
both in its natural state and after filling with cement. In
the natural state it resembles a tufa. Stuccc and false
marble, both colored and natural, are prepared from a small
aggregate developed in shaping the large stone. This fine
aggregate was formerly discarded.

Lime Processing
Lime is calcium oxide (CaO) that has been formed by
firing limestone (CaCO,) to a temperature at which most of
its carbon dioxide (CO2) is removed. Only high-calcium
lime is manufactuerd in Florida, the limestone from which
it is manufactured analyzing close to 99 per cent calcium
carbonate. Refractory limes or dolomitic limes are manu-
factured in the United States, and Florida has deposits of
dolomitic limestone which could be used, but at the present
there is no production.
All Florida lime kilns are vertical shaft, continuous feed
type kilns, usually constructed of brick, with open hoppers at
the top and a fire box, which is fired by wood, at the bottom.
The height of the kiln is limited, and is usually less than
20 feet, because the Florida limestone is soft and friable and
tends to compact and clog the kilns at greater heights. The
kilns are kept filled, and this requires a constant supply of
limestone from the quarry. For this reason a stock pile is
usually maintained to cover delays in quarrying. Limestone
lumps between 4 and 8 inches in diameter are carried up a
small ramp in cable cars and dumped into the kilns. The
kilns are fired to approximately 1700 degrees Fahrenheit and
are drawn once each 8 hours. In general, the more porous,
granular structure of the Ocala limestone requires both
larger pieces for support in the kiln while firing, and higher
temperatures for release of its CO2, in comparison with the
Miami oolitic limestone. If the pressure of the carbon di-
oxide is allowed to build up in the kiln during firing, re-
carbonation may result, so the prompt removal of the gas is
necessary for complete calcination. This is accomplished in
most kilns by forced drafts through open chimneys. No
attempt is made to utilize the carbon dioxide produced in the
firing of limestone in Florida, either in the manufacture of






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


dry ice or as an aid to calcination by recirculation through
the kiln (see Bowles and Banks, 1936, p. 31).
Lump lime generally retains the form of the limestone
from which it was made and 100 pounds of limestone will



















Figure 19. The limestone pit of the Miami Lime and Chemical
Company, Miami, Dade County, in SW'4 SW/, Sec. 23, T54S, R40E.
The Miami oolitic limestone is high in sand but is of sufficient purity
in the vicinity of Miami to be used in the manufacture of lime, if the
rock is hand selected.

produce approximately 56 pounds of quick lime. Quick lime
is very active chemically and will air slake by recombination
with moisture and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in
a short time, and therefore will not stand storage for long
periods. The tendency among manufacturers of lime is to
convert quick lime to the more stable hydrated lime before
storage, and to sell the lump on order.
After firing, the lump lime is drawn into wheelbarrows
and allowed to cool. Overburned portions, appearing as dark
and fused lumps, and underburned lumps, identified only
through long experience, are eliminated and allowed to slake
in outside storage piles and then sold for a soil conditioner.
Hydrated lime is prepared by crushing the lump lime as it
comes from the kiln to sizes below one inch in diameter,
slaking it by the addition of water, and then running the
hydrate over air separator cones in which sand grains and





102 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

unslaked particles are eliminated. Lime is slaked by the
addition of approximately 18 pounds of water to 56 pounds
of quick lime in mechanical mixers, called hydrators. The
two hydrators of general use have been described by Bowles
and Banks (1936( pp. 32-33) as follows:

"The intermittent type consists of a circular iron pan, which
revolves horizontally and is large enough to hold about 112
tons of hydrated lime, and a shaft with arms radiating from
its lower end suspended in the center of the pan; the arms
carry plows that scrape the bottom of the pan as it revolves
thus mixing the lime and water thoroughly. The pan is kept
revolving until the evolution of steam 'ceases (indicating that
hydration is complete) and the lime becomes light and dry.
The machine is covered by a hood and stack. A continuous
hydrator consists of long iron tubes, one above the other, in
each of which is a screw conveyor. Lime is placed in the top
tube, and water is added through a stack at one end of the
tube. They are mixed by the screw conveyors and at the same
time carried through the tubes. When the mixture reaches
the end of the pipe it is completely hydrated."

Hydrated lime is sacked by automatic sacking machines
in paper bags. It has the advantage of being easily stored,
is slaked for use, and all impurities have been eliminated.
The transportation of quick lime is cheaper in that charges
are not paid on water content, but it must be handled care-
fully and be packed in waterproof and airproof containers to
avoid slaking. Where the destination is close some of both
limes are sold in bulk. In addition to lime some of the pro-
ducers make a mortar mix by adding cement, pulverized
limestone, and pulverized slag to lime.

Quarry Problems

Some problems of the Florida limestone industry have
already been discussed under Crushed Stone (pages 68-84)
and elsewhere in this section. Silicious layers and boulders
and replaced and secondary limestone are troublesome in
the soft granular limestones as they are objectional in road
base courses and in lime burning. These materials and the
sand and clay in cavities must be removed by hand, or,
where they are abundant, they must be left and that part of
the. quarry abandoned, each of which increases production
-costs. This cost could be reduced somewhat by the sale of






FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY


the silicious portions to local flint crushers, but this is appar-
ently not being done.
In the Miami area open quarries are operated within the
city limits and city regulations and restrictions force the use
of shallow shot holes and smaller charges of powder than
would ordinarily be used, thereby increasing the production
costs of these companies. However, the saving in transporta-
tion, most of the material being marketed in Miami, more
than repays this loss.
While cold weather in Florida causes few lost days in
mining, the heat of summer seasons lowers the efficiency of
labor, and the rainy season may raise the ground-water
surface above mining levels, thereby forcing a shutdown and
increasing the deterioration of machinery. This may be
combated in two ways: The quarry can be operated in two
levels, one of which is above high water levels; or a stock
pile may be maintained from which processing plants, such
as lime kilns, may be kept running and the market demands
can be covered. Almost no worker likes to work under wet
conditions and his efficiency is certainly decreased.
Shutdowns, whatever the cause, should be avoided as they
increase maintenance costs and have a tendency to cause the
more steady worker to migrate to more steady employment.
The resulting crew is less satisfactory. A loyal steady per-
sonnel is an intangible factor hard to evaluate, but increas-
ingly important now when man power is becoming more
scarce. Shutdowns are always expensive as machinery de-
teriorates as fast or faster than when in use and must be
overhauled before reopening if the delay is long. Further-
more, there is a loss of productive income and the salaried
men must be paid throughout this period when they no longer
produce. Where feasible, production should be continuous
and uniform, stock piles being built up during low markets
and expended during high.
Uses
Limestone and lime are used in so many different ways
in so many different industries that a simple list of the speci-
fications would require more space than is given in this
bulletin. Those producers interested in expansion of their
plants into new markets may refer to various publications


103





104 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-FOUR

on limestone and dolomite by the U. S. Bureau of Mines and
to Lamar and Willman (1938). Attempts at manufacturing
the finished product from limestone in Florida lags far be-
hind other States, the rock usually being sold as crushed
stone.
The large part of the tonnage of limestone produced in
Florida is used in road base courses, concrete aggregate, and
cement and lime manufacture. Small amounts are sold as
soil conditioners and fertilizer fillers, dimension and orna-
mental stone, building blocks, for asphalt base, railroad
ballast, and riprap. The lime of Florida in 1941 was used in
mortars, water purification, insecticides, paper manufacture,
cosmetics and as agricultural lime.
Markets and Production
The large part of the limestone and products manufac-
tured from it are used in the State and only small amounts
are exported. The State Road Department favors the use of
soft limestone as road base course material and hard lime-
stone as concrete aggregate, and large quantities are used by
their contractors. Railroads prefer to use the material
which outcrops on their lines as railroad ballast because of
the saving in costs of maintenance, and in Florida this
material is usually limestone. Specifications for these uses
are discussed under Crushed Stone.
In 1941 there were 52 companies and individuals engaged
in mining limestone, 26 of which sold limestone for road base
courses, 6 for agricultural limestone, 10. for dimension, art,
and ornamental stone, 23 for concrete aggregate, road sur-
facing, asphaltic base courses, and asphaltic concrete, 1 for
cement manufacture, and 4 for lime and mortar manufac-
ture. "' Six of the companies producing concrete aggregate
were using part or all of their aggregate in manufacturing
concrete blocks and products, which sold for approximately
$1,293,965 in 1941.
The production of limestone increased in 1941 to the
second highest tonnage and value of the Florida limestone
industry, and intermittently mounted from the depression
low of 1932, when the limestone was valued at $1,258,119.

31 Some companies sell several different products although operat-
ing only one pit.