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FGS



Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000451/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Power House well no. 2. Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory no. 1 ( FGS: Bulletin 19 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Bulletin 19 )
Physical Description: vi, 91 p. : incl. illus., 18 pl., tables, diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cole, W. Storrs ( William Storrs ), 1902-
Publisher: The State Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1941
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foraminifera, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Oil well drilling   ( lcsh )
Geology, Stratigraphic -- Tertiary   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: With description of a species of Foraminifera from another well. By W. Storrs Cole.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001809069
oclc - 01349318
notis - AJN2920
lccn - gs 41000177 /REV
System ID: UF00000451:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Front Matter
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
S. E. RICE, SUPERVISOR OF CONSERVATION
Herman Gunter, Director, Geological Survey





GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN No. 19





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC
STUDIES OF WELLS IN FLORIDA

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Power
House We'l No. 2.
Peninsuhir Ol and Refining Compny's J. W. Cory No. 1.
With description of a species of Fbraminifera from another well.





By
W. Storrs Coe, Ph.D.
Ohio StateJUniversity


Published for
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, 1941




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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN NINETEEN, Frontispiece


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


HONORABLE S. E. RICE,
Supervisor of Conservation.
Sir:
I have the honor to transmit a report entitled Stratigraphic and
Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida by Dr. W. Storrs Cole of
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, to be published as Geological
Bulletin No. 19.
This paper contains studies of two wells in peninsular Florida that
are of particular scientific and economic interest, and is a continua-
tion of a series of studies initiated by our Bulletin 16. One of these
wells, that of the Peninsular Oil and Refining Company, was drilled
as a deep test for oil and is so far the deepest well drilled in Florida.
Both because of its depth and geographic position, this well is of
great interest to both the pure scientist and the economic geologist.
The second well is a water supply well and is included because it
furnishes useful data for correlation purposes.
I want to take this opportunity to express my appreciation for
the interest you have shown in the work of the Geological Depart-
ment and for the support you have so generously given it.

Very respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER, Director
Geological Survey.
Tallahassee, Florida,
May 6, 1941.




1. 3215. 5




















PUBLISHED


AUGUST 1, 1941




CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1
Acknowledgments .......................................................................................................... 2
Previous studies ............................................................................................................ 2
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America,
Power House Well No. 2, (W-448) .................................................................... 4
Stratigraphy ......................................................................................................... 4
Miocene ............................................................................................................ 4
Hawthorn formation ............................................................................. 4
Tampa limestone .............................................. ............................... 6
Eocene ............................................................................................................... 6
Ocala limestone ............................................................................... 6
Middle Eocene .................................................................................... 7
Paleontological Record ........................................................................................ 7
Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. 1, (W-445) ......... 9
Stratigraphy ....................................................................................................... 9
Pliocene ....................................................................................................... 9
Caloosahatchee formation ........................................................................ 9
M iocene ............................................................. ................................................... 9
Hawthorn formation .............................................................. .................. 9
Tampa limestone ................................... ................................. 11
Oligocene ....... ........................................ 11
Eocene .............................................................................................................. 1
Ocala limestone ................................................................................... 16
Middle Eocene ...................................................................................... ... 16
Lower Eocene ........................................................ .... .. ............ 16
Cretaceous .............................................. ......................................... ................... 16
Comparison of the Cory well (W-445) with the Marathon well (W-2) .... 17
Description of cores from the Cory well (W-445) ....................................... 18
Paleontological Record ........................................................................................ 19
Descriptions of Species .............................................................................................. 21
Textulariidae ....................................................... .................................................... 21
Tewtularia coryensis Cole, n. sp ................................................ ......... 21
Verneuilinidae ...................................................... ................................................ 21
Vern ilina sp. ........................................ ....................................................... 21
Valvulinidan e ...................................... ................... .............. .................. 21
Valvtlina floridana Cole, n. sp. ......................................... ............ 21
martli Cushman and Bermudez ........................................... 22
Pseuldorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez .............................. 22
Litionella floridaia Cole, n. sp. ......................................... ........... 23
CosLinolina floridata Cole, n. sp. ......................................... ........... .. 24
Dictyoconr ts cooked (Moberg) .............................. .......... .............. 26
gunterl Moberg ...................... ................... 27
Camerinidae ........................................................................................................... 28
Oamcrina moodybranchl nsis Gravell and Hanna ................................... 28
vanderstolk (Rutten and Vermunt) ........................................ 28
Operculin oides curasvicus (Rutten and Vermunt) ................................ 29
floridensis (Heilprin) ..........:......................... .......... .. 30
ocalanus (Cushman) ........................................ ............ 31
willco1xi (Heilprin) ........................................................ 32
Heteroseginla ocalanoa Cushman ...................................... ............. 32
temxaim Gravell and Hanna ............................................ 33






PAGE
Peneroplidae .......................................................................................................... 33
Spirolina coryefsis Cole, n. sp. ................................................................ 33
A lveolinellid e ..................................................................................................... 34
Borelis gunteri Cole, n. sp. .................................................................... 34
variety floridana Cole, n. var. .................................... 35
B ulim inidae ............................................................................................................ 35
Pscudochrysalidina, Cole, n. gen. .................................. ...........-.......- 35
floridana Cole, n. sp ............................................. 36
R otaliidae ................................................................................................................ 36
Discorinopsis Cole, n. gen. ................................................................... 36
gunteri Cole, n. sp. ........................................... ............. 36
Eponidcs jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin) .................................... 37
O rbitoididae ............................................................................................................ 37
Lpidorbitoides .............................................................................................. 37
Lepidorbitoides (Lepidorbitoides) nortoni (Vaughan) ...................... 40
Lcpidocycli'na (Lepidoocclina) mortoni Cushman .................................. 41
ocalana Cushman ................................ 41
variety attenuata Cushman ......... 43
floridana Cushman ............ 44
pseudonuarginata Cushman 44
variety attenuata Cushman ......... 43
tschoppt Thiadens ................................... 45
(Neplhrolepidina) seminesi Vaughan and Cole ......... 40
Discocyclinidae ...................................................................................................... 47
Pseudophragmina (Proparocyclina) citrensis (Vaughan) .................. 47
Miogypsinide ........................................................................................................ 47
Miogypsina (Miogypsina) haiwkinsi Hodson .......................................... 47
A appendix .............................................................................................................................. 49



ILLUSTRATIONS


Plates 1-18 ...................................................................................................................... 55
Figure 1. Index map showing location of wells ....................................... 1
Figure 2. Log of United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America,
Power House Well No. 2 ..................................... ............................. 5
Figure 3. Log of Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. 1 10
Figure 4. Electric Log of Peninsular Oil & Refining Company's J. W.
Cory No. 1 .............................................................................................. 52
Table 1. Comparison of American Species of Lepidorbitoides ...................... 38







STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES
OF WELLS IN FLORIDA
Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. 1
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America,
Power House Well No. 2.
W. STORRS COLE
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY


INTRODUCTION
In 1938 the Florida Geological Survey published a bulletin entitled
"Stratigraphy and Micropaleontology of Two Deep Wells in Florida."'
The purpose of that bulletin was to make a complete analysis of the
stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two wells which Herman Gunter,
State Geologist of Florida, selected because of their economic and
scientific importance. After the publication of this report, a log and
samples of the Peninsular Oil and
Refining Company's J. W. Cory [ -
No. 1 well, near Pinecrest, Monroe. X- f
County (W-445), were made avail- -
able to the Florida Geological Sur-
vey by Robert B. Campbell, pre-i-
dent of the company, for study and
analysis. A set of samples was also
submitted by M. R. Vaughan, well oURW -
Lafohn of w@115
contractor, from the second well at W-...Y"" .
the Power House of the United..
Brotherhood of C a r p e n t e r s and ...-
Joiners of America, 2 miles north of Lakeland, Polk County
(W-448). Mr. Gunter wrote the writer requesting that the studies
on key wells be continued. The study was begun in the summer of
1939. This bulletin embodies the most significant results of these
studies. The approximate locations of the wells are shown in figure 1.
Although satisfactory correlations can be made in the younger for-
mations encountered in these wells, definite statements concerning
the formations below the middle Eocene must await the analysis of
many more wells. One difficulty is the lack of fossils in the older for-
mations. The formations penetrated by the drill in the Granberry
well were recognized and correlated with certainty. At first, it was

1W. Storrs Cole, "Stratigraphy and Micropaleontology of Two Deep Wells in Florida,"
Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 16, pp. 1-73, pls. 1-12, 1938.
2Ibid., pp. 19-36.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


hoped that all the formations penetrated by the drill in the Gory well
could be correlated also with other well known units elsewhere. One
result of this study has shown that this cannot be done below the
middle Eocene. However, studies of wells located in strategic posi-
tions between the Granberry and Cory wells may lead eventually
to the correlation of the older formations which underlie the middle
Eocene in southernmost Florida.
As the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners Power
House well No. 2 ended in the middle Eocene, identification of the
stratigraphic units encountered could be made with certainty.
All the specimens discussed in this bulletin are filed in the
Florida Geological Survey Museum at Tallahassee.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Since 1929 it has been the privilege of the writer to cooperate
with the Florida Geological Survey on various problems relating to
the stratigraphy and microfaunas of that state. During that time
Herman Gunter, State Geologist, has assisted those studies in ways
too numerous to list. Thus it is a pleasure to acknowledge the en-
couragement and support which Mr. Gunter has given for the prepa-
ration of this bulletin. I am indebted to Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan for
examining and commenting on many of the photomicrographs during
a brief visit with him this past summer. Mrs. Elizabeth Burekmyer
furnished able assistance in making the drawings of the small Fora-
minifera. The United States Geological Survey undertook the difficult
task of supplying suitable photomicrographs illustrating the external
appearance of the large Foraminifera.


PREVIOUS STUDIES
The samples from the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners
well (W-448) have not been previously studied by. any geologist or.
paleontologist, but the samples from the Cory well (W-445) have been
studied. Campbell3 published two brief accounts of this well in the
first of which he discussed some of the drilling problems and stated
the important contacts based on work by Mrs. E. R. Applin, Consult-
ing Paleontologist, Ft. Worth, Texas.

l.obert B. Campbell, "Deep Test in Florida Everglades," Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Bull,
vol. 23, pp. 1713-1714, 1939.
"Outline of the Geological History of Peninsular Florida," Fla. Acad. Scl.
I'loc., vol. 4, pp. 96-97, 1939.




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 3

The second note recapitulates the information given in the first,
although in the second note Campbell states that Dictyoconus
(presumably D. gunteri) occurs at approximately 1,800 feet, Borelis at
about 3,300 feet and Orbitolina walnutensis (Dictyoconus walnuttensis)
was reported by one worker from the final core.
A summary of the determinations of Mrs. Applin in the first article
is given below.
Depth in feet
Pliocene (Caloosahatchee formation) ............................... 0-110
U assigned ........................... ............... ............................ 110-390
Top of M iocene .............................................. ................. 390
Top of Oligocene ............................................ .......................... 000
Top of Eocene (Ocala limestone) ...................................... 220
Top of Upper Cretaceous .................................................. 5730
Top of Lower Cretaceous ........................................ 8106
The only fossils mentioned in this brief account were Lepidorbitoides
at 5,730 feet and miliolids in the Lower Cretaceous or Comanchean.
The present study substantiates certain of the contacts given by
Campbell in his article, but complete agreement is not possible. This
may be due to differences in interpretation.
The top of the Oligocene and the top of the Eocene check with
the observations made in this study, but certain points of difference
should be indicated. Campbell places the top of the Miocene at 390
feet. This is the top of a calcareous sandstone and does mark a
slight lithologic break. The writer, however, places the top of the
Miocene (Hawthorn formation) at 90 feet which marks the top of
the section of sands and marls in this well.
The top of the Upper Cretaceous is given as 5,730 feet and the
top of the Lower Cretaceous is stated definitely to be 8,106 feet, al-
though at both of these depths Cretaceous deposits were encountered,
some caution must be exercised. It will be stated clearly in other
portions of this bulletin, that paleontological evidence is virtually
lacking below 2,000 feet. The fossils that do occur are indicative of
the age of the deposits, but are not absolute indicators that the top
of a series of rock have been reached.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF CARPENTERS AND
JOINERS WELL (W-448)4
The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners well was
drilled by M. R. Vaughan, Well Contractor of Tampa. This well is
located about 2 miles north of Lakeland in Polk County. Samples
of cuttings were received July 10, 1939. These were collected at ir-
regular intervals5 from 10 feet to 550 feet at which depth the well
was completed. The elevation of the well is 157.6 feet above sea level.

Examination of the geological map of Florida6 indicates that the
area immediately adjacent to the city of Lakeland is underlain by
the Hawthorn formation of Miocene age. Although the Hawthorn
formation is assumed to underlie all of Polk County, it outcrops only
in the western half.

Below the Hawthorn formation, the Tampa limestone is assumed
to underlie the entire county.7 Some details of the subsurface section
of Polk County have already been presented by Mossom.8 Unfortu-
nately, only a very generalized picture of the fossil zones encountered
in those wells is given. Thus, exact correlation is impossible.


STRATIGRAPHY

The formations penetrated by the United Brotherhood of Car-
penters and Joiners well are shown graphically on Figure 2. All of
the formations are correlated with known outcropping units except
the middle Eocene which has not been recognized at the surface in
any area in Florida.

MIOCENE

Hawthorn formation.-The first sample represents the interval
from 10 to 25 feet, and is assigned to the Hawthorn formation.
The Hawthorn formation as represented by samples from this
well is composed of phosphatic marls, sands, some limestone and beds
of greenish to gray, greasy clay resembling fuller's earth. The base
of the Hawthorn formation is placed at 110 feet in this well.

4Samples from this well were given the Florida Geological Survey number W-448.
kA note accompanying the set of samples stated, "Samples taken at every change of
formation or as near so as possible."
6C. Wythe Cooke and Stuart Mossom, "Geology of Florida," Florida Geol. Survey, 20th
Ann. Rept., map in pocket, 1927-28.
"Ibid., p. 84.
sStuart Mossom, "A Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of Florida," Florida Geol.
Survey, 17th Ann. Rept., pp. 237-241, 1926.





STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 5


10
g25
38
Z4
65
S 76


--110
117


2--- O-
265


S'1.


...]lp Sample
. ghtl/ lcar/c osclayy, containingphosphic pebbles
Lime fragments and small phospha//c pebbes
:--- Nosample
'Green/sh sllghl sandy

Hard
Sigqhtfl arenaceous with occasionalphosphaitc pebble
-~-~'1No sample
Greygreasy withscatteredphosphaoicpebb/es
:.-fErd, white, wllhsone cas/sof small gastropods


Grey, soft, porous, numerous bryozoa


-':ht-tan, hard


Soft,porous, fossiliferous


Abundant, large foraminifera

Mainly large foraminifera


Brown;hard, vey fossiliferous



Soft, white, cholky


Llght-tan,poraus
-.. -Tan, hard
: 4_rher, porous
~ight-tan,hard, fossll//ferous


M Limestone


. MMarl


r50feet

-20
05
Scale


; Sand

g Clay


Sane dClay


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White foramninera largey casts of small forms)
LIght-tan, extreme/y fossil/ferous

Mainly casts of small foraminifer; some brown calcile


355
--370

396
LI 40g





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN.. 19


Tampa limestone.-At 110. to 117. feet. a hard-..white limestone
containing a few casts of small gastropods was encountered. Although
careful search was made, no foraminifera were encountered in this
sample. H-owever, because of the lithologic character and the assump-
tion that the Tampa limestone underlies the entire county, it is thought
that the well penetrated the Tampa limestone between 110 and 117
feet.
The succeeding sample (117-180 feet) was also found to be devoid
of diagnostic Foraminifera, but rather numerous Bryozoa were en-
countered. These were submitted to 'Dr. R. S. Bassler of the United
States National Museum. The following is a quotation from his
letter:9 "However, W-448 contains an abundance of the characteris-
tic Jacksonian fossil Reteporidae: Polyascosoecia jacksovica Canu and
Bassler and with it Tubucellaria fallax Canu and Bassler, an equally
good species. The other species in this lot are Nellia oculata Busk,
Porella and Entalophora which have a wider range."

Canu and Basslero1 give the following ranges for the various genera
and species mentioned in Dr. Bassler's letter:
Polyascosoccia jacksonica....................................Middle Jacksonian
Tubuicellaria fall .......................... Middle d upper Jacksonian
Nellia ocu rlata .................................................. .Vicksburgin to Recent
Porella......................................................................Lutetian to Recent
Entalophora...................................................Midw yan to Claibornian
Although the prevailing aspect of the Bryozoa suggests an Eocene
age, certain discrepancies may be noted. Inasmuch as diagno-tic
Eocene Foraminifera do not appear until a depth of 250 feet, this
portion (117-180 feet) of the well is placed in the Tampa. It may be
that the Bryoza found have a longer range than was believed formerly,
or it may be that they represent reworked forms.

EOCENE
Ocala limestone.-The two samples representing thq interval from
250 to 265 feet are composed of a soft, porous, gray limestone with
abundant large Foraminifera. Certain small Foraminifera were re-
covered from the sample at 250 to 258 feet. These represented typical
upper Eocene species. Large Foraminifera are the dominant constitu-
ents of the samples collected between 265 and 355 feet. A white lime-
stone composed mainly of the casts of small Foraminifera is found
between 355 and 370 feet.

9Letter to the writer, dated June 28, 1940.
'oFerdinand Canu and Ray S. Bassler, "North American Early Tertiary Bryozoa," U. S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 100; pp. 196, 489, 544, 785, 889; 1920.




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 7

Many of the large Foraminifera are diagnostic of the Ocala lime-
stone in other areas of the state. Certain species are associated with
these which are reported from the Ocala limestone for the first time,
although most of these species have been found elsewhere in deposits
of upper Eocene age.

Middle Eocene.-At 370 feet a light tan limestone was encoun-
tered. Except for the intervals between 465 and 490 feet and 523
to 532 feet, the predominating color of the limestone encountered is
light tan to brown. This section represents the middle Eocene. It is
the probable equivalent of the Claiborne section repdoted from the
Granberry Well.11 Much more detailed work must be done before this
correlation can be proved. This is undoubtedly the same zone that
Stubbs12 refers to as the Coskinolina zone in Seminole County.

PALEONTOLOGICAL RECORD"
117-180 feet
Bryozoa
Entalophora sp.
Nella oculata Busk
Polyascosoecia jacksonica Canu and Bassler
Porella sp.
Tubucellaria fallax Canu and Bassler
214-217 feet
Cibicides sp.
Elphidium sp.
Eponides sp.
Globorotalia sp.
Rotalia sp.
Triloculitt sp.
250-258 feet
Oamenrina sp. probably C. vanderstokl (M. G. Rutten and Vermunt)
Elphidium temanun (Cushman and Applin)
Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)
Globulina gibba d'Orbigny
Gypsina globula (Reuss)
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman
ocalana Cushman
variety attenuata Cushman
floridana Cushman
Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin)
ocalanus (Cushman)
Teotularia subhauerit Cushman
Valvulina ocalana Cushman
258-265
amnerina vanderstoki (M. G. Rutten and Vermunt)
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana Cushman, variety pseudomar-
ginata Cushman
290-300'feet
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman
11W. Storrs Cole, "Stratigraphy and Micropaleontology of Two Deep Wells in Florida,"
Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 10, pp. 21, 22 1938.
"Sidney A. Stubbs, "A Study of the Artesian Water Supply of Seminole County, Florida,"
Florida Acad. Scd. Proc., vol. 2 p. 27, 1937.
*Only the first appearance of a species is listed. Although a given species may occur
in lower samples, it is not so recorded.





8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19

Opercutlinoides willcoxi (Heilprin)
300-320 feet
Camerina moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna
Pseudophragmiina (Proporcyclina) citronsis (Vaughan)
370-390 feet
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole, n. sp.
Valvulina floridana Cole, n. sp.
390-395 feet
Dictyocmnus cookei (Moberg)
409-413 feet
Cos-inolina floridana Cole, n. sp.
413-419 feet
Spirolina coryensis Cole, n. sp.
505-520 feet
Lituonella floridana Cole, n. sp.




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 9

Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. 1
(W-445)
The Peninsular Oil and Refining Company of Tampa, Florida,
drilled a wildcat well known as the J. W. Cory No. 1 in the
center of NW1/4 of Section 6, Township 55 S., Range 34 E., Monroe
County. This well was started December 31, 1938 and was abandoned
May 27, 1939. It is the deepest so far drilled in Florida. The elevation
of the derrick floor was 14 feet. Samples, the driller's log and electric
log were presented on June 24, 1939 to the Florida Geological Survey
through the courtesy of Robert B. Campbell, Tampa. The drillers were
the Loffland Brothers of Tulsa, Oklahoma. (Frontispiece).
Numerous samples of cuttings taken at 10 foot intervals were re-
ceived. These cuttings represented the intervals from 14 feet to 2,840
feet and from 3,240 feet to 8,310 feet. In addition to the samples of
cuttings, 31 cores were sent which were collected at irregular intervals
from 3,252 feet to 10,006 feet. The total depth of this well at its com-
pletion was 10,006 feet. This set of samples was given the Florida
Geological Survey number W-445.

STRATIGRAPHY
The formations encountered in the Cory well (W-445) with their
lithologic characteristics are shown on figure 3. The writer has found
exact stratigraphic determinations quite impossible below 2,610 feet
because of lack of paleontological markers. Below 8,000 feet, only cores
are shown as few samples of cuttings were submitted for the final
2,000 feet.
PLIOCENE
Caloosahatchee formation.-Although the, first sample was col-
lected from 14 to 19 feet, reference to the geologic map of Florida
indicates that this well starts in the Caloosahatchee formation. The
samples from 14 to 90 feet are composed of porous, gray, fossiliferous
marl, (14-60) followed by an almost white, hard limestone (60-70)
which is underlain by an arenaceous marl (70-90).
Foraminifera are present, but are so badly preserved that iden-
tification is impossible. The only genus which could be recognized
with certainty was Amphistegina. The correlation of this portion of
the well is based on the fact that the geologic map indicates the well
should have penetrated the Caloosahatchee formation.
MIOCENE
Hawthorn formation-From 90 feet to 510 feet, sand, sandstone
and marl were encountered. The sand particles vary in size from




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


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STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 11

fine to relatively coarse. Some of the largest particles were at least
one-half inch in diameter; these were well rounded and polished. The
chief constituent of this sand was quartz, but frequently dark, polished,
phosphatic pebbles appeared. Between 390 and 480 feet, the sand
was cemented by a calcareous cement.
Foraminifera which could be definitely identified appeared in
this section of the well. The following depths yielded Foraminifera
suitable for identification: 100-110; 110-120; 130-140; 360-370;
480-490; 490-500; 500-510. Although only relatively few species were
recovered at each of these depths, the composite fauna represents the
Hawthorn formation without question.
At 510 feet soft, porous limestones and dense, fine-grained lime-
stones begin. There is a marked lithologic break at this point. In
fragments of a hard, white limestone found in the sample at 510 to
520 feet were fragments of Sorites sp. These specimens are similar
to those which Cushman and Ponton13 report from the Hawthorn
formation. Thus, it would appear that the basal Hawthorn in this
area is a soft, porous limestone and a dense, fine-grained limestone.
Above this is the sandstone section.
The soft, porous limestone and dense, fine-grained limestone of
the Hawthorn has a thickness of 80 feet. The sandstone, sands and
sandy marl portion has a thickness of 420 feet, therefore the total
amount assigned to the Hawthorn formation in this well is 500 feet.
Tampa limestone.-At 590 feet, fragments of a brown limestone
appeared in which were embedded a few specimens of Archaias
floridanus (Conrad), (see plate 8, figure 1). This species character-
izes the Tampa limestone at the outcrop of this formation. In fact, it
is the only recognizable Foraminifera reported from the Tampa lime-
stone. Although the writer appreciates that the occurrence of one
species is a poor basis for the recognition of a formation, it is the best
proof that may be offered at present.

OLIGOCENE
The Oligocene was reached at 900 feet. Although there is not a
lithologic break at this depth, the sample at 900 to 910 feet contained
numerous specimens of Miogypsina (Miogypsina) hawkinsi Hodson.
In the Port St. Joe test well (W-288) the first appearance of
M. hawkinsi was considered to represent the top of the Oligocene.14
"Joseph A. Cushman and Gerald M. Ponton. "The Foraminifera of the Upper, Middle
and part of the Lower Miocene of Florida." Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 9, p. 20, 1932.
"Op. cit. (Bull. 16), pp. 13-15.





FLORIDA. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


At 1,100 to 1,110 feet, a Heterostegina was found which is referred
to H. texana Gravell and Hanna. In the Port St. Joe test well the
first appearance of H. texana occurred 159 feet below the appearance
of M. hawkinsi. In the well under consideration H. texana appeared
200 feet below the first occurrence of M. hawkinsi.

Below the Miogypsina hawkinsi and Heterostegina texana zones an-
other Miogypsina appeared in the Port St. Joe test well. Although
careful search was made for M. gunteri in the Cory well, it was not
found.

However, associated with H. texana was a small brachiopod, Argy-
rotheca wegemanni Cole, (see plate 18, figures 1, 2) which has been
described from the Meson formation of Mexico.15 Previously, this
species of brachiopod was known only from its type locality. It is,
therefore, interesting to find it in Florida in association with H. texana
which also occurs at the type locality of Argyrotheca wegemanni.
It is amazing that more of the Foraminifera associated with these
two forms in Mexico did not occur in the samples from this well.

At 1,140 feet, a number of specimens were encountered which were
tentatively assigned to Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg). The type locality
of this species is United State Geological Survey, locality 6828, New-
land Spring, near Falmouth, 9 miles west of Live Oak, Suwannee
County, Florida. This rock is included in the Suwannee limestone
of Oligocene age, named by Cooke and Mansfield16 in 1935.

The next recognizable Foraminifera were found at 1,220 feet.
These were representatives of the genus Lepidocyclina. Upon detailed
analysis these proved to be species characteristic of the Ocala limestone
elsewhere in Florida.

At 1,340 feet specimens were encountered which resembled those
discovered at 1,140 feet, namely, forms which were tentatively iden-
tified as Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg). Specimens were selected at
1,140 feet and 1,350 feet for detailed study. Upon analysis of the
specimens, it was found that the same species occurred at both depths
although the fauna below 1,340 feet was more diversified because
certain genera and species occurred which were not found at 1,140
feet. The species which are common to both depths are Dictyoconus
cookei (Moberg) and Coskinolina floridana Cole, n. sp.

"W. Storrs Cole, "A new Oligocene Brachiopod from Mexico," Bull. Amer. Pal., vol.
15, no. 57a, up. 1-7, 1 l.. 13 figs., 1929.
"C. Wythe Cooke and W. C. Mansfield, "Suwannee Limestone of Florida," Geol. Soc.
Amer. Proc. 1935, p. 71, June 1936 (abstract).




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 13

Inasmuch as the two zones containing Dictyoconus and Coskinolina
were separated by Ocala limestone, the conclusion was reached that
the specimens in the upper zone (1,140 feet) represented reworked
middle Eocene forms and that the specimens previously reported from
Newland Spring had the same type of origin.

Although Cushman'7 states that the range of Coskinolina and
Dictyoconus is lower and middle Eocene, Davies18 has proved that
a primitive representative of the genus Dictyconus occurs in the
Cretaceous. Thus, the range has been extended to older rocks, but
records of the occurrence of these forms above the Eocene have not
been published except for the Newland Spring locality of Mrs. Moberg.

Inasmuch as the stratigraphic range of Dictyoconus has been ex-
tended downward, it is only logical to suspect that representatives
of this genus might have existed longer in certain areas than in others.
Although this possibility was considered to account for the occurrence
of both Dictyoconus and Coskinolina in the Oligocene of the Cory well
and at Newland Spring in the Suwannee limestone, it was dismissed
in favor of the idea that the specimens in the younger rocks were re-
worked. The same species occur at both 1,340 feet and 1,140 feet
with unquestioned Ocala limestone intervening. Inasmuch as these
are specialized forms, it seems doubtful that they would survive for
such a period of time without some evolutionary change.

The most abundant species at and below 1,340 feet were found at
1,140 feet, but the rarer species were not. Thus, Lituonella was not
found at 1,140 feet, but a few individuals were found in many of the
samples below 1,350 feet. This may be explained by the fact that
in reworking, the more abundant types will occur with greater fre-
quency in the younger deposits. It is possible that careful search
will reveal Lituonella accompanying Coskinolina and Dictyoconus in
the reworked faunas.
In the future, great care must be taken in dealing with the species
of Coskinolina and Dictyoconus in order to prove that reworked ma-
terial is not being examined.
On November 29, 1940, Sidney A. Stubbs, Assistant State Geologist
of Florida, wrote the writer after reading this report that he in-
terprets the upper Dictyoconus-Coskinolina zone in a different manner.

"Joseph A. Cushman, "Foraminifera, their Classification and Economic Us.e," Harvard
University Press, pp. 181, 182, 1940.
18L. M. Davies, "An early Dictvoconus, and the genus Orbitolina: their contemporaneity,
structural distinction and respective natural allies." Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 59.
pp. 778-776, pl. 1, figs. 4,0, 1939.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


It seems pertinent to this problem to quote portions of the letter
which Mr. Stubbs wrote.

"Your conclusion is that the forms above the Ocala were reworked
from the Eocene below the Ocala. To support this you cite the short
range of the genera involved and the fact that the same species occur
abundantly above and below the Ocala. I still do not feel that these
observations constitute proof and that the subject is still open for
debate.
"In support of this contention, I cite the following observations.
The Ocala limestone was deposited in all parts of peninsular Florida.
It was subsequently eroded and in a few places it has been entirely
removed, except for small scattered patches. The distribution of the
Ocala is based on study of several hundred wells that penetrate the
Eocene. The extensive erosion that completely removed a portion of the
Ocala seems to have taken place after the deposition of the Hawthorn
Miocene. I base this statement on the results of my study of wells in
the Seminole-Volusia County area. In that territory, we frequently
find the Caloosahatchee marl resting upon Middle Eocene. In much of
the territory the Hawthorn occurs as remnants, but where Hawthorn
has been present in well cuttings, it has always been immediately under-
lain by at least a few feet of typical Ocala. Therefore, it is exceedingly
difficult to understand how the Ooskinolina and other forms could have
been derived from covered Eocene beds. It further seems that we would
necessarily have many Ocala forms present in the reworked material and
there is not one Ocala species present.
"There are, so far as we know now, only two areas from which this
reworked fauna could have been derived. One is in south Georgia in
the Quitman to Tbnmasville vicinity and the other is in a small part of
Volusia, Seminole and Brevard Counties in east central Florida. The
south Georgia area is different from that in East Peninsular Florida
in one respect. At Thomasville, the Oligocene may rest upon the Middle
Eocene. There we find about 100 feet of Oligocene sediments resting
upon the Coskinolina-bearing Eocene. These Oligocene beds contain
Coskinolina-Dictyoconus. In both of these areas the Ocala has been
removed by erosion after being deposited over the Coskinolina-bearing
material. The Ocala where present as remnants in these two areas is
exceedingly fossiliferous. It seems that this would lend further weight
to the argument that if the Oligocene fauna has been derived by re-
working, then the reworked material should contain as many or more
Ocala species as it does Coskinolina Eocene forms.
"On the other hand, in support of the recurrent fauna we find that
the lithologic character of the rocks in the Eocene and Oligocene are
very similar. This means that ecologic conditions conducive to the life
of Coskinolina and other members of that group were probably re-
current during Oligocene times- We have no reason to contend that
all the forms died during upper Eocene times because our knowledge of
the distribution of the fauna is very meager, and because we know that
age equivalents do not always mean time equivalents. A fauna migrating
from Florida to the West Indies, for example, would cause the geolo-
gists examining the West Indian rocks in which this fauna was con-
tained to assign these rocks to the same age as the Florida material. In
truth, however, the West Indian rocks would be younger than the
Florida deposits. A repetition of the same ecologic conditions in Florida
during a later period could cause that same fauna to again appear in
Florida sediments. The classic example, William's woik on Tropi-
doleptus Zones in the Upper Devonian of New York (U. S. G. S. Prof.
Paper 79), may be applicable to the Florida faunas when we have com-
pleted studying them."




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 15

The writer replied as follows:

"The problem is mainly an academic one rather than practical. I
believe you will agree in this. I have now established beyond question
that there are two zones in which Dictyoconus-Ooslcinolina occur. There-
fore, the use of these forms in establishing stratigraphic units is open
to question unless there is supporting evidence. This is all the more
true because the same species occur in both zones. In fact, there may
be more than two zones.
"The academic problem is not solved so readily. I still hold to
my opinion that the upper Dictyoconus-Coskinolina zone in the Gory
well is due to reworking despite your excellent plea for a recurrent
fauna at this horizon. Let me hasten to say, however, that your argu-
ment has merits, that the idea cannot be entirely discarded, but I feel
that my stand is based on stronger theoretical and practical grounds
than yours. Davies (Trans. Roy. Acad. Edinburgh, vol. LIX, pt. 3,
1938-1939, pp. 778-779) has demonstrated that rather rapid evolutionary
changes take place, especially in Dictyoconus. This is shown in the
development of the subdivisions of the marginal trough. That Davies is
correct is indicated by the characters found by myself and others in
D. cookei, D. gunteri, D. codon and others.
"I am of the opinion, from my rather extensive studies of larger
Foraminifera, that these highly specialized forms have very restricted
time ranges. I doubt if a species would persist through two epochs, and
I am convinced that a genus would show some slight modification.
"I do not see that the Tropidoleptus problem is applicable here,
inasmuch as there is a definite tonguing of the sediments in which it
occurs. In the Cory well the entire section concerned is composed of
marls and marly limestone. If the range of Dictyoconus-Coskinoltna is
from middle Eocene to Tampa, why isn't it continuous in this well? Eco-
logical conditions were as favorable for its survival in Ocala time as in
either the middle Eocene or Oligocene.
"Let me add a point not covered in my manuscript. In the Cory
well at 1130-40 feet there are a few specimens of the form which I am
calling Discorinopsis guntert. These show by their physical condition
that they have suffered transportation as they are battered and chipped.
"It is true that many of the specimens of Dictyoconu1s-oskinolina
at 1140-1150 feet appear fresh without abrasion of the surface. (Inci-
dentally, this is a point in favor of your argument.) However, most of
these specimens are filled with calcite, a condition not found in the
specimens below 1340 feet which are perfectly preserved with open
chambers. This is not proof, of course, of transportation, but is
suggestive.
"The fact that the middle Eocene is covered by the Ocala is well
taken and the strongest point for a recurrent fauna. However, the
Floridian plateau has only about one-half its surface available for study
as the remainder is under the waters of the Atlantic or Gulf. These
areas. one or both, may have been high during Oligocene time and have
been the source for the reworked middle Eocene forms. (See Cushman,
"Eocene foraminifera from the submarine cores off the eastern coast
of North America," Contrib., vol. 15, pt. 3, 1939.) This contention is not
purely "guess", but is based on the fact that the Marathon well on
Key Vaca is structurally higher on the older formations than is the
Cory well on the mainland.
"There may be more than one zone of Dictyoconus-Coskinolina in
the Oligocene. Although it was not practical to subdivide the Oligocene
in the Cory well, the Dictyoconus-Coskinolina zone occurs below the
Heterostegina zone and relatively close to the top of the Ocala. On the
outcrop near Newland Spring the rocks containing (oskinolina are now
assigned to uppermost Oligocene. In the Port St. Joe test well 3 Dictyo-
conu0ts-oskinolina were not found. This suggests to me irregular distri-





16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19

bution of these forms and probably two or more reworked zones in the
Oligocene.
If we were to hold to your viewpoint, we would not be able to sep-
arate any of the section of limestone in the Cory well into formations
on the basis of short ranged fossils because we would never know when
we were dealing with a recurrent fauna."
EOCENE
Ocala limestone.-The top of the Ocala limestone is based on the
first appearance of Lepidocyclina in this well. The various species
found have been reported from the Ocala limestone elsewhere in
Florida or in other deposits of upper Eocene age in the Caribbean
region.
Middle Eocene.-At 1,340 to 1,350 feet, a light tan to brown lime-
stone appears. This formation contains abundant Dictyoconus. Ap-
parently this formation is widely distributed over peninsular Florida.
This limestone may be the deeper water equivalent of the sands de-
scribed in the paper on the Granberry well'l (W-285) and assigned
to the Claiborne. Many wells must be examined to prove this point.
Two species of Dictyoconus are found below 1,340 feet in this
well: D. cookei (Moberg) first appears at 1,340-1,350 feet and D.
gunteri is encountered at 2,050-2,060 feet. Some workers divide this
portion of the middle Eocene into two zones, i. e., the Dictyoconus
cookei zone below which occurs the Dictyoconus gunteri zone. The
D. cookei zone in this well has a thickness of 700 feet.
Lituonella floridana is associated with D. cookei but is rather rare
in most samples examined. It may not extend to the top of the D.
cookei zone. It may be practical to designate a Lituonella sub-zone.
More work is needed to establish the validity of these suggestions.
The Dictyoconus gunteri zone apparently extends to 2,610 feet at
which point the soft, porous limestone ends and a dense brown lime-
stone appears. If this interpretation is correct, the middle Eocene
Dictyoconus zones have a thickness of 1,260 feet.
Lower Eocene.-Below the Dictyoconus gunteri zone, there are no
recognizable fossils to a depth of 3,350 feet. At 3,350 feet specimens
were recovered which are assigned to the genus Borelis. This genus
ranges from Eocene to Recent. In this paper the zone containing.
Borelis is assigned to the lower Eocene.
CRETACEOUS
Below the Borelis zone, Lepidorbitoides occurs at 5,760 feet. In,
the section between 3,350 feet and 5,760 feet a core at 4,617-4,625 feet
"Op. cit. (Bull. 16), pp. 21, 22.




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 1'

is composed of a foraminiferal limestone, but thin sections show that
the greater percentage of the forms belong to the family Miliolidae.
Generic and specific identifications are impossible. Cushman in his
textbook20 states "The Miliolidae have reached their greatest develop-
ment in shallow, warm waters of the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene,
and are now particularly characteristic of coral reef conditions in the
tropics." Unfortunately, the data derived from the study of this
core do not help in determining the age of the section from which it
was taken.
The writer has found it impossible to pick the exact point at which
the Cory well encountered the top of the Upper Cretaceous. The top
of the chalk at 5,750 feet certainly represents the top of an Upper
Cretaceous formation. How much of the interval between 3,350 feet
and 5,750 feet might be Upper Cretaceous is a question which cannot
be decided at this time.
Below the Lepidorbitoides zone, macroscopic fossils were found in
two cores, from depths of 7,676-7,684 feet and 7,9.44-7,949 feet. Dr.
L. W. Stephenson of the United States Geological Survey examined
the macroscopic fossils at the request of Herman Gunter. The fol-
lowing quotation is from Dr. Stephenson's letter21 to Mr. Gunter.
"The core from a depth of 7,676-7,684 feet bears the imprint of the
posterior part (perhaps about half) of an Inoceramus. Although the
position of the beak and hinge and the outline of the shell cannot be
seen the trend of the concentric marks strongly suggests Inoceramus
labiatus Schlotheim, a characteristic Eagle Ford species. The matrix
also suggests certain hard faces of the Eagle Ford.
The hard limestone from a depth of 7,944-7,949 feet contains many
fragments and imperfect young shells of Ostreidae some of which belong
to Gryphaea (sensu lato), but none of them is specifically identifiable.
Lithologically the rock might very well be one of the limestones from
the Comanche series..."
Although there is no doubt that the cores examined by Dr. Stephen-
son represent the Cretaceous, there is considerable question as to
their correlation with standard sections elsewhere.
Campbell places the top of the Lower Cretaceous at 8,106 feet.
This determination was based on a change of lithology at this depth.
The writer is not able to agree that the evidence is sufficient to state
definitely that this well penetrated the Lower Cretaceous.

COMPARISON OF THE CORY WELL WITH THE
MARATHON WELL
A well was drilled by the Florida East Coast Railway Company
at Marathon on Key Vaca in 1918. This well was begun February,
OJoseph A. Cushman, "Foraminifera, Their Classification and Economic Use," Harvard
University Press, p. 102, 1940.
21etter dated August 10, 1939, a copy which Mr. Gunter kindly supplied.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


1917 and completed to a total depth of 2,555 feet early in 1918. Mossom22
and Cushman23 have both studied samples from this well.

In describing the lithologic character of the sediments encountered
Mossom logs coralline limestone from 85 to 179 feet; from 180 to
589 feet, sandstone; from 593 to 1,790 feet (the last sample collected),
limestone.

Recognizable fossil zones are listed as follows:
Marathon Well (W-2) Cory Well (W-445)
Depth below surface in feet
*Orbiolites sp. ............................................... 589 520
Miogypsina cushlmahi .......................................... 852
Miogypsina hawkins ............................................... 900
Lepidocyclina (various sp.) .............................. 984 1220
Dictyoconus cookei ................................................ 1248 1340
Dictyoconus gunteri ................................................1790 2050
*Probably Sorites sp.

DESCRIPTION OF CORES FROM THE CORY WELL (W-445)

Depth in feet
3252-56.-Dolomitic limestone, mottled, gray to light brown, compact, mas-
sive, except for a few pore spaces. One fragment composed almost
entirely of a mixture of calcite and dolomite crystals, many of
which could be seen with the naked eye.
3655-60.-Argillaceous chalk, mottled, salt and pepper appearance with the
darker shade predominating, compact, soft. One fragment com-
posed of black dolomitic limestone with masses of selenite.
3838-43.-Anhydrite, mottled, white to dark gray.
4350-55.-Anhydrite, mottled, white to dark gray.
4617-25.-Limestone, cream-colored, compact, massive, Foraminifera and Os-
tracoda noted on freshly broken surfaces.
5256-66.-Limestone, light gray to tan, extremely porous, with casts and
molds of fossils.
5550-70.-Limestone, cream colored, mainly composed of small calcite crystals.
6712-32.-Limestone, light brown, compact, crystalline.
7000-10.-Chalk, white, compact.
7352-62.-Chalk, white, compact.
7676-84.-Limestone, dark gray, compact, with a. slight odor of petroleum.
7944-49.-Limestone, three light gray fragments which are dense and com-
pact without fossils; three dark gray to nearly black -fragments,
one of which contains rather abundant fossils.
8168-75.-Anhydrite, mottled, white, gray, light brown, compact, massive.
8225-50.-Limestone, cream colored, compact (one fragment) ; Anhydrite
(one fragment).
8333-52.-Limestone, cream colored, compact.
8395-8409.-Anhydrite, massive, mottled gray to brown.
8469-75.-Limestone, chalky, gray, compact.
8572-8600.-Dolomitic limestone, gray to tan, compact, massive (two frag-
ments) ; anhydrite (one fragment).
8600-10.-Anhydrite (two fragments) ; limestone, dark gray, compact (one
fragment).
8700-28.-Limestone, cream colored, compact, massive.
8818-32.-Limestone similar to that in 8700-28 (several fragments); anhy-
drife (two fragments).
O6p. cit. (17th Ann. Rept.), pp. 252-254.
2Joseph A. Cushman, "Foraminifera from the Deep Wells of Florida," Florida Geol.
Survey, 13th Ann. Rept., pp. 33-69, 3 pls.. 1921.





STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 19

8937-53.--Anhydrite (several fragments) ; limestone, dark gray to lignt tan,
massive, few minute pore spaces, slight odor of petroleum (one
fragment).
8964-81.-Anhydrite (several fragments); limestone, dark gray, slightly
argillaceous, massive, soft, faint petroleum odor.
9025-49.-Dolomitic limestone, gray to tan colored, extremely porous (one
fragment); dolomitic limestone, dark gray, compact (one frag-
ment).
9024-49.-Anhydrite (three fragments).
9185-9208.-Limestone, tan, porous (one fragment) ; anhydrite (two frag-
ments).
9341-56.-Anhydrite.
9611-25.-Limestone, dark gray, massive, compact, faint petroleum odor.
9750-65.-Limestone, dark tan colored, with rather abundant shell fragments.
9841-51.-Limestone, dark gray to nearly black, compact and massive, inter-
bedded with some anhydrite.
9995-10,006.-Anhydrite (several fragments) ; limestone, dark gray with the
appearance of petroleum stain, slight odor of petroleum, massive,
slightly crystalline (several fragments):

PALEONTOLOGICAL RECORD
100-110 feet
Amphistegina gibbosa d'Orbigny
Sorites sp.
110-120 feet
Ouneolina angusta Cushman
130-140 feet
Buliminella elegantissima (d'Orbigny)
Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman and Valentine
Blphidium incertun (Williamson), variety clavatum Cushman
360-370 feet
Robulus americanus (Cushman)
480-490 feet
Angulogerina occidentalis (Cushman)
Bulimina gracilis Cushman
Buliminella curta Cushman
Cassidulina laevigata d'Orbigny, variety carinata Cushman
subglobosa H. B. Brady
Cibicides concentricus (Cushman)
floridanus (Cushman)
Discorbis candeiana (d'Orbigny)
Nonion pizarrensis Berry
Planulina depressa (d'Orbigny)
Textulariella barrettii (Jones and Parker)
Uvigerina peregrine Cushman
490-500 feet
Bolivina inargi'ata Cushman, variety multicostata Cushman
500-510 feet
Guncolina angusta Cushman, variety lata Cushman
500-520 feet
Gaudryina atlantica. (Bailey)
Sorites sp.
560-570 feet
Amphistegina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
floridana Cushman and Ponton
Gypsina sp.
590-600 feet
Archaia8 floridanus (Conrad)
750-760 feet
Opercutinoides sp.
900-910 feet
Miogypsina (Miogypsina) hawkinsi Hodson




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


1100-1110 feet
Argyrotheca woegetanni Cole
Heterostegina teants Gravell and Hanna
1140-1150 feet
Ooskinolina floridana Cole *
Dictyoconus cooker (Moberg) *
1220-1230 feet
Lepidooyclina (Lepidocyolina) ocalana Cushman
variety attcntata Oushman
floridana Cushman
tsochoppi Thiadens
1230-1240 feet
LepidocUclina (Lopfdocyoltla) mnwrtoni Cushman
1250-1260 feet
Opercouinoldcs cura8aviucs (Rutten and Vernnunt)
Lepidoc/clina (Ncphrolopidina) se8nwMle Vaughan and Cole
1340-1350 feet
Dictyoconu8 cooked (Moberg)
1350-1300 feet
Amtphisteginal pinarensis Cushman and Bermudez
Discorinopsfa gunteri Cole, n. sp.
Psetedochrysalidin# floridana Cole, n. sp.
Valvulitta floridana Cole, n. sp.
1360-1370 feet
Lituonella floridana Cole, n. sp.
Textularia coryletna Cole, n. sp.
Valvulina mairtif Cushman and Bermudez
Vernettdina. sp.
1390-1400 feet
Spirolina coryoC8sif Cole, n. sp.
Fabularia sp.
1440-1450 feet
Coskinolina floridana Cole. n. sp.
2050-2060 feet
Dictyoconis guntteri (Moberg)
3350-3360 feet
Borelis guntteri Cole, n. sp.
variety floridana Cole, n. var.
5760-5770 feet
L opidorbitoldo (Lepidorbitoides) nortont (Vaughan)
*Ileworked Eocene specimens, see text p. 18.




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 21

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

Family TEXTULARIIDAE
Subfamily Textulariinae
Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824

TEXTULARIA CORYENSIS Cole, n. ap.
Plate 1, figure 13
Test elongate, subreetangular in side, front and top views, widest
and thickest near apertural end; chambers numerous, broader than
high, each chamber ridged; sutures fairly distinct in marked depressed
areas between the ridged chambers; wall rather coarsely arenaceous
with calcareous cement; aperture broad, low, indistinct. Length of
holotype 1.14 mm.; greatest width 0.85 mm. Certain specimens as-
signed to this species have a length of 1.7 mm.
First appearance at a depth of 1360-1370 feet in W-445.
Type locality: Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory
No. 1 (W-445), at a depth of 1360-1.370 feet.
Holotype: Fla. Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-1533; paratype,
.F.S.G.S. Cat. No. S-1533A.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene:

Family VERNEUILINIDAE
Genus VERNEUILINA d'Orbigny, 1840

VERNEUILINA 8P.
Plate 1, figure 14
A few large specimens assigned to this genus were found in the
sample at 1360-1370 feet in W-445. These specimens were too poorly
preserved to describe specifically. They are figured for future reference.

Family VALVULINIDAE
Subfamily Valvulininae
Genus VALVULINA d'Orbigny, 1826

VALVULINA FLORIDANA Cole, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 1, 2
Test short, stout, broad, conical with a truncate apertural end,
triserial throughout; chambers indistinct except at apertural end, not
inflated; sutures indistinct, slightly depressed at apertural end; wall
arenaceous, rather finely finished; aperture a rather large opening at





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


the inner margin of the last formed chamber with a large valvular
tooth accompanied by a smaller secondary tooth in many specimens.
Diameter 1.5 mm.; height 1.1 mm.
Two species of Valvulina have been described from the American
Eocene. V. ocalana Cushman and V. martii Cushman and Bermudez
have triangular cross-sections. In both of these species the chambers
are fairly distinct.
First appearance at a depth of 370-390 feet in W-448; at a depth
of 1350-1360 feet in W-445.
Type locality: United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners
Power House Well No. 2 (W-448) at a depth of
390-395 feet.
Holotype: Fla. Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-1582; paratype:
F.S.G.S Cat. No. S-1582A.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene:

VALVULINA MARTIN Cushman and Bermudez
Plate 1, figure 12
Valvulina martin Cushman and Bermudez, Cont. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,
vol. 13, p. 7, pl. 5, figs. la, b, 1937.
Valvulina martin Cushman, Cont. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Sp. Publica-
tion No. 8, p. 9, pl. 1, fig. 19, 1937.
A few specimens were recovered which are doubtfully assigned to
this species.
First appearance at a depth of 1360-1370 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.

Subfamily Eggerellinae
Genus PSEUDORBITOLINA Douvill6, 1910

PSEUDORBITOLINA CUBENSIS Cushman and Bermudez
Plate 2, figures 5-11
Psacdorbitolina cubemis Cushman and Bermudez, Cont. Cushman Lab.
Foram. Res., vol. 12, p. 59, pi. 10, figs. 27-30, 1936.
This species was described by Cushman and Bermudez from Eocene
deposits in Cuba. Associated with the megalospheric specimens, there
are large forms which apparently are the microspheric generation.
Although certain specimens have the large open umbilicus shown
by the type species, others have a plate which covers the umbilicus.
The surface of the umbilical plate is very irregular and is penetrated
by several large openings. These may represent the apertures.


22




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 23

First appearance at a depth of 390-395 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.

Genus LITUONELLA Schlumberger, 1905
LITUONELLA FLORIDANA Cole, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 14-17; plate 4, figure 10; plate 6, figures 9-11
Lituonella sp. (?) Cushman, Cont. Cuslinan Lab. Foram. Res., Sp. Publi-
cation No. 8, p. 185, pl. 22, fig. 14, 1937.
Test elongate, circular or elliptical in transverse section, initial end
bulbose, with the bulb containing the early, spiral chambers. The bulb
is twisted to one side of the test. The surface of the test is marked by
slight corrugations. The height of megalospheric individuals is from
1.7 to 2.1 mm.; the diameter at the mase is 1.0 to 1.2 mm.; the diameter
just below the juncture of the initial bulb is about 0.8 mm.

The marginal trough has a width of 120 to 160 /; the thickness of
the floor of the marginal trough is about 40 pL. The outer wall of the
test has a thickness of 80 to 100 p. The area of the central shield is
composed of a series of irregular pillars.

Affinities.-L. floridana in longitudinal section slightly resembles
L. liburnica Schubert. L. liburnica is a larger form with a more ir-
regular marginal trough and a greater proportion of the test occupied
by the central shield area.

Associated with L. floridana are specimens which have a pointed
initial end. (see pl. 4 fig. 10). Longitudinal sections indicate that
these specimens are microspheric individuals. These specimens may
represent a new species, but for the present they are considered to
be the microspheric generation of L. floridana.

First appearance at a depth of 505-520 feet in W-448; in W-445
at a depth of 1360-1370 feet.

Type locality: United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners
Power House Well No. 2 (W-448) at a depth of
520-530 feet.
Cotypes: Fla. Geol. Survey No. S-1590; paratypes F.S.G.S.
No. S-1590A and S-1590B.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene:





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN: 19


Genus COSKINOLINA Stache, 1875

COSKINOLINA FLORIDANA Cole, n. 8p.
Plate 3, figures 1-7; plate 4, figures 1-9; plate 5, figures 1-5, 11;
plate 18, figure .9
Coskinolina cooked Moberg (part), Florida Geol, Survey, 19th Ann. Rept.,
pp. 166-168, pl. 3, fig 6 (not figs. 1-5, 7-8), 1928.
The measurements of 26 specimens are presented below. The speci-
mens were taken from the sample collected at 419-444 feet in W-448.


Diameter of Base
0.68mm.
0.68
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.81
0.85
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.89
0.93
0.93
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.97
1.02
1.00
1.06

22.10
Average 0.85 mm.


Height
0.89mm.
0.85
0.89
0.93
0.85
*0.98
0.89
0.98
0.85
1.15
1.06
0.93
0.93
1.10
1.02
0.93
1.02
1.23
1.10
1.02
1.10
1.27
1.27
1.15
1.02
1.19

26.60
1.02 mm.


In shape the test is a high, steep sided cone, the base of which is
normally circular in outline. In the average specimen the .height of
the cone is greater than the diameter of the base. The surface of the
cone is unornamented, although occasionally concentric rings show.
The base of the test is either flat or slightly convex.

The measurements of various internal features are given in the
following table:





STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN. FLORIDA 25

W-448 W-445
419-444' 1500-10'
Width of marginal trough 100-140/ 80-130O
Distance between chamber partitions 40-60A 40-600
Height of cups about 50u about 45/
Thickness of floor of marginal trough about 20A about 20$
Thickness of floor of central shield 35-40/ about 35A
Diameter of perforations of central shield about 259 20-25A
Spacing of perforations (center to center) 50-60s 55-60A
Thickness of outer wall about 20/ 20-30A
Thickness of chamber partitions about 8, about 8$

The horizontal sections show the chambers of the marginal trough
to be divided by a single vertical plate. The axial sections indicate
that the marginal trough is subdivided into chambers, but that these
are not subdivided by any horizontal plate. Thus, the horizontal sec-
tions suggest Dictyoconus, but the vertical sections suggest Coskinolina.
This seems to be very constant in all the specimens sectioned.

Affinities.-As Davies recognizes Coskinolina, both vertical and
horizontal plates subdividing the chambers of the marginal trough are
absent. The question arises as to which genus such a form as this
should be assigned. The vertical section is definitely Coskinolina in
type but the horizontal section illustrates the characteristics of primi-
tive Dictyoconus. The writer prefers to assign this form to the genus
Coskinolina, expanding the definition of that genus to include such
intermediate forms in which single vertical plates subdivide the
chambers of the marginal trough, but horizontal plates have not been
developed.

C. floridana is the only representative of this genus reported from
this hemisphere inasmuch as C. cookei is now considered to represent
a primitive Dictyoconus. D. cookei and C. floridana occur in associa-
tion. D. cookei has a larger, broader and lower cone than C. floridana.
The internal structure is different, particularly the vertical sections.

First appearance at a depth of 409-413 feet in W-448; at a depth
of 1440-1450 feet in W-445.

Type locality: Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory
No. 1 (W-445) at a depth of 1500-1510 feet.
Cotypes: Fla. Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-1543; paratypes,
F.S.G.S. Cat. Nos. S-1543B, S-15430, and S-1543D.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN .19


Genus DICTYOCONUS Blanclenhorn, 1900

DICTYOCONUS COOKEI (Moberg)
Plate 3, figures 11-13; plate 5, figures 6-10, 12, 13;
plate 6, figures 1-8; plate 18, figure 12
Coskinolina cooked Moberg, Florida Geol. Survey, 19th Ann. Rept., pp.
166-168, pl. 3, figs. 1-5, 7-8 (not fig. 6), 1928.
Coskinolint cookei Cushman, Cont. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Sp. Publi-
cation No. 8, p. 187, pl. 22, figs. 27-29, 31-33 (not fig. 30), 1937.


The measurements of eleven typical specimens from 409-413
in W-448 and three specimens from 1440-1450 feet in W-445
given below:


feet
are


W-448
409-413 feet
Diameter of base Height
1.7nnm. 1.4mnm.
1.7 1.3
1.8 1.6
2.1 1.5
2.2 1.6
2.3 1.8
2.4 1.4
2.4 1.9
2.5 1.8
2.6 1.8
2.7 1.5


W-445
1440-1450
Diameter of base
2.3mm.
2.5
2.5

7.3
Average 2.43nmm.


feet
Height
1.9mm.1
1.4
1.8

5.1
1.7mnm.


24.4
Average 2.22inim.


17.6
1.61mm.


A microspheric individual has a height of 1.95 mm. and a diameter
at the base of 3.19 nmn.

In shape the test is a low cone, the base of which may be perfectly
circular in outline, or with one diameter slightly longer than the
other. The surface of the test is typically smooth and featureless.

The measurements of various internal features are given in the
following table:


Width of marginal trough
Distance between chamber partitions
Height'of cups
Thickness of floor of marginal trough
Thickness of floor of central shield
Diameter of perforations of central shield
Spacing of perforations (center to center)
Thickness of outer wall
Thickness of chamber partitions


140-1801t
60-80p
40-600
10-12A
about 40A
about 60t
100-160A :
about 20A
6-8A





STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 27

The vertical (axial) and horizontal sections show this form to be
a typical primitive type of Dictyoconus related to D. walnutensis
(Carsey). The marginal trough is subdivided into chambers which
are in turn subdivided by a single horizontal plate (observed in axial
sections) and a single vertical plate (seen in horizontal sections). D.
walnutensis has a similar arrangement. Regarding D. walnutensis,
Davies21 has written: "Thus the form is a Diotyoconus, and not a
Coskinolina, and since there is only a single subdividing plate in each
plane, the species represents the simplest possible form of Dictyoconus.
Occasional chambers, both in vertical and horizontal sections, show
no subdividing plates at all, and the specimens may be said to be
partly Coskinolina."

The horizontal section demonstrates the presence of a character-
istic central shield with circular perforations more or less evenly dis-
tributed over its extent. Semilunar areas within the central shield
show the presence of the typical pillar-buttresses. The chambers are
usually subdivided by horizontal and vertical plates, but as Davies
has reported for D. walnutensis, these are occasionally lacking.

Affinities.-D. cookei is closely related to D. walnutensis. D. wal-
nutensis is the smaller form and the inner edge of the floor of the
marginal trough rises more abruptly and higher in D. cookei than in
D. walnutensis.

First appearance at a depth of 390-395 feet in W-448; as reworked
material at a depth of 1140-50 feet in W-445; as indigenous specimens
at a depth of 1340-1350 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.

DICTYOCONUS GUNTERI Moberg*
Plate 3, figures 8-10; plate 7, figures 2-6, 8
Dictyoconus (?) gunteri Moberg, Florida Geol. Survey, 19th Ann. Rept.,
p. 168, pl. 3, figs. 9, 10; pl. 4, figs. 1-3, 1928.
Dictyoconus guntert Vaughan, Jour. Pal., vol. 6, p. 98, pl. 14, fig. 8, 1932.
Dictyoconus gunteri Cushman, Cont. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Sp. Pub-
lication No. 8, p. 191, pl. 24, figs. 1-3, 1937.
Typical specimens assigned to this species were found only in W-445.
Dr. Vaughan kindly presented the writer with specimens of D. gunteri

2L. M. Davies, "An earlier Dictyoconus and the genus Orbitolna: their contemporaneity,
structural distinction, and respective natural allies," Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 59,
pp. 775, 776, 1989.
*Studies in progress at the present time suggest that the specimens in Florida which have
been called D. guntert are in reality D. codon. Proof of this will be presented in a bulletin
of the Florida Geological Survey which will be published in the near future.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


from the Marathon well at Key Vaca and specimens of D. codon
Woodring from Haiti. Illustrations are presented (pl. 7, figs. 1, 7; pl.
18, figs. 10, 11) of thin sections made from these specimens for com-
parison with the thin sections made from Fpecimens of D. gunteri from
W-445.
First appearance at a depth of 2050-2060 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.

Family CAMERINIDAE
Subfamily Camerininae
Genus CAMERINA Brugi re, 1792

CAMERINA MOODYBRANCHENSIS Gravell and Hanna
Plate 9, figure 9; plate 11, figures 9-15
Camcerina moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna, Jour. Pal., vol. 9, p. 332,
pl. 29, figs. 15, 22-24, 1935.
Camnerina moodybranchensis Barker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 86, No.
3052, pp. 323, 324, pl. 13, fig. 5; pl. 20, fig. 2; pl. 22, fig. 2, 1939.
This species has been adequately described by Gravell and Hanna.
Barker has given notes on Mexican specimens assigned to this species.
The specimens from W-448 seem to be entirely typical.
First appearance at a depth of 300-320 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

CAMERINA VANDERSTOKI (Rutten and Vermunt)
Plate 8, figures 2-10
Nunimulites vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt, Proc. Konink. Akad. Wet.
Amsterdam, vol. 35, p. 240, pl. 1, fig. 8; pl. 2, figs. 6, 12, 1932.
amnerina vanderstoki Barker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 86, No. 3052, pp.
322, 323; pl. 13, fig. 7; pl. 18, fig. 3; pl. 22, figs. 10-12, 1939.
The horizontal sections of the Florida specimens are identical to
the one published by Rutten and Vermunt. The transverse sections
exhibit more variation than is indicated by the one section figured by
Rutten and Vermunt or their description of transverse sections. Rutten
and Vermunt state that the thickness through the center is from 1.125
to 1.2 mm. The thickness through the center of the Florida specimen-.
ranges from 1.3 mm. to 1.8 mm.

The Florida specimens have a distinct axial plug. Although Rutten ,
and Vermunt do not mention the occurrence of an axial plug in the
type specimens, their figure (plate 2, figure 12) shows a well de-






STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 29

veloped axial plug on the right hand side and the suggestion of the
corresponding plug on the other side. It is probable that their section
is not oriented exactly through the center of the test and it is also
slightly oblique.
Barker has assigned certain specimens from the Claiborne of Mexico
to this species. The three transverse sections which he figures exhibit
as great a range as do the transverse section of the Florida specimens.
However, the transverse sections of the Florida individuals agree more
closely with the type than do the sections published by Barker since
the figures of the Mexican specimens barely indicate the presence of
an axial plug. The thickness through the center of the Mexican speci-
mens is nearer that of the type description than the thickness of the
Florida specimens which seems to be consistently greater.
A description of the Florida specimens follows: Test medium sized,
flattened lenticular to even lenticular, completely involute, sutures of
clear shell material normally flush with the surface of the test. Dia-
meters of an average individual 3.0 X 3.6 mm., thickness 1.7 mm.
Sections of average individuals show 41/2 to 51/2 whorls with 27
to 31 chambers in the final whorl. A small specimen with diameter
of 1.9 X 2.1 mm. had 31/2 whorls with 18 chambers in the final volu-
tion. The septa are regular, nearly straight for a little more than
three-fourths their length, then strongly, but evenly recurved toward
the periphery of the test. The chambers are higher than long. The
axial plug has diameters ranging from 0.64 to 0.8 mm. at the surface
of the test. The internal diameter of the initial chamber ranges from
100 to 120 i.
First appearance at a depth of 258-265 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.
The type specimens came from Curacao from deposits of assumed
Jackson age. The specimens referred to this species from Mexico are
reported from the Claiborne. It may be that the Mexican specimens
represent a variety of this species, or it may be that it has a compara-
tively long range.

Genus OPERCULINOIDES Hanzawa, 1935
OP-ERCULINOIDES CURA8VICUS (Rutten and Vermunt)
Plate 11, figures 7, 8
Operculina curasvtca Rutten and Vermunt. Proc. Konink. Akad. Wet.
Amsterdam, vol. 35, pp. 239, 240, pl. 2, figs. 2, 11, 1932.
Three specimens of a small Oper ulinoides were found in W-445
at a depth of 1250-1260 feet. In many of its features these specimens






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


resemble 0. curasvica, but there are certain differences. These speci-
mens have a diameter of about 2.9 mm. and a thickness of 0.76 mm.
The one horizontal section available has 31/8 coils with 23 chambers
in the final evolution. The internal measurement across both initial
chambers is about 140A.
The size, number of whorls, shape of the septa and thickness of
the outer wall are identical with the features shown by Rutten and
Vermunt's illustration. But, their transverse section illustrates a
specimen with a diameter of about 3.1 mm. and a thickness of 1.2 mm.
This specimen is decidedly umbonate with a wide flange. The Florida
specimens are thinner and slope rather regularly from the center to
the periphery.
0. curasvicus has a much larger embryonic apparatus as Rutten
and Vermunt state that the distance across both embryonic chambers
is 300 to 450A. The distance across the embryonic chambers of the
Florida specimens is about 140A. These specimens may be the micro-
spheric form, however.
With more specimens for study it might be decided that the
Florida specimens do not represent this species. For the present, it
seems best, however, to refer these specimens to 0. curasvicus in spite of
the differences noted above.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

OPERCULINOIDES FLORIDENSIS (Hellprin)
Plate 9, figure 8; plate 10, figures 1-3
Nuntmmulites floridensts Heilprin, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., Philadelphia, pp.
321-22, text fig., 1885.
Operculina floridenlss Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128, p. 130,
pl. 20, fig. 12, 1921.
Assilina floridensis Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 32, 1935.
Test medium to large size, very compressed, completely involute,
the last whorl somewhat thinner than the earlier coils. The sutures
are raised, especially on the surface of the last whorl and they are
rather limbate, but without definite beading.
Diameters Number of whorls Chambers in final whorl
4.8 X 4.2mm. 31/8 32
4.5 X 3.9mm. 3 29
A specimen with a diameter of 4.6 mm. had a thickness of 0.72 mm.
The initial chamber is spherical with an internal diameter of 100 to
120A.




STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 31

First appearance at a depth of 250-258 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

OPERCULINOIDES OCALANUS (Cushman)
Plate 10, figures 4-7
Operculina ocalana Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128-E, p. 129,
pl. 19, figs. 4, 5, 1921.
Operculina ocalana Gravell and Hanna, Jour. Pal., vol. 9, p. 333, 1935.
Operoulinoidea ocalana Hanzawa, Scl. Rept. TOhoku Imp. Univ., ser. 2
(Geol), vol. 18, No. 1, p. 18, 1935.
Operculina ocalana Vaughan in Sheppard's "The Geology of Southwestern
Ecuador," pp. 158, 159, figs. 118 (1-5), 114 (1-3), 1937.
Operculinoide8 ocalanus Barker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 86, No. 3052,
pp. 316, 317, pl. 12, fig. 5; pl. 15, fig. 5, 1939.
Operculinoides ocalanus Vaughan and Cole, Geol. Soc. Amer.; Sp. Paper
No. 30, pp. 38-40, pl. 8, figs. 8, 9; pl. 9, figs. 1-4; pl. 10, fig. 11, 1941.
Several specimens were found in the sample taken at 250-258 feet
in W-448 which appear to represent this species. However, certain
discrepancies should be noted. Cushman in describing this species
states that the last whorl contains "16 to 18 chambers". The figure
of the type specimen shows that this specimen has more than 18 cham-
bers in the final evolution. Gravell and Hanna have commented on
this discrepancy.
The two median sections available of the specimens from this
well have more chambers than normally occur in other forms referred
to this species. A specimen with diameter of 2.8 X 2.5 mm. has 3
coils with 21 chambers in the final whorl. Another specimen with
diameter of 3.2 X 2.7 mm. has 3 coils with approximately 31 chambers
in the final evolution.
Studies by Vaughan and Cole have proved that small specimens
of 0. ocalanus 3 to 3.3 mm. in greater diameter have 16 or 17 chambers
in the final evolution; those 4.5 mm. in diameter have 20 to 22 chambers
and those 6 mm. in diameter have as many as 26 chambers.
From this, it appears that the specimens under consideration have
more chambers in the final evolution for their size than Vaughan and
Cole found in specimens which they considered typical of this species.
Typical specimens of 0. ocalanus have the crests of the costae beaded
and beading is also present around the raised ends of the axis. The
specimens from the well do not exhibit this beading.
Although the foregoing statements tend to cast doubt on the
validity of the identification of these specimens, it should be pointed
*out that in other respects they resemble 0. ocalanus very closely. The




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVIYY-BULLETIN 19


specimens have the strongly costate surface which is so typical of
0. ocalat~is. The abrupt backward curvature of the costae at the
periphery of the test is similar to that shown in the type specimen
of 0. ocalanus. Finally, there is the rapid increase in height of the
outer whorl.
First appearance at a depth of 250-258 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

OPERCULINOIDES WILLCOXII (Hellprin)
Plate 9, figures 1-7
Numnmulites wtvllcoxwi Hellprin, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 34,
p. 191, figs. 1, 2, 1882; ibid., vol 36, pp. 321-322, figs. 1, 2, 1884.
Opercuitna oillcomit Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128-E, p.
129, pl. 20, figs. 9-11, 1921.
Operodiinella tvilcotii Vaughan, Florida Geol. Survey, 19th Ann. Rept.,
p. 158, 1928.
Operculinoides willcocmt Haunawa, Sci. Rept. TOhoku Imp. Univ., ser. 2
(Geol.) vol. 18, No. 1, p. 18, 1935.
Operoulionados iotllcomii Barker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80, No. 3052,
pp. 309-310, pl. 13, fig. 3; pl. 16, fig. 1; pl. 21, fig. 13, 1939.
Typical specimens of this species occur in W-448. Cushman states:
"The species seem to be characteristic of that portion of the Ocala
which is characterized by certain species of Lepidocyclina but not of
that portion in which Orthophragmina is the predominating orbitoid
genus. It occurs usually in company with Heterostegina." The same
association has been found in W-448.
First appearance at a depth of 300-320 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

Genus HETEROSTEGINA d'Orbigny, 1826
HETER08TEGINA OCALANA Cushman
Plate 11, figures 3-6
Hetcrostcgina ocalana Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128-E, pp.
130, 131, pl. 21, figs. 16-18, 1921.
Heterosteghin ocaltaa Vaughan, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 35, p. 789, 1924.
HetCrostegftmu ocalana Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p.
33, 1935.
Most of the specimens of this species encountered in this study
are slightly smaller than those figured by Cushman. The degree of
surface ornamentation is extremely variable. Certain specimens have
raised sutures of chambers and chamberlets, but on others the surface
of the test is virtually unornamented. All degree of ornamentation
occurs between the extremes. Cushman created the variety glabra for






STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 33

the specimens having "the smoother surface of the test." As a com-
plete gradation may be found in specimens from a single sample, the
value of the varietal designation may be questioned.
No adequate description of the internal features of this species
has been made. The following summary may be given of the specimens
studied.
Length ....................8.4-4.0 mm.
Width....................3.-3.8 mm.
Thickness through the embryonic apparatus...........0.74-0.80 iunn.
Thickness through flange.........................................0 .22-0.20 ma .
Portion of test occupied by umbonate area............1/3
Surface ornamentation.................................................. mnbonal boss; some specimnns
with raised costne, others vir-
tually smooth.
Num ber of whorls................................... ................. 3
Diameter of inithil chamber...................................... 80- 120A
I)ameter of second chamber.......................S-.......I .......50. -61 X 100/-120
Number of chambers not subdivided.......................
Num ber of coils............................. .... ............... 3
Distinct axial plug present.
First appearance at a depth of 300-320 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

HETEROSTEGINA TEXANA Gravell and Hanna
Plate 10, figures 8, 9; plate 11, figures 1, 2
HlctrostCegila tcaana Gravell and I-anna, Jour. Pal., vol. 11, pp. 525, 520,
pl. 03, figs. 1-4, 1937.
H1oftrostegina temana Cole, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 10, pp. 40, 41, pl.
5, figs. 18-21; pl. 6, figs. 1, 2, 3-8, 1938.
These specimens are identical to those figured from the Port St.
Joe test well.

First appearance at a depth of 1100-1110 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Oligocene.

Family PENEROPLIDAE
Genus SPIROLINA Lamarck, 1804

8PIROLINA CORYENSI8 Cole. n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 5, 6

Test initially closely coiled, but not completely involute, somewhat
compressed, later portion uncoiled, nearly circular in cross-section;
sutures indistinct; chambers not inflated; surface ornamentation con-
sisting of fine longitudinal striae; aperture consisting of a series of
independent pores in the central portion of the apertural face. Length
of adult specimens, about 2.3 mm.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


First appearance at a depth of 413-419 feet in W-448; at a depth
of 1390-1400 feet in W-445.
Type locality: Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory
No. 1 (W-445) at a depth of 1440-1450 feet.
Holotype: Fla. Geol. Surv. Cat. No. S-1541.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.

Family ALVEOLINELLIDAE
Genus BORELIS Montfort, 1808
BORELIS GUNTERI Cole, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 1-3; plate 18, figures 5, 6
Alvcolina ? sp. Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, 13th Ann. Rept., p. 64, pi.
3, figs. 6 a, b, 1921.
Test small, involute, circular in outline when viewed from the side,
compressed laterally, diameter from 1 to 1.5 mm., thickness 0.7 mm.
Surface of uneroded specimens smooth; with slight erosion the surface
exhibits a series of low, elongated revolving ridges.
Longitudinal and transverse sections show a globular initial cham-
ber with an internal diameter of 150 to 160,/. Surrounding the
proloculum there are about 5 coils which gradually increase in height
toward the periphery. Each chamber is divided into a single row
of chamberlets. These chamberlets vary in size and shape.
Type specimens from the Dundee Petroleum Company's well near
Bushnell in Section 36, Township 20S., Range 22E., Sumter County,
Florida, at a depth of 2270 feet.
These specimens were selected because they are more perfectly
preserved than any others in the writer's possession.
Affinities-B. jamaicensis Vaughan is the nearest in its features
to this species. However, there is a great difference in external shape
and number of coils. B. janaicensis is depressed, subglobular in form
with a height of 1 mm. and a transverse diameter of 1.4 mm. B.
jamaicensis typically has 9 coils.
First appearance at a depth of 3360-3370 feet in W-445.
Type locality: Dundee Petroleum Company well near Bushnell,
(W-3) Sec. 36, Twp. 20 South, Range 22 East,
Sumter County. At a depth of 2270 feet.
Holotype: Florida Geological Survey Cat. No. S-2825; para-
types F.S.G.S Cat. Nos. S-2825A and S-2825B.
Occurrence: Lower Eocene.





STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 35

BORELIS GUNTERI Cole, variety FLORIDANA Cole, n. var.
Plate 18, figures 3, 4, 7, 8
Normally associated with Borelis gunteri there are specimens of
marked globular shape. A description of these specimens follows:
Test small, slightly compressed, subglobular, height from 0.84 to
1.10 mm., diameter from 0.80 to 0.92 mm.
Specimens from W-166 had a globular initial chamber with an
internal diameter of 80ji. Specimens from W-445 had a globular
initial chamber with an internal diameter from 160 to 2201.
The specimen with the small initial chamber was composed of about
5 coils. The coils increase in height very slowly and the chamberlets
are rectangular in shape. The specimens with the larger initial cham-
bers were so poorly preserved that the number of coils could not
be exactly determined. However, the structure which is preserved
is similar to that of the smaller specimens.
Except for difference in shape and the fact that the chamberlets
appear to be rectangular in shape, these forms are similar to B. gunteri.
Moreover, they are associated in all the samples which the writer has
examined. Therefore, these forms are given a varietal name only.
Type locality: Suwannee Petroleum Corporation's Sholtz No. 1
(W-166) at a depth of 2140-2158 feet.
Cotypes: Florida Geological Survey Cat. No. S-2826 and
S-2826A.
Occurrence: Lower Eocene.

Family BULIMINIDAE
Subfamily Reusselinae
Genus PSEUDOCHRYSALIDINA Cole, n. gen.
Genoholotype, PSEUDOCHRYSALIDINA FLORIDANA Cole, n. sp.
Test conical, triserial, chambers inflated; wall calcareous, per-
forate; labyrinthic axis through the center of the test; aperture con-
sisting of numerous rounded pores on the final chamber.
This genus which is based upon a single species resembles Chry-
salidina d'Orbigny, 1839, but Chrysalidina possesses an arenaceous
wall with a thin, outer, epidermal layer. Specimens of Pseudochry-
salidina placed in dilute hydrochloric acid dissolved completely. Ex-
amination of thin sections with a petrographic microscope revealed
only calcareous material composing the wall of the test. This material





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BJULLETIN 19


did not appear to be calcareous grains which the animal had cemented
together. Chrysalidina is reported to date only from the Cretaceous
of France. Pseudochrysalidina occurs in the middle Eocene of Florida.
Thin sections show the chambers are large and open, but through
the center of the test extends a labyrinthic column. This labyrinthic
structure is developed in the terminal chamber and has some rela-
tionship to the apertures. As chambers are added, the labyrinthic
zone is elongated and surrounded by the open chambers.

PSEUDOCHRYSALIDINA FLORIDANA Cole, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 10, 11; plate 2, figure 4
ChryIalidina (7) sp. Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, 13th Ann. Rept,, pp.
44, 45, pl. 1, figs. 6 a, b, 1021.
The length of an average sized specimen is 1.3 mm. and the diameter
at the terminal end is 0.9 mm. The outer surface of the test is rather
coarsely perforate. The chambers are inflated, especially the final
ones and the sutures are distinct and depressed.
First appearance at a depth of 1350-1360 feet in W-445.
Type locality: Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Gory
No. 1 (W-445) at a depth of 1360-1370 feet.
Genoholotype: Fla. Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-1538; paratype:
F.S.G.S. Cat. No. S-1538A.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.
Cushman figures specimens which represent this species from the
Marathon Well (W-2) at a depth of 1262 feet.

Family ROTALIIDAE
Genus DISCORINOPSIS Cole, n. gen.
Genoholotype, DISCORINOPSIS GUNTERI Cole, n. sp.
Test typically plano-convex, the ventral side flattened; trochoid,
all the whorls visible on the dorsal side, only the chambers of the last
whorl visible on the ventral side; umbilical area closed by a spongy
mass of shell material; wall calcareous; aperture, a series of openings
through the material filling the umbilicus.

DISCORINOPSIS GUNTERI Cole, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 7-9
Test plano-convex, the dorsal side rather strongly convex, the
ventral side flat; periphery not lobate initially, but the final two





STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 87

chambers may be slightly lobate; 7 chambers typically comprise the
last formed coil; sutures recurved, strongly depressed dorsally, slightly
depressed ventrally; dorsally a depressed area separates the outer
whorl of chambers from the inner whorls; chambers of the outer whorl
are long and narrow; umbilical area filled with a spongy mass of
shell material through which are a series of irregular openings which
are best developed at the outer edge of the umbilical mass.
Height 0.89 mm.; length 2.89 mm.; width 2.12 mm. (type specimen).
Viewed dorsally these specimens would be referred to the genus
Discorbis but the structure of the umbilical filling is distinct. So far
as could be discovered, these specimens could not be referred to any
described genus.
First appearance in W-448 at a depth of 370-390 feet; in W-445
at a depth of 1350-1360 feet.
Type locality: United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners
Power House Well No. 2 (W-448) at a depth of
390-395.
Genoholotype: Fla. Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-1581.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene.

Genus EPONIDES Montfort, 1808
EPONIDE8 JACKSONENSIS (Cushman and Applin)
Plate 1, figures 3, 4
Ptulvoltulna jacksoncnlslt Cushman and Applln Bull. Amcr. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol,, vol. 10, p. 181, pl. 9, figs. 24, 25, 1926.
First appearance at a depth of 250-258 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

Family ORBITOIDIDAE
Subfamily Orbitoidinae Prever
Genus LEPIDORBITOIDES A. Silvestri, 1907

Table I summarizes the important features described by various
authors for American species of Lopidorbitoides. This table was pre-
pared during the present study and is published here for the assist-
ance of other workers in order to show the comparison between the
various species of this genus which have been described.
It may be noted here that L. palmeri and L. macgillavryi are un-
doubtedly two forms of the same species.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19








STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 39


bo











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I I

i o* o

o


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


LEPIDORBITOIDES (LEPIDORBITOIDES) NORTONI (Vaughan)
Plato 12, figures 1-8
Orbltocyolina nortolnt Vanuglmn, Jour. Pal., vol. 3, pp. 170-174, pl. 22,.figs.
1, 2, 1929.
Test small, lenticular, with an encircling rim in perfectly pre-
served specimens. In most of the specimens, the fragile rim has been
destroyed. Surface ornamentation consists of a polygonal mesh of
clear shell material surrounding areas of opaque, whitish shell ma-
terial. In some specimens there is an absence of papillae; in others
there is a single, central papillae, and a few specimens have an apical
group of very small papillae. The diameter of the smallest specimen
is 0.5 mm. and of the largest is 1.2 mm. These specimens lacked the
encircling rim. A perfectly preserved specimen has a diameter of 2.1
nun. In this specimen the diameter of the central, inflated area is 1.2
nmm. and the width of the encircling rim is about 0.5 mm. The thickness
of average individuals is about 0.4 mm.

The embryonic apparatus consists of two initial chambers sur-
rounded by a relatively thick wall and followed by about five acces-
sory chambers which make about three-quarters of a coil around the
initial chambers. The longer diameter of the initial chambers is per-
pendicular to a line joining their centers. This diameter is about 140 p
including the thickness of the surrounding wall. The diameter at
right angles to this is about 80 f/. The initial chamber is subspherical
with an internal diameter of about 401/. In the equatorial sections
available, the second chamber is separated from the first by a straight
partition. The second chamber is slightly wider than long. The thick-
ness of tle wall surrounding these chambers is about 35p. The acces-
sory chambers are slightly larger than the equatorial chambers which
follow them although some of the equatorial chambers at the periphery
of the test are as large as the accessory chambers.
In horizontal sections the equatorial chambers have curved outer
walls and truncate inner ends. Certain of the chambers, especially
near the periphery have a rude hexagonal shape. Communication be-
tween the chambers is by stoloniferous apertures.
In vertical sections the equatorial chambers have an internal height
of about 30u at the center of the test and about 40t at the periphery,
There are 5 to 6 lateral chambers to a tier on each side of the equa-
torial layer at the center of the test. They decrease regularly in
number toward the periphery of the test so that in the outermost
portion the equatorial chambers are not covered.






STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 41

The lateral chambers are not arranged in regular tiers, but those
of one row overlap those of adjacent rows. The internal height of
average lateral chambers is about 15/A and their average length is
about 40/k. The thickness of the roofs and floors is about equal to
the height of the chamber opening.
Pillars may be present or absent. When present, they are con-
fined to the central portion of the test, usually one on eiclh side of
the equatorial layer. Well developed pillars have a surface diameter
of about 80A.
Illustrations (pl. 12, figs. 9-14) of the internal structure of speci-
menls assigned to L. plaamsi Rutten are given for comparison with
.. nortoni. The detailed description and occurrence of L. planasi will
1)e discussed in a bulletin of the Florida Geological Survey which is
soon to be published.
First appearance at a depth of 5760-5770 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Upper Cretaceous.

Genus LEPI'DOCYCLINA Giimbel, 1.870
Subgenus Lepidocyclina Giimbel, 1870
LEPIDOCYCLINA (LEPIDOCVCLINA) MORTONI Cushman
Plate 15, figures 9-13; plate 16, figures 11, 12, 14;
plate 18, figures 13, 14
Loepdooclleana mortoni Cuslinnii. U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. IPuper 125, pp.
70, 71, pl. 27, figs. 1-4; pl. 28, figs. 1-3, 1920.
Lepidooyoclna (Lopidocyclina) mortoni Gravell and 11nna, .1our. Pal., vol.
9, pp. 337-330, pl. 30, figs. 1-9; pi. 31, figs. 1-11; pl. 32, figs. 1-4. 1935. (references
1and synonomy).
Gravell and IIanna have presented a complete description of this
species, accompanied by a series of beautiful illustrations. The speci-
mens found in this study are typical representatives of this species.

First appearance at a depth of 1230-1240 feet in W-445; at a
depth of 250-258 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

LEPIDOCYCLINA (LEPIDOCYCLINA) OCALANA Cushman
Plate 13, figures 1-7; plate 16, figures 1-4, 6-10, 15
LcpidoycUclina ocalan Cushnmn, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125, pp.
71, 72, pi. 28, figs. 3, 4; pl. 29, figs. 1-3, 1919.
Lopidooyolina ooalana Vaughan, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 35, pp. 796,
797, text fig. 2, 1924.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


Lepidocyclina ocalana Douvilld, Mem. Soc. Gool. France, N. S., vol. 1, M4m.
No. 2, pp. 38, 39, text figs. 19-21, 1924.
Lepidocyolina ocalatta Vaughan, Florida Geol. Survey, 19th Ann. Rept., pp.
155, 156, 1928.
Megalospheric individuals have a diameter from 4 to 6 mm. with
an average thickness of 1.2 mm. Microspheric individuals have a di-
ameter from 12 to 16 mm. with a thickness of about 2.5 mm. Cushman
has given a very satisfactory description of the external appearance
of microspheric individuals. The megalospheric individuals in the
present collection have the same external appearance as do the micro-
spheric forms except that they are smaller in size as may be noted
by the measurements given above.
Cushman's description of microspheric specimens is as follows:
"Test of medium size, flattened, usually slightly sellaeform; usual
diameter of specimens from 16 to 18 millimeters, with the range of
adult specimens from 15 to 21 millimeters; the two sides of the tests
differing; one side typically prominently umbonate in the central
portion, thence gradually sloping to the periphery; the opposite side
thickened in the center but not umbonate, evenly curved from one
side to the other; the umbonate side showing more clearly the sellae-
form shape than the more evenly curved side; surface typically smooth
or somewhat scrobiculate from unequal erosion of the outer layer of
lateral chambers."
To this may be added that in perfectly preserved specimens with
smooth surfaces there may be seen small light areas which represent
the ends of the pillars. These are irregularly scattered over the surface.
The following table summarizes the internal measurements made
on megalospheric specimens from W-448 and W-445.
Horizontal section
Embryonic apparatus
Diameter initial chamber 340 X 440 /
Diameter second chamber 160 X 480 A
Thickness of bounding wall 40 u
Accessory chambers 3+
Size of largest 80 X 280 p
Equatorial chambers
Shape short spatulate
Radial diameter 60 /A
Tangential chamber 80 /A
Vertical section
Height embryonic chambers 220 I
Height equatorial chambers
at center 80 .
near periphery 120 IA






STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 43

Number of lateral chambers 7-8
Thickners of roofs and floors of laterals 30 p
Height of opening of laterals 40 p
Average length of laterals 100-260 I
Surface diameter of papillae 120-200 ip
The lateral chambers are in part arranged in regular tiers, but
the longer chambers overlap from one tier to another producing an
appearance of irregularity in other portions of the test. Pillars are
irregularly distributed.
First appearance at a depth of 250-258 feet in W-448; at a depth
of 1220-1230 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

LEPIDOCYCLINA (LEPIDOCYCLINA) OCALANA Cushman
variety ATTENUATA Cushman
Plate 15, figures 1-5; plate 16, figure 5
Lcpidocyclina attcnuata Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125. p.
67, pl. 24, figs. 7, 8, 1919.
cppidocyciHna ocalana Cushmnan, variety a1ttcnata Vaughan, Florida Geol.
Survey, 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155-157, 1928.
Cushman's original description was based on the microspheric
form of this variety. The following description is based on megalo-
spheric forms found in W-448 at a depth of 250-258 feet.
Test of medium size, discoid with a small umbo. Surface orna-
mentation consists of small papillae which cover the central umbo;
the outer rim surrounding the umbo is smooth. Average sized speci-
mens have a diameter of about 8 mm. and a thickness at the center
of about 1 mm.
The embryonic apparatus consists of two large, subequal chambers
with normally two periembryonic chambers. The larger chamber has
internal diameters of 360 A by 520 / and the smaller chamber measures
220 f by 420 p. The bounding wall is about 40 t thick. The smaller
periembryonic chamber has internal diameters of 100 p by 180 I and
the larger measures 80 / by 280 x.
The equatorial chambers seen in horizontal sections are short
spatulate. In vertical section, the equatorial chambers have an in-
ternal height of about 80 p at the center of the test, and a thickness
of about 130 A at the periphery of the test.
Vertical sections show about 6 or 7 layers of lateral chambers on
each side of the embryonic chambers. These chambers decrease regu-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


larly in number toward the periphery. The periphery is normally
covered by one layer of lateral chambers, but occasionally the outer
most portion of the equatorial layer is not covered. The lateral cham-
bers are low, depressed. The roofs and floors are thicker than the
cavity openings. The chambers are not arranged in regular tiers, but
overlap in an irregular manner.

Pillars are irregularly present particularly in the central area.
They have a surface diameter of as much as 240 p.
First appearance at a depth of 250-258 feet in W-448; in W-445
at a depth of 1220-1230 feet.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

LEPIDOCYCLINA (LEPIDOCYCLINA) OCALANA Cushman
variety FLORIDANA Cushman
Plate 14, figures 1-3; plate 16, figure 17
Lcpidoe'ylitia florida~tia Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125, pp.
67. 0S, pl. 25, figs. 1, 2, 1919.
Lcpidooyclina floridaa l Vaughan, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 35, pp. 700,
707, text fig. 3, 1924.
Licpidoc/elina ocalana Cushlunn, variety floridana Vauglhan, Florida Geol.
Survey, 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155, 150, 1928.
The description of this variety was based on megalospheric indi-
viduals. This small species is characterized by possessing a strongly
saddle-shaped test. Horizontal sections show the same type of em-
bryonic apparatus and equatorial chambers that characterize L. ocalana.
The sellaeform character of the test of the variety floridava is apparent
in horizontal sections because of the pattern made by the arrangement
of the equatorial chambers.
First appearance at a depth of 250-258 feet in W-448; in W-445
at a depth of 1220-1230 feet.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

LEPIDOCYCLINA (LEPIDOCYCLINA) OCALANA Cushman
variety PSEUDOMARGINATA Cushman
Plate 14, figures 4-7
Lcpidocylliina pscudomargituata Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
125, p. 00. pl. 20, figs. 2-4, 1919.
Lopidooiolina ocalana Cushman, variety pseoudtonargtnata Vaughan, Florida
Geol. Survey, 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155, 150. 1928.
The description of this variety is based on microspheric specimens.
Cushman figures two specimens, of which the smaller appears to be






STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 45

ia megalospheric individual. The larger specimen which was .selected
as the type is apparently a microspheric individual. The smaller
specimen has a diameter of 5.6 mm. with the surface strongly papil-
late, especially on the pronounced umbo.

Several specimens were found in W-448 with a diameter of 5.1 to
6.4 mm. with a prominent umbonate area which is covered with well
developed papillae. These specimens were all megalospheric individ-
uals, but represent this variety whose type specimen is a microspheric
individual.
Horizontal sections show the same type of embryonic apparatus
and equatorial chambers as found in typical L. ocalana. The vertical
sections of this variety clearly illustrate the differences on which the
varietal name was based. Below a description of a typical vertical
section is given.
The diameter of the individual from which the vertical section
was made is 6.4 mm.; the thickness 1.4 mm.
Thle lateral chambers are open, low, either short or elongate. Some
are arranged in regular tiers, but in most cases certain of the elongate
chambers overlap from one tier to the next. There arc 7 to 8 layers
ol' lateral chambers on either side of the equatorial layer at the center
of the test. The lateral chambers decrease in number toward the
periphery of the test. Normally, the outer 0.4 mm. of the test is not
covered by lateral chambers. Thle height of a normal lateral chamber
is about 40 p. The thickness of the roofs and floors varies from 20
to 40 p.
The internal height of the equatorial chambers at the center of the
test; is about 80 I; at the periphery 140 p.
Pillars are irregularly present, the larger ones at the center of
the test. These may have a surface diameter of as much as 300 p
Smaller pillars near the periphery of the test have a surface diameter
of about 140 IA. Both the large and small pillars taper regularly
toward the equatorial layer which they always reach.
First appearance at a depth of 258-265 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

LEPIDOCYCLINA (LEPIDOCYCLINA) TSCHOPPI Thladens
Plate 14, figure 8; plate 15, figure 14; plate 16, figures 13, 16
Lopidooyclitm (LepidovcUlina) tschoppi Thindens, Jour. Pal., vol. 11, pp.
103, 104, pi. 17, figs. 1, 3; pl. 18, fig. 6; pl, 10, fig. 1; text fig, 3H, 1937.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


This species is characterized by possessing unusually large em-
bryonic chambers in proportion to the total bulk of the test. The
measurements of four specimens are given below.
Diameter (mm .)........................................................................1.61 1.95 1.99 2.17
Thickness (mm.) .........................................................................0.00 0.88 0.85
Embryonic chambers
Length (m m.).........................................................................0.54 0.00 0.70 0.90
H eight (m m.) ........................................................................0.46 0.44 0.50
W idth (m m .) .......................................................................... 0.70
Number of lateral chambers.............................................. ..2 3-4 2
First appearance at a depth of 1220-1230 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

Subgenus Nephrolepidina I-. Douvill6, 1911
LEPIDOCYCLINA (NEPHROLEPIDINA) SEMMESI Vaughan and Cole
Plate 15, figures 6-8
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolcpidina) semmesi Vlnughan Ilnd Cole, Smithsonian
Miscell. Coll., vol. 89, No. 10, pp. 29, 30, pl. 15, figs. 3-5; pl. 30, fig. 1; pl.
31, figs. 1, 1 a; pl. 32, figs. 2, 3, 1933.
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) senamesi M G. Rutton, Jour. Pal., vol. 9,,
p. 540, pl. 01, fig. 6, 1935.
Specimens of a small species of Lepidocyclina belonging to the
subgenus Nephrolepidina were found in the sample taken at a depth
of 1250-1260 feet in W-445. Although these specimens are smaller
than those studied by Vaughan and Cole, there is little doubt that
they represent this species. A characteristic feature of this species is
the shape and arrangement of the lateral chambers. Vaughan and Cole
state, "The chamber floors are much thickened in the layers adjacent
to the equatorial layer, the chamber cavities showing only as narrow
slits." This feature may be observed in the vertical sections made
from the specimens under discussion.

AM. G. Rutten reports this species from certain Cuban stations,
giving its stratigraphic range as upper Eocene and Oligocene. The
types are from the upper Eocene Tantoyuca formation of Mexico.
The Oligocene determination by Rutten may be incorrect.

First appearance at a depth of 1250-1260 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.





STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 47

Family DISCOCYCLINIDAE Vaughan and Cole, 1940
Genus PSEUDOPIIRAGMINA II. Douvill6, 1923
Subgenus Proporocyclina Vaughan and Cole, 1940
PSEUDOPHRAGMINA (PROPOROCYCLINA) CITRENSIS (Vaughan)
Plate 17, figures 6, 7
DiscocyclilM (Discocyclina) citrensis Vaughan, Florida Geol. Survey, 19th
Ann. Rept., pp. 159, 100, pl. 2, figs. 1-5, 1928.
A few typical specimens were found. It seems surprising that more
representatives of this group were not encountered.
First appearance at a depth of 300-320 feet in W-448.
Occurrence: Ocala limestone.

Family MIOGYPSINIDAE Tan, 1936
Genus MIOGYPSINA Sacco, 1893
MIOGYPSINA (MIOGYPSINA) HAWKINSI Hodson
Plate 17, figures 1, 2
Miogypsina hawkinsi Hodson, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 12, No. 47, pp. 28, 29,
pl. 7, fig. 9; pl. 8, figs. 1, 2, 1926.
Miogypsina hawkinsi Gravell, Smithsonian Miscell, Coll., vol. 89, No. 11,
p. 34, pl. 6, figs. 11-14, 1933.
Miogypsina (Miogypsina) hawkinsi Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 16,
pp. 43, 44, pl. 7, figs. 5-7, 1938.
Specimens were found in W-445 at 900-910 feet which are identical
to those reported from the Port St. Joe test well at 700-721 feet. Mr.
Gunter sent specimens from the Marathon well (W-2) on Key Vaca22
at 852 feet for identification and comparison with those found in the
Cory well. The following table gives a comparison of these specimens.
Cory Well Marathon Well
(W-445) (W-2)
Diameter........................................................................ ......1.7 n n. 2.38 mm.
hickness......................... .......................... ..........................0.68 m m 0.90 m m .
Diameter initial chami ber........................................ .......120 100 X 190 /
Diameter second chamber........................... ................90 110 t
Distance of initial chambers from periphery............40 ~ 60 A
Diameter equatorial chambers............................................80 U 100 1
Thickness of equatorial layer..................................... 80 80 4
Number of lateral chambers on either side of
equatorial layer.....................................................................4 6
Length lateral chambers....................................................100 80-100 A
Height lateral chambers......................................................30-40 / 40 I
Surface diameter of pillars..........................................60-80 80-100
The specimens from the Marathon well (W-2) are figured on
plate 17, figures 3-5. These specimens most nearly resemble Miogypsina
(Miogypsina) cushmani Vaughan.2s
"J. A. Cushman, "Foraminifera from the Deep Wells of Florida," Florida Geol. Survey,
13th Ann. Rept., pp. 59, 00, 1921.
"T. W. Vaughan, "American and European Tertiary Larger Foraminifera", Bull. Geol.
Sod. Amer., vol. 85, p. 818, pl. 86, figs. 4-0, 1924.





48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19

M. cushmani appears to possess characteristics intermediate be-
tween M. hawkinsi and M. staufferi Koch.24 The American species of
Miogypsina should be restudied.
First appearance at a depth of 900-910 feet in W-445.
Occurrence: Oligocene.

"IR. Koch, "AMiogypsina staufferi, nov. spec., from Northwestern Venezelan," Ecologni
geol. IIelvetlca, vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 751-753, pl. 28, figs. 1-3, 1920.






STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 49

Appendix



Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. 1

Inasmuch as this is at present the deepest well that has yet been
drilled in Florida it is desirable that all available information be
assembled in this Bulletin. For that reason there is being included
a copy of the driller's log as prepared from the daily records of the
drillers and a reproduction of the electric log made by the Halli-
burton Oil Well Cementing Company of Houston, Texas.
It has been pointed out that the electric log of this well has very
little value, especially at present. In the electric log there is no indi-
cation of porosity of any degree throughout the entire section. Drilling
conditions indicated, however, that the rocks penetrated were extreme-
ly porous throughout the Eection. Three distinct cavernous sections
were encountered during drilling, at 2,846 to 2,864 feet, at 2,958 to
2,963 feet alid at 2,986 to 2,997 feet. These cavities were cased off
but it was increasingly difficult to maintain circulation down to about
6,000 feet at which depth returns were lost entirely and from that
depth down drilling was continued with clear water. At intervals
circulation was renewed by excessive use of mud, but below 8,500
feet no mud was used and a record of the formation was obtained
by coring.

DRILLER'S LOG*
DEPTH FORMATION DEPTH FORMATION
0- 14 Cellar 1036-1138 Broken lime
14- 19 Sand 1138-1720 Lime
19- 41 Gravel and hard shells 1720-1841 Broken lime
41- 60 Gravel and lime shells 1841-2635 Lime
60- 80 Shells 2635-2682 Hard lime
80- 128 Sand and lime shells 2682-2689 Lime
105- 125 Sand lime 2689-2788 Lime and anhydrite shells
125- 130 Blue shale 2788-2847 Hard lime
130- 218 Sand and lime shells 2846-2864 Cavity
218- 357 Sand 2890-2906 Hard lime and gypsum
357- 480 Lime and sand 2906-2959 Broken lime
480- 505 Sand 2959-2963 Cavity
505- 522 Lime hard 2963-2967 Hard. lime
522- 705 Lime 2967-2986 Lime-
705- 770 Lime broken 2986-2997 Cavity
770- 785 Hard lime 2997-3023 Hard lime
785- 905 Lime and green shale 3023-3029 Lime
905-1020 Broken lime 3029-3065 Hard lime
1020-1036 Hard lime 3065-3184 Lime
*Log received through Robert B. Campbell, President, Peninsular Oil & Refining Company,
Wallace S. Building, Tampa, Florida, June 24, 1939.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 19


DEPTH
3184-3217
3217-3230
3230-3241
3241-3250
3250-3252
3276-3298
3298-3302
3302-3383
3383-3417
3417-3431
3431-3463
3463-3506
3506-3535
3535-3555
3555-3566
3566-3575
3575-3593
3593-3608
3608-3644
3644-3655
3655-3660
3660-3723
3723-3798
3798-3823
3823-3838
3838-3845
3845-3850
3850-3866
3866-3945
3945-3963
3963-3971
3971-3998
3998-4006
4006-4013
4013-4027
4059-4093
4093-4100
4100-4113
4113-4123
4123-4161
4161-4206
4206-4216
4216-4347
4347-4383
4382-4446
4446-4453
4453-5411

4511-4531
4531-4541
4541-4587
4587-4617
4617-4625
4625-4713
4713-4726
4726-4738
4738-4774
4774-4779
4770-4826
4826-4864

4864-4869


FORMATION
Hard lime
Lime
Hard lime
Hard sandy lime
Lime
Hard lime
Lime
Chalk
Chalky lime
Hard lime
Lime and broken chalk
Lime, streaks of chalk
Hard lime
Gypsum and broken lime
Hard lime
Sand-?
Gray lime
Lime and gypsum
Broken lime
Chalk
Lime and gypsum
Broken lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime
Lime
Broken lime
Anhydrite
Gypsum and broken lime
Chalk, shale and lime
Hard lime and gypsum
Broken lime and chalk
Hard lime
Chalky lime
Lime hard
Lime and chalk hard
Hard lime and anhydrite
Broken lime and chalk
Lime and anhydrite
Chalk and lime
Lime and anhydrite
Broken lime
Lime and anhydrite
Gypsum and lime
Lime and anhydrite broken
Hard lime and anhydrite
Chalky lime with streaks
hard lime
Hard lime and anhydrite
Lime and anhydrite
Brown lime
Hard lime
Chalky lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime
Chalky lime
Chalk and lime
Hard lime
Hard lime and gypsum
lime
Hard lime


DEPTH
4869-4935
4935-5052
5052-5065
5065-5075
5075-5130
5130-5140
5140-5256

5256-5300
5300-5427
5427-5550
5570-6027
6027-6037
6037-6039
6059-6706
6706-6820
6820-6897
6897-7000
7000-7010
7010-7201
7201-7607

7607-7615
7615-7676
7676-7684
7684-7707
7707-7829
7829-7895
7895-7918
7918-7944
7944-7949
7949-7974
7974-7998
7998-8036
8036-8066
8066-8085
8085-8095
8095-8106
8106-8128
8128-8131
8131-8166

8166-8168
8168-8175
8175-8200
8200-8212
8212-8220
8220-8225
8225-8243
8243-8288
8288-8333
8333-8352
8352-8395

8395-8409
8409-8419
8415-8429
8429-8495
8495-8572
8572-8580
8580-8600
8600-8610


FORMATION
Broken lime
Soft broken lime
Shale and lime
Hard lime
Soft lime
Hard lime
Chalk lime with streaks of
hard lime
Lime and chalk
Chalk and lime
Broken lime and chalk
Chalk and lime
Lime
Chalk and lime hard
Chalk and lime
Soft lime
Hard broken lime
Broken lime
Lime
Chalk and lime
Broken lime, lime and
chalk
Chalk
Lime and shale broken
Lime
Shaly lime-
Broken lime
Shale and lime
Lime
Hard lime
Hard gray lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime
Hard gray lime
Lime
Sandy shale
Hard lime
Broken lime
Gray lime
Chalky lime with streaks
hard lime
Hard lime
Core
Hard lime
Chalky lime.
Hard lime
Chalky lime
Core
Hard line
Chalk and lime
Hard lime and anhydrite
Hard lime and anhydrite
with streaks chalky lime
Core
Lime and anhydrite
Hard lime and anhydrite
Broken lime
Hard lime and anhydrit9
Anhydrite
Soft lime
Lime







STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF WELLS IN FLORIDA 51


DEPTH
8610-8651
8051-8700
8700-8721
8721-8828
8828-8854
8856-8898
8898-8937
8937-8945
8945-8953
8953-8969
8969-8974
8974-8983
8983-8990
8990-9039
9039-9049
9049-9147
9147-9168
9168-9182
9182-9185
9185-9203
9203-9208
9208-9251
9251-9332
9332-9356
9356-9370


FORMATION
Anhydrite
Hard lime
Core
Hard lime
Lime and anhydrite
Hard lime
Lime and anhydrite
Anhydrite
Soft lime
Anhydrite and lime
Lime
Lime and anhydrite
Broken lime
Lime and anhydrite
Broken lime
Lime and anhydrite
Lime broken
Hard lime and anhy
Broken lime
Soft lime
Anhydrite
-Hard lime and anhy
Broken lime
IHard lime
Hard anhydrite


DEPTH
9370-9413
9413-9434
9434-9464
9464-9472
9472-9481

9481-9482
9482-9487
9487-9537
9537-9543
9543-9555
9555-9568
9568-9578
9578-9595
9595-9611
9611-9625
9625-9629
0629-9739
9739-9750
9750-9750
9756-9758
9758-9765
9765-9994
9994-10000


FORMATION
Lime broken
Hard lime and anhydrite
Broken lime
Core
Anhydrite and lime
Cored hard black lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime


Soft lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Soft lime
Hard lime
Broken lime
Hard lime
Broken lime


Idrite



'drite




WELL LOG
Oi7H1;-elme~nenfitgX'.


wonay F1,/115LLA Aln- /
ReIw E&i6L'6129nS C.Dm.diA4roL
Daeb AAA)! 2g L9,5 RIO No.
POTSmAL-bi. DEPM 0 17PDAcj.-O&. 4
-160 .g -80 -40


P

(Z


Fig. 4. Electric log of Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. 1.
[52]


i

X
Z
f


f


32

4
3.



4(


ai
0



0

'0


w|
E


i


z



z

z


-400


400


5000
600









540C

570


:3







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7:


0t









































Tok/A Deplh.: 996s'
Drilaer's TD. :/ooo'


[53]


t- --- ____




t- / ___ ___ _
l^a^^^

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^=^=^


11111




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Z




















PLATES I- 8





















[55] .
















Plate 1

Figures 1-4, 7-9, of specimens from the Carpenters Home well; 1, 2, 7-9, at a
depth of 390-395 feet; 3, 4, at a depth of 250-258 feet.
Figures 5, 6. 10-14, of specimens from the Cory well; 5, 6, at a depth of 1440-
1450 feet; 10-14, at a depth of 1360-1370 feet.
All figures, X35, except figures 7-9 which are X15.

Figure
1, 2. Valculina floridana Cole, n. sp.; 1, front view of a paratype (F.S.G.S.
No. S-1582A) ; 2, apertural view of holotype (F.S.G.S. No. S-1582).
3, 4. Eponides jacksoncnsis (Cushman and Applin) ; 3, dorsal view; 4, ventral
view.
5, 6. Spirolina cory)nsis Cole, n. sp.; 5, side view of a young specimen; 6, side
view of the holotype (F.S.G.S. No. S-1541).
7,8,9. Diseorinopsis gunteri Cole, n. gen. and n. sp.; all figures of holotype
(F.S.G.S. No. 8-1581) ; 7, dorsal view; 8. side view; 9, ventral view.
10, 11. Pscudochrysalidina floridana, Cole, n. gen. and n. sp.; 10, front view of
holotype (F.S.G.S. No. 8-1538) ; 11, apertural view of paratype (F.S.G.S.
No. S-1538A).
12. Valvulina martii Cushman and Bermudez; front view.
13. Tertularia corycnsis Cole n. sp.; front view of holotype (F.S.G.S. No.
S-1533).
14. Verncuilina sp.; front view.


[56]




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


I









'I



4<...


I)


I,


[57]


BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 1





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


[58]


BULLETIN NINEGTEE~N, PLATE 2























Plate 2


Figures 1-3, of specimens from the Dundee Petroleum company y well (W-3) at
a depth of 2270 feet.
Figure 4, of a specimen from the Cory well at a depth of 1360-1370 feet.
Figures 5-11, of specimens from the Carpenters Home well at a depth of
390-395 feet.
Figures 1, 5-10, XI5.
Figures 2-4, 11, X40.5.

Figure
1-3. Borelis gunteri Cole. n. sp. ; 1, side view of exterior of holotype (F.S.G.S.
No. S-2825) ; 2, transverse section of paratype (F.S.G.S. No. S-2825A) ;
3, medium section of paratype (F.S.G.S. No. S-2825B).
4. Pscudochrysalidina floridana Cole, n. gen. and n. sp.; section to show
internal relationships.
5-11. Pseudorbitolina cube)nsis Cushman and Bermudez; 5-10, external views;
5, 6, side view; 7-9, apical view (note: three initial chambers show on
specimens figured as 8 and 9); 10, ventral view; 11, vertical section.


[59]


















Plate 3


Figures 1-3. 0-15, 17. of specimens from the Cory well: 1-3, at a depth of 1500-
1510 feet; 6, 7. 14. 15. at a depth of 1700-1710 feet: S. 9, at a depth of 2050-2060
feet; 10, at a depth of 2090-2100 feet; 11-13, 17. ut a depth of 1360-1370 feet.
Figures 4. 5. 16. of specimens from the Carpenters Home well; 4. 5, at a depth
of 419-444 feet; 16, at a depth of 520-530 feet.

All figures, X15.
Figure
1-7. Coskinolina floridana Cole. n. sp.; external views; 1-3 cotypes (F.S.G.S.
No. S-1543).
S-10. Dictyoconus. gunteri Molerg: external views.
11-13. D)i'cyoconus. cookei (Moberg) ; external views; 11. side view; 12, apical
view: 13. basal view.
14-17. LitAunella floridami Cole, n. sp.; external views; 16, a cotype (F.S.G.S.
No. S-1590).


[60]






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 3


!PU 47
a,


J .~?


[611





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


[62]


BULLETIN NINE~ITEENZ\, PLATE 4





















Plate 4

Figures 1, 2, 4-7, 9, 10, of specimens from the Cory well; 1, 6. 7, 10, at a
depth of 1700-1710 feet; 2, at a depth of 1140-1150 feet; 4, 5, 9, at a depth of
1500-1510 feet.
Figures 3, 8, of specimens from the Carpenters Home well at a depth of 419-444
feet.
All figures, X40.5.

Figure
1-9. Coskinolina floridana Cole, n. sp.; 1-4, axial sections; 5-9, horizontal sec-
tions; 4 (F.S.G.S. No. S-1543D) ; 5 (F.S.G.S. No. S-1543C) ; 9 (F.S.G.S.
No. S-1543B).
10. Lituonella floridana Cole, n. sp.; axial section of a microspheric individual.


[63]



























Plate 5


Figures 1-8. 10. 12. 13. of specimens from the Carpenters Home well; 1-4, 8, 13,
at a depth of 444-465 feet; 5. 7, 12. at a depth of 409-413 feet; 6, 10, at a depth
of 419-444 feet.
Figures 9. 11. of specimens from the Cory well; 9, at a depth of 1350-1360 feet;
11. at a depth of 1140-1150 feet.

Figures 1-6. S. 11, 13, X40.5.
Figures 7, 9, 10, 12, X15.

Figure
1-5. 11. Coskinolina floridana Cole. n. sp.; 1, 2, axial sections; 3, 4, 11, hori-
zontal sections.

6-10. 12, 13. Dictyoconus coo'ci (Moberg) ; 6-10. axial sections; 10, microspheric
form; 12, 13, horizontal sections.


[04]






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


7
k 4..


[65]


BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 5


r, i




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


[66]


BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 6


ro s



























Plate 6


Figures 1-8. 10, of specimens from the Cory well; 1-8, at a depth of 1360-1370
feet; 10, at a depth of 1700-1710 feet.
Figures 9, 11, of specimens from the Carpenters Home well at a depth of
520-530 feet.
Figures 1, 6, 8, 11, X40.5.
Figures 2-5, 7, 9, 10, X15.

Figure
1-8. Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg) ; 1-6, axial sections; 5, microspheric indi-
vidual; 7, 8, horizontal sections.

9-11. Lituonella floridana Cole, n. sp.; 9, 10, axial sections; 11, horizontal
sections; 9, paratype (F.S.G.S. No. S-1590A) ; 11, paratype (F.S.G.S.
No. S-1590B).


1:7 1


























Plate 7


Figures 1. 7. of specimens from tile north foot of Mt. Puilborean. Haiti. Topo-
types, presented to the writer by Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan; collection of W. S.
Cole.
Figures 2. 3, 5. of specimens from the Cory well; 2. at a ldelth of 2710-2720
feet; 3, 5. at a depth of 2090-2100 feet.
Figures 4, 6, S. of specimens from the Marathon well (W-2) at a depth of
2000 feet; collection of W. S. Cole.

Figures 1-7, X15.
Figure 8, X40.5.

Figure
1. 7. Dicti oconus codon Woodring; 1, axial section; 7, horizontal section.
These sections are introduced for comparison with D. guntcri Moberg.
2-6. S. Dict!toconus gunteri Moberg; 2-4. S, axial sections; 5, 6, horizontal
sections.


[68]





FLORIDA (GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN NINICTElEN, PLATE 7


[69]




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A


BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 8


r Pmnl



























Plate 8


Figure 1, of a specimen from the Cory well at a depth of 790-800 feet.
Figures 2-10, of specimens from the Carpenters Home well; 2-6, at a depth
of 258-265 feet; 7-10, at a depth of 250-258 feet.

All figures, X15.

Figure
1. Archaias floridanus (Conrad) ; external view of slightly eroded specimen.
2-6. Camerina van derstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) ; 2-4, transverse sections;
5, median section; 6, external view.
7-10. Camcrina probably 0. vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) ; 8, 10, median
sections; 7, 9, transverse sections.


[71]




























Plate 9


All specimens from the urpenlters IHome well; 1-7, 9, at a depth of 300-320
feet; S. at a (lepth of 250-25S feet.

All figures, X15.

Figure
1-7. Operculinoides willcoxrii (Heilprin) : 1. external view; 2, median section
of an adult specimen; 3, median section of a young specimen; 4-7,
transverse sections.
. Opcrculin.'ides floridcnsis (IHeilprin) ; median section.
9. Canimrinii moodlybranchicnsis Gravell and Hanna; median section.


[72]





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


' 7


[73]


BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 9




BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 10


7




Ut


[74]


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



























Plate 10

Figures 1-7, specimens from the Carpenters Home well at a depth of 250-258
feet.
Figures 8, 9, specimens from the Cory well at a depth of 1100-1110 feet.

All figures, X15.

Figure
1-3. Operculinoidcs floridensis (Heilprin) ; 1, median section; 2, transverse
section; 3, external view.
4-7. Opcrculinoides ocalanus (Cushman) ; 4, external view; 5, 6, median sec-
tions; 7, transverse section.
8, 9. Heterostegina teiana Gravell and Hanna; 8, portion of a transverse
section; 9, median section, showing embryonic chambers and initial coils.


175J















Plate 11

Figures 1, 2. 7, S, of specimens from the (ory well; 1, 2, at a depth of 1100-
1110 feet 7, S. nt a depth of 125,0-1260 feet.

Figures 3-6. 0-15. of specimens from the ('arpenters IIolme well at a depth of
300-320 feet.

Figures 1-15, X15.

Figure
1, 2. Ilctcroxtcyina I(Xrama Gravell and Ilanna; 1. external view: 2. natural
section showing emlbryonic chambers and the division of the chambers
into chamberlets.

3-6. Ifclcroslfegina oralana Cl (ushllan; 3l median section; 4, 5, transverse sec-
tions; G, external view.
7, 8. Opcrulinoidcs curas'icus (Rutten and Verniunt) ; 7, median section; 8.
transverse section.
9-15. Cantmrina moody/branchcnsis (Gravell and I Ianna; 9, 13, 14, median sec-
tions; 10-12, transverse sections; 15, external view.


[76]





BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 11


V

11












5


7 6


[77]


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEYv~r





BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 12


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Plate 12


Figures 1-8, of specimens from the Cory well at a depth of 5790-5800 feet.
Figures 9-11, 13-14. of specimens from the Suwannee Petroleum Corporation's
Sholtz No. 1 (W-166) near Cedar Keys at a depth of 2807 feet; figure 12. a
specimen at a depth of 2840-50 feet.

Figures 1-3, X15.
Figures 4-14, X40.5.

Figure
1-8. Lcpidorbitoides (Lepidorbitoicds) nortoni (Vaughan) ; 1-3, external views;
4. 5, vertical sections; 6-8. equatorial sections; 6, 7, megalospheric indi-
viduals; 8, microspheric individual.
9-14. Lepidorbitoidcs (Lcpilorbitoidcs) planasi M. G. Rutten; 9-11, equatorial
sections; 12-14, vertical sections.


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Plate 13


All specimens from the Carpenters Home well: 1, 3, at a depth of 290-300 feet;
2, 6, 7, at a depth of 258-265 feet; 5, at a depth of 250-258 feet.

Figures 1-4, 7, X15.
Figure 5, X5.
Figure 6, X40.5.

Figure
1-7. Lcpidocyclhina (Lcpidoryclilna) ocalana. Cushman; 1. 2, vertical sections,
illustrating different degrees of inflation of the test of inegalospheric
individuals: 3, 4. equatorial sections of megalospheric individuals; 5,
external views; 6. equatorial section of a mnicrospherie individual, illus-
trating the initial coil and slhpe of the equatorial chambers; 7, vertical
section of a miicrospheric individual.


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FTBULLETIN NINETEEN, LATE 13


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BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 14


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Plate 14


Figures 1-7, specimens from the Carpenters Home well; 1-3, at a depth of
290-300 feet; 4-7 at a depth of 265-290 feet.
Figure 8, a specimen from the Cory well at a depth of 1260-1270 feet.

Figures 1, 4, X5.
Figures 2, 3, 5-8, X15.

Figure
1-3. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocal na Cushman. variety floridana Cush-
man; 1, external views of three specimens showing sellaeform character
of the tests; 2, equatorial section; 3, vertical section.
4-7. Lepidocyclina (Lcpidocyclina) ocalana Cushman, variety pscudomearginata
Cushman; 4, external view, showing strong papillae which are especially
well developed on the umbo; 5, vertical section; 6, 7, equatorial sections.
8. Lepidocyclina (Lcpidocyclina) tschoppi Thindens: equatorial section,
showing the large embryonic chambers which constitute the greater part
of the test and the shape of the equatorial chambers.


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Plate 15

Figures 1. 2. 5. 12. of specimens from the Carpenters Home 'well at a depth of
250-258 feet.
Figures 3. 4. 6-11. 13. 14. of specimens from the Cory well; 3. 4. 14. at a depth
of 1220-1230 feet : -11. 13. at a depth of 1250-1260 feet.

Figures 1-4. 8-11. X15
Figures 5, 12. 13. X5.
Figure 14, X40.5.

Figure
1-5. Lepidocyclina (Lepidoryclina) orulana Cushman. variety aftenuiata Cush-
man: 1. 4, vertical sections: 2. 3. equatorial sections: 5. external view.
i-S. Lepidocyelina (Xcphrolepidina) s'nmmesi Vaughan and Cole; 6. 7, ver-
tical sections: 8. equatorial section.
(-13. Lcpidocyclina (Lcpidocyclina) mortoni. Cushman; 9, 10, vertical sections:
11. equatorial section: 12. 13, external views.
14. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) tschoppi Thiadens; vertical section.


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BULLE''IN NINE'I'I,7 N, IIAI'E 15


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FLOR!DA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 16





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Plate 16

Figures 1-10, 13, 15-17, of specimens from the Cory well; 1, 3-6, 9, 10, 15-17,
at a depth of 1220-1230 feet; 2, 8, at a depth of 1270-1280 feet; 7, at a depth
of 1250-1260 feet; 13, at a depth of 1260-1270 feet.
Figures 11, 12, 14, of specimens from the Carpenters Home well at a depth
of 300-320 feet.

All figures, X15, except figure 13 which is X40.5.

Figure
1-4, 6-10,15. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana Cushman; 1-4, 6-8, vertical
sections to illustrate variation in the number of lateral chambers
which may occur on each side of the equatorial layer; 9, 10, 15,
equatorial sections.
5. Lcpidoclclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana Cushman, var. attcnuata
Cushman; vertical section.
11, 12, 14. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman; 11, 14, equatorial
sections; 12, vertical section.
13, 16. Lepidocyclina (Lcpidocyclina) tschoppi Thiadens; 13, vertical sec-
tion; 16, equatorial section.
17. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana Cushman, var. floridana
Cushman.; portion of equatorial section to illustrate embryonic up-
paratus and equatorial chambers.


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Plate 17

Figures 1. 2. of speilnmns from the Cory well; 1. at a depth of 900-910 feet:
2. at a depth of 1000-1010 feet.
Figures 3-5. of specimens from the Marathon well at a depth of 852 feet.
Fiure-s 6. 7. of specimens from the Carpenters Home well; 6. at a depth of
3081-320 feet: 7. at a depth of 335-355 feet.

Figures 1. 2, 5-7. X40.5.
Figures 3, 4. X15.

Figure
1. 2. Mioipsifia (Miojqypsina) Ihakinksi Hodson; 1. horizontal section; 2,
vertical section.
3-5. Miogypsina (Mliog/p.sina) cushmani Vaughan; 3. 4, horizontal sections;
5. vertical section. These are introduced for comparison with Jl. Ihawkinsi
Hodson.
G. 7. IP a-udophragmina (Proporoccliina) citrencsi. (Vaughan) ; 6. vertical sec-
inn: 7. horlizontal section.


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'1' 1 HI I I),A (ffE()FOIA(x'1Al MSITItNVE4Y BUAY'I IN' ,JIAIE1


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BULE1INNNEEEN PAE,1





BULLETIN NINETEEN, PLATE 18


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Plate 38

Figures 1, 2, 7-9, 12-14, of specimens from the Cory well; 1. 2, at a depth of
1100-1110 feet; 7. 8, at a depth of 3360-3370 feet; 9, at a (deithi of 1140-1150 feet;
12, at a depth of 1440-1450 feet; 13, at a depth of 1230-1240 feet ; 14, at a depth
of 1340-1350 feet.

Figures 3-6. of specimens from the Suwannee Petroleum Corporation's Sholtz
No. 1 (W-166) near Cedar Keys at a dep(lth of 2140-2158 feet.
Figures 10. 11. of specimens from about 1 km. hlow the pass on the north
foot of Mt. Puilboreau, presented to the writer by Dr. T'. Wayland Vaughan
collection of W. S. Cole.

Figures 1, 2, 5, 10-13, X15.
Figures 3, 4, 6-9, 14, X40.5.

Figure
1, 2. Argyrothtccu wcicmanni Cole; external views.
3, 4, 7, S. Boelis guntcri Cole, variety floridana Cole, n. var.; 4-7 median sec-
tions; 3. 8. transverse sections; 3, paratype (F.S.G.S. No. 2820) ; 4,
paratype (F.S.G.S. No. S-2826A).
5, Borelis guntcri Cole, n. sp.; 5. median section ; 6. transverse section.
0. Coskinolina floridana Cole, n. sp.; vertical section of a reworked
specimen from the Oligocene.
10, 11. Dictyoconus codon Woodring; 10, vertical section; 11, transverse
section. These are introduced for comparison with D. gunteri Moberg
and D. cooke( (Moberg).
12. Dictyoconus cookei. (Moberg); vertical section of a megalospherie
individual.
13. 14. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman; vertical sections.


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