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The Foraminifera of the upper, middle and part of the lower Miocene of Florida
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 Material Information
Title: The Foraminifera of the upper, middle and part of the lower Miocene of Florida
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida State Geological Survey ; 9
Physical Description: 147 p. : incl. illus. (maps) 17 pl. on 9 l. tables (2 fold., 1 in pocket) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cushman, Joseph A ( Joseph Augustine ), 1881-1949
Ponton, Gerald Mungo, 1888- ( joint author )
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1932
Copyright Date: 1932
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Foraminifera, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Foraminifera -- Miocene   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliographical foot-notes.
Statement of Responsibility: by Joseph A. Cushman and Gerald M. Ponton.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2300
notis - AKM4750
alephbibnum - 002036990
oclc - 01722233
lccn - gs 33000026
System ID: UF00000444:00001

Full Text












FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist













BULLETIN No. 9















THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE UPPER, MIDDLE


AND PART OF THE LOWER MIOCENE


OF FLORIDA







JOSEPH A. CUSHMAN AND GERALD M. PONTON















Published for

THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

TALLAHASSEE, 1932


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida.
Sir:
I have the honor to submit herewith for publication as Bulletin
No. 9 of the Florida State Geological Survey, a report entitled "The
Foraminifera of the Upper, Middle and Part of the Lower Miocene
of Florida" by Dr. Joseph A. Cushman, of Sharon, Mass., and
Gerald M. Ponton, Assistant Geologist, Florida Geological Survey,
which has been prepared in cooperation with the United States Geo-
logical Survey without expense to the Florida Survey other than the
cost- of illustrations and of publication. This is the most complete
report on these microscopic fossils contained in the Miocene forma-
tions of Florida yet published and will do much to further our knowl-
edge of the rich fauna of these formations. More and more interest
is being exhibited in these minute organisms, especially by oil
geologists engaged in structural studies.

Respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.
Tallahassee, Florida.
October 13, 1932.



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CONTENTS

PAGE
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7
Previous foraminiferal literature ........................................................................ 8
List of Stations and distribution of species..................................................... 8
Correlations of the Florida Miocene................................................................. 18
The H aw thorn form ation................................................. ................................. 2
The Chipola formation .................................................................................... 22
The Oak Grove sands............................. .................................................... 23
The Shoal River formation ..................................................... ..................... 24
The Choctawhatchee formation with reprint of "Faunal Zones of the
Miocene Choctawhatchee formation of Florida," by W. C. Mansfield
and Gerald M. Ponton....................................................................................... 25
Florida Miocene and Miocene north of Florida compared................................ 29
R elative ages ......................................................................................................... 29
Sedimentation and Ecology ................................................................................ 30
Characteristic species ........................................................................................... 32
Percentage of recent foraminifera in the zones and formations...................... 36
Acknow ledgm ents ................................................. ............................................... 38
Systematic description of species......................................................................... 39
Index .............................................................................................................................. 143

ILLUSTRATIONS AND TABLES
PAGE
P latest 1-17 ............................................................................................................... ....... 107
Fig. 1, M ap of fossil localities................................................................................ 11
Table No. 1, Distribution of species.........................................................In pocket
Table No. 2, Sections at Alum Bluff.....................................................Opposite 18














[5]







THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE UPPER, MIDDLE
AND PART OF THE LOWER MIOCENE
OF FLORIDA

JOSEPH A. CUSHMAN AND GERALD M. PONTON

INTRODUCTION
In 1930 the Florida Geological Survey published as Bulletin
number 4, "The Foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee Formation of
Florida" by Dr. Cushman, which bulletin included that formation
from the top of the Cancellaria zone to the Arca zone as exposed at
its type locality near Red Bay, Walton County.
Dr. W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton in 1930 discovered several
new exposures of the Choctawhatchee in west Florida and determined
that these represented lower divisions of the Choctawhatchee than
had heretofore been examined.
Later the junior author made collections at many localities of the
upper zones of the Choctawhatchee and extended the range of some
of the species as reported by Dr. Cushman with also some additions
to the list of species.
Although originally to cover only the foraminifera of the Alum
Bluff Group of the Miocene of Florida, the scope of the report now
includes a revision of the upper zones of the Choctawhatchee, the
foraminiferal fauna of the lower zones of the Choctawhatchee, and
of the Shoal River formation, the Oak Grove sand and the Chipola
formation of the Alum Bluff Group.
In the collection of samples of the Chipola formation we were
extremely successful. Owing to the drought of 1931 the typical
Orthaulaw gabbi zone of the Chipola at Alum Bluff appeared above
water-level for the first time in years; we found within a half mile
of the type locality of the Chipola, with uninterrupted exposure of
the marl intervening, a bed which was unoxidized (the Chipola at
the type locality on McClelland's farm and at Alum Bluff are so
highly oxidized that the fossils are comparatively poorly preserved).
Unoxidized typical Chipola was also found on Tenmile Creek; the
exposure in the bed of Econfina River on Bryant Scott's farm in Bay
County has presented interesting information in that the fauna shows
the gradually changing conditions from the warm Chipola to the
colder water conditions in the formations above.

[71





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


PREVIOUS FORAMINIFERAL LITERATURE
The most important papers that have been published describing
the foraminiferal fauna of the Florida Miocene are as follows:
"Some Pliocene and Miocene Foraminifera of the Coastal Plain of
the United States," United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 676,
1918; "Lower Miocene Foraminifera of Florida," United States
Geological Survey, Professional Paper 128-B, 1920; and "The Fora-
minifera of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida," Florida
State Geological Survey Bulletin 4, 1930. All were authored by
Dr. Cushman.
The second paper mentioned dealt with the fauna of the Alum
Bluff Group. The scarcity of specimens (only 18 species were re-
corded) in the samples used for that report can only be explained
by the assumption that they were procured from the matrix washed
from specimens of mollusks, and in the washing most of the foraminif-
era were floated off.
In addition to the main papers mentioned above there are a number
of random records of species from the Florida Miocene, and efforts
have been made to cover these fully in the synonymies. Perhaps the
most important sources of these random records are the Contributions
from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research. A num-
ber of records occur in the Proceedings of the United States National
Museum, vol. 77, 1930, Art. 6 dealing with the Polynmorphinidae.
LIST OF STATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES
A list of the localities sampled with full details and a table (Table
No. 1 in envelope inside back cover) showing the distribution of
species and including those records from Bulletin 4, which are added
to those of the newer collections are given. These have been restudied
in the light of our increased knowledge of this group and also of the
recent faunas from the same general region. Those species which
are new or were not adequately figured in Bulletin 4, are here figured
for the use of students working with this fauna. A reference is given
to the figures in Bulletin 4 for the other species so that the two
bulletins together will give illustrations of practically all the species
of the Florida Miocene from and including the Chipola formation to
the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation, the upper-
most Miocene.
A map showing the location of the stations will be found on page 11.

LIST OF STATIONS
Sample No. 1.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/954.-Dripping Spring on Four-
mile Creek, 1/2 mile northwest of Clarksville, Calhoun County. Here six feet





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


or more of highly fossiliferous shell marl is exposed with the shells more
numerous towards the base. At the base of the bed is an erosional uncon-
formity separating it from, presumably, the "Alum Bluff sands" of Dall,
now the Chipola formation. At the unconformity are fragmentary bones of
Sircnia and teeth of shark, likely Carcharodon megalodon. Mansfield placed
this station in the Ecphora zone of the Choctawhatchee formation and this
correlation was confirmed in April 1932 by the finding of a specimen of
Ecphora quadricostata var. umbilicata by Mansfield atid Ponton. This local-
ity is easily accessible and the molluscan fauna is well preserved and quite
numerous especially in respect to the Pelecypoda. Collected by G. M. Ponton
and J. C. Simpson, November, 1930.

Sample No. 2.-U. S. G. S. localities 1/706 and 1/955.-Gully Sink at the
northwest end of Gully Pond, about 31 miles east of Greenhead, in "The
Deadens," Washington County, and 1/ miles west of the Hamlin Pond
locality (See sample No. 26 below). Mansfield in F. S. G. S. Bull. No. 3,
p. 19 placed this station in the Canccllaria zone of the Choctawhatchee
formation. This locality is most difficult to find except with a guide familiar
with the maze of wood-roads of "The Deadens." The molluscan fauna is
quite large especially as to the Pelecypoda, but as the marl is oxidized and
indurated, the preservation of the fossils has suffered considerably. Almost
3 feet of marl is exposed. Collected by G. M. Ponton and J. C. Simpson,
October 8, 1930.

Sample No. 3.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/946.-flarveys Creek in SW%
Sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., about 1% miles east of Florida Road No. 19, Leon
County. This is the type locality of the Cancellaria zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation. This locality is easily accessible on Florida Road No. 19
from Tallahassee, and the molluscan fauna is especially well balanced be-
tween Pelecypoda and Gastropoda and the preservation is excellent. (See
note after Sample No. 6). Collected by H. Gunter and G. M. Ponton,
September 9, 1929.
Sample No. 4a.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 12718.--The upper eight to ten
feet of the section exposed on the Chester Spence farm at a small dripping
spring in the NEI of the NE14 of Sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton County.
(See discussion below). Collected by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton,
April 13, 1932.

Sample No. 4b.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 10612.-The lower four feet or
more of the section exposed'on the Chester Spence farm at a small dripping
spring in the NE 4 of the NE of Sec. 17, T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton County.
(See discussion below). Collected by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton,
April 13, 1932.

DIscussION:-Dr. Julia A. Gardner reported U. S. G. S. locality
No. 10612 on the Chester Spence farm as Shoal River formation in
Professional Paper No. 142-A, p. 4, 1926. In the spring of 1930 and
again in 1931 Mansfield and Ponton made collections at this locality
and decided that it represented a transitional zone between the Shoal
River and Choctawhatchee formations but the finding of the large
Yoldia, Yoldia waltonensis, here made it questionable as to whether it




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


did not represent a portion of the Yoldia zone of the Choctawhatchee.'
In April 1932 Mansfield and Ponton revisited the locality, and by
very careful collecting found that the large Yoldia was restricted to
the upper eight to ten feet of the section together with other species
of mollusks which had been found to be confined to the Choctaw-
hatchee formation, and the lower part of the section had a distinct
Shoal River fauna. Miss Gardner apparently obtained her collection
from the lower portion. Owing to the small molluscan fauna at the
type locality of the Yoldia zone on the Frazier farm (see Sample
No. 9) it is possible that the upper part of the section at this locality
(Chester Spence farm) represents the lower part of the Yoldia zone
and on the other hand the molluscan fauna of the lowest part of the
section not presenting as large a fauna as at the typical exposure of
the Cardium beds of the Shoal River, it is possible that it represents
the top part of the Cardium beds. The two beds are separated by a
thin oxidized seam, but apparently are conformable. The matrix in
the upper bed is less sandy than in the lower. The locality is easily
accessible by taking the Steele Church Road from DeFuniak Springs.
The molluscan fauna is a beautiful representation of transitional
faunas, and while the shells are well preserved they are somewhat
soft while wet, but harden on drying.
The foraminiferal fauna of the Yoldia zone in general is one of
mostly comparatively deep water, widely ranging forms. Perhaps
the two most striking species of the zone are Plectofrondieularia
mansfieldi and Virgulina (Virgulinella) miocenica. The former shows
decided relationship with the Shoal River, and the latter ranges
from the lower part of the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee to the
Oak Grove sand. The species Nodogenerina advena and Bulimina
buchiana have been recorded from the Yoldia zone and nowhere else
in the Florida Miocene.
Although a study of the individual species represented in the two
beds at the Chester Spence farm is somewhat unsatisfactory we find
a considerable difference in the fauna as a whole, as the list below
will readily show.








SMansfield, W. C. and Ponton, G. M., Faunal zones in the Miocene Choctaw-
hatchee formation of Florida. Washington Acad. of Sci. Journal, vol. 22, No. 4,
p. 85, 1932.






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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES IN THE UPPER (YOLDIA ZONE OF THE
CHOCTAWHATCHEE) AND LOWER (G.ARDIUM BED OF THE
SHOAL RIVER) BEDS ON THE CHESTER SPENCE FARM

SPECIES UPPER BED LOWER BED
Textularia mayor ................................... Common .................................. Common
Textularia articulata ........................................................ ................................ Few
Sigmoilina tenuis ............................................. Few
Robulus americanus .............................1 specimen ................... Quite numerous
Robulus americanus spinosus ..............Rare ............................ Quite numerous
Robulus iotus .................. ..................... Rare ............................................... Rare
Robulus vaughani ......................................3 specimens ......... .. Very numerous
....cenaria acutauricularis ............Rare ........... .................... Numerous
Dentalina communis ................................1 fragment .............................. Common
Nodosaria longiscata ... ...................................... ........... ......................... Few
Lagena marginato-erforata ........................................................ Quite common
Lagena gracilis ....................................... ............................................ Few
Globulina inaequalis ................................................................ .......................... Few
Nonion grateloupi .......... ..... Com o ................Common ........... Numerous
Nonion pizarrensis ................. ..... Few .................................................. Few
Nonionella auris ................................ Common .......... .............. Common
Elphidium poeyanum .............................. Fairly common .......... Fairly common
Plectofrondicularia mansfieldi ............Fairly common .............................. Rare
Am phim orphina sp.? ................................R are .................... ....................................
Nodogenerinn adven ..............................3 specimens ... .. ....................................
Buliminella elegantissima ......................Common .................................... Common
Buliminella curta ......................................Common ............................ Common
Bulimina buchiana ...............................Fairly common .................
Virgulina gunteri ...................................... Few .................................. Rare
Virgulina miocenica ............................ Numerous ............................. Numerous
V irgulina pontoni .............................................................................................. R are
Bolivina marginata .................................. Common ...................................... Common
Bolivina marginata multicostata ........ommon ............................. ..... Common
Bolivina floridana ................................ e .................................................... Rare
Chrysalidinella pulchella .................................................................................. Few
Uvigerina peregrina ..............................Quite numerous .................... Numerous
Eponides mansfieldi .............................. Few ..................................... Few
Valvulineria floridana ............ ............................................................... Comm on
Rotalia beccarii parkinsoniana ...........Occasional ...................... Occasional
Cancris sagra ....................Fe....................Few .. .......................... .... Comm on
Pulvinulinella pontoni .......................Numerous ................................ Numerous
Cassidulina laevigata carinata ....... .................................................... ... Few
Globorotalia menardii .......... ............. Few .................................. ....... Few
Cibicides concentricus .........................Numerous ............................ Numerous
Cibicides floridanus ............... .............. Few ................................................ Few
Dyocibicides biserialis ........................ Rare ................................................. Few
Globigerinidae ................. .. .......75% of specimens .... Comparatively few
Orbulina universe ................................... Very numerous ............................. Few

Sample No. 5.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 9959.-One-quarter mile west of
Alaqua School or Pleasant Ridge Church, in small gorge cut by the run of
a dripping spring on the Stafford farm in Sec. 6, T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton
County. Typical of the Cardium bed of the Shoal. River formation. This
locality is easily reached by the Alaqua School road out of DeFuniak Springs.
The molluscan fauna is well preserved and 'sliecies are quite numerous.
Collected by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton, March 11, 1930.

DISCUSSION:-An exposure with a similar molluscan fauna occurs
at a dripping spring on Langley's old farm in Sec. 9, T. 2 N., R. 19




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


W., Walton County. By an accident the foraminifera from this
locality were contaminated in the laboratory. This locality is reached
by the Steele Church road out of DeFuniak Springs, and the mollus-
can fauna is excellently preserved and species are quite numerous.
Sample No. 6.--Harveys Creek at abandoned settlement called Yankee-
town, in Sec. 16, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., Leon County. C(nccllaria zone of the
Choctawhatchee formation. This locality can be reached by walking up-
stream from the locality on IHarveys Creek listed under Sample No. 3. The
molluscan fauna here is represented almost exclusively by numerous speci-
mens of the genus Turritella. About 2 feet of marl is exposed on the banks.
Collected by J. H. C. Martens, 1928.
DISCUSSION:-This last station proved of importance as being the
type locality of the new genus Rectocibicides represented by R.
miocenicus. Here this species occurs abundantly. The only other
record for the form rests on a few specimens from the type locality
of the Canlcellaria, zone of Harveys Creek (See sample No. 3), at
which locality our samples were taken from the bed of the creek from
the unaltered marl with no especial care being taken t'o eliminate
the chance admixture with the oxidized marl in the banks. Recently
the junior author sampled carefully both the marl in the bed of the
creek and the indurated material some 4 to 5 feet higher in the banks,
with the result that no Rectocibicides were found in the former,
while the latter had quite numerous specimens somewhat poorly
preserved but showing all the characteristics. From this it would
appear that Rectobicides is restricted to a part of the Cancellaria
zone and near the top.
Sample No. 7.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 12268.-Bed of Econfina River,
Bryant Scott's farm, Sec. 28, T. 2 N., R. 12 W., Bay County. Placed by
Gardner at the top of the Chipola formation (See page 22 of this report).
This locality is not easily accessible without the services of a local guide.
The molluscan fauna is largb and well preserved, but the specimens are
somewhat scattered in a tough marl. Collected by W. C. Mansfield and
G. AM. Ponton, March 1931.
Sample No. 8.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 12046.-100 feet below small falls
near head of Vaughan Creek (locally known as Blounts Creek), in Sec. 27,
T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton County. Placed in the lower part of the Arca zone
of the Choctawhatchee formation. The molluscan fauna at this locality
is especially well preserved and numerous as to species. The locality is
easily accessible from DeFuniak Springs on Florida State Road No. 40. Six
feet of marl is exposed here. The exposures aloug Vaughan Creek to our
knowledge form the most extensive continuous outcrop of the Choctawhatchee
in Florida. Collected by G. M. Ponton and J. C. Simpson, October 11, 1930.
Sample No. 9.-U. G. S. locality No. 12060--Frazier's old farm (for-
merly the Spencer farm) in the SE1/ Sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton
County. Mansfield and Ponton choose this locality as the type for the
Yoldia zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. The molluscan fauna here
is represented by the large species, Yoldia waltonensis, almost exclusively.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


The locality is reached by a road leading from Alaqua School (See sample
No. 5) to the Steele Church. Six feet of marl is exposed here. Collected by
W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton, March 1930.
Sample No. 10.-Tenmile Creek, from bridge to % mile below bridge on
the Marianna-Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna, Calhoun County.
This locality represents typical Chipola formation, and the molluscan fauna
is beautifully preserved and carries large numbers of both species and
specimens. This is perhaps the best locality at which to collect the Chipola
fauna. About 4 feet of the marl is exposed. Collected by G. M. Ponton,
November 1929.
Sample No. 11.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 12044.-Bell's farm in the NE4
of Sec. 29, T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton County. The exposures here are at the
heads of small branches flowing into Sconiers Mill Creek. This locality is
placed in the lower part of the Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.
The molluscan fauna here is fairly large and fairly well preserved. The
Steele Church road out of DeFuniak Springs takes one within three-quarters
of a mile of the locality. Ten to fifteen feet of marl is exposed. Collected
by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton, March 12, 1930.
DiscussioN:-In the paper on the faunal zones of the Choctaw-
hatchee, Mansfield on the basis of the mollusks placed this locality
in the Arca zone but below the beds at Red Bay (See samples 15,
40 and 41) but in the same stratigraphic position as the beds on
Vaughan Creek (See sample No. 8), but Ponton on the basis of the
foraminifera believed that the position of the Bell farm beds was
higher in the section than the Vaughan Creek beds. Further study
of the foraminiferal fauna has inclined the junior author to agree
with Mansfield's correlation.
Sample No. 12.-U. S. G. S. locality Nos. 1/670 and 1/956.-Upper shell
beds at Alum Bluff on the east bank of the Apalachicola River about 4 miles
north of Bristol, Liberty County. This is the type locality of the Ecphora
zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. (See Table No. 2 for sections at
Alum Bluff). The molluscan fauna here is only fairly well preserved, the
shells being soft. However, a fairly large fauna is present but somewhat
obscured by masses of Mulinia congesta which occur. The species from which
the Ecphora zone is named, Ecphora quadricostata var. uinbilicata is very
rare. The locality is easily accessible. Collected by G. M. Ponton, November
1929.
Sample No. 13.-Same as sample No. 6 above, and the foraminiferal fauna
has been grouped with it.
Sample No. 14.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 11732.-Borrow-pit just east of
the power dam at Jackson Bluff on Ocklocknee River, Leon County. Cancel-
laria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. Reached by Florida Road No.
19 twenty-five miles southwest of Tallahassee. An excellently preserved,
numerous (both as to species and specimens) and well balanced molluscan
fauna is present. Some care must be taken not to include specimens from
the Ecphora zone which has been entered in the lower parts of the pit.
Collected by J. H. C. Martens and G. M. Ponton, 1927.
Sample No. 15.-U. S. G. S. locality Nos. 1/671 and 1/947. Jim.Kennedy
Branch, one mile east of Red Bay, Walton County. Typical of the latest





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


fauna of the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. The locality is
easily reached by the main road east from Red Bay. The molluscan fauna
is not well preserved being generally broken and worn, but a worthwhile
fauna can be collected if time is taken. About 21 feet of the Area zone is
exposed. (The upper bed, nearly unfossiliferous, at this locality has been
placed in the Ecphora zone.) Collected by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton,
March 6, 1930.
Sample No. 16.-Bottom of old flourspar prospect shaft at a depth of 50
to 55 feet, about 4/2 miles south of Argyle, Walton County. The molluscan
fauna is very similar to that at White's Creek (See sample No. 28) and
thus is placed somewhat higher in the section than that at Shell Bluff (See
sample No. 31). The shaft is abandoned and cannot be sampled. Collected
by J. H. C. Martens, November 1928.
Sample No. 17.-U. S. G. S. No. 3672.-Robinson's Mill (abandoned) on
Robinson's Mill Creek about three-quarter miles (airline) northwest of Hos-
ford's Mill (See sample No. 18), Liberty County. The molluscan fauna here
is well preserved and quite numerous and represents the earliest fauna of
the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatche formation. The marl lies in the
bed of the creek. Collected by H. Gunter and G. M Ponton, June 17, 1931.
Sample No. 18.-U. S. G. S. locality Nos. 3671 and 1/958.--Hosford's Mill
(Old Coe's Mill) on Big Creek about 2 miles northeast of the town of Hos-
ford, Liberty County. Three to four feet of marl is exposed in the mill race.
The molluscan fauna is well preserved and specimens and species quite
numerous. The fossils represent the earliest fauna of the Caiwellaria zone
of the Choctawhatchee formation. The locality is easily accessible. Collected
by H. Gunter and G. M. Ponton, June 17, 1931.
Sample No. 19.-At mouth of Senterfeit Branch, a small branch entering
the Chipola River 1 mile below the type locality of the Chipola formation
on McClelland's farm (See sample No. 22) Calhoun County. Sample repre-
sents the light yellow highly oxidized marl from the surface of the deposit.
The exposure of Chipola formation is continuous from McClelland's farm to
Senterfeit Branch. The molluscan fauna is numerous but not well preserved,
and represents typical Chipola formation. Collected by G. M. Ponton, October
1931.
Sample No. 20.-Same as sample No. 19 except that it represents the
unoxidized greenish-gray marl about three feet in from the surface of the
deposit. The molluscan fauna here is well preserved.
The foraminiferal fauna from Samples Nos. 19 and 20 have been
grouped.
Sample No. 21.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 12048.-Permenter's old farm in
Sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 19 W., Walton County. The exposure of shell marl occurs
in a road cut leading to an abandoned bridge on the east bank of Alaqua
Creek. The molluscan fauna is not numerous and not well preserved, and
is placed In the Ecphora zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. The locality
is most difficult to find unless accompanied by a local guide. Collected by
G. M. Ponton and J. C. Simpson, October 11, 1930.
DISCUSSION :-Mansfield from the study of the mollusks believed
this bed to be in the Ecplora zone. This correlation is confirmed to
a large extent by the occurrence here of the foraminifer, Virgidina





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


(Virglinella) gunteri, var. curta-ta, a species apparently confined to
that zone.
Sample No. 22.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 994.-The J. P. M. McClelland
farm on the right bank of the Chipola River about 2%1 miles east of the
village of Carr, Calhoun County. This is the type locality of the Chipola
formation. The molluscan fauna is not very well preserved as the marl is
oxidized, but a large fauna can be collected by handling much material.
The locality is easily accessible from Marianna on the Marianna-Clarksville
road and turning off at Carr. Collected by G. M. Ponton, October 1931.
Sample No. 25.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/422.-East end of Hamlin Pond
in small sinks in Sec. 7 (?), T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington County, about
5 miles east of Greenhead. The condition of the molluscan fauna and the
accessibility of the locality is the same as that described under Sample No. 2.
Collected by G. M. Ponton and J. C. Simpson, October 8, 1930.
Sample No. 26.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 7054.-At old saw-mill near Oak
Grove on right bank of Yellow River about 100 yards below bridge on Laurel
Hill-Oak Grove road, Okaloosa County. This is the type locality of the
Oak Grove sands. The molluscan fauna is well preserved and numerous as
to species and specimens. The marl lies in the bed of the river and is only
exposed at low stages of the river. Collected by G. M. Ponton and J. C.
Simpson, October 12, 1930.
Sample No. 27.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 10660.-Lowermost shell bed
toward lower end of Alum Bluff on the east bank of the Apalachicola River
about 4 miles north of Bristol, Liberty County., The sample was taken from
the four feet of highly fossiliferous marl appearing about water-level at a
very low stage of the river. The molluscan fauna is well preserved and
numerous. (See table No. 2 for sections at Alum Bluff.) The sands over-
lying this very fossiliferous bed were sampled with result that very few
foraminifera were found. In the lower one-half of the sand a few specimens
of Elphidium chipoleu sis and Sorites? sp.? were noted. This bed is typical
Chipola formation. Collected by H. Gunter and G. M. Ponton, October 6, 1931.
Sample No. 28.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 10608.-Small gully, 50 feet
south of road and 150 feet east of bridge over White's Creek on Eucheeanna-
Knox Hill road, 1 mile west of Valley Church, Walton County. This locality
presents perhaps the best preserved and most numerous molluscan fauna
of the Shoal River formation. It would appear that perhaps the fossils
show a somewhat later fauna than that at the type locality of the formation
at Shell Bluff (See sample No. 31). The locality is easily accessible by
taking the Red Bay road south from Argyle and turning west at Valley
Church. Collected by G. M. Ponton, November 1929.
Sample No. 29.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 10659.-Senterfiet's or Tanner's
Mill (abandoned), four miles southwest of Laurel Hill, Okaloosa County.
This locality was placed by Gardner in the Oak Grove sands although the
molluscan fauna showed a higher percentage of Shoal River forms than at
the type locality of the Oak Grove. A recent visit to this locality disclosed
that the exposure has been sanded over by the flooding of the Creek. Col-
lected by Miss Julia A. Gardner, 1923.
Sample No. 30.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 12527.-On Alice Creek, a tribu-
tary of Alaqua Creek, near the NE corner of the SE Sec. 8, T. 1 N., R.
19 W., Walton County, and about 1 mile northeast of the locality on






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Permenter's old farm (See sample No. 21). The molluscan fauna here is
not well preserved, the shells being soft, nor are the species numerous. The
locality has been placed in the Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.
The locality is not easily found without the services of a local guide.
Collected by G. M. Ponton and J. C. Simpson, October 11, 1930.
Sample No. 31.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 10658.-Toward upper end of
Shell Bluff on right bank of Shoal River, 5 miles north of Mossyhead,
Walton County. This is the type locality of the Shoal River formation.
A large and well preserved molluscan fauna is present and the locality is
easily reached from Mossyhead. Collected by G. M. Ponton, November 1929.
Sample No. 32.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/960.-Darling Slide, an old
log slide at a bluff on the east bank of the Chipola River about 21/ miles
southeast of Clarksville. The molluscan fauna here is not well preserved
nor large as to species, but much of the fauna is obscured by the large
number of Mulinia congesta present, as at Alum Bluff (See sample No. 12).
Collected by G. M. Ponton, October 1931.
Sample No. 33.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/964.-Sec. 8, T. 1 S., R. 3 W.,
Leon County, highest bed exposed in a small stream entering Harveys Creek
at an abandoned mill. It belongs to the Gancellaria zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation. Recently visited, the exposure was found to be almost
entirely covered with sand, and considerable work would have to be done
to make a representative collection of the molluscan fauna. Collected by
W. C. Mansfield November 16, 1925 and further sampled by G. M. Ponton
February 1932.
Sample No. 34.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/966.-Just above bridge across
Double Branch on Florida Road No. 19 in Sec. 8, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., Leon
County. Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation Collected by
W. C. Mansfield, October 17, 1925.
Sample No. 35.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/961.-On S. D. Johnson's farm
near Woods in Sec. 26, T. 1 S., R. 8 W., Liberty County. Cancellaria zone
of the Choctawhatchee formation. Collected by W. C. Mansfield, November 7,
1925.
Sample No. 36.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/953.-On R. L. Gainer's farm
on the Econfina River in Sec. 4, T. 1 S., R .13 W., Bay County Loose shells
representing the Canccllaria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation are
found lying on the hard indurated Chipola formation (See sample No. 44)
along the river and have been turned up by the plow in the fields. No
exposure of the marl was seen in place. The locality is reached over poor
roads from Youngstown on Florida Road No. 20. Collected by W. C. Mans-
field October 30, 1925 and further sampled by.W. C. Mansfield and G. M.
Ponton April 15, 1932.
Sample No. 37.-Lowest shell bed lying directly on top of the Hawthorn
formation at Jackson Bluff, left bank of Ocklocknee River just above high-
way bridge, Leon County. This bed is indurated and thus the shells are
not very well preserved. The fauna represents the latest fauna of the
Ecphora zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. A power house has been
built at this locality but the same bed outcrops below the bridge. Collected
by W. C. Mansfield October 16, 1925, and further sampled by G. M. Ponton,
March 1931.
Sample No. 38.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/965.-On Harvey's Creek at
abandoned mill about 1/ mile above Florida Road No. 19, in Sec. 8, T. 1 S.,





18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE

R. 3 W., Leon County. The mollusks represent the latest Eophora zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. Collected by W. C. Mans-
field November 15, 1925. Recently visited, it was found that this bed was
completely sanded over.
Sample No. 39.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/962.-Cut in road leading to
Watson's Landing, Liberty County, about two miles north of Alum Bluff
and about the same distance from the Apalachicola River. Base of the bed
about 40 feet above the river terrace. Bophora zone of the Choctawhatchee
formation. Collected by W. C. Mansfield, November 10, 1925.
Sample No. 40-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/948.-John Anderson's farm %
mile east of Red Bay, Walton County. This locality is regarded as the type
locality of the Choctawhatchee formation and also of the Arca zone of that
formation. Collected by W. C. Mansfield, October 20, 1925. The beds
exposed on Jim Kennedy Branch (See sample No. 15) and on Gomillion's
farm (See sample No. 41) present much better exposures of the same bed.
Sample No. 41.-U. S. G. S. locality Nos. 1/673 and 1/950.-At small
spring head in E. Gomillion's field at Red Bay, Walton County. This is
typical of the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. This is perhaps
the best locality for obtaining a representative sample showing the latest
fauna of the zone. Collected by W. C. Mansfield October 20, 1925 and
further sampled by W. C. Mansfield and G. M..Ponton March 1931.
Sample No. 42.-U. S. G. S. locality No. 1/682.-Bryant Scott's farm, %
mile above mouth of small branch (likely Taylor Branch) entering Econfina
River near bridge in Sec. 22, T. 2 N., R. 12 W.,_Bay County. This represents
the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. The molluscan fauna is
small and not well preserved. Collected by Julia A. Gardner, November 14,
1923.
For other localities sampled but not included in distribution table
see page 21.

CORRELATIONS OF THE FLORIDA MIOCENE

The molluscan fauna of the Choctawhatchee formation and of the
Alum Bluff Group have been studied intensively, respectively by
Dr. W. C. Mansfield' and Dr. Julia A. Gardner8 of the United States
Geological Survey and the result of their work is to a large extent
the basis for the zonal divisions as used in this paper.
The first definite identification of Miocene rocks in Florida was
that by the late Dr. Eugene A. Smith' in .1881. A low bluff of
indurated shell marl at Rock Springs, Orange County, was so desig-

SMansfield, W. C., Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods of the Chootawhatchee
Formation of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 8, 1930; Miocene Peleoypods
of the Choctawhatchee Formation 'of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 8,
1932.
a Gardner, Julia A., The Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 142 (A to E), 1926.
Note: The five papers, above, include the Pelecypoda. The papers covering
the Gastropoda are now in press.
Smith, Eugene A., Geology of Florida: Amer. Journ. of Sci., vol. 21, 8rd Ser.,
No. 124, pp. 302 and 803, Apr. 1881.





TABLE NO. 2-VARIOUS SECTIONS AND CORRELATIONS OF THE BEDS AT ALUM BLUFF.


L.angdon's section
18s7, published 1889.'


Langdon's
Correlation
1891.2


Burns and
Johnson's
section 1890,
published
1892.3


Dall and
Stanley-Brown's
section, pub.
lished 1894.4


Dall's
Correlation
18923 and
1894.4


Dall's
Correlation
1896.6


Matson's &
Clapp's
Correlation
1909.6


Condensed section based on
those made by Sellards &
Gunter 1909, Cooke 1914, &
Berry 1916.'


Present
Correlation


Yellow 1. Superficial Pleistocene Pleistocene Pleistocene 9. Light colored ferruginous Pleistocene and
unfossil- sands. 81 ft. unconsolidated sand. 9 ft. Recent
iferous sand
70 ft. H ed____________________________________________

2. Red Clay 2% Pliocene Pliocene Pliocene 8. Hard reddish clay. 2 ft. Pliocene
ft. Lafayette Lafayette Lafayette 7. Variegated reddish and Citronelle
1. White sand, evi- 3. Reddish and yellowish ferruginous formation
dently marine but yellowish sand. 65 ft.
of recent forma- streaked
tion. 30 ft. sands. 66 ft.


2. Black lignitic sand
very pyritous, and
from efflorescence
of ferrous sulphate
arises the name
Alum Bluff. 10 to
15 ft.


3. Gray calcareous
sand highly fos-
siliferous. 10 to
15 ft.


4. Gray sand slightly
calcareous, no fos-
sils. 5 ft.


5. Light yellow sand,
containing pockets
of fossils. Where
there are no shells
the sand is very
calcareous.
To water's edge,
35 ft.


I'nder water at time
of Langdon's visit.


Miocene
Alum Bluff
Series.


Under
Water


Lignitic
sand
10 ft.


4. Aluminous
clays 24 ft.


Upper
Miocene
Chesapeake
(Pasca-
goula?)


Upper
Miocene
Chesapeake
(Pasca-
goula?)


Miocene
Choctaw-
hatchee
formation
Aluminous
clays


6. Brown, sandy, micaceous
pyritiferous clay tasting
like alum; casts of mul-
lusks abundant near
bottom, rare above; fine
slightly coherent grayish
sand at top. 25 ft.


Upper Miocene
Choctawhatchee
formation.
Perhaps con-
temporaneous
with parts of
both Ecphora
and Cancellaria
Zones.


Ecphora bed 5. Chesapeake Upper Upper Miocene 5. Brown or dirty-green
30 ft. gray marl. 35 Miocene Miocene Choctaw- fine sand mixed with Upper Miocene
ft. Chesapeake Chesapeake hatchee clay; shells very abun- Choctawhatchee
marl marl. formation dant throughout but less formation
Ecphora Ecphora Ecphora so at bottom than higher. Ecphora Zone
Beds Beds. Beds 15 ft.


Alum Bluff
Beds.
15 ft.


Chipola marl
5 ft.


6. Alum Bluff
sands with
streaks of
clay. 211 ft.


Hard Chipola
marl to water
(variable).
3% ft.


Miocene
Alum Bluff
Beds


Miocene
Chipola
marl


*Langdon, Daniel W., Some Florida Miocene: Amer. Jour. of Sci.,
vol. 38, 3rd Series, pp. 322 to 324, 1889.
Langdon, Daniel W., Geological section along the Chattahoochee
River from Columbus to Alum Bluff: Georgia Geol. Surv., First
Rept. Prog. 1890-1891, p. 97, 1891.
Dall, W. H., The Neocene of North America: U. S. Geol. Surv.,
Bull. 84, p. 113, 1892.
Dall, W. H., and Stanley-Brown, J., Cenozoic Geology along the
Apalachicola River: Bull. Geol. Soc. of Amer., vol. 5, p. 157, 1894.
Dall, W. H., Description of Tertiary fossils from the Antillan
region: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 19, No. 1110, pp. 303-305, 1896.


Oligocene


Oligocene
Apalachicola
Group.
Chipola marl
member and
sands of the
Alum Bluff
formation.


Erosional unconformity?


4 and 3. The fossil leaf- Middle Miocene
bearing sands. 6 ft. Alum Bluff
Group.


Unconformity.


2. Light-gray tough cal-
careous sand; fossil mol-
lusks sparingly through-
out. 16 ft.

1. Fine quartz in yellowish
calcareous clay, loaded
with shells merging into
over-lying bed. Water-
level. 4 ft.


Lower Miocene
Alum Bluff
Group.
Chipola
formation.


6 Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., A preliminary report on the
Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Surv., 2nd Ann. Rept. 1909.
SSellards, E. H., and Gunter, H., The fullers earth deposits of
Gadsden County: Florida Geol. Surv., 2nd Ann. Rept., p. 275, 1909.
Berry, E. W., The physical conditions and age indicated by the
flora of the Alum Bluff formation: U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper
98-E, p. 41, 1916.
Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., Geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Surv., 20th Ann. Rept., p. 107, 1929.


'


I I


I





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


nated and has stood the test of time. The mollusks collected here
by Dr. Smith were identified by Prof. Angelo Heilprin as being of
Miocene age and the information was republished5 in 1884. Cooke
and Mossom place this outcrop in the Hawthorn formation. When
excavating for a swimming pool at the spring in 1930 the Ocala
limestone (Eocene) was encountered at a depth of 8 feet below water-
level and therefore it would appear that the above correlation is
correct. No foraminifera were preserved at this locality.
In 1887 Daniel W. Langdon discovered the exposure at Alum
Bluff on the Apalachicola River, and assisted by Dr. T. H. Aldrich
identified the mollusks as Miocene species. This was published in
1889". In 1891 'it was republished under the heading "Alum Bluff,
Series." As Cooke and Mossomi state "This early and very appro-
priate use of the term Alum Bluff was apparently overlooked by
Matson and Clapp' who named the formation Choctawhatchee forma-
tion, from the Choctawhatchee River, and used the name Alum Bluff
formation with a different significance." Cooke and Mossom'1 fur-
ther state that Dall's "Alum Bluff beds" and "Chipola marl"
discovered in 1889 by Frank Burns and published in 1892" were
under water at the time of Langdon's visit. This was apparently
true only for the "'Chipola Marl" as shown by sections in Table No. 2
of this report.
The section at Alum Bluff has been of such importance in the
correlation of the Florida Miocene that we present in Table No. 2
the sections made by various investigators and the several correlations.
It will be seen from Table No. 2 that Alum Bluff, Liberty County,
does not present a very representative section as a type locality of
the Alum Bluff Group. The only fossiliferous bed, of real value,
of the Alum Bluff Group present there, namely, the Chipola forma-
tion, is usually under water. However, the name Alum Bluff Group
is now so firmly fixed in literature that it should be retained, unless
investigations should show different relationships of the formations
that compose the Group.

5 Heilprin, Angelo, The Tertiary Geology of the Eastern and Southern United
States: Jour. of the Acad. of Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 9, pt. 1, 1884.
SLangdon, Daniel W., Some Florida Miocene: Amer. Jour. of Sci., 3rd Ser.,
vol. 38, pp. 322 to 324, 1889.
SLangdon, Daniel W., Geological Section along the Chattahoochee River from
Columbus to Alum Bluff; Georgia Geol. Survey, First Report, Prog. 1890-1891,
p. 97, 1891.
s Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, 20th
Ann. Rept., p. 138, 1929.
Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. C., A Preliminary Report on the Geology of
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, 2nd Ann. Rept., p. 108, 1909.
10 Op. cit. p. 138.
1 Dall, W. H., and Harris, G. D., The Neocene of North America: U. S. Geol.
Surv. Bull. 84, p. 122, 1892.





20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE

Dall's" "Alum Bluff Beds" and "Chipola Marl". were raised to
formational rank by Matson and Clapp" as the "Alum Bluff Forma-
tion" which included as members the "Chipola Marl," the "Oak
Grove Sands" of Dall, and the "Shoal River Marl." Gardner" in
iurn raised it in rank to that of group, composed of the Chipola
formation, the Oak Grove sand and the Shoal River formation.
Gardner included in the Chipola and Shoal River formations some
associated beds not included in the marl members of the same name
by Matson and Clapp.
Cooke and Mossom'" state the Oak Grove sand and the Shoal River
formation have not been recognized east of the Choctawhatchee River,
and that the Chipola formation extends east as far as the Apalachi-
cola River.
To the Alum Bluff Group, Cooke and Mossom'" add a fourth
formation, the Hawthorn, which they state is contemporaneous in
part with the other divisions of the Group, and includes all beds of
Alum Bluff age in Florida east of the Apalachicola River. They"
tentatively placed in the Hawthorn several beds which may be
younger in age than the Alum Bluff.
At the majority of the exposures of Hawthorn where fossils occur,
and there are many very fossiliferous outcrops, we find few specimens
which can be accurately identified owing to their poor preservation.
This holds true for both the molluscan and foraminiferal faunas.

THE HAWTHORN FORMATION

In the Hawthorn we have found practically no locality where the
foraminifera are sufficiently well preserved for specific identification
with the exception of the form which we have tentatively called
Sorites? sp.? This form has not been found in beds younger than
typical Chipola, unless, as will be discussed later, some of the Haw-
thorn beds in which this form occurs, is slightly younger than the
typical Chipola. It is possible that this species or one very close to
it occurs in the Tampa limestone.
In addition to the distribution as shown in Table No. 1 we have
found Sorites? sp? at the following Hawthorn and Chipola localities.

12 Dall, W. H., and Harris, G. D., The Neocene of North America: U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 84, p. 122, 1892.
23 Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., A Preliminary Report on the Geology of
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, 2nd Ann. Rept. p. 91, 1909.
14 Gardner, Julia A., The Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 142-A, p. 2, 1926.
Is Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, 20th
Ann. Rept., p. 98, 1929.
Op. cit. p. 98.
1' Op. cit. p. 98.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Sample No. 43.-Ponto Springs in the northeast corner of Gadsden County.
Collected by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton, April 23, 1931 and March 21,
1982. Cooke and Mossom" apparently did not see the entire section at this
locality and correlated the portions (the two basal beds) they saw in two
ways viz., as Glendon and Tampa, and Tampa and Hawthorn. The following
section made by Mansfield and Ponton at this locality makes the correlation
somewhat more definite.
Tol--Unconsolidated sands and soil.
Bed "C"-Top 3 feer of bed highly fossiliferous containing oysters and
other shells with numerous Sorites? sp?, balance of bed composed of
sand and clay with oysters throughout but the basal 3 to 4 feet
with num erous oysters...................................................................... 15 feet.
Bed "B"-White to gray very sandy marl containing oysters at the base
and sparingly scattered throughout. No other fossils noted except a
few Sorites? sp? ..............................................................................8 to 10 feet.
Possible unconformity.
Bed "A"-Hard compact rather gray to bluff limestone containing no
determinable organisms......................... .......................................... 10 feet.
Bed "A" is likely Tampa limestone, and Beds "B" and "C" are
Hawthorn. The oyster is probably Ostrea normalis.
Sample No. 44.-Econfina River on R. L. Gainer farm, Sec. 4, T. 1 S.,
R. 13 W., Bay County. Collected by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton,
April 15, 1932. This hard indurated limestone underlying the Cancellaria
zone of the Choctawhatchee and reported by Mansfield" at U. S. G. S.
station No. 1/953 is apparently Chipola, and contains numerous impressions
of mollusca including Orthaulaw gabbi and the foraminifer Soritest sp?.
Sample No. 45.-Edge of Lake Lafayette Basin, Sec. 26, T. 1 N,. R. 1 E.,
about 5 miles east of Tallahassee, Leon County. Ten feet of hard indurated
limestone exposed with quite numerous Sorites? sp? and a few very poorly
preserved casts of mollusks. Hawthorn formation. Collected by H. Gunter
and G. M. Ponton, December 18, 1931.
Sample No. 46.-Rouse's Mill Creek near W. C. Rouse's house 3 miles
north of Sopchoppy, Wakulla County. This is typical of the old "Sopchoppy
limestone" of Dall and correlated by Gardner' as a very shallow-water
phase of the Chipola but placed in the Hawthorn by Cooke and Mossom.
Dall2' states that the horizon is probably not far from that of the Chipola
marl, and contains Conrad's orbitolite (Orbitolites floridanus) now referred
to Archaias floridanus. No specimens of A. floridanus were found but
numerous specimens of Sorites? sp?. A. floridanus appears to be restricted
to the Tampa limestone. Collected by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton,
April 16, 1931. (U. S. G. S. localities 4977 and 4978 as given by Gardner
in U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 142-A, p. 3 should be corrected as follows: For
"W. C. Rose's" put "W. C. Rouse's", for "Rose's Mill Creek" put "Rouse's

11 Op. cit. pp. 95 and 122.
19 Mansfield, W. C., Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee
Formation of Florida: Bull. 3, Florida Geol. Survey, p. 19, 1930.
2- Gardner, Julia A., The Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida:
U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 142-A, p. 2, 1926.
21 Dall, W. H., and Harris, G. D., The Neocene of North America: U. S. G. S.
Bull. 84, p. 120, 1892.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Mill Creek" and for "3 miles west of Sopchoppy" put "3 miles north of
Sopchoppy".)
Sample No. 47.-Road cut about 1 mile west of Tallahassee near Prince
Murat's homestead on old Jackson Bluff road. Collected by S. Mossom
1926 and W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton, April 1932. Quite numerous
Sorites? sp? occur with Anomia suwanneensisf and Ostrea normalis. This
locality is reported by Cooke and Mossom as Hawthorn formation on page
124 of Florida Geol. Survey 20th Ann. Report.
Sample No. 48.-Aspalaga Bluff on left bank of Apalachicola River,
Gadsden County, 7 or 8 miles south of Georgia-Florida State line, at elevation
of about 50 feet above river. (River fairly high stage.) Collected by W. C..
Mansfield and G. M. Ponton, April 14, 1931. Quite numerous Sorites8 sp?.
Likely Hawthorn formation.
Sample No. 49.-Dug well of Jesse Dennis (colored) near Long Pond
about 6 miles northeast of Tallahassee, Leon County, depth 60 feet. Quite
numerous specimens of Sorites sp? from a fairly hard gray impure limestone.
Collected by G. M. Ponton, March 1930.
Sample No. 50.-Dismal Sink about 10 miles southwest of Tallahassee,
Leon County, 15 feet or more of gray to yellow, fairly soft, sandy limestone
contains Sorites? sp? and Alum Bluff mollusks. Collected by W. C. Mansfield
and G. M. Ponton, March 1932.
Sample No. 51.-J. H. Atkinson's farm in NWI/ Sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 1 W.,
Leon County. Numerous Sorites? sp? in a hard, buff, sandy limestone of
the Hawthorn formation. Collected by H. Gunter and J. C. Simpson,
March 8, 1932.
Sample No. 52.-At spring on left bank of Suwannee River, /2 mile above
old wagon bridge at White Springs, Suwannee County. Collected by E. H.
Sellards and T. W. Vaughan. November 1913.

THE CHIPOLA FORMATION

Miss Gardner' in regard to the molluscan fauna from the bed of
Econfina River (Sample No. 7) advises as follows: "The mollusca
on the whole indicate the Chipola age of the outcrop, although the.'e
are a few species that are not typical of the Chipola formation,
notably the slender Turritella which has a spiral sculpture about
midway between that of the common Turritella of the Chipola and
that of the Shoal River, I should place the fauna at the top of the
Chipola." The foraminiferal fauna at this locality shows affinities
to both the Chipola and Oak Grove. For example Elphidinm chipo-
lensis and Virg dtina pontoni are common to both, while A~nphistegina
floridana, likely an excellent species for correlation purposes, shows
a very decided relationship to the Oak Grove. The absence of the
SMiliolidae and Peneroplidae and the presence of Buliminella. ele-


" Letter of October 14, 1931.




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


gantissima and others suggest a difference in conditions of deposition
from that of the typical Chipola, possibly somewhat deeper water.
The fauna of the Chipola marl, while in many species related to
the Choctawhatchee, is, nevertheless, rather distinctive in its general
character. They represent for the most part a shallow warm water
group. Most of the species are either. identical with, or very closely
related to, species now living about coral reefs of the general southern
Florida or West Indian regions. The fauna, however, contains many
new and interesting species, as well as some interesting genera. The
species not only show relationships with those now living off the
same general region, but also with those of the Oligocene of Mississippi
and elsewhere.
One of the largest and most striking foraminifera of the Chipola
and part of the Hawthorn is a large species belonging to the family
Peneropliidae. It is related to Sorites, but a study of the types of
Ehrenberg's Sorites dominicensis must be made before the exact
identity of this species can be given. This particular form is one of
the best markers of this zone, and does not occur elsewhere in that
part of the Florida Miocene under consideration as far as we have
seen. At some stations it is very abundant.
One of the striking things of this warm water Chipola fauna is the
lack of Archaias which is one of the most dominant genera of faunas
now living in the West Indian region under similar conditions. In
the Tampa limestone (Lower Miocene) immediately underlying the
Chipola we find Archaia-s floridamus (Conrad) in large numbers, and
the genus does not appear again in the Florida section until 'the
Pliocene.
THE OAK GROVE SANDS
For the: history and distribution of the Oak Grove sands we quote
Cooke and Mossom". "Johnson was the first to record the presence
of a shell bed on Yellow River at Oak Grove, Okaloosa County.
Collections made by Johnson and by Burns from this bed were
studied by Dall, who correlated the Oak Grove sand with his "Alum
Bluff sands" which overlie the "Chipola marl" at Alum Bluff.
Matson and Clapp, accepting this correlation, regarded the bed as a
member of the Alum Bluff formation. Critical study of the Alum
Bluff faunas convinced Miss Gardner that the shells at Oak Grove
were younger than those in Dall's "Alum Bluff sands," which are
more closely related to the Chipola species, and that the Oak Grove
sand is worthy of formational rank.

M Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey,
20th Ann. Rept., p. 110, 1929.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


The Oak Grove sand is known in Florida only in a very small area
along Yellow River and its tributaries in Okaloosa County, which
has been mapped with the Shoal River."
The exposure at Tanner's Mill (Our sample No. 29) referred by
Matson and Clapp2" to the "Shoal River marl" was placed by Gardner
in the Oak Grove sand, although the molluscan fauna showed a higher
percentage of Shoal River forms than at the typical Oak Grove lo-
cality. The evidence using the foraminiferal fauna at this station
is very inconclusive. Taking the four following species, which are
about as distinctive as any at this station, we arrive at unsatisfactory
results. Bigenerina floridana, a very striking species occurs here
and nowhere else except at one station in the Shoal River;
Chrysalidinella pulchella except for the Oak Grove and sample No. 4
is characteristic of stations higher up in the section; Boliving plica-
tella, var. mera occurs elsewhere only in the Oak Grove and Chipola;
on the other hand BolivinL paula, occurs only in the Shoal River and
above.
The Oak Grove has a distinct fauna with various striking species,
not representing as warm shallow water as the typical Chipola, but
showing decided relationships to that formation as well as to the
Shoal River formation above.

THE SHOAL RIVER FORMATION

As to history of the Shoal River formation we quote Cooke and
Mossom"; "In 1903 and 1908 T. W. Vaughan made field studies
which were the basis of the description of the "Shoal River marl
member" of the "Alum Bluff formation" by Matson and Clapp in
1909. Later Julia Gardner raised the Alum Bluff to the rank of
group and introduced the name Shoal River formation to include
the "Shoal River marl member of Matson and Clapp and underlying
sands and clays containing the same fauna."
Authors appear to have overlooked the statement by Dr. Truman
H. Aldrich" with regard to the position of the outcrop of the Shoal
River formation at its type locality and its Miocene age. Quoting
Dr. Aldrich; "This species" (Conus waltonew is from Shell Bluff,
Shoal River, Walton County, Florida,) "has been in my possession
for many years and until lately was not known from any other
locality, but in looking over some specimens of fossils from the

24 Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. C., A Preliminary Report on the Geology of
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, 2nd Ann. Rept., p. 105, 1909.
s Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, 20th
Ann. Rept., p. 111, 1929.
Aldrich, Truman H., A New Conus from the Tertiary of Florida: The Nautilus,
vol. 16, No. 11, pp. 131 & 132, March 1903.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Number Two well of the Mobile Oil Company, bored near Mobile,
Alabama, I found two or three specimens of it, and from its position
over three hundred feet above the Oak Grove (Fla.) horizon in this
well, it would seem to indicate that this deposit on Shoal Creek is
much younger than the Oak Grove beds. The assignment of these
beds to the Oligocene must, in the writer's opinion, be better sub-
stantiated than at present. There are so few species common to the
"Chipola" of Dall and the Vicksburg formation, it would seem better
to confined the use of fiie te-min 'Oligocene'" o t-he latter, which is in
accordance with Conrad's original diagnosis, and put the Chipola,
Shoal River and Chattahoochee beds in one formation calling them
all Miocene * * *."
The foraminiferal fauna is distinct with several striking species
and the fauna shows definite relationships with both the Oak Grove
formation below, and the Choctawhatchee formation above. The
fauna of the Card.iwn bed has been discussed in a note after the
description of sample No. 4b on page 9.

THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE FORMATION

It has been thought well to reprint in this bulletin the paper on
the "Faunal zones in the Miocene Choctawhatchee formation of
Florida" by W. C. Mansfield and G. M. Ponton which appeared
originally in the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences,
vol. 22, No. 4, Feb. 19, 1932. Since this paper was published Mans-
field has brought the stratigraphy of the Choetawhatchee formation
up-to-date in a report entitled Miocene Pelecypods of the Choctaw-
hatchee Formation of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin
No. 8, 1932 and to this bulletin we would refer those interested.
Faunal zones in the Miocend choctawhatchee formation, of Florida.1 VENDELL
C. MANSFIELD, U. 8. Geological Survey, and Gerald M. Ponton, Florida
Geological Survey.
In March, 1930, the writers discovered fossiliferous outcrops of Miocene
beds in the valley of Alaqua Creek, Walton County, Florida, farther south
than fossils had previously been reported from this region.2 Fossils from
these beds, when studied by the senior author, showed that they belong
to the Choctawhatchee formation. They not only give more substantial
evidence of the close faunal relationship of. the Shoal River formation to
the succeeding Choctawhatchee formation but also reveal the sequence of
the zones of' the Choctawhatchee formation and the position in the formation
of the typical deposits at Red Bay.
The map (Figure 1) shows the type localities of the Shoal River and
Choctawhatchee formations and the places at which fossils have been

1Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey and of
the State Geologist of Florida. Received January 12, 1932.
2 Station 3747, reported by Gardner (U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 142) as 8
miles south of Lake DeFuniak, is 8 miles nearly due west of DeFuniak
Springs, in SW% Sec. 34, T. 3 N., R. 20 W.-an error of the clerk in copying
the station record. The shells were found at a. depth of 30 feet in a well dug
for water. ,, ,
,,






26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE.

collected near Alaqua Creek. The numbers on the map are the serial num-
bers recorded in the station book of the U. S. Geological Survey kept at the
National Museum. The boundary between the Shoal River formation and
the Choctawhatchee formation as drawn is entirely conjectural. The newly
discovered localities are stations 12044-48, 12060, and 12527. The following
are the explanations of the station numbers:
3742. Shell Bluff. Type locality of the Shoal River formation.
3747. Parker place. Shoal River formation.
4975, 7152. Red Bay. Choctawhatchee formation (Ecphora zone and
upper part of Area zone).
5618. Langley's old farm. Shoal RiVer formation.
9959. One-fourth mile west of Pleasant Ridge Church. Shoal River
formation.
10612. Chester Spence's farm. Provisionally placed in the Shoal River
formation.
12044. Bell farm, uppel locality. Choctawhatchee formation (Area zone).
12045. Bell farm, lower locality. Choctawhatchee formation (Area zone).
12046. Vaughan Creek, upper locality. Choctawhatchee formation (Area
zone).
12047. Vaughan Creek, lower locality. Choctawhatchee formation (Arca
zone).
12048. Permenter's old place. Choctawhatchee formation (Ecphora
zone).
12060. Frazier's old farm. Choctawhatchee formation (Yoldia zone).
12527. Alice Creek. Choctawhatchee formation (upper part of Area
zone).


- .37A2- - - - - - - - -
_37_ 2 -A -

Izz

















SI I I W.I

Fig. 1. Fossiliferous localities in Walton County, Florida.
The most southerly locality in the valley of Alaqua Creek at which fossils
had previously been collected is the Chester Spence farm in the NE/ sec.
17, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. (U. S. G. S. station 10612). The fauna at this place
appears to be transitional from that of the Shoal River formation to that
of the Choctawhatchee formation. This fauna is provisionally left in the
Shoal River formation, where it was placed by Gardner; but it may event-
nally be placed in the basal part of the Choctawhatchee formation.
The following generalized section shows the divisions that are now recog-
nized in the Choctawhatchee formation. :, '
I ; .561




Fig. 1. Fossiliferous localities in Walton County, Florida.








nized in the Choctawhatehee formatioB.,
.. .. .. ... -- . ... ... .. .. .. ... ..... .. ... .os l f r u o a i i s i ....... C o n F lorid.. .... .. ..




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


GENERALIZED SECTION OF THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE FORMATION

Feet
5. Cancellaria zone. Fine to coarse clayey fossiliferous sand...... .......... 25-30
4. "Aluminous clay." Grayish unfossiliferous clay .................... 25
3. E cphora zone. Sandy fossiliferous clay .................................................................................. 15-25
2. Arca zone. Gray sandy fossiliferous m arl ....................................... ........................ 55
1. Yoldia zone. Dark-gray to bluish micaceous and carbonaceous clayey
fossiliferous sand ..... ........................................................................... ........... ............... 15
The Yoldia zone, which is here recognized for the first time, and the
Area zone are now regarded as representing the upper part of the middle
Miocene; the Ecphora zone, the aluminouss clay," and the Canccllaria zone
are referred to the upper Miocene.
Yoldia zone.-A new name, Yoldia zone, is here proposed for a bed
carrying many individuals of the genus. Yoldia. The type locality is the
Frazier farm (formerly the Spencer farm), Walton County, in SE1/ sec. 18,
T. 2 N., R. 19 W. (station 12060). The sediments composing the zone consist
of dark-gray to bluish micaceous clayey sand with inclusions of carbonaceous
particles. The thickness has not been accurately determined, but it probably
does not exceed 15 feet.
The zone is believed to represent the basal bed of the Clioctawhatchee
formation although the contact with the underlying Shoal River formation
which may be conformable with it has not been recognized with certainty.
The zone is separated from the overlying Area zone because of its abundant
content of large Yoldia shells, a genus which usually indicates that the
temperature of the water in which it lived was rather cold.
Area zone.-The name Arca zone was proposed by Mansfields in 1929.
The zone is typically exposed at Red Bay, Walton County, where it forms
the lowermost fossiliferous bed, about 21 feet thick, in the exposure (stations
4975, 7152). A nearly unfossiliferous upper bed of clay at this locality,
which was formerly included in the Area zone, is now placed in the Ecphora
zone.
The Arca zone consists mainly of very fossiliferous gray sandy marl
having an estimated total thickness of about 55 feet. It probably rests
conformably upon the Yoldia zone. The upper limit of the Area zone is
provisionally placed at the contact of the marl with an overlying plastic
clay bed which, in the section at Red Bay, carries no determinable fossils.
The shells in the marl are worn and broken. The absence of fossils from
the clay and the lithologic difference between the marl and the clay suggest
an unconformity between the two beds, but this relationship has not been
fully established.
The Arca zone was observed in the Alaqua Creek Valley at the head of
small branches flowing into Sconiers Mill Creek, on the Bell farm, in the
NE'4 sec. 29, T. T. N., R. 19 W. (stations 12044-45) ; on Vaughan Creek, in
sees. 27 and 28, T. 2 N., R. 19 W. (stations 12046-47) ; and at Alice Creek,
in the SE% sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 19 W. (station 12527).
The beds exposed at the Bell farm and along Vaughan Creek are believed
to carry the earliest fauna of the Area zone, whereas the lower fossiliferous
bed at Red Bay carries the latest fauna of this zone. The senior author,
basing his evidence upon the study of the mollusks, believes the beds at the
Bell farm and along Vaughan Creek have nearly if not the same stratigraphic
position, but the junior author, basing his evidence upon the study of the
foraminifera, is inclined to believe that the beds along Vaughan Creek are
lower in the section than those at the Bell farm.
Eophora zone.-The Eophora "bed," named by Dall and Harris,' is now
known as the Ecphora zone.6 Its type locality is at Alum Bluff, Apalachicola
River, Liberty County, Fla., where it forms the uppermost fossiliferous bed

a W. C. Mansfield in C. W. Cooke and Stuart Mossom, Geology of Florida, Florida
.Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 20: 140. 1929; and W. C. Mansfield, Miocene gastro-
pods and scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida, Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 3: 15. 1930.
SW. H. Dall and G. D. Harris, The Neocene of North America, U. S. Geol. Survey
Bull. 84: 123-124. 1892.
6 W. C. Mansfield in Geology of Florida, p. 140, 1929.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


of the section. The sediments composing the zone consist of a sandy clay
which is bluish where unweathered. The bed ranges in thickness from 15
to 25 feet at Alum Bluff.
At Alum Bluff the Ecphora zone, with somewhat doubtful unconformable
relations, rests upon a fossil leaf-bearing sand which Cooke and Mossom6
questionably refer to the Alum Bluff group. It is conformably overlain by
the aluminouss clay" of Dall.
An exposure in the east bank of Alaqua Creek on Permenter's old place,
in sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 19 W. (station 12048) apparently represents the Ecphora
zone. At Red Clay the upper poorly fossiliferous plastic clay bed, about 27
feet thick, is. placed in this zone.
The "aluminous he inous clay." a name applied by Dall'
to a 25-foot bed of grayish clay overlying the Ecphora zone at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County, Fla., has not been recognized in the Alaqua Creek Valley.
Cancellaria zone.-The name Cancellaria zone was proposed by Mansfield'
to include beds that carry the latest Miocene fauna. This zone is typically
exposed in the highest fossiliferous beds along Harveys Creek, in the SW%
sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., Leon County, Fla. The Cancellaria zone is composed
of fine to coarse grained clayey sand replete with fossils, having an estimated
total thickness of 25 to 30 feet. It has not been recognized in the Alaqua
Creek Valley.
The relationships of the Choctawhatchee marl have already been
noted in Bulletin 4 of the Florida Geological Survey. The more
recent collections have only confirmed those relationships, and while
some species have been added, they are as a rule confirmatory of our
previous findings.
The foraminiferal fauna of the lower part of the Choctawhatchee
not covered in Bulletin 4 is distinctive and shows relationships to
the upper zones of the Choctawhatchee and to the Shoal River below.
The fauna of the Yoldia zone has been discussed at some length in a
note after description of sample No. 4b on page 9.
Mansfield" has correlated a fauna at Alexander Spring, in the
northeast corner of Lake County about 5 miles south of Astor, as
belonging to the Ecphora zone of the Choctawhatchee and material
from a well at a depth of between 65 and 100 feet near Kissimmee,
Osceola County, as belonging to the Ca'ncellaria zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee.
In confirmation of the presence of Choctawhatchee formation in
east central Florida, the foraminifera from well cuttings from seven
drainage wells in the vicinity of Orlando, Orange County, betweell
depths of 35 to 85 feet represented Choctawhatchee formation. The
material is not younger than the Cancellaria zone nor older than
the Ecphora zone, and likely both zones are represented. The cor-
relation is made using 44 species. The samples below 85 feet to a
depth of about 130 feet are phosphatic sandy marl of the Hawthorn

C. W. Cooke and Stuart Mossom, Geology of Florida, Florida Geol. Survey
Ann. Rept. 20: 108. 1929.
T W. H. Dall and Joseph Stanley-Brown, Cenozoic geology along the Apalachicola
River, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 5: 168-169. 1894.
A W. C. Mansfield in Geology of Florida. p. 140. 1929.
2t Mansfield W. C., Miocene Pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Flor-
ida: Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 8, pp. 16 and 19, 1932.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


formation but with no foraminifera in this interval. At a depth of
124 feet fragments of Pecten acanikos Gardner and other Alum Bluff
mollusks occurred.

FLORIDA MIOCENE AND MIOCENE NORTH OF FLORIDA COMPARED

Mansfield'" has stated that "The fauna of the Cancellaria zone
is closely allied to the fauna of the Duplin marl of the Carolinas
and appears to have lived at the same time," and that "the fauna
of the Ecphora, zone is nearly related to that in the bed underlying
the fragmental series of the Yorktown formation of Virginia," and
in his more recent paper, Bulletin 8, he states "the fauna of the
Area zone appears to be most closely related to that of the Gatun
formation of Panama * *," and "the fauna, of the St. Marys
formation of Maryland and Virginia appears to have lived at about
the same time."
Using the foraminiferal faunas as a basis for correlating the
Florida Miocene with the Miocene to the north we find but very
few species that can be used. Most of the forms to the north are
either colder water or comparatively deep water forms and much
more widely ranging ones. As we go northward into the Miocene
there are but very few forms coming in, and they are mostly forms
which have little to do with the Florida series. However, the only
striking species that seems to connect the Florida Miocene with
that to the north is Virgulina (Virgulinella.) n iocenica Cushman and
Ponton which occurs in considerable numbers in the Choptank and
also in the St. Marys formations of Maryland. A much more definite
correlation might be made if we knew more about the Miocene of
Virginia and the Carolinas, but at present material from those states
is very scanty.
RELATIVE AGES

The Caicellaria and Ecphora zones of the Choctawhatchee have
been placed in the Upper Miocene and the Arca and Yoldia. zones in
the Upper Middle Miocene by Mansfield and Ponton.
Woodring2 places the dividing line between the Middle and Lower
Miocene at the top of the Chipola formation. We have followed
Woodring in this.
However, we find it not so easy to definitely assign the various
beds of the Hawthorn.

2 Mansfield, W. C., Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee
Formation of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 3, pp. 16 & 17, 1930.
2 Woodring, W. P., Miocene mollusks from Bowden, Jamaica, Carnegie Institution
of Washington, Publication No. 385, Part 2, 1928, p. 90..






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Originally Simpson stated that the land mammal fauna of the
fuller's earth deposits at Midway and Quincy, Gadsden County,
"may be referred to the Middle Miocene with some confidence""
and that the fauna from the Griscom Plantation, Leon County, and
the Franklin Phosphate Company's mine, Alachua County, "cannot
be earlier than Miocene nor later than Lower Miocene "' all of these
localities are placed in the Hawthorn formation.
Recently, however, the Florida Geological Survey has collected a
considerably larger vertebrate fauna from Midway, Gadsden County,
and from a new locality in Gilchrist County. These Simpson has
studied and his findings are being published by the Florida Survey
as Bulletin No. 10.
Eliminating many important details and referring only to the
two localities, viz. The Fullers Earth Company's mine at Midway
and the Floridin Company's mine at Quincy, Gadsden County, where
we have both a land mammalian and marine molluscan fauna, Simp-
son has found that the mammalian faunas have affinities with both
Lower and Middle Miocene, with perhaps a leaning towards the
Middle, and the evidence suggests the fauna covers the transition
from Lower to Middle Miocene.
It is apparent that the marine fauna from Midway and Quincy
quite definitely referred to the old "Sopchoppy limestone," now
placed in the Hawthorn which Dall thought to be close to Chipola,
and which Gardner correlated "as a very shallow water phase of
the Chipola," is not typical Chipola but at the same time the two
must be close in age. At Midway, and at Sopchoppy, occur many
Turritellas which appear to be closer to Oak Grove forms than to
the Chipola. It is possible, therefore, that further critical study of
the mollusks of that part of the Hawthorn represented by the
"'Sopchoppy limestone'' may prove to be slightly younger than typical
Chipola, and perhaps represents a transition phase from Lower to
Middle Miocene. The marine fauna in the bed of Econfina River
(See sample No. 7) and placed at the top of the Chipola is another
link between the typical Chipola of the Lower Miocene and the
Oak Grove sand of the Middle.

SEDIMENTATION AND ECOLOGY
T.he general low relief of Florida, the slight dip to the formations,
the lack of continuous exposures, with only random elevations to
rely on, have forced investigators to work out the stratigraphy from

30 Simpson, G. G., The Tertiary Land Mammals of Florida: Bull. Amer. Mus. of
Nat. Hist., vol. 59, art. 3, p. 160, 1990.
SIdem. p. 160.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


a critical study of the fossils. Under such a system it is only natural
that some shifting of beds will take place from time to time as new
evidence is revealed.
Cooke and Mossom" have given the following information with
regard to the conformability of the various formations:
Oitronelle formation-Pliocene-
Unconformity.
Choctawhatchee formation-
Unconformity (reasonably certain).
Shoal River formation-
Conformity (likely).
Oak Grove sand-
Unknown.
Chipola and Hawthorn formations-
Conformity (apparently).
Tampa limestone.
It is difficult indeed with our present knowledge of the Tampa
limestone to arrive at a definite conclusion as to its contact with
the overlying Miocene. Careful collecting and critical study of its
fauna will likely make it possible to zone it. However, in the case
of the Chipola formation along the Chipola River, at and near its
type locality, we find the soft, greenish-gray shell marl of the Chipola
lying on what looks like the eroded surface of the hard, white to
buff limestone of the Tampa. The great difference between the
sediments alone would suggest an unconformity. At White Springs
on the Suwannee River there is strong evidence that the Hawthorn
formation rests on the eroded surface of the Tampa, but here it is
possible that the Tampa exposed represents a lower zone of the
Tampa. It is possible to believe that where the earliest part of the
Hawthorn rests on the latest part of the Tampa, there will be a
conformable contact, but to our knowledge such a condition has not
been recognized.
While the contact between the Chipola and Oak Grove has not
been recognized, the evidence of the faunas tend to show that they
are conformable, for the fauna of the typical Chipola by easy grada-
tions changes to that of the upper Chipola, and then to the Oak
Grove fauna. On similar evidence Cooke and Mossom work out
the probable conformability of the Oak Grove and Shoal River. At
the time that Cooke and Mossom made their investigations the lower
zones of the Choctawhatchee were unknown, and the probable uin-
.conformity between the Choctawhatchee and the Shoal River was
supported.by the difference between the molluscan faunas of the

32 Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey, 20th
Ann. Rept., pp. 103, 111, 115, and 138, 1929.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Shoal River and the lowest then known bed of the Choctawhatchee.
It has been found that the lower zones of the Choctawhatchee are
so closely related to the underlying Shoal River in their molluscan
faunas that it is now quite certain that the Choctawhatchee lies
conformably on the Shoal River. This has been confirmed by the
discovery at Chester Spence farm (See samples Nos. 4a and 4b)
of the Yoldia zone likely in contact with the Shoal River.
The shore-line during this period was a very variable feature,
advancing and retreating, depositing beds of varying thickness but
all comparatively thin, and forming over-laps to such an extent that
it is possible that such over-laps might be mistaken for an uncon-
formity, even between successive zones at any one exposure.
An intensive petrographic study of the section might reveal
important information, as mere visual examination of the material
making up the formations leaves too much to assumption, in that
most outcrops are to such a degree weathered and oxidized that one
can often only assume what they appeared like in their original
condition. There is a considerable degree of similarity between the
unaltered material of the shell marls from the various formations.
To summarize: This period of time was characterized, here, by
frequent changes in the position of the shore-line and the formation
of more or less extensive embayments. These affected the oceanic
currents and the bathymetric conditions. There is no suggestion,
however, that a depth was reached which would support a charac-
teristic deep-water fauna. The climate in typical Chipola times was
probably warm, tropical to sub-tropical. A gradual cooling off likely
took place during the time in which the succeeding beds were being
deposited. This cooling was climaxed at the end of the Ecphwra
zone of the Choctawhatchee. The climate in the succeeding Ca.ncel-
laria zone times was probably milder, possibly semi-tropical and
transitional to the probable tropical to sub-tropical temperatures of
Pliocene times.
CHARACTERISTIC SPECIES
-Ve have alieaady discussed the form we tentatively name Sorites?
sp ?. Another striking type of foraminifer found in the Florida
Miocene is that of Virgidinella.. a subgenus of the genus Virgulina,
which has peculiar processes formed across the sutures. Species of
this particular group have already been described from Florida
under the names, Virgulina gu.nteri and Virgulina miocenica. A now
variety of the former has been added. Forms similar to or identical
with these range northward as far as Maryland in the Miocene, but
have not been recorded elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere. It is






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


interesting to note that the other representatives of this subgenus
occur in central Europe and are of equivalent age. Such forms may
well be used for index fossils for this part of the Miocene, in these
two regions at least, as they are very striking, and in North America
at least widely distributed in the Miocene of the Atlantic Coastal
Plain.

The following lists of species have been prepared from the distri-
bution table, and might be termed, in a sense, the characteristic
species of the zones and groups of zones. However, many species
which are characteristic are not included in such a list and for
such, reference to the text is necessary. For example, Virgulina
gusnteri occurs commonly in all samples from the Arca. zone of the
Choctawhatchee, it occurs very rarely in the Can ellaria,, and it
occurs also in the upper beds of the Shoal River formation but here
rarely and then always associated with Virgulina miocenica. It also
must be stressed that even though the characteristic species are im-
portant, the grouping of the species cannot be neglected.

1. Species confined to the CancellIria Zone:
Textulariia floridana
folincen, var. occidental is
Bigenerina nodosaria, var. textilarioidet
Massilini gunteri
Spiroloculinai sp.
Triloculina asperula
Planularia sp.
Lingulina sp.
Nodosaria caloniorpli
Lagena quadrata
Pyrulina albatrossi
Sigmnomorphina williainsoni
Elplhidium incertuim
Pavonina mniocenica
Buliminella subteres
Buliinna nmarginata
Bolivina pulchella, var. priinitiva
Reussia spinulosa var.
Patellina corrugata
Discorbis orbicularis
Eponides lateralis
Amnphistegina lessonii
Rectocibicides miiocenicus
Acervulina inhaerens Total number of species-24

2. Species occurring in both the Cancellarina nd the Ecphora Zones of the
Choctawhatchee but not elsewhere in the Florida Miocene:
Textularia mayor
Quinqueloculina cf. fusca





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Lagena hexagona, var. scalariformis
costata, var. amphora
Guttulina costatula
Pseudopolymorphina rutila
Virgulina fusiformis
Bolivina plicatella
Discorbis consobrina


Total number of species- 9


3. Species confined to the Ecphora Zone of the Choctawhatchee:
Quinqueloculina contorta
Spiroloculina depressa
Marginulina dubia
Marginulina sp.
Virgulina gunteri, var. curtata
Reussia spinulosa, var.
Uvigerina parkeri Total number of species- 7

4. Species occurring in both the Ecphora and Area Zones of the Choctaw-
hatchee but not elsewhere:
Spiroloculina planulata
Lagena sulcata
orbignyana, var. lacunata
Ellipsolagena bidens
Spirillina orbicularis Total number of species- 5

5. Species confined to the Area Zone of the Choctawhatchee:
Massilina quadrans, var.
Flintina floridana
Robulus floridana
catenulatus


Planularia sp.
Marginulina sp.
Guttulina austriaca
Globulina rotundata
Elphidium sagrum
Elphidium sp.
Plectofrondicularia floridana
Bulimina ovata
Bolivina advena
Loxostomum gunteri
Siphogenerina lamellata
Chilostomella oolina


Total number of species-16


6. Species confined to the Yoldia Zone of the Choctawhatchee:
Amorphina sp.
Nodogenerina advena
Bulimina buchiana Total number of species- 3

7. Species confined to the Choctawhatchee but not included in the above
groups:
Pseudarcella arenata
Triloculina rotunda
Nodosaria catesbyi





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Lagena clavata
Bulimina gracilis
inflata
Virgulina punctata
Discorbis floridana
Cassidulina crassa
Planulina depressa


Total number of species-10


TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES CONFINED TO THE
C H O C T A W H A T C H E E ............................................................................................................................... 73


8. Species confined to the Shoal River Formation:
Textularia warren
Textularia sp.
Marginulina glabra
Bulimina gracilis, var.
Globobulimina pacifica
Bolivina robusta
Lamarckiana atlantica
Siphonina jacksonensis, var. limbosa Total number of species- 8

9. Species occurring in both the Shoal River and Oak Grove but not
elsewhere:
Bigenerina floridana Total number of species- 1

10. Species confined to the Oak Grove:


Reussia spinulosa, var.
Asterigerina miocenica


Total number of species- 2


11. Species occurring in both the Oak Grove and the Chipola; but not
elsewhere:
Quinqueloculina crassa, var. subcuneata
Sigmomorphina pearceyi
Bolivina plicatella, var. mera
Amphistegina floridana
Cycloloculina miocenica Total number of species- 5


12. Species confined to the Chipola:
Clavulina tricarinata
Quinqueloculina candeiana
chipolensis
Massilina inaequalis
bosciana
quadrans
incisa
spinata
spinata, var. chipolensis
spinata, var. glabrata
Spiroloculina grateloupi
Hauerina bradyi
Articulina sagra, var. miocenica
mayor





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Triloculina trigonula
oblonga
gracilis
quadrilateralis
quadrilateralis, var. ion
brongniartii
Pyrgo denticulata
Vertebralina cassis
multilocularis
Denticulina sp.
Polymorphina advena
Sigmomorphina undulosa
Elphidium incertum, var.
Peneroplis proteus
bradyi
Sorites? sp?
Discorbis candeiana, var.
Eponides repandus
Asterigerina carinata
Amphistegina chipolensis
Cassidulina chipolensis
Cibicidella variabilis
Annulocibicides projects
Acervulina chipolensis


gicostata


bullata


Gypsina vesicularis Total number of species-39
13. Species confined to the Alum Bluff Group and not included in the above
groups:
Guttulina lactea
caudata
Elphidium chipolensis
Virgulina floridana
Eponides antillarum Total number of species- 5
TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES CONFINED TO THE
A L U M B L U F F G R O U P ................................................ ........................................ .................................... 60
The figul'es above are interesting in that they bring out the'large
number of species that are confined to the two end zones, viz. the
Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee, and the typical Chipola of
the Alum Bluff Group. The importance of the Arca, zone of the
Choctawhatchee is also clear. As worked out in the distribution of
species table, and definitely indicated in the above lists, there are
plenty of forms to distinguish the different main groups, but on the
other hand, some of the stations are much less easy to determine,
probably due in a large part to their deeper water position.
PERCENTAGE OF RECENT FORAMINIFERA IN THE ZONES
AND FORMATIONS
That the ecologic factor is often munh more important than the
actual age one, especially in the Tertiary, appears to be borne out
when the percentages of Recent forms in the various beds are studied.




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


In. computing the percentages in the list below we have deemed
as Recent those forms which have been recorded as living in any
region at the present time.

(anccllaria zone......74%)
Ecphora zone.......... 70%
ra n ......... Choctawhatchee formation....................................64%
Arca zone..................63%
Yoldia zone..............59%

Cardlumn bed...........52% Shoal River
Middle zone..............66% formation ................62
Type zone................61%

Transition zone......53% Oak Grove Alum Bluff
Type gone ...............65% formation ...............58% Group ....................62%

Upper zone................74% C1hipola
Type zone..................68% formation ...............6 %



That the Chipola has such a high percentage of Recent forms is
due, we believe, to the fact that conditions have rather uniformly
existed since that time in the shallow warm waters of the Floridian
and West Indian region, and that the conditions existing between
the Eephora zone of the Choctawhatchee and the Oak Grove times
represents a greater change in ecologic conditions for this area.
Perhaps the percentage for the Oak Grove sands as a whole should
be higher. It so happens that the sample representing the transition
zone was a very small and old one, and it was impossible to re-sample
the locality, as it was deeply sanded over.
The high percentage for the Upper zone of the Chipola may be
due in some degree to the relatively small fauna at the single locality
sampled but, at the same time, the high percentage would incline
one to place this locality in the Chipola rather than the Oak Grove,
especially as the critical study of the fauna proved very inconclusive
and showed relationships to both the Chipola and the Oak Grove.
Mansfield" has given the following list of the percentage of recent
forms occurring in the three upper zones of the Choetawhatchee,
using the species recorded in Bull. 4 of the Floi'ida Geol. Survey:
Cancellaria zone .......................................... ...... 79%
Ecphora zone .................................................................................... 78%
Area zone ........................................... ............ ................. ..... 63%


" Mansfield, W. C., Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 8, p. 19, 1932.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


It is interesting to note that the percentage obtainable for the Arca
zone by Mansfield and us is the same. The difference in the per-
centages for the two upper zones is due to the extension, in this new
work, of the range of some of the forms upward, and the recording
of a few new forms.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our thanks are due to Miss Margaret S. Moore for her care in
the drawing of the specimens for this paper, and to Miss Elizabeth
C. Knott, Miss Alice E. Cushman and Mrs. Mary H. Carswell for
their care with the manuscript.
Our thanks are due to Mr. Herman Gunter, State Geologist of
Florida, for his kind interest and co-operation in the preparation
of this work, to Dr. W. C. Mansfield of the United States Geological
Survey for his many suggestions and help during the field work,
and to Dr. Julia A. Gardner of the United States Geological Survey
for her help in correlation of the Alum Bluff Group.
The holotypes and figured specimens, together with the first
selection of all the species, are deposited in the collections of the
Cushman Laboratory at Sharon, Massachusetts, and are to go later
to the collections of the United States National Museum. Duplicate
sets of the species are in the collections of the Florida State Geological
Survey at Tallahassee, Florida.




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES
Family SACCAMMINIDAE
Subfamily Saccammininae
Genus PROTEONINA Williamson, 1858
PROTEONINA DIFFLUGIFORMIS (H. B. Brady) (?)
(See Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 15, pl. 1, figs. 1 a, b, 1930)
This species already recorded as rare from the Arca zone of the
Choctawhatchee formation has appeared in our new material from
a station in the Oak Grove sand, but in none of the other formations
examined.
Genus URNULINA Gruber, 1884
URNULINA COMPRESSA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 15, pl. 1, figs. 2 a, b, 1930)
This species was described from a single station in the Cancellaria
zone of the Choctawhatchee formation in the previous bulletin. It is
interesting, therefore, to record a single typical specimen from the
Oak Grove sand.
Genus PSEUDARCELLA Spandel, 1909
PSEUDARCELLA ARENATA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 15, pl. 1, figs. 3 a, b, 1930)
There are additional records for this species from the Area zone
of the Choctawhatchee, from Jim Kennedy Branch 1 mile east of
Red Bay, Walton County.

Family TEXTULARIIDAE
Subfamily Textulariinae
Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824
TEXTULARIA AGGLUTINANS d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 16, pl. 1, figs. 4 a, b, 1930)
Specimens which are referred to this species occur rather widely
distributed in the Miocene of Florida. As will be seen from the
table, specimens occur at five stations in each of the Cancellaria and
Ecphara zones, and one station in the Area zone. There are specimens
from the typical Oak Grove sand, and numerous specimens from the
typical Chipola.
TEXTULARIA GRAMEN d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 17, pi. 1, figs. 5 a, b, 1930)
This species is easily confused with the early stages of some of the
others that occur in the Miocene, especially the .young of Textidaria
mayoari. Rather typical specimens have occurred at two stations of
the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee, and at one station in
the typical Chipola.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


TEXTULARIA ARTICULATA d'Orblgny
Plate 1, figures 1 a, b
Tcxtularia articulata d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Bass. tert. Vienne, p. 250,
pl. 15, figs. 16-18, 1846.-Hosius, Ver. Nat. Hist. Vereins Pr. Rheinlande,
vol. 50, p. 109, 1893.-Bagg, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 2, No. 10, p. 19, 1898;
Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene, p. 471, pl. 132, figs. 6, 7, 1904.-
Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 46, 1918.
Test elongate, two or three times as long as broad, compressed,
rather evenly tapering with the greatest breadth toward the apertural
end, periphery acute and slightly keeled; chambers distinct, ten or
more pairs in the adult, high and increasing in height toward the
apertural end; sutures distinct, somewhat curved, extending strongly
backward; wall distinctly arenaceous with much cement, smoothly
finished; aperture fairly large, at the base of the inner margin of
the chamber. Length 0.60-0.75 mm.; breadth 0.30-0.35 mm.; thick-
ness 0.18-0.20 mm.
This species was originally described by d'Orbigny from the
Miocene of the Vienna Basin where it is fairly common and of dis-
tinctive character. This species was not previously recorded from
Florida in Bulletin 4, but is apparently widely distributed in the
Miocene, particularly of Maryland. It has proved to be a very
characteristic and abundant species of the Arca. zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee, and occurs less commonly in the Ecphora zone. There are
records from the Shoal River in all three zones, and also from the
Oak Grove at a single station. The species is characterized by sharply
keeled peripheries, and the chambers making distinct lobes at the
sides, very gradually increasing in width until the later portion,
where the sides are nearly parallel.

TEXTULARIA MAYOR Cushman
Plate 1, figures 2, 3
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 17, pl. 1, figs. 6-8, 1930)
In the new material examined this species has proved to be very
abundant and representative of the Cancellaria and Ecplwora zones
of the Choctawhatchee, but occasional specimens also occur in the
Yoldia. zone of the Choctawhatchee and the Cardi.m bed of the Shoal
River. The figured specimens show the very great range from prac-
tically smooth specimens without spines to those which have not
only prominent spinose projections but in some cases have double
spines at the periphery. There are all gradations between these two
extremes, and large series have shown the very great variability of
this species as represented in the Upper Miocene. Similar variations
occur in Recent material from off the present coast of Florida.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


TEXTULARIA FLORIDANA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 18, pl. 1, figs. 9 a, b, 1930)
The only record is that in Bulletin 4 from a single station in the
Cancellaria zone of the Chowtawhatchee.

TEXTULARIA CANDEIANA d'Orbigny
Plate 8, figures 4 a, b
Ter.tularia candeiana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminif6res," p. 143, pl. 1, figs. 25-27, 1839.-Fornasini, Mem. Accad.
Sci., Bologna, ser. 5, vol. 10, p. 303 (7), pl. 0, fig. 8, 1903.-Chapman, Rep't
For. Subantarctic Ids., New Zealand, p. 329, 1909.-Cushman, U. S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 2, p. 12, figs. 14-17 (in text), 1911; Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Publ. 291, p. 32, 1919; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 50,
pl. 11, figs. 7, 8, 1921; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 109, 1921;
Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 23, pl. 2, fig. 2, 1922; U. S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 8, pl. 1, figs. 1-3, 1922.
Textiularia sagittula Defrance, var. candeiana Millett, Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc.,
p. 562, pl. 7, fig. 2, 1899.
Test elongate, club-shaped, the early portion narrow, much com-
pressed, the edges almost carinate, slightly tapering to the round-
pointed apex, the later chambers enlarging rapidly, much inflated;
chambers numerous; wall rather coarsely arenaceous; aperture in a
broad but shallow sinus, at the base of the inner margin of the
chamber. Length up to 1.00 mm.; breadth 0.35 mm.; thickness
0.30 mm.
This is a common species in the present waters of the West Indian
region including that of southern Florida. Specimens here referred
to this species occur in all the formations of the Miocene, but usually
as rare specimens. Specimens are fairly common and most typical
in the typical Chipola as might be expected from the warm water
conditions prevailing at that time.

TEXTULARIA FOLIACEA Heron-Allen and Earland, var.
OCCIDENTALIS Cushman
Plate 1, figures 4, 5
Pcxtularia concava Flint (part) (not Karrer), Rep't U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 283,
1897 (1899).
Textularia. foliacea Heron-Allen and Earland, var. occidentalis Cushman,
U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 16, pl. 2, fig. 13, 1922.
Test broadly rhomboid in shape, very much compressed, the flat
faces of the test nearly parallel; chambers comparatively few and
large; sutures distinct, straight, but strongly oblique; wall very
coarsely arenaceous, with a roughened surface formed by coarse frag-
ments only partially incorporated in the wall of the test. Maximum
length 1.05 mm.; breadth 0.85 mm.; thickness 0.20 mm.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


This form has already been recorded from off the coast of Florida
and in other parts of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It has occurred
rarely at two stations in the Can~ellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee
and questionable specimens from a single station in the typical
Chipola.
TEXTULARIA WARREN Cushman and EIIIsor
Plate 1, figures 6 a, b
Textularia warren Cushman and Ellisor, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,
vol. 7, p. 51, pl. 7, figs. 2 a, b, 1931.
Test much compressed, broad, periphery subacute, median line
somewhat raised, outline generally rhomboid; chambers distinct, fair-
ly numerous, low and broad; sutures distinct, slightly raised, meeting
in a definite, raised area along the middle, slightly curved, the inner
portion forming an angle from 20-25o with the median line, slightly
more curved toward the periphery; wall distinctly arenaceous with
considerable proportion of cement, and rather smoothly finished;
aperture small, in the median line at the base of the last-formed
chamber. Length up to 1.20 mm.; breadth 0.60-0.95mm.; thickness
0.25 mm.
Specimens have occurred in the Middle zone of the Shoal River
formation about 41/ miles sout'l of Argyle, Walton County, which
seem identical with this species recently described from the Lower
Oligocene of Texas. It is fairly common at this one locality, but was
not observed elsewhere.
TEXTULARIA sp (7)
Plate 1, figures 7 a, b
The figured specimen shows a peculiar form which is rare in the
Cardium beds of the Shoal River formation, 1/4 mile west of Alaqua,
Walton County.
Genus BIGENERINA d'Orbigny, 1826
BIGENERINA NODOSARIA d'Orbigny, var. TEXTULARIOIDEA (Gods)
Plate 1, figure 8
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 18, pl. 1, fig. 10, 1930)
This variety which is one of the most common of the forms of
shallow water in the general West Indian region has occurred only
in the upper part of the Choctawhatchee formation in the Cancellaria
zone at four stations.
BIGENERINA FLORIDANA Cushman and Ponton, n.sp.
Plate 1, figures 9-12
Test elongate, slender, tapering, the early portion biserial consisting
of from seven to ten pairs of alternating chambers followed in the
adult by from two to four subglobular chambers uniserially arranged,




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


periphery rounded; sutures distinct, very slightly depressed, nearly
straight in the biserial portion, and strongly oblique; wall finely
arenaceous with much cement, smoothly finished; aperture in the
early biserial portion similar to that in Textularia, in the adult uni-
serial portion terminal, broadly oval. 'Length 0.85-1.25 mm.; breadth
0.30-0.40 mm.; thickness 0.20-0.25 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16310) from the Middle zone of the
Shoal River formation, White's Creek-Gully south of road and east
of bridge over creek on Eucheeanna-Knoxhill road, 1 mile west of
Valley Church, Walton County.
Besides the type locality where the species is abundant there are
a few immature specimens which seem to be the same from one
station in the Oak Grove sand. This species is an unusual one with
the biserial portion making up a. large part of the test. It should
make a very good index fossil for this part of the Shoal River forma-
tion.
CLAVULINA TRICARINATA d'Orbigny
Plate 1, figures 13 a, b
Clavulina tricarinata d'Orbigny, in De In Sagra. Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminiferes," p. 111, pl. 2, figs. 16-18, 1839.-Cushman, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 52, pl. 12, figs. 1, 2, 1921; Carnegie Inst. Washing-
ton, Publ. 311, p. 29, pl. 3, fig. 3, 1922; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3,
p. 89, pl. 17, figs. 3, 4, 1922.
Clavulina. angularis Woodward (not d'Orbigny), Journ. New York Micr.
Soc., p. 150, 1885.-Goes, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 29, p. 37, 1896.-
Flint, Rep't U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 289, pl. 36, fig. 2, 1897 (1899).-Cush-
man, Papers Dept. Marine Biol. Carnegie Inst. Washington, vol. 9,
pp. 271 et seq., 1918.
Valvulina triangularis d'Orbigny, formna Olavulina angularis Gois, Kingl.
Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handle vol. 19, No. 4,. p. 86, pl. 11, figs. 387-389, 1882.
The figured specimen represents the only record for this typical
West Indian species in the Florida Miocene. It has occurred in the
typical Chipola with numerous other warm water West Indian species.

Family MILIOLIDAE
Genus QUINQUELOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
QUINQUELOCULINA cf. FUSCA H. B. Brady
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 19, pl. 1, figs. 11, 12, 1930)
There are a very few specimens from three stations in the Cancel-
laria zone and one station in the Ecphorsa zone of the Choctawhatchee.
QUINQUELOCULINA SEMINULA (Llnn6)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4. p. 19, pl. 2, figs. 1, 2, 1930)
The numerous records for this species as far as our material shows
are all from the Cancellaria, and Ecphora zones of the Choctawhatchee,
and from the typical Chipola where it is common.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


QUINQUELOCULINA LAMARCKIANA d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 20, pil 2, figs. 3-5, 1930)
This species is more widely distributed than. any of the others of
the genus in the Florida Miocene, occurring in the Cancellaria,
Ecphora and Arca zones of the Choctawhatchee, in the typical Shoal
River material, and at two stations in the typical Chipola. It is a
common species in the general West Indian region, and it is not
surprising to find it in considerable numbers in the warm water
material represented by the Chipola.
QUINQUELOCULINA CANDEIANA d'Orblgny
Plate 2, figures 1 a-c
Quinqueloculina candciana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat.
Cuba, "Foraminiferes," p. 199, pl. 12, figs. 24-26, 1839.-Cushman, Car-
negie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 65, pi. 13, fig. 1, 1922; Publ. 344,
p. 81, 1926; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 27, pl. 3, figs. 1 a-c, 1929.
Test nearly twice as long as broad; chambers distinct from one
another, triangular in transverse section, the periphery sharply
keeled; sutures sharply marked; wall smooth, shiny; aperture com-
paratively small, with a simple tooth, extending somewhat above the
outline of the aperture. Length 1.00-1:15 mm.; breadth 0.60-0.65
mm.; thickness 0.35-0.40 mm.
All records for this species in the Miocene material examined are
from the Chipola formation. As a living species this is known from
numerous localities in the general West Indian region.
QUINQUELOCULINA CONTORTA d'Orbigny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 20, pl. 2, figs. 6 a-c, 1930)
No specimens were found in our recent collections. In Bulletin 4
it is recorded from one station in the Ecphora zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee.
QUINQUELOCULINA SUBPOEYANA Cushman
Plate 2, figures 4 a-c
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 21, pl. 2, figs. 7 a-b, 1930)
This was previously found to be very rare in the Choctawhatchee,
but in this new material has occurred only at one station in the
typical Chipola. As a living species it is common in shallow water
about Florida and in the general West Indian region.
QUINQUELOCULINA COSTATA d'Orblgny
Plate 2, figures 2, 3
Quinqueloculina costata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 301, No. 3, 1826.-
Terquem, Mem. Soc. geol. France, ser. 3, vol. 1, p. 63, pl. 6 (11), figs.
3a-5c, 1878.-Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 6, p. 49, pl. 15,
fig. 1, 1917; Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 66, pl. 11, fig. 5,
1922; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 31, pl. 3, figs. 7a-c, 1929.





TIHE FOIRAMINIFElA 01F TIHE MIOCENEij OF FLORII)A


MilUolina costata Heron-Allen and Earland, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 20,
p. 579, pl. 44, figs. 9-12, 1915.
Test somewhat longer than broad, periphery broadly rounded, the
apertural end slightly projecting; chambers distinct, inflated, round-
ed in transverse section; sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall-
ornamented by numerous, very distinct, longitudinal costa which
for the most part are distinctly oblique to the periphery; aperture
broadly ovate, with a distinct lip which is somewhat" projecting and
a distinct tooth raised somewhat above the level of the lip. Length
1.00-1.60 mm.; breadth 0.60-1.00 mm.; thickness 0.35-0.45 mm.
Typical specimens of this species are fairly common especially in
the typical Chipola, but there are rare specimens apparently identical
with it from a single station in the Can~ellaria zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee, and in the typical Shoal River.
In the Chipola it grows to fairly large size, and is very beautifully
costate. The specimens figured are from the typical Chipola.
QUINQUELOCULINA CRASSA d'Orblgny, var. SUBCUNEATA Cushman
Plate 2, figures 5(a-
Millolina crassa Heron-Allen and Earland (part) (not d'Orbigny), Trans.
Zool. Soc. London, vol. 20, p. 572. pl. 42, fig. 41 (not 37-40), 1915.
Quinqucloculina crassa d'Orbigny, varl. 1 subcan1ata Cushinan, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 423, pl. 89, figs. 4a-c, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Wash-
ington, Publ. 342, p. 62, pl. 23, fig. 7, 1924; T. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104,
pt. f, p. 30, pl. 5, figs. la-c, 1929.
Quainquclocufina, crassa Cushman (not d'Orbigny), Carnegie Instit. Washing-
ton, Publ. 344, p. 82, 1920.
Test short and broad, with the chambers wedge-shaped, often sharp
at the periphery, and the surface ornamented by somewhat obscure
costae, slightly oblique to the periphery of the chambers.
There are a few records of this species from off Porto Rico, and
in the Miocene it occurs in the typical Chipola and also similar
specimens in the typical Oak Grove sand.
QUINQUELOCULINA CHIPOLENSIS Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 1-3
Test subcircular in side view, very slightly longer than broad in
the adult, peripheral angle sharp and keeled; chambers distinct, the
sides flattened giving a very angular appearance to the test in end
view; sutures distinct, very slightly depressed; wall smooth except
for the very fine ornamentation which consists of a regular fine pit-
ting extending over the entire surface of the test; aperture very
slightly extending beyond the outline of the test, broadly oval, with
a simple tooth. Length 0.80-1.10 mm.; breadth 0.50-0.85 mm.; thick-
ness 0.50-0.60 mm.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Holotype (Cushman Cat. No. 16311) from the typical Chipola
formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/ mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County.
This is a very distinct species with its sharp angles and peculiar
ornamentation, and should be an excellent marker for the typical
Chipola. Besides the type station it occurs at two others, showing
that it probably is to be found in most collections of the Chipola.

Genus MASSILINA Schlumberger, 1893
MASSILINA INAEQUALIS Cushman
Plate 3, figures 4a-c
Massilina inacqlalis Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 72, pl. 17,
figs. 12, 13, 1921; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 38, pl. 7, figs. Ga-c,
1929.
Test much elongate, in the adult spiroloculine, from one side very
much excavated, the other nearly plane; early chambers quinquelocu-
line, later ones spiroloculine, chambers very elongate, irregularly
quadrate in transverse section, the peripheral side broader than the
inner ones, one of the. sides angled, the other straight; surface pol-
ished, shiny, but with numerous, fine, linear depressions breaking
the evenness of the surface; aperture rounded, apertural end of the
test somewhat projecting. Length 1.40 mm.; breadth 0.55 mm.;
thickness 0.30 mm.
This species which was described from the northern coast of Jamaica
where it is fairly common, has not been found elsewhere in the West
Indian region. It is, therefore, interesting to record this from the
typical Chipola formation although it is as far as seen very rare.

MASSILINA BOSCIANA (d'Orblgny)
Plate 3, figures 5a-c
Quinqueloculina bosciana d'Orbigny. in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat.
Cuba, "Foraminiferes," p. 191, pl. 11, figs. 22-24, 1839.
Test elongate, more than twice as long as broad, compressed,
periphery rounded, apertural end slightly projecting; chambers
distinct, the basal end much expanded and slightly expanded again
toward the aperture giving a peculiar appearance to the test; sutures
distinct, slightly depressed; wall with somewhat broken costae,
slightly oblique to the periphery; aperture rounded, with a distinct
tooth which stands slightly above the lip of the aperture. Length
0.80-0.90 mm.; breadth 0.35 mm.; thickness 0.12-0.15 mm.
This species which was originally described by d'Orbigny from
the West Indian region occurred only in the Chipola formation, and
there only as rare specimens.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


MASSILINA QUADRANS Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 6-8
Test much compressed, only slightly longer than broad in side
view, periphery truncate; chambers distinct, numerous, quadrate in
transverse section, the sides nearly parallel, the periphery almost
squarely truncate but usually without distinct keels; sutures very
distinct, slightly depressed; wall smooth; aperture an elolngate oval,
with a very elongate tooth and a distinct lip, with a slight projection
at the peripheral end. Length 0.90-1.20 mm.; breadth 0.65-0.70
mmi.; thickness 0.18-0.20 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16312) from the typical Chipola
formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/2 mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County.
MASSILINA QUADRANS Cushman and Ponton, var.
At the station near the head of Vaughans Creek in the Area zone
of the Choetawhatchee a form occurred which is not typical of the
species. There were too few specimens found to definitely describe
the characters.
MASSILINA GUNTERI Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures la-c
Test slightly longer than broad, very much compressed, periphery
rounded or subacute; chambers distinct, numerous, rather broad in
side view; sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall ornamented by
comparatively few coarse costae, usually slightly oblique to the
peripheral margin; aperture broadly oval, with a distinct tooth and
slight lip. Length 1.00 mm.; breadth 0.60 mm.; thickness 1).15 mmn.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16313) from the Cancellaria zone
of the Choctawhatchee formation, Hosford's Mill (Old Coe's Mill)
on Big Creek about 2 miles north by east of Hosford, Liberty County.
Besides being very abundant at the type locality, this is found at
one other station in the Cancellaria zone, and as it is the only species
of this genus found in the upper part of the Choctawhatchee, it
should be a good index species for this part of the formation.
This species is named in honor of Mr. Herman Gunter, State
Geologist of Florida.
MASSILINA INCISA Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 2-6
Test large, very broad, much compressed, periphery broadly rounded
or truncate; chambers distinct, broad, sides flattened, the early
quinqueloculine ones somewhat raised in the center of the test above
the general flat surface; sutures fairly distinct, not usually much






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


depressed; wall dull, due to the ornamentation which consists of
numerous short incised lines, in general slightly oblique to the
periphery, often giving a rough appearance to the surface; aperture
elongate, with a distinct lip and an elongate tooth which is frequently
bifid at the tip. Length 1.00-1.60 mm.; breadth 0.70-1.25 mm.;
thickness 0.30-0.35 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16314) from the typical Chipola
formation, Tenmile Creek, 1 mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County,
where it is very common.
MASSILINA SPINATA Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 5, figures 1-3
Test somewhat longer than broad, much compressed, the ends
projecting, especially the apertural end which forms an elongate
neck, the periphery acute and the basal half with a series of distinct
spinose projections often extending somewhat backward; chambers
distinct, broad; sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall ornamented
by a few rather distinct, coarse, longitudinal costae, for the most
part nearly parallel with the periphery; aperture subeircular, at the
end of a projecting neck, with a slight lip and usually simple tooth,
which may extend slightly above the outline of the lip in side view.
Length 1.00-1.20 mm.; breadth 0.60-0.75 mm.; thickness 0.15-0.18 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16316) from the typical Chipola
formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/ mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County.
This is the most distinctive species of the genus in the Florida
Miocene, and has its nearest counterpart in Massilina. pulckerri,a
Cushman and Valentine described from off the coast of California
(Contr. Dept. Geol. Stanford Univ., vol. 1, No. 1, p. 13, pl. 4, figs.
2a, b, 1930). The Florida species is much shorter and broader than
the Recent, and the ornamentation is much less developed. With the
type occurred two distinct varieties which are described below.
MASSILINA SPINATA Cushman and Ponton, var. -CHIPOLENSIS Cushman
and Ponton, n. var.
Plate 5, figures 4-6
Variety differing from the typical in the later chambers which
instead of being compressed and acute become broadest at the
periphery, truncate, and often with two distinct keels at' the sides.
The spinose projections are usually fairly distinct in this variety.
Holotype of variety (Cushman Coll. No. 16318) from the typical
Chipola formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/ mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


As shown in the figures, there is a slight tendency for the last-
formed chamber to be slightly less than the complete half coil so
that, as in P1. 5, fig. 6, the neck of the last-formed chamber extends
out away from the previous coil.
MASSILINA SPINATA Cushman and Ponton, var. GLABRATA Cushman
and Ponton, n. var.
Plate 5, figures 7a-c
Variety differing from the typical in the smooth surface, the
typical c6stae of the surface usually entirely missing or seen only
near the apertural end, and the spinose periphery indicated by only
a very small and rare tooth-like projection near the base of the
chamber.
Holotype of variety (Cushman Coll. No. 16329) from the typical
Chipola formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/ mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County.
This variety occurs with the typical form and is distinct from it
by the smooth surface and the almost complete reduction of the
spines on the basal half of the chamber. These are, however, rep-
resented in most of these specimens by two or three very obscure
teeth at the base of the chamber.

Genus SPIROLOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
SPIROLOCULINA PLANULATA (Lamarck)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 21, pl. 3, figs. la, b, 1930.)
Previously recorded as very rare at one station of the Ecphora
zone, the only additional specimen of this species is a single one from
the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.

SPIROLOCULINA DEPRESSA d'Orbigny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 21, pl. 3, figs. 2a, b, 1930.)
No further specimens have been found. We have recorded it from
the Ecpiwra zone at Jackson Bluff, but it is possible the sample was
from the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee.
SPIROLOCULINA GRATELOUPI d'Orbigny
Spiroloculina grateloupi d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 298, No. 3, 1826.
Terquem, Mem. Soc. gdol. France, s6r. 3, vol. 1, p. 52, pl. 5 (10), figs.
5, 6, 1878.-Wiesner, Arch. Prot., vol. 25, p. 208, 1912.-Cushman, U. S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 6, p. 31, pl. 4, figs. 4, 5, 1917; U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Proc., vol. 56, p. 634, 1919; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 396,
pl. 78, figs. 4a-b; pl. 100, fig. 3; figs. 17, 18 (in text), 1921; Carnegie
Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 59, 1922; Publ. 342, p. 56, pl. 20,
figs. 3, 4, 1924; Publ. 344, p. 80, 1926; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6,
p. 40, pl. 8, figs. la-b, 1929.
Spiroloculina eacavata H. B. Brady (not d'Orbigny), Rep. Voy. Challenger,
Zoology, vol. 9, p. 151, pl. 9, figs. 5, 6, 1884.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Test elongate, broadest in the center, tapering toward either end;
chambers rapidly thickening as added, in end view the periphery
much the broadest portion of the test, central portion deeply exca-
vated, periphery of the chambers in end view much convex, especially
in the central portion, the edges broadly rounded; chambers evenly
curved, the final chamber somewhat projecting, both at the basal and
at the apertural ends, the latter having a decided neck with a phialine
lip, the aperture itself rounded and with either a single tooth with
a bifid end, the two projections forming a concave extremity, or in
some cases a pair of such bifid teeth opposite one another; surface
of the test dull, somewhat roughened.
It is rather strange that this widely distributed species which
occurs rather commonly in the Recent warm waters of the Florida
and West Indian regions should be so rare in the Miocene Single
specimens were found at two stations in the typical Chipola, but
neither of them was sufficiently well preserved to warrant figuring.

SPIROLOCULINA sp.(?)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 22, pl. 3, fig. 3, 1930.)

No further occurrence is noted of this form previously recorded
from a single station of the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhat'chee.

Genus HAUERINA d'Orbigny, 1839
HAUERINA BRADYI Cushman
Plate 6, figures la-c

Hauerina compressa H. B. Brady (not H. compressa d'Orbigny), Rep. Voy.
Challenger, vol. 9, p. 190, pl. 11, figs. 12, 13, 1884.
Hauerina bradyi Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 6, p. 62, pl. 23, fig. 2,
1917; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 72, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Wash-
ington, Publ. 311, p. 71, 1922; Publ. 344, p. 82, 1926; U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 47, pl. 10, figs. 4-9, 1929.
Test much compressed, the very earliest ones milioline, later ones
becoming spiroloculine, and finally in the last-formed coil more than
two chambers appear; wall very finely striate-reticulate; periphery
rounded or subcarinate; aperture a sieve-plate the entire height of
the chamber, curved, with numerous pores. Diameter 0.40 mm.;
thickness 0.10 mm.
Rather typical specimens of this species occur at several stations
in the Chipola formation, but not elsewhere in the Florida Miocene.
As a Recent species it is widely distributed in tropical waters, and
has been recorded from the Tortugas, Jamaica, and Porto Rico in
the West Indian region.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Genus SIGMQILINA Schlumberger, 1887
SIGMOILINA TENUIS (CzJzek)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 22, pl. 2, figs. 8a-c, 1930.)
This species which was previously recorded from the three upper
portions of the Choctawhatchee formation has occurred in the new
material from these same portions, as well as a few specimens from
the Cardium beds and middle zone of the Shoal River formation.
As a species of rather deeper waters it is not surprising that it is
absent in the Chipola.

Genus ARTICULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
ARTICULINA SAGRA d'Orbigny, var. MIOCENICA Cushman and Ponton, n. var.
Plate 6, figures 24
Test elongate, slender, tapering; chambers distinct, the early ones
quinqueloeuline, later ones uniserial, increasing only slightly in size
as added, about twice as long as broad, thickest in the middle; sutures
distinct, especially in the later portion; wall ornamented by straight,
plate-like, longitudinal costa, those of adjacent chambers independ-
ent of one another; aperture rounded, with a distinct lip which is
rounded and not greatly extending beyond the outline of the chamber.
Length 0.85-1.10 mm.; diameter .0.20 mm.
ifHoloype of variety (Cushiman ioll. vNo.1330) from the typical
Chipola formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/. mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County.
This variety differs from the typical form of the species, as
developed in the West Indian region by the much narrower shape
of the test as a whole, and the lip, which in the variety is narrow
and rounded. The variety is very characteristic of the typical
Chipola, occurring often in large numbers, and recorded in all of
the stations from which we had material.

ARTICULINA MAYOR Cushman
Plate 6, figures 5a, b
Articulina nuMyori Cushman, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 71,
pl. 13, fig. 5, 1922; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 52, pl. 12, fig. 5,
1929.
Test elongate, early portion in the microspheric form milioline, in
the megalospheric form Cornuspira-like, the remainder and larger
portion of the test made up of a linear series of elongate chambers
gradually increasing in size toward the apertural end; chambers
truncate at the. distal end, then somewhat circular without a lip;
surface of the chambers with several rounded, longitudinal costae.
Length up to 2.00 mm.; breadth 0.30 mm.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


This species is only known from the Tortugas region off Florida,
and the measurements here given are of Recent specimens. In its
living form it is a slender species and easily broken so that complete
specimens are rare. This will probably account for the fact that
only broken chambers of this form have been found in our material.
This occurred at two of the stations in the typical Chipola. It differs
from the preceding in the very much longer chambers and in the
less prominent costae.

Genus TRILOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
TRILOCULINA TRIGONULA (Lamarck)
Plate 6, figures 6a-c
Jfiliolitcs trigonlila Lamarck, Ann. Mus.; vol. 5, p. 351, No. 3, 1804; vol. 9,
pl. 17, fig. 4, 1807.
T'riloculinau trigontula d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 299, No. 1, pl. 16,
figs. 5-9, 1826; Modbles, No. 93, 1826.-Ciuslhnan, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 56, pl. 12, figs. 10, 11; pl. 13, figs. 1, 2, 1920.
.Miliolina trigonlla Williamson, Rec. Form. Gt. Britain, p. 84, pl. 7, figs.
180-182, 1858.-I1. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, p. 164,
pl. 3, figs. 14-16, 1884.
Test in the adult with three visible chambers, the angles rounded,
flie periphery broadly convex, whole test somewhat longer than wide,
in end view rounded, triangular, the sides convex; sutures distinct;
wall smooth; aperture with a rather broad bifid tooth. Length 0.65
mm.i; breadth 0.30 mm.; thickness 0.20 mm.
Specimens referred to this species occur at only one station in the
Cliipola formation.
TRILOCULINA OBLONGA (Montagu)
Plate 6, figures 7a-c
'Vrmiculunm oblonyum Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 522, pl. 14, fig. 9, 1803.
Triloculina oblonga d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 300, No. 16, Modeles,
No. 95, 1826. (For further references, see Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 57, 1929.)
Test elongate, in end view triangular, tlie sides broadly curved
and angles rounded, the adult with three visible chambers, inflated,
the last-formed chamber broadest near the initial end and longer
than the preceding ones; sutures distinct, depressed; wall smooth
and usually polished; aperture oval with the tooth simple, or narrow
and bifid at the tip. Length 1.00 mm.; breadth 0.55 mm.; thickness
0.35 mm.
A few specimens are referred to this species, one of which is
figured. They are from the Chipola formation only.




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


TRILOCULINA GRACILIS d'Orblgny
Plate 6, figures 8, 9
''riloculina gracilis d'Orbigny, in De In Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminiferes," p. 181, pl. 11, figs. 10-12, 1839.-Cuslhnan, Carnegie
Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, i. 74, 1922; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104,
pt. 6, p. 59, pl. 14, figs. 4a-c, 1929.
Test elongate, slender, triloculine; chambers rounded; sutures very
slightly depressed; apertural end extended into a cylindrical neck,
the outer end of which is enlarged and has a phialine lip; surface
smooth or very finely striate; aperture circular, with a slight tooth.
Length 0.35-0.45 mm.; breadth 0.12-0.18 mm.; thickness 0.06-0.10 mm.
This species was originally described from the West Indian region,
and is small and easily overlooked, but probably widely distributed.
As a living form it occurs at the Tortugas, and it is, therefore,
interesting that it occurs at most of the stations in the typical Chipola
material, but not in any considerable numbers. It is a distinctive
species with an elongate neck, and can hardly be confused with any
other species of the fauna.
TRILOCULINA QUADRILATERALIS d'Orblgny
Plate 7, figures la-c
l'riloculin quadrilatlcralis d'Orbigny,- in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat.
Cuba, "Foraminif6res," p. 173, pl. 9, figs. 14-16, 1839.-Cushlnan, Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 71, fig. 11, (in text), 1921; Carnegie Instit.
Washington, Publ. 311, p. 70, 1922; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6,
p. 64, 1929.
Test somewhat longer than broad, in the adult the exterior composed
of three chambers, generally quadrangular in outline, the periphery
slightly convex, but the angles acute and projecting, sides concave;
wall with numerous fine, incised, shoi't lines; aperture oblong, with
a single elongate tooth, projecting slightly above the outline of the
aperture. Length 0.90 mm.; breadth 0.70 mm.; thickness 0.50 mm.
This species described by d'Orbigny from the shore sands of Cuba
is also known from the northern coast of Jamaica and from numerous
stations off the coast of Florida. In our material it has only occurred
in the Chipola formation from Tenmile Creek. It is a distinctive
species in the sharp outline of the chambers and the very squarish
form of the individual chambers in transverse section. The tooth
often becomes distinctively bifid as shown-in the figures, and extends
somewhat above the surrounding lip.
TRILOCULINA QUADRILATERALIS d'Orblgny, var. LONGICOSTATA Cushman
and Ponton, n. var.
Plate 7, figures 2a-c
Variety differing from the typical in the ornamentation of the
test, which consists of numerous, distinct, very fine, raised, longi-
tudinal costae, in general parallel to the periphery of the chamber.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Ilolotype of variety (Cushman Coll. No. 16332) from the typical
Chipola formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/ mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarksville road, 22 miles south of Marianna in Calhoun County.
This variety is not as abundant as the typical form, but is very
distinctive. It occurs at two stations in the Chipola formation but
not elsewhere.
TRILOCULINA ROTUNDA d'Orblgny
Plate 0, figures 10a-
Triloculina rotunda d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 200, No. 4, 1826.-
Schlumberger, Mem. Soc. Zool. France. vol. 0, p. 200, pl. 1, figs. 48-50,
1803.-Cushman, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 73, 1922;
Publ. 344, p. 82, 1920; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 0, p. 59, pl. 14,
figs. 3a-c, 1929.
Miliolina rotunda Millett, Journ. Roy. Micr: Soc., p. 207, pl. 5, figs. 15, 10,
1898.-Sidebottom, MemI. Proc. Manchester Lit. Philos. Soc., vol. 48,
No. 5, p. 8, 1904.
Test somewhat longer than wide; chambers rotund; periphery
broadly rounded; surface of the test made up largely or entirely of
the two last-formed chambers; sutures very slightly depressed;
apertural end somewhat contracted, with a slightly thickened lip;
aperture rounded, with a single bifid tooth, projecting somewhat
above the outline of the aperture; surface of the test smooth and
shining, often with transverse wrinkles. Length up to 1.00 mm.;
breadth 0.90 mnm.; thickness 0.65 mm.
This is the only species of the genus in our material not confined
to the Chipola formation. We have specimens from the Choctaw-
hatchee both in the Cancellaria and Arca. zones, and it seems to be
wanting entirely in the typical Chipola. In the Arca.zone it is rather
abundant at the one station at which it occurs.
TRILOCULINA BRONGNIARTII d'Orblgny
Plate 6, figures 1t-c
Triloculina brongnlartil d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 300, No. 23, 1826.-
Parker, Jones, and H. B. Brady, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., sel. 4, vol. 8,
p. 250, pl. 8, fig. 9, 1871.-Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6,
p. 63, pl. 16, fig. 4, 1929.
Miliolina brovgniartil Howcliln, Tranis. Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, vol. 12, p.
2, 1889.-Heron-Allen and Earland, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., vol. 31, pt. 04,
p. 33, 1913; Trans. Zool. Soc., London, vol. 20, p. 580, 1915; Trans.
Linn. Soc. London, vol. 11, ser. 2, p. 214, 1910; British Antarctic Exped.,
Zool., vol. 6, p. 70, 1922.
Test small, elongate, somewhat more than twice as long as broad,
periphery rounded; chambers distinct, the apertural end strongly
projecting; sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall ornamented by
rather coarse longitudinal costae slightly oblique to the periphery;




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOOENE OF FLORIDA


aperture broadly elliptical, with a distinct phialine lip. Length 0.50
mm.; breadth 0.20 mm.; thickness 0.10 mm.
This species originally described by d'Orbigny from Soldani's
figures from the Mediterranean seems to be very close to the form
figured here. It occurs only in the Chipola formation, and is very
rare at two stations.
TRILOCULINA SCHREIBERIANA d'Orbigny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 22, p1. 3, figs. 4a-c, 1930.)
This species was recorded in the earlier bulletin as very rare,
occurring at a single station in the Cancellaria zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation. We have found it only in the typical Chipola
material in our more recent collections, although specimens were
rather abundant at that one locality.
TRILOCULINA ASPERULA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 23, pl. 1, fig. 13, 1930.)
This was previously recorded from a single station in the Cawcellaria
zone of the Choctawhatchee, but no further specimens have been
found.
Genus FLINTINA Cuslinun, 1921
FLINTINA FLORIDANA Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 7, figures 3-0
Test much compressed in side view, periphery broadly rounded;
chambers in the early stages two in each whorl, later with three
chambers making up the adult coil in a single plane; chambers fairly
distinct, increasing rather uniformly in size as added, in transverse
section broadly oval; sutures fairly distinct, slightly depressed; wall
ornamented by numerous, distinct, somewhat rounded, longitudinal
costae, slightly oblique to the periphery; aperture broadly oval, with
a distinct tooth and a very slight lip. Diameter 0.70-1.00 mm.;
thickness 0.25-0.30 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16333) from the Arce zone of the
Choctawhatchee formation, 100 feet below falls near head of Vaughan's
Creek (locally called Blount's Creek) in Sec. 27, T. 2 N., R. 19 W.,
Walton County.
This is a very fine and distinctive species which occurs abundantly
at the type station but not elsewhere in the material that we have
examined. It should, therefore, be a distinctive species for this part
of .the Choctawhatchee, especially as the genus is in most of its species
confined to the Indo-Pacific region. It, therefore, apparently rep-
resents a distinct local development which, as often happens, became
exceedingly abundant at that particular time and place.






56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE

Genus PYRGO Defrance, 1824
PYRGO SUBSPHAERICA (d'Orblgny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 23, pl. 3, figs. 5a-c, 1930.)
While this species was previously recorded from the Choctawhatchee
it must be extremely rare there as no further specimens were found.
In the table we have noted this previous record in the Ecphlora zone,
and it is possible the original sample was from the CaOcellaria. zone.
It is fairly common, however, in the typical Chipola material,
occurring at three of the four stations. It is a common species in
the present shallow water, warm areas about Florida and the West
Indies. We have a single specimen from one station in the Choc-
tawhatchee which is referred to this species with considerable question,
and as far as the general characters show it is a characteristic species
only of the Chipola.
PYRGO DENTICULATA (H. B. Brady)
Plate 7, figures 7, 8
Biloculina ringcns Lamarck, var. denticulata II. B. Brady, Rel). Voy. CIhul-
lenger, Zoology, vol. 9, p. 143, pl. 3, figs. 4, 5, 1884.-WVoodward, The
Observer, vol. 4, p. 76, 1893.-Millett, Journ. Roy. Mier. Soc., p. 262,
1898.-Chapman, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., vol. 28, p. 398 (list), 1902.-
Dakin, Rep't Pearl Oyster Fish, Ceylon, vol. 5, p. 228, 1906.-Heron-
Allen and Earland, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 20, p. 551, pl. 40,
figs. 11-13, 1915.
Biloculina denticulata Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 6, p. 80, pl. 33,
fig. 1, 1917; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 476, pl. 98, figs. 3a-b,
1921; Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 78, 1922; Publ. 342,
p. 70, 1924; Publ. 344, p. 83, 1926.-Hanzawa, Jap. Journ. Geol. Pal.,
vol. 4, p. 38 (table), 1925 (1926).
PIyrgo dcnticulata Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull.' 104, pt. 6, p. 69, pl. 18,
figs. 3, 4, 1929.
Test elongate, roughly quadrangular in front view; in end view
somewhat compressed, biconvex; apertural end broadly rounded;
opposite end with a series of short, irregular teeth; wall smooth,
usually polished; aperture very broad and narrow, extending nearly
the whole width of the test, the ends somewhat expanded, with a long
narrow tooth, making the inner border of the aperture plate-like,
somewhat raised above the level of the surface to which it is' attached,
as is the whole border of the aperture. Length up to 0.85 mm.;
breadth 0.70 mm.; thickness 0.60 mm.
This species while characteristic of the Indo-Pacific region has,
nevertheless, been recorded from the West Indies in shallow warm
water. It is interesting, therefore, to find- typical specimens at two
of the stations in the Chipola formation. These are characteristic
and show the usual range of variation in the species. No specimens
of the striate variety, however, were found.





THE FORAMINIIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA 57

Family OPIITIALMIDIIDAE
Subfamily Cornuspirinae
Genus CORUNSPIRA Schultze, 1854
CORNUSPIRA INVOLVES (Reuss)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 23, pl. 3, fig. 0, 1030.)
In the previous Miocene bulletin this species was recorded only as
a single specimen from the Choctawhatchee marl. It must be ex-
ceedingly rare there as no further specimens were found by us from
that formation. It has, however, occurred at three of the four stations
in the typical Chipola formation which would be expected as this
is a species common in the shallow warm waters of the general West
Indian region and elsewhere at the present time.
Genus VERTEBRALINA d'Orbigny, 1826
VERTEBRALINA CASSIS d'Orblgny
Plate 8, figures la, b
Vcrtebralina cassis d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, I-ist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminif6res," p. 51, pl. 7, figs. 14-15, 1839.-Cushman, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 04, pl. 15, figs. 1, 4 (not 2, 3, 5-8), 1921; Carnegie
Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 02, 1922; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104,
pt. 6, p. 96, pl. 22, figs. 4a, b, 1929.
Test compressed, for the most part planispiral; periphery of each
chamber with a broad thin keel, tvwo to three chambers in the last-
formed coil, the main body of each chamber with numerous somewhat
oblique costae, the last-formed chamber often projecting beyond the
periphery of the preceding coil, but carinate like the earlier ones;
aperture elongate, with a distinct everted lip; earlier chambers were
visibly spiroloculine. Length 0.50 mm.; breadth 0.40 mm.; thickness
0.12 mm.
The species originally described by d'Orbigny from the West
Indian region is widely distributed there in warm shallow waters.
We have found the species occurring at one of the stations in the
Chipola formation. Specimens are not common, but are usually of
smaller size than Recent ones.
VERTEBRALINA MULTILOCULARIS (H. B. Brady, Parker, and Jones)
Plate 8, figures 2, 3
Articulina. multilocularis H. B. Brady, Parker, and Jones, Trans. Zool. Soc.
London, vol. 12, p. 215, pl. 40, fig. 10, 1888.-Cushmnnan, U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 53, pl. 12, fig. 7, 1929.
Test planispiral, much compressed, the sides flattened or concave,
periphery squarely truncate; chambers increasing in size rather rap-
idly as growth progresses; sutures distinct, very slightly if at all
depressed;. wall ornamented by a few, rounded, longitudinal costae,
in general parallel to the periphery; aperture elongate, with a slight





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


lip, but without an apertural tooth. Length 0.50 im.; breadth 0.40
mm.; thickness 0.12 mm.
This species was originally described by Brady, Parker, and Jones
from the Abrohlos Bank off Brazil. Our specimens from the Chipola
formation seem to be identical with these Recent ones. The species
is fairly common in the typical Chipola where it occurs at two
stations. Our figures show some of the variations found in this
species from the young stage to the adult,
Family LAGENI.DAE
Subfamily Nodosariinac
Genus ROBULUS Montfort, 1808
ROBULUS AMERICANUS. (Cushman)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 24, p1. 3, figs. 7a, b, 1930.)
This species was recorded in the previous report from the Arca
zone of the Choctawhatchee. Our later material has been from this
same zone and also from the Yoldia zone, and from stations collected
in the Cardium beds and Middle zone of the Shoal River formation.
ROBULUS AMERICANUS (Cushman), var. SPINOSUS (Cushman)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 24, pl. 3, figs. 8a, b, 1930.)
In our new material this variety is somewhat more widely distributed
than the typical form. It occurs at a single station in the Ecphora
zone as well as in the Area and Yoldia zones of the Choctawhatchee,
!nd in all three zones of the Shoal River.
ROBULUS lOTUS (Cushman)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 25, pl. 4, figs. la, b, 1930.)
In the previous report this species was recorded from but a single
station in the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.
Our more recent material has added records from the Ecphora, Area,
and the Yoldia zones of the Choctawhatchee, as well as from all three
zones in the Shoal River formation. The young stages of this species
seem to be quite distinctive, having only four or five very much
flattened chambers with a distinct keel and usually with a clear
space at the umbo. In the later stages the number of chambers
increases considerably in the coil, and except for the intermediate
stages connecting the two they might seem to be quite distinct forms.
ROBULUS FLORIDANUS (Cushman)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 25, pl. 4, figs. 2a, b, 1930.)
In Bulletin 4 this is recorded from a single station in the Area
zone of the Choctawhatchee. No further specimens were noted.
ROBULUS CATENULATUS (Cushman)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 25, pl. 4, figs. 3a, b, 1930.)
The only record in the Florida Miocene is that above, at two
stations in the Area zone of. the Choctawhatchee.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENEi OF FLORIDA


ROBULUS VAUGHANI (Cushman)
Plate 8, figures 5-10
OCistellaria vaughani, Cushmnan, U. 8. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, p. 01, pl. 22, fig. 3,
1918.
Test much compressed, with a tendency to uncoil in the last-formed
chambers, periphery slightly keeled, not lobulated; chambers numer-
ous, about nine in the last-formed coil, increasing gradually in size
as added although those of the uncoiled portion often decrease pro-
gressively as added; sutures distinct, limbate, usually with lines of
beads along the sutures from the umbilicus to the periphery, some-
times wanting, sutures in the uncoiled portion usually depressed;
wall smooth except for the beaded sutures; apertural face truncated,
with the edge slightly raised, the aperture itself radiate, sometimes
with a slight neck.
This species was recorded from the Gatun formation as well as
from the Culebra formation of the Oligocene of the Panama Canal
Zone. It has occurred in considerable numbers in our newer material
in both the Ecphora,, Area. and Yoldia zones of the Choctawhatchee,
and from the Carditi'm bed and the Middle zone of the Shoal River.
This is a very variable species, and is closely related to Robdtlus
vicksburgensis from the Lower Oligocene of the Coastal Plain
Region. The uncoiling is very noticeable at some stations, and figures
of some of these forms are given.
Genus PLANULARIA Defrance, 1824
PLANULARIA sp?
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 26, pl. 4, figs. 4-6, 1030.)
There are a very few immature specimens of this genus which add
little to the previous collections.
Genus MARGINULINA d'Orbigny, 1820
MARGINULINA GLABRA d'Orblgny (?)
Plate 8, figures 12a, b
There are a very few specimens from the type zone of the Shoal
River formation which may be referred to this species. One specimen
is figured. The chambers are more or less globular throughout al-
though there is some compression in the earlier part of the coiled
portion.
MARGINULINA DUBIA Neugeboren
Plate 8, figures Hla, b
Marginulina dubia Neugeboren, Verll. Mittli, siebenburg. Ver. Nat., vol. 2,
p. 120, pl. 4, fig. 1, 1851; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 12, p; 100,
1856.-Cushman and Laiming, Journ. Pal., vol. 5, p. 98, pl. 10, fig. 7.
1931.-Cusuhman and Parker, Contr. Oushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 7,
p. 3, pl. 1, fig. 6, 1931. '
Margitulina. sp? Cushman, Fla. Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 27, pl. 4, figs. 8a, b,
1930.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Test elongate, the early chambers coiled, later ones in a uniserial
series, the sides nearly parallel or slightly lobulate on the inner
margin, somewhat compressed, elliptical in section; chambers distinct,
the early ones close coiled, the later three to five uncoiled, somewhat
overlapping; sutures distinct, very slightly depressed, in the later
portion oblique; wall smooth, aperture radiate, at the dorsal side
somewhat projecting. Length up to 1.30 mm.; breadth 0.30 mm.;
thickness 0.15 mm.
This species described from the Tertiary of Europe and recorded
from the Miocene of California has occurred also in the Choctaw-
hatchce formation of Florida. The early coiled portion varies very
much according to whether the specimen is a microspheric or megalo-
spheric one, but the later chambers are more or less uniform in their
general character. Our specimens are from the Ecphora zone of the
Choctawhatchee.
MARGINULINA sp?
(See Florida Geol. Survey. Bull. 4, pD. 26 & 27, nl. 4. figs. 7a., b,.
and 9a, b, 1930.)
As in the previous report, there are a few immature specimens of
Margin7uina which cannot be definitely assigned to a species owing
to the lack of material.
Genus SARACENARIA Defranice, 1824
SARACENARIA ACUTAURICULARIS (Fichtel and Moll)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 27, pl. 4, figs. 10a, b, 1930.)
In the previous report this species was recorded from the Area
zone of the Choctawhatchee. In our newer collections it has been
recorded from that same zone, as well as from the Ecphora and
Yoldia zones and also from the Cardi-wmn bed and the Middle zone of
the Shoal River formation.
Genus LIGULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
LINGULINA sp(?)
Plate 12, figures 13a, b
This is a single small specimen which is here figured which seems
to belong to this genus. It is from the Upper Cancellaria zone of the
Choctawhatchee marl, and was not found elsewhere.
Genus DENTALINA d'Orbigny, 1826
DENTALINA COMMUNIS d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 27, pi. 5, fig. 1, 1930.)
The present collections extend considerably the range of this species
in the Florida Miocene. The previous report records it from several
stations in the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee, but we have material
also from the Ecphora and Yoldia zone as well as from the Cardium
bed and the type' zone of the Shoal River ma4.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


DENTALINA CONSOBRINA d'Orblgny, var. EMACIATA Reuse
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 28, pl. 5, fig. 2, 1930.)
A few additions extend the range of this form to the Ecphora
zone of the Choctawhatchee and to the type zone of the Shoal River
formation.
DENTALINA PYRULA d'Orblgny
Plate 9, figures 5, 0
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 28, pl. 5, fig. 3, 1930.)
There are a very few broken specimens which from the shape .
and arrangement of their chambers strongly suggest that they should
be placed under this species. They are from the Eephora and Area
zones of the Choctawhatchee formation, and it is probable that the
fragmentary specimen figured in the previous report (pl. 5, fig. 3)
also belongs here. That specimen also was from the Arca. zone.
DENTALINA sp(?)
Plate 9, figures 1, 2
There are very rare specimens mostly incomplete from the type
zone of the Shoal River formation and the Upper zone of the Chipola
which are figured here. The chambers are subglobular and are
marked by rather coarse costa evidently obsolescent in the. later
chambers. So far as can be made out the initial end has a short spine,
and the aperture is decidedly at one side. As no really complete
specimens were obtained it seems best, not to give this a specific name.
DENTALINA sp(?)
Plate 0, figures 3, 4
From the same station in the Upper zone of the Chipola there are
even more fragmentary specimens of another species which is also
costate, the costa becoming somewhat spiral, few in number, sharp,
and thin. The chambers are elongate, and the aperture is decidedly
at one side of the axis. From the small amount of material no
specific name can be assigned to this form.
Genus NODOSARIA Lamarck, 1812
NODOSARIA CATESBYI d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1) 28, pl. 5, fig. 4, 1930.)
This species has previously been recorded from Cancellaria, Ecphora
and Area, zones of the Choctawhatchee formation and our specimens
in this new material are confined to the Ecphora zone.
NODOSARIA CALOMORPHA Reuss
Plate 9, figure 7
At a single station in the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee
There are a few fragmentary specimens, the best one of which is here
figured. These are viry similar to specimens found off the East





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Coast of South America and recently recorded under this specific
name (Cushman and Parker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80, Art. 3,
p. 7, pl. 3, figs. 1, 2, 1931.) It should also be noted that d'Orbigny
in his Cuban Monograph of 1839 figured a peculiar form (pl. 1,
fig. 4) which consists of a series of subglobular chambers. Our
specimens, however, are more elongate in the chamber form.
NODOSARIA LONGISCATA d'Orbigny
Nodosaria loigiscata d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. du Bassin Tort. Vienne, p. 32,
pl. 1, figs. 10-12, 1846.-Cuslnnan, Contr. Cusliunan Lab. Foram. Res.,
vol. 5, pt. 4, p. 80, pl. 12, figs. 25, 20, 1929.-Cole and Ponton, Florida
Geol. Survey, Bull. 5, p. 33, pl. 6, fig. 4, 1930.
This species described by d'Orbigny from the Miocene of the Vienna
Basin was found in some numbers at one station of the Cardiuwm bed
of the Shoal River formation and no where else in the Florida Miocene.
It has been recorded from the Miocene of Venezuela and Trinidad,
the Marianna limestone of Florida, and the Alazan of Mexico.

Subfamily Lageninae
Genus LAGENA Walker and Jacob, 1798
LAGENA PERLUCIDA (Montagu)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 29, pl. 5, fig. 5, 1930.)
This is a widely distributed species previously recorded from the
upper three zones of the Choctawhatchee from which we again have
material at almost every station, as well as stations in the middle
and the type zones of the Shoal River formation, the type zone of
the Oak Grove sand, and from the typical Chipola. The species
varies greatly in the shape of the test.
LAGENA CLAVATA d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 29, pl. 5, figs. Oa, b, 1930.)
This species was previously recorded in the three upper zones of
the Choctawhatchee. In our later material it was found only in the
Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee.
LAGENA HEXAGONA (Wlllamson)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 30, pl. 5, figs. lla, 1, 1930.)
In the previous report this species was recorded as rare in the
Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee. We have found no addi-
tional specimens in this formation, but have specimens from the
middle zone of the Shoal River formation, and the upper zone of the
Chipola.
LAGENA HEXAGONA (Willlamson), var. SCALARIFORMIS (Willlamson)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 30, pl. 5, figs. 7a, b, 1930.)
As in the previous report this variety has been found to be fairly
common in the Cancellaria and Ecphora zones.of the Choctawhatchee.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


LAGENA 8ULCATA.(Walker and Jacob)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 31, pl. 5, fig. 10, 1930.)

This species was previously recorded from the Ecphora and Area
zones of the Choctawhatchece. Our study of these newer collections
has shown it to be present in both of these zones, but we have not
found it elsewhere to extend its range in the Florida Miocene.

LAGENA SUBSTRIATA WIllamson
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 31, pl. 5, fig. 14, 1930.)
While this species is very common in the Choctawhatchee formation
we have it but from one station in the lower series, that being from the
middle zone of the Shoal River formation.

LAGENA COSTATA (Willlamson), var. AMPHORA Reuss
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 31, pi. 5, fig. 8, 1930.)
In our present material this species is confined to the Canwellaria
zone of the Choctawhatchce. Previously it was recorded in that zone
as well as from one station in the Ecphora zone.

LAGENA of. STRIATO.PUNCTATA Parker and Jones
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 32, pl. 5, fig. 9, 1930.)
Our later collections have shown this species to be present in the
Cancellaria and Ecphora zones of the Choctawhatchee, and also in the
upper and typical zones of the Chipola.

LAGENA ORBIGNYANA (Seguenza), var. LACUNATA Burrows and Holland
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 32, pl. 5, figs. 13a, b, 1930.)
This species was found only in the Cancelltria. zone of the Choc-
tawhatchee in our new samples but previously was also recorded from
the Eophora zone of the same formation.

LAGENA of. MARGINATO.PERFORATA (Seguenza)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 32, pl. 5, fig. 12, 1930.)
This species already recorded from the Choctawhatchee formation,
where it is most common, has occurred also at a single station in the
Carcdum bed of the Shoal River and the typical Oak Grove sand.

LAGENA MARGINATA (Walker and Jacob)
Plate 8, figure 13

We have a very few specimens which may be referred to this rather
variable species from single stations in the upper three zones of the
Choetawhatchee and also from the typical Oak Grove sand.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


LAGENA GRACILIS Wlllamson
Plate 9, figures 8, 9
Lagona gracilis Williamson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, vol. 1, 1). 13, pl. 1,
fig. 5, 1848.-Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 4, p. 22, pl. 4,
figs. 3, 4, 1923.-Heron-Allen and Earland, Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc., p. 148,
1924.-Chapman and Parr, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., vol. 36, p. 374, pl. 17,
fig. 4, 1926.-Cushman, Bull. Scripps Instit. Oceanography, Tech. Ser.,
vol. 1, No. 10, p. 144, 1027.-G. D. Hanna and C. C. Church, Journ. Pal.,
vol. 1, p. 198, 1928.-Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foraml Res., vol. 5,
p. 67, pl. 11, fig. 2; p. 88, pl. 13, fig. 11, 1029.-Heron-Allen and Earland,
Journ. Roy. Mier. Soc., vol. 50, p. 104, 1930.-Cushman and Moyer,
Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram Res., vol. 6, p. 53, 1930.-Macfadyen, Geol.
Survey Egypt, p. 66, 1930 (1931).-Hada, Sci. Rep't Tohoku Imp. Univ.,
ser. 4, Biol., vol. 6, p. 106, fig. 61 (in text), 1931.
Test elongate, fusiform, broadest in the middle, apertural end
tapering into a long cylindrical neck with a slightly expanded lip,
opposite end pointed, closed, surface ornamented by a few distinct
longitudinal costae.
There arc excellent, well developed specimens of this species in
three stations in the Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee formation and
one station in the Cardiuv,m bed of the Shoal River, and there are
less well developed ones from a single station in the typical zone of
the same formation. The references above arc those since the publi-
cation of Bulletin 104 to which the reader is referred for complete
references to this species.
LAGENA QUADRATA (Wllllamson)
Plate 12, figures 17, 18

In the upper part of the Choctawhatchee formation there are a
very few specimens, two of which are here figured, which seem
somewhat like this species described by Williamson. It evidently
should be included in Entosolenia as there is a distinct internal tube,
but is here kept with Lageia until someone shall have an opportunity
to work out the various relationships of the different species which
have been usually termed Lagena. One of the specimens seems to
show somewhat of a division into two distinct parts.

Family POLYMORPHINIDAE
Genus GUTTULINA d'Orbigny, 1820
GUTTULINA IRREGULARIS (d'Orbigny)
Plate 9, figures 10-12
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 33, 1930.)
In the previous Florida report this species was recorded from a
single station in the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.
However, later collections have added no others from the Choctaw-





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


hatchee, but it has been found to be common in the Chipoia, occurring
at all the stations, as well as in the middle zone of the Shoal River
formation.
GUTTULINA COSTATULA Galloway and WIssler
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 33, pl. 5, fig. 15, 1930.)
This species is fairly common, but occurred only in the upper two
zones of the Chocta.whatchee where it is represented at about half
of the stations.
GUTTULINA LACTEA (Walker and Jacob)
Plate 9, figures 151, b
(For references to this species see Cuslunan and Ozawa, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., vol. 77, Art. 6, p. 43, 1930.)
Test ovate, rounded triangular in section, tapering but little,
rounded at the base; chambers elongate, somewhat compressed, ar-
ranged in a contra-clockwise quinqueloculine series, often tending to
become a sigmoid series, each succeeding chamber very slightly re-
moved from the base; sutures depressed, distinct; wall smooth,
translucent; aperture radiate.
Specimens seemingly referable to this species occurred in the middle
and typical zones of the Shoal River formation, and in the upper
and typical zones of the Chipola.
GUTTULINA LACTEA (Walker and Jacob), var. EARLANDI Cushman and Ozawa
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 34, pl. 5, fig. 19, 1930.)
A few specimens seemingly referable to this variety occurred in
the Cancellaria zone of the Choetawhatchee and very rarely in the
middle zone of the Shoal River formation.
GUTTULINA CAUDATA d'Orblgny
Plate 9, figures 16, 17
Glutullina caudata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 266. No. 10, 1826.-
Fornasini, Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., vol. 19, p. 137, fig. 2 (in text), 1900.-
Oushmani and Ozawa, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 77, Art 6, p. 30, pl. 6,
figs. 4, 5, 1930.
Test unequally compressed, in side view irregularly rhomboid,
initial end with a spine; chambers elongate, arranged in a clockwise
quinqueloculine series, each chamber reaching nearly to the base;
sutures slightly depressed, distinct; wall smooth; aperture terminal,
radiate. Length 0.60 mm.; breadth 0.30 mm.; thickness 0.20 mm.
Rather typical specimens of this species occur at two stations, in
the middle zone of the Shoal River marl, and upper zone of the
Chipola.
GUTTULINA AUSTRIACA d'Orblgny (?)
Plate 9, figures 13, 14
The figured specimens show what may be perhaps representative
of this species. These specimens are the only. ones we have, and are






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


from the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee. The species is a common
one in the Miocene of Europe.
GUTTULINA ROEMERI (Reuss)
Under this name Cushman and Ozawa (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
vol. 77, Art. 6, 1930, p. 41) recorded a single, apparently young
specimen from the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee formation near
Red Bay, Florida.
We have found no further specimens to be referred to this species.

Genus PYRULINA d'Orbigny, 1820
PYRULINA ALBATROSS Cushman and *Ozawa
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 34, pl. 5, figs. 17, 18, 1930.)
This species was recorded in Bulletin.. 4 from one station in the
Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee. We have no other specimens.

Genus GLOBULINA d'Orbigny, 1820
GLOBULINA GIBBA d'Orblgny
Plate 10, figures 3a, c
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 34, pl. 5. fig. 21, 1930.)
In our recent collections this species, besides being present in the
Cancellaria and Area zones of the Choctawhatchee, occurs commonly
in the Chipola, and there are records for it also from the middle
zone of the Shoal River formation, as well as the Oak Grove sand.
GLOBULINA INAEQUALIS Reuse
Plate 10, figures la-c
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 35, pl. 5, fig. 22, 1930.)
This is a very widely distributed species, occurring in nearly all
the zones of the Florida Miocene as shown by the table. The speci-
mens recorded by Cushman and Ozawa (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 77,
Art. 6, 1930, p. 65) as Globulina. gibba. d'Orbigny, var. globosa
(V. Miinster) from Red Bay, Florida, evidently belong here.
GLOBULINA INAEQUALIS Reuss, var. CARIBAEA d'Orblgny
Plate 10, figure 2
Globulina caribaca d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Formnlnfkres," p. 135, pl. 2, figs. 7, 8, 1839.
Globulina inacqualis Reuss, var. caribaca Cusluman and Ozawa, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 77, Art. 6, p. 75, pl. 18, figs. 5, 0, 1030.
Variety differing from the typical in having the wall ornamented
wholly or in part with fine short spines.
This variety is fairly common in the West Indian region today.
It is interesting, therefore, to find that it occurs at numerous stations
in the Florida Miocene, particularly from the Choctawhatchee forma-
tion, but it is also represented in the Chipola.





THE FORAMINIFElRA OF THE MIOOENE OF FLORIDA


GLOBULINA ROTUNDATA (Bornemann)
S(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull, 4, p. 35, pl. 5, fig. 10, 1980.)
Previously recorded from two stations in the Area zoie of the
Choctawhatchee but not found in our recent collections.

Genus PSEUDOPOLYMORPHIINA Cushman and Ozawn, 1928
PSEUDOPOLYMORPHINA DUMBLEI (Cushman and Applln)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 35, pl. 6, fig. 5, 1930.)
This species has been found in the three upper zones of the Choc-
tawhatchee, and it also occurs in the typical Shoal River formation,
as well as in the Chipola.
PSEUDOPOLYMORPHINA RUTILA (Cushman)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 30, pl. 5, fig. 20, 1930.)
As in the previous report this species occurs only in the Cwcmellaria
and Ecphora zones of the Choctawhatchee formation for which it
should be an excellent index fossil.

Genus POLYMORPHINA d'Orbigny, 1826
POLYMORPHINA ADVENA Cushman
Plate 10, figure 4
P'olin.orphi n advcnta Cushmlan, U. 8. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 120-F, p. 132,
11l. 31, fig. 4, 1022; Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram, Res., vol. 5, p. 41,
pl. 7, fig. 5, 1920.-Cushlnan and Ozawa, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 77,
Art. 0, p. 118, pl. 30, figs. 10a, b, 1930.
Test much compressed, strongly ovate; chambers numerous, elongate,
alternating, much the broadest near the peripheral end; sutures
slightly depressed, very oblique; surface ornamented with numerous,
fine, longitudinal costae, except the last-formed one or two chambers
which are smooth, at least at the apertural end; aperture radiate.
Length 0.45 mm.; breadth 0.20 mm.; thickness 0.05 mm.
This species which was originally described from the Lower Oligo-
cone of Mississippi occurs in the Chipola formation in typical form.
It is very rare, however.
Genus SIGMOMORPHINA Cushman and Ozawa, 1928
SIGMOMORPHINA WILLIAMSONI (Terquem)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 30, pl. 0, fig. 4, 1930.)
Recorded previously from a single station in the Cancellaria zone
of the Choctawhatchee, this species has not been found in our recent
collections.
SIGMOMORPHINA PEARCEVI Cushman and Ozawa
Plate 10, figures 5a, b
Polynorphina inflata Pearcey, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 49, p. 1,023,
pl. 2, figs. 14-10, 1914.
lgm.onomorphina pearceyt Oushinan and Ozawa, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 77,
Art. 0, p. 132, pl. 35, figs. 2, 3, 1930.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Test elongate, clavate, the greatest breadth in the upper half,
tapering.toward the base, apertural end rounded; chambers more or
less compressed, early ones elongated, later becoming rounded, gen-
erally the last one much inflated and large, arranged in a contra-
clockwise sigmoid series, each succeeding chamber, especially the last
one or two, removed farther from the base; sutures depressed,
distinct; wall smooth, thin, translucent; aperture near the center of
the last chamber. Length 0.75 mm.; breadth 0.50 mm.; thickness
0.35 mm.
This species has already been recorded as living off the coast of
Florida in 18 fathoms off the Tortugas. We have specimens which
may be referred to it from the Oak Grove and Chipola formations.

SIGMOMORPHINA UNDULOSA (Terquem)
Plate 10. figures Ga-c
Polymorphina amygdaloides Terquem (not Reuss), min. Soc. gdol. France,
s6r. 3, vol. 1, p. 39, pl. 3 (8), figs. 22, 25 (not 23, 24, 26-30), 1878.
Polymorphina undulosa Terquem, MWm, Soc. gdol. France, s8r. 3, vol. 1,
p. 41, pl. 3 (8), figs. 35a, b, (not 36), 1878.
Jigtowlorp.hina undulosa Cushinan and Ozawa, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 77,
Art. 6, p. 131, pl. 34, figs. 4, 5, 1930.
Test oval to ovate, compressed; chambers elongated, embracing,
arranged in a contra-clockwise sigmoid series, each succeeding cham-
ber not much removed from the base; sutures depressed, distinct; wall
smooth, rather thin, often covered with fistulose tubes; aperture
radiate. Length 0.50 mm.; breadth 0.30 mm.; thickness 0.12 mm.
This species is rather widely distributed in the Atlantic. It has
been recorded as living in 18 fathoms off the Dry Tortugas off
Florida. Very typical specimens were obtained from the upper part
of the Chipola formation, one of which is figured here.

Family NONIONIDAE
Genus NONION Montfort, 1808
NONION GRATELOUPI (d'Orbigny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 36, pl. 6, figs. 1-3, 1930.)
This species which is common in the Recent warm waters of the
West Indian region has been also recorded from the Miocene of
Cuba, Santo Domingo, Panama, and the Coastal Plain of the United
States. Previously it was recorded from the Ca ncellaria and Ecphora
zones of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida. Our new material
extends its range into the Arca and Yoldia zones of the Choctaw-
hatchee, and there are records for it in all three zones of the Shoal
River, in both of the stations from the Oak Grove, and at two stations
in the Chipola.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


There is a tendency, as was previously noted, for some of the
specimens to become somewhat like Novionella in their later growth.
At some stations it is rather difficult to distinguish this species from
the following as the variation of the two is considerable. Apparently
N. gratelompi is a much more widely distributed form than N.
pizarresis in the Miocene.
NONION PIZARRENSIS Berry
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 37, pl. 6, figs. 7, 8, 1930.)
In the previous report this species was only recorded from the
Arca zone in the Choctawhatchee. Later material has shown it to
be present in some numbers in the Ecphora and Yoldia zones of the
Choctawhatchee, as well as the Arce zone. It has also occurred in
all three zones of the Shoal River marl, and in the upper zone of the
Chipola.
NONION GLABRELLUM Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 38, pl. 6, figs. 6a, b, 1930.)
This species was originally described from the Cancellaria zone of
the Choctawhatchee in the earlier bulletin. It is interesting to note
that in our later collections we have recorded it from most of the
stations in the Cawcellaria zone, and it has also occurred at single
stations in the Ecphora and Area zones. In the Alum Bluff group
it has occurred in the Cardium Beds and middle zone of the Shoal
River marl, at both stations in the Oak Grove, and at four of the
five stations in the Chipola.
It is, therefore, a widely distributed species, but its characters
seem to be held throughout this rather wide range in the Miocene.

Genus NONIONELLA Cushman, 1926
NONIONELLA AURIS (d'Orbigny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 38, pl. 7, figs. la-c, 1930.)
This has proved to be one of the most common species in our recent
collections. It occurs at nearly all of the stations in the upper four
zones of the Choctawhatchee, at all of the stations in the three zones
of the Shoal River formation, both stations in the Oak Grove, and
at three of the five stations in the Chipola. It also has a wide
distribution in Recent waters.
Genus ELPHIDIUM Monfort, 1808
ELPHIDIUM POEYANUM (d'Orblgny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 39, pl. 7, figs. 3, 4, 1930.)
This species is very widely distributed, occurring at all but seven
of the stations, and these represent all the zones of the Florida
Miocene. It is a common species, originally described from the West




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Indian region, and it is widely distributed both in the Pliocene and
Miocene of this general area.
ELPHIDIUM INCERTUM (Williamson)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 39, pl. 7, figs. 2a., b, 1930.)
There is considerable difficulty in distinguishing this species from
the preceding in the Florida Miocene collections. Most of the speci-
mens which were previously included under this species have now
been grouped under E. poeyanwin. In its present day distribution,
E. incerth.m is a more northern, colder water species. There are
specimens, however, from one station in the upper Choctawhatchee
which seem to be this species.
ELPHIDIUM INCERTUM (Wlllamson), var.
There are varietal forms in the Chipola which probably belong
here, although material is not abundant.
ELPHIDIUM SAGRUM (d'Orblgny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 40, pl. 7, figs. 6a, b, 1930.)
As in the preceding report, the only records for this rather dist'inc-
tive species are from the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee.
ELPHIDIUM ADVENUM (Cushman)
Plate 11, figures la, b
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 40, pl. 7, figs. 7a,, b, 1930.)
This species has proved to be of rather wide range as shown in the
table. It is, however, missing in several of the zones, and is most
abundant in the Cancellaria and Area zones of the Choctawhatchee.

ELPHIDIUM FIMBRIATULUM (Cushman)
Plate 11, figures 2a, b
Polystomella fimbriatula Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 20, pl. 8,
fig. 5, 1918.
Elphidium fimbriatulumn Cole, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 6, p. 33, pl. 4, fig. 7,
1931.
This species originally described from the. Pliocene of Florida
seems to occur also in the Choctawhatchee and the upper zone of
the Chipola. It is rather abundant at the upper Chipola station from
which the figured specimen came. It may be distinguished from the
preceding species by the more definite ring at the center, and by the
more heavily raised ribs, which are much narrower, leaving the portion
with the retral processes much wider.
ELPHIDIUM CHIPOLENSIS (Cushman)
Plate 11, figures 3a, b
Polystomella chipolensts Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128-B,
p.72, pl. 11, fig. 23, 1920.




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Test with the periphery rounded, composed of ten to twelve
chambers in the last-formed coil; chambers fairly distinct, but not
inflated; sutures more or less indistinct, due to the surface costa
which occupy the whole area between the sutures, and in the earlier
portions becoming fused and nearly continuous. Diameter 1.25 mm.
This species was originally described from the Chipola formation.
In our later collections it has proved to be common, occurring at all
of the stations in the Chipola, both stations in the Oak Grove, and
at one station in the Shoal River, and also numerous specimens
occurred in the Hawthorn formation on the Suwannee River at White
Springs.
It is a striking species with its rounded form and the very long
retral processes between the sutures.
ELPHIDIUM (sp?)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1p. 41, pl. 7, figs. 5a, b, 1930.)
The recent collections gave no further specimens.

Family PENEROPLIDAE
Subfamily Spirolininae
Genus PENEROPLIS Montfort, 1808
PENEROPLIS PROTEUS d'Orblgny
Plate 10, figures 7-11, 14
Peneroplis protea d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminiferes", p. 60, pl. 7, figs. 7-11, 1839.
Peneroplis proteus Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 75, pl. 18,
figs. 13-19, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 79, 1922;
Publ. 344, p. 83, 1920; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, p. 37, pl. 13,
figs. 1-17, 1930.
Peneroplis dubious d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminifres," p. 62, pl. 6, figs. 21, 22, 1839.
Orbioulina adunca H. B. Brady, (part), Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,
pl. 14, figs. 3, 4, 1884.
Test with the early portion close coiled and completely involute,
thickened, later portion assuming various shapes and variously
flaring but not becoming entirely embracing; chambers numerous,
ten to twelve usually in the coils of the early portion, usually some-
what higher than in most species; sutures distinct, depressed; wall
very smooth, thick, usually opaque; apertures formed by the row of
pores along the median line of the apertural face. Length up to 2.00
mIm.
This species is a very common one, and the most common species
of the genus in the warmer regions of the western Atlantic. It is,
therefore, interesting to find that it occurs in great abundance in





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


the Chipola formation. We have it from four of the five stations.
As in Recent material there is a great variation in the shape of the
test, and the series of figures given here will show some of these.

PENEROPLIS BRADYI Cushman
Plate 10, figures 12, 13
Pencroplis planatus Cushman, (not Fichtel and Moll), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
vol. 59, p. 75, pl. 18, fig. 9, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ.
311, p. 79, 1922.
Pencroplis pcrtusus, var. planatus Woodward, The Observer, vol. 4, p. 77, 1893.
Pcneroplis bradyi Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, p. 40, pl. 14,
figs. 8-10, 1930.
Test small, very greatly compressed, early portion planispirally
coiled, usually partially evolute, later portion broadening, forming
a flaring test; chambers distinct, long and low; sutures very distinct,
depressed; wall finely pitted but not striate; apertures in the central
line of the apertural face. Length, usually less than 1.000 mm.,
often much less.
In the present fauna off the coast of Florida this species is next in
abundance to Peneropids proteus d'Orbigny. It is, therefore, not
surprising to find it associated with P. proteus in the Chipola forma-
tion. It is a much thinner form and the early stages are evolute,
whereas P. proteus is involute throughout.

SORITES (?) sp (?)
Plate 17, figures 1-8
There is in the Chipola marl as one of its most characteristic
species, a large, circular, flattened species which is here referred to
the genus Solites. In the plate both microspheric and megalospheric
forms are figured. The miscrospheric form has a spherical proloculum
followed by an elongate chamber coiled about it, and making a little
less than one-half a coil. This is followed by shorter chambers, three
or four in number, after which chambers are developed which are
low and broad and divided into chamberlets. In the megalospheric
form the proloculum is large and polygonal, followed by another
large chamber, after which chambers are taken on which are low and
broad, and divided into chamberlets. Succeeding chambers quickly
become annular, and continue in this manner through the adult stages.
The structure in section is shown in the figures. Chamberlets in
the same annular series communicate with the adjacent lateral ones
and also with the alternating chamberlets in the next succeeding
annular series. This is the structure that Douvill6 has shown for
the genus Sorites. This species from the Miocene of Florida has the
structure somewhat modified but it is essentially the same. In





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


vertical section there are single chambers with several openings
through into the adjacent ones in the adult, and single openings in
the young stages. On the outer peripheral, face the apertures are
numerous, arranged in a narrow band in the middle of the face. The
pores themselves are of irregular shape and size. They are, therefore,
somewhat different from Sorites marginalis and other simple species,
but while in some ways they resemble A;mpvisorus there are not
double series of chambers as in that genus. The whole structure,
therefore, is that of Sorites although it is more complex than most of
the species assigned to that genus.
This form may be identical with Sarites domincensis Ehrenberg
described from Santo Domingo, the types of which are in Berlin. It
is hoped that these types may be restudied this year, and then it
may be definitely determined whether or not the species of the
Chipola and that of Santo Domingo are identical. Meanwhile the
figures are available for this very striking form.
Figures 4-8 on Plate 17 are from sections and photographs made
by Mr. Lloyd G. Henbest of the U. S. Geological Survey.

Family HETEROHELICIDAE
Subfamily Pavonininae
Genus PAVONINA d'Orbigny, 1826
PAVONINA MIOCENICA Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 12, figures 19a, b
Test much compressed, flattened sides nearly parallel, periphery
of basal portion forming a broad angle, carinate, outer portion form-
ing a broad curve, concave and keeled at each side; early chambers
biserial, later ones uniserial, broad and low, curved, extending across
the whole outer peripheral face; sutures distinct, not raised, some-
what limbate; wall coarsely perforate; aperture consisting of several
small pores irregularly arranged in the outer peripheral face. Length
0.60 mm.; breadth 0.70 mm.; thickness 0.10 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16334) from the Miocene of Harveys
Creek, Sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 3 W., Leon County.
This is a distinctive new species most closely related to Pavonina
atlantica Cushman, known in Recent collections from off Florida
and the West Indies. It has so far been found only at the type
locality of the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.
The incomplete specimens referred to "Pavonina sp." in Florida
Geol. Survey, Bulletin 4, p. 41, 1930, have been found to belong to
Reotocibicides miocenicus Cushman and Ponton.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Subfamily Plectofrondiculariinae
Genus PLECTOFRONDICULARIA Liebus, 1903
PLECTOFRONDICULARIA FLORIDANA Cushman
Plate 11, figure 8
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 41, pl. 8, fig. 1, 1930.)
This species as in the previous collections has proved to be an index
fossil of the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee formation, being com-
mon at those stations and not found elsewhere. It may be easily
distinguished from the following species by the decided median keel,
and a rounded periphery in addition to the two lateral ones. A
figure of this species is given for comparison with the following.

PLECTOFRONDICULARIA MANSFIELDI Cushman and Ponton
Plate 11, figures 7a, b
Plcctofrondicularia minnsfieldi Cushman and Ponton, Contr. Cushman Lab.
Foram. Res., vol. 7, p. 60, pl. 8, figs. la., b, 1931.
Test very much compressed, much elongated, very slightly tapering,
the later portion with the sides nearly parallel, sides sharply truncate
or slightly concave with distinct keels, giving a narrow rectangular
shape in end view; chambers numerous, the earliest ones biserial,
soon becoming uniserial, and increasing rather .rapidly in height
toward the apertural end, somewhat inflated; sutures very distinct,
slightly depressed, especially in the later portion, usually not dis-
tinctly limbate, convexly curved; wall mostly smooth, but the basal
end with one or two very short costae; aperture not shown. Length
up to 1.50 mm.; maximum breadth 0.25 mm.; thickness 0.12 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 15,483) from the Miocene of Old
Frazier Farm NW1/ of SE1/ Sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 19 S., Walton
County.
This species was recently described from the Miocene of Florida,
being named for Dr. W. C. Mansfield of the United States Geological
Survey, and has proved to be very definite in its distribution. The
uppermost occurrence is in the Yoldia zone of the Choctawhatchee,
and in addition it occurs in all three zones of the Shoal River forma-
tion but not elsewhere. It is distinguished by the truncate periphery
without the central keel, and the shape of the chambers is quite
different, with the sutures. also much more curved, not limbate, and
much compressed, all characters distinct from those of P. floridcaa.
The later chambers become relatively high, and it may be that the
broken specimens later referred to the genus Amphimatrphina may
be the adult of this form because they occur at the same stations in
the Yoldia zone.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Genus AMPHIMORPHINA Neugeboren, 1850
AMPHIMORPHINA sp(?)
Plate 11, figures 4-6
The fragmentary specimens seem to be the end chambers of a form
which should be referred to this genus. As they occur with Plecto-
frondioularia, mansfieldi it may be that they represent the adult
stages of that form. Although the original material was carefully
searched no 'complete specimens were found to settle this point.
Genus NODOGENERINA Cushman, 1927
NODOGENERINA ADVENA Cushman and Lalming
Plate 11, figure 10
Nodogenerina advena Cushmnan and Laiming, Journ. Pal., vol. 5, p. 106, pl. 11,
figs. 19a, b, 1931.
Test elongate, tapering, circular in transverse section; chambers
distinct, inflated, closely set, and slightly overlapping, of fairly
uniform shape, increasing gradually in size as added, later ones
slightly higher than the earlier ones; sutures distinct, depressed;
wall smooth, or showing traces of slight roughenings in longitudinal
lines; aperture elliptical, extended, with a slight lip. Length 0.60-
0.70 mm.; diameter 0.12-0.15 mm.
This small species was originally described from the Miocene of
California. It occurs fairly frequently in the Yoldia. zone of the
Choctawhatchee formation, but specimens compared with the types
seem to show that the two forms from California and Florida should
probably be included under one name.

Family BULIMINIDAE
Subfamily Turrilininae
Genus BULIMINELLA Cushman, 1911
BULIMINELLA ELEGANTISSIMA (d'Orblgny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 42, pl. 8, figs. 2, 3, 1930.)
This has proved to be very widely distributed in the Florida
Miocene, occurring at all but four of the stations in the Choctaw-
hatchee formation, and represented also in two zones of the Shoal
River, in both stations in the Oak Grove and in the upper zone of
the Chipola. It has, however, not occurred in the typical Chipola
which is not surprising, as this species is usually found in deeper
water than that in which the typical Chipola was deposited.
BULIMINELLA CURTA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 43, pl. 8, fig. 4, 1930.)
This species is widely distributed in the Miocene of California
and Florida. Well developed specimens occur in the middle portion





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


of the section, but are absent from the Chipola at the base and from
the Cancellaria. zone of the Choctawhatchee at the top.

BULIMINELLA SUBTERES (H. B. Brady)
Plate 11, figures 9a, b
Bulimina presli Reuss, var. elegantissima Parker and Jones, Philos. Trans.,
vol. 155, p. 374, pl. 15, figs. 12-17, 1865.
Bulimina elegantissima H. B. Brady, (var.) Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5,
vol. 1, p. 436, pl. 20, fig. 12, 1878.
Bulimina subteres H. B. Brady, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. 21, p. 55, 1881.-
J. Wright, Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club, App., p. 180, pl. 8, figs. 2, 2a,
1880-81.--H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, p. 403,
pl. 50, figs. 17, 18, 1884.-Egger, Abh. kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. Minchen,
Cl. II, vol. 18, p. 289, pl. 8, figs. 73, 74, 1893.-Goes, Kongl. Svensk.
Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. 25, No. 9, p. 46, pl. 9, figs. 445-453, 1894.-
Chapman, Rep't Foram. Subantarctic Ids. New Zealand, p. 330, pl. 14,
fig. 10, 1909.-Bagg, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 513, p. 39, pi. 9, figs. 7a-d;
pl. 11, figs. 1-5, 1912.-Heron-Allen and Earland, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad.,
vol. 31, pt. 64, p. 62, pl. 4, figs. 13, 14, 1913.
Buliminclla subtcrcs Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 2, p. 89, figs.
142a, b, (in text), 1911.-U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 110, pl. 22,
figs. 3-5, 1922.
Test elongate, ovate, fusiform, the initial end more pointed than
the apertural end; chambers oblique, forming two or three irregu-
larly spiral coils, inflated, increasing in size as added; sutures distinct,
someiihat depressed; wall usually translucent, smooth, finely per-
forate; aperture a long, narrow, slightly curved slit at the edge of
the ventral face of the chamber, often in a depressed umbilical area.
Length 0.25 mm.; breadth 0.12 nim.; thickness 0.10 mm.
This species is represented by a single well developed specimen
from a station in the Choctawhatchee formation in the upper
Cancellarwia zone. The species is recorded from numerous stations in
the western Atlantic so that its occurrence in the Miocene of Florida
is not strange. The reference above to U. S. Nat. Mus., Bulletin
104, will give numerous records for this species which are without
figures. Only those references which have figured specimens have
been copied here.
Genus BULIMINA d'Orbigny, 1826
BULIMINA GRACILIS Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 43, pl. 8, figs. 5a, b, 1930.)

This species was originally described in Bulletin 4, the above
reference. It has been found to be very abundant in the Arcac zone
of the Choctawhatchee formation and much less so in the two higher
zones of the Choctawhatchee. In the material from the Area zone





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


particularly, the test becomes very much elongated and the chambers
tend to become biserial or so loosely arranged that they simulate a
uniserial form.
BULIMINA GRACILIS Cushman, var.(?)
This is a varietal form which occurs in the typical Shoal River
in which there are fine spinose projections at the base of the test.
Specimens are fairly rare and some of them tend to become smooth
like the typical form. It may later be discovered that this is a
definite variety characteristic of this earlier portion of the section.

BULIMINA INFLATA Seguenza
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 43, pl. 8, figs. 6a, b, 1930.)
This species is characteristic of the Choctawhatchee and especially
of the Area zone, occurring at all but one of the stations, but in the
upper zones occurring at only four stations, and then in very few
numbers.
BULIMINA MARGINATA d'Orbigny
Plate 11, figure 12
Buliminai marginata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 269, No. 4, pl. 12,
figs. 10-12, 1826.-Parker and Jones, Ann. Mag. Nat. I-ist., ser. 2,
vol. 19, p. 296, pl. 11, figs. 35-40, 1857.-Balkwill and Wright, Proc. Roy.
Irish Acad., ser. 2, vol. 3, p. 547, 1882.-H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Chal-
lenger, Zoology, vol. 9, p. 405, pl. 51, figs. 3-5, 1884.-Cushman, U. S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 91, pl. 21, figs, 4, 5, 1922. (For a more
complete synonymy of this species see Bulletin 104.)
Bulimina pupoides d'Orbigny, var. marginata Williamson, Rec. Foram. Gt.
Britain, p. 62, pl. 5, figs. 126, 127, 1858.
Bulinmina presli Reuss, var. marginata Parker and Jones, Philos. Trans..
vol. 155, p. 372, pl. 15, fig. 10; pl. 17, fig. 70, 1865.
Test ovate, somewhat tapering; chambers numerous, inflated, all
visible from the exterior, ventral margin of the chambers extending
out from the preceding at a definite acute angle, forming a definite
rim to the chamber which has a series of short spines or crenulations,
the remainder of the chamber smooth and curved; sutures distinct,
depressed; wall thin and transparent, 'usually in older specimens
somewhat thickened, white, and nearly opaque; aperture a comma-
shaped slit in a slight depression of the inner face of the chamber,
often with a slightly raised border.
Specimens referred to this species occur in rather few numbers
at three stations in the Cancellaria, zone of the Choctawhatchee
formation but nowhere else in the section. They are similar to this
species which is known living off the coast of Florida and widely
distributed elsewhere.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


BULIMINA BUCHIANA d'Orblgny
Plate 12, figures la, b
Buliminha buchiana d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, p. 186, pl. 11,
figs. 15-18, 1846.-Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien. vol. 55, p. 95, pl. 4,
figs. 10a, b, 1867.-Terrigi, Atti Accad. Pont. Nuovi Lincei, vol. 33,
p. 195, pl. 2, fig. 37, 1880.-H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology,
vol. 9, p. 407, pl. 51, figs. 18, 19, 1884; Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc., p. 899,
1887.-Wright. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., ser. 3, vol. 1, p. 474, 1891.-
Egger, Abh. kon. bay. Akad. Wiss. Mtinchen, C1. II, vol. 18, p. 286,
pi. 8, figs. 68, 77, 1893.-Chapman, Proc. Zool. Soc., London, p. 22, 1895;
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 1, ser. 3, p. 244, pl. 29, fig. 5, 1900; Jour. Quekett
Micr. Club, ser. 2, vol. 10, p. 127, pl. 9, fig: 6, 1907.-Bagg, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 34, p. 135, 1908.-Chapman, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool.,
vol. 30, p. 403, 1910.-Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 2, p. 85,
figs. 138a, b (in text), 1911.-Pearcey, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh,
vol. 49, p. 1014, 1914.-Chapman, Biol. Results Endeavour, vol. 3, pt. 1,
p. 18, 1915.-Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 50, 1918;
U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 160, 1921; Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 95,
pl. 20, fig. 4, 1922.
Bulimina presli Reuss, var. butchiana Parker and Jones, Philos. Trans., vol.
155, p. 374, pl. 17, fig. 71, 1865.
Bolivina karreriana Bagg, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 34, p. 138, 1908, (not
B. karreriana H. B. Brady).
Test ovate, broadest above the middle, composed of numerous
inflated chambers, the remainder of the test consisting of longitudinal
plate-like costae, confluent from the apex to the base of the last-
formed chamber; chambers distinct, inflated, smooth except for the
longitudinal costae; sutures distinct, somewhat depressed; wall in
young specimens thin and translucent, in the adults thickened and
opaque; aperture a loop-like opening of the inner margin of the
chamber with a definite margined lip. Length 0.70-0.85 mm.;
diameter 0.35-0.40 mm.
This species was originally described by d'Orbigny from the
Miocene of the Vienna Basin. It has been rather widely recorded
from both fossil and Recent samples. In our recent collections it
has been found to be common in the Yoldia. zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation, but has not been found above or below this zone
in any other Miocene material examined from Florida.

BULIMINA OVATA d'Orbigny
Plate 11, figure 11
Bitlimina ovata d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, p. 185, pl. 11,
figs. 13, 14, 1846.-H. B. Brady, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,
p. 400, pl. 50, figs. 13a, b, 1884.-Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71,
pt. 2, p. 77, figs. 125a-c (in text), 1911; Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 164, fig. 4
(in text), 1921; Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 100, pl. 21, fig. 3, 1922.





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


There are a few smooth specimens from the Aroue zone of the
Choctawhatchee formation which are evidently identical with this
species described by d'Orbigny from the Miocene of the Vienna
Basin. In all the material we have examined it has not occurred in
any of the other zones, and is comparatively rare in this one.

Genus GLOBOBULIMINA Cushmnan, 1927
GLOBOBULIMINA PACIFICA Cushman
Plate 12, figure 2
Globobulim~.ina pacifica Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 67, pl. 14, fig. 12, 1927; Bull. Scripps Instit. Oceanography,
Tech. Ser., vol. 1, No. 10, p. 153, pl. 3, fig. 1, 1927.-Galloway and
Wissler, Journ. Pal., vol. 1, p. 74, pl. 11, fig. 18, 1927.-Cushman and
Moyer, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 6, p. 57, 1930.-Cusliman,
Stewart and Stewart, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. -list., vol. 6, p. 06,
pl. 5, fig. 4, 1930.-Cusinnan and Jarvis, Journ. Pal., vol. 4, p. 362,
pl. 33, fig. 6, 1930.-Cushman and Laiming, Journ. Pal., vol. 5, p. 108,
pl. 12, figs. la, b, 1931.-Cushman and Parker, Contr. Cushlnan Lab.
Foram. Res., vol. 7, p. 9, pl. 1, fig. 30, 1931.
Test subglobular in the adult with the last three chambers making
up the exterior by enclosing the preceding ones; sutures distinct,
slightly depressed; wall very thin, finely perforate, smooth; aperture
loop-shaped, with a slight border, a broad apertural tooth or plate,
and an internal spiral tube.
This species is known from Recent to Miocene. Most of the records
are from the Pacific coast of the United States, but it has also been
recorded from the Miocene of Buff Bay, Jamaica. In the Florida
Miocene it has occurred at a single station in the middle zone. of the
Shoal River formation.

Genus VIRGULINA d'Orbigny, 1820
VIRGULINA PUNCTATA d'Orbigny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 44, pl. 8, figs. 7a,, b, 1930.)
This species has been found to be much more abundant in our
later material than in the earlier collections, occurring in the three
upper zones of the Choctawhatchee and the middle zone of the Shoal
River. It is a widely distributed species in the present warm waters
off Florida and also in the Miocene of the general Gulf and West
Indian region.
VIRGULINA FUSIFORMIS Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 45, pl. 8, figs. 8a, b, 1930.)

Our later collections show that this species which was originally
described in Bulletin 4 is limited to the same zones from which it
was described, namely the Cancellaria and Ecphora zones of the
Choctawhatchee. It is a peculiar small species with a very definite





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


shape and very small aperture, and could hardly be confused with
any other species.
VIRGULINA PONTONI Cushman
Plate 12, figures 10, 11
Virgulina floridana Cusluman and Laiming (not Cushman, 1920), Journ. Pal.,
vol. 5, p. 109, pl. 12, figs. 3a, b, 1931.
Virgulina pontoln Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 8, p. 17,
pl. 3, fig. 7, 1932.
Test elongate, tapering, greatest breadth toward the apertural end,
somewhat compressed; chambers fairly numerous, elongate, slightly
inflated; sutures distinct, depressed; wall smooth, finely perforate;
aperture comparatively large and broad. Length 0.60 mm.; breadth
0.20 mm.
This species was originally described from the Oak Grove sand
of Yellow River, Okaloosa County, Florida. It has been found in
our recent collections in the upper and lower beds of the Shoal River
formation, at both stations in the Oak Grove, and at four of the
five stations in the Chipola. It thus has a much lower range in the
section than either of the other forms, and is the only member of'
the genus to appear in the Chipola. It is apparently replaced in
the Choctawhatchee formation by V. pucctata.

Subgenus VIRGULINELLA Cushman, 1932
VIRGULINA (VIRGULINELLA) GUNTERI Cushman
Plate 12, figure 7
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 44, pl. 9, figs. 1, 2, 1930.)
This species described from the Choctawhatchee formation is most
abundant in the Arca zone, but occurs much less abundantly in the
Cancellaria, Ecphora. and Yolcia zones, and specimens referred to it
occur in the upper beds of the Shoal River formation, but it is missing
from the other zones. It is, however, replaced by the following
variety in the Ecphora zone and by V. miocenica in the lower portion
of the section.

VIRGULINA (VIRGULINELLA) GUNTERI Cushman, var. CURTATA
Cushman and Ponton
Plate 12, figure 8
Virgulina gunteri Cushman, var. curtata Cushman and Ponton, Contr. Cush-
man Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 8, p. 4, pl. 1, fig. 2, 1932.
Variety differing from the typical in the short rounded form and
comparatively few chambers.
Holotype of variety (Cushman Coll. No. 16,304) from Darling
Slide in the Eophora zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.




THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


This peculiar short rounded form takes the place of the typical in
the Ecphora of the Choctawhatchee, and at some of the stations
becomes very abundant.

VIRGULINA (VIRGULINELLA) MIOCENICA Cushman and Ponton
Plate 12, figure 9
Virgulina miocenica Cushman and Ponton, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,
vol. 7, p. 32, pl. 4, figs. 14-16, 1931.
Test elongate, slender, somewhat compressed, gradually tapering
from the subacute initial end to the greatest breadth formed by the
last two chambers, somewhat twisted; chambers numerous, distinct,
inflated; sutures distinct, depressed, marked by numerous depres-
sions, the sides of which extend backward to the preceding chamber
in short distinct processes; wall except for the markings of the
sutures, smooth, very finely perforate; aperture very elongate,
narrow, slightly curved, running nearly from the apex of the last-
formed chamber to the inner margin. Length 0.75-0.90 mm.;
breadth 0.25-0.30 mm.; thickness 0.20-0.25 mm.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 15481) from the Miocene, Shoal
River formation, Shell Bluff, Walton County.
In the lower part of the section this species occurs from the lower
portion of the Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee as its upper limit
to the Oak Grove, but does not occur in the Chipola. It is very
different in shape from V. gunteri, having its greatest width toward
the apertural end and usually slender and tapering.

Genus BOLIVINA d'Orbigny, 1839
BOLIVINA MARGINATA Cushman
Bolivina, marginata Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 48, pl. 10,
fig. 1, 1918; Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 1, p. 30, pl. 5,
figs. 5a, b, 1925; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 45, pl. 8, figs. 9a, b,
1930.-Cushman and Laiming, Journ. Pal., vol. 5, p. 110, pl. 12, figs.
6-8, 1931.-Cushman and Parker, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,
vol. 7, p. 9, pl. 2, fig. 1, 1931.
Test much compressed, of medium size for the genus, periphery
acute, keeled throughout or sometimes obsolete at the apertural end;
sutures usually distinctly limbate, oblique; chambers numerous,
distinct, seven or eight chambers making up the last half of the
test, earlier ones long and narrow, later ones much higher; wall thin,
rather coarsely perforate, surface smooth; aperture elongate, narrow.
Length usually less than 1.00 mm.; breadth 0.25-0.30 mm.; thickness
0.12-0.15 mm.
This species which is now known from the Miocene of Florida and
California was previously recorded from the Choctawhatchee forma-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


tion. It occurs in the Ecphora., Arca and Yoldia zones of the Choc-
tawhatchee as well as in all three zones of the Shoal River, but is;
apparently absent from the upper portion of the Choctawhatchee
and from the lower Miocene series included in the Oak Grove and
Chipola.

BOLIVINA MARGINATA Cushman, var. MULTICOSTATA Cushman
Bolivina aenariensis (Costa), var. multicostata Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey,
Bull. 676, p. 48, pl. 10, fig. 2, 1918.
Bolivina narginata Cushman, var. nulticostata Cushman, Florida Geol.
Survey, Bull. 4, p. 46, pl. 8, figs. 13, 14, 1930.
Variety differing from the typical in the ornamentation of the test
which consists of a series of longitudinal costae of varying lengths.
The varietal form of the species is slightly more restricted than
the typical smooth form according to our records, but the two are
usually found associated with one another.

BOLIVINA FLORIDANA Cushman
Bolivina florilana Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 49, pl. 10,
fig. 4, 1918.-Nuttall, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. 84, p. 74, 1928.-
Oushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 5, p. 93, 1929; Florida
Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 46, pl. 8, figs. 15a, b, 1930.-Cushman and
Parker, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 7, p. 9, pl. 2, fig. 2, 1931.
Bolivina decussata Cushman .(not H. B. Brady), Contr. Cushman Lab.
Foram, Res., vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 31, pl. 5, figs. 6a, b, 1925; vol. 2, pt. 3,
p. 54, 1926.
This is a widely distributed Miocene species now known from
Florida, Trinidad, Venezuela, and California. In our recent material
from Florida this species is limited to the Arca and Yoldda. zones of
the Choctawhatchee, the Ca.diwm bed and the middle zone of the
Shoal River formation.

BOLIVINA PLICATELLA Cushman
Bolivina plicatella Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 46, pl. 8, figs.
10q, b, 1930.-Cole, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 6, p. 41, 1931.
This species in our recent collections was limited to the Cancellaria
zone of the Choctawhatchee, but in Bulletin No. 4 was recorded from
four stations in the Ecphora zone. It is also recorded by Cole from
the Pliocene of Florida.

BOLIVINA PLICATELLA Cushman, var. MERA Cushman and Ponton, n. var.
Plate 12, figures 4a, b

Variety differing from the typical in the much less excavated
middle line, but otherwise having many of the characteristics of 'this
species.






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Holotype of variety (Cushman Coll. No. 16320) from the Oak
Grove sand from Tanner's Mill, 4 miles southwest of Laurel Hill,
Okaloosa County.
At this locality this variety is very common. It is apparently a
primitive form of B. plicaftella in which the characters are not fully
developed. The coarse perforations of the test and slight twisting
are very similar. It occurs only in the Oak Grove sand and the
typical Chipola.
BOLIVINA PULCHELLA d'Orblgny, var. PRIMITIVE Cushman
Bolivina pulchella d'Orbigny, var. primitive Cuslman, Florida Geol. Survey,
Bull. 4, p. 47, p1. 8, figs. 12a, b, 1930.-Cole, Florida Geol. Survey,
Bull. 6, p. 41, pl. 2, fig. 10, 1931.
This form occurs only in the Cancellaria. zone of the upper Choc-
lawhatchee formation, and it is interesting to note that it is also
recorded by Cole from the Pliocene of Florida.

BOLIVINA ADVENA Cushman
Plate 12, figure 3
Bolivina advena Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Forain. Res., vol. 1, pt. 2,
p. 29, pl. 5, figs. la, b, 1925; vol. 2, pt. 3, p. 54, 1926.-Cushlnan,
Stewart and Stewart, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, p. 67,
1930.
Test of early portion compressed, later portion thickened, periphery
rounded, increasing gradually in width toward the apertural end;
early chambers low, close set, not inflated, later ones higher and
more inflated; sutures of the early portion limbate, in the later
portion narrow and somewhat depressed; wall smooth but distinctly
perforate.
This species originally described from California occurs in typical
form but in few numbers in the Arca. zone of the Choctawhatchee
formation.
BOLIVINA ROBUSTA H. B. Brady
Plate 12, figure 5
Bolivina robusta H. B. Brady, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. 21, p. 57, 1881;
Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, p. 421, pl. 53, figs. 7-9, 1884.
There is a single specimen from one of the stations in the middle
zone of the Shoal River formation. It is here figured, and seems to
be identical with Brady's species which has been widely recorded
from Eocene to Recent material. It is characterized by the lobe
toward the inner margin of each chamber in the adult. It is some-
what similar to B. alazanensis Cushman, but is not keeled nor is the
central line raised.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


BOLIVINA PAULA Cushman and Cahll (MS.), n. op.
Plate 12, figures 6a, b
Test minute, much compressed, periphery subacute, sides for the
most part nearly parallel, initial end tapering; chambers numerous,
often twelve or more pairs in the adult test, increasing somewhat in
height as added, some of the earliest ones being very low; sutures
distinct, very slightly if at all depressed, slightly limbate, rather
strongly curved backward; wall smooth, finely perforate; aperture
an elongate, somewhat comma-shaped opening in the median line of
the apertural face. Length 0.30-0.35 mm.; breadth 0.15 mm.; thick-
ness 0.06-0.08 mnm.
This species known from the Miocene of Chesapeake Beach,
Maryland, occurs rather widely distributed in the various members
of the Miocene of Florida, and is a small inconspicuous species and
likely to be overlooked.

Genus LOXOSTOMUM Ehrenberg, 1854
LOXOSTOMUM GUNTERI Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 47, pl. 8, figs. 1a, b, 1930.)
Our material adds nothing further to the distribution of this species
which is confined to the Area. zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.

Subfamily Reussiinae
Genus REUSSIA Schwager, 1877
REUSSIA SPINULOSA (Reuss)
Plate 12, figures 14-16
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 48, pl. 8, figs. 17a, b, 1930.)
The development of this species in the various members of the
Miocene of Florida is an interesting one. The species occurs in the
(ancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee where it develops chambers
which are very angled, and at the basal margin project strongly.
These projections are not only spinose, but represent very distinct
angular projections of the chambers themselves under the general
margin. This form is most common in the Ca.ncellaria zone. A
varietal form occurs in the Area. zone of the Choctawhatchee where
it has smooth margins with almost no trace of spines, and is not seen
again until in the typical Oak Grove marl where specimens occur
which are somewhat spinose at the margin but the chambers are not
usually as projecting as in the development of the species in the
Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee. These three forms may be
distinguished but the first and third occur together, and as the
species is a variable one, it seems a question as to whether definite
names should be given to these three. forms even though they have







THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOOENE OF FLORIDA


somewhat distinctive ranges in the Florida Miocene. All three forms
aie here figured for comparison.
Genus CHRYSALIDINELLA Schubert, 1907
CHRYSALIDINELLA PULCHELLA (Cushman)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull 4, p. 48, pl. 8, figs. 16a, b, 1930.)
This species is most common in the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee,
but is widely distributed, occurring in the Cancellaria zone, as well
as in the upper bed of the Shoal River formation, and in the Oak
Grove. Being a rather deep water species it is not strange to find.
that it does not occur in the shoal water material of the Chipola.

Subfamily Uvigerininae
Genus UVIGERINA d'Orbigny, 1826
UVIGERINA PEREGRINA Cushman
Uvigerina pygtaea Flint (not U. pigngea d'Orbigny), Rep't U. S. Nat. Mus.,
p. 320, pl. 68, fig. 2, 1897 (1899).
Uvigerina cf. pignmea Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 49, pl. 9,
figs. 8-6, 1930.
Uvsgerina peregrina Cushinan, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 4, p. 160,
pl. 42, figs. 7-10, 1923; Bull. Scripps Instit. Oceanography, Tech. Ser.,
vol. 1, No. 10, p. 158, pl. 8, fig. 18, 1927.-Galloway and Wissler, Journ.
Pal., vol. 1, p. 76, pl. 12, figs. 1, 2, 1927.-Church, Journ. Pal., vol. 1,
p. 268, 1928.-R. E. and K. C. Stewart, Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petr. Geol.,
vol. 14, p. 1448, 1930.-Cushman, Stewart and Stewart, Trans. San
Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, p. 69, pl. 5, fig. 11, 1930.
Test elongate, about two and one-half times as long as broad,
widest in the middle, ends rounded; chambers fairly numerous, in-
flated, distinct; sutures depressed but the line of the sutures indis-
tinct; wall ornamented with longitudinal costae, about ten on a full-
grown chamber, those of each chamber usually not continuous with
those of adjacent chambers, high and very thin and sharp, toward
the basal and apertural ends of the test becoming broken up into
spinose or irregular short portions, the wall between the costae and
the costae themselves distinctly granular;. aperture circular, at the
end of a distinct cylindrical neck, often spinose and with a phialine
lip.
The species has been recorded as Uvigerina pigmea d'Orbigny in
the Tertiary and Recent collections off both coasts of America, and
evidently ranges as far back as the Miocene. This species like most
of those of the genus is variable, but U. pigmea. d'Orbigny is now
established as a definite species of entirely different characters (See
Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 6, 1930, p. 62, pl. 9,
figs. 14-20).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Specimens are well distributed in all the zones from the Cancellaia,
zone of the Choctawhatchee down through the Shoal River, but
specimens were not recorded from the Oak Grove or Chipola
formations.
UVIGERINA AUBERIANA d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 49, pl. 9, fig. 7, 1930.)
This species which is rather widely distributed in the West Indian
region also occurs as a fossil as far back as the Miocene, but as far
as we observed is never in very considerable numbers. The same is
true of its occurrence in a living condition. Our records include the
three upper zones of the Choctawhatchee and a' single record from
the Shoal River.
UVIGERINA PARKERI Karrer
Plate 12, figures 12a, b
Uvigerina parkeri Karrer, Abhandl. k. k. geol. Reichs., vol. 9, p. 385, pl. 16b,
fig. 50, 1877.
We have from one station in the Ecphora zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee a single specimen excellently preserved of a much compressed
species of Uvigerina, the later portion of which is decidedly biserial.
Such specimens are common in the Miocene of the Vienna Basin from
which Karrer described U. parkeri, and another much more ornate
species U. compressa Cushman has been described. Our specimen is,
therefore, worthy of note here as the first one of its kind to occur in
our material, and more specimens should be expected in further
search of material from this area.

Genus SIPHOGENERINA Schlumberger, 1883
SIPHOGENERINA LAMELLATA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 49, pi. 9, fig. 10, 1930.)
Our later studies of the Miocene of Florida confirm the fact
already found in the earlier studies recorded in Bulletin 4, that this
species is abundant and characteristic only in the Area zone of the
Choctawhatchee for which it furnishes an excellent index fossil.

Genus ANGULOGERINA Cushman, 1927
ANGULOGERINA OCCIDENTALIS (Cushman)
Uvigerina angulosa Cushman (not Williamson), Carnegie Instit. Washington,
Publ. 311, p. 34, pl. 5, figs. 3, 4, 1922.
Uvigerina occidentalis Cushman, U. S. Nat.,Mus.) Bull. 104, pt. 4, p. 169,
1923.
Angulogerina occidentalis Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 50,
pl. 9, figs. 8, 9, 1930.-Cole, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 6, p. 44, pl. 2,
fig. 5, 1931.-Cushman and Laiming, Journ. Pal., vol. 5, p. 112, pl. 12,
figs. 15, 16, 1931.-Cushman and Parker, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80,
Art. 3, p. 17, 1931.







THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


This species originally described from the West Indian region is
now known from the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene of Florida,
and from the Miocene of California. It is rather widely distributed,
occurring in all the formations of the Miocene of Florida but not
at all the zones. It is most common in the upper Cancellaria zone
of the Choctawhatchee.

Family ELLIPSOIDINIDAE
Genus ELLIPSOLAGENA A. Silvestri, 1923
ELLIPSOLAGENA BIDENS Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 50, pl. 9, figs. lla., b, 1930.)
In our newer material this species originally described in Bulletin
4, and recorded mainly from the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee,
with a single station in the Ecphora zone, has occurred only in the
Area, zone. It is, therefore, to be considered a characteristic species
of this portion of the Choctawhatchee.

Family ROTALIIDAE
Subfamily Spirillininae
Genus SPIRILLINA Ehrenberg, 1841
SPIRILLINA ORBICULARIS Bagg
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 51, pl. 9, figs. 12a, b, 1930.)
This species is apparently very rare and did not occur in our recent
collections.
Subfamily Discorbisinae
Genus PATELLINA Williamson, 1858
PATELLINA CORRUGATA Williamson
Plate 13, figures la, b
Patellina corrugata Williamson, Recent Foram. Gt. Britain,. p. 46, pl. 3,
figs. 86-89, 1858.
Test usually free, conical, or plano-convex, early portion composed
of chambers spirally arranged, later ones elongating and finally be-
coming annular or nearly so in the last-formed portion of the test;
chambers partially divided by internal septa which are visible from
the exterior, showing clearly in the last-forimed chambers from the
ventral side; somewhat umbilicate ventrally; walls comparatively
thin and translucent; aperture somewhat elongate, situated at the
inner border of the chamber.
This species is rare in the Miocene of Florida, occurring at but
two stations in the Cancellaria zone of .the Choctawhatchee. The
specimens are fairly typical, and one of them is figured. For addi-
tional references to this species see Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull.
104, pt. 8, p. 11, 1931.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Genus DISCORBIS Lamarck, 1804
DISCORBIS FLORIDANA Cushman
Plate 13, figures 2a-o
Discorbis floridana Cushman, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 39,
pl. 5, figs. 11, 12, 1922; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 21, pl. 4,
figs. 7, 8, 1931.
Discorbia rosacea Cushman (not d'Orbigny), Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4,
p. 51, pl. 9, figs. 13a-c, 1930.
Discorbis subaraucana Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 52, pl. 10,
figs. la-o (not Cushman, 1922), 1930.
Test rotaliform, periphery slightly, if at all, lobulated, dorsal side
rounded, much convex, ventral side concave, somewhat umbilicate;
chambers comparatively few, five or six in the last-formed coil, on
the dorsal side coarsely punctate, on the ventral side punctate near
the periphery, but on the inner concave portion smooth, with very
fine punctae, if any; sutures in the younger portion slightly limbate,
aperture an elongate, arched opening at the base of the last-formed
chamber, opening on the umbilicate area, often with a slight lip.
This species originally described from the Tortugas region of
Florida and occurring also in the West Indies is common in the
Cancellaria zone and much less common in the Ecphara and Area
zones of the Choctawhatchee formation. The specimens referred to
as Discorbis rosacea in Florida Geol. Survey, Bulletin 4, p. 51, pl. 9,
figs. 13a-c, 1930, are probably referred to this species, as the original
Rotalia rosacea d'Orbigny has proved from a study of the original
model of that species to belong to Amphistegina, and the specimens
referred to Discorbis suibaraucana in the previous bulletin have been
all referred to Discorbis floridana in our revision of that material.

DISCORBIS CONSOBRINA (d'Orblgny)
Plate 13, figures 3a-o
Rosalina consobrina d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. MIrid., vol. 5, pt. 5, "Forami-
nif6res," p. 46, pl. 7, figs. 4-6, 1839.
Discorbis consobrina Cushman and Kellett, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 75,
Art. 25, p. 10, pl. 4, figs. 1, 2, 1929.---ushman, Florida Geol. Survey,
Bull. 4, p. 53, pl. 10, figs 4a-o, 1930.
Specimens referred to this species occurred in samples from both
the Cancellaria and Eophora zones of the Choctawhatchee formation.
DISCORBIS CANDEIANA (d'Orbigrly)
Plate 13, figures 4a-o
Rosalina candeiana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminiferes," p. 97, pl. 4, figs. 2-4, 1839.
Truncatulina candeiana Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 57,
pl. 13, figs. 4, 5, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 47,
pi. 6, figs. 7-9, 1922; Publ. 344, p. 78, 1926.






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Discorbis catneiana Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 19, pl. 7,
figs. 4a-o, 1931.
Discorbis itlardeboana Cushman (not d'Orbigny), Florida Geol. Survey,
Bull. 4, p. 52, pl. 10, figs. 3a-o, 1930.
Test trochoid, composed of about 2.5 coils, the last-formed coil
composed of about six chambers, rapidly increasing in size, inflated,
periphery rounded, lobulated; sutures depressed, except in the early
part of the test, ventrally somewhat umbilicate, concave; wall coarsely
perforate, the opening of each perforation small and surrounded by
a ring of whitish thickened shell material, the remainder of the wall
translucent; aperture a narrow arched slit, at the base of the last-
formed chamber, with a slight lip.
This species is common in the West Indian region, and has been
recorded at numerous stations off the coast of Florida in compara-
tively shallow water. It is more nearly identical with d'Orbigny's
"Rosalina candeiana" described from the West Indian region than
it is like his "Rosalina vilardeboana/' although the two have many
resemblances. The species is widely distributed from the Caneellaria
zone of the Choctawhatchee to the Chipola, but does not occur as
far as our material shows in the lower zones of the Choctawhatchee
or in the Oak Grove.
DISCORBIS CANDEIANA (d'Orblgny), var. BULLATA Cushman and Ponton,
n. var.
Plate 13, figures 5a-c
Trnecatulina cora Cushman (not d'Orbigny), Carnegie Instit. Washington,
Publ. 311, p. 48, pl. 7, figs..3-5, 1922.
Variety differing from the typical in the nearly globular chambers
of the adult which give a much thickened test and a lobulate periphery.
This same form is found also in Recent material. We have the
variety only at one station in the Chipola formation.
Holotype of variety (Cushman Coll. No. 16321) from the Chipola
formation at Alum Bluff, toward the lower end of the bluff at water
level with the river at a very low stage, about 4 miles north of
Bristol, Liberty County.
This is apparently the same as the form. figured from the Tortugas
region of Florida, but is not the same as d'Orbigny's species.
DISCORBIS ORBICULARIS (Terquem)
Plate 13, figures 6a-c
Rosalina orbicularis Terquem, Anim., sur la Plage de Dunkerque, p. 75,
pl. 9, figs. 4a, b, 1876.
Discorbis orbioularis Berthelin, Foram. de Borgneuf et Pornichet, p. 39,
No. 63. 1878.-Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 5, p. 16, pl. 11,
fig. 1, 1915; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 305, 1921; Carnegie
Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 38, pl. 5, fig. 10, 1922; U. S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 27, pl. 6, figs. 3a-c, 1931.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Discorbina orbicularis H. B. Brady, Rey. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9,
p. 647. pl. 88, figs. 4-8, 1884.
Discorbis mira Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 52, pl. 10, figs.
2a-c, 1930.
Test piano-convex, the dorsal side forming a low cone, ventrally
flat or more often somewhat concave, circular in outline, periphery
acute; chambers elongate, each often making nearly half of the
circumference, distinct; sutures slightly depressed, distinct; wall
finely to coarsely perforate, smooth; aperture ventral, an elongated
opening beneath the somewhat extended central portion of the last-
formed chamber.
This species is very abundant in the shallow water off the coast
of Florida and in the general West Indian region. In the Miocene
of Florida it seems to be limited to the Choctawhatchee formation
in the Ca.ncellaria zone. This is the species which was referred to
in Bulletin 4 as Discorbis mira (p. 52, pl. 10, figs. 2a-c). It is not
the same as the D. mira. described from the Tortugas.

DISCORBIS VALVULATA (d'Orblgny)
Rosalina valvulata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 271, No. 4, 1826; in
De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, "Foraminiifres," p. 96, pl. 3,
figs. 21-23, 1839; in Barker, Webb and Berthelot, Hist. Nat. Iles
Canaries, "Foraminiferes," p. 136, pl. 2, figs. 19-21, 1839.
Discorbina valvulata Jones and Parker (?), Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. 28,
p. 114, 1872.-Goss. Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 19, No. 4,
p. 106, pl. 8, figs. 258-261, 1882.-Woodward, The Observer, vol. 4,
p. 176, 1893.-Gois, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zobl., vol. 29, p. 69, 1896.
Discorbis valvulata Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 59, pl. 14,
figs. 4, 5, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 344, p. 78, 1926;
Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 53, pl. 10, figs. 5a-o, 1930.
Test longer than broad, piano-convex, spire very low and compressed,
ventral side flattened or concave, periphery with a rounded keel;
chambers distinct, increasing rather rapidly in size, on the ventral
side with a distinct valvular lip over the umbilical region; sutures
on the dorsal side somewhat thickened, not depressed, curved, ven-
trally sinuate; wall smooth, finely perforate; aperture elongate,
narrow, below the valvular projection of the chamber near the
umbilicus.
This species is not at all common, but we have found occasional
specimens which may be referred to it from rather widely separated
parts of the section as will be shown by the table. As a Recent
species it is also rather widely distributed in the West Indian region,
but is never represented by many specimens at any one station.






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Genus LAMAROKINA Berthelin, 1881
LAMARCKINA ATLANTICA Cushman
Plate 13, figures 7a-c
Lamarokicna atlantica Cushman, U, S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 35, pl. 7,
figs. 7a-c, 1931.
Test slightly longer than broad, biconvex, ventral side the more
strongly convex, umbilicate, periphery keeled and subacute; chambers
rapidly increasing in size as added, the last-formed chamber on the
ventral side making up nearly half the area of the test; sutures
slightly limbate, slightly depressed on the dorsal side, more strongly
so on the ventral side; all very slightly roughened on the dorsal side,
smooth and polished on the ventral side; aperture at the umbilical
end of the chamber ventrally.
This species was originally described from off the coast of Florida
in 22 fathoms. The only record for it in our Miocene material is
from the middle zone of the Shoal River formation where it is well
developed and fairly common. The species is evidently the same
as the Recent one from the same general region. It is most easily
confused with Cancris sagra with which it occurs at this station, but
the Lamarckina has very strongly limbate sutures in the early portion
which are raised above the surface, the ventral side, as usual in the
genus, is highly polished, and the umbilical depression is large and
deep.
Genus VALVULINERIA Cushman, 1926
VALVULINERIA FLORIDANA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 54, pl. 10, figs. 6a-c, 1930.)

Test biconvex, somewhat involute on the dorsal side, almost
completely so on the ventral side, periphery rounded, early portion
somewhat angled; chambers inflated, especially on the ventral side,
very distinct; sutures distinct, nearly radial, only slightly curved,
not limbate; wall smooth, polished; aperture below the distinct plate-
like extension of the umbilical end of the chamber.
This species was described from the Arca.zone of the Choctawhatchee
formation in Bulletin 4. We have found it to be rather widely
distributed in our further studies. Outside the original position in
the Area zone we have a single station in the Ecphora zone, but none
in either the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee or the Oak
Grove sand. It has, however, occurred at all three zones of the
Shoal River and also in the Chipola formation. It has as a whole a
polished test and distinct flap-like extension from the aperture which
distinguished it from the other related forms from the Florida
Miocene.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN. NINE,


Subfamily Rotaliinae
Genus EPONIDES Montfort, 1808
EPONIDES MANSFIELDI Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 54, pl. 11, figs. la-o, 1930.)
This species previously described from the Choctawhatchee occurs
abundantly in the lower zones particularly, and occurs also in two
zones of the Shoal River, but we have no specimens from either the
Oak Grove or the Chipola formation. It has been recorded from
the Miocene of California, and also occurs in the Miocene of the
Atlantic Coastal Plain northward from Florida. There is consider-
able variation in the amount of the limbation of the sutures of the
dorsal side and of the granular character of the ventral side.
EPONIDES LATERALIS (Terquem)
Plate 13, figures 8a-o
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 55, pl. 10, figs. 7a-c, 1930.)
In the previous bulletin this species was recorded from two stations
in the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. Our later
studies have shown it to be confined to that portion of the section,
but we have it from numerous stations within that zone. It is some-
what similar to the following species, both of which are figured here
for comparison. E. lateralis is usually a much more compressed
species with the dorsal side very strongly limbate, the sutures raised,
and the ventral side of the last-formed chamber with large
perforations.
EPONIDES REPANDUS (Fichtel and Moll)
Plate 13, figures 9a-o
Nautilus repandus Fichtel and Moll, Test. Micr., p. 35, pl. 3, figs. a-d, 1798.
Eponides repandus Montfort, Conch. Syst., vol. 1, p. 127, 32e genre, 1808.-
Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 3, pl. 16, fig. 9, 1927;
Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Special Publ. No. 1, pl. 40, fig. 1; pl. 41,
fig. 9, 1928.-Cushman and Kellett, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 75,
Art. 25, p. 11, pl. 4, figs. 7a-o, 1929.-Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull.
104, pt. 8, p. 49, pl. 10, figs. 7a-c, 1931.
Pulvinulina repanda Carpenter, Introd. Foram., p. 210, 1862.-H. B. Brady,
Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, p. 684, pl. 104, figs. 18a-c, 1884.
This species differs from the preceding in the Miocene material,
in the shape of the test which is strongly plano-convex, the dorsal
side being usually flattened and the ventral side strongly convex,
the chambers fewer, usually five or six, and the last chamber usually
without perforations. This species which is characteristic of warm
shallow water, frequently has the wall flaked off due to its structure
and ease of erosion so that the characters are often obscured. Our






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


specimens are only from the Chipola formation where it is not
common. It is recorded living from numerous stations off the coast
of Florida in comparatively shallow water.

EPONIDES ANTILLARUM, (d'Orbigny)
Plate 14, figures la-c
Rotalina antillarum d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminiferes," p. 75, pl. 5, figs. 4-6, 1839.
Truncatulina antillarum Fornasini, Mem. Accad. Sci. Istit. Bologna, ser. 5,
vol. 10, p. 63, 1902.-Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 57,
pl. 13, figs. 6-8, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 48, 1922.
Pulvinulina incePata Cushman, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 51,
pl. 9, figs. 1-3, 1922; Publ. 344, p. 79, 1926.
Epolides antillarum Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 42, pl. 9,
figs. 2a-c, 1931.
Test unequally biconvex, dorsal side somewhat more convex than
the ventral, periphery subacute; chambers numerous, seven or eight
in the last-formed coil; sutures oblique, rather indistinct and very
slightly if at all depressed on the dorsal side, nearly radiate and
somewhat depressed on the ventral side; wall fairly thick, finely
punctate, otherwise smooth, ventrally somewhat umbilicate, the
apertural face of the last-formed chamber obliquely angled; aperture
elongate, at the base of the last-formed chamber.
d'Orbigny described this species in his Cuban monograph, and it
has been largely neglected since. It is, however, common off the
coast of Florida and in the West Indies. It has proved to be rare
in our collections from the Miocene, and the only stations are from
the middle zone of the Shoal River and a single station in the Chipola.
The species is a very well characterized one, and probably represents
a later development of the general form recorded from the Eocene
and Oligocene of the general Gulf Coastal Plain as E. byramensis,
E. jacksonensis, etc.

Genus ROTALIA Lamarck, 1804
ROTALIA BECCARII (Linn6), var. PARKINSONIANA (d'Orbigny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 56, pl. 11, figs. 3a-c, 1930.)
This variety was previously recorded in Bulletin 4 from the upper
three zones of the Choctawhatchee formation. In our more recent
collections we have it from a number of stations in the Cancellaria
zone and at one station in the YoldUa zone of the Choctawhatchee,
and specimens also from the Cardiinb bed and the middle zone of
the Shoal River, from the Oak Grove, and at one station in the
Chipola formation.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


Subfamily Siphonininae
Genus SIPHONINA Reuss, 1849
SIPHONINA JACKSONENSIS Cushman and Applln, var. LIMBOSA Cushman
Plate 14, figures 2a-c
Siphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin, var. limbosa Cushman, Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 72, Art. 20, p. 5, pl. 4, fig. 2, 1927.
We have a single specimen from the middle zone of the Shoal
River' formation which is here figured and which resembles very
strongly this species originally described from the Alazan Clay of
Mexico. The periphery is somewhat keeled and serrate while the
sutures are very limbate in character.

Subfamily Baggininae
Genus CANCRIS Montfort, 1808
CANCRIS SAGRA (d'Orblgny)
Plate 14, figures 3a-c
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 56, pl. 11, figs. 4a-c, 1930.)
This species is one of the most abundant in the Florida Miocene,
occurring at nearly all. the stations in the four zones of the Choc-
tawhatchee and at all of the stations in the Shoal River, but there
are no specimens from the Oak Grove or the Chipola formations.
This is probably accounted for by the fact that the species is usually
more common in fairly deep water although there are records for
it in shoal water off the coast of Florida and in the West Indies. At
some stations the species shows a great deal of variation in the
position of the chambers, especially the last ones which are added in
a different plane from the previous ones. The last chambers are
also often very much expanded and rounded. It may be distinguished
from Lamarckina by the ventral surface which is very finely perforate
instead of being polished and does not have an open umbilical area.
The last chamber also has a clear lunate area at the ventral side.

Family AMPHISTEGINIDAE
Genus ASTERIGERINA d'Orbigny, 1839
ASTERIGERINA CARINATA d'Orblgny
Asterigerina carinata d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
"Foraminiferes," p. 118, pl. 5, fig. 25, pl. 6, figs. 1, 2, 1839.-Cushman,
Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 291, p. 45, 1919; Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., vol. 59, p. 60, pl. 14, figs. 6-8, 1921; Carnegie Instit. Washington,
Publ. 311, p. 54, pl. 9, figs. 4-6, 1922; Cushman- Lab. Foram. Res.,
Special Publ. No. 1, pl. 42, fig. 1; pl. 44, fig. 4, 1928; U. S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 77, pl. 15, figs. 4, 5, 1931.
Test unequally biconvex, coiled, the dorsal side very slightly
convex, the ventral side strongly so, almost conical; chambers numer-





THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


ous, about three coils, six or seven forming the last-formed coil;
sutures oblique, very slightly limbate, produced to form a slight
translucent keel, sutures curved and oblique on the dorsal side, on
the ventral side the supplementary chambers extending nearly to the
periphery, forming rhomboid areas, sutures distinct and depressed;
wall smooth, finely punctate and usually glistening, often somewhat
roughened by lines of small granules near the aperture, which is
an elongate, narrow slit, extending from the umbilical region about
halfway to the periphery, and usually with a slight thin lip.
This is a rather common and 'characteristic West Indian species
particularly in shallow water. It is one of those species that would
be expected to be found rather commonly in the Chipola samples as
the conditions in which they wei'e deposited must have been very
close to those of the warm shallow waters of the West Indian region
at the present time. It is very surprising, therefore, to have found
only one specimen in the Chipola formation.

ASTERIGERINA MIOCENICA Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 14, figures 4a.-c
Test small, much compressed, nearly equally biconvex, -periphery
with a distinct, thin keel of clear shell material; six or seven chambers
in the last-formed whorl, large, with the intermediate asterigerine
chambers small; sutures not limbate nor depressed; wall rather
coarsely perforate; aperture on the ventral side, small, midway
between the umbilical area and the periphery along the ventral
margin of the chamber.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16322) from the Oak Grove sand
at Tanner's Mill (Old Senterfeit's Mill) 4 miles southwest of Laurel
Hill, Okaloosa County.
This is a very small inconspicuous species, and has only occurred
at the type station from which there are several specimens. It is a
much smaller and a much more compressed species than the preceding.
Genus AMPHISTEGINA d'Orbigny, 1826
AMPHISTEGINA LESSONII' d'Orbigny
Plate 14, figures 5a-c
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 57, pl. 11, figs. 5a-c, 1930.)
Rather typical specimens of this species, which has previously
been recorded from the upper Cancellw'ia zone of the Choctawhatchee,
were found at two stations. They are large and well developed with
a subacute periphery, and the test lenticular, often slightly more
convex on one side than on the other. This is close to Recent material
from the West Indies. There are rather fragmentary specimens from





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


two stations in the Area zone of the Choctawhatchee which are not'
well enough preserved to be given any specific determination, but
which in some respects resemble this species rather than the
following.
AMPHISTEGINA FLORIDANA Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 14, figures 6, 7
Test fairly large, usually plano-convex or unequally biconvex,
periphery subacute; chambers margined but without a keel, and in
the adult the periphery becomes somewhat lobulated, on the dorsal
side the chambers become distinctly evolute, with ten or more
chambers in the final whorl, inflated; sutures distinct, in the early
stages somewhat limbate, and on the dorsal side with a distinct angle
toward or about at the inner third, in the adult becoming very much
lessened or entirely a simple curve, on the ventral side with the
intermediate chambers short and irregularly rhomboid, sutures
strongly curved especially in the early portion, becoming more nearly
straight in the adult; wall distinctly perforate, otherwise smooth
except about the aperture which is papillate; aperture on the ventral
side between the periphery and the umbilical region.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16323) from the upper zone of the
Chipola formation, bed of Econfina Creek, Bryant Scott's farm, Sec.
28, T. 2 N., R. 12 W., Bay County.
This seems to be a very distinctive species, occurring only in the
Oak Grove sand and at one station in the upper Chipola. It is very
distinct from A. lessonii in the pronounced evolute character of the
adult. The young stages show much less of this character, and the
periphery is distinctly carinate in many of the young specimens, but
in the adult this is lost and the evolute character becomes very
pronounced.
AMPHISTEGINA CHIPOLENSIS Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 15, figures la-c
Test unequally biconvex, the ventral side strongly convex and
prominently umbonate with a large clear boss, -periphery sharp and
very distinct, marinate; three or more chambers in the adult, not
inflated, in the adult becoming slightly evolute, the test very trans-
parent so that all the chambers are visible to the interior through the
clear test wall, from the ventral side the early chambers are also
visible through the clear umbonate region when wet; sutures slightly
limbate, those of the dorsal side with a slight angle toward the inner
end, strongly curved, on the ventral side rather evenly and strongly.
curved, the intermediate chambers more or less irregular in shape,
pointed toward the outer end; wall distinctly perforate, smooth,






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


except about the apertural end which is strongly papillate; aperture
at the base of the ventral border of the last-formed chamber.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16325) from the typical Chipola
formation, Tenmile Creek, 1/ mile below bridge on Marianna-
Clarkesville road, 22 miles south of Marianna, Calhoun County.
This species which is the ancestral form of the preceding has a
very distinct keel throughout its development. The intermediate
chambers on the ventrali side are much less definitely rhomboid than
in the preceding, and the test does not become so distinctly evolute.
These three species of Amplbistegina are characteristic, the first of
the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee, the second of the Oak
Grove and upper Chipola,. and the last species characteristic of the
typical Chipola, being found at a majority of the stations in that
formation.
Family CASSIDULINIDAE
Subfamily Ceratobulimininae
Genus PULVINULINELLA Cushman, 1926
PULVINULINELLA PONTONI Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 57, pl. 11, figs. 2a-c, 1930.)
This small but distinctive species which was previously described
in Bulletin 4 from the Area and Ecphora zones of the Choetawhatchee
has been found in our later collections. These have extended its
range into all four zones of the Choctawhatchee, but it is most
abundant in the Area zone with specimens also occurring in the
Cardium and type beds of the Shoal River formation. No specimens
have been found in either the Oak Grove or the Chipola formations.

Subfamily Cassidulininae
Genus CASSIDULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
CASSIDULINA CRASSA d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 58, pl. 11, figs. 6a, b, 1930.)
This species was found as in the earlier report from the Cancellaria,
Ecphora and Area zones of the Choctawhatchee. No specimens have
been found below the Area zone.

CASSIDULINA LAEVIGATA d'Orblgny, var. CARINATA Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 58, pl. 11, figs. 7a,, b, 1930.)
The previous report recorded this from the three upper zones of
the Choctawhatchee, and later material has shown it to be present
also in the Yoldia zone of the Choctawhatchee as well as in all three
zones of the Shoal River formation. No specimens were found in
the Oak Grove or Chipola formations.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN NINE


CASSIDULINA CHIPOLENSIS Cushman and Ponton, n. sp.
Plate 15, figures 2a-o
Test minute, consisting of subglobular chambers, four pairs making
up the last whorl, periphery strongly lobulated; chambers very dis-
tinct, inflated, in alternating pairs at each side of the axis of coiling
extending over slightly onto the opposite side at the periphery;
sutures deeply depressed, distinct; wall smooth, finely perforate;
aperture a definite elongate opening in the line of coiling.
Holotype (Cushman Coll. No. 16326) from the Chipola formation,
1/2 mile below type locality on west bank of Chipola River at mouth
of Senterfeit Branch, Calhoun County.
This species also occurs in the Chipola at Tenmile Creek. It is a
very small, easily overlooked species, but very distinct in the char-
acter of its globular chambers.
Genus CASSIDULINOIDES Cushman, 1927
CASSIDULINOIDES BRADYI Cushman
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 58, pl. 11, figs. 8a, b, 1930.)
This species was previously recorded from the Area zone of the
Choctawhatchee formation in Bulletin 4. Our later material has
shown it to be present also in the Ecphora zone, and there are typical
specimens from the middle and typical zones of the Shoal River
formation. There are no records for it in either the Oak Grove or
Chipola formations which is not surprising as this is for the most
part a species of deeper rather than shoal water.

Family CHILOSTOMELLIDAE
Subfamily Chilostomellinae
Genus CHILOSTOMELLA Reuss, 1850
CHILOSTOMELLA OOLINA Schwager
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 59, 1930.)
The single broken specimen from a station in the Area zone of the
Choctawhatchee, as reported in Bulletin No. 4 is the only record of
this species.
Family GLOBIGERINIDAE
Subfamily Globigerininae
Genus GLOBIGERINA d'Orbigny, 1826
There are in some of the samples a considerable number of Globi-
gerinidae which it seems wise to leave until a study of the type
specimens can be made.
Genus GLOBIGERINOIDES Cushman, 1927
The preceding remarks apply to this genus also as far as the fossil
representatives are concerned.






THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE MIOCENE OF FLORIDA


Genus HASTIGERINA Wyville Thompson, 1876
HASTIGERINA PELAGICA (d'Orbigny)
Quite a number of fragments which apparently belong to this
species were found in samples from the Cancellaria zone to the Yoldia
zone of the Choctawhatchee but only two entire specimens were
found, one from the Ecpwora. zone at Darling Slide, Calhoun County,
one from the Yoldia zone on the Chester Spence farm, Walton County.
It is interesting to note that this species ranges downward into
the Miocene. The only other fossil record for it is apparently that
of Schubert from the late Tertiary probably Pliocene of the Bismarck
Archipelago in the Pacific.

Subfamily Orbulininae
Genus ORBULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
ORBULINA UNIVERSE d'Orblgny
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 59, 1930.)
Specimens of this species are most common in the Arca and Yoldia
zones of the Choctawhatchee but are represented in all the zones of
the Florida Miocene.

Family GLOBOROTALIIDAE
Genus GLOBOROTALIA Cushman, 1927
GLOBOROTALIA MENARDII (d'Orbigny)
(See Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 60, pl. 12, figs. la-c, 1930.)
Our recent studies of new material have shown this species to be
present in all the zones from the lower Shoal River to the upper
Choctawhatchee. No specimens have, however, occurred in either
the Oak Grove or Chipola formations. This being a species of deep
water or pelagic, it is not surprising to find it absent from these two
formations which are represented for the most part by shoal water
conditions.
Genus CYCLOLOCULINA Heron-Allen and Earland, 1908
CYCLOLOCULINA MIOCENICA Cushman and Ponton
Plate 15, figures 3, 4
Cycloloculina miocenica Cushman and Ponton, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram.
Res., vol. 8, p. 3, pl. 1, figs. 3, 4, 1932.
Test circular, very much compressed, periphery rounded, the two
sides either flattened or even slightly concave toward the center;
early chambers subglobular, rapidly increasing in breadth as added
until annular chambers are formed, after which chambers of this
sort are continued throughout the development; sutures fairly
distinct, very slightly depressed; wall very coarsely perforate, and


99