Miocene vertebrates from Florida. Miocene land mammals from Florida, by George Gaylord Simpson. New heteromyid rodents ...

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Material Information

Title:
Miocene vertebrates from Florida. Miocene land mammals from Florida, by George Gaylord Simpson. New heteromyid rodents from the Miocene of Florida, by Albert Elmer Wood. Aphelops from the Hawthorn formation of Florida, ( FGS: Bulletin 10 )
Series Title:
Bulletin (Florida State Geological Survey)
Physical Description:
58 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Simpson, George Gaylord, 1902-
Wood, Albert Elmer, 1910-
Colbert, Edwin Harris, 1905-
Donor:
unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1932

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mammals, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Miocene   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Florida
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Edwin H. Colbert.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1644
notis - AKM4771
alephbibnum - 002037010
oclc - 03561559
lccn - gs 33000027
System ID:
UF00000443:00001


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FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist








MIOCENE VERTEBRATES FROM FLORIDA


MIOCENE LAND MAMMALS FROM FLORIDA

BY GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON


NEW HETEROMYID RODENTS FROM THE MIOCENE

OF FLORIDA
BY ALBERT ELMER WOOD


APHELOPS FROM THE HAWTHORN FORMATION
OF FLORIDA

BY EDWIN H. COLBERT








Published for
THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
SA T T A l A HfF1 1019






55


PUBLISHED DECEMBER 30,


1932


~t3 to


t-: b






LETTER


TRANSMITTAL


Excellency,


Hon


Doyle


Carlt on,


Gov


ernor


Florida.


have


honor


submit


herewith


publication


as Bulletin


Florida


Geological


Survey


report


with


major


title


MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


consisting


a series


three


papers


different


authors.


They


relate


to a


very important series of fossils found


by the


Florida


Geological


Survey at Midway,
in Gilchrist County


Gadsden


The


County


Tallaha


ssee,


Leon


County


and


last named locality is new and has already


yielded
Florida
greater
edge of


some


indeed


best


in any


Miocene


eastern State.


vertebrate


material


This locality will be


found
worked


detail for it gives promise of adding much more to our knowl-


extinct


mammals.


These


expense


papers


have


been


contributed


the Florida Geological


urvey


authors


other than


that of


without
prepar-


ng the


illustration


is a pleasure


acknowledge


generous


cooperation on


the part of The American Museum of Natural History


through


. George


Gaylord


Simpson,


Associate


Curator


Verte-


brate Paleontology


. It wa


through Dr


Simpson


that the two shorter


papers


Mr.


Colbert


and


Mr.


Albert


Elmer


Wood


were


arranged


Respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,


State


Tallahassee,
October


Geologist.


Florida


< dJ6f






































*





*




f












































*


















































*
































































*






















*








CONTENTS


PAGE


Miocene Land Mammals from Florida


, by George Gaylord


Simpson,


(Figures


to 23)


New


Heteromyid Rodents from


Albert Elmer


Wood.


the Miocene of Florida


(Figures 24 to 29)


Aphelops from the Hawthorn Formation of Florida,


Edwin H.


Colbert.


(Figure 30)


ILLUSTRATION


PAGES


Cynodesmeus


Cynod


6, 7, 10, 12,13.


8,9,11.


esmus8


Amph&icyon
Parahippus
Merl/chippus


nobilias
Gcal (I u


a1


* 19
.* 21


leonenlsi
gunteri


S 21


,24,


22,


14, 15, 16, 17.


18, 19.
20, 21.


Archaeoh.ippus nanus


Anlchitheriumn


Oxydactylus


. 28, 29, 30


clarencci


floridanus


A, Blastomeryxr.
? Tanupolama


, FDromomeryx


mirifica


24, 25.
26-28.


Proh cteromys


florlidanus


Proheteromys magnus


Heteromyid,


et. sp.


indet.


. 29


Teeth of Aphelops sp. and left proximal phalanx


Oxydactylus


. 53


Figures






















MIOCENE


LAND


MAMMALS


FROM FLORIDA


GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON


THE


AMERICAN


MUSEUM


NATURAL


HISTORY,


NEW


YORK,







CONTENTS


PAGE


Introduction
Geologic Occurrence


Correlation


Description


* 11
* . 1.


of. Species


Rodentia


Heteromyidle


S* 17


Carnivora


Canidre


Cynod


C8111smu


nobilis, new species


Cynodesmus cantavus,


Canids


new


species


indet


* . 17
10

S . 20s


Amphicyon sp.


Perissodactyla


. . 20


S. .. 21


Equidae!


Parahippus leoncnsis Sellards
Merychippus gunteri Simpson .
Archwohippus naus, new species


* a a . a 21
S. 21


. . 21
S28


Archlwohippus
Anchitherium


nanust


clarcncci


, new


species


Rhinocerotidre


Aphelops sp.


.31


. . 32

.. 34


. a a 34


Artiodactyla. . . . . . . . 34
Oreodontidie . . . 34


Camelidfe


Oxydactylus


floridanus,


new


species


* 4 35


cf. Miolabis sp. indet.


Camelid


Cervidre


. 37

S38


Blastomeryw
?Dromomeryx


marsh/i


Lull


amner'icanus


Douglass


38


. . 38


Cervid


indet.


Note on the Pleistocene


S . . 38


S. a : . . . . 39)


37


indet.







MIOCENE


LAND


MAMMALS


FROM FLORIDA


By GEORGE GAYLORD


SIMPSON


INTRODUCTION


a previous


known


of Miocene


paper1 I have


given


land mammals in


a revision c
Florida and


that


discussed


was


then


their


and


occurrence.


Five


localitie


were


then


listed


each


with


a small


fauna known


only


from


a few


isolated specimens,


most


part


doubtful


identification,


although


their


Miocene


and


general


character were established.
Renewed work by the Florida State Geological Survey now permits


a very substantial additional contribution and


reconsideration


problems


involved


Further


work


Midway


locality


resulted in
character


the discovery


those


many new specimens,


previously


found


there


much


adding


same


some


new


records, especially a series of tiny rodents2 and additions to the known


carnivores and ungulates.


Most important is the discovery by


Clar-


ence Simpson of a new Miocene locality, here referred to a


the Thoma


Farm,


from


which


came


specimens


incomparably


better


than


any


others yet found in


the Miocene of


any


eastern


State.


This


locality


has been worked at intervals during the past year,


especially by G. M.


Ponton and J


Clarence Simpson.


The resulting collection was placed


in my
series


History


hands


duplicates


study


Herman


presented


The drawings


in thi


Gunter,


State


American


paper


Geologist,


Museum


Mrs.


Mildred


and


Natural
Clemans.


GEOLOGIC OCCURRENCE


The


came
south


specimen


from


previously


pit's


town


known
Fuller


Midway


Very


from


Earth


few


Midway,


Company


were


Gadsden


County,


one-half


in place,


mile
wad


determined


that most or all


came from


immediately


above


upper


two


beds


commercial


fullers


earth.


The


new


specimens


from


two


sandy
beds.


Quincy


the same


stratum


The
(the


locality


just


from


below


connection


Floridin


between


Company)


a horizon


upper


these


fuller


beds


cannot


few


earth


Midway


traced


feet


lower,


between


and


those


continuously


but


.in all


they


seem


probability,


correspond


from


and


new


exactly the same


specimens


horizon


as those


therefore,
previously






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


fuller


earth


show


no observable distinctions


and


is evident


that


the apparent unconformity below this sandy stratum i


and


a local feature


does not represent a determinable time gap.


Data


regarding


Thomas


Farm


locality


been


upplied


Ponton


house on


Assistant


State


Geologist.


what is known as Thomas


The


locality


old farm, is in


near


Gilchrist


an old
County


about


miles


west


High


Springs.


The


bones


come


from


shallow circular depression about two


hundred fifty feet in diameter,


lowest


point,


somewhat


eccentric


about


fifteen


feet


below


level


on which


stands


old house.


After the discovery


surface


specimens, a deep elongate pit wa


dug and


much additional material


found.


urely


The enlargement


disclose


more


this pit,


specimens


and


in suitably


is much


dry weather,
)e desired bu


would


must


await further opportunity


The section


encountered


was as


follows


Surface.


sandy


loam.


-18"


sticky brown


clay with


occasional random


bones


, poorly


preserved.


-24"


mixture


clay


and


limestone


with


many


limestone


pebbles


to 4"


in diameter.


Many


random


bones,


poorly


preserved.


bone


tratum in friable limestone matrix-the best preserved


bones.


friable


estone


without


bones.


bone


stratum


but some good


in friable
material.


limestone


matrix-bones


crushed


friable


limestone


without


bones.


bone


stratum


poorly


preserved


recovery


friable


limestone


without


bones.


Beds


contain


occasional


limestone


pebble


diameter


beds have


been subjected


to slumping and


slipping


and


mnna


rnnm


hair


alvn


oan ie


Inoal


m onlpm pnt


Pdri


L. l.L t J--'$L'* tJ ,tIL Ut t. *t_ A.IJ tv t4. ** JVja&/L La L tr L A tiL


9 all


4


I; 1Ikl Il ll s


I




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


There


two


possibilities in


interpretation


these


facts.


is possible


that there


was


once here a


section


threee


marine forma.-


tion


: Hawthorn


, Tampa


and


Ocala


and


that


subsequent


erosion


and solution


have destroyed


Hawthorn


as s


and


concentrated


fossils,


together with


residual


Tampa and


Ocala


in this


sink-hole.


The other interpretation i


that the sink-hole


or a


similar anteeessor


was
bone


and


active
strata
Ocala


buried.


in Hawthorn


were


time


formed


material


and
hole


which


Data


coveredC


being


ed with


contemporary


numerous


enou


land


residual
mammal


decision


when


Tampa


were
from


delicacy


tration
animals


and


in definite


relative


strata


Hawthorn


completeness


and


age"


absence


latter


remains,
E marine


hypothesi


now


their


concen-


or estuarine


seems


more


probable).'


The apparent purity of the fauna agrees with the evidence


against


much


transportation


in suggesting


that


this


is an original


deposit of the a


of the youngest fauna


(that of


land mammal


and


one


subsequently


reworked


or concentrated.


AGE AND CORRELATION


In my previous


revision


(1930,


cit.)


it was tentatively concluded


that the Miocene fauna


one Lower


Miocene


then


, perhaps


known


from


about Lower


Florida
Harrison


were


two ages,


the other


Middle


Miocene
Griscom
latter b
Quincy.


about


Sheep


Plantation


those


view is


and
the


Creek.


The


Franklin
Cummer


first


Phospha
Lumber


was


represented


Company


Company


faunas


Midway,


now to be somewhat modified in detail


the
and


although


confirmed in essentials.


The time interval covered by the best known


launa


that of Thoma


probably


than


s Farm
Lower


(not


then known)


Harrison


through


and


Sheep


that of Midway


Creek.


The


Cummer


Lumber


Company


locality


furnished


only


specimen
ignored.


from


Merychippmu


The


Midway


unknown


Quincy fauna is identical


so that whatever


is said


exact


with and


origin


and


less rich


latter


may


than


applie


that
both.


a well


at Tallaha


-nIoanrhoA hn


ssee


were


found Aphelops sp.


tha nioonrnannvino' nontp


.V I 1 *.


and


,inlhmrt


Oxydactylus
flnnarpntlv


L. .


I


I


I






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


Franklin
Phosphate
Company


Griscom


Plantation


Thomas


Midway


Farm


RODENTIA
Heteromyidre


Proheteromiys
Proheteromys


magnus


floridan us


CARNIVORA
Canidie


?TemnoeUyon


- ?Cynodearnus iamlonenflsis


Cynodesmus ltobllis


Cynodesmuss
?Tomrarctus
Amphicyon
?Am phicyon


aor ? odesvus
or 7Cynodesmnus


pontonf
sp.


PERISSODACTYLA
Equidie
Parahippus leonensis


Parahippus o0
Archwohlippus
Arch wohippus
Meryehippus
Anchitheriumn
Rhinocerotidie


?Aphelops
?Ownopus


r Archweohippus
noanus
ef. nanus
guntori


clarentce


or Diceratherium


ARTIODACTYLA
Entelodontidfe


Dinohyus


Oreodontidae


Gen.


indet.


Camelidae


ctylus1


Oxydactylus
ef. Miolabis


Camelids indet.
Cervidse
Blastomerywv cf


floridan us
?floridanus
sp.


ma8rshi


?Blastomeryx


?Dromomeryr cf.


am n ericanu 18


-'6 a a t


Oxayda




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


definitely


differ


as to


species.


might


about


equivalent


Griscom


necessarily


Plantation


vague


and


Thomas
personal


Farm


localities


impression)


(and


might


rather


older.


The


other


three


faunas


while


without


any


one


species


common


to all


three


, clearly


cover a fairly


limited span.


Griscom


Plantation


and


Thomas


Farm


have


Parahippus


leonensis


and


probably


also


Oxydactylus


floridainus


in common


and


?Cynodesrnus


iafonetsWis


rather
species.


that


close


The


from


two


Thomas
faunas a


Griscom


Farm


dogs,


probably


Plantation


although
about eq


very


poorly


clearly


luivalent,


known.


a distinct
although


Thomas


Farm and Midway have,


beyond much doubt,


one species in common


Anchitheriwum


clarencei,


and


there


is a general


imunpression


that


they


are of


about the same age.


But not exactly so, for where one would


expect correspondence


dogs


from


other


Midway


respects


same


is not


as those


exact.


from


The


Thomas


known
Farm.


Archceohippu


occurs


both,


that


from


Midway


appears


differ


from


related


Thoma


Farm


species.


The


camels


and


cervids,


while


poorly


known


, are clearly not


the same species


on the


basis


known


Parahippu s


absence
relative


specimens.
leonensis


Midway where


whole


Most


important


n abundance
Merychippus


fauna.


occurrence


Thomas


g uwteri


discussed


Farm


is equally


below,


these


and


abundant


species,


although referred to different genera, appear really to be very closely
allied and may even be immediately ancestral and descendant.


The


most


probable


tentative


conclusion


that


Thomas


Farm


and Midway faunas are


nearly


contemporaneous,


that


from


Midway


being


slightly


later.


Comparing with


western sequence,


rodents are


of Miocene,


perhaps Lower


Miocene


aspect,


but not


exactly


correlated.


Among carnivores,
Farm compare with I


Cynodesmus nobilis and C. canc
iower Miocene species from the


wits from Thomas
West and belong


to a genus probably exclusively


Lower


Miocene.


Amphicyon


pontoni


from


Midway,


as previously


shown


seems


most comparable


lower


Middle


Miocnene


forms


from


West.


- ~- --- y- -1 - -- --


~r*-- yV-






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


theriurm clarencei is comparable to and in some respects intermediate


between Lower


and Middle Miocene


western


species.


Aphelops sp. from the Tallahassee well is of Middle Miocene aspect.


Oxydactylus


floridanus


belongs


a Lower


Miocene


group,


so far


as it


affinities can now be read, and appears to


be a rather advanced


member


that


group.


The


Midway


camels


seem


somewhat


more


progressive,


although


evidence


is very


poor


and


this


may


be illusory.


The


either


Midway
Lower or


cervids,
Middle


identified


Miocene in


only


in a


tentative


way,


could


age.


Both fauna


have affinities


with


both Lower


and


Middle


Miocene,


that
that
these


Thoma


from


two


Midway
faunas,


Farm


with


toward


and


also


perhaps


Middle.


other


a leaning


The


toward


evidence


well


known


Lower,


suggests
faunas


that
from


Florida


Miocene,


cover


transition


from


Lower


Middle


Miocene, perhaps roughly between the Upper


Harrison and the Lower


Sheep


Creek.


The


marine


evidence


is in accord


with


this


view


Tampa


early


Lower


distinctly


Limestone


Miocene
Miocene


older


than


these


Hawthorn,


and


faunas,


equivalent


a somewhat


extensive


well
last


faunas


ill-defined


range


in the


tawhatchee


lower


and


apparently


middle


later


part


than


that


land


epoch


faunas


while
covers


Choc-


a consid-


erable


range


in the later


Miocene.


The


general


faun


relations


between


Florida


and


western


stat


Nebraska


example,


Miocene


now


still


more


clearly


one.


shown.
t show;


The


Florida fauna


no especial


is a


relations


continental North


any


other


American


region


is it


insular


or otherwise


strikingly


peculiar


in character,


is made


the same general


elements in


about


same


proportions


as a


normal


western


plains


Miocene


fauna.


no distinctive


genus


(except Proheteromys)


has been discovered in it.


When good material


been


found


, however,


species


have


so far


proven


dif-


ferent from


any


known


west of


Mississippi.


short


Nebraska


and


Florida


then


were


in the


same


faunal


realm


and


region.


The




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


DESCRIPTIONS


SPECIES


RODENTIA
Heteromyidte


A number of teeth and isolated bones of heteromyid


were recovered


. Clarence


been examined by


Simpson


from


Albert Elmer


matrix
Wood,


from


Midway.


These


have


who is publishing descriptions


of them in this Bulletin.


He has provided the following


identification


Proheteronmys


* magnus


Wood,
Wood,


new genus.
new species.


florida.nus,


Wood,


new


species.


Rodent


are not otherwise represented in


the known


pre-Pleistocene


fauna


Florida.


CARNIVORA
Canide


CYNODESMUS


NOBILIS,


new spec


TYPE.--F


V-5255


left


lower


jaw with P3-M.


rs. V-5255


-----_____.-
-~
-a^






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


(left) .--ynodesmus


nobilis, new species. Paratype.


Right


external


crown views. Two-I
ural size.

Fig.3 (right).--C
nobilis, new species.


F. S.


V-5259.


thirds


and
nat-


ynodesmntus
Paratype.
Right M1-


M2. external and crown views.


Two-thirds


natural


size.


HORIZON


AND


LOCALITY.-Hawthorn


Formation


Miocene.


Thomas


Farm,


Gilchrist


County, Florida


DIAGNOSIS


s.--A


relatively


large


Cyowdesmus


with


small


lower


pre-


molars and large Mk2.


Lower molar heels large and


well


basined.


Jaw


slender.


-2 strongly


little


transverse


oblique,


talon


, hypocone


small


a definite


, closely


basin


appressed.


, projecting


sharply posterointernally,


cingulum


continuous
a ,*


around


base


protocone.


Metaconule


relatively


siniall


and


much


displaced


internally,


parastyle small.


This interesting species is clearly a


true canine in


the Cynodioti


Cynodesms-Tonmarctus


line.


The


degree


evolution


seems


correspond with


. little


Cynodesmzzs most closely


displaced


metaconule


and


It still has the transverse


other


features


Cynodictis,


more


anteroposterior


carnassial


shear


and


some


other


advanced


.species,
genus,


characters


it appears to


but


that


species


Tomarctus.


be closest to


is over


the heels of M'-' less strong and


less


Among


Cynodesm s


smaller
oblique,


previously


thobides,


and


less
heel


described


type


transverse,


distinctly


basined.


brachypucs is


about


same size,


lower premolars are relatively larger, M2


relatively smaller, -the molar


heels smaller and


narrower.


JA..'.V


iaw


'. A.'J


mner-the


inner


earnassial


FS. V-5256


I l


P'-M1





MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


This- species


closely


resembles


"Mesocyou


Sellards


from


Griscom Plantation.


however


types and


paratypes


. nobilis


correctly


associated,


as seems


reasonably


certain,


the species are distinct.


Even the smallest specimens of C


nobilis are


larger than


more


oblique,
nally.


internally


hypocon,
It seeing


type


and


basin


probable,


2 is very
stronger


and


however,


The


talon


, relatively


projecting


that


Sellards'


more p
species


projects


larger,


more


osterointer-


belongs


Cynodesmus and not in Mesocyonu


where


he tentatively placed it.


there


eight


specimen


almost


surely


referable


this


species,
extreme
beyond


and


they


show


some


the structure


that


usual


variation


is nearly


in a single


in size


identical


carnivore


about


and


species.


variation


view


their


being


derived from a single


locality and


of the structural


agreement,


this cannot be taken as of taxonomic value.

MEASUREMENTS


Type,


V-5255


P, I Pi( MI M
L W LI W L W L W
9.5 5 12 6.5 19.5 8.5 10 6

P' M' |I"
LW I W L W
V-5256 18.5 11 12.5 16 .............. ..............
V-5259 .............. ..... 13.5 17 8.5 12.5


CYNODESMIUS


CANAVUS,


new


.species


TYPE.-F.


G. S.


V-5260, right lower jaw with


and P,-M1.


rS. V-5260


.tAh.L.


tamonenszs.


different


^ ^::::-* *-rz=^


iamoneitsis


"M."


IaIII .IBBB


L a~m


E %14


f B111


*IV





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY--BULILETIN


TEN


HORIZON


AND


LOCALITY.-Hawthorn


Formation


Miocene.


Thomas


Farm,


Gilchrist


County


Florida.


DIAGNOSIS.-A


Cynodesnbles


medium


size


about


large


thodides.
nid nearly


Lower molar heels well basined


equal.


not so


long


and


, hypoconid and entoco-


narrow


as 111


thoilide


relatively


large.


This


species


is closely


similar


. nob iii


structure


difference


in size


, nearly


typical


specimens


and


over


the closest variant


, is too great for reference


the same species.


differs


larger


from


relatively


genotype,
smaller,


. thodides


shorter


and


chiefly
wider ]


in the


and


relatively
Relatively


smaller hypoconid on Mi.


Resemblance


to other known species is not


so close.


brackyp s


is about the same size


Mi and


premolars are all


much


larger


minor is


mailer throughout.


thonmsoni


slightly


smaller


and


larger


wider


molar


heels


and


more crowded


premolars.


MEASUREMENTS


Typlie,


V-5200


( i, jPa PI M,I I _
7L W L3 W .L W I W |
7 3.5 10 5 16 7 | 0


CANIDS


NDET.


Two


specimen


from


Midway


how


that


mall


and


more


normal


canids were present there, in addition to Amphicyon pontoni, but are


inadequate


any


determination.


V-5083


is a P4


closely


agreeing


with


that of


Tomarctus optatus and


may


represent a species


that


genus or of Cynodesmus,


smaller than C


ca.na)vus.


The other specimen,


also


an. isolated


premolar,


is not


even


rou


ghly


determinable.


AMPHICYON


A large


Thoma


canid


Farm.


is represented


.S.


three


isolated


V-5258


specimen


from


trigonid


quadrate


with


long


outer


lope,


blunt


cusps,


metaconid


smaller


than


nrotoeonid.


naraeonuid


vestigial


ntrl


U ., LI J U -- *- UA A J t


submedian.


From


. L A.1A





MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORII)A


distinctly
cuspule.


cuspidate,


The length i


large


posterior


19.5 mm.


cusp


A large,


and


smal


flattened


posterior


basal


canid astragalu


with


broad


, shallow trochlea may


also


belon


this


pecles.


g. 5.-Amphicyon


F5. V-5258


V-5258
view.


, trigonid


F. S.


right lower jaw with P


sp.
right


crown


V-5257, fragment of


internal


view.


Two-thirds


naturalI


size;


On these fragmentary specimen


further discussion


is not profitable,


on comparison


with


no exact agreement and


other


the sp


known


Miocene


canid


ecies is probably new


have


althou


found
name


must await


further d


iscoveries.


'PERT


SSODACTYLA


Equidae


The


new


equid


material


greatly


alters


and


add


previous


idea


Miocene


horses


Florida


first


place,


reveals


new


species,,


An ch itherium


clarenczci


and


A rchwohippus


nanus,


members


tively


rare


aberrant
in North


phyla


hitherto


America.


unknown


second


in Florida


place,


add


and


rela


much


knowledge


specie


Para hippus


leonensis


Sellards


and


ryclhippus gu.nteri Simpson


and shows that


these species,


although


referred


with


development,


considerable


actually


reason
closely


to different


related


and


nnera
even


their typical


seemC


grade


into one another


in their


variants.


PARAHIPPUS LEONENSIS
MERYCHIPPUS GUNTERI


Sellards
Simpson


INCIPAL


NEW


SPECIMENS


Parahippu


leone


from


Thomas Farm


somewhat


V-5217,
broken.


palate


with


right


P'-M3


- Paralhippus


*r I-s W FA


*


I


P'-M"


T


I~ .\


-n v


C


JA3,*I





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


-


TEN


FS V-5244


7.--Parahippus leonensis Sellards.


Left lower jaw, external view and


crown


view


of teeth.


One-half


natural


size.


Merychippu


gunteri, from
V-4959. left 2


Midway
[2-3


V-4960, left P2-


V-4962,
V-4979,
V-4965,


left Pa


-M1.


right dm'-.
right dma-<.


There
Some


are


exactly with


numerous other


isolated
type of


teeth


specimens


from


from


both


Thoma


leonensis


localities.


Farm


Sellards


agree


and


almost


there


F3 V-4959


ES. V-4962 I
5


K-


Parahippus


M




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


no reasonable doubt that


various


ways,


they


when


belong
Whole


that species.


series


Others


is considered,


differ
seems


clear that no specific distinctions can


be made.


other


hand


certain


specimen


from


Midway


obviously


of the species Merychippus


gunte ri.


Here


, too,


there is some varia-


tion


, but there is no evidence that more than one species is represented.


Contrasting the


two


Thomas Farm


and


Midway,


they


appear


first


glance


or on comparing


extreme


variants


in each


case,


belong to a single species, in


spite of the obvious differences


between


the types of P. I


onemsis and M


gzcnteri.


The


size,


although slightly


variable


in both


covers


about the


same


range,


and


each


locality


there


reference


when


specimens,


and
two


closely


sets


marginal
resemble


compared


sern


those


that


from


as a. whole


other


and


doubtful


locality


their


Yet


measurable


character
distinct.


contrasted


statistically,


becomes


clear


that


they


are


The chief


contrasting characters are as follows


Height


Crown


Measurements


on all


unworn


or little


worn


teeth


give


higher


figure


Midway


specimens


than


any


those from


Thoma


Farm.


The difference


may


as little as
not always


Amount


variable


although


detected


Cement


in this


The


respect.


averaging somewhat


on deeply


Thomas


Some


worn
Farm


have


more


and


can-


teeth.


specimens


little or


no cement,


highly
most


have a thin


coating, and a few have as much as


the less coated


Midway


specimens.


fully


formed


Midway


specimens


have
than


cement


those


and


from


on tlie


Thoma


average


they


have


definitely


more


Farm.


Metaconid-metastylid


The


series


overlaps,


whole


the expansion and separation are more definite on the Midway


than


on the


Thomas


Farm


specimens.


Union


crests on


upper


cheek teeth


pecimens


from


Thomas Farm


the hypostyle and metaloph


crochet


and


proto-


S-1


1 1


^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r -. *n *A n -* '*A ^J -kh^*h j- J-^ !- h* YM flr J-k J- **l /V J- /^ W\ /^f W n *^r- *-


_ .-I


Li


n


.1


I


I-~I. ,,, ,I






24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TEN

while the fossette walls are generally rather simple. Most of
the specimens from Midway have a distinct but simple pli
caballin in the middle wear stages, and the fossette walls tend
to be more complicated.


Fig. 10.-Parahip-
puxs leonensia Sellards.
Right dinm-, M,-2,
crown view. Two-
thirds natural size.


The species are, then, distinct in spite of their tendency to inter-
grade. The series are too small to give very smooth frequency
curves, but in these distinctive characters, and possibly some others,
the maxima are distinct and only the edges of the curves overlap.
These differences, here perceptible
with difficulty, are exactly those that
serve, in their full development, to sep-
arate the genera Parahippus and Mery-
chippus. At first sight it seems absurd
to refer to distinct genera specimens
2 that can hardly be distinguished speci-
Sfically, yet this must be done or the
genera in question must be redefined.
If evolution is an essentially contin-
uous process, and this instance adds to
the many facts suggesting that this is
normally the case, then such occur-
rences are inevitable. The dividing line
Fig. 11- Merychippus gun-
teri Simpson F. S. G. S. V-4965. between successive genera is not drawn
Right dm,-., and F. S. G. S. V- at a natural break but at a gap in
4979, right dmn'-', crown views.
Two-thirds natural size. knowledge. If this gap be filled, then
there must be a point where barely dis-
tinguishable species belong to different genera of the established
system. This should not serve as a basis for uniting the genera,
if they are well distinguished in their more median species, as such
a practice would clearly lead to chaos and innumerable absurdi-
ties as knowledge became more and more complete. To establish
a third genus for the marginal species of both is still less to be
advocated, as it simply doubles the problem and solves nothing.
Nor, if the original genera are 6n the whole of comparable scope
and without marked breaks within themselves, is it advisable to





MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


redefine


elude
- thi
fer t]


either


so as to


marginal


species


would simply trans-


difficulty


other


species.


The


t


its
an
and


species


typical for
advanced


leone


clearly


ParaJhippus,


similarly


primitive Merychippus. If
I have correctly interpreted


the facts


rather
and p


presented


full


artial


gradation
is also a


these


series


dentitions


between
radiation


This
teeth
, the
Stwo


between


two genera and in all


probability this is an actual


example


genus


the
from


rise


another


through closely similar, va-
riable, immediately success-


ive or even
poraneous


partly
species.


contem-
Skulls


and


skeletons


might


make


distinction


more


vio0lS


and


perhaps


show


this conclusion to be erron-
eous, but it seems the most
reasonable view at present.


The milk


chippu
above,


teeth


gunteri,


very


permanent teeth


Mecry-
listed


interesting


'-7 -A


--Para Ihipp u.s


(leoui ensis


Right tibia, and most of right tarsus,


views.
natural


this


the extreme


Bones


associated.


Sellards.
anterior
One-half


size.


connection.


form of P.


They


leonensiss


differ
chiflfv


from


h.in


- -~.I aI---


gunteri





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


teeth of P.
still simpler,
er. median e


smaller,


lum


leone.nsis
crowns
xternal


external


stronger


and


are
low-
style


cingu-
more


continuous.


The


hind


feet


leonensis, as shown by nu-


merous


seem
the


isolated


have


had


proportions


referred


avus


is, n
short


bones,
about
those


(doubtfully)


Osborn.,


metatarsal


and


stout


that


relatively
, phalan-


ges and ungues moderate-


elongate,


seems


slender.


foot
teri


have
Too


been
little


material


is available


comparison, 1
apparently


but
res


those


tibia
more
good
gun-
close


its limbs
Assembled
leonensis


closely.
Among western species,
P leonensis seems most to


resemble


The
159
ribs


size


brievid


ens.


about


smaller
usually n


external


lore


promi-


13.-Parahippus


Most
pes, i
terror


metatarsus


internal
view


view


leone1tsis
phalanges


of central
Bones


digit


Sellards.


'of o
and


right
an.-


not associated.


nent,
hoid,


hypocone


and


less


lop-


there are other


minor and variable differ-


._ ..,


-_A-,- -


annnaa


10 Cfl


* wn n s n n *ratni caru tl t l* j A^- *1 I rI Efl N. KNr Zf 1-n r


*


7l4^?414jd7^ M


r


I




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


of Osborn, M. isonesus primus of Matthew)


western


specimens


equal,


species.


The


although


upper


size


some


cheek


averages


referred


teeth


smaller,


among adequately known


about


specimens


more


10%
two


transverse


typical
nearly


caballin


more often present, and the fossette walls tend


to greater complexity.


The difference is, however, less than I


previously supposed and


were


the species from


the same or nearby


localities and surely


of the same


age,


they


could


separated


only


basis


large


series,


leaving many specimens of


doubtful


reference.


Parahippus
Meryckippus,


transitional


brevidens


and


from


is a


very


Merychippus
Parahippits.


advanced


w2Thsf4S


Osborn


species,


very


already


transitional


primitive


suggested


species


that


these two western species show the change


between


these


two genera,


as the


Florida species do


even


more


closely'.


MEASUREMENTS


Parahippus


leonensis


F. S.


V-5216 Ps-M,


: 65 mm.


L W L W L, W L W L W
V-5216 16.5 13 16 13.5 15.5 12 16 11.5
V-5215 15.5 12.5 15.5 12.5 14 11.5 14.5 11 18.5 9
V-5244 16 13 16 13 15 12 15 11.5 20 10

F. S. G. S. V-5217 (deeply worn) P'-aM : 93 mum.
| P' P3 P' j M' | M | M3
L W L WL WL WL WL W
V-5217 19 17.5 16.5 20 17 20 14 19 14.5 19 14.5 18

Meryclippus gunteri
F. S. G. S. V-4962 P-M2 : 66 nnmm.
| P P, P M, M,.
L W L W L W L W L W
V-4962 .......... .......... 17 12 17 2.5 16 11.5 17 11
V-4960 18 10.5 16.5 11 16 12 17 11.5 ....................


I M2 | M8
L L W
V-4959 14.5 20 14.5 I 18.5





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


ARCHAEOHIPPUS


NANUS,


new


species


TYPE.-F


V-5254, right P'-M3


'. I. It *
I I I I *
I. I l j
I \
/I
C- ---y- ----1
L--^.^^.-^


V'5254


-- -- - -


14.--Archl wohipp its


teeth


external


crown


11nanCuis,
views.


new


species.


Natural


Type.


Right


upper


check


size.


PARATYPE.-F


-5252


left lower


jaw


2-Mn.


FS. V-5252 -
4


*


-


>7


F,


/


L7







MIOCENE VERTEBRATES FROM FLORIDA


Fig. 16.-Archweohippus nanus, new species. Partial lower jaw with dm3-4
Mi, crown view. Natural size.

KNOWN DISTRIBUTION.-Hawthorn Formation, Miocene. Thomas
Farm, Gilchrist County, Florida. Possibly also at Midway, see
below.

DIAGNOSIS.-An Archaohippus about 10% smaller than A. ultimus.
Slightly lower crowned than that species or A. penultimus. P'
relatively large, M' reduced. M' subtriangular, hypocone small
and not fully internal. Lower grinders generally with external
and internal cingula. Feet (referred) Parahippws-like, meta-
podials relatively long and slender.
This elegant and distinctive little horse is one of the most surprising
and welcome of the new discoveries. Its chief phyletic characters
are:
Size very small.
Brachyodont, no cement.
Crochet and secondary folds absent.
Fully lophiodont, but protocone and protoconule semi-distinct.
Metaloph and ectoloph continuous, protoloph partly separate.
Hypostyle moderate, with some tendency to unite with metaloph
but often separate.
Metastylids and metaconids separate only at extreme tip.
Heel of M3 very small, but not looped.

These characters clearly place the species in the rare and poorly
known Archeohippus phylum, although it is easily distinguished from
the other known species of that genus. Although an independent
line, these small, conservative horses paralleled Anchitherium in the
more striking dental characters and their teeth seem to a certain
extent a miniature edition of those of the contemporary anchitheriines.
There are some limb bones from the same locality which probably
belong to this species, from their small size and distinctive characters.





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


The


general


development


of the articulations
median inetapodials


in Parachipptus


lative


size


metapodials


as in


that


metartarsals


form fac
barely
metapodi


long


metatarsal


pus


of
' is
gem


and
the
also
5s.


lateral
about


an entocunei-


,et


absent


suggested.


The


and phalange


and


slender,


as in


Padhraip-


and


more


slender than in most species


that


genus.


The


meta-


carpals preserved are fully
as slender (relatively) as in


Anchitherium


The


metatarsals,


agatense.
doubtless


of different individuals, are
slightly less slender than in
"Kal obatippu s.


These


agree


foot


well


minutive size,


Fig. 17.-Arclhrohippus nanus, new species.


1. S.


G. S.


Second and


form


Most of right hind foot.


ectocunei-


third metatarsals and


associated


One-half


natural


other


size.


bones not associated.


tatarsal
Canyon


from
beds


bone


, except


with


the me-
Martin


referred


Archohokippus by


(Bull.


Amer.


Matthew


Mus.


Nat.


Hist


, p. 128,


1924),


ing considerably


larger, much more slender,


compressed fore-and-


and


without distinct entocuneiform facet.


The


reference


present


specimens


Archaohippnus


much


more


sure


than


specimen mentioned


Matthew.


pristinaus


V-5249.




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


on the whole the most primitive known species,


but that it is a direct


ancestor


characters,


indeed,
general


is unlikely


perhaps
a single


and


because


reduction


including the slender


phylum


in the


in particular,


feet.


strictest


of M's and


The


sense.


parallels


some


genus


The


other


may


group


American


anchi


there but it must include at least one line of


descent independent of


latter save


through


common


ancestry in


late


Oligocene.


relationship


Parahippus is very close and it may


even


be a


partly


artificial


assemblage


dwarfed


and


unprogressive


species


that


genus.


MEASUREMENTS


Type.--F


S. G. S.


V-5254-


: 71.5 mm.


P'-M'


: 65


mm.


P2 I P" I MI | A
L W L WIL |W L |W
12.5 | 11.5 I 11.5 14 11 14 I10 j 12.5
(P'-M' are broken on the outer edge. Lengths on ectoloph, widths maxim.)

F. S. G. S. V-5252-
P,-M, : 67 mm.

P2 | P | I P| Mi, | M, M,
L WLWL WLWLWL W
11 6.5 11 | 7.5 11.5 8.5 11.5 8.5 11 8 11.5 7
(Widths on talonid P-,, annd trigonid, M,-,.)

F. S. G; S. V-5253--

dm, | dm, I M,
,L WL WIL Wj
_______11.5 8 12 8 11.5 8_______


(dm, on


talonid


, dm4-M1


on trigonids.)


ARCH/EOHIPPUS


NANUS


Three teeth


V-5017


a species apparently related


to A.


,5031; 5032)


from


nanus.


Midway indicate


Sis slightly smaller,


anus S


. P'-M


I


I




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


ANCHITHERIUM


CLARENCEI.0 new


species


TYPE.-F.


V-5074


, right


M'-'_


Midway.


PRINCIPAL REFERRED SPECIMENS.-F.


V-5243


2-MNl.


, right'


lower


jaw


with


Thomas Farm.


F.S. V-5074 2


S. V-5101


left Pa-Mt


broken.


Midway.


-4981


KNOWN


left M2.


Midway


DISTRIBUTION.-IHawthorn


mation, Miocene.
christ County, al


Thomas Farm


nd Midway


For-
Gil-


Gadsden


Fig.
clarenec


Right M'-3


views.


Anclhitheri-u im


new


species.


Type.


external and crown


Two-thirds


natural


size.


County
DIAGNOSIS.


Florida.


-An


about the size of A.
molars subquadrate,


anchitheriine


agatense.


horse
Upper


little transverse.


reduced


fully


triangular.


Proto-and


metalophs


strongly


crested, sinuous.


Molar hypostyles triangular,


singular


pitted,


united


by crest to hypocone.


Faint vestigial


external ribs on


upper molars.


internal


cingula.


Fig. 19.-Anechithicrium clarencci, new species. Right lower jaw, internal


View of


teeth.


One-half natural


size.


view and crown






MIOCENE


FROM


FLORIDA


The


marked


possible


generic


* being taken


or phyletic


from


referred


characters


lower


teeth


as follows


those


only


Size


large.


Brachyodont


somewhat


Protoloph and


no cement.
reduced.
metaloph


distinct


conules


lophoid.


Metaloph


united


to ectoloph,


protoloph


free or imperfectly


united.


No crochet or other secondary


folds.


IHypostyle


free


cingulum,


relatively


little advanced.


upper


internal


cingula.


Faint


vestigial


external


ribs on


upper molars.


*No


internal


cingula


*Metaconid-metast


distinct


external


cingula


olumn little expanded,


on lower


molars.


cusps almost connate.


These characters


place


it at once as


in the anchitheriine


line


and,


in the American fauna


, closest either to Kalobatippus or to the earlier


and


more


primitive


species


Hypohippus.


is very


difficult


draw a good generic distinction


either


and


European


between
genus


these two groups,
Anckitherium. .


or between


Romer


advocated


this


including Kalobatippls in


is done


more


primitive


Anchitheriumn,


IHypohippu


and


group,


probably
equiluts,


pertinax,
genotype)


and H


osborni should also


nevadensis,


and


be placed there.


mat thewi


more


affnis


(the


advanced


distinctive.


Resemblance of the present species is with "Kalobatipp us"


agatensli


on one


other


tion


hand,
From


reduction


"Hypohip pus


first


of M3


named


3. less


equinus,
species


triangular


and


osbornif'
t differs


distinctive


pertilnaz


tooth


on the
propor-


hypostyle,


and


other minor characters.


The size is smaller than in any of the specie


commonly


external


referred


ribs,


Hypohippws,


somewhat


and


transverse


presence


and


very


fairly


faint


complete


hypostyle-hypocone


crest


also


distinctive.


Morphologically


species


seems


about


intermediate


between


Lower


Miocene


"Kalobatippus"


and


Middle


Miocene


"Hypohippu


could


/nolltT imanll hVa llfnafll ;n aitlhor nA4 'lhoon fnnmlAlr


rliffprahnltntPrl 'rrflnlfQ


LJ


VERTEBRATES




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


MEASUREMENTS


Type, F


S. G. 8.


V-5074-


---'--I | M 2 | MI
L W L W L W
21 23 21 124.5 17 21.5
(Lengths on ectoloph, widths maxima.)
F. S. G. S. V-5243-
P,-Ms : 120.5 mm.
I IP P, I P. I M, I B, I M
SL W L W L W LIL L
20 11.5 19.5 14 20.5 14.5 22 14.5 20.5j 13.5 23 11.5


(Widths are max


, posterior lobe on P


a -4 anterior on M-s.)


Rhinocerotidae
of. APHELOPS sa


A rhinoceros of intermediate size and fairly high crown comparable


an early


"Aph.elops


previously


reported


Midway


and


Quincy faunas.


represented by


a single


fragment


(V-5082)


new


collection


from


Midway,


adding


nothing


our


knowledge.


Rhinoceroses are as yet unrepresented in


From


a stratum


nearly


or quite


Thoma


equivalent


Farm
fossil


material.


levels


Midway and


Quincy come the


rhinoceros teeth


described


as Aphelops


in the accompanying note by


form a


Cdlbert.


that previously recognized by me as of.


I is probably
Aphelops sp.


same


on much


less complete


material,


and


it adds


Middle


Miocene


aspect


these


faunas.


ARTIODACTYLA


Artiodactyls


represented


Midway


Thoma


Farm


faunas 1
Cervidie.
cheek de


three


least


xcept


ntitions are known


families,


Oreodontidre


floridTanmt


the specimens


Camelida,


, in which
all isolated


and


complete


and


frag-


mentary.


The


identification


isolated


selenodont


artiodactyl


molars, even as to families, is notoriously difficult and untrustworthy.
The tentative identifications and comparisons should be received with


the


same


reserve


with


which


they


made.


Not


prejudice


probable


discovery


good


specimens


near


future,


a name


auDlied


only


adeauatelv


.... ....


known


species.


although


-V -.e


Oxydactylus


aind


.. V





MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


Camelidae


OXYDACTYLU S


FLORIDANUS


, new


species


TYPE--F. S. (G.
V-5247, part
right maxi
with P'-M3.
PARIATYPE.-F.


V-5238


right
with


HORIZON
CALITY


lower


Jaw


-Ml.
AND


- Haw-


F.S. V-5247


thorn Formation,


Miocene.


Thomas


right


upper


cheek


teeth


floridanus, new species.


external


crown


Type,
views.


Farm


Gilehrist


One-half natural size.


County, Florida.


DIAGNOSIS.-About the


ize of 0


bracivyodontus.


diastema very


long.


P' very large, completely two-rooted,


with strong continuous


internal


cingulum.


PS with


inner


crese


likewise


complete,


much


expanded.


also


relatively


large


and


completely


two-rooted.
internal and


each


with


increasingly


posterior (or posterointernal)


prominent


antero-


folds.


S I IYYI ~ III I -CTY 'r fi Y J~


Fig. 20.--Oxydactylus


IW.\IZP~ V


U


1 -V





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


The genus OxydactylUs is founded


on and


only


certainly recogniz-


able
case


a combination


there


doubtful


only


of tooth


a few


association


and limb


astragali,
represent


characters.


phalanges,


limbs.


and


other


present


fragments


as they


they resemble


Oxydactylus,


or the


long-footed


phylum


they


inadequate


both


as to


completeness


and


as to


association


certain


confirmation.


The


teeth, however,


agree so


well


with


this genus and


differ so
reference


from


most


other


Lower


or Middle


Miocene


camels


that


is very probable.


Aside


from


absolute


measurement


and


proportions,


agreement with any other known species,


the present form is especially


notable


premolars,


which


combine


absence


any


reduction


in size or number


(aside from P'


, not very surely known but probably


present


and


large)


with


unusually


progressive


molarization.


Both


and P


have the inner crescent complete,


although


little expanded


transversely


and


the outer wall strongly folded


as on


'. P= and


also


have


laterally


the structural


and


elements


posterior fold,


of P,


unlike


more


does not form


compressed
an isolated


enamel lake at any stage of wear.


9. gibbi and
diastemata,


smaller


over


campestris are much smaller species and also differ


proportions,


premolar form


and likewise differ


lulli i


in premolar form,


s somewhat
proportion,


and


upper


other


characters.


premolar


structure


longiro


is over


makes


a third


closest
larger,


approach


with


tionately


smaller


, simple


brachyodontus


is closest


size


and


apparently


general


shorter


proportion


P'-P'


diastema


and


much


simpler


relatively wider


premolars,


molars.


longipes, the type,


similar molar proportions,


but is slightly larger


(less


than


apparently


and


shorter


within


diastema


range


, simpler


Probable
premolars,


variation)


and


with


premolars


horter relative to molars.


floaridatus seems, in


dental characters


a distinct species falling within this generic group.


The


type


preserved and


a considerable


in this,


part


alveolar


but not at its anterior


border


end,


is a


anterior
distinct


Sltrnflhi C.n


T JL_ ..


i1.T


--- -.


I T * Lr r u *tn' F's f J YEIW S N*L r


+hino r'li


el+ iIfonnn


proper


I


*P-rtTn


lrI


| l *LU


r




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


.given


as distinctive of


group,


this species,


noted


the accessory


These are


present


pillars,


on all


variable


the specimens


available.


and
and


hypocone


may


upper


form


vestigial


molars


strong


basal


(the


pillar


apex


between


pointing


lower


molars


protocone


externally)


between


protoconid


and


hypoconid,


is more


conical


and


is strong


on M',


progressively


weaker


on M=-3.


The upper molar from


the Griscom


Plantation


figured


Sellards


agrees fairly well


with


the species and


could


belong


here.


MEASUREMENTS


Type,


V-5247-


p2.p
Ps-P' ~


: 95
: 39


mm.
l'niB.


M'-MP : 60 mm.


i Pi I I P' |M' (worn)) jI | M3
L W L W L W L W L W L W
I13.5i 6.5 13 9 12 13 17 19 20.51 190 24 21
(Lengths oblique, on ectolophs. Widths maxiinI, basal.)
Paratype, F. S. G. S. V-5238--
P,-M3 : ca. 100 mm.*
P,-P : ca. 36 mm.*
M,-M3, : 65 mm.
| P,* | P, 1, M,(worn)| M, | M
| LL W7I W4.5 W .1 W1 L W
(c.l.5a. 5. 12.5 6 13. 7.5 14.I 11 20.5| 13.5 32 I 14.5


from another,


referred


, specimen.


MIOLABIS


Indet.


number


teeth


V-4970)


from


Midway,


represent


camel


isolated


apparently


specimens


rather


and


common


there


identifiable


but"


even


represented


as to


genus.


only
The


size


is somewhat less than that of


Oxydactyluss


floridanus,


tile crowns are


higher,
internal


Although
specimen:


upper


cingulum


worn


from


internal


is limited


teeth


Thoma


pillar


is still


strong,


occasionally


Farm


stronger,


basined,
difficult


a distinct


genus


upper


almost


antero-


cusp-like.


separate
is clearly


from
indi-


cated


. Identification


.. J


impossible.


p. t .t


there


is considerable


resem-


w w





38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TEN

comparative material, the characters of dm, are rather closely
matched in Protolabis augustidens except the size, which accords
better with Procaomelus occidentalis. F. S. G. S. V-5080, from the
same locality, is an Ms or (probably) M1 from the same locality and
perhaps of the same species. It is characterized by a high crown,
flat inner basal surface, absence of external accessory pillar. These
specimens are wholly unidentifiable at present, and are of interest
only in indicating the presence of another species of camel, larger
than 0. floridanus and probably not in the same phylum.

Cervidse
There are two cervids from Midway and a doubtful one from the
Thomas Farm, none identifiable at all exactly.

BLASTOMERYX cf. MARSHI Lull

F. S. G. S. V-5011
is a right lower jaw
with M2-3 and V-5135
a fragment with
right M, both from
Midway. D direct
comparison with the
type of B. marshi Fig. 22.-A, Blastomeryx, cf. marshi, No. V-5011,
right M,-,, crown view. B, ?Dromomeryx cf.
has not been made, americanus. No. V-5010, broken right M,, crown
but, as far as it goes, view. Natural size.
the material cannot
be separated specifically from A. M. No. 14264, an Upper Harrison
specimen referred by Matthew to B. marshi.

?DROMOMERYX cf. AMERICANUS Douglass
Several last molars and upper molars from Midway cannot
definitely be distinguished from Dromomeryx americanus. As
Douglass has pointed out, the generic position of this species is in
doubt. It has also been referred to Palceomeryx. Its age, Madison
Valley, is not that suggested by most of the Florida specimens, but
such isolated specimens are inadequate for elaborate comparisons or
definite conclusions.
CERVID INDET.
A single tooth from the Thomas Farm somewhat resembles the
Midway specimens just mentioned, but has stronger external folds,
nearly equal internal lobes, and larger internal accessory pillar. It
is perhaps a cervid, but of doubtful position.




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


Note


on the


Pleistocene


Recent


Survey


from


Pleistocene


include many


Santa


collection
specimens


River,


and


Florida


from


each


State


Itchatucknee


from


Cypress


Geological


River,
Sprin


a few


and


Poe


Springs.


The


Itchatucknee


material


now


known


particularly


complete


and


interesting.


Unfortunately


no positive


stratigraphic


faunal


value


association.


, being found
For instance,


n1 ooze


that gives no


guarantee of


the present lot contains a jaw


domestic


pig,


well fossilized and not readily distinguished in mode of preserva-


tion from some of the remains of


extinct animal


Five species


which


also occur in
Itchatucknee


unmixed Pleistocene


previously


Given


faunas


of Florida are added


,8 making the full


mammal


possibly


and


probably


of Pleistocene age


as follow


Didelphis virginiana,


opossum.


Ondatra zibethica, muskrat.
*Neochoerus pinckneyi, giant capybara.


Geomys floridanu


,pocket gopher


"salamander


", (new record)


canadensis


Euarctos sp.,
*Arctodus sp.,
Procyon lotor


*Canis


(Thos)


beaver


bear.


hort-faced
raccoon.


bear.


cf. riviveronis


*Canis (Aenocyon)
Luttra canadensis.


*Mylodon-


*Eqwui


harlani,


comp


Ulicatus,
veroensi


, coyote


ayersi, dire wolf


(new record)


(new record).


otter.


ground


sloth.


horse.
s, tapir.


Odocoil


osceola


deer.


pemn'sylva.nicus,


peccary


bison.


* Tanopolama mirifica,
*Mastodon americanus


camel


(new


mastodon.


record)


*Parelephas floridanus, mammoth.


The list


is interesting


from


high


percentage


extinct


form


Castor


*Mylohytps
?*Bison sp.,


"Tapirus cf.






40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TEN

Ondatra zibethica is represented by a good skull in the present
collection, confirming the previous reference of jaws. Geomys flori-
danus is represented by a lower jaw of unusually large size, but not
beyond the limits of the recent species. Neochoerus was previously
recorded, but this lot adds a complete frontal, typical except for its
relatively small size, the individual being juvenile as shown by the
fully open sutures.
A dog of medium size is represented-by a jaw without teeth, another
with MI1-, badly worn, an isolated carnassial, and an isolated canine.
These remains are closely similar to Canis (Thos) latrans and appar-
ently represent a coyote. They probably belong to Canis (Thos)
riviveronis Hay, but include no parts directly comparable with the
type. A large dire wolf is indicated by a jaw without teeth.
The tapir is slightly smaller than the type of Tapirus veroensis
and with upper molars somewhat more transverse than in T. veroensis
sellardsi, but probably belongs in that species. A peccary, probably
Mylohyus pennsylvanicus, was previously reported and is also present
in the new collection, a palate and a lower jaw of two old individuals
being found.
A camel, apparently the same as that described by me as Tanupo-
loma mirifica from the Seminole Field, is represented by an upper
jaw with P'-M' which adds significantly to knowledge of the species."
The tooth which I con-
sidered P' because of its
complete inner crescent
proves to be P", and the
real P' is less triangular
and more transverse.
This species is very pe-
culiar among Pleistocene
camelids in the relative-
ly large size of P" and its
strong and complete in-
Fig. 23.--?Tanpolama mirifica Simpson.
ner crescent. It may Left P'-M', crown view. Two-thirds natural
well belong in a line of size.
descent distinct from
either Camelops or Tanupolama (and still farther from Eschatius),
but the materials are still inadequate for full and certain recognition
of its position. In other features the dentition seems more like that
of Tanupolama and I leave it there with a query and with the sug-
gestion that it is probably distinct.


9 See Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., LVI, p. 593-596.




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


The specimens from the Santa F6 River include a


tapir,


apparently


the same as that from


Itchatucknee


River,


Castoroide


giant


beaver,


(reported on the evidence of an incisor indistinguishable from


ohioensis)


Equus


complicatus,


an undetermined camel,


domestic


cow, domestic pig, and some undetermined bones.


Cypress


Springs


near


Vernon


, Washington


County


was


found


part of


an incisor of


Castoroides cf. ohioensis, and at Poe Springs on


the Santa F6 River, Alachua


County,


a terminal


phalanx probably


a bison


but possibly


of a cow.


















I


I


*
F










I


^ .
*













f
*










*







1




t

'


1





*



.





*
















*


t

























'








































*
t

















*

































































4
1
I





































*

















*

























NEW HETEROMYID


RODENTS FROM THE


MIOCENE


OF FLORIDA


ALBERT


EILMEl


Wool)


LONG


ISLAND


UNIVERSITY,


BROOKLYN,








MIOCENE


VERTETItIATES


FLORIDA


NEW HETEROMYID


RODENTS


FROM


THE


MIOCENE


OF FLORIDA


ALI1EllT


ELMER


WOOD


INTRODI)UCTION


A small


collection


of bones and1


tee th


fron


I Hawthorn


Beds


Lower


Middle


Miocene


age,


fleal'


Midway


, Florida,


wasV


recently


turned over to me for stu


y by the Florida Geological


survey through


the kindness


inmpson


This collection


contains


Iletero-


myid cheek teeth of two si


Associated


with


thlnem are


incisors land


fragments of limb bones,


which are also separable into two size groups.


no other
collection


rodent
. as the


cheek


teetl


incisors


and1


than


limb


those
bones


IIeteromyids


about


right


rizes to fit the two kinds of teeth


and a


their character is essentially


IHeteromyid,


wish


urvey


am also


their association


express


and


Simp


indebted


with which this paper i


with


appreciation


the cheek teeth seem


both


perm issiol


* Florence
illustrated


iDowden


Florid


tudy


Wood


This study wa


aide


permissible.
i Geological


material.


! drawings
by a grant


from


Marsl


Fund


Nat


ional


Academy


Sciences.


])ESCllI PTi ONS


SPECIES


ROI)DENTIA

Ileteromyid(a


PRlOIIETE1ROMYS


, new genus.


TYPE SPECIES.-P


floridanus,


n. Sp.,


described


below.


I)IAGNOSI


s.-Cheek


teeth


bilophodont,


when


unlworn,


showing


sextitubercular


pattern,


in about


same


stage


evolution


in Mookomus.


Differs from Mookomnys in


having no sulcu


FROM


I__ _




FLORIIDA


G LOGICAL


SU RVEY-BU IaTETIN


TEN


Fig. 24.-Prohcteromys floridantus,


V-5329,
Ruccal


Holotype, P,-M,


side


tooth


toward


Fig. 25.-Prohcteromys flortdanus,


right,
toward


x 10.


V-5330,
Buccal


Paratype,


side1


tooth


L OCALITY.


-The Fullers Earth


Mine


, Midway, Flo


HIawthorn


Miocene; collected
)IAGoNosIS.-Teeth ir


Clarence Simpson.


i'ather


stage,


corresponding


development


Mookomys


primitive.
parvus.


Antero-posterior


valleys


between


cusps nearly


as deep


as the


median


valleys.


Small


size.


Metalophid


C rves


posteriorly


both


ends,


surrounding


central


consider


worn


'ably smaller than the other teeth.


, the cusp pattern cannot be determined.


As it is considerably


The metalophid almost


collies


central


into contact


basin.


with


IS even


more


worn


andi


both
may


ends


, surrounding


described


as an


instance of reversed topography,


with anticlinal


valleys and synclinal


mountains.


and


The


a left


other
Their


Mookomys parvus.


a radius


two


cusps


referred


molars


quite


The upper incisors


curvature


a radius


111m


collection


which


and


may


probably


as distinct


referred


lowers


also


belong


as are


a right


those


this species have


mm.i
this


There


This


being


species


almost


Colorado


is rather


as small


(Wood


a small


Heliscomy


, 1931)


The


(see
vetus


fact


table


measurements),


Middle


that:


upper


Oligocene


incisors


asulcate


is a generic


distinction


from


Mookomys,


and


suggests


that


this genus may be on or near the ancestral line of the recent eteronmys


and LAomys,
have asulcat'e


which are


incisors.


the only


living members of


This possibility i


family which


strengthened by the clharac-


of P1, in which


the central


basin


is essentially


similar


that


hypolophid




MIOCIE NIE


VEIT T'lHtRAT'IS


FROM


FLORI I)A


LOOA


ITY.-The 'ullers Earth Co.


Mine


Ilor


Haw thorn


Miocene


collected


Clarence Simpson.


i)IAONORIS.


-_p4
two


row


with


a posterior


cusps,


row


median


bein


an anterior


"ghily


posterior


lateral one.


111n size


Much more lophodont than


, alparent'ly


larger


ithn


any


. floridan u


other


II eteromy


ry lar'


Great


elongated


roots.


built


on a plan


muite


distinctt


fI'ron


P'cro a I Ih;ts


Dipodomsey


and1


approaches


quite closely to


that


lheer'omUs.


The


anterior


lcusps seen


protocone


and


analogy


two
mneta


llelis
larger
cone a


iltetaloph


crest


C(',olhiyS
cU1l)S


ind


would tl
present


/reforyi


(Wood,
metaloph


)oonlle.


hen


connect


The
the
ting


n pr1'
seem


median
entostyle.


these


cusp
li
s1),


Tlihe


rci)pient


so t


further


wear


would


unite


lrotocone


with


roi'ostyle,
is already


co000.


this


witl


connected


Between


the
witl


entostyle,


I


IlypoconeC


is an embl)ayllent,


whici


hypocone


and


deepened,


in turn


andl


mneta-


entostyle


might


l Cteromll/ mtnflnul ,


F. 8. O.


olotYlpe,


x 10.


tooth


8. V-5332


IIncInl


left,
side


town rd


form


wornl


lake


teeth


similar


lleteromys.


OU1i(


Another


partially
V-533) )


tentatively


referred(


sameI


SI)ecies,


is ulore


advanced


closer


apparently neit


relationship)


eir ot ties


lprotostyle


teeth could


and11(1


ento


iavc belonged to a form a


Ap)-


nIces


trial


t'o Liomys,


Heteromys,


as there


where


18 no paracone on0


Liomys seems to bear a*


PIrohetero4ys ma(gnus or in


reduced(


IS essenI


bilophodont,


t the


siX cusps are1


listingui


able as such.


The cingulum


cusp


however


rather


mall.


'l'here


are distinct traces of a posterior cingunlum,


which seems to be growing


toward the middle of the 'oot1


and
and
1111(1
1111(1


pleted a
elevated


lingual sides
entoconit1.


cross the


martin


this


rtar


from botl


from


cingulumn


tooth


somewhat


andk
lake


the buccal


the hylpostyl


were


com-
Iwere


would


Midway


three cusps,


anid(


lprot'ostyle,


Pro.


paraeone.




FIORI I)A


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY--BULLETIN


TEN


tooth would attain the pattern shown by slightly worn Heteromys teeth,
where an embayment from the outside reaches about a third of the way


across the tooth.


incipient character is of considerable interest,


apparently


indicates


tendency


toward


condition


found


Ileterom'ys.


The


entire


lack


trace


these


embayment


and


posterior cingula


in Liom.ys),


together


with


character


P. of P. floridanu


closer


relationship


which has only two


between


that species


lophs, seems to


and1


Liomus.


point


which


to a
two


lophs on
between
whether


,. than


these


two


difference


Heleromys,


genera


between


which


extends


two


three.
back


species


Whether the split


Miocene,


Proheterom/ys


merely a divergence anticipating and paralleling a later split between


Liomys and IIHeteromys, cannot be determined


without more material


although


former


alternative


seems


intrinsically


somewhat


more likely


is considerably


smaller


than


other


teeth,


as is the case in


the recent members of


the family


The


pattern


the M.,


however, is essentially the same as in


with small cingulum cusp


The protoloph


Pro-


Ictcerom/S l(lmagnuQfts,


F. S. G.


V-5334,


Paratylpe, M1 right,


X 10.


Bueenl side


toward


tooth


is considerably
Associated f


species


higher than


fragments


include astragali


humeri.


are those of a


These


the metaloph.


probably
calcanea


referable


and(


somewhat


recent Heteromys,


as large as those of P. ,magnllA;


I~


with t
)ut are


distal


smaller


ends
than


nearly


to that ex-


tent, probably more primitive,


as the limbs


(especially the hind


limb)


Helerom'ys


seem


have


become


secondarily


elongated.


The


cisors are quite large,


the radius of


curvature of the upper ones being


11 mm


., and that of the lowers, 8mm.


Another


IIeteromyid


tooth


fig. 29, included in the collection,


represent


V-5336,
a third


species,


upper


intermediate


fourth


size.


premolar


The
The


specimen


cusps


con-


nected 1
around 1


continuous


crown.


- -


The


1 1 rns a A 1


crest


metacon(
* r11


running


entirely


is considerably


1 I.1


- -


Fig.
nini 'v i


20.--Ieter-


Irt -


Of Run


recent


teeth


I





MIOCENE


V ERTEBRATES


FROMl


FLOR I I)A


assigned


PeridionUys


rusticus


Matthew


fromI


Sllt


Wood
either


(1931


phylogenetic chart)


a separate


line


more


is incorrect


andi


probably


that


is related


represent


Dip rion o' lh)j s,


as suggested


much
than


more


like


those


Hall
those


Dip


(1930)


The


Hletcro


10onon1y1


cheek


mlys


teeth
their


Prohlct ron


fundamenl al


aplpa rently


pattern


I'c)Ireselnt


separate


phylumn,


differentiated


from


ol'lie


Iletieromyi(


least
line


as early a


recently


the Lower


Miocene, as'


described


is shown


111(m111


Thei


mhi/s


this


group


are characterized


asulcate


having c


lllcisors


Helero,


cek teetl


type,


Pceroy
ciiiiaio


alh Ius type and


ancestral


either,


or Lower


as all three groups seem to have been estab


Miocene.


. Tlhe


ocecile


1l teromyid


ishlc(I
as f'


Middle


as they


known


do not fore


shadow


any


one of the


three


in S


lore '


than


the other two


, but nmay well


be ancestral


three.


The


Occurrence


these


rodent


( surprising.


These are t


River.


e first HIceromyid


Furthermore,


reeoi


these specimen


'ded from


east1


, being from Florida,


sIssI


1mus


have


lived


in quite


a different


environm


From


tliat


present


IHeteromyid


western


IIeteromyid


had an


Legions,
inhabit,


essentially


hitherto
,-those


a region


imila


known


North
from i


America


inhabit


United


ellviron llent.


number


Central


similar


that


and


The genus


family,


South


which


Ame


Stal es


arid


nusll


lie.terom


lives


plains.


, have
alone,


forested


'Ica


Plrohetero'mys


musll


once
have


flourished.


fact serve


strengthen


their
their


relationship,


as suggest


imorphl(


)logical


sprobalility
similarities


teeth.


tage


Miocene
As the


two species
>f evolution


than


referred


Mookomys


in that


Hawthorn


fauna


genus


pa'rv.s,


altiflu.winis


seems


botl


perhaps


from
early


lmore'


nearly


from


Middle


Middle


in the
Lower


Miocene.


Miocene


age,


seems


additional


caseC


more


primitive


forms


urviving to a later date in an


isolated


out hern


1)llnnins


kLI t


Iban


111 a


Diprionomny J


Li


DIi.riono


Florida


western


---anld


The




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS, In Millimeters


Proheteromtys


. magnusl


Heteromyid


Heteromyn


floridannus


Fla. G. S. Nos.


V-5329,


V-5330


Flin. G. S. Nos.
V-5332, V-5333,


indet.


Fin. G. S.


V-5336


(lesmarestianus
From Golldman,


V-5331
Miocene


V-5334
Miocene


Miocene


100007


Recent of
Guatemala.


width
length
I width


1.25
1.35


metalophid


. .... 1.22


.75 ...


width


hypolophid
length .


1.29
1.03


width


* ....
* ...


metalophid


.. 1.65


... 1.45


width


hypolophid
length ..


1.71
1.52


1.54


* ...
. * *


width


protoloph


... 0 1.08


width


metaloph


length
width


.... 1.91
... 51.60


1.40
1.40


1.44
1.33


protoloph


1.12 ...


.1.55


width


metaloph
length


* S . .
. . . ..* *


1.08


1.55
1.18


width


protoloph


1.08 .. .


S... 1.45


width


metaloph
length


. . . S
S. .* S . S


1.02


* . .
* f


1.45
1.19


mrT3 ,,AA-




MIOCENE


VERTEBRATES


FROM


FLORII)DA


REFERENCES CITED


Gazin


Oregon.


1932.
Camn.


Goldman


A Miocene Mammalian Fauna from Southeastern


Inst.


1911.


Wash.


Publ.


Revision


418,


Spiny


71-75, 1
Pocket


, fig.


Mice.


Dept.


Agr.,


Biol.


Surv


North Amer.


Fauna No.


Hall, E.


1930.


of Fish Lake


Rodent


Valley, Nevada


and Lagomorphs from the Later


Univ.


Cal.


Publ., Bull.


Tertiary


Dept.


Geol.


vol.


no. 12,


297.


Simpson,


Miocene


Land


Mammal


from


(This


bulletin.


Wood


1931


Phylogeny


the HIcteromyid


Rodents.


Amer


Mus.


Novitate


, pp.


1-19.


Wood


press.


A New


Ileteromyid


Rodent


fromn


Oligo-


scene of Montana.


Journal


of Mammalogy.


Florida.


























































II














































































































































I

























APHELOPS FROM THE HAWTHORN FORMATION

OF FLORIDA

By EDWIN II. COLBER'r

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY,


NEW YORK, N.



































iI
























1




MIOCENE


VEIRTEIBRATES


FROM


FLORIDA


APHELOPS


FROM


THE


HAWTHORN


FORMATION


OF FI

EDWIN


LORIDA


COLBEIRT


Shortly
mammals
Museum


after


publication


of Florida.'o Dr


Natural


paper


George Gaylord Simpson,


History,


received


so80me


fossil


Tertiary


of the Amer


candy
iean


fragments


considerable


Geological
Assistant


significance.


Survey, having


Geologist,


They
been


from


were


sent


recovered


excavation


him


.G.


e Florida
. Ponton.


pump


Tallahassee


water


works.


The


fossils,


consisting


several


broken


rhinoceros molars


(Fla.


Surv


. V-4430


and the phalanx of a


camel


(Fla.


Surv


SV-4431)


were


turned


over


writer


study


Simpson


was


time


making


preparations


a collecting


trip,'),


and


was


thus unable


to examine


the material at


is leisure.


The


various


authors


that


have


written


genera


later


Tertiary


rhinoceroses


have


given


meager


details


which


lower


teeth


might


distinguished


their


descriptions


have


been


concerned primarily with


the skulls and


the determination of these isolated lower molars


Therefore


is a problem


of some


difficulty.


The molars are small


far smaller than


typical


Teleoccra


Aphelops.


from


The


relative


belonging


brachyodonty


and


would


this character


exclude


together


these


with


teeth
their


general


shape


and


configuration


would


seCem


place


them


genus


Aphelops.


these


teeth


, tile


ones


identified


premolars


are unreduced in size as compared


to the molars, this being character-


istic of Aphelops.


as belonging


Of course


, the teeth in question mig


to the genus Peracera


but since


hit be classified


lower jaws of


genus


certainly


known


such


identification


would


extremely


doubtful.


The


teeth


certainly


represent


Dicera-


tlteriznm,


or Trigonias.


The


teeth


have


been


identified


as right


premolar


3 and


molars


compare


2 and


quite


and


well


with


premolar
Aphelops


size


and


braclhyodus,


proportions


small,


they


primitive


coceras


upper dentitions.







56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TEN


Fig. 30.-Aphelops sp. (F. S. G. S. V-4430A)
and Oxydactylus sp. (F. S. G. S. V-4431) from
the Hawthorn formation at Tallahassee. About
three fifths natural size. Left-Aphelops, LP,;
Oxydactylus, L. Prox. Ph. IV. Right-Aphelops,
RP3, RP,, RM,, RM,.

as possibly being definitive of Aphelops longipes. These molars are,
however, far too small to be properly classed with this species, and
since they are well worn they must represent a fully adult animal.
The best recourse is to say that the molars here being considered were
those of a small and rather primitive species of Aphelops, living in
the Miocene of Florida.




MIOCENE VERTEBRATES

The fossils are so badly broken as to


FROM


FLORIDA


make specific


determinations


insecure.
phalanx ]
distinctly


The


associated


on the


a Miocene


camel


bone


manus


may


identified


xydactylus


as proximal


xydacctyltw


form.


SIGNIFICANCE


THE


FRAGMENTS


With


regard


fossil


mollusks


found


immediately


above the bones, the Florida Geological Survey have by letter supplied


following identifications


Pecten cf.


. chipolanus


Pecten acanikos


Ostrea
Carol/ia


rugifera


(Wakullina)


floridana


and state that these species are considered diagnostic of the Hawthorn


formation


and


in particular


"Sopchoppy '


limestone


which


Miss Gardner" regarded as a very shallow water phase of the Chipola
formation.


The


relations of


the deposits at


Tallah


assee


may


represented


following


HAWTHORN


fashion:


FORMATION.


0 to 50(
50 to 55


feet-Soft red and1(


feet--Soft


yellow sand, clay and marl.


light greenish gray


fullers earth-like clay,


somewhat


culceareous


contains


a few


mollusks


identifications


above).


to 60 feet-Soft


, light grpenish-gray sand rock


of bone and teeth


described


contains the fragments


in this paper.


60 to


72 feet-Hard


white


.limestone.


Typical


"Sopchoppy"


limestone.


TAMPA


LI M STONE.


72 to 100 feet-Hard


white


limestone.


After Gerald M.


The Miocene stratigraphy


C(hoctawha tchee


Ponton


of Florida is as follows


formation




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


TEN


Thus Aphelops is established in


tion with Oxydactylus.


Previously


Miocene of Florida


Aphelops


well a


, in associa-
Teleoceras )


had


been


limited


this


region


Pliocene,


and


such


fragments


Rhinoceratidie


as had


been


found


Miocene


had


been


identified
Aphelops.


The


as Ccenopus


presence of


Diceratherimm,


Aphelops in


or doubtfully


the Miocene of Florida


referred


Increases


correlative


data


between


beds


period


southeastern


and


in the


western


portions


North


America.


COMPARATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF TEETH


SPECIMEN


TOOTH


ANTERIOR-


TRANSVERSE


POSTERIOR 'DIA.


Fla.


Surv


V-4430A
Aphelops


R P.
R P,
RM2
RM3
LP4


10874


Aphelops
brachyodus


L P2
R P
RP4
RMi
RM2


mm.


36.5


mnm.


27.5


nmm.


26.5


mm.


23.5


23.5


(No


number)


Aphelops
longipes


RP4
RM1
RM2
RM3
L M2
LM3


mm.


35.5 mm.


53.5