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Roads and road materials of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 2 )
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Title: Roads and road materials of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 2 )
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FLORIDA


STATE


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY


SELLARDS,


P-. D.,


STATE


GEOLOGIST


BULLETIN


ROADS


AND


ROAD


MATERIALS


OF


FLORIDA


E. H. SaSIARDS, H.


GUNTER, AND


N. H.





oo r.
P o'3
oj r--,





LETTER


TRAN


SMITTAL.


His Excellency, Hon.


submit


Albert


herewith


V. Gilchrist
publication


, Governor
as Bulletin


Florida.


2 of


Florida


State


Geological


Survey,


a brief


report


showing


present


condition of the public roads of Florida, prefaced by an account of the


road-making material


of the State.


Very


respectfully,


E. H.


SELLARDS,


State Geologist.


Tallahassee


March 31


1911.
































































































-I




'- S


CONTENTS.


PAGE.


Introduction


Road Materials of Florida
SClassification of the ro


cks of Florida


Siliceous materials-flint, ch


Calcareou


Argilaceous
Bog iron o
Phosphatic


materials-limestone,


materials-road


ert and gravel


and marls


making


..a a 90.6.0. .s.e ...... .

*. . .. a *. . . . .. .. .. .. S
*... .. ..* *. . .. ... ... ...* S


clays


rock


Road construction


Marl and crushed stone roads.


Shell roads


Gravel


roads


Pine straw roads.


Graded


roads.


*~~~~~~~~~~~1 S


*44 S S S


Cement, asphalt, and vitrified brick.


Sand-clay


roads


County reports


Road


statistics


S* 17


ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE


FOLLOWING


PAGE


Crushed stone


Shell road


road, Gainesville, Alachua


Pierson


County.


, Volusia County.


-Fig. 1.


Sand-clay road,
Sand-clay road,


Tallahassee,


Tavares,


Leon


Lake


County.


County.


No. 3.-Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.


Sand-clay road,


Vernon,


Washington County.


Pine straw road near Tavares, Lake County.


4.-Fig. 1.


Unimproved


sand roads


Unimproved sand road,


in southern part of Leon


Pierson,


Volusia


County.


County.


. .. .. ... ..
. ... .......


l.--Fig. 1.





































a




ROADS


AND


ROAD


MATERIALS


FLORIDA.


E.H.


SELLARDS


GUNTrER


AND N


Cox.


INTRODUCTION


An investigation


State Geological


of the road materials of Florida


Survey in 1907


was begun by the


and a brief report on this subject wa


incorporated in the


First Annual Report of the


State Geologist,


pp.46-


1908.


The work was continued at intervals as opportunity afforded


during


1908


1909


and 1910.


In the


present bulletin an effort has been


made


calendar
especially


complete


year


1910.


as regards


statistic
While i


mileage


on all


counties


is recognized


and


close


that


cost


road


statistic


construction


different kinds of
that the data are s


road


are necessarily


y approximate,


ufficently accurate to give in a reliable


.yet it is believed
e way the present


condition of road building in the State.
The county reports are based upon information given by the official


the respective counties, and


whatever merit these


reports


possess


due to the courtesy of these gentlemen.


Among those who have given


information are the Clerk


of the


Court of the different counties


, many


County


Commissioner


, County


and


other


Engineers.


The


Survey
States


also


indebted


Department


Office


Agriculture


Public


assistance


Road


United


completing


statistics.


The information supplied by the


several


counties


hows that at the


close of


1910 the total number


of miles of improved


road


in Florid:a


exclusive of graded dirt roads,


was 2,070.


Of this number 611.3 mile


are surfaced with marl or crushed stone; 146.1 are surfaced with


22.5 miles are surfaced with gravel


8.5 miles are surfaced with brick


0.4 mile is surfaced


with asphalt


5.2 miles are surfaced


with


cement


approximately 1,000 miles are surfaced


with


sand-clay,


and


miles


nw-n +nn. nnrn r I r ;mnr"mnA( rr lb0 miCa fll fl ctran




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY.


Under the present system


county is


unit


road manage-


ment,


and


County


Commissioners are


charge of


road


con-


struction


though


and


In one


responsibility


responsible


or two
shared


expenditure


so far


counties
as bond


which
money


have


road


issued


is concerned


funds
bonds


this


with


bond


trustees.


Road


engineers are employed in


seven


of the counties


Palm


State
Beach.,


follow


Putnam


Dade


and


, Duval,


Johns


Hillsboro,


Counties.


Manatee


Road


Nassau


supervisors


employed in


several


counties.


other


counties


County


Commis-


stoners


supervise


roads


their


respective districts.


Some


counties


own deposits of road materials while others purchase material


as needed


or rely


upon


that


which


occurs


on the


right


way


or is


contributed by citizens.


The


county


prisoners


were


used(


on the


roads


during


1910


following


counties


Dade


DeSoto


Escambia


, Lee,


Madison


Marion


Monroe,


Orange,


Palm


Beach,


Polk,


Santa


Rosa,


John


, Volusia


Washington.


worked


Hernando
apply the


on the


After


roads


Hillsboro


return


January
or a part
Counties.


1911


, county


time


number


convicts
Duval.


other


will


Gadsden,
counties


from the hire of convicts to the road fund.


addition to the fund


ava


able from regular and special taxes and


other sou re
as follows:


boro


County,


eight


Dade


counties


County,


$400,000


have issued bonds


$75,000


Manatee


Duval


County,


for rdad


County,
$50,000


improvement


$1,000,000


Nassau


Hills-


County,


$60,000


Palm Beach County, $200,000


Putnam County,


$155,000;


Lucie County, $200,000.


The total expenditure on public road


in the forty-four counties from


which


reports


have


been


received


was


$1,080,949.


The


expenditures


of the three counties from which no reports were


received


Duval


Johns, and Manatee,


during


will probably bring the total expenditure on roads


1910 to approximately one and a quarter million dollars.




BULLETIN


2-ROADS


AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


ROAD


MATERIALS.


The road materials


considered in thi


bulletin are such as are found


available for 'use in building country road


in the several cotatie


of the


State.


CLASSIFICATION OF THE ROCK


IN FLORIDA.


For


the


convenience


a brief


treatment


rocks


earth'


crust


may


classed


as either


igneous


or sedimentary


The


igneous


rocks are


those


which appear to


have cooled


from a moblten


condition


such as trap,


basalt, obsidian


and the granites.


The sedimentary rock


those


which


sediments may


formed


be of purely


accumulation


mechanical


origin,


as in


sediment


the case of


The
and-


stones,
stones,


even


hales


and clays


a broad


those


which


or of organic origin as in the case of the lime-


sense,


are of


sedimentary


chemical


origin,


rocks


such


made


as bog iron


include
forma-


tions.


However, should one attempt a minute and exhaustive classifica-


tion


rocks


these


two


main


divisions


would


found


insufficient.


Chemical changes are going on incessantly in the earth'


crust.and affect


rock


formation.


Chemical


physical


forces


Instances so profoundly altered formations that it is no


have


longer- po


many
ssible


to determine whether they were originally igneou


or sedimentary.


been


found necessary to establish


for these a third


division known


as metamorphic rocks.


With


regard


to the Florida deposits,


however


the classification
occur in Florida,


is not


greatly


all of the rock


complicated,


as no igneous


formation


of this State being sedimentary.


In the first of the following table


the rocks of Florida are classified


according


their


origin


second


according


their


chemical


composition.


ROCKS


OF FLORIDA


CLASSIFIED


ACCORDING TO ORIGIN.


Rocks of-


Mechanical origin


Sandstones,
Shales,
Clays.


j. n- --




FLORIDA


ROCKS OF FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


CLASSIFIED ACCORDING r'O CHEMICAL COMPOSITION.


Disregarding mode


origin


and


placing


rocks


according


chemical composition, the classification may be arranged as follows


Siliceous rocks..



Calcareous rock.


.. . . . . ..


Flint and chert,
Sandstone,
Inftlsorial earth.


Shell limestone.
Crystallized limestone,
Oolitic limestone,
Marl.


Argillaceous rock..

Carbo-Hydrates....

Ferruginous rocks..


Phosphatic rocks....


Clay and shale.

Muck, peat, lignite.

Bog iron ore.


Pebble and rock phosphate.


SILICEOUS ROCK


:"-FLINT,


CHERT


AND GRAVEL.


Flint


chemically


accompanying impurities.


oxide
It is a


silica


SiO2


with


more


variety of the mineral quartz,


occur-


ring massive and non-crystallized or more accurately very


imperfectly


crystallized


(crypto-crystalline )


The term


"chert" is often used inter-


changeably with flint.


Properly chert is an impure flint or flinty rock.


Flint and


chert are lacking in


cleavage.


They


break,


as do


the other


varieties of quartz, with conchoidal fracture. A flint rock when crushed
breaks into sharp cornered pieces of varying size. The mineral quartz,


of which flint is a


variety, has a hardness of seven on a scale in


which


the hardest mineral,


diamond


is ten.


The varieties of


quartz vary


hardness slightly according to the impurities that they contain.


Silica


is one of the least soluble of minerals and among 'the most resistant to
decay.
Flint and chert occur mostly as masses or "horsebacks" in the lime-


stone formations.


A good illustration of the manner of occurrence may


*%f *r


Sn k t an- a La 4 a


a.~C 4.ita


* .
*^ n n s'.-. a ^


41,n .^4.n


Tt-; .A


T :.fl


*. I .. II *f***-**l uIIIL I*N *I*U uI** ** I I*I IS Il *r .1 I I I j I I *N *e 4 .*S*




BULLETIN


2--ROADS AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


throughout


Columbia


from


Marion


central


County


Suwannee


Counties.


flint-bearing


on the


River


north


peninsular


Stmter


and


Much


limestone,


Gulf


hard


and


from


rock


section <
County


coast


phosphate


phosphate


State


on the


east


south


Alachua


rests
great


upon


from


and
and
this


quantities


of the flint may be obtained.


Occasional flint hill


such as that crossed


near


Evinston


and


Micanopy


stand


as evidence


resistance


of flint to t
disappeared


as the
Florida


weathering agencies,


through


Vicksburg
formation


formations


ever,


erosion.


This


the surrounding


flint-bearing


formation.


contains


highly


silica


siliceous.


on the


The


the chief flint-bearing formation


Vicksburg
of Florida.


limestone


limestone


inferred
contrary,


that


having


is known
no other


many


Limestone


how-


The f
originally


lint


masses


formed.


were clearly
This formation


present


when


limestone


affected


chemical


change


consists


typically


a mass


calcareous


shel


varying


size


from


which


amount


minute


foraminifera


interbedded


siliceous


coral


material


and


larger
other


supplied


bivalves and


fossils,


along


principally


gastropod


with


sponge


with


a limited
spicules.


Originally,


without doubt, the limestone consisted. largely of the remains


these


calcareous


shell


flint


masses


having


been


subsequently


deposited


through


agency


underground


water


Water


round of circulation through surface and deeper formations takes silica


as wel


as other substances into solution.


the course of its circula-


tion


through


the calcium


the limestone
carbonate of


e, the silica in
the limestone.


solution


The


direct


water


evidence


replaces


that


flint masses are


formed


by the


replacement process i


from


examination


a piece


flint.


this


will


seen


that


foraminifera
been changed


and


other


silica.


shell
The


which


were


originally


replacement process -is


calcareous


by no


have


means con-


fined


formation


chapter,


chemical


flints.


*changes


mentioned
constantly


introduction


going


among


minerals making up the rock formations, and


replacement


one mm-


eral by another is one of the


Siliceous


gravels are


widely


important phases of chemical change.


scattered


over the


State and


in a few


I




SLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


and magnesium, and have certain features in common.


They are much


resistant to


wear than is quartz.


When


pure and crystallized


mineral


which


calcite


quartz


(CaCOs)


is seven.


a hardness of


* It


much


only


three


softer than


steel


scale
tires


wagons.


fact a


chief


item


in the repair of


.calcareous


from the fact that steel tires cut holes in the soft material.


roads arises
On the other


hand
with


, an advantageous .property of


which


it re-cements


itself.


calcareous material is the readiness


Calcium


carbonate


dissolves


appreciable extent in water containing C02 gas or weak organic acids.


Chemical


readjustment


therefore


rapid


a mass


crushed


broken


calcareous


rock,


dissolved


calcium


carbonate


acting


as a


cementing material.
In practical application, the physical condition in which these mater-'
ials occur must be taken into consideration. In the case of recent shells,


the calcium carbonate is ip a compact amorphous condition.


The shells


of a shell limestone are usually
oolitic limestone is made up of


brittle and


often


innumerable minute


crumble easily.


round


The


concretions


barely


large


together


enough


a calcareous


readily
cement.


visible -to


After


the eye.


crushing,


These are


held


particles


cement more or less perfectly.


The marls are calcareous deposits which


are sufficiently soft


be applied


roads


without


previous


crushing.


More or less perfectly crystallized limestone occurs locally in the -State.


formation


is probably


to a


replacement process


similar to that


described


flint


and


chert.


The


chemical


changes


in this


case


volve a rearrangement of the constituent molecules, as a result of which


the non-crystallized material of the rock assumes a definite form.


When


partly crystallized the limestone becomes compact and close grained.


Distribution


and


Amount


Calcareo us


Rocks.-T'he


calcareous


rocks are widely distributed in the State.


The


Vicksburg Limestone, as


already


tated


is found near the surface over much of central Florida.


Oolitic limestones make up an


extensive formation


running north and


south
Coral


from


and


Miami


oolitic


and


forming


limestones


form.


east


"the


border


foundation


Everglades.


keys


from


a. a -a.






BULLETIN


2-ROADS AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


ARGILLACEOUS


MATERIALS-ROAD-MAKING CLAYS.


Fine grained clay mixed in


quartz,


makes a


construction is


mixing


sand


road


that


necessary, and


and


clay


road


proper proportion


been
where


found
the i


purposes


useful
toads h
the pro


with coarse, angular


where


ave


ligh


portion


cheapness
it travel.


should


adjusted
.interstices


sand


that there
s between


grains


roadbed.
separated


and


will


too
the


is enough


clay


the grains of


lack


much
road


bonding


clay


behaves


the mixture


sand.
power
added,
much


If too little clay is


and


will
sand


as though


make


grains


sand


avoids
added


solid


widely


were


present


The


amount


clay


necessary


mix


with


a given


volume of any particular sand may be roughly determined by ascertain-
ing the amount of water necessary, to fill the interstices of the sand.. A


simple


procedure


recommended


Department of Agriculture,


p. 10, i


Farmers'
as follow


Bulletin


,U.


"Two ordinary glass


tumblers of the same size are filled to the brim,


with


dry sand


tested and


the other


with


water.


The


water


then


poured


care-


fully from the one glass into the sand in


the other until it


reaches the


point
which


overflowing.


was


The


originally


volume


water


water


removed


taken


from


glass


as an approximate


measure of the voids in the unit column of sand contained in the tumbler.


simple calculation will reduce this to percentage volume."


Since all


clay


contains


more or


less sand,


it may


expected


that


certain localities


will supply


clay that


contains


right admixture of


sand and clay to form a natural sand-clay road, or so nearly the proper


admixture


that


will


serve


that


purpose


satisfactorily.


Fortunately


Florida, almost every county i


supplied with an abundance of clay


which


serves admirably the purpose of road-making.


With this material


hand


road


construction


country


sections


carried


mnlinmum expense.


These roads find their greatest usefulness in country


sections where cheapness in road-making is necessary.


The
high


road-making
percentage o


clays
F iron


are of


a red


compounds


or yellowish


which


2. - -L -


color


probably


a1 -


, indicating


assist
-a aL -


A a -


L ,... [ r a 14,-t S l -saul"rlaI r I.l"E -. 10 rt r1 U *- *5 * r-a


Ct1^ IA Ca c*arm1


J-k'1





FL RIDA


GEOLoICAAL SuitvlY.


as a cementing material,


and


this


doubtless


'explanation


usefulness


for this purpose.


PHOSPHATIC ROCK.
Low grade phosphate may serve in some localities as a useful road


rock.


The


hard


rock


phosphate


harder


than. limestone


and


ported to


have better cementing qualities.


Phosphate


screenings -have


been used to some extent and have proved satisfactory.

ROAD CONSTRUCTION.


The


gravel,


improved
sand-clay,


roads


pine


surfaced


straw


, cement,


with


marl,


or vitrified


crushed


brick,


.stone,


shell


kind


road


constructed


depending


largely


upon


materials


available


that


are cheap


enough


economically


used.


Sandy


clays


suitable


country


roads


most


widely


distributed


road


materials,


and at the present time the mileage of


roads


built of


sand-clay in


this


State
bined.


equals


Marl


mileage


roads


built


other


limestone and shell are the next most


materials


widely


colm-


distributed


materials,
restricted.


while


flirit


, bog


, gravel


and


phosphate


rock


more


MARL AND CRUSHED STONE.


The term


"marl"


in connection


with


road making is applied


to any


calcareous


material


that


is sufficiently


soft


admit


direct


applica-


tion to roads without previous crushing.


The marls as a rule are taken


direct from the pits to the roads.


With the soft marls


traffic over the


road


serves


crush,


smooth


and


pack


material, although


harder marls after being spread on the road are broken up by hand or


crushed with a roller


. A characteristic of marl is that after' being thus


packed the material recements itself,


forming a


uniform surface.


The


marls used for roads include several varieties.


A form frequently used


is. an


amorphous


character
obtained


were


marl


formerly
western


found


used


usually


extensively


part


county.


swamps.
Orange


Marls


Marls


County,


used


this


being


Brevard


County


west of Titusville. are of a similar character.


The swamp marl


v


P


i





.2--fttA6-AND


RoAD


MATERIALS.


PMvidlJackson, -H'olmes, and .WashingQ Counties.


The marl roads


ef'Mlrion--Countyy.are made from this limestone, numerous pits


being'


opened in


-the -county: for


purpose.


The


oolitic


limestone


Miami -section, although requiring some crushing,


classed for road purposes as a marl.


is likewise used and


Distinctly shell marls are of fre-


quent occurrence.


good


exposure


shell


marl


may


seen


the pits


used


for road making at DeLand.


The cost of construction


of marl


roads differs so much .in


the dif-


ferent


counties


and


with


different


conditions


that


average


scarcely be given.


Some marl deposits can be mined much more cheaply


than other


the cost being


affected by the depth of the overburden


be removed and the depth of the marl deposit and the ease with


which


can


removed.


The


cost


road'


is further


very


materially


affected by the distance the marl has to be hauled or shipped as well as
by the width of the road and the thickness of the coating of marl spread


over the road.


The marl roads now in use vary in width from 8 to 30


feet, and in thickness of the coating of rock from 6 to 14 inches on the


crown,


and


from


inches


occurs along the road and


on the


edges.


is cheaply mined


Where


the marl


roads


. material
cost little


if any more


than


sand-clay


roads.


Citrus


County


12 miles


road


feet wide, and


having a


thickness of


surfacing material


inches


at the center


and


5 inches


at the


edge,


built


Vicksburg


limestone, is reported to have cost $750 per mile, and in Sumter County
5 miles of road made of this limestone, 12 feet wide, 14 inches thick at


the crown


and


inches


thick at


edge,


cost


$800


per mile.


The


average cost of roads made from the
somewhat above this amount. The r<


Vicksburg limestone is, however,
oads of Dade County, 9 feet wide,


the surfacing material having an average thickness of six inches, made


of the crushed Miami limestone cost from $900 to $1,000,


and roads of


the same material 20 feet wide, and of an average thickness of 12 inches,


cost from $1,800 to $2,000 per mile. In Orange County,


where the marl


was taken from the swamps and hauled by freight, the average cost of
16 niles of road, part of which was 16 feet wide and part 10 feet wide,


Q in o Alonn at< t-he r*

fi ;nrrh aa n tha alfroa


iroo A9 nnn nwP-




FLOUIDA


COwcnIsCOAL: SuwEvY.


The cost* of the: rushed :stone roads


varies :with zthe:methods -tled


and


the thickness. of the drasing.


:The crashed


stone road:. of Paso


County including three miles, 1$ feet wide, 6 inches thick in the middle


and
mile.
feet


4 inches.


thick at the edges; ,are-rcported to have cost "$500-. per
%y --- ~ -~~. . *


A crashed stone road under construction : Taylor Coulty, 20
wide, 6 inches' thick at the center and 4 inches- t the .elges 'Costs


45 cents per square yard or $5,180.85


per mile.


The total amount of marl and crushed stone roads in


eluding that built from the ordinary amorphou


the State in-


marls, the shell marls,


and the limestones such as the


Vickburg,


and


Miami


formations,.


was,


at the close of 1910, 611.3 miles.

r" SHELL ROADS.


Shel


-deposits are less uniformly scattered over the State than marl


and limestone and are


less extensively used


for roads.


The


principal


deposits are the oyster shells found near the coast or along .inlets


from


the .coast,


and


the chief


supply


these is


afforded


the shell


mounds accumulated in the past by the Indians, although modern oyster


canning


factories


give


an important


added


supply.


Aside


from


mounds of the coast there is a notable series of shell mounds along


Johnr


River


, which consists chiefly of small univalve shells with


some
from


mussels.


shells


These were likewise accumulated by the Indians.


accumulated


human


agencies


shell


Aside


deposits


accumulated -by natural agencies should be mentioned.


Among these are


coquina rock and other marine


as beach deposits and


places


hard


rock.


hell deposits.


The coquina acctimulated


subsequently became more or less cemented,


Elsewhere


masses


uncemented


form-
shells


occur,
usually
road in


such


as those


classed


as she


previously
Il marls.


mentioned


The


total


DeLand.


number


These


miles


are
shell


the State is 146.1.


GRAVEL ROADS.
Gravel is not extensively used for road building in Florida. Atiout 12


miles of gravel road have been reported in Clay County,


to have cost about the same as sand-clay roads.


which are said


Some phosphate gravel


.rn\nrA hio tkrnanr 4-nct-Ii/(I n thb IIAc torn nurf tf Ahtia IIb i "r'iic
















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


CRUSHED STONE ROAD, GAINESVILLE, ALACHUA COUNTY, FLORIDA,
LEADING TO THE STATE UNIVERSITY.


SHELL ROAD, PIERSON, VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA.


BULLETIN NO. 2. PL. 1.












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


SAND-CLAY ROAD, TALLAHASSEE, LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA. BELLAIR
ROAD LEADING INTO TALLAHASSEE FROM THE SOUTH.


SAND-CLAY ROAD, TAVARES, LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA.


_ _I


BULLETIN NO. 2. PL. 2.


I""': ',""













FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


SAND-CLAY ROAD, ONE MILE NORTH OF VERNON, WASHINGTON
COUNTY, FLORIDA.


PINE STRAW ROAD NEAR TAVARES, LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA.


BULLETIN NO. 2. PL. 3.


C+-Ct _I









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

rms~r^


BULLETIN NO. 2. PL. 4.




kAJA~h


UNIMPROVED SAND ROADS IN SOUTHERN PART OF LEON COUNTY,
FLORIDA.


UNIMPROVED SAND ROAD, PIERSON, VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA.




$BUABt i


2-ROADS AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


bounaty


is slipped


from


.South


Carolina.


The


'total


number


miles


of gravel road in the State is 22.5.

PINE STRAW.


Fine


needles


or pine


straw


is frequently


used


as a coVering


sandy roads and serves a


a road


very useful


I


will not -exceed-$4'0 a mile and


purpose
under


The cost of


strawing


favorable condition


work may be done more cheaply


The total amount 6f pine straw road


iwn he State is about 277 miles,

GRADED DIRT ROADS.


the absence .of


other road material a vast improvement, in


road


conditions is made by grading and draining the dirt- roads.


stumps and roots are


removed and


V


the roads straightened and


Then all
graded


travel is much easier than over the usual crooked road with its stumps,


roots and ditches.


The mileage of graded


dirt roads has not been ob-


stained and is not included in the totals given above.

CEMENT, ASPHALT, AND VI'TRIFIED BRICK.


These materials have


of the cities.


asphalt,


and


been but little u


sed for-road


Duval County has built 6.5 miles


miles of


vitrified


brick


and


building outside


>f cement
addition


0.4 mile


about


miles of brick road under construction.


SAND-CLAY ROADS.


Sand-clay,


because of


wide


spread


occurrence,


is the most


.tensively


used


road


material


in the


State.


Almost


every


county


sandy clays .suitable


for road making,


or the clay


suitable to mix with


or cover the sands of the natural sandy roads.


These roads;


while not


all that could be desired, are a vast improvement over the ordinary sand


roads and


their cheapness


recommends them


to general


use.


The sand-clay roads vary in


width


from


9 to 30


feet and in


thick-


ness of surfacing material at the center from 6 to 14 inches, and at the


edges


from 2 to


10 inches.


As in


the case Qf the marl


road


the cost


differs so much with varying condition


that an average can hardly be


A *'-- ,L Z ..- -.-f'1-- CLtj.j. a a-- t.l T ^-na T.^C


.*


..





FLORIDA- GEOLOGICAL


SuRvar.


COUNTY REPORTS..

ALLACHUA ..COT:Y.


total amount of-surfaced


111 miles.


o
roads, m"tMchum:;kmae.d,,-e


This consists- chiefly f :sandr-lay.-roads:.-~ although i--ls.0ni


low grade phosphate -rock and gravel:.,havcmrbee .useiaim--tjew-ostera,-part... thi.e


county.


The roads are built 12 feet-wid. r there. surfacingu-a.ataiLhei-w .8-incehes


thick.


The average cost of this type of road" is:$800 per ipile.


: Tihe. cantuB-r


not own its road surfacing material,


but in only a


few instances


has a


royalty:


been


paid,


citizens


furnishing


material


needed


charge.


county pays a general road


tax of 3 mills,


which in


1910 amounted


to $19,568,


In addition to this regular tax the districts which include the towns of Alachua,


Hawthorne


, High


Springs,


Micanopy


Newberry,


pay a special


5-mill


road


which


amounted


to $11,351.


receipts


from


special


are ex-


pended


lease


on the
county


roads


within


convicts


each


is also


special


applied


tax district.


to the


road


revenue


fund.


This


from


amounted


to about


$6,000.


money


is expended


under


direct


supervision


County Commissioners,


who also supervise the construction of roads within


their


respective


districts.


county


s road


equipment


valued


at about


$4,500 and consists of 5 complete camping outfits,


including 10 tents, cots,


cook-


ing utensils,


rious


tools.
owned
county


, 18 mul
traction


es, 9 wagons,


engine


county,


include


sand-clay,


double plows,


at $2,200


in use.


valued
is not


limestone


marl,


graders,


not included


shovel
in the


road-making


flint,


phosphate


va-


above


materials


rock


phosphate


pebble.


total


amount


expended


on public


roads


bridges


county


1910


was


about


$24,000.


BAKER


COUNTY.


Baker County has about
on the south prong of the. St.


which


amounted


1914


mile of


sand-clay road leading up


Marys River.
0 to $2,451.50.


the hi


The county pays a road


receipts


from


tax of
lease


county


convicts are applied to the road


fund.


road supervisor for each


trict is employed by the County Commissioners.


Roads


are worked by laborers


paid


$1.00


per day.


road-making materials


county


consist


chiefly


sand-clay.


total


amount


expended


on roads


bridges


in 1910


$4;399.


A road extending across the county from east to west is proposed.


BRADFORD COUNTY.


Bradford County has built 7 miles of pine straw roads,


7 feet wide


at a cost


mile.


ornntf v


nfavc


a rnad


tax nf


milTs


- v - - --- w I -, LI -.. -


the receipts


from


* Vv


. ...





I01L.rIN


2 --ROADS AND ROAD


BREVARD COUNTY.
Brevard County owns its road surfacing- material and has. abqpt 20 miles of


--road surfaced, with marl and coquina. shell rock.


A supervisor


is employed.


The


road
$1,70(
ers.


0
).


equipment


consists


mules, wagons,


a. road


roller


valued


about


The roads are -worked by laborers employed by the County Commnission-


The road-making materials


of -this county include mail and


shell


rock- or


coquma.
$11,019.93.


total


expenditure


on public


roads


-bridges


1910


was


CALHOUN


COUNTY


Clay


forms


occurs near the surface over the greater part of


a good


foundation


roads.


Therefore


besides


Calhoun
grading


County and


proper


drainage,


little is necessary to


make a


good


road.


The county


built


good


steel


bridges


across


Chipola


River.


Calhoun


County


does


not as a whole


pay a road tax,


from
victs


October,


being


although district numb


1910.


roads


leased


total


er 5 voted a three-mill tax


are worked


expenditure


by the


citizens


on roads


for two
e county


years.
con-


bridges


was


$3,967.17.


CITRUS


COUNTY.


Citrus County reports


a total of 60 miles of improved roads.


Of this


num-:


25 miles


are surfaced


with


sand-clay,


12 feet wide


inches


center,


and 4


inches at the edges,


at a cost by contract of $1,000 per mile


23 mi


surfaced


with


crushed


stone


12 feet


wide,


inches


in the center


inches


at the edges,


at a cost by day labor of $750 per mile, and 12 miles


are surfaced


with limestone


, 10 feet wide,


inches


in the center and


inches


at the edges, at


a cost of $750 per mile.


struction.
$11,031.37
$1,500.37.


county


In addition 7


pays


a 7-mill


miles
road


of rock road


which


Road district number 3 pays a special tax,


In addition


to thi


receipts


from


are now under con-


amounted


which amounted


hire of


county


1910


in 1910 to
convicts is


applied


to the


road


fund, which


amounted


year


1910


to about


$2,000.


The roads are worked by laborers employed by the County Commissioners.


road equipment consists


of a 0O-ton motor road roller, crusher, screen,


and five 2-mule teams, the value of which


is about $6,500.


of all public roads in the county is estimated at about 217.


elevator,


number of miles
e road materials


of this


county include


sand-clay,


limestone, and


phosphate rock.


total


penditure


on public


roads


bridges


"during


1910


was $14,500.


COLUMBIA


COUNTY'.


Columbia


proposed
f3 i C? T


County


cross
mart


is now


country


engaged


from


in clearing


east


nmountino-


- . .. n..


to west.


to about


ll a


right c
1910


of a


a 3-mill


ro Ac


road
was


UWUL*. t i. I nJria na


MAr.TIAL^,


imoroveme


1





FLOkIDA


GEOLOGICAL


.StrvJ EY.


Clay


County reports


CLAY
miles of


COUNTY.


road, gi


wide, '6


inches


thick


the center


and 2 inches at the edges,


built at a cost of


about $1,500 per


mile,


mile of sand-clay road 15


feet wide, 8 inches thick in the center and-2


inches


thick at the edges, built at a


cost of about $1,000 per'mile.


The county


pays


W-mil


regular


road


tax which amounted


in 1910 to. about


$3,960.


addition to this regular tax, road district number One has levied a special 5-mill


tax.


This special tax which will


be collected in 1911 amounts to $2,540.34.


roads


are worked


laborers


employed


County


Commissioners.


road materials


of this county include sand-clay, shell and a phosphatic limestone.


The total expend


tire on public roads and bridges in


1910 was


about $3,000.


DADE


COUNTY.


Dade


County


built about


145 miles


crushed limestone


roads,


and in


addition about


35 miles


more are now


either


under


construction


or contracted


These


roads are


built of the Miami


oolitic limestone.


The dimensions of


the roads


built vary from


9 to


16 feet in


width,


the surfacing material from


to 12


inches in depth.


The average cost of a road 9 feet wide, with an average


depth of 6 inches,


is from $900 to $1,000 per mile


the cost


16-foot road


with an average depth of 8 inches,


$1,600 per mile


the cost of a 20-foot road,


with an average depth of 12 inches, is $1,800 to $1,900 per mile.


its road-making material.


The county owns


A road tax of 8 mills has been levied which amounted


1910 to $34,692.


The county has issued


bonds


for road


improvement to


amount


$75,000.


road


money


is spent


under


direct


supervision


County


Commissioners.


county


a road


engineer


a road


supervisor.
equipment


Roads are worked by paid laborers and also by convicts.


consists of two steam rollers, one


The road


ten-ton and one fourteen-ton


one


traction engine and eight cars


four gasoline seven-ton rollers, and other


lighter


equipment.


The estimated total number of miles of public


roads in


the county


is 175.


total amount expended on roads and bridges in 1910 \\as $138,200 27.


SOTO


COUNTY.


number


approximately


of miles of


including


sand-clay


surfaced


roads


roads


DeSoto


within


County
towns


reported


of the county


In some


instances pine


straw


been


used


and has temporarily improved


roads.


7-mill tax, amounting to $31,332.81,


was assessed


in 1910


for the


provement of roads.


The road equipment consists of six mules,


graders, shovels,


other implements.


The county convicts are


worked


on the


roads


also


at times


paid


laborers


are employed.


road


materials


county


clude


sand-clay,


shell


marl.


The


total


expenditure


on roads


bridges


* C' 4 fl -


atnrd rnn r


Ifl *111 SI'rl *S ~UlCt*M


In


I


I





BULLETrIN


2--ROADS AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


livered on shore at the point nearest to where they are to


be used.


The other


materials
limestone


are imported;


section


central


marl


Florida.


crushed
county


stone


engineer


is shipped


from


is employed.


county convicts will be worked


on the


roads during a


part of


1911.


The road


equipment includes a 14-ton .roller, a 10-ton roller, and a 7-ton roller, and other


- general supplies


valued


at $10,500.


county


in 1910


voted a


bond


issue


$1,000,000 for road improvement.


The total mileage of public roads is estimated


at 505 mi


The total expenditure on public roads during 1910 was


not given.


Escambia


115 mile


County' has
sand-clay at


ESCAMBIA
exclusive of


miles


COUNTY.


streets


gravel


road.


roads


within


sand-clay


cities.,


roads


t 20 to 25 feet wide, 14 inches thick at the middle, and 4 inches


at the


at4- cost of $1,000 per mile.
ati- cost of $1,000 per mile.


The gravel roads


are 18 feet wide, 1


inches thick.


at the middle, and 3 inches at the


edges, and were built at a


cost of $9,000 per


mile.


high'


is due


to the


freight


on the


gravel


to the


hauling.


The county paid a road tax of 3 mi


in 1910,


which amounted to $33,


SA road


public


roads.


supervisor -i
The county


outfits and general supplies


employed


road
valu


equipment


ed at $8,600.


county


includes


convicts


mules,


road


are used


graders,


on the


camp


total mileage of public roads


the county


is about


1.000.


chief


road-forming materials


of this county


are sand-clay and gravel.


The tota


expenditures


on public


roads


1910 was


$40,354.90.


FRANKLIN


COUNTY.


Frank


County has


completed about


25 miles


of road, surfaced


with


shell.


county does not own its road-making material, but shells


are furnished free.


county pays a road tax


of 6 mill


s, which amounts to $7,569.


All road money


is spent


under the


supervision


County Comm


issioners.


county


no road engin


eer and the


roads are worked by the citizens.


The total expenditure


on public roads and bridges during the year


GADSDEN


1919 was $4,406.21.


COUNTY.


Gadsden


County


reports" about


31 miles


sand-clay


road


, built


30 feet


width. T
Sand-clay


'hese are


principally


is hauled and


used


natural


as the


sand-clay


surfacing


road,


material


s graded
where n


needed.


drained.
These


roads cost on an average in this county $350 per mile.


The county convicts are


used on the roads. Tb
for road improvement.


/e county doe


not pay a road tax and has issued no bonds


Revenue for road improvement is derived


from a $4.0


capitation


citizens


subject


to this


tax who


same


required


to work the


roads


days


per year.


county


a road superin-


hir it


C. 4frrLa. 0


4)ln ^


nr*le t**ll v*.-K. Wlr *IE| T| tI |.L t.


mranA


ennstrwction.


road


eouinment


is valued


are


. L


i ll.





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL SVRV Y.


. -


The total number of miles of all publilio roads in the count$ estimated to' he
3soo0. The road materials of this- county Ifilude sand-clay and-pebbk hosphate.


The total


expenditure on


public roads arid


bridges


1910 'was approximately


$10,000.


HERNANDO


COUNTY.


In that section of Hernando County covered with a sand-clay formation this


material forms a good foundation for roads and all that is necessary is


grading


and provision-for drainage.


A road tax of 3f mills is assessed,


which amounted


in 1910 to $5,040.


The roads have heretofore been worked by paid laborers, buit


beginning about the first of the


year


1911


the convict


system


was inaugurated.


The number of miles of public roads in the county is about 150.


The road ma-


trials
amount


county


expended


include *sand-clay,


on public


roads


limestone,


bridges of


phosphate.


the county


during


*The


total


1910


$4,146.50.


HILLSBORO COUNTY.


Hillsboro County has built 125 miles of crushed stone and shel


roads.


Some


pine straw roads have been built for temporary use at a


cost of about $40 per


road tax,


which amounted in 1910 to $3,137:


For the year 1909 a 3-mill tax


12 feet wide,


inches


in center,


inches


at the


edges


miles.


The cost of this part of the road was $3,800 per mile.


last two miles


were built 1
cost of this
by contract,


feet wide, 11 inches in the center, and 7 inches at the


part of the road


the contractor


was about $4,500 per


furnishing all material.


mile.


road


The county in


edges.
work


1903


The


issued


bonds for $400,000 for road improvement.


In addition to this a 4-mill road tax


levied,


which


amounted


1910


to $67,154.40.


The county


a road


gineer who prepares all bids and specifications.


The road money is spent under


the direct
chasing a


supervision of
complete new


County


road


equipment,


Commissioners.


which


The coui)ty


is now


cost approximately


pur-


$5,000.


The equipment now on hand, consisting of graders, shovels and supplies, is valued


at about $1,000.


Commencing with January, 1911, the convict system of labor will


be tried on the public roads.


The county ha


approximately 500 miles of public


road.


The road materials of this county include sand-clay, limestone and marl,


shell, and phosphate


rock.


The total expenditure on


roads and


bridges during


1910
wood


was


on new


bridges,


surfaced


$4,936.52,


roads,


on the


$80,411.38


repair


on steel


roads


bridges,


bridges,


$17,013.25


$45,102.23


total of $147,463.38.


HOLMES COUNTY.


Holmes


' County


some


natural


sand-clay


roads.


The ~county


pays


a 2-


mill road tax,


which amounted in 1910 to $3,137.


For the year 1909 a 3-mi


jt;1 -ntrln efTtnA/ I CK 40nn 4


'Ph-A r-atnAic r*e intnrtlro*A h thc g4t4qnp






B.ULLA IN


2-ROADS AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


-oad materials of


Jackson


County include


sand-clay


limestone.


total


expenditure on public roads and bridges

JEFFERSON


in 1910 was about $3,000.

COUNTY.


With the exception of the southern extremity, the roads of the greater part


of Jefferson.


County have a natural sand-clay foundation,


thus making the


improvement


roads


comparatively


slight.


road tax which amounted in 1910 to about $2,361.


county
receipts


pays
from


a 1-mill
the hire


of county convicts are applied to the road fund.


This amounted to about $1,000


1910.


roads


are worked


under the 8-day


system


citizens


subject to


road duty or a fine of $3.00.
the County Commissioners.


The roads are also worked by laborers employed by


total


expenditure on public roads


during


1910


was $2,


326.41.


LAFAYETTE


COUNTY.


Lafayette County pays a 2-mill road tax which amounted in 1910 to $4,62
The roads are worked by laborers employed by the County Commissioners.


number of mil


es of public


roads in the county


is approximately


1,000.


road


materials


of this


county include


sand


-clay and limestone.


The tota


amount ex-


pended


on public


roads and


bridges


during the


year


1910 was


$1,130.


LAKE


COUNTY.


Lake County


has completed approximately 70 m


of sand-clay roads and


107 miles


of pine straw roads.


clay road


is built 9 feet wide, 6 inches thick


n the center and 4 inches at the


edges,


at an average cost of about $500 per mi


The pine straw roads


are built for $30 to $50 pjr mile.


The county paid


n 1910


a 5-mill.regular road tax,


which amounted to $14,316.


in addition to this regular tax a 3-mill tax,


District number four pays


which amounted to $1,876.


The road


equipment consists of road rollers,


hired out and the


scrapers,


ai


proceeds are applied to the


nd mules.
road fund.


The county
Sand-clay


convicts


is the chief


road material of this county.


The total


expe


nditure on roads


and bridges


n 1910


was $18,443.37.


LEE


COUNTY.


Lee County


are built


10 feet


. completed


wide,


inches


20 miles of


shell and snarl


in the center and


inches


roads.


at the


These
edges.


roads


average estimated cost of the mar


pays a 3-mill road tax,


road


is given


which amounted in


as $1,500 per mile.


1910 to $7,297.


. The court


The county
ity convicts


are worked
missioners


on the roads and


well.


road


paid


laborers


equipment


are employed


consists


by the


mules


County


, plows,


Com-


scrapers,


shovels


and pi


The county has


no road engineer


all roads being constructed


A-a -


- r I-' _i-------


a a1 -


- 1 A J __


I I


rY 1 I






uipment, valued at 000. s. .


S22.52. .
been levied for 1911. The returns from the" hire of, .bonvyitt, amount" .to .--
about $3,000 kre applied to the road fund. A county road supervisor "is en"- .:
played. The county's road equipmentt consists of road grader, mules, aud general
equipment, valued at $6,000. The total expenditure on roads i 1910 was $12,:
227.52. a "


LEVY


COUNTY.


Levy
miles of
leading f
road tax
Hammocl
Lebanon


County has a total of
sand-clay road near th
rom the mainland into
of 1 mill which in 191
k districts levied each
districts 3 mills for th4


convicts are leased out and the
ceipts from this source amount
mately 425 miles of public roa
sand-clay, shell and limestone.


about


miles .of improved


e town of Williston,
the town of Cedar I
0 amounted to $2,829.
a special tax of 5
e year 1911 for road i
receipts are applied tF
d in 1910 to $2.562.16.


d.


The
The


. road
total


S.. .


and
Keyi.
Th
mills
impri
o the
Th


materials


expenditure


roads,


including 3,-/:


4 miles of shell road
The county pays a
ie Williston arid Gulf
, and the" Inglis and
movement. The county
e road fund. Thee.
e county has approxit
f this county 'include


on public


roads


Sand


bridges during


1910 was $3,163.36.


LIBERTY


COUNTY.


Liberty County pays a


The woi
intends 1
of miles
sists of
elude sa
in 1909
same.


rk o
the
of
one
nd-
wa


4-mi


in roads is let out 1
construction of roa
public road is rep
road grader, value<
clay and limestone.


S


$4,879.49.


ds
,rI
ed


11 road
contract
within 1
ted to be
at $125.
The toth


amount


tax, which amounted in 1910 to $5,223.
t, and each County Commissioner super-
his respective district. The total number;
e 236. The county road equipment con-
.The- road materials of this, county in-
il expenditure on the roads and bridges


expended


1910


approximately


- MADISON


COUNTY.


Madison County reports about 21 miles of-road surfaced with sand-clay.


is assessed for the road improveme


$8,209. The County Commissioners supervise
spective districts. The county's road equipment
gine, scrapers, water tankpand general supplies,
The roads are worked under the 8-day system
convict system of labor was tried' about six years


unsatisf
stantly
and lim
during


actor
employ
estone.
1910 w


because the county was not able
ed. The road-making materials
The total amount expended on
as about $6,500.


t
c
r


I


tnt, which amounted in 1910
:oad constriction in their
consists of a road grader,
and is' valued at about $4,(
and also by paid labor. '


to
re-
en-
00.
[he


ago, but "at that time was found
o keep a sufficient number con-
if this county include, sand-clay
roads and bridges of-the county


MANATEE COUNTY.


tax of 3 mill


. I


I


I






ibB ULETIN


2-ROADS AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


MARION


COUNTY.


About


miles


sand-clay


roads


miles


crushed


stone


roads


have been completed in Marion Count
vary in cost from $1,600 to $3,000 pel
material and the distance of hauling.


The roads are built 10 feet


e, depending upon


wide and


the availability


The county pays a 4-mill road tax,


which


amounted
tendent.


1910


to approximately


county


's road


$20,626.


equipment


county


consists


a road


a traction


engine,


supennrm-


roller,


scraper,


mules


on the roads.


wagons,


valued


at $5,000.


About


All above this number are hired out and the


convicts


receipts


are worked
are applied


to the


road


fund.


The county


approximately


1,000


miles


public


roads.


The chief road materials are limestone


or marl


, flint, sand-clay,


phosphate.


total


expenditure on


roads


bridges


during


1910


was


between


$40,000


di $50,000.


MONROE


COUNTY.


Monroe


County


3.2 miles


road


surfaced


with


crushed


stone.


This


road,


which is partly within the city of Key


West,


30 feet wide,


was built of


native


oolitic


limestone,


$3,800


mile.


county


does


pay a special road tax,


road


improvement being paid


for out of the general


fund.


The road equipment consists of


is valued at $200.


Formerly the roads


picks,
were


shovels, and general


worked


by paid


supplies


laborers.


At the


present time, however, the county convicts are worked on the roads.


Limestone


road


material.


total


amount


expended


on public


roads


bridges in


1910 was about $800.


NASSAU


Nassau


County


under


special


COUNTY.
legislative


issued


interest-bearing


certificates to the amount of $60,000 for the


improvement of


roads and


bridges


within


county.


work


grading


roads


in various


parts


county is now in progress.


The county pays a regular road tax of


2 mills.


tax amounted in 1910 to $5,128.


In road districts one, two, and three a special


5-mill tax has been levied,


which amounts to about $6,793 addition


The total


amount


of hard


surfaced


road


county


at the


present


time is


20 mil


surfaced with shell, 15 feet wide, and 6 to 8 inches thick
amount 10 miles is in good condition while 10 miles is i


at the center. C
n need of repair.


)f this
The


roads throughout the county now being graded will be surfaced with shell.


county buys this shell and pays 3


cents per bushel for live shel


and 3 cents pern


road improvement is done under the direction of the


County Commissioners and all road mo
The county also has a road engineer.


- _


ney is expended under their supervision.
The road equipment consists of a steam


J.


- 41


--44---


*AIIwatwAa cnAentrn blll ral awnn *r~III rrrn nawc.9 nasa~l enStA~ ...ar nn..n0rn*


- -


- *


-4


bushel for dead shell.


- 1 -


__ L_


I





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY. -


roads, 10 feet wide, the straw being placed 18 inches thick, at a. cost of $40 per


mile.


The county pays


a 6-mill


road


which in


1910 amounted


to $36,106..


road


superintendent


is. employed


who


looks


after


road


construction.


The


county has a complete road equipment valued at $8,450.


by county convicts.


The roads are worked


The estimated total of all public roads in the county is 250.


The road materials of this county include marl and sand-clay.


The total


expenditure on


public roads


and bridges


1910 was


about $30,000.


OSCEOLA


COUNTY.


Osceola


County reports 8 or 10 miles of marl road.


The road tax in


county for


1910 was


6 mills,


which amounted to $16,517.71.


A road supervisor


is employed.
being used.


The public roads are worked by laborers,


The total


expenditure on


roads


the county convicts not


1910 was $18,000.


PALM BEACH


COUNTY.


Palm


Beach


County


completed


a marl


road


from


West


Palm


Beach


south to the


county line, a distance of about 45 miles.


In addition to this


main


road there are approximately 13 miles of completed cross roads.


The county has.


now


at the


in course


of construction a marl road


north


county,


from


a distance


West


about


Palm Beach


39 miles.


*The


to Stuart,
surfacing-


material


roads


being


built


near


Delray


costs


cubic


yard


at the-


in Dade


County,


50c freight,


45c drayage


one-half


mile


and 20c more


surfacin
is thus


each additional half mile.


material is 8 inches


thick.


The road is 8


The cost of the road


approximately $1,500 per mile for the


feet wide


n addition to grading-


first one-half mile


with an added


cost


$216


each


additional half


mile.


county


issued


bonds


00,000


for road


improvement.


to this a special- road tax of 3 mills is


general


asse


ssed.


road


tax is 3


mills.


The road money is


In addition
spent under


supervision of the County Commissioners.


The county has a road engineer.


road equipment consists


camp outfit and


one seven-ton road


roller, and


is valued


1910.


at about


new


$3,900.


road


work,


county


however


convicts


is let


were


out by


worked
contract.


on the


roads
total


penditure-on public roads and bridges in 1910. was $40,400 out of the road fund


and $110,000 out of the bond fund,


or a total of $150,400.


PASCO


COUNTY.


Pasco County reports a total of 18 miles of improved road with 1


road to be surfaced with crushed stone under construction.


miles of


Of the 18 miles


completed road 4 miles is


surfaced with sand-clay, 10 feet wide,


6 inche


s at the


center and 4 inches


at the edges,


at a cost of 'S$1,000 per mile


11 miles of pine


- ---







BULLETIN


2-ROADS AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


POLK


COUNTY.


Polk County


reports


127 miles


improved roads.


18 miles


hava


been


surfaced


with marl,


12 feet wide,


inches


the center,


inches


the edges, at a cost of $1,500 per mile


54 miles with


sand-clay, 10 feet wide,


inches in the center, and


4 inche


at the


edges,


at a-cost of $800 per mile, and


55 miles with


pine straw, 1


pays a 4-mill road- tax,


road ta:
money


x


feet wide, at a cost of $40 per mile.


which amounted in 1910 to $26,613.


There are no


districts and the county is not bonded for road improvement.


is spent under the supervision of the County Commissioners who


county
special
11 road
super-.


vise the construction of roads within their respective districts.


The county has a


road


equipment consisting of


scrapers,


steam roller,


double


teams


, and


other


suqller


tools.


total number


The'
of mil


county
es of ial


convicts
I public


are worked


roads


on the


rT


in the county is


oads.
700.


estimated
road ma-


trials


include


sand-clay,


limestone


or. marl


phosphate.


total


penditure on public roads and bridges

PUTNAM


in 1910 was about $25,000.

* COUNTY.


Putnam


County


issued


bonds


improvement


roads


amount


county has


$100,000
built or


amount


building


inm process


approximately


one-ha


repair


construction
If is now


bridges,


ni 65 miles
completed.


$55,000.


sand-clay


road


* roads.
is built


9 feet wide,


9 to 10 inches


in the middle


, and 6 to 8 inches at the edges.


cost varies from $850 to


$1,600 per mile,


depending upon


distance


the clay


has to be hauled.


In addition to the sand-clay roads the county has


10 miles


shell


road,


miles


built


shell


from


DeLeon


Springs


miles


oyster shell from the east coast;
The gravel road is considered v


12 miles


built of ,gravel from Interlachen.


ery good and the cost is about the same


as for


the safid-clay.
to $6,827.23. 'I
Commissioners
of a road roller


The county paid in 1910 a road tax of


road


money


the Bond


is spent


Trustees.


, graders and shovels,


under


county's


254 mills,


which amounted


supervision


road


equipment


and is valued at about $3,500.


County
consists


The receipts


from the lease of the county convicts are applied to the general fund and not to


road


miles


fund.
public


The roads are


roads


worked


in the county


by paid laborers.


is estimated


to be 500


total number of


or 600.


road


materials


include "sand-clay,


shell


gravel.


total


amount


expended


roads


during


1910


was


about


$60,000,


on bridges


about


$95,000,


a total


$155,000.


SANTA


ROSA


COUNTY.


ex-





FLORIDA


GEOtbGICAL SURveY.


ST. LUCIE COUNTY.


St. Lucie County has completed 14 miles of


improved roads.


Of this


number


miles


have been surfaced


with marl,


feet wide, 9


inches


the center


inches at the edges, at a cost of $1,800 per mile; 10 miles with shel


placed in


wheel tracks, at a cost of $500 per mile, and 2 miles with crushed stone,


feet wide,
per mile.


10 inches in the center and 7 inches
The county paid in 1910 an 8-mill roz


at the edges, at a cost of $8,000
id tax. which amounted to about


$18,121.


bond


issue


$200,000


been


voted.


County


convicts


leased out and the receipts from their hire are applied to the road fund,


which


in 1910
tractors


roads
marl,


amounted


employ


in the county


shell


to about


labor


$1,000.


road


road


work.


is about


coquina.


road


total


work


is let


The number


materials


on public


expenditure


contract


miles of all


county


roads


con-


public
include
bridges


during the


year


1910


was


about


$15,000.


JOHNS COUNTY.


total


amount of


surfaced


roads


Johns


County


28 miles.


number 16 miles are surfaced with shell and


12 miles


with pine straw.


addition
convicts


28 miles


are worked


of sand-clay road are in process.of construction.


on the


roads.


The total


number


of. miles


The county
public road


is estimated


at 160.


total


expenditure


on public


roads


during


1910


was


not given. SUMTER
SUMTE]R


COUNTY.


Sumter


County


completed


miles of


road


surfaced


with


marl


miles surfaced


with sand-clay.


The roads in each case were built 12 feet wide,


14 inches thick in


center and 10 inches


at the edges.


The marl


roads cost


$800 per mile, the sand-clay $700 per mile.


The marl road, however, is considered


a more


serviceable


road.


abundance of


road


surfacing


materials


occur


the county,


such


as marl,


limestone.


county


does


own


road materials, but the citizens owning property along the road being built have


furnished


free of charge all materials needed.


The county pays a


road


tax of


mills which in 1910 amounted


to about $3,502.


consists of spades, road roller, shovels and picks,


The county's
valued at $200.


road


equipment


The roads are


worked


there


laborers
are about


employed
400 miles


County


public


roads


Commissioners.


in the


estimated


county.


total


penditure on


public


roads and bridges in


1910


was approximately $3,800.


SUWANNEE COUNTY.


Suwannee County has surfaced 4 miles of road with clay, and 8 mi


crushed


stone.


crushed


stone


road


miles are


within


with
limits


of Live Oak.


The county in 1910 paid a lW'-mill road tax,


I p a I


which amounted to
S S a a


__







BULLETIN


2-ROADS


AND


ROAD


MATERIALS.


and 4 inches at the edges.


This road is


built at the rate of 45c a square yard,


or about $5,180.85 per mile for the country roads.


The material used is crushed


stone.


The public roads in this


county are worked by the


citizens under the


day system.
a road tax.


The county is not bonded for road improvement and does not pay


The money derived from the


1910 to $3,000, is applied to the road


fund


hire of county convicts, amounting in
I. The road materials of this county


include limestone


bridges


1910 was


1 sandy clays.
about $3,000.


total


expenditure on


public roads and


VOLU


COUNTY.


Volusia


County


built


about


75 miles


are built from 8 to 10 feet wide, 6 inches


shell


marl


thick in the middle


roads.
and 4


roads


nches thick


at the edges.


The cost of this type of road is from $2,500 to $3,000 per mile.


county


completed


from


50 to 60 miles


pine


straw


roads.


These


roads are built 8


feet wide and


cost from $35 to $40 per


mile.


The county in


1910


assessed


a special


6-mill


road


which


amounted


to $35,774.


roads are worked by the county convicts.


The total number of miles of public


roads in the county is estimated to


be approximately 250.


road materials


include shell and marl.


The total expenditure on roads and bridges in the county


during the year 1910 was about $33,000.


WAKULLA


COUNTY.


Wakulla


County reports no


hard surfaced roads in the


county.


roads


are worked under the


8-day system.


The total number of miles of public roads


county


is about


expenditure


on roads


bridges


1910


was


about


$600.


WALTON


COUNTY.


Walton


County has


completed


miles of


sand-clay roads.


county


1910


assessed


a road


tax of


mills,


which


amounted


to about


$8,743.


roads are worked by the citizens of


county.


Sand-clay and shell-marl


the chief


road materials of this county.


The tota


mileage of


roads


within- the


county is from 150. to 200.
was approximately $8,000.


The expenditure on roads and


bridges during


1910


WASHINGTON


Washington


COUNTY.


County has now in process of construction a 16-mile sand-clay


road between the county seat,


line of the county.


Of this


Vernon, and the town of


road


4 miles were completed


Chipley, near the north


1910,


at a


cost of


$800


per mile.


The first mile of


road


was


built under the supervision


the office of public roads of the


Department of Agriculture, and is 16 feet


are







FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY.


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BULLETIN No. 2-RoADS AND ROAD MATERIALS.


88


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