<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Main
 Index
 Back Cover














A preliminary report on the underground water supply of central Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 1 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000439/00001
 Material Information
Title: A preliminary report on the underground water supply of central Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 1 )
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 103, 1 p. : ill., 6 plates, map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sellards, Elias Howard, b. 1875
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: Capital Publishing Co., state printer
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1908
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by E.H. Sellards ; prepared in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA1614
notis - AKU9436
alephbibnum - 002109982
oclc - 03810311
lccn - gs 08000399
System ID: UF00000439:00001

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
    List of Illustrations
        Page 6
    Main
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 50a
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Index
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Back Cover
        Page 104
Full Text







FL.ORIIA (;IE'OLO;CAL SURVEY FRONTISPIECE BtILLiTIN NC. 1, PL. 1.


- 1IJ 1


-: 1:
''
i ..
..
: I :
: .~
:. ': I: r .
~ r~:


'


'4'-

I .. ts:,r


SILVER SPRINGS IN FLORIDA. FLOW 368,913 GALLONS PER 31 NUTE.


:^ T'** 4


:"


r





FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
E. H. SELLARDS, STATE GEOLOGIST



BULLETIN NO. 1






A PRELIMINARY REPORT

ON THE


Underground Water Supply


Central Florida





BY

E. H. SELLARDS


PREPARED IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.



CAPITAL PUBLISHING CO., State Printer,
Tallahassee, Fla.
4W.^>




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


TIo His Excellency, Hon. N. B. Broward,
Governor of Florida.
Sir:-
I have the honor to submit herewith for publication as
Bulletin No. 1, of the Florida State Geological Survey, a
preliminary report of the underground water supply of
central Flopida. This bulletin has grown out of the
co-operative investigations between the State and the Na-
tional Surveys made in accordance with plans approved
by you at thebeginning of the year. The plan of co-operative
work provides'for 'an investigation of the water supply
and of the general geology of the entire State. This pre-
liminary bulletin is based upon the field work done by the
State Survey during the fall of 1907, and is issued at-this
time to meet the needs of the citizens of the State who
desire the information obtained at as early a date as
possible.
Respectfully,
E. H. SELLARDS,
State Geologist.
Tallahassee, Florida,
July 1, 1908.


?t6ta (0o 0





CONTENTS.


Page
Introduction and acknowledgments ....................... 7
The area treated.................. ... ...... .. ... ... ... 8
The topography of central Florida........................ 9
Rolling high lands..................................... 9
PFltwoods .................................. ..... .... .. 9
H Im m ock ........................................ .. s 9
Scrub ................. ...... ........... ...... .. )
'The geology of central Florida............................ 10
TU4derground water: General discusalon.................. 12
Source .................................................. 12
Annual rainfall .................................... .. 12
,Disposition of rainfall ............ ............. ........... 13
Water evaporated without entering the earth............ 13 1
Surface run-off ....................................... 14
Rainfall entering the earth......................... 15
Amount of water available tor the underground eapply..... 6
Underground circulation of water....................... 17
Cause of movement ............................ 17
Rate of movement .................................... 17
Porosity of the material...................... .... 18
Size of pores in water bearing medium.......... ...... 18
Preure ............ .................... ...... 18
Temperature of the water........................... 18
Depth of underground water............................... 18
Hydrogen sulphide in underground water ................. 19
Sulphur water not evidence of beds of :sulphur..... .. ... 81
Sulphur deposits formed from hydrogen sulphide.......... 21
Absence of hydrogen sulphide from certain water tF I' ... $2
Amount of hydrogen sulphide influenced by pressure ...... t2

Underground water of central Florida..................... 24
Water of the surface formations ........................ 24
Character ........ ............................. N4
Shallow wells ...................................... 6
Contamination i ..................................... 6
Water of the deep formations......................... 27
Water of the Vicksburg Limestone........ ............ 27
Source ... ................. .......... .......... ... 27
SWater level ...................................9 \29
Quantity ........................ . ......... .... 31
Other water-bearing formation ..........,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 31




. --. CONTENTS.


S- Page.
Quality of the water of the deep formations ............... 33
Movement of water of the deep formations................ 33
Direction of movement ............................ 34
Rate of movement............ ................... 34
Underground streams ...:.. ................. ..... 34
Escape of water of the deep formations............ ........ 35.
S Springs ................. ............. ........... 35
Wells ........ ................................... 38
Contamination ......... ........ ................ 42
Artesian prospects .................... .............. 44
Geological results of underground circulation ............... 46
Solution ...................... .................. 46
Amount of mineral solids removed.............. ...... 47
Underground cavities ................................... 48
Sink holes ........................................... 49
Disappearing streams ............................. ... 53
Solution basins .......................... ........... 55
Deposition and replacement............................ 56

Drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp lands by deep wells..... 58
.Natural drainage wells ........... ... ........... .... -58
Drainage of Lake Jackson............................. 58
Drainage of Alachua Lake............................. 59
Bored wells ...... ...... ................... ... ... .. 60
Size of well ........................................ 61
Structure of wells ................................. 61
Depth of water above mouth of pipe.......... ....... 62
Distance from top of pipe to underground water level.. 62
Drainage by wells at Orlando ............. .... ..... 62

Disposal of sewage by bored wells...................... 64

Water analyses ....................... .... ... .., 68
Springs .......... ..................... ......... ...... 70
W ells ............ .................................... 76
Water supply tables .................................... 83
.General water resources ................. .......,...... 83
Springs ............................. 86
W ells ............ ............ .. .... ., .,,,., ,, ,. 88
Public water supply ................. ............., 94

Index ....... ........... ................. : '.'.......... ... ., 97

Corrections ................. ... ........ ;... . .'.1. .. 104




CONTENTS.


ILLUSTRATIONS.

PLATES.
Facing page
I Silver Springs, in Marion County.............. Frontispiece
II Blue Springs, in Marion County ................ 38
III Map of area of artesian flow in Florida .......... 44
IV Limestone sink near Sumterville, Sumter County 50
V Limestone sink near Sumterville, Sumter County 52
VI Weekiwachee Spring in Hernando County and
Alachua sink in Alachua County.......... 60

FIGURES.
Page.
1 Sketch illustrating the relation of the under
ground water level to Silver and Blue Springs.. 32
2 Sketch illustrating the relation of underground
water to surface contour in Suwannee and
Columbia Counties ......................... 32
3 Sketch illustrating surface contour and under-
ground water level through a part of Alachua
and Levy Counties......................... 40
4 Sketch illustrating surface contour and under-
ground water level through Marion County
from Citra to a point four miles south of Ocala 40
5 Sketch illustrating the varying depth of wells
entering the limestone ...................... 41
6. Sketch illustrating danger of contamination of
a well by impure water entering through a
sink .......................... ............ 42





A PRELIMINARY


REPORT


TBE!


UNDERGROUND


WATER


SUPPLY


CENTRAL


FLORIDA.


BY E. H. SELLARIS.


The study of the


underground water supply


of Florida


was


begnn


United


1906.


National


This


the writer,


States
work


Survey in


while


Geological


was


acting as field
Survey in th


interrupted


November,


of 1900 and 1907, however,


1906.


on the
During


assi


tant


summer


part
the


winter


it was Continued by the writer


then acting as Geologist of the Florida State Experiment


Station
water
1907.*


preliminary


supply
With


bulletin


State


organi


was


nation


underground


published
the State


Marcl


Geological


urvey


were renewe


work was
d by the I


continued.


Florida


National Survey in


investigationE
ie fall of 1907


and the work is now being carried on as co-operative work


between


The


report


State


now


and


issued


National


on the


central


Geological I
i peninsular


surveys.
section


is in the nature of a report of progress in the study of the


underground


water


resources


State,


and


based


upon


the work of the State


urvey


during the fall season


of 1907.


Herman


ant in


Gunter


this work and


much


water supply


him


detailed


tables.


acted


as the


due


information


Peck


writer's


credit


contained


Greene


assist-
obtain-
in the


obtained


for the Survey most of the photographs which accompany
this bulletin.


The


water


analyses


have


been


obtained


from


various


, credit being given in connection with each analy


number of the samples have


laboratory of the U
of the co-operative


tional


Surveys.


Geological


work


The


between


Director


been' analyzed in


Survey, forming a part
the State and the 1Na-


State


Agricultural


Experiment Station has kindly supplied several analyses,
Exermnt. S S -


*Occurrence and Use of Artesian and Other Underground .Water


sources


1 I IL


p*


L L





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
'r-


while


other


analyses


have


been


made especially


this


report in the office of the State Chemist.


The


locations
utilized


writer is indebted


both


general


authors of


and


preparation


special


a number of


nature


bulletin.


pub-
data


Credit


given


text


wherever


practicable.


Among


public


tions consulted


relating especially to central


Florida are


following:
. Geological


No. 149, 1905;
1892: No. 264.


Water


survey


Bulletins


1905


supply


and


Irrigation


1904


Geological


1906


Survey


Papers.
L, 1905;
No. 84.


Florida Agricultural


Experiment


on the


Station


underground


Bulletin


water


No. 89, 1907.
f the adjoining


'he. reports
States of


Alabama and


Georgia,


made by the respective State Sur-


veys, have contributed to an


ground


The


water
thanks


conditions


Survey


understanding of the
Florida.


due


under-


the many well


driller


regarding


wells


superintendent
the Survey is
distance.


It may


tate


drilled


s of city
likewise


added


that


who


have
them.


kindly


water supply,


ndebted


furnished


many


and


data


well-owners


other citizens,


information


publication


and


introductory


and


is not


detailed
portant


final


even


information


part


for the


that


limited
desired


information


area


treated.


Much


backing.
supplies


course of time from


well


records and


ample


Complete


sets


samples


from


deep


in various


parts


of the


State


will


much


geological structure.


been


of much


The


determine


doubtful


questions


instance of well drillers


benefit in


past,


will


which


appreciated


completing this data


the future.


THE


AREA


TREATED.'


The area considered in detail in this bulletin


comprises


the following counties


ilton


Alachua


,Hernando, Lake, Levy,


Columbia


Marion


Pasc<


, Citrus, Ham-
. Sumter and


, [nwa nnoP r lho aooHanrm rn n whnlp p.Yte.nds inn north


and


wells





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


south


northern


direction


line of


a distance
the State.


about


and


is from


miles
to 75


from
miles


width.
coochee
section


The
and


wes


tern


Suwann


principal


boundary is
3e rivers and


formed


Gulf


the N
coast.


large area of peninsular


Vithla-
This


Florida


having Oligocene


limestone
although


is best


even here


limestone
exposed in


it is not


or near


central


continuously


surface.


part


This


of the area


exposed,


covered
surface


locally with irregularly


mantle


sand.


deposited clay


outh


east


and


and


north,


the limestone disappear


beneath later formations con


clays,


shales


and


limestones.


TOPOGRAPHY


O0 CENTRAL


PENINSULAR FLORIDA.


general


topography,


central


Florida


most part rolling.


The topographic types may be grouped


under
mocks


the heads
and scrub


f rolling
lands.


pine


lands


flatwoods


ham-


The


rolling


pine


lands


posits and are well drained.
largest part of this section.


underlaid


pervious


This type includes by far the
It is characterized by rounded


hills


The


and


solution


term


basins.


"flatwoods"


applied


underlaid by impervious clay formations.


are often partly


and


covered


popularly


There is, however,


elevation.


and


this


with


supposed


level


sectionJ


These flatwoods


water during the rainy sea-


consist


no necessary relation


type


. f land.


woods lie at the top of plateaus.
eastern Alachua County, where


vation


from


175 feet.


County, on the other hand,


Not


low


'


a between su
infrequently


lands.
irface
flat-


This is the case in north-
flatwoods occur at an ele-


Central


west


with an elevation


of


than 70 or 80 feet, consists of rolling pine lands.


The hammocks


and


marls


growth


occurs


other
usually


underlaid,
calcareous


deep


as a rule


,by


materials.


sand


often


1


Alachua
not more

imestones


The scrub
covering low


sand
In


dunes.
regard


surface


elevation
flfl n-tr.flfl I


L .- r a--a -a .-..-a -in


much


7;i+h


this area


+ha avPnih.'.n


rnC





-FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL: SURVEY.

GEOLOGY.


The geology


of the section


treated in


this


bulletin will


be given only in


underground


o far as is necessary to an understanding


water


conditions.


more


detailed


account of the geology is rendered unnecessary


at this time


fact


tion


and


that


at an early
stratigraphy


ject forming a


State


date


Survey


a special


State,


part of the


will


have


on the


bulletin


bulletin


co-operative


work


publica-
geology


on this
between


sub-


State


and


National


Geological


Surveys.


thick


limestone


Lower


Oligocene


forms


foundation


rock


of the peninsula.


This limestone is part


an extensive formation


which


reaches


from


Louisiana


through
Florida.


southern


Mississippi


It received in


Alabama


and


Georgia


early publications the name of the


Vicksburg Limegtone


from its typical exposure at


Vicks-


burg,


rule,
of fl


Mississippi. I
soft and friable.


int


either


character


It contains


irregularly


limestone as horsebackk.


bedded


this


limestone


, however, large ma


or occurring


as a


sses
tha


These flint masses often form


backbone


local


fact that


longer


than


ridges.


stone
-this
ring


flint


ridges


masses


surrounding


The


is undetermined.


limestone


The


is the


and


hills.


resist


limestone,


thickness


The


this


most


abundance


limestone,


wear
and


This


very
hence


foundation


distinctive


due


much
stand
lime-


feature


Foraminifera


as typically


occur-


developed,


fact made up


cially


largely


of the genus


of the shells' of Foraminifera


, espe-


Along with the Foramin-


ifera occur many other marine invertebrates, among which


bivalve


mollusks


and


corals


predominate.


The formation known as the Ocala Limestone


lies above


Vicksburg and


resemble


it in


character


It has


been


fully


demonstrated


not be a local pha


venmence


eludes


Ph ~ Qp


term


Ocala


limoaitnnp s


of the


that


Vick


"Vicksburg"
Limestone.


form


n. mild


Ocala


burg.


Lime


tone


may


As a matter of con-


as used in


this


anticline.


report


rePst


Orbitoides.


I


I II


,I -




UNDERGROUND


WATER SUPPLY.


from


west


coast to


of the top surface


From
State


broad


the limestone


the center of the


not exceedin


crest


dips rapidly


State


one or two


in the


the east.


lope


feet per mile.
center of the


A similar,


although


ords


less


have


rapid
been


occurs


obtained


south


in sufficient


. Well


detail


rec-


deter


mine whether or not the


Vicksburg also dips to the north


north


is possible,


again


Columbia


County


although


in Georgia.


.irregular,


The


due to erosion.


mild


limestone


that direction


comes


surface


It is difficult on


surface


limestone


this account to


determine its dip even approximately


Moreover, it is


safe to assume that the present surface slope of the


burg


Limestone


represents


Vicks-


formation.


is probable


that


erosion


been


more


rapid


along


crest of the anticline than at the low lying and partly pro-


tected sides.


somewhat


The original


greater


than


may


present


therefore,


surface


have


been


slope.


Following, the formation of this basal limestone


,a part


at least of the area was sufficiently elevated to become dry


and.


land


Florid
Levy,


The


land
chain


as first


formed


islands


, including probably


Marion,


Subsequently


Sunmter
marine


Citr


appears to


occupying
parts of
us and:


deposits


were


have


central


Columbia
Hernando


formed


been


peninsular
i, Alachua,
Counties.


around


edge of this land area


also


north and


not only to the south and east


northwest.


Upper


Oligocene


, but
lime-


tones


, probably


Limestone


northward


reported


from


extension
northern


of the Tampa.
Columbia and


Suwannee Counties.* The
N


Hawthorne formation of Upper


Oligocene age occurs in northeast Alachua County


and


south


follow the


Pasco County.


Oligocene


and


Water-bearin


have


been


Miocene


identified


from


beds
east


Alachua and Lake Counties.


Pliocene clays occur irregu-


larly


over


central


Florida


, lying


usually


beneath


a sur-


face deposit


of sand probably


of Pleistocene age.


Geol. Sur.


84, p. 121, 1892.


*]all1


H.-Bull.


]





UNDERGROUND


WATER


: GENERAL DISCUSSION.


SOURCE.


Rainfall


--The


chief


source


underground


water


the rainfall.


aun


passes


Water


into


vaporized


atmosphere


through


and


:ne energy o
precipitated


over


land as rain


or condensed as dew


or fog.


The


vapor


is supplied to


the atmosphere by evaporation,


principally


from


ocean,


which,


occupying


three-fourths


earth's


surface


, is continuously exposed


vapor from


ocean


is added


to the sun's rays.
that arising from


inland waters, from the dry land surface of the earth,


from


and


the leaves of plants.


Other


Sources


--The


underground


water


depending


directly upon


rainfall


is added


by water escaping


from


stream


during


high


water


stages.


The


water


streams during flood seasons not infrequently rises above


the water level


water


escapes


of the
from 1


surrounding country


streams


and


this case


joins


under-


ground


water supply


Springs which flow into the rivers


during


high


water stages of


the river,


reverse their


may,
flow


and


conduct water


with


great rapidity


into the


derground water horizon.


The amount thus added


the conditions existing in Florida is sometimes very


under


con-


siderable.


This


phenomenon


described


more


detail


connection


nee River


with some of the springs along the Suwan-
38).


Small


additions to the underground


water supply may


come


sources


small


through


any


but the


and may


one


total


a number


amount


omitted


thus


other


added


in a general


possible
relatively


discussion.


ANNUAL


RAI


NFALL.


The


annual


rainfall


measure


column


water that would accumulate at any spot in the course of


a year, if all that fall


should be preserved.


The measure-


*A recent discussion of possible sources of underground


other than rainfall will be found in Bulletin 319
by M. L. Fuller.


U. B.


Geol.


water
Sur..




UNDERGROU N


WATER SLJCPLY.


ment is commonly stated in inches.


The average rainfall


for the State as


to 1906,
Reports,


inclusive,
was 53.17


a whole


for the


as deduced


inches


fifteen


from


, annually


years,


J. S.
year


The


from


1892


Weather


1907


was


a year of less than average rainfall, 49.15 inches, and if this


year


included


average


teen


years,


1892


to 1907, falls below 53 inches, being 52.92 inches.


If longer


periods


considered


variation


from


this


average


sufficient


The


average


ending with


a materially
rainfall at


1904


change the
Jacksonville


was 53.21 inches


result.


, annually


3 3s years
at Jupiter


was


years


ending


with


1904


59.19


inches,


annually


at Pensacola for the 25 years ending with 1904,


it was 56.33 inches, annually;


ending with


West


1904,


it was


53.99


at Tampa for the 15


inches


the station of lowest rainfall


ending with 1904,


ered
with


safely


it wa


37.57, inches, annually.*


bulletin


by this
about


assumed


in a part


average rainfall


as a close


of the


and


, annually;


years
: Key


for the 34 years
The area cov-
State supplied


inche


approximation


may De
annual


rainfall


for this section.


DISPOSITION


OF RAINFALL.


Of the total rainfall


as vapor


earth
the o


,cean


absorbed


of any area


) the atmosphere
a part is carried


without


into


penetrating
earth.


without


a part
having


off by streams and


earth


returned


entered


rivers to


a part


WATER EVAPORATED


WITHOUT ENTERING THE EARTH.


Immediately foil
or quite saturated.


and


part


lowing a rain the
The evaporation


returned


atmosphere is


nearly


at this time is slow,


atmosphere


directly


from


the land is an almost negligible amount.


This is especially


true of a soil into which


the water enters quickly.


Some


of the
rated,
ponds,


water clinging to


as well
and te


as a part


mporary


pools.


leave


that


plants


which


While


falls


is re-evapo-


into


lakes,


an estimate


- -I - *W-


--_- A. J a -


A


11 CI I.


I





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURViV.


amount evaporated


must be regarded as only in the rough-


way


approximate,


probably


safe


assume


that not more than 2 or 3 er c
is returned to the atmosp ere by
out having entered the earth.


of the


total


ra


direct evaporation


infall
with:


(2) SURFACE RUN-OFF.
The relative proportion between the surface run-off and


surface


in-take of water


is dependent upon


the char-


acter of the surface and


the deeper formations and


upon


topography


The


former affects rapidity


of in-take


water into


earth


latter


rapidity


surface


run-off.
With


regard


topography,


central


Florida


either


flat or rolling.


described


Rarely


as hilly


can a


locality within


The elevation


increase


this section
gs gradually


from sea level at the coast to a maximum of scarcely more


than 200 feet inland


, while large sections are so flat as to


present no


perceptible slope.


Topographically


the condi-


tions


are,


therefore


other


, very


hand


unfavorable
;- conditions


surface


are


run-off.


exceptionally


favorable


large


surface


in-take.


mantle


sand,


forming the surface deposit,


is almost universally present.


This


sand


receives


rainfall


with


great readiness.


is true that the sand is underlaid in certain limited areas


of the
result


flatwoods


type,


by a


impervious


clay


nature


sub-stratum


checks


which


as a


downward


movement of water.


For the most part,


however


the un-


derlying formation is either porous limestone,


or a


sandy


pervious clay with


sand


may


the limestone


largely


absent


just below


, the impervious


Locally, the
clay lying


near the


surface.


From


these localities


and


from


other


flatwoods come such surface


run-off as this territory sup.


plies.


The


flat woods


country


however,


is small


pro-


portion to the combined extent
and scrub lands.


of rolling pine,


hammock


The


evident.


effect


Over


of these


conditions


considerable


on the


sections,


drainage


involving in


very
some


;ent


1 II





UNDERGROUND


WA TEI 5U PPLY.


run-off.


Wherever


the


Vicksburg


or other


porous


lime-


stone is the surface formation


, or where it is covered only


a surface


mantle of


sand,


.or of sandy


pervious


clay


surface streams are absent


, and surface run-off practically


nothing.
often only


one of the


Such
S


small surface streams as are formed, run


a short di


tance,


numerous sinks,


when
thus


they disappear through
gaining entrance to the


underground


water


horizon.


examples


of these


mall dis-


appearing streams are common


to almost every section of


inland Florida.


They are described


in more detail in the


later pgges of this bulletin.


sometimes


estimated


that


presence


sandy soil 3 to 4 per cent of the rainfall passes off as sur-


face


run-off.


For the area


treated in


bulletin having


both a sandy soil and a pervious limestone sub-formation


the surface run-off probably


does not exceed- this amount.


RAINFALL ENTERING THE EARTH.


From the estimates already


given,


it would appear that


approximately 95


cent


total


rainfall


over cen-


trial


Florida enters the earth.


It will


be recognized that


geologic


and


topographic


conditions


vary


from


place to place, so will the relative proportion between sur-


face


run-off


and,


surface in-take


vary


Owing to


certain


conditions already specified,


a few


limited


localitie


have


a relatively


high surface


run-off.


Of the water which enters the earth a part is ultimately


returned
retained


atmosphere


"soils


during dry weather.


slowly


given


evaporation.
up through


As the evaporation take


The


water


evaporation
s place near


the surface, capillary attraction


draws a new supply from


beneath
content


thus


maintaining


the soil


some


The amount


extent


water thus


moisture
brought


to the surface and evaporated,


while varying with climate


and with soils, is, in the course of a year,


considerable.


the evaporation


be added


that from


from


leaves


surface of


plants.


This


must
turn


t a J.k,., A, swC! .. .1l.n4-r flflal m4*1^ A4WP^ 4C


,,,, L1, ,?L1,





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


for each


same


pound of di
conditions


matter formed,


evaporated


while corn


one


under


instance


pounds of water per pound of dry matter. 1


Assuming that


a citrus


tree evaporates


approximately


as much


as the


European


from


oak


leaves


(Quercus


cerr8is),


a fifteen year-old


water


orange


evaporated


tree


esti-


mated by


Hilgard at 20.000 pounds a


tons of water per acre of 100 trees.


year, or about 1,000
This is equivalent to


about 9 inches annual rainfall


over the same area.


Water


is the-chief vehicle for conveying plant food absorbed from


soil


leaves


roots.


This


in part for


enormous
purpose (


evaporation
E disposing


front


water thus taken


up by the plant.


It serves chiefly


how


ever, the purpose of preventing,


through


the conversion of


water into vapor, an injurious rise of temperature during
the hot sunshine and dry weather.


impossible


limits


the loss


estimate within


of water


(


evaporation


ven
from


approximate
the surface


the ground


and


from


leaves of plants


the- area


under consideration.


The atmosphere in


Florida


is rela-


tively humid.
out most of 1


On the other hand,


the year is high.


the temperature through-


Much of the country is un-


cultivated


and


practically


soil


medium


coarse texture.


It is probable that almost one-half


of the rainfall enter-


earth


ground and


from


re-evaporated


from


the leaves of plants,


surface


and that not more


than


through


one-half


the soil


total


and


surface


rainfall
material


ground water supply.


Florida


join


passes
under-


AMOUNT OF


WATER AVAILABLE FOR THE


UNDERGROUND


SUPPLY.


SA
tion


annual


rainfall


of 53


inches


found


computa


to amount to 921,073,379 gallons per square mile.


this


amount it


estimated


that one-half


or 460,536,689


120th


Ann.


n Ra% 1ThA


Report


Wis.


Agriculture


Experiment


Station,


1




UNDERGROUlD WAfLR STIPPLY.


gallons
Florida


per square


mile,


underground


added
water


each


year


central


supply.


UNDERGROUND CIRCULATION OF WATER.


Underground


threading


and


its way


other openings


water


found


through


in the


pores,
rocks.


usually


break


crevices


movement


motion,
, joints,
is ordi-


narily slow and varies with


different rocks and


under dif-


ferent


condition


CAUSE


OF MOVEMENT.


The chief cause of movement of underground,


as of


SU'r-


face water,


is gravity.


Capillarity is an additional


force


which


under


special


condition


may


become


controll-


ing factor.


The


water returned


and


evaporated from


the surface of the ground', a


well


as that carried to and


evaporated


from


leaves of plants,


is moved


capil-


larity in


opposition


gravity


Gravity


however


controlling


force


in the


movement


water


through


deep zones of the earth


secondary


. Pressure


cause of movement


which i


in the earth


s an important
, is the expres-


sion


gravity


Except


case


C


movement of water apparently in opposition


apillarity,
to gravity


upon


closer observation,


found to be in reality


movement


in response to gravity


Thle water which rises in a boring


or flows
pressure


from an


due


artesian


well


principally to


or spring i~s forced


weight


of water


lying at


a higher level.


The familiar observation


that water seeks


its own level has the same explanation.

RATE OF MOVEMENT.


The


chief


factors


affecting the


rate


movement


water through a pprous medium as given by Schlichter are
as follows:*


Porosity ol
Size of the
Pressure.


material.


pores in


water-bearing


medium.


Temnerature of the


water.


I -





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


Rocks


contain


pores


which


in the


absence of


liquid, are ordinarily filled


with air.


The relative


propor-


tion of these spaces in the rock to the whole volume is the


measure of the porosity


. Thus if a cubic foot of .sandstone


will


hold


its pores


one-fourth


cubic


foot


of water, its


porosity is 25 per cent.


The greater the porosity


the more


water absorbed by the rocks.


flow


) The size of the pores in the rock affects the rate of
. Rocks having large pores receive and conduct water


many times


more rapidly than


those


having small


pores.


The greater the pressure, other conditions remain-


ing the same, the more rapid the flow


A pressure of one


pound


square


inch


required


support


each


feet of a column


distilled


water at the


temperature of


60 degrees F
increased by


The weight of water from


solids


in solution and


the deep


Sin suspension,


ones is


and is


affected by
a hundred


changes in temperature.


pounds pressure to


(to cause a flow
Something more


inch


is required


distance of
materially


1150


from


than 500


cause


feet.


Pre


Something more than


the square inch is required


bottom <
pounds


f a well 231
pressure to


rise of water


ssure


this


assist in forcing water through


feet deep.
the square
a boring a


magnitude


must


the rock.


The temperature of the water is found to influence


the rate of flow


. Schlichter finds that a change from 50 to


degrees F


increases


capacity


transmit water


under identical


conditions by about 16 per cent.*


DEPTH


OF UNDERGROUND


WATER.


The limit of the downward


extent of water has not been


reached


borings


or tunnels


some


which


exceed


mile in depth.


Water


while


thus known


penetrate to


depth


greater


than


a mile


, probably


does


reach


beyond five or six miles at the


most.


The


movement


been


stated


, is through natural


openings in


the rock.


Pressure


increases in


the earth


with


depth


and it i


esti-


f




UNDERGROUND


pressure 1


WATER SUPPLY.


o great that the pores and cavities of even the


strongest rocks,


are completely


closed.


' making it impos-


sible


for water to


penetrate


beyond


this


depth.


Most of


water


however


returns


surface


after


a com-


paratively


short


underground


course


, only


mall


part


reaching to


this great


depth.


HYDROGEN


ULPHIDE


UNDERGROUND


WATER.


The underground water of Florida is very generally im-


pregnated


with


hydrogen


sulphuretted hydrogen,


sulphide


(ELS)


also


and hydro-sulphuric acid.


known


Water


containing hydrogen sulphide is commonly known as


"sul-


phur


water."


Sulphur


of the areas of artesian


open


water
flow.


is especially


porous limestone is the surf


characteristic


sections


ormation


in which


, hydrogen


sulphide


is usually


absent


from,:


first


water


encoun-


tered, although even here it is found


to exist in


the water


from


the deep wells,


and


in some springs.


Source :-Hydrogen sulphide may originate in nature in


any


one


several


way


The


following


have


been


sug-


gested
phur;


The gecay
e reaction


of organic matter containing sul-


organic matter upon


sulphides


or sulphates


the reaction


of acids upon sulphides


partial


oxidi


action


of sulphides


steam


passing


over sulphur.


The


decay


hydrogen
Chemical


organic


sulphide
analysis


matter


an obvious


underground


shows


present in Florida soils,


that


sulphur


water of


very


source or
Florida.
generally


' and apparently invariably pres-


ent in muck


oils.


Two samples of Florida peat which is,


like
tain


muck


.05 and'


, a vegetable


accumulation


, were


found


.08 per cent of sulphur respectively


to con-


i Hydro-


eggs.


ulphide
In this


formed


case


in connection


albumen


of the


with


egg,


the decay of
according to


"1 L. M.
1896.


Hoskins


16th AnMn


. Rept.


U. S. Geol.


Part 1


, p. 859,


2 Bulletin 43


, Florida


Experiment


Station


, pp.


3, 657,


w





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ostwald, contains the sulphur. 1


S is also found escaping


from sewer drains and cesspools, and is formed during the


decomposition


both


animal


and.


vegetable


substances.


The


HAS occurring in


shallow springs


from


marsh lands


is doubtless supplied .largely from


organic material


The sulphur ii
.phates. Thorpe
in contact with


soils


states th
sulphates


probably


often


it the decay
results in


present
organic


sul-


matter


formation


TLhS.


reducing


phates


The


reaction


properties


being


first


in this


case


probably


decaying organic


reduced


sulphides


results


matter, t
according


from


sul-


following


matter)


H,CO


reaction


=2CO


carbonic


+Na2


acid


-=H,S+Na2CO


upon the sulphides is r
portant source of HS S


,SO


The


+C


2 (carbon


sulphide


form,


The


then


as follow


reaction


regarded by


organic


acted


upon


: Na


organic


matter


Van Hise as another im-


in underground


water.


The formation


of hydrogen sulphide as a result of the


action of acid


upon metallic


ulphides is one of the most


familiar of laboratory experiments.


sibility
action


of the


acids


formation


upon


this


This suggest


as the


metallic sulphide


the pos-


result


contained


rock


Sulphides,


scattered in


tity to


the earth'


especially


crus


account for


those


of' iron


widely


t and occur in sufficient quan-


formation


in water.


Hydrogen sulphide i


a weak acid and its salts are decom-


posed
acids
iB^S.


a stronger


should
Carbon


acid.


certainly
ic acid v


Sulphuric


react


vhen


uponi


abundan


and


other


sulphides
t reacts i


sulphides to produce hydrogen sulphide.


alkali


sulphides


normally


mineral


liberating


upon


true


abundant


alkali


that


in the


crust


of the earth


Stokes


has shown


, however,


that the


reaction of sodium carbonate within the earth upon pyrite


or marcasite


produces


sodium


sulphide.


The


reaction


given


him is as follows:


,+15Na,CO3


=4Fe, 03


14Na, S Na


,S,0 +15C0,


page 274,


Ostwald


1904.


' 1-.fn* ^. ,. at rflt-. aw.* n'.U


I Principles of Inorganic Chemistry


A A A


1


\T ir 1


~is r nt ni





UNDERGROUND


WATER SUPPLY.


It is


a well-known


fact


that


carbon


dioxide


which


unites


with


water to


form


carbonic


acid is


abundant


deep


waters,


especially


pressure existing


limestone


considerable


depth


formations,
enabling the


water to hold great quantities of carbonic acid


The series


of reactions given


Stokes accounts for the pre


sence of


alkali


sulphides


in solution


the deep


waters.


may


be added that all sulphides are soluble


to some extent in


water


and.


that


condition


may


acted


upon


car-


bonic acid.1


The


partial oxidation of sulphides is, according


Vau


Hise


possible


hydrogen


sulphide,


additional


method


the reaction


formation


being a


follow


+4H,O+40=F


S04++4HS+2SO,.


The oxidizing processes are the most rapid near the sur-


face,


especially


above


underground


water


level


and


HbS derived from


shallow


this source probably supplies relatively


rather than deep waters.


The


formation


S by


steam


sing


over


sulphur


which
missed
since.


occurs


in connection


considering


as previously


observed,


with


volcanoes, may


ulphur
Florida


waters


Florida


volcanoes


and no


indications of volcanic activity.


SULPHUR


WATER NOT


EVIDENCE OF


BEDS OF SULPHUR.


There


a widespread


belief


that


presence of sul


phur water must necessarily indicate the existence of bed


of the mineral sulphur.


conclusion


not follow


The probable sources of the sulphur in sulphur waters a


indicated


above


is organic


matter together with


metallic


sulphates and


sulphides


scattered


through


sedimentary


rocks.


SULPHUR


DEPOSITS


FORMED


FROM


HYDROGEN


ULPHIDE.


As stated in


the last paragraph,


sulphur waters are not


to be regarded as resulting from


the contrary


beds of pure sulphur


it is probably true that these waters may


_ _






FLOJHID GgOLOGICAL SURVEY.


some instances


result in


formation


of such


deposits.


Hydrogen sulphide


gen


breaks


when acted upon in the water


forming water


and


sulphur,


by oxy-
reaction


being HS+0=-H,0+S.


It is thus possible that H2


S in the


underground


water,


may


pure sulphur


water,
become
. Such


escaping


dis-associated


from


, forming


deposits of economic


underground
deposits of


value have not


been


reported


in Florida.


is a


noteworthy


fact,


how-


ever, that one large mass of sulphur has been found under-


neath


phosphate


beds


Citrus County.*


The


formation


of this mass of


sulphur is probably due


hydrogen sul-


phide.


ABSENCE OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE FROM CERTAIN


WATERS IN


FLORIDA.


The absence


of hydrogen sulphide from the first water


obtained from areas in which the open porous limestone i


the surface


formation


already


been


stated.


well-known fact that if sulphur water is allowed to stand


in the open


air the gas will escape.


ing water from an excess of H2


This method


gas is a common


of free-
practice


wherever


sulphur water is


used


domestic


purposes.


Wherever porous limestone lies at or near the surface th,3
sulphur gas which the water may have contained will find


a ready


means of escape.


In other


parts


State


where


compact


and


impervious formations


rest


upon


limestone


water i


, the gas is prevented from escaping and sulphur
obtained.


AMOUNT OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE INFLUENCED BY PRESSURE.


The


quantity of


which


water


able


hold in


solution


under these conditions


, is determined by


tne pressure.
is as follows


The law of the


olubility of gase


The quantity of the gas which


Sin liquid
a liquid i


able to dissolve is directly proportional to the pressure on


the gas.
stratum


In the open


ahmov


' As.'


* t.. *


porous


wntefr ,n+t


limestone with no confinin


ef the


nnderroun nd


. ... ....




UNDERGROUND


WATER SUPPLY.


sure


increases


rapidly.


The


increase


sure


simply that


due


the atmosphere,


that


due


weight of the overlying


column


of water plus the atmos-


phere.
really i


According


Van


'Hise:*


"The


pressure


which


determinative as to the amount of gas which may


be held in solution is that of a column of water extending


to the free surface, plus the atmospheric pressure."


From


this law it follows that water at a great depth and under


great


sure


is capable


holding


a large


quantity


hydrogen sulphide in solution.


When brought to the sur-


face


pressure


relieved and


the gas


rapidly


escapes.


The artesian


waters in


the flowing areas of the State


under considerable pressure,


thus enabling them to hold a


large quantity of hydrogen sulphide as well as a high pro-


portion of mineral solid


solution.


In order that the deep waters may hold large quantities


of R- S


in solution


it is


necessary that the gas


be availa-


This


implies that the


gas in


the artesian


and


other


deep


waters originates at some considerable depth rather


than at or near the surface.


page 70.








UNDERGROUND


WATER


OF CENTRAL FLORIDA.


The
able f
under
tons;
The
surface
of veg
of the
poses.
clarity
water
tance
wells


underground water supply of central Florida avail-
or general purposes may conveniently be discussed
'oth ufc


S


I
r
I





4


the two divisions:
(2) and water of tl
water held in the
e materials, while o
etation, is not, usual
underground water


Movem


and thii
of soils.'
in soils,
and will


(1) Wal
he deep
intersti(
f great i
llly incl


ter of the surface
formations.
ces of the soil an
importance to the
uded in a considi


forma-


d other
growth
eration


for commercial and general pur-


ent of water in soils is controlled by capil-
I water is often referred to as "capillary
' Capillary water, although of great impor-
is not available as a source of supply for
not be considered further in this report.


WATER OF THE SURFACE FORMATIONS.


The w
shallow
surface
the surf


rater of the
or surface
and is avai
ace formnati


surface formations, often known as
water, is that occurring nearest the
lable for shallow wells. The water in
ons is supplied by comparatively local


rainfall.


Its occurrence depends up'


the surface material and upon the e
vious sub-statum. The surface mat4
of sand, sandy clay, or other porou
pervious sub-stratum is usually a cl
these conditions are necessary. In
pervious sub-stratum the water en
pass through to a deeper zone. It
determine from surrounding conditi


the existence
in any localit
sandy porous
any kind. wa'


y
cli


water in the sur
the surface form
tys underlaid by


ter m vr ho


eopnocteI


on the permeabi
existencee of an
srial may be m


s substance.
ay or shale.
the absence
tering the


iO
o


face
ation
an i
1 T1


'.L A. A-UA 1 '.t '4 S.a IJ'4'4 .' aJ


T
B
of
earl


lity of
imper-
ide up
he im-
oth of
an im-
:h will


Usually possible
ns the probability
formations. Thus
consists of sand
npervious stratum
e. on the other hat


of
id.


an impervious sub-stratum is absent, permitting the rain


fall to pass directly into the deeper formations,
the surface formations will be lacking.


water in




UNDERGROUND


WATER SUPPLY.


must be expected.


sist larg
material


ely


Thus


if the the surface formations con-


of sand and clay with little


or no calcareous


, the water may be expected to be soft,


while if the


surface material is highly


calcareous the water is usually


found
tions
tively


be hard.


is supplied


Since the water in


local


hort underground


rainfall


course,


the surface forma-


travels


and its


a compara-


opportunity


taking mineral solids into solution is proportionately


for
lim-


ited.


The water from


the surface formation is


, in general,


characterized
in solution.
resentative.


Blair


by a relatively small amount of total solids
The following analyses may be taken as rep-


These


were


made


Chemist


during


Florida


1900
State


Professor
Speriment


Station


, and have been kindly supplied by the Director


Ingredients.


Parts


Million.


Hardness
Chlorine
Nitrates
Nitrites
Free am


1


* .. .
.* .. .

* oni. .
noniaf


Albuminoid
ammonia


9.
23.
.71
.0354
.08

none


13.87


11.
.83
.0306
.02


.0114


28.32


trace
.005

.010


4.85
6.


none
.005

none


4.62
5.00
.312
none
.:00


6
1.156
11.
1.


none
.00


.000


Total


solids.


No. 1.


Water


City,


from


pump


Columbia


County.


Water from Hensley place,


Miller


residence.


Lake


Lake City.


Water from pump o .*ery'. corner, Marion street,


Lake City
Water froil


No. 6.


Water*


WTgqr fr
C0 ap,.Ant(
t' waning g


c ,nusty
cidedly,


O


' I) a ,
*pfhu a
SpiThip a
aong


Dormitory,


at north


om 30-foot,.peR dug
onio, 4asoo;_ 4opty;
brown whItj :sp lptnb
dor. On ignition ri


indication


talke City.,


end oft-


lyel,


ending


Hall


in iay


IWgte? clear, but con.
ut: flotulent, slightly'


esidue


g organic matter."


blackened


Escape


water


through


from


Water


from


surface


seepage and


Surface


formations


surface springs,


Formations


escapes


and


The


principally
percolation


_ I _ I





FLORIDA. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


above,


and


some


absorbed


by the roots of such plants


penetrate


this zone.


The


flow


from


springs


passes


into streams


some of


being evaporated into


the atmosphere,


while


remainder


reaches


ocean.


The water escaping
tions.


downward supplies the deeper form


SHALLOW WELLS.


Water i


obtained


from


the surface formations by


hal-


low, dug, or driven wells.


seepa


The water reaches these well


through the surrounding material, and is likely to


vary in


amount with


the wetnes


and


dryness of


sea-


sons.


mall


however


caylng


water i,
amount


water


vegetation


often


desirable for boiler use owin


f encrustin
reaching tl


or muck


material


.well


deposits,


present.


passes


usually


When


through


contains


acid


which


corrode the


boilers.


Shallow wells can not be


relied upon a


a rule for a large and


unvarying


supply


water.


Onl


y occasionally and under favorable conditions


will


they


upply


efficient water for


irrigating purpo


ses.;


Contamination


:-When shallow wells are used a


a sup-


louse


hold


purposes,


greatest


care


should


exe


raised


which


this


prevent


water


contamination.


occurs


render it


The conditions under


readily


susceptible


pollution.


wells should never be placed near a barn


or other outbuilding


nor should the offal from


the house


or other


organic


material


thrown


near


them.


The


'water,


being


supplied


from
j .


immediate surroundings,


y carry imtipri is'into ,th


well.


well


fo


passing tlro' g santihnf tyrplithting in an
clay gtrt' .*ater from the surr m'nrng,'area fi
eraQe'lfetatnce. Many cases of typilold': fdyer
tra'dfd' directly ;t *cortaintipwed wells. 'r a


w-dfer has


beenuu 4

.r instance,
impervious
or a consid-


have


been


ct that the


yehrs without Yfa)l results


dbes


finding


not pre


their


lude
way


into


possibility
the well


of 'infectiodis


very


near


an sms
future.


Nevertheless.


when


properly


located


shallow wells often


field an


exce


llent supply


, pure water.


ma


r_


.


_I





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


Unless


properly


cemented


they


also


receive


water


seepage along the sides.


THE


WATER OF THE DEEP


FORMATIONS.


When


as a rule


than
than


water
more


that in


zone


is obtained


permanent


deep


and occurs in


the surface formations.


deep


water


any


Th


formations


larger quantities
ere may be more


locality


depending


upon the structure and arrangement of the underlying for-


mation


The term


"deep


water" is applied in this report


to water


which are permanent and ordinarily inexhausti-


ble by pumping,


and which dQonotconform _j locl._surface


This water is not necessarily


ata


great


depth.


many


cases


water


obtained
level is


only
near


the surface.


This


necessarily


so since


the surface


seends gradually to sea level or to the springs which serve


as an outlet for


the deep


waters.


WATER OF THE VICKSBURG LIMESTONE.


The


Vick


burg


Limestone


is the most important water-


bearing


formation


central


Florida


After


passing


through the surface deposits,


section treated in


wells throughout most of the


this bulletin enter this formation


The


thickness of


the surface material


limestone varies from a


and


few feet of sand


le depth
and soil


in some


localities


which


Suwannee


to several
lime stone


hundred


, Columbia,


feet


near the
Alachua


in others.


surface,
, Levy,


The area


includes


Citrus


parts


Sumter


and


Hernando


Counties


The


top of the


limestone,


how-


ever is everywhere extremely irregular.


Occasionally wells


within


hundred


this


feet


section


before


penetrate


reaching the


for a depth


limestone.


two


These places


aippar ently mark the
holes in the limestone


location


either


of the deep solution


, or of ancient valleys or ba


sins sub-


sequently filled by sand or clay.


Source.


-The


source


water


Vicksburg


lime-


stone is the rainfall.
ffor 'further comment
fl f a -.8 L a, - .JL


This


except


statement would scarcely


call


for the fact that the abund-


I.. reJ- tA- a nA JJ a fl a wA 2! 1 a


I


jonography.


_3 *! -\ All3r






FLQRIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


deep


or remote


source.


The


conditions


most


simple


and the conclusion that the water in the limestone is sup-


plied by rainfall


State in


which


most


obvious


those


parts


the limestone lies near the surface.


f the-
West


central Alachua


County serves admirably to illustrate the


local


origin of th
area. surface


water


clay


in the


deposits are


mestone.
either. of


I


Throughout
but slight


thickness,


entirely


la


preaching nearly or quite


are


absent


earth


The


and


king,
to th


lime


e surface.


practically the entire


ground


water


level


rai


(water li


I


- .


stone often ap-
Surface streams
nfall enters the
^ \ a I j


ue)


n i the lime-


stone, lies at an
merous wells are


obtaining


average depth of


from 30 to 40 feet.


Nu-


put down in this section'for the purpose


water


phosphate


mining.


The


plan


construction of these wells affords an especially favorable


opportunity
underground


diameter


level


Front


observing


water.


dug
i the


down


effects


large pit, t(
. or almost


bottom


rainfall
twenty


ground


pit a. boring is


feet


water
down


until a sufficient supply
are lowered into the pit,


pressure.


of water is obtained.


The pumps


thus enabling pumping by direct


It is observed without exception that heavy and


continued rains affect .the


water level.


The effect


, however,


is not immediate as in the oase of shallow well ending in


surface


bowlv


formations.


following the


The


beginning


rise


water


of the rainy season


comes
. soniC


time being necessary for the downward percolation of the


water
some


The


time


highest


level


the water


after the close


rainy


table


season


reached


. That


change in


the level


is considerable is demonstrated by the


fact that pumps lowered into the pits during the dry sea


son may


be under water bh th'e close of the raipy season.


That


rainfall


source of


the waiter


supply


less obvious although


no less certain in


those parts of the


State


in which


later formations'rest upon


Vicksburg


Limestohe.


These later formations are often thin and per-


vious


, permitting water to pass readily


II.


..


into the limestone


. .


a


-, --L a A. t I a ---. I, U.I S, a --A.a a


4-.n.


1 I 'I





UNDERGROUND


ultimately reach


WATER SUPPLY.


the limestone in any one of several ways.


Such impervious deposits are often of


local extent


lateral spread of the water may carry it beyond


and


into


downward


pervious


movement.


material


, thus


Occasional


permitting


sinks


formed


and the


their bor-
e further


manner described on a later page afford openings through


clay,


find
sink


permitting


.seepage


a passage-way


water


deeper


for


, however, affords such a passage.


entering


mations. N(
Some, as el


ot every
sewhere


explained, become clogged at the bottom and remain filled
with surface water.


Illu


trations


underground


require


surface
i supply


special


water ga
through


mention


ining


direct


sinks are


as disappearing


entrance
o numer-
streams


are common


to all


sections


the State


which


sinks


occur.
and A


Falling Creek and High Falls,


Llachua


and


Sink


serve


Alachua County


as example


Another


in Columbia


County,


described on pages


illustration


found on the State


University grounds at Gainesville.


The


greater


part of


surface


run-off


from


tract finds its way to a small stream which enter


University


the hill


near


surface


south


run-off


surface


stream.


Alice.
Creek.


and


side


, seepage


formations


Apparently this


possibly


grounds.


water


also


stream


a still


supplied
carried


formerly


earlier


The sink formed, near the bed


addition t
y springs
f through
flowed to


stage


from
this
Lake


Hogtown


of the stream divert-


it from


its earlier course.


illustration


of the sink


which
afford


carries off the water received by seepage springs is


d


by the


"Devil


Mill


Hopper,"


near


Gainesville


Florida


This


located


on the highlands six


miles


northwest


Gainesville.


The


surface


elevation


this


place is about 180 feet above sea level


The sink,


although


of considerable depth


does not reach the deep water level.


opening at one side near the bottom


however


permits


the escape of


water


The water from


the surface and


shallow


small


formations


springs


enter


around


this


sides,


sink
and


from


reaches


number
a deeper


TfI ,1-


I -.. -t


SuTn,, nit 4-bai"n1n-


i1,-,


' irri o rknn


T .: m ona .y


r\T\n V\


|11 \|L I t 1Bg| |l I| |v






FLORIDA: GEOLOGICAL SURVEY..


proximately


uniform


over


considerable


areas


Jevel


being not materially affected by local changes in elevation.


Otherwise


independent


expressed,


local


water


surface


level


in' the limestone is


topography


fact


illustrated


by the deep


wells at Gainesville.


The records


of these wells are as follows


Owner of well.


Location
from P.O.


Surface
.elevation


above


sea,


Water
level from
surface.


Level of
water
above sea..


Diamond


City


Ice Co


. Williamson
of Gain'ville


blocks


n.w.


176 ft.
180 ft.


121 ft.
128 ft.


55 ft.


50 ft.


The


measurements


both


surface


level


and


water level for the city well at Gainesville were made with


care by


Oity


Engineer


Cairns. *


The


surface eleva-


tion of the other wells in the above table is taken from the


topographic map


the Gainesville


area.


estimating


surface elevation from topographic maps,, a limit of po


ble error of a few feet must be recognized.


Moreover,


measurements


water


level


were


made


in different


years and at different seasons of the


with


seasons


explained,


in the


water


level


some sections


year


amounts


several


feet.


The variation
as previously
In 1906 the


writer made more exact mea
logical Survey at Orlando.


urewnents for the


* S.


Geo-


ese are reported in Bulletin


Florida.


State


Experiment


Station


, page


102,


and are as follows


Well.


Depth.


Surface


elevation.


Water
level from
surface.


Level


of water
above sea.


San J
School


uan


well


house


Lockhart's


Well


. .. 487 ft.


well


well


1* SJ


ditch


* ml. e


. 260 ft.
210 ft.
. 340 ft.


111.1


110.36 ft.
107.93 ft.
78.95 ft.


44.77 ft.
41.83 ft.
13.9 ft.


66.02 ft.
65.59 ft.
66.10 ft.
65.05 ft.


Factors Controlling the


Water


Level


factors in determining the water level a
plus the friction of flow to that outlet.


1l.-The controlling
re location of outlet
This is best shown


considering in


The


some detail


two of


following sketch is constructed


largest springs.


with a


view of show-


v





UNDERGROUND


WATER SUPPLY.


the level of the water in Silver Springs and Blue


two largest springs occurring in


represents a section


from


the State.


Silver Springs to


in southwest Marion County, a total


The
level.
from


dotted


line


represents


The


Blue


distance of 27
underground


springs,
sketch


prings
miles.
water


The surface contour shown in the sketch is obtained
the topographic map of these sections and is drawn


scale.


level


The


line


is constructed


representing


from


well


underground


records.


The


water


water


will be seen from


the sketch


, stands practically on a level


with


these two


large springs.


apparent


variation


a few feet in the records is within the limits of error since


the elevation of both


springs and wells are estimated from


the topographic maps and


ince the


measurements of depth


to water in


the wells were not all made at the same time


but at different
Suwannee and


relation


seasons of the year.


Columbia


of outlet to water level.


The sketch


through


Counties further illustrates the


See fig.


Quantity.-The


quantity


water


contained


Vicksburg


Limestone


is large.


The


limestone


most part porous.


rock


limestone


there


In addition to the ordinary pore


numerous


is saturated by rainfall


the supply which
inexhaustible.


contain


solution


cavities.


the water
ordinary


level


pace
The
and


purpo


OTHER


WATER-BEARING


FORMATIONS.


The dip. of the


outh


Vicksburg


Limestone


carries it to such a depth


the east and


that it i


not reached


by medium deep wells of northeast


Alachua


, east Marion,


Lake, and parts of Pasco Counties. In
is obtained from the Upper Oligocene


these localities water


and


Miocene


forma-


tions


resting upon


Vicksburg.


The water from


these


later formations contains


solids in solution and is not so


, as a rule, a smaller proportion


hard as that from


Vicksburg.








o 0



____----3


LAKE CITY.


LIVE OAK 110.


SUWANNEE EVB. 39.


Fig. 1. Sketch illustrating the relation of the underground water level to Silver and Blue Springs. (1) The surface
contour drawn to scale from-U. S. Geological Survey topographic map. (2) Approximate level of underground water.
(3) Base line (sea level)-. Horizontal scale 1 in. = 4 mi.; vertical scale 1 in = 200 ft.
Fig. 2. Sketch illustrating relation of underground water to surface contour in Suwannee and Columbia Counties.
(1) Surface contour drawn to scale; elevations from Rept. U. S. Engineers, 1880, "Preliminary Survey, Ship Canal, St.
Mary's River to Gulf of Mexico.". (2) Approximate level of underground water. (3) Base line (sea level). Horizontal
scale 1 in. =5- mi.; vertical scale 1 in. = 200 ft.


BLuic sp. 40.


smvrn sP.,40.


OCALA. CROSSING R. im.'s 68.




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


QUALITY OF THE WATER OF THE DEEP FORMATIONS.
Limestone water is usually hard; that is, it holds in
solution certain salts, particularly salts of calcium and
magnesium. The salts commonly present are the carbo-
nates and sulphates. Calcium carbonate, CaC03, while
but slightly soluble in water, becomes in the presence of
an excess of CO much more soluble, the salt being then
held in solution in the form of bicarbonate Ca(HCO3)s.
For boiler use softening of the limestone water by chemi-
cal 'treatment is often necessary. Numerous analyses are
given preceding the tables of well records. From an exami-
nation of these it will be observed that.the total solids, in
a very general way and with occasional exceptions, in-
crease with the depth of the well. The hardness of the
water determined principally by the amount of calcium
and magnesium salts present, also increases, as a rule,
with depth. This increase in mineral solids in solution
with depth is accounted for partly by the fact that the
water from the deep wells has necessarily traveled a longer
journey underground than has that of the less deep wells.
In doing so it has had a greater opportunity to take solids
into solution. Pressure, as elsewhere explained, is also an
important factor. The amount of carbonic acid and other
gases which the water can hold in solution is pronortion-
ate to the pressure, while the pressure, as elsewhere ex-
plained, increases with depth.

MOVEMENT OF THE WATER IN THE DEEP FORMATIONS:
The heavy annual rainfall and the large surface in-take
necessarily implies movement of the water in the lime-
stone. The general direction of movement, it may safely
be assumed, is from the central interior region toward the
coast on either side. Locally the water is no doubt de-
flected from this general direction of flow. The rock
through which the water moves is not of uniform texture.
Local flint masses interfere with the flow. Water in one
part of the formation may move readily through -open
porous limestone or through solution cavities. Elsewhere
the movement is interfered with by compact areas such






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVB2Y.


as occur irregularly in the limestone. Large springs
through which the water finds an outlet draw upon the
surrounding area, resulting in the convergence of the
flow to the point of escape.
Information regarding the rate of movement is difficult
to obtain. It is doubtless true that the rate of movement
varies from place to place in accordance with the varia-
tion in the texture of the rocks, the proximity of springs,
or other point of outlet, and the depth of the water in\the
earth. Such data as it has been possible to obtain indicate
that, generally speaking, the water moves slowly through
the many winding and inter-connecting solution cavities
and through the porous rocks.
A considerable percentage of the wells drilled are
reported to have encountered underground streams. The
idea commonly conveyed by these reports is that these
are streams in the ordinary sense of the term confined to
definite channels and moving rapidly through the earth.
It is possible that variation in the texture of the rock
may result in forcing the water through established chan-
nels forming locally underground streams. The number
of such streams is,. however, necessarily limited. If under-
ground streams occurred as numerously as reports would
imply, the total rainfall would be very quickly carried
away and the streams cease to flow until the next season
of heavy rains. The annual escape of water clearly can
not exceed the annual in-take. If the water moved through
the rock with a freedom approaching that with which sur-
face water flows, it is obvious that the total rainfall would
be quickly carried away, and the springs, instead of being
perennial, would flow intermittently. Near the outlet of
large springs the water doubtless moves in channels which
become in reality underground streams. It is probable
that the pressure to which underground water is usually
subjected causing a vertical rise in the boring when the
cavity is reached, is mistaken in many cases for the flow
of a stream.




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


ESCAPE OP WATER OF THE DEEP FORMATIONS.
SPRINGS.
The large annual in-take of water into the limestone
continuing through a long period of time implies an
equally ready escape. The natural outlet is through
springs. These are extremely numerous in Florida and of
unusual size. The list given in tabulated form on a later
page includes the largest of those occurring in the coun-
ties covered by this report.
In addition to these, numerous large springs come up
in the ocean, while many others occur along the sides and
in the channels of rivers, bordering or entering this sec-
tion, or in swamps or lakes under such conditions that an
estimate of the flow is difficult or impossible. The most
important of these rivers are the Suwannee, Santa Fe,
Withlacoochee, and Ocklawaha, all of which receive a con-
siderable part of their supply from springs.
The view is occasionally expressed that the large springs
are fed by underground streams that originate in some
remote section and flow at a great depth; and that the
springs do not serve as an outlet for the local underground
water supply, and are not affected by rainfall. Silver
Spring (the largest of these springs), was closely observed
by the writer during the first half of July, 1906. The rain-
fall during-this month was unusually heavy, amounting
for the first seventeen days of the month to 10.27 inches.'
The water level in Silver Spring rose steadily, the total
rise during this half month of reavy rains amounting to a
little more than one half foot (.65 feet). The rise in the
spring does not follow immediately upon the rains. The
greatest advance is observed a day or two after the heavy
rains, indicating that some days are required for the
water to percolate through the overlying rocks and to
reach the springs. Neither is the spring made turbid by
the rains since the water filtering through the sand and
rock is freed from clayey sediment. A similar variation
*Data on rainfall kindly supplied by W. L. Jewett, recorder of
the Ocala Weather Bureau Station.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


in water level in wells with the rainy season has been
described on a previous page.
The area of drainage of each spring can not be closely
outlined. The circulation of underground water is so
complicated, and affected by so many factors that it is im-
possible to determine from just how large an area a spring
draws. So far as amount of rainfall is concerned, a com.
paratively small area would supply each of the springs.
On the basis of estimates already given the in-take of a
surrounding area of 421 square miles, or about one-
fourth of Marion County, is sufficient to supply the flow of
Silver Springs, while a smaller, area would supply each
of the other springs listed. The fact that the springs are
not affected more decidedly by the seasons is due to the
slowness with which water percolates through the overly-
ing rock or moves through the deeper zones. This slow
movement results in distributing the total flow with ap-
proximate uniformity throughout the year.
These and other observations establish the fact that the
springs receive their water supply from the rainfall of the
surrounding country.
Silver Spring may be taken as typical of the limestone
water springs of Florida. The basin of the spring has a
depth of from 30 to 36 feet, with a total flow from several
vents estimated at 368,913 gallons per minute. Professor
John Le Conte visited this spring in 1859 for "the purpose
of studying its optical phenomena. With regard to the
spring he says:*
"The most remarkable and interesting phenomena presented
by this spring, is the truly extraordinary transparency of the
water; in this respect surpassing anything which cam be imag-
ined. All of the intrinsic beauties which invest it, as well as
the wonderful optical properties Which poptilar repoitb
have ascribed to its waters, are directly or indirectly refer-
able to their almost 'perfectly diaphaniety. On a clear and
calm day, after the sun has obtained sufficient altitude, the*
view from the side.of a small boat floating on the surface of
the water hear the center of the head-spring, is beautiful

*Amer. Journ. Sci., Vol. XXXI, p. 3, 1861.





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


beyond description, and well calculated to produce a powerful
impression uron the imagination. Every feature and configu-
ration of the bottom of this gigantic basin is as distinctly visi-
ble as if the water was removed, and atmosphere substituted
in its place!"
*
"My observations were made about noon, on the 17th and
again on the 20th of December, 1859. The sunlight illiuninated
the sides and bottom of this remarkable pool as brilliantly as
if nothing obstructed the light. The shadows of our.little
boat, of our overhanging heads and hats, of projecting crags
and logs, of the surrounding forest, and of the vegetation at
the bottom, were distinctly and sharply defined; while the
constant waving of the slender and delicate moss-like algae,
by means of the currents created by the boiling up of the
water, and the swimming of numerous fish above this minia-
ture subaqueous forest, imparted a living reality to the scene
which can never be forgotten. And if we add to this picture,
already sufficiently striking, that objects beneath the surface
of the water, when viewed obliquely, were fringed with the
prismatic hues, we shall cease to be surprised at the .mysteii-
ous phenomena with which vivid imaginations have invested
this enchanting spring, as well as at the inaccuracies which
have been perpetuated iu relation to the wonderful properties
of its waters. On a bright day, the beholder seems to be looking
down from some lofty airy point on a truly fairy scene in the
immense basin beneath him, a scene whose beauty and mag,
ical effect is vastly enhanced by the chromatic tints with
which it is invested."

The prismatic hues seen in this and other clear water
springs of Florida, Professor LeConte believes to be due
to the refraction of light passing through the water. He
finds that white objects on a dark background when im-
mersed in the water are fringed with blue at the top and
orange and red at the bottom, while the color of the fring-
ing is reversed for dark objects on a white background.
The remarkable transparency of the Florida springs, due
principally to the fact that the water has been filtered and
decolorized in its passage through beds of sand, is prob-.
ably agm~ented, in the opinion of LeConte, by the lime in
solution in the water.
Among other springs resembling Silver Spring in the
manner of emergence, and in the mineral character and





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


clearness of the water may be mentioned: Blue Spring
in Marion County; Ichatucknee, Spring in Columbia
County; Blue, Wekiva, and Manatee Springs in Levy
County, Crystal River and Chesehouiska Springs in Citrus
County; Weekiwachee Spring in Hernando County, and
Newland Spring in Suwannee County. These springs form
the source of streams, many of which, as in the case of
Silver Spring, are navigable to the source. Newland
Spring is exceptional in the fact that the water coming
up as a boil from a circular depression or sink, after flow-
ing as a stream for a. distance of about 200 yards, again
disappears into the earth. This spring is distant only
about three miles from the Suwannee River. The static
Head of the underground water in the vicinity of Newland
Spring is affected by the river. During high water stages
the river frequently rises above the water level in the sur-
rounding limestone. At this time the flow of the Newland
Spring is reversed, the water then rising in the sink in
which it ordinarily disappears and disappearing through
the sink from which under ordinary conditions it rises.
SThe water of White Sulphur Spring and Suwannee Sul-
phur Spring is impregnated with hydrogen sulphide gas.
Perrian or Salt Spring, in Marion county, is exceptional
in the high proportion of solids, particularly of chlorides,
which it carries.

WELLS.

In locating wells in the limestone area two distinct
points should be considered: First, the depth at which a
sufficient water supply is likely to be obtained; and sec-
ond, the level at which the water, when obtained, will
stand in the boring.
Level at Which Water Will Stand in Completed
Boring:-The distance that water may be expected to
stand from the surface in the completed boring is a matter
of more importance than the depth of the boring; for,
while the expense of the boring terminates with the initial
cost, the expense of lifting the water to the surface con-




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


L .:.


BLUE SPRINGS IN MIARION COUNTY. FLOW 349,166 GALLONS PER MINUTE.


BULLETIN No. 1, pr.. IT





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.. 39

tinues indefinitely. If it is known that the water will rise
near enough to the surface to admit of pumping by direct
pressure, the cost of pumping is greatly reduced. The
practicability of using water for irrigating purposes often
turns upon this point, and in any case each additional foot
that the water must be lifted involves an additional cost.
In short, the expense of water is largely determined by
the cost of pumping..
The tables giving the general water resources, and list-
ing typical wells for each county, togetherwith the sketches
showing the underground level in several of the counties
will enable those who wish to put down wells to deter-
mine approximately in ,most cases how near to the surface /
the water will rise. The water level in the limestone as
indicated above (p.30) does not conform to local variations
in the surface level, but on the contrary, stands at a prac-
tically uniform level over considerable areas, regardless
of surface topography. (See figures pp. 32 and 40.)
Depth of Boring.-In the Florida limestone the depth
necessary to go to obtain water cannot be determined from
surrounding wells. ,Ordinarily some water is obtained
immediately upon passing the water line. For large quan-
tities of water, however, it is usually necessary to pene-
trate the limestone until a cavity of some considerable
size and extent is encountered. The effect of the cavity is
apparently to serve practically as a collecting basin. Al-
though not enough water to supply the pump enters the
small boring by seepage, yet when the boring is connected
with the very much larger opening of the cavity or solu-
tion channel, this larger collecting area is sufficient to
afford a practically inexhaustible supply of water. Porous
layers as well as cavities are of irregular occurrence.
Wells may be located within a few feet of each otlier and
yet differ greatly in depth. The varying depth is illus-
trated by the Orlando wells. The four wells at the "sink"
one mile east of Orlando reached a water cavity at the
depth of 140 feet. The well in the "ditch," one-half mile to
the west, starting at approximately the skme surface level,
encountered no cavity of appreciable size, but reached, at




















CITRA 61. SILVER SPRINGS 40

44
0 0
-- o



Fig. 3. Surface contour and underground water level through a part of Alacaua and Levy Counties.
Fig. 4. Surface contour and underground water level through Marion County from Citra to a point four miles
south of Ocala.
Surface contour (1) drawn to scale from U. S. Geological Survey topographic map; (2) approximate level of un-
derground water; (3) base line (sea level). Horizontal scale 1 in.= 31 mi.; vertical scale 1 in.= 200 ft.


aSBIro 81


rAIX'VIILLE CROSS. R. R.'S 138.


aRREDONDA 90.





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY


the depth of 340 feet, a porous layer with an abundance of
water. The "school house well," the surface level of which
is approximately 31 feet higher than that of the well at
the ditch, entered a porous water bearing layer at a depth
of 260 feet. The "San Juan" well, less than one-fourth
mile to the northwest of the school house well, was put
down to a depth of 487 feet before reaching a layer con-
sidered sufficiently open. The "Lockhart" well, one-half
mile west of town, terminates in a cavity at a depth of 210
feet. The static head of the water obtained in these wells
iL practically the same for all (p.30). Another striking
illustration of varying depth is afforded by the two wells
at the Marion Farms, near Ocala. These wells are not more
than six feet apart. One of them goes to a depth of 140
feet, while in the other it was necessary to go 175 feet in
order to obtain sufficient water.


f".... ..- : I .. . .












/
Fig. 5.-Sketch illustrating the varying depth of wells entering-
the limestone. In order to obtain a large supply of water it is.
necessary to penetrate the limestone until either a solution cavity
or a porous stratum is reached. The breaks in the limestone
.represent irregularly occurring solution cavities, two of which
are reached by wells.


4-GeoBull





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUIVE.Y.


CONTAMINATION.
The deep waters are in much less danger of contamina-
tion from organic sources than are the shallow. The
organic material, and with it the disease-producing germs,
is filtered out as the water penetrates through the surface
sands and the porous rocks. The comparatively deep
waters may, however, under certain conditions, become
contaminated. Many of -the sinks occurring in the lime-
stone area are passageways directly through to the lime-
stone water horizon. .It not infrequently happens that
small streams flowing through a town find entrance into
the limestone through these sinks. These streams often
receive trash, rubbish and filth of various kinds. The im-
purities carried by the streams often reach the under-
ground water supply without having been filtered or suffi-
ciently exposed to the sunshine. The water in such streams
should be kept as free from organic impurities as possible.
Wells from which a large amount of water is pumped nec-
essarily draw on the water supply from the surrounding
area to some considerable extent and may thus receive
contaminated water carried into the limestone by these
streams. The accompanying sketch illustrates the relation
that may exist between a sink and a nearby well.

. ' '' = r;.: .: :-. .- .. ... ..: : ....


I-J-- 1 7 I _-/ '.
Fig. 6.-Illustrating danger of contamination of a well by im-
pure water entering through a sink. The water flowing into the
sink enters a cavity in the limestone and spreads through the
open spaces in the rock, some of it probably reaching near-by
wells.




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


The danger of contamination from the bored wells used
to carry off sewage is discussed on pages 64 to 67.
Contamination as commonly used refers to organic con-
tamination. Water also takes minerals into solution
which may be considered as mineral contamination. For
drinking purposes the minerals thus dissolved may be
beneficial or injurious, according to the minerals dis-
solved and the amount in solution. For irrigating pur-
poses, they are usually not injurious and may even be
beneficial as many of the waters contain from a trace to
one or two parts per million of phosphoric acid. For
boiler and household purposes the mineral solids in solu-
tion are detrimental The amount of minerals in solution
in the water increases, as previously stated, in a general
way with the depth of the well. The deepest well in cen-
tral Florida of which an analysis has been made is the
well of the Pearson Oil Co., in Citrus County. This well
has a reported depth of 1900 feet. The solids in solution
amount to 6474 parts per million, the water being unfit
for use. The second deepest well is that of the Ooala
Water Co. at Ocala. This well has a depth of 1250 feet,
and is cased to the bottom. The mineral solids in solution
amount to 659 parts per million. The City well at Live
Oak has a depth of 1080 feet, and yet supplies water rela-
tively low in mineral solids (219 parts per million). The
easing in this well, however, is reported to reach only a
short distance into the limestone and this fact doubtless
explains the relatively low proportion of solids. Water
may, and doubtless does, enter the boring from all depths
below the termination of- the casing, and notwithstanding
the considerable depth of the well the principal water
supply in. this case probably comes from no great depth.
The mineral solids in solution in the wells of medium
depth in central Florida usually range between 125 and
275 parts per million.








The conditions. Which exist in'icentral & orida a~ eot
favorable for obtaining flowing welles. I h: e tvf the an-
ticline lies nQt far, from the. center: o0 the p h In'ia. :T:he
dip from the crest is most .rapid, to the east. Under thes6
conditions pressure sufofient to cause:a. flow a0lng the
side of the anticline would resultt from the pieerivekb of6
an overlying relatively .,impervions istratum acting as a
confining agent, and preventing .the escape of the water.
In the absence of this.confinit g 4tatum a flow: may! still be
obtained, .provided the resistance to: the .passage of 'the
water through .the inclined strag m i. sufficiently .great.
The dip to the east carries te .limestoe e. eneath impeirvi
ous tlittawith the result that aflow is rQtaiwbed along the
St. Joht's iveti ind along the e 9atcst. CTo the south
likewise Utter i mI&t'nIs rest .4pon t.l 'i.kburg. T.
thn wet, -o'deve` fthb ictbid~g liiestoi eies at or near
thie Eiurifae t6 't s ast, such eps- ,s 'est upon it
leing thin and f 'lo6l ertdi e "
'the shading on the map indicates those parts of the
ESthe in Which flowing wells, may be obained, There are
as Will be seen,,tio iTin icpal atesian areas.: the East
Coast 'r6a ana the Soutlihithulf ibast a. ,'lowinz
wells hn fthe :it i6at h6ae b'en odbWind as far south as
P14m Bedh, althbuh Thei wate 1^ tha ellat 'his -ast
locality was tob 'salty :for use.' 'The Glf ( 6ti: 'arta' t-
tends: rather fatthbr hWorth t*6fn i dictled on thi e hInp,
flowing wells at Or near the eaillel IhvAIg beh obtaiec
along'the Pinellas Periinsula. Flowit welltW'Ut1cdfel ly
in some sections not indicated 'on .the. map,.as at fKrisikn-
mee and along the Gulf coast of west ,FloSrid,1T,.he loca-
tion of a number of these wells is indicated on thm iap by
a cross.
Of the :counties covered by this bulletin, two,n; nmely
qLate and Marion, extend eastw*ar inio the ,St. Johns
Riverarea of artesian flow. On the west coast a flowing
well, the Pearson Oil Co. well, has been obtained in Oitris







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. BULLETIN No. 1, Pu III.


7C' -(JI


AREAS OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN FLORIDA.


BULLETIN NO. 1. PL. III.


FLnORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.






UNDIDROR0UND WATER SUPPLY.


County. The water, however is too salty for use. A flow
has been obtained in a few instances from wells at low.
surface elevation in the lake region of Lake County. These
depend apparently upon local conditions.
Of the deep wells that have been drilled, some have not
been properly cased, and hence do not afford a test as to
artesian flow. One deep well of the interior, that of the
Ocala city water: supply, however, is cased the full depth
of 1250 feet. The surface elevation at this locality is be-
tween 100 and 110 feet above sea-level and the water
stands (in this well 65 to 70 feet from the surface. A
flow from this depth is therefore not to be expected in
central Florida, since in this section the average surface
elevation is from 60. to 150 feet.





GEOLOGICAL RESULTS OF UNDERGROUND
CIRCULATION.

The topography of a region is the product of all th,
agencies that have acted upon the land since its formation.
Sedimentary deposits when formed usually lie horizontal
or nearly so. Such deposits when elevated, unless vio-
lently distorted or folded, form dry land areas, which are
either level, with minor irregularities, or have a uniform
slope. As soon as exposed, however, eroding agencies
begin to develop irregularities in the land surface. Evi-
dence of violent upheavel, distortion or folding, other than
very mild flexures, -is lacking in Florida. The topographic
features of the State are thus mainly the result of the
combined action of the eroding agencies which have been
working since the first appearance of the peninsula as
dry land.
Among these agencies of erosion, underground water
has acted in Florida under exceptionally favorable condi-
tions. In areas of considerable slope, and with relatively
impervious formations, the surface run-off is large. Under
these conditions those features of topography determined
by the rapid downward cutting of the surface streams and
their tributaries predominate. In Florida the surface
slope is slight. The open nature of the soil and rock per-
mits the greater part of the water to enter the earth,.
Establishing subterranean rather than surface drainage.
The rocks are prevailingly calcareous and soluble. Under
these conditions the work of the underground water pre-
dominates over surface erosion. In central Florida the
topography, soil, and general surface features are deter-
mined to a large extent by the work of underground water.
SOLUTION.
SSolution is the most apparent, and geologically the most
iinportant result of underground water circulation. Rain
water, while passing through the air, takes into solution
a small amount of CO- gas. To this is added organic and
mineral aids taken up while passing through the soil.
Increased pressure, as the water descends into the earth,
enables the water to hold in solution greater quantities of





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


gases, acids and salts, all of which greatly increase the
dissolving power of the water.
That underground water is efficient as a solvent is evi---.
dent from the analyses of well and spring waters. Rain
water entering the earth with almost-no solids in solution,
returns to the surface through springs and wells with ,
load of mineral solids in solution determined by the length
of time it has been in the ground, the distance traveled, -
and the character of the rocks and minerals with which
it comes in contact.
AMOUNT OF MINERAL SOLIDS REMOVED IN SOLUTION.
The mineral matter thus taken into solution is carried
along with water, and, while some of it is re-deposited, a
large amount is removed annually.
An estimate of the total mineral solids thus removed is
difficult. A conception of the largeness of the amount
removed is obtained from a consideration of some of the
individual springs.
The water of Silver Springs contains, as shown by
analysis, 274 parts solids per million parts water. Other-
wise expressed, each million pounds of water is carrying
with it 274 pounds of solids in solution. Silver Spring is
estimated to flow a little more than three million pounds
of water per minute (368.,913 gallons). The interior of
Florida is thus being carried into the ocean through Sil-
ver Springs at the rate of more than 340 pounds per min-/
ute, or about six hundred tons per day.
The total solids removed in solution through six other
springs of central Florida, expressed in tabular form,
gives the following results:
Total solids. Est. flow Solids re-
Name of Spring. County. parts per (gals. per moved lbs.
mil.*) min.) per day.
Blue ............ Marion 112.1 349166 469,698
Blue ............ Levy 196.8 25,000 59,040
Ichatucknee..... Columbia 311.6 180,000 457,056
Newland ........ Suwannee 233.5 75,000 210,150
Weekiwachee.... Hernando 227.8 100,000 273,360
White Sulphur... Hamilton 166.6 32,400 64,774
Suwannee ....... Suwannee 332.7 52,000 207,605
*Organic matter is deducted from the total solids as given for
Suwannee Sulphur and White Sulphur Springs. The organic mat-
ter occurring in the other springs is of small amounts and was
not separately determined.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


As the basis of an estimate of the total solids removed
annually from the interior, let it be assumed,. (1) that the
average total solids in spring water amounts to as much
as 219 parts per million, this average being obtained from
eight of the typical large springs of central Florida; (2)
that the annual escape of the underground water approxi.
/mates the annual in-take, amounting, as previously esti-
mated (p. 16), to 460,536,689 gallons per square mile.
Upon these estimates the mineral solids removed amount
to a little more than four hundred tons annually per
spuare mile.
Of the minerals thus removed, calcium carbonate or
limestone greatly predominates, exceeding the combined
weight of all other minerals. From the analyses it ap-
pears that magnesium carbonate, magnesium and calcium
sulphates are present in variable, although usually lim-
ited, quantities. Chlorides are normally present in small
amount, although occasionally, as in the case of Perrian
Spring, they are exceptionally high. Silica is present in
amounts varying from 5 to 25.5 parts per million. Traces
of phosphoric acid and of iron and alumina are usually
present.
The several undetermined factors which enteif into the
above estimates of mineral solids removed make it diffi-
cult to formulate a concrete statement of the rate of low-
ering of the general surface level. Nevertheless, such state-
ments are desired and have a comparative value. Assuming
for the rock removed, most of which is limestone, an aver-
age specific gravity of 2.5, a layer one foot thick over one
square mile should weigh about two aiid one-sixth million
tons. The calculated rate of removal of this rock is abc.ut
four hundreds tons per square mile per year. From these
estimates it would appear that the surface level of the cen-
Stral peninsular section of Florida is being lowered by
/ solution at the rate of a foot in five or six thousand years.
UNDERGROUND CAVITIES.

The estimates given on the previous page, even allowing
for a wide margin of error, indicate the very great amount





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


of mineral solids that is being removed in solution from
the interior of the State annually. The indications are
that this process of solution has continued uninterrupt-
edly throughout a period of time counted by thousands of
years. The effects are everywhere apparent. Solution cavi-
ties are exceedingly numerous in the underlying limestone;
so much so that it is unusual for a boring to go to any
considerable depth without striking a cavity. In some
cases the rock is truly honeycombed with cavities, and no
boring has reached a depth beyond the zone of their occur-
rence. It is possible that deposits too soft to support the
drills are occasionally struck and are sometimes mistaken
for cavities, but that many of these wells actually end in
cavities is not to be doubted. Shaler maintains that the
presence of these cavities at a great depth in the limestone
necessarily implies a considerable elevation of the penin.
sula at the time of their formation.* The writer agrees
with the view that oscillations in the level of the peninsula
have occurred, a former greater elevation being indicated
by certain old valleys now filled with sand and clay. How-
ever, he believes it unnecessary to assume elevation to
account for 'the cavities.. It is without doubt true that
solution goes on more rapidly in the zone above the under-
ground water level. That solution continues below the
water level is sufficiently evident, however, from the fact t
already noted that the total mineral solids in the water
increases on an average with the depth from which the
water comes. Although the return circulation is slow,
there is no doubt that some of the water from great depth
returns through springs and otherwise escapes into the
ocean, carrying with it its load of mineral solids, thus
forming and enlarging cavities.'
SINK HOLES.

The surface of the interior of Florida is dotted with
sink holes of all sizes, from a few inches to several rods in
diameter. Their circular outline and often great depth,
render them noteworthy features of the landscape. They
*Evidences as to the Change of Sealevel. Geol. Soc. Am., Bull.
VI., 1895, p. 1565.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


occur irregularly and are not uniformly distributed. Cer-
tain sections underlaid by readily soluble limestones are
particularly liable to sinks.
An account of the manner of formation of these sinks
has been given by the writer in a previous publication.*
This account is, in part, as follows: "When first formed,
the typical sink throughout this area (interior of Flor-
ida), is an opening leading from the surface through the
superficial deposits to or into the limestone below. Many
of these sinks are perfectly cylindrical, not funnel-shaped.
This is especially true of the smaller sinks. As a result of
the subsequent caving of the banks, the bottom usually
becomes clogged and the sides sloping. The formation
of these sinks is practically instantaneous and results
from a sudden caving of the earth. In size they vary
from a few feet to many rods in diameter. So frequent is
their formation in certain sections, notably the phos-
phate mining area of Alachua and Columbia Counties
that one must be on the lookout in driving through the
country for newly formed sinks. Indurated layers exposed
along the sides of the sinks are rough-edged and bear evi-
dence of fracture due to the sudden giving away and
breaking under the weight of the load above. The depth
of the sinks is probably quite variable. As a rule, they
reach through and connect with the permanent under-
/ground water horizon. Some reach much below the water
Linee"
"A sink of this type was examined by the writer within
a few hours after its formation about one mile south of
Juliette, in Marion county, in 1905. This was a small
sink, not more than eight feet in diameter, and of the
usual cylindrical form. The sides down to the water level
were, so far as could be determined, entirely of clay. The
sink, which had formed directly under the railroad track,
was caused possibly by the jar of a passing train, the
engine of which had passed safely over. The water rose
immediately in the sink to the static head of the water in
that locality."
"The writer recalls having often seen similar tubular
*Science, Vol. XXVI., p. 417, 1907.






F L~Onr IA (;EO LOUii;CAi L SUR V RY' 131LEr N O. 1. .. IV .













--
Y- i',
- 'r 4

_V f-.


LIMESSI'ONE SINK NEAR sU MTERV I SU MrER COUNTY.






UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


openings reaching from the surface to the runway of
abandoned coal mines, the "cave-in" occurring in these
cases through a thickness of forty or fifty feet of
clays and shales. From analogy it seems probable that
the formation of the sinks in question results from a
gradual caving of the clay from the bottom, assisted, per-
haps, by the removal mechanically of a part of the mate-
rial by underground water. Finally a point is reached at
which the entire remaining mass suddenly gives way.
While some of these sinks are in clay formations entirely,v-
others break through a considerable thickness of lime-
atone."
Sink holes are characteristic of that part of the. State
in which soluble limestone lies at or near the surface. If L"
the limestone is covered by too great a thickness of clays
or other impervious formations, sink holes do not form.
Nor, do sinks occur in areas of artesian flow, since the im-
pervious strata which retain the artesian water likewise
prevent the downward percolation of surface water neces-
sary to the.foriation of a sink.
Sinks after being formed tend to, fill up by the caving
of the sides, and as a result of the debris washed and
blown into them. All ages of sinks, from the new to the
old and almost obliterated, are to be observed. The new
sink is recognized at once by its almost perpendicular
sides, and by the fresh untarnished appearance of such
rocks and clays as are exposed along the side. The some-
what older sink is recognized by the beginning of a growth
Sof hard wood vegetation along its sides. .The appearance
of the sink at later stages in its history will depend upon
local conditions and especially whether it is in a clay or
in a limestone region. Sinks located in a clay region, of
which those on. the grounds of the State University at
Gainesville are good examples, will usually become
clogged at the bottom by the clay and mud washed into
them. The banks then slump and wash down, the slope
becoming less steep. Surface water collects, forming
a pond and in the course of time the sink is filled, leav-
ing hardly more than a depression. Sinks located in a
limestone country, or with surrounding rock strong





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


enough to prevent rapid wash and falling of the side#
resist filling up longer. Under these conditions the sink
remains open at the bottom, that is, retains its connection
with the deep water horizon indefinitely, the water that
runs into it from the sides passing out through the bot-
tom. An illustration of such a sink is the, Devil's Mill
Hopper, near Gainesville. This large sink is rather old,
as indicated by the vegetation along the sides and in the
bottom. Some mud and clay has washed in, but the outlet
through the bottom is still sufficiently open to permit the
water to escape. In its last stages a. sink appears merely
as a depression and is finally obliterated. The location of
an old sink or solution hole is occasional discovered in
the course of well drilling.
A description of the tbrmation of a sink contained in
Bartram's Travels (179t) may serve to illustrate the im-
pression made by this unusual occurrence upon early
English travelers and upon the Indians. The account is
given as related to Bartram by a trader, who was an eye
witness to the occurrence, and is confirmed, Bartralm
states, by one or two other traders and by the Indians.
The account is as follows:*
"This trader being near the place (before it had any visi-
ble existence in its present appearance) about three years
ago (as he was looking for some horses which he expected
to find in these parts) when, on a sudden, he was astonished
by an inexpressible rushing noise, like a mighty hurricane
or thunder storm, and looking around, he saw the earth o ver-
flowed by torrents of water, which came, wave after wave,
rushing down a vale or plain very near him, which it filled
with water, and soon began to overwhelm the higher grounds,
attended with a terrific noise and tremor of the earth; recov-
ering from his first surprise, he immediately resolved to pro-
ceed for the place from whence the noise seemed to come,
and soon came in sight of the incomparable fountain, and
saw, with amazement,'the floods rushing upwards many feet
high, and the expanding waters, which prevailed every way,
spreading themselves far and near: he at length concluded
(he said) that the fountains of the deep were again broken
up, and that a universal deluge had commenced, and instantly
*Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and
West Florida, by William Bartram, Philadelphia, 1791, p. 239.-






F L~Onr IA (;EO LOUii;CAi L SUR V RY' 131LEr N O. 1. .. IV .













--
Y- i',
- 'r 4

_V f-.


LIMESSI'ONE SINK NEAR sU MTERV I SU MrER COUNTY.




UND10RGR0UND WATER SUPPLY.


turned about and fled to alarm the town, about nine .miles
distance, bWt before he could reach it he met several of the
inhabitants, who, already alarmed by the unusual noise, were
hurrying on towards the place, upon which he returned with
the Indians, taking their stand on an eminence to watch its
progress and the event: it continued to jet and flow in this
manner for several days, forming a large, rapid creek or
river, descending and following the various courses and wind-
ings of the valley, for the distance of seven or eight miles,
emptying itself into a vast savanna, where was a lake and
sink which received and gave vent, to its waters."
"The fountain, however, gradually ceased to overflow, and
finally withdrew itself beneath the common surface of the
earth, leaving this capacious bason of Waters, which, though
continually hear full, hath never since overflowed."
This sink, known at that time as "Alligator Hole," is
located, as shown by the text, in the northwestern part of
Levy County in the vicinity of Manatee Springs, and not
far from the ancient Indian village and trading station of
Talahasochte. The account by Bartram is doubtless some-
what embellished. The least reliable feature, perhaps, is
the amount of water reported to flow from the opening.
It is true, however, that the static head of the under-
ground water of this part of the county is sufficient to
bring 'he water within a few feet of the general surface
level. Under these conditions a temporary flow doubtless
occurred, due to the rebound of the water following the
caving of the earth.

DISAPPEARING STREAM S.

The abrupt disappearance of small or medium-sized
streams into the depth of the earth is a not uncommon
feature of inland Florida. giving rise occasionally to no
little wondernmett. The streams enter the earth through
sinks of the character of those described above.
After the formation of a sink it invariably happens that'
some part of the rainfall from the immediately surround-
ing area, as a result of natural depressions, flows over
the edge and into the sink. In doing so the water will
, necessarily begin the cutting of a ditch across the edge.
The deeper the ditch is cut the more readily is the water




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


enabled to enter the sink. The farther the ditch is extended
headwards from the edge of the sink the more water it
receives. This small start is the beginning of the develop-
m' ent of a disappearing stream. The subsequent history
of the stream is determined by the character of the rock
through which it has to cut, and the length of time it is
allowed to operate. Given sufficient time, the rivulet cuts
headwards, increasing its drainage area, gathering more
water, and attaining to the respectable size of a stream.
%4The kind of a valley cut by the stream, whether with
steep or sloping sides, with waterfalls or without; with
uniform or with interrupted grade; is determined by the
kind of deposits through which or over which it flows.
The stream in these respects develops as do other streams
cutting back from their origin. Thus, if the deposits
through which it is cutting are of uniform hardness the
bed of the stream will have a uniform slope. If, on the
other hand, the deposits are made up of alternately hard
and soft layers, the stream crossing the edge of the hard
layers and falling onto the more easily eroded softer lay-
ers forms waterfalls.
High Falls, about nine miles south of Lake City, in
Columbia County, illustrates a stream which, originating
from a sink, has cut back a half mile or so through vaTi-
ous kinds of deposits, and has developed a deep canyon in
which are found rapids, many small pot holes, and other
features more or less out of the ordinary for Florida
streams.
A second type of disappearing stream, or rather of a
stream having a different history, in that it becomes a
disappearing stream by accident, is illustrated by Falling
Creek, in Columbia County. This stream flowed originally
Into the Suwannee River. In the course of time, however,
a sink formed in or near its bed. The sink was of/large
size and of considerable depth, and resulted in deflecting
the course of the stream. The time since the formation
of the sink and the deflection of the stream is measured
by the depth and the length of the canyon that has been
cut. The alternating strata of hard and soft rock at this
locality have resulted in the formation of a waterfall, and





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY. 55

a measurement of the average recession of this waterfall
obtained' by observations running through a series of
years, would, perhaps, afford a basis for an approximate
estimate of the time which has elapsed since the formal,
tion of the sink. At first this waterfall was located at
the esdg6 of the sink. Little by little the waterfall has}
receded upstream until it has reached its present position,
nearly a mile above the sink. The fact that Falling Creek
has( a deeper and a longer canyon than has THigh 'Falla
does not necessarily indicate a greater age for Falling
Creek sink. The stream which enters Falling Creek was
an established stream carrying a regular supply of water
at the time the sink was formed, hence began the cutting
of the falls with full force at once. High Falls, on the
contrary, had to commence its history under very different
conditions. At the time of the formation of the sink there
was no ready established stream. On the contrary, the
stream itself had to be developed, and still carries much
less water than does Falling Creek. High Falls sink may,
therefore, be actually older, notwithstanding the shorter
canyon cut, than is Falling Creek sink.
The subsequent course of streams entering sinks is a
matter of conjecture, one of two conditions may prevail. -
It is impossible that after entering the limestone the
stream is confined to a restricted channel, and hence
forms in a real sense. an underground stream.. This condi-
tion probably prevails in the vicinity of large springs or
other point of outlet for underground water. Most of the
streams, however, after passing below the ground water
level, probably lose their identity as streams and mingle L'
with the general supply of underground water.

SOLUTION BASINS.

Associated with sinks and disappearing streams areu--
solution basins. The basins, like the sinks, are due to the
more rapid solution of the rocks underlying one locality
than those of another. The process is similar in either
Case, the lowering of the basin being in fact attended by
the formation of sinks. The occurrence of many sinks





\ 56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

Indicate a locality that is being carried down by solution
more rapidly than the surrounding area. This rapid solu-
tion continues until the basin is reduced almost or quite
to the underground water level;
Upon approaching the underground water level the rate
of solution is checked, owing to the fact that solution goes
on more rapidly above than below the water level. From
this time enlargement of the basin continues through for-
mation of sinks at the sides, the formation of each sink
enlarging the total area of the basin.
SBasins of this type are very common in the State. When
Vdry they are known as "prairies"; -when filled with water
they become lakes. Numerous illustrations may be found
in the interior of the State, "Payne's Prairie," at Gaines-
ville, together with surrounding small basins, may be men-
tioned as a typical example. This basin in the southeast-
ern part of Alachua County, represents a section in which
\underground solution has greatly reduced the original sur-
"face level. At an earlier stage the drainage from this part
of the county passed off through Orange Lake and the
Oklawaha River to the St. Johns River, the tributaries of
the drainage system taking their origin in what is now
the plateau region of northeast Alachua County. The
soluble Vicksburg Limestone underlying this section was
removed by solution more rapidly than the less soluble
rocks to the east, with the result that the basin has now
been lowered to a level of from 60 to 65 feet This is equal
to or below that of the former outlet through Orange
Lake. The drainage from this section now passes off
through Alachua Sink. If for any reason the flow of water
into the sink is checked, the "Prairie" becomes a lake.
Under extremely heavy rainfall the lake would probably
rise to a level permitting escape through its former outlet.

DEPOSITION AND REPLACEMENT.
The work of underground water is not confined to solu-
tion. The mingling of water in the earth may be regarded
as a chemical experiment in which many ingredients are
brought together. Under these conditions chemical reac-
tions take place. In calcareous rocks solution predomi-






UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


nates; but deposition and replacement also occur. Shells
and corals in the limestone, originally calcareous, have in
many instances become silicifled. This is invariably true
of the shells imbedded in the flint masses, indicating that
the flint itself has been deposited by underground water
since the formation of the limestone. Locally, the lime-
stone has become very compact and the fossils destroyed,
a result also brought about by the underground water. In
the case of the flint masses the process has been, appar-
ently, replacement of the calcium carbonate (Ca CO a)
by silica (SiOz) held in solution in the water. Under
these conditions the form and structure of the shells are
retained, although the substance of the shell is changed
from calcium carbonate to silica. A similar process ap-
parently accounts for the formation of certain rock phos-
phates, calcium phosphate in this case replacing calcium
carbonate.
These changes due to the underground water ultimately
affect the topography. The flint masses resist erosion and
stand out as ridges, while the limestone erodes in some
localities more rapidly than in others. The resulting
topography is characterized by the rounded hills and the
solution valleys, seen in much of central Florida.


5-GeoBull






DRAINAGE OF LAKES, PONDS AND SWAMP LANDS BY
DEEP WELLS.

The low elevation of the Florida peninsula, the result-
ing general flatness of the country, together with the
slightly rolling topography, leads in many localities to
the formation of lakes, ponds, swamp and marsh lands.
The drainage of the ponds and marshes, and indeed even
of the lakes, becomes, under certain conditions, a matter
of the first importance to the healthfulness and develop-
ment of the locality. Not infrequently lands valuable for
cultivation are rendered unavailable by overflow during
the rainy season. Ponds are often unsightly and a menace
to health, while the lakes, ordinarily desirable, may, under
certain conditions, require partial drainage to avoid over-
flow of the surrounding lands. Many of the ponds and
lakes lie in depressions below the general surface level,
rendering surface drainage impossible or impracticable.

NATURAL DRAINAGE WELLS.

Ponds and lakes of this character are not infrequently
drained by sinks occurring in them. The existence of a sur-
face pond or lake'is dependent upon the occurrence of a
relatively impervious sub-stratum which prevents the
downward percolation of the water. The sinks afford an
opening through the impervious stratum. The manner of
tle formation of sinks has been already described. As a
result of slow solution a cavity of considerable size is
formed in the underlying rock, the cavity gradually en-
larging until the overlying deposits break and cave sud-
denly. When such a sink forms, the water rushes through
rapidly, enters the pervious rock below and is conducted
away Ito join the underground supply. Illustrations of
drainage through sinks in this way may be taken from
almost any county of the interior of Florida. Payne's
Prairie, or Alachua Lake, near Gainesville, and Lake
Jackson, near Tallahassee, will serve as illustrations of
large lakes drained in this way. Lake Jackson was thus
drained in 1907. This lake is of irregular shape and has





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


an area of several thousand acres. In April, 1907, a sink
formed near the southwestern side of the basin, rapidly
draining the lake. In June a second sink, formed to the
south of the old sink, carried off the water in a local de-
pression surrounding it. Mud and surface material were
carried into the sink, with the result that the underground
outlet was soon clogged, preventing further escape. Seep-
age from the' sides, together with the rainfall of the fol-
lowing summer, converted the basin into a lake again.
P~.yne's Prairie at Gainesville, has an area of 18 or 20
square miles. This section was visited by William, Bar-
tram in the summer of 1%. It was then known as the
"Alachua Savanna," and afforded pasturage to large
herds of horses and cattle belonging to the Alachua tribe
of Indians. With regard to the sinks, Bartram says :,'
"We alighted in a pleasant vista, turning our horses to
graze while we amused ourselves with exploring the borders
of the Great Sink. In this place a group of rocky hills almost
surround' a large basin, which is the general receptacle of the
water, draining from every part of the vast savanna, by lat.
eral conduits, winding about, and one after another joining
the main creek or general conductor, which at length delivers
them into this sink; where they descend by slow degrees,
through rocky caverns, into the bowels of the earth, whence
they are carried by secret subterraneous channels into other
receptacles and basins."
*
"There are three great doors or vent holes through the
rocks in the sink, two near the center and the other one near
the rim, much higher up than the other two, which was con-
spicuous through the clear water."
Although the two large sinks were in existence then as
now, the above description appears to refer more particu-
larly to the North Sink, the first approached by Bartram.
When visited by James Pearce in 1824 this basin was still
a dry land area. Pearce says of it:2
"In a section of the hilly district of East Florida called
Alachua, I visited a sink filled with water, covering an acre.
It is the outlet for a mill-stream that winds through a hand-
'some prairie, and plunging into the rocky basin takes a sub-
terranean course."
'Bartram's Travels, L. C.;Op. 203.
2 Am. J.our. Sci., Vol.' IX, 1825, p. 125.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


For nearly fifty years after Pearce's visit the prairie
was used for cattle grazing and to some extent for farm-
ing. About 1871,1 however, the sink became clogged. When
seen by Professor Eugene Smith in 1880, the basin was
filled with water, forming a lake. Smith says of it:2
"A small creek flowed through this basin, disappearing
near its northern edge into an underground channel. During
the great storm of 1871 this outlet was closed, and the
"prairie" has become a lake several miles wide and from
fifteen to twenty feet deep."
The body of water thus formed was known for many
years as Alachua Lake, and is.reported to have been navi-
gable for small steamers. The lake continued until the
summer of 1891, when it was gradually lowered and
drained through a sink. Since this time it hvs. wiMh the
exception of temporary overflows, continued as dry land.
Levels were made under the direction of the State Sur-
vey in October, 1907. The water level in the sink at that
time was found to be 52.67 feet above sea. The actual
level of the underground water above sea was then, as
shown by the water in the Gainesville city well, 50.66 feet
above sea. The water of the prairie was thus lowered at
that time practically to the underground water level. The
illustration given in plate VI (facing this page), is made
from a photograph taken at North Sink at low water stage
in 1891. The water of the sink at the time the photograph
was taken in 1891, was several feet lower than when ex-
amined in 1907.
BORED WELLS.
A bored well in the bottom of a pond or lake serves as
an artificial opening through the impervious strata and is
effective for drainage purposes only when it reaches a
porous or cavernous stratum. Such artificial openings
conduct water in the same manner as a sink. It is not to
be assumed that every lake or basin within the State can
be drained by bored wells, or that this method of drain-
age is practicable for all swamp lands. It is scarcely nec-
"The date of the clogging of the sink is sometimes given as
1873. (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 84. p. 94.)
2Am. Jour. Sci., Vol. XXI, 1881, p. 298.





FL~oRIDA GEOLOGICAl. SURVF..


WEEKIWACHEE SPRING, IN HERNANDO COUNTY.


ALACHUA SINK, LOW WATER STAGE, 1891.


BULLFETIN NO. 1, PL. VI.




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY


essary to state that this method of drainage can not be
applied in areas of artesian flow or other sections in
which the static head of the water is such as to bring it to
or above the surface level. Many of the basins of the
interior have been carried down nearly to or quite to the
underground water level. Under these conditions, it is
obvious that they can not be drained by wells.
The possibility of drainage by wells is dependent, first
of all, upon the geological structure of the underlying for-
mation. If the water-conducting power of the formation
reached by the well is slight, a limit is thereby placed
upon the effectiveness of the well. Unless the flow at the
bottom of the well is free and ready, the in-take of water
is necessarily limited. Many of the wells entering the
limestone reach cavities or porous strata sufficiently open
to permit of very free movement of water in the rock,
either from or into the well. As a general statement, it
may be said that if the water level in a well is unaffected
by pumping it may be expected to carry water away rap-
idly; and conversely, if a well carries away water read-
ily it may be expected to supply large quantities to the
pump. The principle involved is the same, namely, the
free movement of water in the underground formations.
Assuming free movement of the water at the bottom of
the well, the rapidity of in-take and hence the efficiency of
the well is influenced by (a) size of well; (b) construction
of well; (c) depth of water above the mouth of the pipe;
(d) distance from the top of the pipe to the underground
water level.
(a) The capacity of a drain pipe increases rapidly
with increased diameter. The area of the section of the
pipe is proportionate to the square of the diameter. Thus
the area of the cross section of a 12-inch well is nine times
that of a 4-inch well. Moreover, for a given velocity the
friction of movement is less in a large than in a small
pipe.
(b) The construction of a well also affects its rapidity
of in-take. When the pipe is cut off squarely at the top
according to the usual custom, the full capacity of the
well i not realized. The rapidity of in-take may be ap-





r FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


preciably increased by the use of a flared or bell-shaped'
mouth at the top of the pipe.
(c) If the underground water level lies some distance
from the surface, and if there is free discharge at the bot-
tom 'of the well, siphonage or draft-tube action increases
the rate of flow. When the distance from the top of the
pipe to the underground Water level is 33 feet or over, the
maximum possible draft-tube head of 32.8 feet may be
available.
(d) The influence of the depth of Water above the
mouth of the pipe is as follows: Assuming that there is
free discharge at the bottom of the well, the in-take at the
mouth of the pipe will be proportionate to the square root
of the depth of the water above the mouth of the pipe.

DRAINAGE BY WELLS AT ORLANDO, FLORIDA.
The drainage of surface water through bored wells has
been used to great advantage by the citizens of Orlando,
Florida. A very considerable land area south and east
of Orlando, embracing possibly fourteen square miles, lies
in an irregular basin with many lakes, marshes, and
ponds. The overflow from this area originally drained to
and disappeared through a natural sink about one mile
east of the city. This sink became clogged in April, 1904.
Unsuccessful efforts were made to re-open this sink, first
by removing hyacinths accumulated around the opening,
and later by the use of dynamite. In the meantime, heavy
and continued rains formed a lake around the sink, over-
flowing the surrounding lands. In August, 1904, efforts
were made to dispose of the water through drainage wells.
The first well put down was a two-inch test well. The well
reached a porous stratum and was thought to justify the
expense of a larger and deeper well. Difficulty and delay
were experienced in the drilling, but by August. 1905, two
wells, one eight-inch and one tielve-inch, put down at the
side and near the original sink, had been completed. Two
other wells were started and abandoned owing to the dift-
culties in drilling. The two successful wells were run
ning at full capacity. It was thotight probable thlAt the
two wells already put down would prove sufficient. Heavy




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


rains followed, and by January, 1906, a considerable area,
including some cultivated ground, was flooded, practically
all county roads leading into Orlando were partly under
water and impassable. The colored settlement known as
Jonestown in the suburbs of Orlando was partly under
water and uninhabitable; the water was approaching the
city of Orlando itself and the situation was becoming
alarming. Levels taken by the county authorities indi-
cated that drainage through surface canals was impossi-
ble or impracticable. Two additional twelve-inch wells
were bored in November and December of 1906. The effect
of these .was evident at once, the lake beginning to fall.
By February a third twelve-inch well had been completed,
making in all one eight-inch well and four twelve-inch
wells running at this time. By the end of March the water
had returned practically to its normal level and has since
been kept under control.
Four of these drainage wells are located near the orig-
inal sink and have a uniform depth of 140 feet, a cavity
several feet in diameter having been reached at that depth.
The fifth well is located one-half mile west of the sink, and
terminates in a porous stratum at a depth of 340 feet.
The statement previously made regarding necessity of
avoiding contamination of streams entering sinks (p. 42)
applies with equal force to drainage wells. The drainage
from surrounding residences should not be permitted to
find its way to lakes and ponds thus drained.







DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE THROUGH BORED WELLS.

The question of disposal of sewage is at present seri-
ously confronting some of the rapidly growing inland
towns of Florida.. A difficulty in the application of meth-
ods ordinarily in use arises from the prevailing general
flatness of the country, together with the almost, or
locally complete, absence of surface streams. This diffi-
culty is felt scarcely at all by the residents of the country
districts and of the small villages. The soil is prevail-
ingly sandy and porous. Sewage in restricted quantities
is therefore very readily received and purified. With the
increased growth of the village, however, there results a
time when the amount of sewage is so considerable that
a sewerage system becomes a necessity.,
The disposal of sewage through bored wells has been
practiced to a limited extent at a few localities of inland
Florida for many years. The wells in use receive usually
the drainage from private dwellings, or the combined
drainage from two or three dwellings. Occasionally pub-
lic buildings, as the court house, city hall, hospital, and
hotels, are connected up with these wells. With the rapid
growth of the inland towns during the past few years, the
number of these private wells in the towns in which this
method is used, have been very greatly increased.
The principles and conditions which permit of disposal
of sewage through bored wells are precisely those already
explained in connection with drainage wells and natural
sink-holes. The sewage is conducted by means of the well
either to a cavity or to a porous stratum and is carried
away by the underground water circulation.
The depth of the wells intended for sewage is exceed-
ingly variable, in this respect resembling the water wells
of the same locality. Practically without exception they
reach and enter the artesian water supply. Extreme range
in depth is from 35 to 500 feet. In size the wells may vary
from two to twelve inches. A cemented cesspool is usually
provided, which in the more carefully constructed wells
is divided into two divisions. The first division receives
the solids; the second is for liquids only, and is separated




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


from the first by a screen. The drainage well leads from
the second division, the opening being guarded by a
screen.
The question of possible contamination of the water
supply through sewage wells is worthy of careful consid-
eration. As previously stated, most of these wells enter
the limestone and depend for efficiency upon reaching a
cavity or a porous layer in the limestone. Water for
drinking, household, and general purposes is in some
cases taken from the same limestone formation. Both
sewage and water wells are of variable depth. It is the
custom in the construction of both water and sewage
wells, however, to case the well only to the limestone, or
to the first hard stratum in the limestone. Under these
conditions a well may receive water from any or all depths
below the termination of the casing. The limestone is
traversed by solution cavities, and is for the most part, of
porous texture, thus permitting circulation of under-
ground water. The belief is often expressed that the cavi-
ties entered by these wells represent rapidly moving un-
derground streams, and that these quickly carry away any
and all refuse entering them. If this condition prevailed,
the case would be but slightly altered, since the rapid
removal of contaminated water from one locality would
merely endanger a neighboring locality that happened to
be on the course of the stream. The information obtained,
however, fails, as already stated (p. 34), to give evidence
of such rapidly moving streams. On the contrary, the
water apparently moves slowly through inter-connecting
solution cavities and through the porous rock.
Regarding the inter-connection of solution passages in
the limestone, Mr. M. L. Fuller states* that "The intimate
connection of the passages, making to all practical pur-
poses a network, has been brought out at several points in
this country by the experiments made for the United
States Geological Survey by S. W. McCallie at Quitman,
Georgia; by E. H. Sellards at Ocala, Florida, and by G.
*Bulletin Geological Society of America. Vol. XVIII., page 227,
1907.





FLNAIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


C. Matson at Georgetown, Kentucky, at each of which
localities salt inserted into sinks or borings found en-
trance into wells some distance away. In none of the in-
stances, however, was the movement direct from the point
of insertion to the well, for the salinity, instead of in-
creasing enormously, as it would have done if such had
been the case, showed only relatively moderate fluctua-
tions. The three limestones, although of widely different
types, showed the same phenomena in each case, suggest-
ing that it is a normal characteristic of this class of
rocks."
In addition to these direct tests, it has been found that
in the Florida limestone the water in the sewage wells
and that in the water wells of approximately equal depth
is under the same static head. This fact, while not o;f
itself proving inter-connecti6n, lends support to that con-
clusion.
The cesspools in use with most of the sewage wells serve
as septic tanks. The efficiency of the septic tank for re-
moving the greater part of the solids from sewage has
been abundantly demonstrated. It is also known that the
bacteria originally present in the sewage are also reduced
in number during the process of fermentation in the cess-
pool. It has not been shown, however, to what extent the
disease-producing bacteria, and particularly Bacillus ty-
phosus, the germ of typhoid fever, is reduced in this pro-
cess. On this point Professor L. P. Kinnicutt, head of
the Department of -Chemistry of the Worcester Polytech-
nic Institute, and Consulting Chemist of the Connecticut
Sewage Commission, stated that "very little work has
been done with reference to the effect of the septic tank
on bacterial life. The second report of the royal commis-
sion on sewage disposal of Great Britain quotes experi-
ments made in Manchester, England, showing that the
Bawillus coli conwnwis 'diminishes 'during the septic
period, and the same effect must be'felt by the similar and
more delicate bacteria such as that odf typhoid fever. Simi-
lar results are shown at Leeds. The witness's opinion was
that the septic tank reduces the number of B. coli and the





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


more delicate pathogenic germs, and that the total num-
ber of bacteria is diminished by 10 or 15 per cent.'"*
In addition to the reduction of disease germs which
may be assumed to take place in the receiving chambers in
use in connection with most of the sewage wells, it is
apparent that the quantity of water contained in the lime-
stone is large, and that the inter-connection between the
wells is indirect. The result is that polluted water intro-
duced through a sewage well is enormously diluted before
reaching a water well. One would scarcely maintain,
however, that partial reduction of the number of disease
germs, together with great dilution of sewage, is a suffi-
cient guarantee against the transmission of disease.
The sewage system which seems to have met with most
success in the inland towns is partial removal of solids by
means of the septic tank with subsequent further purifi-
cation of the liquids by air and sunlight. This method of
sewage purification is being used by Lake Oity in Colum-
bia County and by Gainesville in Alachua County.

*Digest of the testimony taken in the case of the State of Mis-
souri v. the State of Illinois on Pollution of Illinois and Missis-
sippi Rivers by Chicago Sewage. Water Supp. Paper, U. S. Geol.
Sur. No. 194, p. 285, 1907.






WATER ANALYSES.


Water analyses are made for the purpose of determin-
ing either the mineral constituents or the sanitary quality
of a water, or both. A mineral analysis differs from a
sanitary analysis both in the objects sought and in the
methods employed. The merits of a water for use in
boilers, laundries, and for general commercial and house-
hold purposes are determined by a mineral analysis. The
determination of the merits as well as the healthfulness
of a water for drinking purposes may require both a
mineral and a sanitary analysis.
When a quantitative mineral analysis is made, the
individual mineral constituents in solution in the water
are tested for and determined in the form of base and
acid elements. The results of the analysis are frequently
expressed by the analyst in the form.in which the ingre-
dients are supposed to exist combined in the water. The
combinations thus expressed, however, are based upon
theoretical considerations. Many chemists are of the
opinion that a more exact expression of results is secured
by listing separately the ingredients determined, without
attempting to express their probable combination. Of the
analyses which follow, some, including those made
especially for the Survey work, are expressed according
to the ingredients determined. Those obtained from
various sources are published as given by the analyst,
several of which are recorded according to the probable
combinations of the ingredients.
The interpretation of a mineral analysis is an essen-
tially different matter from the interpretation of a sani-
tary analysis. If the mineral analysis indicates a high
proportion of calcium and magnesium salts, the water is
recognized as a "hard" water, or a water requiring much
soap to produce a lather, and hence less satisfactory for
laundry and household purposes than a "soft" water.
Similarly the water may be found, on account of encrust-
ing, corroding, or other constituents present, unsatisfac-
tory for boiler use, while a high percentage of iron renders
the water unfit for certain manufacturing purposes. A






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


mineral analysis may also indicate the presence of con-
stituents either desirable or undesirable in a water intend-
ed for drinking purposes, and may have an indirect bear-
ing upon the sanitary quality of the water. Thus, if con.
ttamination from human habitation is reaching a well,
chlorine will be found to be relatively high. A high per-
centage of chlorine, however, does not necessarily imply
organic contamination, since chlorine may have been
taken in solution from the rocks through which the water
circulates, and hence not indicate contamination.
In,making a sanitary analysis the chemist determines
the amount of organic matter present, the nitrates, the
nitrites,- the albuminoid and free ammonia, the chlorine,
and usually thd total solids. Other mineral constituents
may or may not be tested for. An estimate of the number
of bacteria present is also frequently made. The conclu-
sions asto the fitness of the water for drinking purposes
are arrived at by indirect methods. The ingredients deter-
mined are not of themselves harmful, but are significant
as suggesting the possible presence or absence of disease
germs. In a sanitary analysis the local conditions sur-
rounding the well or spring from which the water comes
are important factors in an interpretation of the results.
The presence of organic matter, accompanied often by
ammonia, nitrates and nitrites, is ordinarily suspicious,
The number of bacteria present is of significance chiefly
from the fact that when non-disease producing bacteria
are numerous some of the disease producing forms are
likely also to occur.
The analyses which follow .are chiefly mineral analyses
andwere made for the purpose of determiningthe average
mineral character of the water of the different geological
formations of central Florida. A few of the analyses
listed, however, include a determination of the nitrates,
nitrites, free and albuminoid ammonia, while several
record the amount of organic and volatile matter pres-
ent in the water.




FLORID& GiOLOGICAL SURVEY.


SPRINGS.


a


Boulware Spring, Gainesville, Alachua County, Fla.
Analysis by H. Herzog, Jr., 1898.*

Ingredients (according to probable combination). Parts per
il. million.
Calcium carbonate............................... 34.81
Magnesium carbonate........................... 21.44
Sulphuric acid .. ..... .............. .......... none
Silica ................... ..... ................ 5.21
Alkaline chlorides (Chlorine 4.08).............. 8.63
Alumina ................... *. . .. ... .... ........3.71
Nitrates .............. ............... .. trace
Nitrites ................................. ....... none
Free ammonia ................................. .043
Albuminoid ammonia ......................... .0
Oxygen required to oxidize organic matter...... 1.45
Organic matter ............................... 2.97
Total solids ............... ......... .. ..... .. 76.80


Magnesia Spring, Hawthorne, Alachua County, Fla.
Analysis by W. Dickoie.*

Ingredients (according to probable combination). Parts per
million.
Calcium bicarbonate ........................ 110.1
Magnesium bicarbonate ........................ 33.6
Sodium bicarbonate ...................... 12.6
Silica ............... ........ ........ 7.7
Magnesium chloride ........................... 16.2
Sodium chloride ............................ 14.0
Potassium chloride ........................... .8
Lithium chloride ............................. trace
Ammonium .................... .......... trace
Phosphates and Sulphates...................... trace

195.0
Total solids ............... .... ................ . 241.5
Organic matter and loss on ignition............. 42.7

Inorganic nonvolatile ......................... 198.8

*As given in Water Supply Paper U. S. Geol. Sur. No, 102, 1904.





FLORIDA OLOLOGICAL SUIRlHY.


Iron Spring, Hawthorne, Fla. Analysis by W. Dickoie.*

Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Solid matter ............................... 51.3
Organic matter and loss in ignition ............ trace
Inorganic non-volatile ....................... 51.2
"The iron was originally present as ferrous carbonate, which
oxydizes by exposure to air and drops as ferric hydrate. In the
solution are left traces of alumina, ferrous oxide, potassium, sodi-
um, some calcium, magnesium as the predominant metal, and some
organic matter. The metals are in combination with chlorine and
carbonic acid. The reaction of the water is slightly acid (from
carbonic acid), but after boiling turns alkaline, indicating the
presence of carbonate of an alkali (soda) and that calcium and
magnesium are partly present as bicarbonates which precipitate
partly on boiling."

SSulphur Springs, Hawthorne, Fla. Analysis by W.
Dickoie.*

Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Total solid matter ........................ 273.6
Organic matter and loss in ignition........... 21.4
Total inorganic ............................ 252.2
"The sulphuretted hydrogen. in sample had already evap.
orated. Reaction acid: turns alkaline after the free carbonic
acid is driven out. Contains alkaline carbonates, calcium (pre-
dominant), magnesium (little), potassium, sodium, traces of iron
and alumina. Some of the calcium is present as carbonate, some
as chloride or nitrate. The acids in combination with the metals
are carbonic, chlorine, aitric, sulphuric (trace) and silicic."

Ford Spring, Melrose, Fla. Analysis by the State Chem-
ist of Florida (M. 569), 1906.

Total solids 48 parts per million.
Composed of calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, and
sodium chloride.


*As given in Water Supply Paper U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 102, '
p. 270, 1904.





72 PLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVBY.

Ichatucknee Springs, Columbia Co. Analysis for State
Survey by the State Ohemist, 1908.


Ca
Mi
Ct
Bi
Si
Cl
Si
V,


Ingredients. Parts per
million.
lcium oxide (CaO) ....................... 89.3
agnesium oxide (MgO) ...................... 9.7
irbonate (CO,) ....................... 2.6
Bicarbonate (HCO,) .................... 420.9
ulphate (SO ) ................ .. ... 9.5
chlorine (Cl ) ....................... 5.8
ilica (SiOa) ....................... 6.0
volatile matter ................................ 48.1
Total solids ................................. 211.6


White Sulphur Springs, Hamilton Co. Analysis by N.
A. Pratt.
Ingredients. Parts per'
million.
Lim e ............................. ............ 44.0\)
M agnesia ..................................... 8.51
Potash ............... ............. .......... 7.13
Soda ....................................... 18.20
Carbonic acid ........................ .... 44.18
Sulphuric acid ............ ...... .......... 17.02
Chlorine ............... ......... .. 12.24
Phosphoric acid with oxide of iron.............. trace
Silicic acid (soluble)............... ...... 14.40
Organic matter ............ ......................21.32

Total solids ............. .. ..... ........... 188.
Note.-In addition the water contains Free Gases, viz: Hy-
drogene sulphide, Carbonic acid, Oxygen, Nitrogen.
The constituents probably combined as follows:


Calcic carbonate or bicarb..................
Sodic carbonate .............................
Magnesia sulphate ..........................
Potassic chloride ............... ................
Sodic Chloride .................... ...........
Ferrous oxide (Phosphoric acid trace)........
Silicic acid (soluble) ......... ........ ........
Organic matter ......................... ...


80.50
20.91
25.53
11.32
11.23
1.40
14.40
21.32




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


Weekiwachee Spring, Hernando Co. Analysis by N. P.
Pratt. 1904.
Incrusting constituents. Parts per
million.
Carbonate of lime ........................... 119.78
Carbonate of magnesia ..................... 12.07
Sulphate of lime ............................. 4.65
Silica ........................................ 6.77
Peroxide of iron and alumina.......... .... trace
Non-incrusting constituents.
Magnesium chloride .......................... none
Magnesium sulphate .......................... 19.62
Calcium chloride .......... ..... ............ 6.54
Sodium chloride ................ ........ .......... 2.88
Sodium sulphate ............. .............. 11.97
Total solids by evaporation................. 227.84

Blue Spring, Levy Co. Analysis for the State Survey by
the State Chemist, 1907.
Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium oxide (CaO)........................ 49.0
Magnesium oxide (MgO) ...................... 10.60
Sulphate (SOt)..t ..........6. ...... ... 64.4
Chlorine (Cl )........................ 35.07
Silica (S10i) ......................... 5.70
Total solids ............... ................ 196.80

Blue Spring, Marion Co. Analysis for the State Survey
by the State Chemist, 1908.

Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium oxide (CaO ) ..................... 33.0
Magnesium oxide (MgO) .................. .. 8.7
Sulphate (SOT ) .................... 9.01
Chlorine (C ) ...................... 4.3
Silica (SiO2) ............... ...... 5.3:
Carbonate (CO3 ) .................... 3.60
Bicarbonate (HCOS) ..................... 115.9
Total solids ............... ? ............. 112.1
6GeoBul-1





fLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUBRVBY.


Salt or Perrian Springs, Marion Co. Analysis for the
State Survey by the State Chemist. 1907.


Ingredients.


Calcium oxide
Magnesium oxide
Sulphate
Chlorine
Silica


(CaO )
(MgO)
(SO )
(C )
(S10,)


Parts per
million.
322.00
156.90
295.50
1928.48
10.00

4908.00


Total solids .................................

Salt or Perrian Spring. Sample No. 2. 1907.


Calcium oxide
Magnesium oxide
Sulphate
Chlorine
Silica


(CaO )
(MgO)
(SO )4
(Cl )
(SIO%)


Total solids .............................


151.50
193.30
360.44
1238.97
30.00

5322.70


Salt or Perrian Spring. Sample No. 3. Analysis by A.'
W. Blair. 1901.

Hardness ......... ......... ............ 1491.24
Nitrates ........................................ none
Nitrites ...................... ............... none
Chlorine .......................................... 2840.
Free ammonia ................ ........ ... .. 0000
Albuminoid ammonia ...................... .265

Total solids .................................. 6073.

iSlver Springs, Marion Co. Analysis made by the U. S.
Geological Survey. 1907.

Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium ...................... ... .......... 78.
Magnesium ..................... ........ .... 9.2
Sodium and pottassium ..................... 9.8
Iron and alumina .............................. trace
Carbonate ............ .... ...... ... ..... ..... 0.0
Bicarbonate .................................... 219.


....... ........... .
. . . ... ........ .


I . . l.. ee..
.....................
.....................
.... ... .... ... ...


. ...... ..........

.. ... .... . ...
0 0 . e..ll .. . ...
.....................
... ... .. ... ... ..
..... .... ..... ....
.......... ..........





UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


Sulphate ....................... . .... 44.
Chlorine ................. ... .... . . .. . 7.7
N itrate ......................................... 0.20
Phosphate (P0' ) ..................... .. ,trace
Silica (8101) ............................ 18.

Total solids ........... ......... ......... .. 274.

Newland Springs, Suwannee Co. Analysis for the IState
Survey by the State Chemist. 1908.


Ingredients.


Calcium oxide
Magensium
Carbonate
Bicarbonate
Sulphate
Chlorine
Silica
Volatile matter


(CaO)
(MgO)
(CO,)
(HCO,)
(SOt )
(Cl
(SiOi)
(80 D


Total solids ...............................


Parts per
million.
90.0
19.0
22.8
284.8
12.8
3.9
27.5
34.6

238.6


Suwannee Sulphur Springs, Suwannee Co. Annlysis
made by C. H. Chandler, and C. E. Pellew. 1893.

Ingredients (according to probable combinations) Parts per
million.
Bicarbonate of lime.... ........ ............ 188.91
Bicarbonate of magnesia....................... 9.70
Bicarbonate of soda ............. .............. 18.47
Sulphate of lime....... ... ... ................ 80.46
Sulphate of potassa............................ 10.38
Chloride of sodium ........ ................... 10.62
Oxide of iron and alumina................... 2.69
Silica .... ........................... ......... 18.79
Organic and volatile matter................... 37.49

Total solid matter........................... 870.38


]


.......................


. . . .

.e . ... ........ .. .
.............. .. .. .
.............. ... ...
.......... . .. ........
. .. .. .. .. ..





FILORIDA GEOLOMZCAL SUR7IBY.


WBLLS.
Alachua Ice and Water Co., Alachua, Alachua Co.
Depth 216 feet; use, ice manufacture. Analysis by State
Chemist; (M 436, 1905.) Record p. 88, No. 1.
Total solids 320 parts per million, consisting of carbonate of
lime, sulphate of magnesia, and sodium chloride.


Oity Well, Gainesville,
use, city water supply.
State Chemist. Record p.


Alachua, Co.
Analysis for
88, No. 1908.


Depth 194 feet;
State Survey by


Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium oxide (CaO) ....................... 49.8
Magnesium oxide (MgO) ....................... 5.3
Sulphate (SO0) ...................... 5.5
Chlorine (Cl ) ............... ...... 10.6
Carbonate (COs) ........................ 7.2
Bicarbonate (HCO0) :...................... 255.5
Silica (SiO ) ....................... 3.8
Volatile m atter ................................. 24.3
Total solids ........... .......... ........ 139.6


Diamond Ice Oo., Gainesville, Alachua Oo.
feet; use, ice manufacture. Analysis by U.' S.
Survey. Record p. 88, No. 5. 1908.


Depth 316
GeologiCal


Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium (Ca) .......... ........ .. ...... 52.
Magnesium (Mg) .................. .'.... 11.
Sodium and Potassium (Na K) ....... ... .. 1
Iron and Alumina (Fe Al) .......... ... .... 0.02


Carbonate
Bicarbonatt
Sulphate
Chlorine
Nitrate
Phosphate
Slica
Total solid


(CO,) ............................ 0.00
(HCO;) ... ............. .. ...... 10.
(SOt) .................. ... ..... 8.1
(.l ) ........................... ... "9 3
(NO,) ........................... 2.2
(PO<) ........................... trace
(S10) ........................... 17.
ds ............................... 212.




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


B. F. Williamnson, Gainesville. Depth 276 feet; use,
manufacture. Analysis by H. Herzog, Jr. Record p. 88,
No. 7.
Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium oxide (CaO) (Calcic carbonate 126.05).. 78.61
Magnesium oxide (MgO) (Magnesic carb. 74.46).. 35.62
Iron and alumina oxides (FeAl)............... 1.70
Sodium oxide (Na) (Alkalies) ............... 3.86
Chlorine (Cl) (Na Cl 9.79) ..... ... .......... 5.93
Silica, (SiO,) ......... .. ............... ... ..... 31.90
Sulphuric anhydride (Calcic sulp. 19.23)........ 11.31
Hydrogen sulphide (HaS)..................... 1.72
Organic matter (loss in ignition except CO) .... 28.00
Mineral matter .......................... 168.93
Total solids ................................ 306.00

City Well, Lake City. Depth 400 feet; use, city well.
Analysis made by the U. S. Geologlen' Survey, 1907. Rec-
ord p. 88, No. 24.

Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium (Ca) ................. ............. 47.
Magnesium (Mg) ........................... 18.
Sodium and Potassium (Na K) ............... 14.
Iron and alumina (FeAl) ..... ........... 0.00
Carbonate (CO,) ... ......... ....... 11.
Bicarbonate (HC0 )................ ...... ... 215.
Sulphate (SO0) .... ........... ............. 10.
Chlorine (C1 ) ........................... 9.8
,Nitrate (NO,) ............................ 0.20
Silica (SiO.) ............................ 36.
Total solids ................................... 256.

Old City Well, Lake Oity. Depth 400 feet; use, formerly
used for city supply. Analysis made by the State Chemist
(M. 417, 1905). Record p. 88, No. 25.

Total solids 200 parts per million, consisting of carbonate of
lime, sulphate of magnesia, chloride of sodium and silica.





PLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


Pearson Oil Well, Crystal River, Citrus Co. Depth re-
ported about 1900 feet. Analysis made for State Survey
by State Chemist, 1907. Record p. 88, No. 11.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Calcium oxide (CaO)...................... 1385.0
Magnesium oxide (MgO) ...................... 480.6
Sulphate (SO ) ....................... 2684.0
Chlorine (Cl ) ........ ............. 903.9
Silica (SiO )) ................. ... 30.0
Total solids ........ ......................... 6474.0

Hoopes Brothers and Darlington, Brooksville, Her-
nando Co. Depth 226 feet. Use, sawmill purposes. Analysis
made by State Chemist, 1907. Record p. 90, No. 42.
Total solids 273 parts per million, consisting of calcic carbon-
ate, sodium chloride, and magnesium sulphate, set down according
to the relative preponderance. No organic matter present.

A. A. Thompson, Astor, Lake Co. Depth 82 feet; use,
hotel purposes. Analysis for the State Survey by the
State Chemist, 1907. Record p. 90, No. 51.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Calcium oxide (CaO)........................ 28.0
Magnesium oxide (MgO) ........................ 89.6
Sulphate (SO8) ........................ 107.5
Chlorine (Cl ) ........... ...... ... 801.9
Silica (S10)) ............... .. . 11.0
Tortal solids ..... .... .......... .... ...... 1793.0

Dibble and Earnest, Eustis, Lake Co. Depth 173 feet.
Use, domestic purposes. Analysis for the State Survey
by the State Chemist, 1907. Record p. 90, No. 52.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Calcium oxide (CaO)......................... 32.0
Magnesium oxide (MgO) .................... 6.88
Sulphate (SO .) ................ ..... 11.52
Chlorine (C1 ) ...................... 7.00
Ferric oxide (Fe20,) ................... 0.30
Silica (SiOa) ...................... 19.00
Volatile matter .............................. 9.00
'Total solids ................................... 123.00




UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


Leesburg Ice Co., Leeeburg. Depth 98 feet; use, city
supply. Analysis made by Fidelity & Casualty Co., N. Y.
Record p. 90, No. 56.


Ingredients. Part
Carbonate of lime ..............................
Sulphate of lime................... ...........
Sodium and Potassium sulphates...............
Nitrate of lime..............................
Sodium and Potassium chlorides................
Oxide of aluminum and iron.................
Total encrusting solids........................
Total non-encrusting solids.....................


s per mill.
85.91
trace
trace
5.62
34.97
3.18
129.02
41.17


Total solids ................................. 170.20

Otter Creek Lumber Co., Otter Creek, Levy Co. Depth
85 feet; use, sawmill purposes. Analysis by H. Herzog,
Jr., 1903. Record p. 92, No. 71.

Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Carbonate of lime .......................... 237.95
Carbonate of magnesium....................... 6.68
Chlorine ..................................... 6.00
Ferric oxide .................... ............. 7.88
Alumina ...................................... 1.88
Silica ....................................... 18.00
Organic m atter .............................. 37.88
M mineral matter .............................. 281.15

Total solids ........ ............. ............ 319.21

Williston Mfg. Co., Williston, Levy Co. Depth 60 feet;
use, ice manufacture. Analysis by Iroquois Mfg. Co. T. L.
Crowbaugh, Chemist, 1907. Record p. 92, No. 72.

Ingredients. Parts per mill
Carbonate and sulphate of lime............ 123.43
Magnesia .. ................................ 51.43
Sulphuric acid ............................ 152.58
Chlorine .............. ... ... ...... ...... 86.00
Oxide of iron and alumina .................. some
Silica ............... ........ ............. not determined

Total solids .................. .... .... 534.88










80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

S. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh, Marion Co. Depth 54 feet;
use, general purposes. Analysis by State Chemist,
(M 1006, 1908.) Record p. 92, No. 77.
Total solids 145 parts per million, consisting of sodium chlo-
ride, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulphate. Organic matter,
slight.

Ocala Water Co., Ocala, Marion Co. Depth 1250 feet;
use, city supply. Analysis U. S. Geological Survey, 1907.
Record p. 92, No. 79.
Ingredients. Parts per milL
Calcium (Ca) ............................... 151.
Magnesium (Mg) .............................. 25.
Sodium and Potassium (Na K).................. 18.
Iron (Fe) ................. ... ...... ... 0.02
Carbonate (CO3) ............................. 7.7
Bicarbonate (HCO,) ........................... 240.
Sulphate (SOS) .......................... 266.
Chlorine (Cl) .......................... 18.
Nitrate (NO3) .............................. 0.22
Phosphate (PO ) ........................... trace
Silica (SiOs) ..................... ... ... 21.
Total solids .................. ............ 659.

Ocala Water Co., Ocala, Marion Co. Depth 190 feet;
use, city reserve supply. Analysis for State Survey by
State Chemist. Record p. 92, No. 78.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Magnesium oxide (CaO) ...................... 17100)
Sulphate (MgO) ...................... 37.33
Chlorine (SOs) ..................... 179.40
Ferric oxide ( 1 ) ........................ 19.85
Volatile matter (Fe3OS) .................... absent
Alumina oxide (Al'r030) .................. 12.00
Silica (SiO ) ...................... 66.00
Non-Volatile matter ........................... 584.00
Total solids ............. ...... .... ...,. 652.00









UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


Public Well, Dade City, Pasco Co. Depth 53 feet; use,
public. Analysis by A. W. Blair. 1900. Record p. 92,
No. 83.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Hardness ......................... .... ... 98.26
Chlorine ..................................... 12.00
Nitrogen as nitrates .......................... 1.44
Nitrogen as nitrites............................ none
Free ammonia ............................... .. .000
Albuminoid ammonia ............................ .015

Total solids ....... .................. 147.

Muller and Zinsser, Dade City, Paseo Co. Depth 45
feet; use, ice manufacture. Analysis by U. S. Geological
Survey. Record p. 92, No. 84.
Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium (Ca) .............................. 58.
-Magneisum (Mg) ............................... 4.2
Sodium and Potassium (Na. K)................. .1
Iron and alumina (Fe Al).......... ....... trace
Carbonate (CO3) ............................... 0.0
Bicarbonate (HCO,) ............................. 191.
Sulphate (SOs) ......................... ..... 2.2
Chlorine (C1 ) .................... .......... .. 13.
Nitrate (NO) ................ ........... 0.66
Phosphate ((PO ) ........................... trace
Silica (Si0,) ............... .............. 20.
Total solids ............... ...... .........0 204.

Atlantic Coast Line R. R., Trilby, Pasco Co Depth 31
feet; use, boiler purposes. Analysis by U. 8. Geological
Survey, 1907. Record p. 92, No. 93.
Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium (Ca) ............................. 9.
Magnesium (Mg) .............................. 1.2
Sodium and Potassium (Na K).................... 6.8
Iron and alumina (Fe Al).................... 0.49
Carbonate (CO,) ............................ 0.0
Bicarbonate (HCOG) ............................. 113.


81









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


Sulphate (SOs) ............................... 2.8
Chlorine (Cl ) ............................. 5.4
Nitrate (NO') .............................. 1.6
Phosphate (PO) ............................. 2.0
Silica (SiO.) ........ .................... 16.

Total solids .............. .................. 136.

Oity Well, Live Oak, Suwannee Co. Depth 1080 feet;
use, city water supply. Analysis by the U. S. Geological
Survey, 1907. Record p. 94, No. 107.
Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium (Ca) ................................ 68.
Magnesium (Mg) .............................. 5.7
Sodium and Potassium (Na K).................... 7.2
Iron and alumina (Fe Al) ................. 0.04
Carbonate (CO3) ............................... 0.00
Bicarbonate (HCO3) ........................... 224.
Sulphate (SO)) ............................. 8.9
Chlorine (Cl ) ........................... 3.9
Nitrate A (NO )) ...... ............. ........ 0.6
Silica (SiO .) ........ ......... ........... 17.

Total solids ................................... 219.

R. L. Dowling, Live Oak, Suwannee Co. Depth 200 feet;
use, formerly used for sawmil purposes. Analysis taken
from Water Supply Paper U. S. Geol. Sur. No. 102. Ana-
lyst not given. Record p. 94, No. 108.
Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium carbonate ........................... 163.2
Lime, calcium sulphate ....................... 25.5
Magnesium carbonate .......................... 14.9
Na. & Potass. sulphates ......................... trace
Na. & Potass. chlorides......................... 17.2
Iron & Aluminum oxides ...................... 2.5
Silica ..... ................... .............. 12.9

Total solids ..................... ......... 237.2


02









UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.

WATER SUPPLY TABLES.

GENERAL WATER RESOURCES.


Alacl
Arch
Arre
Clarl
Dutt
Evin
Gain
Hagu
Hawi
High
Islan
Mica
Newl
Roch
Wald


ALACHUA COUNTY.

TW Topographic Principal Surface
TOWN. location, source water, formation.

hua ...... Rolling .. Wells .... Clays ....
er ....... Rolling .. Wells .... Some clays
donda .... Level .... Wells ... Some clays
k ........ Rolling .. Wells .... Some clays
on ....... Rolling .. Wells .... Some clays
ston ..... Hilly .... Wells ... Some clays
esville ... Rolling ... Wells . Clays ....
e ........Rolling .. Wells .... Clays ....
thorn .... Rolling .. Wells .... Clays ....
Springs.. Rolling .. Wells .... Some clays
d Grove.. Rolling .. Wells .... Some clays
nopy ....Rolling .. Wells .... Clays ....
berry .... Rolling .. Wells .... Sandy clay
elle ...... Level .... Wells .... Sandy clay
lo ....... Level .... Wells .... Clays ....

CITRUS COUNTY.


Depth
Principal deep'st
water beds. wells,
feet.


Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
Limestone.
Limestone
Limestone
Limestone.
Limestone
Limestone
Limestone.
Limestone
Limestone
Limestone


216


125


126
347


151
123


Limestone
Limestone 55


Crystal River.. Rolling
Floral City.... Rolling
Hernando .... Rolling
Holder ....... Rolling
Inverness .... Rolling
Lecanto ...... Rolling


.. Wells ..... Some clay Limestone 1900
...Wells .. Some clays Limestone
... Wells .... Some clays Limestone 153
... Wells .... Some clays Limestone 130
...Wells .. Clays .... Limestone 90
. .Wells .... Clays .... Limestone 125


COLUMBIA COUNTY.
Ft. White .... Rolling... Wells yso Limestone
Limestone
Lake City ... Level..... Wells .... Clays .... Limestone
Watertown ... Level..... Wells .... Clays .... Limestone
Winfield ... Lvel.... Wells .... Clays .... Limestone
HAMILTON COUNTY.

Jasper ....... Rolling... Wells .... Sandy clay Limestone
Jennings ..... Rolling.. Wells .... Some clays Limestone
West Lake.... Rolling... Wells .... Clays .... Limestone
White Springs Rolling... lls and Clays ... Limestone
spring.....l


*The principal water-bearing beds believed to occur but
actually reached by wells are placed in italics.


83


400

121


450



286

not


1









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


GENERAL WATER RESOURCES-Conftinued.

HERNANDO COUNTY.
Sft Depthr
Topographic Principal Surface Principal* deep'st
TOWN. location. source water, formation, water beds. well
S~ _____(feet).
Brooksville..... IjEilly... Wells .. IClays .. Limestone 226
Croom....... Rolling... Wells .... Some Clay Limestcone 70


LA.KF COUNTY.
Altoona...... .Level... Wells .... Clays...
Astor........ Level..... Wells .... Clawys...
Eustis...... Rolling... Wells .... Clays...
Grand Island. Rolling... Wells. .. Clays....
Leesburg...... Rplling... Wells .... Clys.....
Mount Dora... Hilly..... Wells .... Clays...
Okahumpka... Rolling... Wells .... Clays .
Sorrento.... Rolling... Wells .... Clays.....
Tavare...... Level... Wells ... Clays.....
Umatill".. ... Rolling... Wells .... Clays.....


Lineston ....
Limestone 123
Litmestone 13
Limestone g88
Limestone 290
Limestone 550
Limestone 180
Limestone 110
Limestone 103
Limestone
Limestone 60


LEWVY COUNTY.
Albion........ Rolling... Wells .... Some clays Limestone
Bronson.......Level..... Wells .... Clays..... Limestone
Cedar Key.... Hilly..... Wells ....
Ellzey....... .Level..... Wells ... lays .Limestone
Judson........ Rolling... Wells .....ome clays Limestone 100
Levyville ...e. Lvel.... Wells .... Some clays Limestone
Otter Creek... Level.. Wells ... Clays..... Limestone 90.
Williston ..... Rolling... Wells ...,. ome clay! Limestone 60

MARION COUNTY.


Anthony...... Rollng... Wells .... Some clays Limestone 106
Belleview..... Rolling... Wells .... Clays..... Limestqne
Boardman.... Rolling... Wells .... Clays..... Limestoae
Calvary...... Rolling... Wells .... Clays..... Limestone
Citra......... Rolling... Wells..... Clays..... Limestone
Dunnellon..... Level..... Wells.... Limestone Limestone 300
Early Bird.... Ro.ing... Wells..... Some clays Limestone
Eureka........ Level..... Wells..... Clays..... IAimestone
Ft. McQoy.... Rolling... Wells..... Clays..... Limestone
Juliette....... Rolling... vv e ls..... Clys..... Limestone 361
Martel..... ..Rolling... Wells..... Cjays......Limestone 72
*The principal water-bearing beds believed to occur but aot
actually reached by wells are placed in italics.


I


84










UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


GENERAL WATER RESOURCES--Unotined.

MARION COUNTY-Continued.
Ocala......... Rolling... Wells..... Cays..... Limestone 1250
Orange Spring. Level..... Wells..... Limestone
Reddick;..'... Rolling... Wells.... Clays....Limestone
Rock S.rings.. Rolling.., Wells.... Some clay Limestone 7-
Silver Spring. Level.... Wells..... Limestone. 507
Sparr ........ Rolling... Wells.... Some clay Limestone 132
PASCO COUNTY.
Dade City.....Rolling... Wells..... Clayi..... Limestone
Hudson..... Level..... Wells..... 0Clay.... Limestone
Lacoochee..... Roiing... Weis..... Some clay Ltkastone 90
Pasco........ Rolling.. .'Wells..., Some clay iAmestonue 270
Richland...... Rolling... Wells..... Some clays Limestone 90
San Antonio... Hilly..... Wells..... Clays. Limestone 168
St. Leo....... Hilly.W... Wells..... Clays... Limestone. 75
Trilby....... evel..... Wells. ... Clays..... Limestone 85
SUMTER COUNTY.
Center Hill.. Rolling... Wells. .. Some clays Limestone.
Coleman...... Rolling.... v ells.... Some clays Limestbie
.... Rolling... Wells...Some clays LImestone 110
anasoffkee... Level.... Wells..... Some clays L .estohe
Sumterville... Rolling... Wells..... Some clays Limestone
Webster.... :.Level..... Wlls...8 Some clays LIfiestone
Wildwood..... ILvel.... Wells.... G ome elay itL~, iesee
SUWANNEE COUNTY.


Branford..... Rolling...
DowUng Park. Rolling...
Falmouth... Rolling..
Live Oak..,... Rolling.,,
Luraville..... Rolling...
O'Brien....... Rolling...
Pinemount.... Rolling...
Suwannee..... Rolling...
Welborn ....... Rolling...


Wells....C ays..... Limestone
Wels .... Clays.... limestone
Wells...... Clays..... Limestone
Wells. C!.as,.... Limestone
Wells..... Clays .... Limestone
Wells..... Clays.... Limestone
Wells..... Clays..... Limestone
Wells..... Clays .... Limestone
Wells.... Clays.... Limestone


60
100
96
1080
106

108

" 63


*The principal water-bearing beds believed to occur but not
actually reached by wells are placed in italics.


85











SFLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


SPRINGS.
*


County. or Postoffice.


Alachua..
Alachua..
Alachua..
Alachua..
Citrus...
Citrus....
Columbia.
Hamilton.
Hernando.
Hernando.
Lake.....
Lake.....
Levy.....
Levy. ...
Levy.....
Levy.....
Marion...
Marion...
Marion...
Sumter...
Suwannee
Suwannee


Direction
and
Distance.


Gainesville.. 2 mi. se.
Hawthorn... 4 mi. sw.
High Sp'gs...3 mi.w..
Melrose ..... mi. se..
Crystal Rvr.. a mi s...
Homosassa.. 7 mi. s...
Ft. White... 6 mi. nw.
White Sp'gs. Near....
Bay Port,... 8 mi. sLe..
Bay Port.... 2 mi.ne.
Okahumpka. i mi. n..
Sorrento.... 2j m. ne
Bronson..... 31 mi.Iw.
Otter Creek. .......


Name of Spring.


Boulware.........
Magnesia........
Poe ............
Ford Spg ........
Crystal River.....
Chesehouiska.....
Ichatucknee.......
White Sul. Spgs...
Weekiwachee Spgs
Sulphur..;........
Bug.,...........
Seminole..........
Blue;............
Wekiva........


Otter Creek. 110 mi. e. .Sulphur.........


Levyville....
Juliette......
Norwalk.....
Silver Spring
Sumterville..
Suwannee...
Falmouth....


12 mi. w.
Near....
3 mi.w..
Near,...
mi. n..
1mi. ne.
Near....


Manatee...........
Blue........ ... .
Salt............ .
Silver Spring......
Branch Mill Spg...
5uwannee Sulphur
Newland..........


The measurement of flow of Ichtucknee, Silver, Blue, al
recorded in Water Supply Papers U. S. Geol. Survey No. 10 aj
mated by B. F. Miller. The flow of the remaining springs is bst


SPRINGS


Flow.
Gals. Topograpthi
per SurroundltU.
Min. -

175 Sandy upleals.
2,500 Swampy.......
44,760 Hammock.....
.....Lo. w hammock.
200,000 Swampy..,.. -
......o .............""
180,000 Hammock......
32,400 Bank of river.
100,000 Sandy scrub....
...... Swampy.
1,500 Sandy.......
25,200 Sandy.........
25,000 Swampy ba
35,395 Pine woods.....
5,000 Swampy ........
...... Rolling.........
349,166 Rolling.........
84,000 Rolling...... ..
368,913 Level...........
21,759 Rolling, rreky..
19,747 Rolling h
75,000 Rolling.........


- -


I


ff


~--------------------------------- -










UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY. 87

SPRINGS.


Character of
Use of Spring. Owner of Spring. Water of Nature of Stream.

City supply City ................ Partly soft.... Enters branch.
Drinking... R. C. Brown........ Some sulphur. Small.
Bathing.... ..................... .............. Flows into Santa Fe.
Drinking... ............. .Some sulphur. Flows into Melrose Lake
Ice mfg.... Navigable water.... Hard, clear... Head of Crystal River.
Not used...................... Hard, clear... Hed of ChesehouskaRiv
Not used.................... Hard, clear. Head Ichatucknee River.
Resort..... M. M. Jackson...... Sulphur. ... Enters Suwannee River.
Not used... Wilder & McClure.. Hard, clear... Head Weekiwaehee River
Not used... S. V. Varn.......... Sulphur.......
Not used... .................... Hard, clear... ......................
Not used..s Wilson Cypress Co.. Partly hard... Stream to Lake Harris.
Not-wed... W. R. Colter ...... Hard, clear... Small stream.
Not uged... W. R. Colter....... Hard, clear... Head Wekiva River.
Not used:. Cummer Lbr. Co.... Sulphur... Small team.
Not used. .................... Hard, clear... Enters Suwannee River.
Noused.. .................... Hard, clear... Head Wekiva Creek.
Resort..... W. C. Townsend.... Sane.... Enters Lake George.
Resort... .... ................ Hard, clear... Head Silver Springs Run
Mill dam.. D. S. Belton....... Hard, clear .. Small stream.
Resort..... Suwannee Spgs. Co. Sulphur....... Enters Suwannee River.
Not used...IDavis.............. Hard, clear.

Suwannee Sulphur Springs were made by M. R. Hall, and are
No. 204. The flow of Boulware Spring at Gainesville was esti-
Supon estimates made by the State Survey.










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


WELLS.

ALACHUA


N earest Town Direction
or P. 0. and
Distance.

Alachua.... mi. s...
Alachua..... mi. s...
Archer...... Near.....
Clyatt....... ........
Gainesville... 2 mi. se...
Gaaiesville... 3 blks. nw
Gainesville. .. 1 mi.n...
Micanopy.... i mi. n....
Newberry.... Near.....
Rochelle..... Near....


Owner of Well.

Alachua Ice Co....
F. E. Williams......
S. A. L...........
F. H. Clyatt........
City...............
Diamond Ice Co.....
B. F. Williamson...
C. E. Melton.......
C. D. May... .......
A. C. L...........


Driller.

W. F. Hamilton....
S. W. Young..... ..
J. Hancock.........
H. D. Lewis........
J. D. Allen.
W. F. Hamilton .....
J. D. Allen.........
Dibble & Earnest.,.
G. W. Livingston...
. .................


CITRVB
11 Crystal River. 2 mi. n.. Pearson Oil' Co.....................
12 Floral City.. I Mi. w... Bradley Phos. Co.... A. C. Johnson. !....
13 Floral City... 1 mi. w.. Bradley Phos. Co.... A. C. Johnson......
14 Floral City... mi. ne.. 1). A. ooke........ D. A. Tooke.......
15 erThando.... mi.. Duntnellon Phos.Co.. Mclver McKay.....
16 H~rnandb.... 1 mi. nw:. Dutton Phos. C.... J. Edson.........
17 4Holder....... 14 mi. ne. Buttgenbach P. Co... J. O. Edson.......
18 Holder...... 2 mi. e.... 0 ttgenbach P. Co... J. 0. Edson.........
ibinverness.... i mi. tW.. Mttial Min. Co..... J. O. Edson.........
20 Lecanto...... 1 mi. n....W. A. Allen........ Owner..............

COLUMBIA
21 Bass......... Near..... E. M. Curington.... C. M. Ray..........
22 Brown...... Near..... W. H. Allen....... C. M. Ray........
23 Ft. White.... M. E. Parsonage..... C. M. Ray.........
24 Lake City.... m mi. n.... City................ W. F. Hamilton....
25 Lake City. ... Near..... City........... ...................
26 Lake City.... 2 mi. w... J. A. Coombs...... C. M. Ray..........
27 Lake City.... 10 mi. e... H. W. Lamb........ C. M. Ray.........
28 Winfield..... i mi. s.... J. L. Roberts...... E. H. McIlvane......
29 Winfield..... D. G. Rivers....... C. M. Ray .........
30 Winfleld.... 2 mi. w... Union Church...... C. M. Ray..........

HAMILTON
31 Jasper....... 1 mi. s... Frank Bamberg..... R. F. Conine........
32 Jasper...... 6 mi: w:. Jim Bird............R. F. Conine........
33 Jasper....... Near..... City Power Co...... Hugh Partridge.....


No,

1
2

S4

6
S7
S8
9
10


88










UNDJlB9GBOUND WATEB SUPPLY.


WaILLs.

COUNTY.


.3


160
150
110
....
....


.. V

80
100
..82
176
180

76
80


ai


T5




76
76
77


-106
- 58t
- 40
- 32
- 31.32
- 121
-128
- 38
- 40
- 10


Use of Well.


Ice mfg..........
Household.......
General..........
Irrigation......
City supply,.....
Lee mfg.........
Mfg. supply......
Saw mill........
Household.......
Boiler use.......


Mineral
Character
of Water.

Hard ......
Hard ......
Hard .....
Hard ......
Hard .....
Hard ......
Hard .....
Hard ......
Hard .....
Hard ....


N o.


2
3
4
5
6
7
&
9
10


COUNTY.

1900 ..... .... Flows .... 78 11
140 8 50 .... 35 Phosphate mining Hard sulph'r 12
130 2 125 .... 40 Drinking Hard ...... 13
73 2 73 ....- 36 Geheral.........Hard ...... 14
152 12 70 70 50 Phosphate mining Hard 15
142 10 .... 65 35 Phosphate mining Hard sulph'r 16
1001 12 42 .... 45 Phosphate mining Hard ...... 17
145 12 72 .... 54 Phosphate mining Hard ...... 18
1271 10 441 75 47 Phosphate minin R Hard ...... 19
97 2 97 .... I- 89 Household....... Hard ...... 20
COUNTY.

75 2 .... 1881- 60 General........ Har .... 21-
6 2 51 106 5 General........ Hard ...... 22
68 2 2 ....-- 61 Household....... Hard ..... 23
400' 10 100 2001-134 City supply.. Hard sulph'r 77 24
400 .... ...... 1-120 City supply..... Hard ..... 77 25;
122 2 122 .... -ll1) General......... Hard ...... 26
134 2 134 .... -128 General........ Hard ...... 27
121 2 115 1151- 70 General.......... Hard ...... 28
108 2 .... 126 60 General.......... Hard ...... 29
S92 2 80 .... 85 Gpneral.........Hard ..... 30
COUNTY.


Household.. ....Hard .
Household....... Hard ......
City supply...... Sulphur ...


I 31
32
33


k~j
~,C1
aZI
ciS~'
~1
~35:


6
2
2
3
12
8
8
6
2
6


,216
60
61
62
194
316
276
151
113
225


11 2 .. .. .... 60
104 2 .... 70
450 8 .... .... -
7GeolBul-1


i


W LLS.
cou .


R% 4 h I Ob a


-- -








SFWRIDA GIROLOGICAL SURVZt.


WELLS-Continued.

HAMILTON

Nearest Tewn Direction
N o. or P.O. and Owner of Well. Driller.
Distance.

34 Marion..... S. Hall............ Henry Ratcliff.....
35 White Springs Near..... Dr. B. F. Camp ....
36 White Springs 1 mi. nw.. Camp Lbr. o........ Owner.............
37 WhiteSprings N. Adams .......... C. M. Ray.......
38 White Springs i mi. n... G. S. Mobley..... .. C. T: Lowe........
39 WhiteSprings Near. ,... J. M. Morgan....... C. T Lowe..........
40 White Springs Imi. se. .. W: B. Telford.... .. E. H. McIlvae.....

HERNANDO
41 Brooksville. mi. s.... Brooks. Ice Co....... D. Allen..........
42 Brooksville.. 4 mi. s.... Hoopes Bros. & Dar.. J. D. Allen..........
43 Brooksville.. 4 mi. n.... W. A. Fulton...... 1J. D. Allen......
44 Brooksville.. 4 mi. n... W. A. Fulton....... J. D. Allen .........
45 Brooksville.. mi. e... Mercer-Muller Lbr. c J. D. Allen........
46 Brooksville. .2 mi. e.... Pole & Tie Co....... J. D. Allen.........
47 Brooksville 2-5 mi. e.. L. B. Varn......... J. D. Allen..........
48 Croom....... Near. .... IA. C. L........ ... J. D. Allen.......
49 Istachatta... 3 mi. w... W. A. Fulton........ J. D. Allen......
50 Rural... ....... J. J. McDonough... J. D. Allen.........

LAKE
51 Astor .. .. Near ... A. A. Thompson.... S. H. Hoagland.....
52 Eustis..... 7 blks. se.. Dibble & Earnest.... Dibble & Earnest....
53 Grand Island Near..... Fla. Fertilizer Co.... Dibble & Earnest....
54 Leesburg.... Near..... City ................ Padgett..........
55 Leesburg... 2 mi. w... J. T. Egbert..... John Heaton........
56 Leesburg mi. s.. Leesburg ice Co...... Johr Heaton........
57 Mt. Dora.. .' mi. nlW. S. M. Weld .......... Dibble & Earnest....
.58 Sorrento..... l1 mi. se. L. B. Jones ... .Owner..........
59 Tavares...... i mi. e... Osceola Hotel....... Sears............
60 Whitney..... m mi. w... Z. Spinks.........J. Heaton...........

LEVY
61Albion ... J. Medlin........... Jas. Hancock...
612 Cedar Key... Near..... Cedar Key Town Co.. Owner.o............
C3 Double Sink. Near .... Public School....... James Hancock....
64 Ellzey....... 5 mi. n.... T. W. Shands & Co... James Hancock....
65 Lebanon.... 1 mi. nw Tom King.......... E. L. Freyermeuth..


90










UNDERGROUND WATER SUPtQY.


CC
CC
-,0i


1261
128


40...




40...
40 . .


WELrs-Con.tiniued.

COUNTY--CO ntmiued.


Si Mineral
a Use of Well. character
of water.

60 Hard ......
- 30 Ho-usehold....... Hard sulph'r
- 50 wmill......... Hard sulph'r
- 77 Household....... Hard ....
-35 Household....... Hard ....
- 40 General........ Hard ....
- 11 Hotel purposes... Sulphur ....

COUNTY.
-103 Ice mfg.......... Hard ....
-108 Sawmill purposes Hard .
- 8to 10 Drainage......... Hard. .....
....... Draiiage........ Hard .....
.Sawmill......... Hard...
- 60 General.......... Hard .
-126 'fousehold...... Hard...
16 R. R. boiler use.. Hard ......
- 8 Phosphate mining Hard .
-20 Hard


COUNTY.
751 151+'14 Hotel..........
134 .... 62 Domestic...... .
107 ......... ... General........
18 public ..........
84 .... 16 Irrigation........
95 87 20 General..........
114 .... 60 Icemfg. City sup'y
67 .. 70 Household.......
124 66 ....... Hotel............
240 .... 11 Brick plant......


Hard sulph'r
Part soft...
Soft .....
Hard ......
Hard .....
Hard ...
Hard .....
Part hard ..
Part soft ...
Hard ......


.

100
2



40


78


79


79


51
52
53
64
55
56
57
58
59
60


COUNTY.
60 2 .... 45 Hard ...... 61
865 .... .... 6 11 Abandoned....... Brackish .. 1 62
52 2 36 Drinking....... Hard ... 63
63 2 .... .. 10 Turpentine still. Hard ...... 64
90 2 401 .... 9 Sawmill purposes Hard ...... 65


2
2"

8
2
2
2
. 8 ..


160
160
150
80
157
126
208


110
79
50
50
80


150 8
226 8
200 10
219 10
80 4
125 6
176 6
75 8
140 10
120 8


82[ 3
1731 5
186 51
550 2
175 4
98 4
180 6
103 2
124 2
243 3


__


I f


M.1N o.


S34
S35
36
37






41
I 38
39





78 42

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50





~i_


91


----









92 W PIPA G GEO..01CAL SURVEY.


WELLS 'Contzinuetd.


LEVY

Nearest Town Dieection
No. or P. 0 and Owner of Well. Driller.
Distance.

66 Levyville.... Near..... G. Carter........... Owner...........
67 Montbrook... S. Blitch............ James Hancock.....
68 Morriston.... P. King........... James Hancock.....
69 Morriston.... A. C. L. R. R........ James Hancock....
70 Otter Creek.. 8 mi. e. .. Fisher & Shands.... James Hancock....
71 Otter Creek.. Near..... OtterCreek Lbr.Co...
72 Williston.... Near..,...Williston Mfg. Co... John Acre.........

MARION
73 Dunnellon... Near.... C ............... J. D. Allen.........
74 Juliette...... 21 mi. nw. Dutton Phos. Co.... Hughes Spec.Co ..
75 Leroy........Near Public............... L. Freyermeuth..
76 McIntosh.... Near..... W. E.-Allen........ Furgeson...........
77 McIntosh.... Near..... S. H. Gaitskill...... Furgeson.........
78 Ocala........ 4 blks. se. Ocala Water Co.........................
-79 Ocala......... 4 blks. se. Ocala Water Co.... F. Joyce. ..... .,
80 Ocala........ mi. n... Ocala Ioe & Pack. Co W. F. Hamilton.....
!Rock Springs Near..... Meffert & Maynard.. E.L.Freyermeuth....
82 Silver Springs i mi. e... E.P.W.Rentz Lbr.Co.. H. F. Lloyd ........

PASCO
83 DadeCity.... Near.... City................ W. A. Sparkman...
84 Dade City... j mi. ee... Muller & Zinzser.... W. A. Sparkman....
85 Fivay....... Near..... Aripeka Sawmill.... J. D. Allen........
861 ivay....... Near ... Aripeka Sawmill.... J. D. Allen........
87 Odessa. ..... Near..... Gulf Pine Co......... T. J. ZimmermaA....
88 Pasadena.... Near.... The Spencer Well.... N. C. Bryant....
89 Port Richey.. 4 mi. n... Stbbbs Bros. & Co... J. D. Allen....
90 Richland.... Near.... A. C. L. R. R........ J. D. Allen .........
P1 San Antoni9. 5 mi sw... J. S. Flanagan...... W. A. Sparkman.....
92 St. Leo....... Near.... Dr. J. F Corrfgan... Owner...........
_93 Trilby..."... Near..... A. C. L. R. R....... W. A. J. Prescott.,.

SUMMER


94 Center Hill. i Near..... F. D. Smith ..... J. H. Robbins.......
95 Center Hill... Near..... Venable & Harkness. J. H. Robbins.....
96jOxford....... I mi. riw.. H. O. Collier........ E.L.Freyermeuth...
S917 Oxford...... .Near..... J. F. Yavine........ E.L.Freyermeuth...


92










9g


UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


WELLS--Continued

COUNTY-c"Contiued.


o o
ca


Use of Well.


Mineral
character N o.
of water.
z<.


28 2 28 .... -11 Gneral ........ 66
52 2 42 ....-23 Hard ...... 67
43 2 40.... 16 Hard ..... 68
90 5 40 ..- 18 R. R. boiler use.. Hard ....... 69
80 2 79 .... -7 to 8 Turpentinestill.. Hard ...... 70
85 4 .... 29 8 Sawmill........ Hard ...... 79 71
60 4 22j..... -- 20 ice mfg..........Hard ...... 79 72
COUNTY.

155 6 90 500- 20 City bupply...... Hard ...... 7
796 14 280 90 54 Phosphate miiing Hard ...... 74
46 2 .... 85 --- 42 Public........... Hard ...... 75
65 2 50 77 40 Domestic........ 76
54 2 45 65- 27 Domestic........ Hard ...... 80 77
190 12 .... .... 72 City supply..... Hard ...... 80 78
1250 8 1.... 1001-70 City supply...... Hard sulph'r 80 79
172 42 172 651- 21 .ce mfg.......... Hard ...... 80
78 2j 78 701- 30 Sawmill and still. Hard ..... u 1
507 2 .... 451- 5 Sawmill purposes Hard sulph'rI 82
COUNTY.
1 IIo of


53 2 50
45 6 45
96 6 40
120 6 40O
104 4 351
3001| 8 1701
147 6 30
90 8 ....
85 5 82
75 3 71
31 10 19


... 35
88 17
.... -, 6
.... 8
57 11
.... 86
. .. 14
93 30
.... 80
191 32
29- 5


Public ...........
Ice mfg..........
Sawmill purposes
Sawmill purposes
Sawmill purposes


Turp. still supply
R. R. boiler use.
Irrigation ........
Domestic........
R. R. boiler use..


Hard
Hard
Hard
Hard
Hard
Hard
Hard
Partly
Hard
Hard
Hard


COUNTY.


84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93


'

,
~



Irard ,





81









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


WvE LLS-Con tinued.

SUMMER

No. Nearest Town Directi.n
or PN a n. and Owner of Well. Driller.
Distance.


98 Oxford ...... 1 mi. s.... S. Reese.........
99 Oxford....... Near..... Sunset Crate&Lbr.Co
100 Sumterville.. Near ..... City.... ...........
101 Sumterville.. 24 mi. s.. PcarFon Oil Co.....
102 Webster .... Near..... J. W. Fussell.......
103T Webster. .. .. mi. w... W B. Kimbrough...

SUWANNEE


104 Branford..... Near.....
105 Dowling Park Near....
106 Falmouth.... mi. sw..
107 Live Oak..... 4 blks. s..
108 Live Oak..... 1 mi. nw..
109 Live Oak..... 9 mi. nw..
110 Live Oak..... 74 mi. nw
111 Luraville.....1 mi. n...
112 Pinemount... Near.....
113 Welborn.....i. 7 mi. s...


E.L.Freyermeuth...
W. F. Hamilton.....
B. F. Smith........

C. L. Eaddy.......
J. H. Robbins .....


Vernan Ginning Co.. W. A. Gaston.......
H. J. Cannon........ P. W. Warren...
F. W. Millinor & Co.. W. B. Hicks........
City............. ........ ... ........
R. L. Dowling... .. .............
W. R. Jenkins...... W. B. Hicks ....
W. A. Nobles......... ucker..........
Neutral Mining Co... S. W. Young..
F. M. Green........ H. Clanton.........
W. B. Howell....... C. M. Ray........


PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES.

l Relation Standpipe
COUNTY. TOWN. Source. Ownership. ( to Town. capacity.
No. Diam. Depth
Alachua.. Gain'sville Well, spg. Public.... 1 12 194 90 ft. lower none
Columbia. Lake City Well... Public... 1 10 400 samfn level none

Hamilton. Jasper.... Well... Private... 1 8 450 same level 50,000
Lake..... Leesburg. Wells.. Private... .3 4 98 same level 20,000
to
24 101
Marion... Dunnellon Well... Public.... 1 8 155 same level 40,000
Marion... Ocala.:.. Wells.. Private... 2 12 190 same level 112,000

8 1250
Suwannee Live Oak. Well... Public.... 1 6 1080 same level 85,000
_0


94










UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


WELLS-Contimnued.

COUNTY--Cntinued.

^ S i
4 8 'C Mineral
Use of Well. Chra N.
Character No.
&S 5 0 Z- <1
92 4 ... 771- 314 Irrigation........ Hard ...... 98
74 4 .... 100 55 Gen. mill purpose Hard ..... 90
86 1 .... ....- 21 General.......... Hard ...... 100
2002 10 .. ... 5 Hard sulph'r 101
132 2 130 .... 8 General.......... Hard ...... 102
50 4 30 89- 5 Irrigation........ Hard ...... 103
COUNTY.
60 2 45 43-- 25 Ginning purposes Hard ...... 104
914 2 91J .... 25 Livery stable..... Sulphur ... 105
84 3 60 ..- 65 Turpentine still.. Hard ...... 1106
1080 6 .... 110- 50 City supply...... Hard ...... 821107
200 6 ... ... -44 Sawmill......... Hard ...... 82 108
70 2 67 .... 60 Sawmill purposes Hard ...... 109
981 2 85 .... 63 General.......... Hard ..... 110
95 8 47 .... 32 riaosphate mining Hard ...... 111
871 2 87....- 73 Mill purposes.... Hard ...... 112
80 2 70 ....- 68 Household....... Hard ...... 113

PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES.


,V1 ~ g Character of Water. Sewage Disposal. Notes an
S" ___ ___________Analyses.
..... 92 11 Hard, soft....... Septic tank ............... P. 70, 76
... ... 6 to 8 Hard, slightly
1 sulphur......... Septic tank ........ ...... P. 77
50 10 1 Sulphur, hard.... No sewage system..........
60 12 21 Medium hard..... No sewage system........... P. 79


80 91 9 Hard............ No sewage system.........
30 5 2 Hard............. Bored wells: and cesspools... P. 92

383 1 37 5 Bored wells and cesspools... P. 82


95