Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida ( FGS : Bulletin 3 )

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Material Information

Title:
Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida ( FGS : Bulletin 3 )
Series Title:
Bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 3
Physical Description:
185, <3> p. : ill., plates ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Mansfield, Wendell C. ( Wendell Clay ), 1874-1939
Florida Geological Survey
Donor:
unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1930

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Miocene   ( lcsh )
Gastropoda, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Scaphopoda, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
At head of title: Florida State Geological Survey. Herman Gunter, state geologist.
General Note:
Published with the permission of the director of the U.S. Geological survey.
General Note:
Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.C. Mansfield of the United States Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1615
notis - AKV0265
alephbibnum - 002110793
oclc - 01562807
lccn - gs 30000162
System ID:
UF00000437:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Front Matter
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text








FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist






BULLETIN No. 3






MIOCENE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS OF

THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE FORMATION

OF FLORIDA






BY
W. C. MANSFIELD
OF THE
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1930



















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida.
SIR:
I have the honor to submit herewith for publication as Bulletin
No. 3, of the Florida State Geological Survey, a report entitled
"Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee Forma-
tion" by Dr. W. C. Mansfield, of the United States Geological Survey.
This report is a contribution from the Federal Survey without ex-
pense to the Florida Survey other than that of publication. It will
form an important addition to the detailed knowledge of the fauna
of the Choctawhatchee formation which is so well exposed in western
Florida. It is anticipated that another paper will follow dealing with
the pelecypods of this formation, thus giving to the Choctawhatchee
very complete treatment. The Florida Geological Survey is fortunate
in being the recipient of this generous co-operation.
Respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.
Tallahassee, Florida,
January 1, 1930.


[3]













CONTENTS



PAGE
In trodu action .......................................................................................................................... 13
Historical review .............................................................. 14
Divisions of the Choctawhatchee formation ....................... ........................... 15
Arca zone ......................................... ............................ 15
Typical exposure ........................ .............................................................. 15
F au n a ........................... ................................................... 15
E cph ora zone ......................................................................... ................................. 15
T typical exp osu re ....................................................................... ..................... 15
F au n a ................................................................................... .............................. 15
Distribution and correlation ............... ... ............................... 16
C an cellaria zone ................................................. ................................................... 16
T typical exposure ....................................................................... ..................... 16
F au na .......................... .......................................................... ............................ 17
D distribution and correlation ............................................. ......................... 17
L ist of station s ..................................................................................................................... 18
List and distribution of species ....... ........... .............................. 20
D descriptions of species ............................................................................ .................... 25
A cteonidae .......................... ................................................................................ 25
A cteon vaughani ......................... ............................................................. 25
A cteocinidae ........................... ...................................................... 26
Acteocina canaliculata ............... ... ..... ...................... 26
A cteocina coensis ............................................. ..................... 26
Sulcularia sulcata harveyensis .................. .......................... 27
Cylichnella jacksonensis ................ ... ..... ........................ 28
Volvula oxytata hosfordensis ..................................................... 28
R ingiculidae .............................................. ........................................................ 29
Ringicula (floridana var.?) guppyi .......................... .......................... 29
Ringicula (floridana var.?) guppyi (more typical) ............................... 29
Bullariidae ........ ...................................................................... 30
Bullaria species ................................. o ........... .............. .............................. 30
Terebridae .. oo ....... ................................ .............. 30
Myurella binodosa ......................................................... 30
M yurella dislocata ..................... ............................................ ..................... 31
M yurella dislocata indenta ........................................... o ..... ....................... 31
M yurella protexta? .............................................................. ................. 31
C on id ae ...................................................... ............... .................. .. .............. .......... 32
Conus adversaries ............................... ..................................................... 32
C onus floridanus ............................................................... ....... ...................... 32
Conus testudinarius leonensis ................. .. ......................... 32

[5]









6 CONTENTS

PAGE
Conidae-(Continued).
Conus harveyensis ............................................................. 33
T u rritidae ................................. ................................................................................ 33
Cym atosyrinx lunata .......................................................... .......................... 33
Cymatosyrinx lunata aepytuberculata ...................................................... 34
Cymatosyrinx lunata porrecta .................................................................... 34
Cymatosyrinx propeaepynota ....................... ............................ 35
Cymatosyrinx propeaepynota libertiensis ................................................ 35
Cymatosyrinx sp. aff. C. eburnea ................................. ............................. 36
Cymatosyrinx, species indeterminable .............................................. 36
Clathrodrillia? emmonsi ........................................................................ 36
Clathrodrillia? emmonsi hosfordensis ............................................................ 37
Clathrodrillia? anteaphanitoma .................................. ........................... 37
Clathrodrillia? gracilina ................................ ................................... 38
Clathrodrillia? podagrina ............................................................................... 39
Crassispira antealesidota ............................................. ................................ 39
Bellaspira?, n. sp.? ................................................................ 40
Mangilia harveyensis ................................................................................ 41
M angilia coensis a .......... ... ...... . .. .............................................................. ......................... 41
M angilia gardnerae ......................... .................................................................. 42
Mangilia sp. aff. M. magnoliana ...............................ase .......................... 43
Brachycythara turrita ....................................................................................... 43
"Cythara" balteata ? ................................4............ .......... ...................... ........ 44
Acmaturris metria ............................................................. 44
Glyphostoma watsoni leonensis ..................................................................... 45
Turritidae, Appendix ............................................... a .......................... 45
C ancellariidae ......................................................................... ........................... 46
Cancellaria (Cancellaria) tabulata ................................................................ 46
Cancellaria (Cancellaria) reticulata leonensis ......................................... 46
Cancellaria (Cancellaria?) propevenusta ........................................... 47
Cancellaria (N arona) agria ................................... ..... ................................ 48
Cancellaria (N arona) coensis ................................... ... ........................... 49
Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) perspective alumensis ............................... 49
Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) tenera ............................... ........................... 50
Cancellaria carolinensis? ................................................. ............... ................. 50
Olividae .......... ................ .................................................................. 51
Oliva sayana ................... ....... ........................................................... 51
O livella m utica ............... .................. ................................... ............................ ... 51
Olivella mutica coensis ........................................................................ ...... 52
Olivella floridana .................................................... 53
O livella jacksonensis .................................... ................................. ................. 53
M arginellidae ......................... ........................................................ ............................. .. 54
Marginella popenoei ......................................................................................... 54
M arginella sp. aff. M contract .................. ....................... ......................... 55
M arginella sp. cf. M gravida ........................................ ................................. 55








CONTENTS 7

PAGE
Marginellidae-(Continued).
M arginella m inuta ............................................................................................ 55
Marginella bella tersa ................ .... .... ......................... 55
Marginella bella hosfordensis .................................................................... 56
Marginella denticulata clarksvillensis ...................................................... 56
M arginella aureocincta ................................................. ..... ......................... 57
M arginella precursor ................................................. ..... ........................... 57
Cypraeolina dacria ............ ...................... ........................ 58
Cypraeolina sp. cf. C. ovuliformis ................................ .......................... 58
V olutidae ....................................................................................... 58
A urinia m utabilis ....................... ............................................................. 58
Maculopeplum trenholmii ............... .... ............................. 59
M itridae .......................... ................................................................................... 60
M itra stephensoni .......... ............................................ 60
Mitra wandoensis ... ........ ................................... 60
M itra hosfordensis .......... ......................... .......... ....................... 61
Mitra hosfordensis libertiensis ................................................ 61
X an cidae ............................... .................................................................................. 62
V asum ? sp ............................................................................................................ 62
F asciolariidae ......................... ................................................................................ 62
Fasciolaria sparrowi ......... .......................................... 62
Fasciolaria gigantea harveyensis ..................................... ........................... 63
Fasciolaria rhomboidea .................................................... 63
Peristernia filicata ............................................................... 64
Fusinus dalli .................................. ..................................... ........................ 65
Fusinus caloosainsis gunteri ........................................... ........................... 65
Busycon maximum alumense ............. ....................................... 66
Busycon maximum tudiculatum ................................................................... 67
Busycon maximum rapum .............. .. ........................ 67
B usycon scalarispira.? ........................................................................................ 67
Busycon pyrum propeincile ....... ....... .. .. ........................ 68
Busycon pyrum libertiense ....... ...... ........................ 68
Busycon pyrum sepynotum ................................................... 69
Busycon sp. aff. B. canaliculatum .................................... .......................... 69
Busycon perversum ......... ............ .... ....................... 69
Solenosteira vaughani ............................................................ ...................... 70
C hrysodom idae ................................................................................ ...................... 70
Ecphora quadricostata umbilicata ................... .... ......................... 70
Buccinidae .............................................................. ....................... 72
Cantharus watsonensis .............................. ............................... 72
Ptychosalpinx laqueata ................................................ 72
Dorsanum? plicatilum .................................................... 73
Columbrariidae ............................... ............................................................... 74
Phos sloani floridanus ................ .... .................................. 74
Phos vaughani ............................................................................................. 75








8 CONTENTS

PAGE
A lectrionidae .............................................................................................................. 76
Alectrion alumensis ... o ................ ..................... ........................ 76
Alectrion cornelliana .......... o ....................................................... 76
Alectrion floridana ....................................................................... 76
A lectrion quadridentata ........................................................ ...................... 77
Alectrion consensa harveyensis ....................................... ............ ............ 78
A lectrion consensa leonensis .............................................................. ........... 79
C olum bellidae ........................................... .................................... .......................... 79
A nachis cam ax coensis ....................... .............................. .................. ..... 79
Anachis clappi ..................... .................................... ...... ............... 80
Anachis wieserae ..... o .......... .................................. 81
Strom bina gunteri ............................................................ ......................... .... 81
Strombina gunteri leonensis .............................................................................. 82
M u ricidae ............................................... ........... ......................... .......................... 83
T yphis harrisi .. o.o. ........................................... .......... ........ .................... ... 83
M urex pom um ..... .................. o ............ ......... ......... .... 83
Purpura fluviana ......................................... ............................ ................. .... 83
Purpura marshall ......... ......................... ........................ 84
Eupleura m iocenica .................................. .......... ...................... 85
Eupleura caudata brevispira ........................................................................... 85
Eupleura caudata leonensis ......................................... ........................... 86
Urosalpinx trossulus? ................. ............................ 86
Muricidea floridana libertiensis ................................................. 86
Muricidea floridana conradi ................................................... 87
E p itoniidae ............................................................ ............................................... .... 87
Epitonium sayanum n. subsp.? ........................................... ....................... 87
Epitonium turriculum ..................................................... 88
Epitonium alumensis ..o..o ......... ............................. 88
M ellan ellidae .............................................................................. .................. ......... 89
Melanella (Melanella) bartschi ....................... ................................. 89
Melanella (Melanella) magnoliana ............................................................. 89
Strombiformis leonensis .............................................................................. 90
Strombiformis leonensis harveyensis ............................... ....................... 91
N iso w illcoxiana gunteri ................................... .................. ...................... 91
Pyram idellidae ...................................................................................................... 92
P yram idella species a ............................................................................. .......... 92
Pyramidella species b ............................ ............... 92
Pyram idella species c ......... ............ ....................................................... 92
Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) species a ........................... ........................... 92
Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) species b ......................... .................. .... 92
Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) species c ................................. 92
Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) species d ................................................................. 92
Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) species e ...................................... ........................ 93
Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) species f ....................................................... 93
C assididae ............................................................................ ........................................ 93
Sconsia hodgei ............ ............................ ........................ .... ................................ 93








CONTENTS 9

PAGE
F icid ae .......................... ........................................................................................... 93
Ficus aff. F. papyratium .................................................... .......................... 93
Cypraeidae ................................................................................... 94
Cypraea carolinensis ....................................................... ....................... 94
C ym atiidae ......... ..................................................................................................... 94
Cymatium (Linatella) floridanum ..................... ........................... 94
Strom b id ae ..................................................................................................................... 95
Strombus pugilis floridanus ......... ................................. 95
T rip h orid ae .................................................. ........................................................... 95
Triphora, species indeterminable .................................. .......................... 95
C erith iop side ........................................................................ ................................. 96
Cerithiopsis, species a ...................... ... ..................... 96
Cerithiopsis, species b ................. .................................................... 96
Cerithiopsis, species c ............................... .......................... 96
Seila clavulu s ................................................. ................................................. 96
C erith iidae ........................... .................................................................................... 97
Cerithium floridanum leonensis ................................................................... 97
"Cerithium" harveyensis ....................... .............................. 98
Alabina adamsi floridana ........................... .............................. 99
Alabina adamsi leonensis .............. ... .... ......................... 99
Alabina adamsi harveyensis ................................................. 100
M odu lidae ................................ ................................................................................ 100
Modulus woodringi .................. ...................................................... 100
C aecidae ....................................................................................................................... 101
Caecum cooper ........................................................................................... 101
Caecum floridanum compactum ..................................... ......................... 101
Caecum coronellum .................................................................................. 101
Caecum regular .................................................................... .................... 102
Meioceras nitidum ......... .. ............. .... ............................. 102
Meioceras sp. aff. M. cingulatum ........................................ ........................ 102
V erm etidae .............................. ............................................................................... 102
Serpulorbis granifera ................... ............................... .......................... 102
Vermicularia spirata ........ ......................................... 103
Petaloconchus sculpturatus ............................................... ......................... 104
T urritellidae ................................................................................................................. 105
Turritella alumensis .................. ...................................................... 105
Turritella alumensis gardnerae .................................................... 106
Turritella etiwanensis .................... ....... ........................... 106
Turritella cookei ....................... ............................... 107
Turritella cookei harveyensis ......................................... ............................... 107
Turritella cookei clarksvillensis .................................. ............................ 108
Turritella duplinensis ........................................................................... 108
Turritella subannulata jacksonensis .......................................................... 109
Turritella subannulata ochlockoneeinsis .................................................. 109
T urritella species .................................................................................................. 110








10 CONTENTS

PAGE
A rchitectonicidae ............................................................................ ........................ 110
A rchitectonica granulata ............................ ............................................. 110
Architectonica nupera watsonensis ............................................................ 111
F ossaridae .......... ...................... ........ .............................. .............................. 112
Fossarus (Isapis) anomala floridana .............................. ....................... 112
R issoin id ae ...................................................................................... ......................... 113
Rissoina (Zebina) johnsoni ................................................ 113
Rissoina (Zebina) clarksvillensis .................................... .......................... 113
R issoina (Zebina) tersa ....................................................... ............................ 113
Rissoina (Phosinella) cancellata? ................................................ 114
R issoidae ............................. ................................................................................... 114
R issoa lipeus floridana ....................................................... ......................... 114
C rep idulidae ............................... ............................................................................. 115
Crepidula aculeata var. costata ............................................ ...................... 115
Crepidula aculeata var. spinosa ..................................... ......................... 115
C repidula plana ................................................................. .......................... 116
Crepidula fornicata (Linne) and varieties ............................................ 116
Crepidula fornicata var. ponderosa .............................. ......................... 117
Crepidula fornicata cymbaeformis ................................... ............................ 117
Crepidula fornicata rostrata .................................................. ...................... 117
Crepidula aesop (?Crepidula fornicata var. rostrata) ........................... 118
C alyp traeidae ........................................................................... ................................ 118
Crucibulum auriculum ........................................................ ......................... 118
Crucibulum auriculum imbricatum ......................... .................................. 119
Crucibulum constrictum ............... .......... ........................ 119
Crucibulum multilineatum ...... .......... ........ ....................... 120
Calyptraea centralis ......................... .............................. ............................. 120
X enophoridae ........................................................................................................ 121
Xenophora delecta floridana ...................................................................... 121
H ydrobiidae .................................................................................................................. 122
Amnicola aff. A. floridana, var. convexa .................................................. 122
N aticidae .................... ............................................................................................ 122
Natica canrena ................. .................................................................... 122
Tectonatica pusilla ............................................................ 123
P olinices coensis ......................... ................................................................... 124
Polinices (Euspira) internus ...................................................................... 125
Polinices (Neverita) duplicatus .............................. ............................. 126
Polinices (Mammillaria?) caroliniana .................................................... 127
T urbinidae ........................................ .............................................. ........................... 127
Turbo castaneus var. crenulatus ......................... ............................... 127
L iotiidae .......................................................................................................................... 128
Molleria duplinensis parva .......................................................................... 128
T rochidae .................. ............................................................................................. 129
Calliostoma aluminium ................................... .............................. 129
Calliostoma philanthropus pontoni ........................... ................................. 129
Solariella vaughani ............................................................................................ 130







CONTENTS 11

PAGE
Trochidae- (Continued).
Tegula (Omphalius) exoleta .............................................. 131
V itrin ellidae .................................................................................................................. 132
Cyclostrem a bartschi ............ ........ ........................... ........................... 132
C irculu s gunteri ............................................................. ................................. 132
Circulus? leonensis ........................................................ ........................ 133
Teinostoma carinatum ....................................................... 134
Teinostoma nanum umbilicatum ................................................................... 134
Teinostom a harveyensis ............................................... .... ......................... 135
Teinostoma (Pseudorotella?) washingtonensis ....................................... 135
F is u rellidae .................................................................................................................. 136
Fissuridea nucula ...................... .............................. ........................... 136
Fissuridea cattiliformis alumensis ................................ ......................... 137
D entaliidae .................................... .......................................................................... 137
Dentalium (Dentalium) attenuatum .......................... .......................... 137
Dentalium (Dentalium) carolinense ........................................................... 138
Dentalium (Dentalium?) disparile leonense ........................................... 139
Dentalium (Graptacme?) pleiocenum? ........................................................ 139
Dentalium, species a, ? aff. Dentalium (Laevidentalium) callipeplum.. 140
Siphodentaliidae ............................................................... ....... ......................... 140
Cadulus floridanus .................... ............................... 140
C adulus thallus .................................................................. ............................ 141
Cadulus aff. C. (Polyschides) quadridentatus ......................................... 141














MIOCENE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS OF
THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE FORMATION
OF FLORIDA1



By WENDELL C. MANSFIELD



INTRODUCTION
The specimens studied for this report were obtained at different
times during a number of years by several collectors, as shown by the
list of stations on pages 18-19. Collections were made by Mr. Herman
Gunter, State Geologist of Florida, and his associates, and I spent two
months in the field in 1925 and obtained specimens from nearly all
the fossiliferous beds. About 207 species of gastropods and 7 species
of scaphopods were collected from the Choctawhatchee formation.
The types of the new species are deposited in the United States
National Museum. A set of named gastropods and scaphopods from
the Choctawhatchee marl, representing most of the species and in-
cluding topotypes insofar as practicable, has been deposited with the
Florida State Geological Survey. Considerable difficulty was experi-
enced in assigning certain peculiar forms to genera, and a few of
these forms may have been misplaced. The inferences drawn as to
the significance and the relations of the faunas are only tentative;
they may be modified by later studies.
I desire to thank the officials of the United States National Museum
for the use of the former collections.
The photographs used for the illustrations were made in the lab-
oratory of the United States Geological Survey by Mr. W. 0. Hazard
and the prints were retouched by Miss Frances Wieser of that Survey.
Valuable assistance was rendered by Mr. Willis P. Popenoe of the
same Survey in preparing part of the collections for study.


[13]


Published with the permission of the Director of the United States Geological Survey
'Published with the permission of the Director of the United States Geological Survey.'







14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.


HISTORICAL REVIEW

In 18921 Dall referred to the Chesapeake group all the beds in
Florida that were then considered of newer Miocene age. He recog-
nized two subdivisions, the "Jacksonville limestone" in the eastern
part of Florida and the "Ecphora bed" in the western part. He
writes:2 "At Alum Bluff the group is represented by what I have
termed the Ecphora bed, of gray marl, with over 100 species of fossils,
many of which are common to North Carolina, Virginia, and Mary-
land. It has a thickness here of 30 feet or more." Later Dall' applied
the name aluminouss clay" to a 25-foot bed of grayish clay overlying
the "Ecphora bed." In 1909 Matson and Clapp' included both the
"Ecphora bed" and the aluminouss clay" of Dall in their Choctaw-
hatchee formation, which takes its name from Choctawhatchee River,
with type locality in the vicinity of Red Bay, a small settlement about
18 miles southeast of DeFuniak Springs, Walton County, Florida.
In 1916 Mansfield' described the outcrop at Red Bay, listed the
fauna, and described and illustrated the following new forms: Arca
(Scapharca) staminea rubisiniana, Leda choctawhatcheensis, Pha-
coides (Pleurolucina) choctawhatcheensis, Astarte (Ashtarotha)
vaughani, and Diplodonta waltonensis. On page 603 he writes: "On
account of the small collections and the unidentifiable character of
some specimens it is not possible to determine the exact synchronism
of the fauna with that of the upper bed at Alum Bluff; however, the
species present indicate that the beds represent nearly the same if
not precisely the same horizon." I now believe, as will be shown later
on in this paper, that this fauna is older than that in the upper bed,
at Alum Bluff.










'Dall, W. H., and Harris, G. D., Neocene of North America: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull.
84, pp. 123, 124, 1892.
2Idem, p. 124.
3Dall, W. H., and Stanley-Brown, Joseph, Cenozoic geology along the Apalachicola River:
Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 5, pp. 168, 169, 1894.
*Matson, G. C., and Clapp, F. G., Flor'ida Geol. Survey Second Ann. Rept., pp. 108, 114,
1909.
5Mansfield, W. C., Mollusks from the type locality of the Choctawhatchee marl: U. S. Nat.
Mus. Proc., vol. 51, pp. 599-607, pl. 113, 1916.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


DIVISIONS OF THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE FORMATION
For the present purpose the fossiliferous beds in the Choctawhat-
chee formation are separated into three zones, as follows: Arca stam-
inea rubisiniana zone, referred to in this paper as the Arca zone;
Ecphora quadricostata umbilicata zone, referred to in this paper as
the Ecphora zone; and Cancellaria propevenusta zone, referred to in
this paper as the Cancellaria zone.

ARCA ZONE
Typical exposure.--The Arca zone is exposed in two beds near
Red Bay, Walton County. The lower bed consists of a very fossil-
iferous gray marl about 21 feet thick. Its entire thickness is unknown,
as its contact with the underlying formation is concealed, but it is
probably somewhat more than 21 feet thick. The upper bed, about
27 feet thick, consists of a rather plastic clay carrying impressions of
Leda, Lucina, and Corbula.
Fauna.-The fauna contains two indeterminable species of gastro-
pods, one species of scaphopod, and about 20 genera of pelecypods.
The gastropods and scaphopod are of little value for correlation. The
pelecypods are more abundant, both in number of species and indi-
viduals. The pelecypod fauna evidently lived at a time later than that
of the Shoal River formation and earlier than that of the Ecphora
zone at Alum Bluff. The fauna of the Arca zone is probably nearly
synchronous with that of some part of the Chesapeake group of Mary-
land. A more definite statement of the relation of this fauna to dis-
tant faunas must be deferred until the study of the pelecypods is
completed.
ECPHORA ZONE
Typical exposure.-The Ecphora zone is typically exposed in the
upper fossiliferous bed unconformably overlying the Chipola forma-
tion at Alum Bluff, Apalachicola River. The bed ranges in thickness
from 15 to 25 feet at different places along the bluff. It consists of
very fossiliferous, sandy clay, which is bluish where unweathered.
Fauna.-Dall1 listed 45 gastropods and 4 scaphopods from this bed
and adjacent outcrops. Among these, Cerithium burnsii Dall, Modulus
compactus Dall, and Tuba acutissima Dall appear to have come from
the Chipola formation. In this paper I have listed 48 gastropods and
3 scaphopods collected from the Ecphora zone at Alum Bluff.


xDall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, pp. 1596, 1597, 1903.


15







16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

The following species of gastropods and scaphopods appear to be-
confined to the Ecphora zone:
Aurinia mutabilis (Conrad) Epitonium alumensis Mansfield
Fasciolaria sparrowi Emmons Turritella alumensis Mansfield
Busycon maximum alumense Mans- Turritella alumensis gardnerae
field Mansfield
Busycon maximum tudiculatum Dall Polinices internus (Say)
Busycon pyrum propeincile Mansfield Calliostoma aluminium Dall
Busycon pyrum libertiense Mansfield Teinostoma nanum umbilicatum
Busycon pyrum aepynotum Dall (H. C. Lea)
Ecphora quadricostata umbilicata Fissuridea cattiliformis alumensis
(Wagner) Mansfield
Ptychosalpinx laqueata (Conrad) Cadulus floridanus Dall
Alectrion alumensis (Olsson) Dentalium carolinense Conrad
Eupleura miocenica Dall (nearly confined)
The fauna of the Ecphora zone, as pointed out by Dall, evidently
lived in cold water. The presence of Ecphora quadricostata umbili-
cata, Polinices internus, as well as other gastropods, and the sca-
phopod, Dentalium carolinense, indicates this environment.
Distribution and correlation.-This zone is represented in a cut
in an old road leading to Watsons Landing, about 2 miles north of
Alum Bluff (station 1/962) ; near Clarksville (station 8862) ; Darl-
ings Slide (station 1/672), Abes Spring (station 1/959), and below
Baileys Ferry (station 3418), on Chipola River; on Choctawhatchee
River near Red Head Still (station 1/951) ; lower upper Miocene bed
at Jackson Bluff, Ochlockonee River (station 3423). The highest part
of this zone is represented at the last locality. The fauna of the
Ecphora zone is nearly related to that in the bed underlying the
fragmental series of the Yorktown formation of Virginia.

CANCELLARIA ZONE
Typical exposure.-The Cancellaria zone is typically exposed in
the highest fossiliferous beds along Harveys Creek, Leon County, Fla.
The total thickness of the zone in this area is 25 to 30 feet. The sedi-
ments composing this zone consist of a fine to coarse grained clayey
sand containing many fossils. The beds of this zone were probably
laid down after the deposition of the aluminouss clay" of Dall, which
is not found along Ochlockonee River.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Fauna.-The following list includes some of the characteristic spe-


-cies in the Cancellaria zone.
Conus floridanus Gabb
Cancellaria reticulata leonensis
Mansfield
Cancellaria propevenusta Mansfield
Cancellaria tenera Philippi
Marginella popenoei Mansfield
Fasciolaria gigantea harveyensis
Mansfield
Busycon perversum (Linnaeus)
Dorsanum? plicatilum (Base)
Phos sloani floridanus Mansfield
Alectrion cornelliana (Olsson)
Alectrion floridana Mansfield
Strombina gunteri Mansfield
Strombus pugilis floridanus Mansfield
Cerithium floridanum leonensis
Mansfield


"Cerithium" harveyensis Mansfield
Modulus woodringi Mansfield
Vermicularia spirata (Philippi)
Turritella etiwanensis (Tuomey
and Holmes)
Turritella cookei Mansfield
Turritella cookei harveyensis
Mansfield
Turritella duplinensis Gardner
and Aldrich
Xenophora delecta floridana
Mansfield
Natica canrena (Linnaeus)
Polinices coensis Dall
Turbo castaneus var. crenulatus
Gmelin


The fauna of the Cancellaria zone evidently lived in rather warm
-water, an environment indicated by the presence of such species as
Natica canrena, Vermicularia spirata, and of the genera Caecum,
Strombus, Xenophora, and others.
At station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above an abandoned
mill, the gastropod fauna is represented by 123 species, nearly three
times as many as in the Ecphora zone. From stations 3671 and 3672,
near Hosford, 57 gastropods were recognized. The following species
were found only near Hosford: Acteocina coensis, Mitra hosford-
ensis, Solenosteira vaughani, and Phos vaughani. The deposits around
Hosford are believed to carry the earliest fauna referred to this
*zone.
Distribution and correlation.-The fauna of the Cancellaria zone
is represented at the following other localities: The "Deadens," Wash-
ington County (stations 8176, 1/422, 1/706) ; Econfina River, 1 mile
below highway bridge, Bay County (station 1/953) ; on Mr. S. D.
Johnson's place, near Woods, Liberty County (station 1/961) ; high-
est bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County (stations 3422, 11732).
The fauna of the Cancellaria zone is closely allied to the fauna of
the Duplin marl of the Carolinas and appears to have lived at ap-
proximately the same time.


17








18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

LIST OF STATIONS
LEON COUNTY
3421 (T. W. Vaughan, 1900); 1/946 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925); Florida Geolog-
ical Survey, 1925 and later. Harveys Creek, about half a mile above abandoned
mill, SW. 1/4 sec. 9, T. 1 S., R. 3 W. (Cancellaria zone.)
3422 (T. W. Vaughan, 1900); 1/963 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925). Jackson Bluff,
left bank of Ochlockonee River. Highest fossiliferous upper Miocene bed.
(Cancellaria zone.)
11732. Borrow pit, about 600 feet from the wagon bridge over river at
Jackson Bluff. Fossils from upper part of the marl and directly beneath the un-
fossiliferous surface material. Collected by Florida Geological Survey, 1927. (Can-
cellaria zone.)
3423 (T. W. Vaughan, 1900) ; 1/967 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925). Just above wagon
bridge at Jackson Bluff, left bank of Ochlockonee River. Lower upper Miocene
bed. (Ecphora zone.)
4993. One mile west of Holland post office. Fossils taken from well, 28 feet
deep. G. C. Matson, collector, 1908. (Mainly Ecphora zone.)
1/964. Highest bed at abandoned mill on Harveys Creek, about half a mile
above the highway bridge on road to Bloxham. W. C. Mansfield, collector, 1925.
(Cancellaria zone.)
1/965. Lower upper Miocene bed at abandoned mill on Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above highway bridge on road to Bloxham. W. C. Mansfield, collector,
1925. (Ecphora zone.)
1/966. Double Branch, just above highway bridge on road to Bloxham. W. C.
Mansfield, collector, 1925. (Cancellaria zone.)
LIBERTY COUNTY
2210 (Frank Burns, 1889) ; 2569 (W. H. Dall and J. S. Brown, 1893) ; 3417 (T.
W. Vaughan, 1900); 7081 (C. W. Cooke and W. C. Mansfield, 1914); 1/670 (J.
A. Gardner, 1923); 1/956 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925) ; 1/1056 (C. W. Cooke and
D. S. Mossom, 1926). Upper bed at Alum Bluff, left bank of Apalachicola River.
(Ecphora zone, typical.)
3671. Hosford (formerly Coe's Mill). T. W. Vaughan, collector, 1902. (Can-
cellaria zone.)
3672. (T. W. Vaughan, 1902); 1/958 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925). At abandoned
mill about 1 mile northwest of Hosford. (Cancellaria zone.)
1/961. On Mr. S. D. Johnson's place, near Woods, about 6 miles below
Bristol. W. C. Mansfield, collector, 1925. (Cancellaria zone.)
1/962. Cut in old road to Watsons Landing, about 2 miles north of Alum-
Bluff and about the same distance from Apalachicola River. Base of bed about
40 feet above the river terrace. W. C. Mansfield, collector, 1925. (Ecphora zone.)
CALHOUN COUNTY
3418. Bailey post office, about 5 miles below Baileys Ferry. Fossils taken
from well. T. W. Vaughan, collector, 1900. (Ecphora zone.)
8862. From high cliff half a mile northeast of Clarksville. F. G. Clapp, coDl
lector, 1920. (Ecphora zone.)
1/954. From lowest fossiliferous bed exposed on Four-mile Creek, about half
a mile northwest of Clarksville. W. C. Mansfield, collector, 1925. (Ecphora zone.)
1/672 (J. A. Gardner, 1923); 1/960 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925). Darlings Slide,.
east side of Chipola River, about 21/, miles southeast of Clarksville. (Ecphora
zone.)








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


BAY COUNTY
1/953. On Econfina River about 1 mile below highway bridge over river.
Sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W. Fossils about 8 feet above river level and directly above
an indurated and porous limestone. W. C. Mansfield, collector, 1925. (Cancellaria
zone.)
WASHINGTON COUNTY
8176. The "Deadens," about 5 miles southeast of Greenhead. E. H. Sellards,
collector, 1918. (Cancellaria zone.)
1/422. Hamlin Pond, southeast of Greenhead. C. W. Cooke and J. A. Gardner,
collectors, 1921. (Cancellaria zone.)
1/706 (C. W. Cooke and J. A. Gardner, 1921) ; 1/955 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925).
Gully Pond, southeast of Greenhead. (Cancellaria zone.)
1/951. Uppermost fossiliferous bed overlying the lower Miocene bed near
Rocky Landing, on Choctawhatchee River, and about 1 mile from Red Head Still.
W. C. Mansfield, 1925. (Ecphora zone.)
WALTON COUNTY
4975 (G. C. Matson, 1908); 1/671 (J. A. Gardner, 1923); 1/947, 1/948, and
1/949 (W. C. Mansfield, 1925). Bluffs about 1 mile east and southeast of Red Bay.
(Arca zone.)
7152 (C. W. Cooke, 1914); 1/673 (J. A. Gardner, 1923); 1/950 (W. C. Mans-
field, 1925). E. Gomillion's field, a quarter of a mile south of Red Bay. (Arca
zone.)


19








20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES FROM THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE
FORMATION

Those marked C are from the Cancellaria zone; E from Ecphora
zone; A from. Arca zone; D from the Duplin marl of the Carolinas.
The asterisk denotes the persistence of the species to the Recent
fauna of the coast.
GASTROPODA
Acteon vaughani Mansfield, n. sp. C, D.
Acteocina canaliculata (Say) C, E, D, *.
coensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Sulcularia sulcata harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Cylichnella jacksonensis Mansfield, n. sp. C, E.
Volvula oxytata hosfordensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C, D.
Ringicula (floridana var.?) guppyi Dall C.
(floridana var.?) guppyi Dall (more typical) C.
Bullaria sp. C.
Myurella binodosa Mansfield, n. sp. C.
dislocata (Say) C, D, *.
dislocata indenta (Conrad) C, D.
protexta (Conrad) ? C.
Conus adversarius Conrad C, E, D.
floridanus Gabb C, *.
testudinarius leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
harveyensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Cymatosyrinx lunata (H. C. Lea) C, E, D.
lunata aepytuberculata Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
lunata porrecta Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
propeaepynota Mansfield, n. sp. C.
propeaepynota libertiensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C, E.
sp. aff. C. eburnea (Conrad) E.
Clathrodrillia? emmonsi (Olsson) C, E, D.
emmonsi hosfordensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
anteaphanitoma Mansfield, n. sp. C.
gracilina (Dall ms.) Mansfield, n. sp. C, E.
podagrina (Dall) C.
Crassispira antealesidota Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Bellaspira? n. sp.? C.
Mangilia harveyensis Mansfield, n. sp. C, D.
coensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
gardnerae Mansfield, n. sp. C, E.
sp. aff. M. magnoliana Olsson C.
Brachycythara turrita Mansfield, n. sp. C.
"Cythara" balteata (Reeve) ? C.
Acmaturris metria (Dall) C.
Glyphostoma watsoni leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Cancellaria (Cancellaria) tabulata Gardner and Aldrich C, E, D.
reticulata leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
(Cancellaria?) propevenusta Mansfield, n. sp. C, D.
(Narona) agria Mansfield, n. sp. C, E.








21


CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.

(Narona) coeinsis Mansfield, n. sp. C, E.
(Trigonostoma) perspective alumensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C, E.
(Trigonostoma) tenera Philippi C, D.
carolinensis Emmons? E
Oliva sayana Ravenel C, E, D, *.
Olivella mutica (Say) Dall C, E, D, *.
mutica coeinsis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
floridana Mansfield, n. sp. C.
jacksonensis Mansfield, n. sp. E.
Marginella popenoei Mansfield, n. sp. C.
sp. aff. M. contract Conrad E.
sp. cf. M. gravida Dall E.
minute Pfeiffer C, E, D, *.
bella tersa Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
bella hosfordensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
denticulata clarksvillensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C?, E.
aureocincta Stearns C, D, *.
precursor Dall C.
Cypraeolina dacria (Dall) C, D.
Cypraeolina sp. cf. C. ovuliformis (d'Orbigny) C.
Aurinia mutabilis (Conrad) E, D.
Maculopeplum trenholmii (Tuomey and Holmes) C?, E, D.
Mitra stephensoni Mansfield, n. sp. C.
wandoensis (Holmes) C, D, *.
hosfordensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
hosfordensis libertiensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C, E.
Vasum? sp. C.
Fasciolaria sparrowi Emmons E, D.
gigantea harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
rhomboidea Rogers C, E, D.
Peristernia filicata (Conrad) C, E, D.
Fusinus dalli Mansfield, n. sp. C?, E.
caloosaensis gunteri Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Busycon maximum alumense Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
maximum tudiculatum Dall E.
maximum rapum (Heilprin) C, D (var.?).
scalarispira Conrad? E.
pyrum propeincile Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
pyrum libertiense Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
Busycon pyrum aepynotum Dall E.
sp. aff. B. canaliculatum (Linnaeus) C.
perversum (Linnaeus) C, D, *.
Solenosteira vaughani Dall C.
Ecphora quadricostata umbilicata (Wagner) E.
Cantharus watsonensis Mansfield, n. sp. E.
Ptychosalpinx laqueata (Conrad) E.
Dorsanum? plicatilum (Bise) C, D.
Phos sloani floridanus Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
vaughani Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Alectrion alumensis (Olsson) E.
cornelliana (Olsson) C, D?.







22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

floridana Mansfield, n. sp. C.
quadridentata Mansfield, n. sp. C, E.
consensa harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
consensa leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Anachis camax coeinsis Mansfield, n. subsp. C, E, D.
clappi Mansfield, n. sp. E.
wieserae Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Strombina gunteri Mansfield, n. sp. C.
gunteri leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Typhis harrisi Olsson C, E, D.
Murex pomum Gmelin C.
Purpura marshall Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Eupleura miocenica Dall E.
caudata brevispira Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
caudata leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Urosalpinx trossulus (Conrad) ? C.
Muricidea floridana libertiensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C, E.
floridana conradi Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Epitonium sayanum Dall, n. subsp.? C.
turriculum (Sowerby) C, *.
alumensis Mansfield, n. sp. E.
Melanella (Melanella) bartschi Gardner and Aldrich C, E, D.
(Melanella) magnoliana Gardner and Aldrich C, D.
Strombiformis leonensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
leonensis harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Niso willcoxiana gunteri Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Pyramidella sp. a C.
sp. b C.
sp. c C.
Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) sp. a E.
(Chemnitzia) sp. b C.
(Pyrgiscus) sp. c C.
(Pyrgiscus) sp. d C.
(Pyrgiscus) sp. e C.
(Strioturbonilla) sp. f C.
Sconsia hodgei (Conrad) E?, C, D.
Fiscus aff. F. papyratium (Say) C.
Cypraea carolinensis Conrad C, D.
Cymatium (Linatella) floridanum Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Strombus pugilis floridanus Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Triphora sp. indet. C.
Cerithiopsis, sp. a C.
sp. b C.
sp. c C.
Seila clavulus (H. C. Lea) C, E, D.
Cerithium floridanum leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
"Cerithium" harveyensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Alabina adamsi floridana Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
adamsi leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
adamsi harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Modulus woodringi Mansfield, n. sp. C.. .








23


CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.

Caecum cooper S. Smith C, D, *.
floridanum compactum Dall C.
coronellum Dall C.
regular Carpenter C, *.
Meioceras nitidum (Stimpson) Carpenter C. *.
sp. aff. M. cingulatum Dall C.
Serpulorbis granifera (Say) Dall C?, D.
Vermicularia spirata (Philippi) Dall C, *.
Petaloconchus sculpturatus H. C. Lea C, E, D.
Turritella alumensis Mansfield, n. sp. E.
alumensis gardnerae Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
etiwanensis (Tuomey and Holmes) C, E?, D.
cookei Mansfield, n. sp. C.
cookei harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
cookei clarksvillensis Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
duplinensis Gardner and Aldrich C, D.
subannulata jacksonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
subannulata ochlockoneensis Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
Architectonica granulata (Lamarck) C, E, D, *.
nupera watsonensis Mansfield, n. subsp. E.
Fossarus (Isapis) anomala floridana Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Rissoina (Zebina) johnsoni Dall E.
(Zebina) clarksvillensis Mansfield, n. sp. E.
(Zebina) tersa Mansfield, n. sp. C, D.
(Phosinella) cancellata Philippi? C.
Rissoa lipeus floridana Mansfield, n. subsp. C, E?.
Crepidula aculeata var. costata Morton C?, E, D.
aculeata var. spinosa Conrad C, E, D.
plana Say C, E, D, *.
fornicata var. ponderosa H. C. Lea E, D.
fornicata var. cymbaeformis Conrad E.
fornicata var. rostrata Conrad E, D.
aesop Dall C.
Crucibulum auriculum (Gmelin) C, *.
auriculum imbricatum Sowerby C, E, D, *.
constrictum (Conrad) E, A?.
multilineatum (Conrad) C, D.
Calyptraea centralis (Conrad) C, E, D, *.
Xenophora delecta floridana Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Amnicola sp. aff. A. floridana var. convexa Pilsbry C.
Natica canrena (Linnaeus) C, D, *.
Tectonatica pusilla Say C, E, D, *.
Polinices coensis (Dall) C.
(Euspira) internus (Say) E, D.
(Neverita) duplicatus (Say) C, E, D, *.
(Mammillaria?) caroliniana (Conrad) C, D.
Turbo castaneus var. crenul'atus Gmelin C, *.
Molleria duplinensis parva Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Calliostoma aluminium Dall E.
philanthropus pontoni Mansfield, n. subsp. C.
Solariella vaughani Mansfield, n. sp. E.








24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Tegula (Omphalius) exoleta (Conrad) C, D.
Cyclostrema bartschi Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Circulus gunteri Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Circulus? leonensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Teinostoma carinatum (H. C. Lea) E.
nanum umbilicatum (H. C. Lea) E, D.
harveyensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
(Pseudorotella?) washingtonensis Mansfield, n. sp. C.
Fissuridea nucula Dall C, D.
cattiliformis alumensis Mansfield. n. subsp. E.

SCAPHOPODA
Dentalium (Dentalium) attenuatum Say E?, A.
(Dentalium) carolinense Conrad C, E.
(Dentalium?) disparile leonense Mansfield, n. subsp. C, D?
(Graptacme?) pleiocenum Tuomey and Holmes? C.
Cadulus floridanus Dall E.
thallus (Conrad) Dall C, E, D.
sp. aff. C. (Polyschides) quadridentatus Dall C.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

Phylum MOLLUSCA
Class GASTROPODA
Subclass ANISOPLEURA
Superorder EUTHYNEURA
Order OPISTHOBRANCHIATA
Suborder TECTIBRANCHIATA
Family ACTEONIDAE
Genus ACTEON Montfort, 1810
Acteon vaughani Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 1, figure 1
Shell small, ovate, with 4 whorls, a short spire and a large body
whorl. Suture loosely appressed. Apical whorl smooth, rather large,
with an immersed tip. Two subsequent whorls small, smooth, weakly
inflated, and posteriorly beveled. Body whorl large, roundly cylindri-
cal, gently beveled posteriorly and anteriorly broadly rounded into
the base. Sculptured only on the lower fourth of body whorl with
feebly punctate spiral striae or very narrow channels. Upper striae
shallow and narrow, with wide interspaces; lower striae deeper,
wider, with narrower interspaces. Aperture inverted ear-shaped. Body
wall with a thin wash of callus. Columella nearly straight, provided
with one strong, twisted, carinated plication. A small chink lies be-
hind the reflected columellar border.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369881) measures: Altitude, 4.2 mm.;
greatest diameter, 2.5 mm.; length of aperture, 2.8 mm.
Some of the specimens from near Mayesville, S. C., referred to this
species are a little larger than the Florida specimens, one specimen
having an altitude of 7 mm. and a diameter of 4 mm.
Perhaps the nearest related northern Miocene species is A. shi-
lohensis Whitfield; but when the new species is compared with the
New Jersey species the latter is found to have a proportionally wider
shell, a more turrited spire, and a different type of nucleus.
In comparison with A. riomaensis Maury, a species described from
Bluff 3, Cercado de Mao, Dominican Republic, the new species re-
veals a stouter shell ornamented with fewer spiral striae.
The new species is closely related to a probably new Recent spe-
cies from Long Island Sound.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3422, uppermost bed at
Jackson Bluff, Ochlockonee River, Leon County, Fla., type locality







26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

(rare) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County Fla. (rare).
Outside occurrence: Station 4000, near Mayesville, S. C. (abun-
dant).
The species is named in honor of Dr. T. W. Vaughan, who collected
the holotype.
Family ACTEOCINIDAE
Genus ACTEOCINA Gray, 1847
Acteocina canaliculata (Say)
Plate 1, figure 2
1826. Volvaria canaliculata Say, Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia Jour. 1st ser., vol.
5, p. 211.
1832. Bullina canaliculata Say, Am. Conchology, No. 4, pl. 39.
1903. Tornatina canaliculata Say. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6,
p. 1596 (listed with fauna from upper bed at Alum Bluff, Fla.) ; p. 1599
(listed from Duplin well or adjacent village of Magnolia, N. C.);
p. 1605 (listed with fauna of Floridian Pliocene) ; p. 1615 (listed with
Pleistocene fauna of North Creek, Fla.)
1917. Not Acteocina canaliculata (Say). Maury, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5,
p. 177, pl. 29, fig. 2.
1919. Acteocina canaliculata (Say). Gardner and Aldrich, Academy Nat .Sci.
Philadelphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17. (Listed with molluscan fauna obtained
near Mayesville, S. C.)
1924. Acteocina canaliculata (Say). Mansfield, Florida State Geol. Survey, 15th
Ann. Rept. (Faunal list opp. p. 28.)
The synonymy given above is not complete.
This species ranges from the upper Miocene to the Recent.
Occurrence: In the Floridian upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum
Bluff, Liberty County (rare) ; station 1/953, Econfina River, 1 mile
below Econfina bridge, Bay County (rare) ; station 1/706, Gully
Pond (abundant) and station 1/422, Hamlin Pond (common), Wash-
ington County; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above
abandoned mill (abundant) ; station 1/964, Harveys Creek, highest
bed at abandoned mill (rare) ; stations 3422 and 3423, Jackson Bluff,
Ochlockonee River, upper and lower beds of upper Miocene (abun-
dant).
Acteocina coensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 1, figures 3, 4
Shell small, cylindrical, rather solid, with short spire. Apex small,
smooth, projecting, arched and twisted, with an immersed tip. Suture
shallowly channeled. Spire whorls medially depressed, earlier whorls
more so than the later; whorls with spiral thread below suture and a
low spiral carination below and at the shoulder. Microscopic axial







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


growth lines cross the whorls. Back of body whorl and outer lip
medially constricted. Aperture nearly as long as shell, moderately
narrow above and expanded and rounded below. Aperture acutely
angled posteriorly at commissure of outer lip and body callus. Col-
umella with a single weak fold. Columellar border reflected.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369896) measures: Altitude, 3.5 mm.;
greatest diameter, 2.0 mm.
The new species differs mainly from Acteocina canaliculata (Say)
in having a much shorter shell and shorter spire.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford (formerly
called Coe's Mill), Liberty County, Fla., type locality; station 3672,
at abandoned mill 1 mile northwest of Hosford. Abundant at both
stations.
Genus SULCULARIA Dall, 1921
Sulcularia sulcata harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 1, figures 6, 7
Shell minute, subcylindric, medially constricted, axially sulcate,
involute, perforate at the apex, and with an aperture a little longer
than body whorl. Anterior end wider than posterior and rather steeply
sloping to the rounded edge surrounding the perforation. Sculpture
of very close axial sulcations, separated by fine, sharp lines. Sulcations
cover the whole surface of the shell and enter the summit perfora-
tion. Microscopic spiral lines lie in the sulci. Outer lip thin and
simple. Aperture narrow above and rounded below. Columella short,
nearly straight, with a reflexed border.
Cotypes (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369900) measure: (Larger specimen)
Altitude, 2.4 mm., greatest diameter 1.2 mm.; (smaller specimen)
altitude, 2.0 mm., greatest diameter, 1.0 mm.
The new subspecies is closely related to Sulcularia sulcata (d'Or-
bigny), a Recent species from Cuba, but differs mainly from that spe-
cies in having a less cylindrical shell and a proportionately narrower
and more sloping posterior extremity.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, about
half mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type locality;
station 1/422, Hamlin Pond, Washington County; station 1/955, Gully
Pond, Washington County; station 1/961, near Woods, Liberty
County; station 11732, borrow pit, Jackson Bluff, Leon County. Rare
at all stations.


27








28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Genus CYLICHNELLA Gabb, 1872
Cylichnella jacksonensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 1, figure 11
Shell small, subovate, and solid. Vertex slightly depressed and sur-
rounded by a very low, rounded keel formed by the continuation of
the margin of outer lip. Spire concealed by a wash of callus. Body
whorl subelliptical, tapering toward both extremities. Sculptured
only on the base with fine, shallow, spiral striae. Outer lip margin
rounded above and below and nearly vertical medially. Aperture
narrow above and wide below. Body wall and columella provided
with a wash of callus-thin over body wall and thick and externally
reflected over columella. Columella biplicate. Posterior fold semi-
carinate, moderately strong, diagonally situated and extends to margin
of columellar border; anterior fold small, short, axially directed, and
situated at lower extremity of columella.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369906) measures: Altitude, 3.2 mm.;
greatest diameter, 2.0 mm.
The new species is related to both the Recent species, Cylichnella
bidentata (Orb.) and the fossil species "Acteocina (Cylichnella)"
triticum-tritonis Maury. However, the new species differs from both
of these in possessing a less cylindrical shell. It is more closely related
to the fossil than to the Recent species.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3422, uppermost bed at Jack-
son Bluff, Ochlockonee River, Leon County, Fla., type locality (abun-
dant); station 3423, lower upper Miocene bed at Jackson bluff
(rare); station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County (rare at 3421 and identification uncertain).

Genus VOLVULA A. Adams, 1850
Volvula oxytata hosfordensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 1, figure 9
1919. Volvula oxytata Bush. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Shell small, solid, and ovate cylindrical. Posterior extremity conic,
not tapering, terminating in a very short spire. Sculpture of 8 to 10
microscopic striae over the lower fourth of shell. Outer lip a little
longer than spire, weakly constricted medially behind border. Aper-
ture narrow above and expanded and rounded below. Columella
simple with a reflected external border behind which is a minute
chink.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369910) measures: Altitude, 2.7 mm.;
greatest diameter, 1.2 mm.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


The new subspecies differs from Volvula oxytata Bush in lacking
the pronounced spike-like apex and the tapering posterior extremity.
It also differs in the same respects from a Chipola species, which
Dall1 united with the Recent species Volvula oxytata Bush.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., type locality; 3421, Harveys Creek,
about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. Rare at
both Florida localities.
Outside occurrence: Near Mayesville, S. C. Near Magnolia, N. C.

Family RINGICULIDAE
Genus RINGICULA Deshayes, 1838
Ringicula (floridana var.?) guppyi Dall
Plate 1, figure 5
1889. Ringicula floridana var. guppyi Dall, Harvard Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool. Bull.,
vol. 18, p. 44.
1890. Ringicula (floridana var.?) guppyi Dall. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci.
Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 14, pl. 3, fig. 7.
Two specimens representing two localities compare in general as-
pect with Dall's species from the Caloosahatchee River, Alligator
Creek, and Shell Creek localities of Florida. The nucleus of the Mio-
cene form is a little flatter than the Pliocene species, but the sim-
ilarity of the shell in other respects hardly warrants a new specific
designation.
Figured specimen (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369912) measures: Altitude,
2.0 mm.; greatest diameter, 1.3 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (rare) ; station 1/955,
Gully Pond, Washington County (rare) ; station 11732, borrow pit,
Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla. (rare).

Ringicula (floridana var.?) guppyi Dall (more typical)
Plate 1, figure 8
Specimens from four localities are in aspect more typical of Dall's
species Ringicula (floridana var.?) guppyi. The shell possesses more
spirals and is smaller in size than the preceding form.
Figured specimen (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369914) measures: Altitude,
1.5 mm.; greatest diameter, 1.0 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (abundant) ; station
1/706, Gully Pond, Washington County (common) ; station 1/422,


1Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1576, 1903.


29







30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Hamlin Pond, Washington County (common); station 1/953, Econ-
fina River, 1 mile below Econfina bridge, Bay County (common).

Family BULLARIIDAE
Genus BULLARIA RAFINESQUE, 1815
Bullaria sp.
One rather small and broken specimen of the genus Bullaria was
collected by Mr. Herman Gunter from the upper Miocene at Harveys
Creek, about half a mile above an abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla.
The specific determination of this form is deferred until more and
better preserved specimens are obtained from this horizon.

Superorder STREPTONEURA
Order CTENOBRANCHIATA
Suborder ORTHODONTA
Superfamily TOXOGLOSSA
Family TEREBRIDAE
Genus MYURELLA Hinds, 1844
Myurella binodosa Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 2, figure 2
Shell small, solid, subacute, both axially and spirally sculptured
and consisting of 2 nuclear and 9 postnuclear whorls. First nuclear
whorl (tip decollated) smooth, rounded in outline, and loosely joined
to the smooth nearly straight-sided succeeding whorl. Postnuclear
whorls uniformly enlarging, constricted medially by a wide channel,
and separated by a distinct and grooved suture. Subsutural band
poorly defined by a narrow sulcus. Axial sculpture of prominent
elongate nodules at the summit and base of all the whorls (19 on the
summit of the penultimate whorl), of equal strength and connected
by feeble or nearly obsolete axials. Axials on adjacent whorls usually
opposite and extend along the shell nearly parallel to its axis. Spiral
sculpture on the subsutural band and median constriction of very
indistinct striae; and on the base of 7 to 8 quite distinct striae, which
overrun the nodules and interspaces and are separated by narrow
raised bands. Base of body whorl and neck to keel of siphonal fasciole
spirally sculptured with striae and axially, below the periphery, with
feeble ribs. Outer lip broken away. Siphonal canal rather short,.
markedly twisted and reflexed. Columella internally has a deep and
rounded-bottomed siphonal groove, bordered posteriorly by a rounded
thread behind which is a shallow groove, thus revealing a biplicate
pillar.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369919) measures: Altitude 18 mm.;
greatest diameter, 5.0 mm.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


This species belongs to the same group as M. concava (Say), a spe-
cies ranging from the Duplin Miocene to the Recent. It also is related
to M. neglecta (Emmons) but differs from the latter in strength and
nature of the pillar and the presence of the prominent elongate
nodules at the base of each evolution.
Occurrence: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., type lo-
cality (abundant) ; station 3672, 1 mile northwest of Hosford (abun-
dant) ; station 11732, borrow pit, Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla.
(common).

Myurella dislocata (Say)
Plate 2, figure 1
1822. Cerithium dislocatum Say, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., vol. 2, p. 235.
[Described.]
1838. Terebra petitii Kiener, Mon. Ter., p. 37, pl. 13, fig. 32.
This species, probably including some subspecies, began in the
upper Miocene and continued to the Recent.
Occurrence: Station 3671, Hosford; station 3672, 1 mile northwest
of Hosford, Liberty County, Fla.; station 1/422 Hamlin Pond, Wash-
ington County, Fla.; station 1/706, Gully Pond, Washington County,
Fla. At the last two localities the specimens are slimmer than at the
first two localities.

Myurella dislocata indenta (Conrad)
1841. Cerithium dislocatum (not Say), Conrad, Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts, vol. 41,
p. 343.
1863. Terebra indenta Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc. for 1862, p. 565.
1864. Terebra (Acus) indentata Conrad. Meek, Miocene check list, p. 18, No. 603.
1896. Terebra (Acus) dislocata Say, var. indenta Conrad. Dall, U. S. Nat. Mus.
Proc. for 1895, vol. 18, p. 40.
1903. Not Terebra (Oxymeris) dislocata Say. var. indenta Conrad. Dall, Wagner
Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, pl. 59, fig. 7, [Apparently the speci-
men figured came from the Florida Pliocene.]
Type locality: Natural Well, Duplin County, N. C.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. (rare).

Myurella protexta (Conrad)?
1846. Cerithium protextum Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., vol. 3,
p. 26.
1889. Acus protextus Conrad. Dall, Rept. Blake Gastr., pp. 63, 65.
1890. Terebra (Acus) protexta (Conrad). Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans.,
vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 25.
1917. ?Terebra protexta (Conrad). Maury, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5, p. 192,
pl. 30, fig. 1.


31







32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

A single fragment from station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a
mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., may belong to this
species.

Family CONIDAE
Genus CONUS Linnaeus, 1758
Conus adversarius Conrad
Plate 1, figure 15
Conus adversarius Conrad, Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 39, p. 388, 1840 [Described]: vol.
41, p. 345, pl. 2, fig. 3, 1841.
Type locality: Natural Well, Duplin County, N. C.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, stations 3422 and 3423,
upper anid lower upper Miocene beds at Jackson Bluff, Leon County
(rare); upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County (rare); Harveys
Creek, about half mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla.
(rare). Virginia, 3 miles west of Franklin, Southampton County.
South Carolina, Mayesville, Sumter County, and Darlington, Darling-
ton County. Pliocene: Waccamaw, S. C., Caloosahatchee River, Shell
Creek, and Alligator Creek, Fla.

Conus floridanus Gabb
Plate 1, figure 13
1869. Conus floridanus Gabb, Am. Jour. Conchology, vol. 4, p. 195, pl. 15, fig. 4,
1868.
Habitat: Tampa Bay, Florida (Gabb).
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, station 1/946, Harveys
Creek, about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (rare) ;
station 3422, uppermost bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County (rare).
Pliocene: Cronly, N. C., and Caloosahatchee River and Shell Creek,
Florida. Recent: Reported from Cape Hatteras to Florida Keys but
much more common along the Florida coast.

Conus testudinarius leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 1, figure 14
The face of the type and only specimen is broken away, but the
back is entire and reveals the following characters:
Shell of medium size, subpyriform, with a moderately low spire,
and consists of about 10 whorls in all. Spire very broadly conical.
Suture channeled and undulating on early whorls but appressed and
less undulating on later whorls. Early spire whorls ornamented with
weak tubercles on the presutural margin. Body whorl rounded at the
shoulder and narrow at the anterior end. Sculpture of poorly defined
spiral lines.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Type and only specimen (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370103) measures:
Altitude, 40 mm.; greatest diameter, 11 mm.
The new species differs from the Recent species, Conus testudi-
narius Reeve, in having a more rounded-shouldered body whorl and
a more attenuated anterior extremity.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. Collected by Florida Geological
Survey.

Conus harveyensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 1, figure 12
Shell small, subbiconic, and consists of 3 nuclear and 8 postnuclear
whorls. Spire turrited, weakly concave in outline, early part narrowly
conical, later broadly conical, and constitutes about one-third shell
length. Nuclear whorls smooth, porcellaneous, and rounded in out-
line. Early spire whorls medially carinate. Spire ornamented with
arcuate growth lines and faint microscopic spiral threads. Body whorl
and canal below shoulder carina marked with 17 flat, smooth, wide
spiral bands, which are separated by deep grooves about one-third
the width of the bands. The bands are broader above and narrower
below. Lower columella nearly straight.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370102) measures: Altitude, 21
mm.; greatest diameter, 10.5 mm.; altitude of spire, 7 mm.
Conus stimpsoni Dall, obtained in 60 fathoms off Key West, Fla.,
is related to the new species but differs from it in having a beaded
carina on the early whorls and a more tapering body whorl.
Conus burckhardti Boise, a Miocene species from the State of
Oaxaca, Mexico, is nearly related to the new species but apparently
differs from my species in having a longer body whorl and spiral
granules on the early spire whorls.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene, Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type and only locality. Collected
by Florida Geological Survey.

Family TURRITIDAE
Subfamily TURRITINAE
Genus CYMATOSYRINX Dall, 1889
Cymatosyrinx lunata (H. C. Lea)
Plate 2, figure 9
1845. Pleurotoma lunatum H. C. Lea, Am. Philos. Soc. Trans., new ser., vol. 9,
p. 269, pl. 37, fig. 93.
1856. Turris lunatum (Lea). Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene fossils of South
Carolina, p. 132, pl. 27, fig. 16.


33







34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

1863. Drillia lunata H. C. Lea. Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc. for
1862, p. 562.
1889. Drillia (Cymatosyrinx) lunata Lea. Dall, Harvard College Mus. Comp.
Zool. Bull., vol. 18, p. 95.
1890. Drillia (Cymatosyrinx) lunata Lea. Dall. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans.,
vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 29.
1903. Drillia (Cymatosyrinx) lunata H. C. Lea. Dall, op. cit., pt. 6, p. 1596.
1903. Pleurotoma (Cymatosyrinx) lunata Lea. Dall, op. cit., pt. 6, p. 1599.
1919. Drillia limatula Lea. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, station 1/946, Harveys
Creek, about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (com-
mon); station 3422, uppermost bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County
(rare) ; stations 3671, 3672, Hosford, and 1 mile northwest of Hosford,
Liberty County (rare) ; upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County
(rare) ; station 8176, the "Deadens," Washington County (rare).
Outside occurrence: Virginia, Petersburg, Yorktown, and near
Suffolk. North Carolina, Duplin marl. South Carolina, near Mayes-
ville. Pliocene of the Carolinas and Caloosathachee marl of Florida.

Cymatosyrinx lunata aepytuberculata Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 2, figure 12
This subspecies differs from the typical Cymatosyrinx lunata (Lea)
in having a shell with a more acute spire and more constricted and
shorter whorls. The whorls have stronger and shorter tuberculate
axials and a more sloping presutural area.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369944) measures: Altitude, 20.5 mm.;
diameter, 8 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene, station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County,
Fla., type locality (abundant) ; station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford (rare).

Cymatosyrinx lunata porrecta Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 2, figure 5
Specimens from stations 3422 (uppermost bed at Jackson Bluff)
and station 11732 (borrow pit near Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla.),
differ from Cymatosyrinx lunata (Lea) in having a much more
slender shell, shorter whorls, and a more depressed suture. They are
larger and have a more slender shell than Cymatosyrinx lunata
aepytuberculata. Otherwise they are very similar.
. Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370105) measures: Altitude, 27 mm. (tip
lost) ; diameter, 8 mm.
Type locality: Station 11732, borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon
County.






CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Similar forms occur in the Yorktown formation at Yorktown and
at Fergusons Wharf, James River, Va.

Cymatosyrinx propeaepynota Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 2, figure 6
Shell small, rather slender, moderately acute, polished, strongly
axially sculptured, without any engraved or raised spirals, and com-
posed of 9 whorls. Anal fasciole smooth, shallowly concave, gently
undulating. Suture slightly appressed. Nucleus composed of about
2 whorls. Initial half turn minute, terminally immersed. Succeeding
whorl smooth, globose, followed by a submedially angulated whorl
ornamented at first with small tubercles adjacent and behind the
suture and later with stronger and elongate ones. Ribs on later spire
whorls (8 on the penultimate whorl) strong and rounded, occupying
the lower half of the whorl and separated by broad rounded-bottomed
interspaces. Ribs on body whorls terminate at the base, below which
the upper part of the canal is constricted. Outer lip margin broken
away on type and all other specimens. Columella with a heavy wash
of callus and with a heavier patch on the parietal wall near the com-
missure of the inner and outer lips. Canal rather short and wide and
terminally recurved. Larger cotype (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369948)
measures: Altitude, 13 mm.; diameter, 4.4 mm.
The new species is more remotely related to Cymatosyrinx aepynota
(Dall) and more closely related to Cymatosyrinx aepynota var. acilia
(Dall), from the Pliocene of Florida. It differs from both the species
and variety in having a smaller shell with a smaller nucleus and
weaker and sharper axials.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., type locality; station 3671, Hosford.
Abundant at both stations.

Cymatosyrinx propeaepynota libertiensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 2, figure 3
1903. Drillia aepynota var. acilia Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6,
p. 1596.
This subspecies differs from Cymatosyrinx propeaepynota, n. sp.,
in having a little different nucleus. The second whorl on the speci-
mens referred to the subspecies is angulated while that of the species
is rounded. The subspecies contains 12 axials, while the species con-
tains about 8 and is marked with faint incised spiral lines.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369951) measures: Altitude, 17 mm.;
diameter, 5.6 mm.


35







36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, type locality; upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County
(U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 113143). Rare at both stations.

Cymatosyrinx sp. aff. C. eburnea (Conrad)
One incomplete specimen collected at station 1/960, Darlings
Slide, Calhoun County, Fla., agrees in a general way with Conrad's
description of Drillia eburnea.1 Closely allied forms occur in the
northern upper Miocene at Yorktown, Petersburg, Sycamore, and in
the basal bed at Fergusons Wharf, James River, Va.

Cymatosyrinx, species indeterminable
One immature specimen from station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford, and one broken specimen collected from the upper bed at
Alum Bluff (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 124969) are similar and may belong
to the same species. The latter specimen may be the form referred by
Dallf to "Drillia pusilla" Ravenel, but it does not appear to belong to
that species.

Genus CLATHRODRILLIA Dall, 1918
Clathrodrillia? emmonsi (Olsson)
Plate 1, figure 10
1858. Pleurotoma tuberculata Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., p. 265,
fig. 147. (Not Pleurotoma tuberculata Pusch, 1837.)
1863. Drillia (Pleurot.) tuberculata (Emmons) Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia Proc. for 1862, p. 562.
1864. Drillia tuberculata (Emmons) Conrad. Meek, Check list of the invertebrate
fossils of North America, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 7, No. 183, p. 21,
No. 718.
1892. Drillia tuberculata (Emmons). Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 2, p. 220.
1916. Drillia emmonsi Olsson, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5, p. 147. (Name pro-
posed for preoccupied name, Pleurotoma tuberculata Emmons, 1858.)
1919. Drillia tuberculata Emmons. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
The specimens that I have assigned to Clathrodrillia? emmonsi
from the Florida Miocene have slightly smaller nuclei and fainter
spirally sculptured anal fascioles than the forms referred to this spe-
cies in the Miocene and Pliocene of the Carolinas, but in general
aspect they are very similar.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, station 3672, 1 mile north-
west of Hosford, Liberty County; station 3671, Hosford (rare) ; sta-


'Conrad, T. A., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc. for 1862, vol. 14, pp. 285, 562, 1863.
2Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1596, 1903.






CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


tion 3421, Harveys Creek, Leon County, half a mile above abandoned
mill (rare) ; upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County (common) ;
station 1/962, old road cut leading to Watsons Landing, Liberty
County (rare); station 8176, the "Deadens," Washington County
(rare) ; 1/422, Hamlin Pond, Washington County (fragment, identi-
fication uncertain) ; borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County
(rare).

Clathodrillia? emmonsi hosfordensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 2, figure 7
A few specimens from station 3672, 1 mile northwest of Hosford,
one specimen from station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County, and three
specimens from borrow pit, near Jacksons Bluff, Leon County, Fla.,
differ somewhat in aspect and character of sculpture from the
specimens here referred to Clathodrillia? emmonsi. The nuclei, how-
ever, are very similar. The initial turn is small and smooth. On the
following whorl the sculpture begins with 4 spiral threads, the basal
thread forming the low periphery. On the later spire whorls 2 spiral
bands lie in the anal fasciole-the posterior band being the stronger-
and 1 weaker and narrower band lies behind the suture. Base of spire
whorls and shoulder of body whorl are sculptured with strong elon-
gate-tuberculate axials, usually medially incised by a spiral thread.
On the body whorl the axials attenuate forward from the shoulder
and terminate at the base. On the body whorl and canal are about
8 spiral bands, which become lowly tuberculate at the intersection
with the axials. Aperture short and wide. Anal notch wide and deep.
Canal very short, terminally a little recurved.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369961) measures: Altitude, 10 mm.;
diameter, 3. 5 mm.
Type locality: Station 3672.
The new subspecies appears to be closely related to "Drillia gas-
trophilia" Olsson, described from the Duplin marl of the Natural
Well, N. C., but it possesses a higher-shouldered and shorter body
whorl than Olsson's species.

Clathodrillia? anteaphanitoma Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 2, figure 11
Shell small, rather solid, seven-whorled, with a pointed spire and
a moderately large body whorl. Nucleus large, smooth, and globular.
Subsequent whorl rounded at first, later becoming medially carinated.
Initial sculpture of 6 fine rounded spiral threads, shortly followed
with fine axials entirely crossing the whorl. Following whorls low be-
low the suture and high on lower half. Suture shallow, narrowly


37






38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

channeled, not appressed. Axially sculptured on the lower half of
whorl with strong elongate-tuberculate ribs (9 on penultimate whorl),
fading out posteriorly, forming on the upper part only low undula-
tions. Ribs on the body whorl terminate at the base. Spirally sculp-
tured, mainly on and in front of the ribs, with primary and secondary
spirals. On the early whorls there are 2 low, narrow spiral bands and
on the body whorl and canal 10. One to two threads intervene the
primaries. Surface on the upper part of whorl with very faint spiral
threads. Aperture rather wide, expanded medially. Margin of outer
lip broken. Anterior canal short and reflected. Siphonal fasciole well
developed, ornamented with 6 roughed, crowded, spiral threads.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369964) measures: Altitude, 12.5 mm.;
diameter, 5 mm.
This species is closely related to "Drillia aphanitoma var. oxia"
Dall, described from Cape Fear River, N. C., but differs from this
variety in having much stronger tuberculate axials, a more depressed
presutural area, and fewer secondary spiral threads.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., type locality (rare) ; station 8176, the
"Deadens," Washington County, Fla. (common).

Clathodrillia? gracilina (Dall MS.) Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 2, figure 8
1903. Drillia gracilina Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1596.
[In list as occurring at Alum Bluff, upper bed.]
Shell moderately slender, high-spired, strongly axially and weakly
spirally sculptured, with about 8 whorls. Body whorl about half the
shell length. Whorls low over the roundly excavated and wide anal
fasciole and moderately high at lower two-thirds of length, separated
by a loosely appressed suture. Apical turn small, smooth, and hemi-
spherical. Following evolution inflated, marked at initiation by 5 mi-
nute spiral threads, shortly followed by faint axials, giving under mag-
nification a reticulate sculpture. Axials uniformly increase in strength
on the advancing whorls. Spire whorls axially sculptured with strong
roundly crested ribs (9 on the penultimate whorl) occupying the
lower two-thirds of the whorl and separated by rounded-bottomed
interspaces. Spiral sculpture of primary narrow bands and secondary
threads. About 3 primaries occupy the periphery and base on the
early whorl, increasing to 7 on the penultimate whorl. Secondary
threads lie in the anal fasciole and usually one or two between the
primaries. On body whorls, axials terminate at the base but spirals
continue over the canal. Primary spirals over the periphery similar
to those of spire whorls but forward consist of widely spaced semi-







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


rounded strong threads with intercalated weaker threads. Aperture
short and wide. Anal fasciole moderately deep and wide. Outer lip
arched, bordered by a varix. Canal very short, wide, and terminally
reflected. Siphonal fasciole ornamented with closely-set spiral lines.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 112708) measures: Altitude, 13.5 mm.;
(tip decollate) ; diameter, 5.5 mm.
The description is made from two specimens, a type with broken-
off nucleus and a paratype with a well-preserved nucleus.
The species is related to "Drillia sumterensis" Gardner and Ald-
rich, described from near Mayesville, S. C., but differs from that
species in possessing a less slender shell with whorls stronger-should-
ered in front of the anal fasciole. It is also closely related to "Drillia
ecphorae" Olsson, described from the Duplin marl at the Natural
Well, N. C., but the new species has a more depressed anal fasciole
with fainter spiral sculpture and more subdued entering axials.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 2210, upper bed at Alum
Bluff, Liberty County, Fla., type locality; station 3421, Harveys Creek,
about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., paratype
locality; ?station 3422, upper bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County,
Fla. Rare at all localities.
This species does not appear to have been described or figured,
but specimens designated by a catalogue number and the retained
name are in the U. S. National Museum collection.

Clathodrillia? podagrina (Dall)
Plate 2, figure 4
1890. Drillia podagrina Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 34,
pl. 2, fig. 9.
One small specimen collected at station 3422, uppermost Miocene
bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla., agrees in detail with "Drillia
podagrina" Dall, described from the Pliocene of Caloosahatchee
River, Fla.

Genus CRASSISPIRA Swainson, 1840
Crassispira antealesidota Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 2, figure 10
Shell large, solid, subbiconic, with 8 remaining whorls (nucleus
and 1 or 2 early whorls missing). Spiral and axial sculpture of about
equal strength. Whorls nearly straight in outline, lowly shouldered
below anal fasciole, separated by an appressed and shallow suture.
Anal fasciole narrow, shallow, ornamented with 1 strong medial
spiral cord and on either side with 1 small carinate spiral thread.
Spirally sculptured on the spire whorls with 2 cords on the raised


39







40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

border lying between the suture and anal fasciole, and usually 4
equally spaced spirals between the anal fasciole and the forward
suture, becoming stronger and weakly nodulous at their intersection
with the axials. Body whorl and canal with 21 spirals, those on the
siphonal fasciole being more closely-set, sharper, and without nodules.
Axial sculpture on the spire and body whorl of protractive rounded
ribs, extending on the spire from the anal fasciole forward to the
suture and on the body whorl (about 37 ribs in all) to the base of
the whorl. Margin of outer lip broken. Aperture long, apparently
narrow, and weakly expanded medially. Columella nearly straight,
with thin wash of callus. Anterior canal short, diverted to the right.
Siphonal fasciole not elevated, ornamented with semicarinate mar-
ginally reflected cords.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369970) measures: Altitude, 53 mm.;
diameter, 15 mm.
"Drillia alesidota var. perspirata" Dall, from the Floridian Plio-
cene, is closely related to the new species, but the new species differs
from the Pliocene species in having a larger shell with a more evenly:
conic spire, a shallower and narrower anal fasciole and lower-
shouldered whorls below anal fasciole, a weaker siphonal fasciole,
and in being ornamented with finer spirals and axials. "Drillia" con-
sors Sowerby has a more slender shell than the new species. My new
species is closely related to Drillia alesidota var. magna Boise, from
Paso Real, cerca de Tuxtepec, Mexico, but appears to differ from the
latter in having less crowded and narrower spiral sculpture and a
little longer body whorl and canal.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type locality
(rare) ; borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County (1 specimen
collected by the Florida Geological Survey).

Genus BELLASPIRA Conrad, 1867
Bellaspira?, n. sp.?
One imperfect specimen from station 8176, the "Deadens," Wash-
ington County, Fla., may belong to the genus Bellaspira Conrad and
represent a new species. The most nearly related form appears to be
an unpublished new species in the Duplin marl at the Natural Well,
N. C.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Subfamily MANGILIINAE
Genus MANGILIA Risso, 1826
Mangilia harveyensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 10, 11
1890. Mangilia quadrata eritima Bush. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 40 (part).
1919. Mangilia eritima Bush. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Shell small, solid, about six-whorled, strongly axially sculptured.
Nucleus of about 2 whorls, smooth and inflated. Postnuclear whorls,
except first, strongly angulated near middle of whorl. Suture weakly
appressed and occupying the deep constriction. First postnuclear
whorl lowly angled, sculpture of fine arcuate riblets overrun by fine
spirals, forming a faint reticulate ornamentation. Following whorls
axially sculptured with moderately strong ribs (10 on the penultimate
whorl), extending on the spire whorls from suture to suture and on
the body whorl forward to the base. Spirally sculptured on spire
whorls with a moderately strong cord at the medial periphery and
2 or 3 weaker and primary threads below the periphery, and on the
body whorl below the periphery and on the canal with 10 to 12 sim-
ilar threads. Whole surface of shell spirally sculptured with micro-
scopic granulose threads. Aperture narrowly ovate. Anal notch wide
and posteriorly rounded. Canal rather long and straight.
Larger cotype (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369973) measures: Altitude,
4.4 mm.; diameter, 2 mm.
The nearest related Recent species appears to be Mangilia limoni-
tella Dall.
The new species has stronger axials behind the periphery and
stronger and wider-spaced spiral threads than Mangilia magnoliana
Olsson, described from the Duplin marl at the Natural Well, N. C.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, station 3421, Harveys Creek,
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality (com-
mon) ; ?station 1/706, Gully Pond, Washington County; station 3422,
upper bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County (rare).
Outside occurrence: North Carolina, near Magnolia. South Caro-
lina, Muldrow's place, near Mayesville. Pliocene: Florida, Caloosa-
hatchee marl.

Mangilia coensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 3, figure 9
Shell solid, moderately slender, high-spired-spire about two-fifths
shell length-strongly axially sculptured, and consists of 11/2 nuclear
and 5 postnuclear whorls. Apical half-turn minute, following turn


41







42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

much larger, rounded in outline, and smooth. Postnuclear whorls
strongly angled submedially. Suture appressed and wavy. Sculpture
of first postnuclear whorl of 10 to 12 fine arcuate riblets. Axial sculp-
ture of following whorls of (7 on the penultimate whorl) rather
sharply crested riblets, on the earlier whorls, and strong and rounded
ribs on the last two whorls. Spiral sculpture of a prominent narrow
band at the periphery of each whorl, becoming lowly nodulous over
the ribs; above this band, of very minute threads, and below the band
and over the base of the body whorl and canal, of very narrow bands.
Minute growth lines intervene the axials and produce a faint reticu-
late ornamentation. Aperture elongate and expanded medially. Canal
short, nearly straight. Inner surface of columella provided with a
thin wash of callus.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369977) measures: Altitude, 10 mm.;
diameter, 3 mm.; aperture length, 4.4 mm.
This species evidently belongs to the section Kurtziella, of Dall,
1918.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford (formerly
called Coe's Mill), Liberty County, Fla., type locality; station 3672,
1 mile northwest of Hosford. Rare at both localities.

Mangilia gardnerae Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 3, figure 6
Shell small, somewhat turrited, with subangulated whorls con-
stricted at the suture, and consisting of 11 nuclear and 51/2 postnu-
clear whorls. Nuclear whorls small and smooth. Following whorl in-
flated and ornamented with fine, granulose spiral threads, giving it
under magnification a faint reticulate appearance. Following whorls
subangulated-the periphery being a little nearer the upper suture.
Axially sculptured with vertical riblets on the earlier whorls and
ribs on the later spire whorls and body whorls. Ribs cross the spire
whorls and on the body whorl extend to the canal. Spiral sculpture
on spire whorls of 4 primary threads and from 2 or 3 microscopic
threadlets between the primaries and several in front of the suture.
The first primary is weaker and lies in front of the periphery, the
second occupies the periphery, the third lies on the anterior slope,.
and the fourth lies behind the suture. The finely granulose spirals and
minute connecting bars give the shell under magnification a frosty
appearance. Canal short. Margin of outer lip broken. Inner surface
of columella provided with a thin wash of callus.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369979) measures: Altitude, 5.5 mm.;
diameter, 2.1 mm.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


The species is described from two specimens, the larger specimen,
with missing nucleus, constituting the type and the smaller specimen,
with a well preserved nucleus, the paratype.
The nearest related Recent species appears to be Mangilia atro-
styla Dall.
The new species is named in honor of Dr. Julia A. Gardner, of the
U.. S. Geological Survey.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/670, upper bed at Alum
Bluff, Liberty County, Fla., type locality; station 1/955, Gully Pond,
Washington County, paratype locality; 1/964, Harveys Creek, at aban-
doned mill, highest bed; station 3423, Jackson Bluff, Leon County,
lower upper Miocene bed. Rare at all localities.

Mangilia sp. aff. M. magnoliana Olsson
A few immature specimens of the genus Mangilia from station
3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon
County, Fla., are related to Mangilia magnoliana Olsson', a species
described from the Duplin marl at the Natural Well, N. C. Similar
forms, which appear referable to Mangilia magnoliana, occur at
Muldrow's place, 5 miles southeast of Mayesville, S. C.

Genus BRACHYCYTHARA Woodring, 1928
Brachycythara turrita Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 3, figure 8
Shell solid, subbiconic, strongly axially and finely spirally sculp-
tured, six-whorled. Nucleus small and smooth. Postnuclear whorls
turrited, with periphery nearer the lower suture. Suture inconspic-
uous, closely appressed and undulating with the contour of whorl.
First postnuclear whorl axially sculptured, with many closely-set
arcuate riblets. Axials on following whorls of strong seminodulous
ribs (8 on the penultimate whorl), stronger at the periphery and a
little weaker on the anal fasciole. Spiral sculpture of many uniform
weakly punctate closely-set striae separated by flat, smooth bands.
On the body whorl the ribs terminate at the siphonal fasciole, but
the spirals continue to the end of the canal. Aperture uniformly
narrow. Anal notch slightly contracted and posteriorly rounded. Mar-
gin of outer lip thin and inflected. Pillar callus smooth. Canal short
and moderately reflected.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369984) measures: Altitude, 12 milli-
meters; diameter, 5.5 millimeters; aperture length, 7 millimeters.



1Olsson, A. A., Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5, p. 124, pl. 25, fig. 11, 1916.


43








44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

This species possesses a much more turrited shell than "Cythara"
terminula Dall, a Pliocene species, or "Cythara" terminula costari-
censis Olsson, a species described from the Miocene of Banana River,
Costa Rica.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, Fla., type locality (common) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek,
about half mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. (rare).

"Cythara" balteata (Reeve) ?
A fragment of the genus "Cythara" from station 3421, Harveys
Creek, about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla.,
closely agrees with "Mangilia balteata" Reeve', a species reported by
Dall' in the Caloosahatchee marl. In the Recent fauna this species is
more common along the Florida Keys, where it lives at a moderate
depth.
Genus ACMATURRIS Woodring, 1928
Acmaturris metria (Dall)
Plate 3, figure 5
1903. Cythara metria Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, pl. 60.
fig. 13.
This species, figured from the Pliocene of Shell Creek, Fla., does
not appear to have been described.
Following is a description of the Pliocene species:
Shell rather small, elongated, turrited, strongly sculptured, axials
being a little stronger than spirals, and consists of 7 whorls in all.
Nucleus of about 2 rounded, smooth whorls; apical turn minute, fol-
lowing one much larger. Spire whorls shouldered below anal fasciole
and gently sloping on early whorls to anterior suture. Body whorl
three-fifths length of shell. Sculpture on spire and body whorl of
moderately strong, rounded, slightly arcuate ribs (12 on the penulti-
mate whorl), extending across the spire whorls and to the base on
the body whorl, and separated by little wider interspaces. Spiral
sculpture of very narrow, flat bands (4 or 5 on the spire whorls) and
threads; one thread usually intercalates the bands and 4 to 5 threads
lie on the slope of the anal fasciole. The spiral below the anal fasciole
is a little stronger and weakly angulates the whorl. All spirals over-
run the axials with equal strength. First spire whorl carinated and
marked at first by closely-set arcuate axials. Aperture less than half
the length of shell. Outer lip arcuate; border incurved by terminal
rib; anal notch rounded and rather deep and wide. Coluimella

'Reeve, L. A., Conchologia Iconica, Mangelia, pl. 7, fig. 57, 1846.
'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 37, 1890.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


straight. Siphonal fasciole marked with 8 closely-set, oblique, spiral
lines.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 163985) measures: Altitude, 7.5 mm.;
greatest diameter, 2.5 mm.; length of aperture, 3.4 mm.
In the upper Miocene of Florida there is one specimen from station
8176, the "Deadens," Washington County, one fragment from station
3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon
County, and one fragment from station 1/961, near Woods, Liberty
County, that appear referable to this species. The largest Miocene
specimen has a smaller shell with a weaker intercalary spiral thread
than the Pliocene form, but this slight difference hardly warrants a
new specific or subspecific designation.
The species appears to have survived into the Pliocene without any
marked change and is represented in the Recent fauna by "Daphnella"
elata Dall.
The figured specimen (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369988) was collected at
station 8176, the "Deadens," Washington County, by Dr. E. H. Sell-
ards, former State Geologist of Florida.

Genus GLYPHOSTOMA Gabb 1873
Glyphostoma watsoni leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 3, figure 7
The new subspecies is closely allied to Glyphostoma watsoni Dall1
and bears mainly the same characteristics. It differs, however, from
Dall's species in the following respects: The shell is larger and has
a higher and more prominent peripheral keel, has fewer and wider
axials, and lacks the primary spiral threads below the peripheral
keel.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 369990) measures: Altitude, 9.2 milli-
meters; diameter, 4 millimeters; length of aperture, 4 millimeters.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3422, upper bed at Jackson
Bluff, Leon County, type locality; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County; station 3671, Hos-
ford, and 3672, 1 mile northwest of Hosford, Liberty County, Fla.
Rare at all localities.
TURRITIDAE-Appendix
The assignment of the Turritidae in this paper to the different
genera is based upon the present knowledge of the classification.
When a classification of the Recent Atlantic Coast and Gulf Turritidae
is completed it will form a better basis of comparison for our late


1Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 40, pl. 2, fig. 7, 1890.


45








46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Tertiary group, and will permit an easier assignment of the species
to their proper genera.
The following species are listed by Dall' as occurring in the upper
bed at Alum Bluff, Fla., but were not found by the writer among the
fossil material from there:
Drillia distans Conrad,
Drillia ostrearum Stearns,
Drillia, like D. hoplophorus Dall.

Family CANCELLARIIDAE
Genus CANCELLARIA Lamarck, 1799
Subgenus CANCELLARIA S. S.
Cancellaria tabulata Gardner and Aldrich
Plate 3, figure 2
1919. Cancellaria tabulata Gardner and Aldrich. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 23, pl. 1, fig. 9.
The type locality of this species is 5 miles northeast of Smithfield,
James River, Isle of Wight County, Va., from the Yorktown %forma-
tion. This species apparently is very rare in the Virginia Miocene, as
it is not represented in the U. S. National Museum collections made
either by former collectors or me. In North Carolina this species oc-
curs in the Duplin marl at the Natural Well and in South Carolina
at Muldrow's place, 5 miles southeast of Mayesville. In Florida it is
represented in the upper Miocene at Alum Bluff, Liberty County,
upper bed (common) ; station 3671, Hosford, and station 3672, 1 mile
northwest of Hosford, Liberty County (common); station 1/960,
Darlings Slide, Calhoun County (rare) ; station 3422, Jackson Bluff,
Leon County, uppermost bed (rare) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek,
about half a mile above abandoned mill (common) ; station 1/964,
Harveys Creek at abandoned mill, highest bed exposed (rare?).
The type specimen of this species has fewer spirals on the body
whorl than most specimens in the Duplin marl of the Carolinas or
those in the upper Miocene of Florida but does not differ in other
features.
Cancellaria reticulata leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 3, figure 12
1856. Cf. Cancellaria reticulata Tuomey and Holmes (?not of Linne), Pleiocene
fossils of South Carolina, p. 142, pl. 28, fig. 16 (Pee Dee).
The new subspecies is closely allied to Cancellaria reticulata Linne
but differs from it as follows: The new subspecies has a lighter and
more elongate shell and possesses a more delicate and finer sculpture

'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1596, 1903.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


ornamentation, a feature that is shown on the early whorls where the
axials are narrow and weak.
The Pliocene species, Cancellaria conradiana Dall, has a much
longer and narrower shell than the new subspecies.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370106) measures: Altitude, 48 mm.;
diameter, 26 mm.; length of aperture, 30 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene, Harveys Creek, about half a mile
above the abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality; station 3422,
uppermost bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County; station 3671, Hosford,
Liberty County. Small at the last locality. Rare at all localities.

Cancellaria (Cancellaria?) propevenusta Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 17, figure 2
1919. ?Cancellaria venusta Tuomey and Holmes. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad.
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17 (part).
1929. Cancellaria propevenusta Mansfield (MS). Cooke and Mossom, Florida
Geol. Survey Twentieth Ann. Rept., pl. 16, fig. 2.
Shell rather large, thin and fragile, turrited, and consists of 5
whorls. Nucleus smooth, flatly coiled. Following whorls rounded,
strongly constricted at the profound, grooved suture. Spiral sculpture
of equidistant, nearly flat-topped narrow bands (8 on the penultimate
and 19 on the body whorl and canal), roughened by growth lines
and poorly defined axials. Axial sculpture of weak ribs and closely
crowded growth lines overrunning the surface and giving the shell a
roughened but not a distinctly cancellate appearance. Aperture ear-
shaped, slightly produced submedially. Outer lip thin, marked within
with 15 carinate lirations, which are located opposite to the external
spiral interspaces. Canal short, rather wide, and reflected. Posterior
part of a parietal wall with a spiral, rounded ridge. Columellar lip
marginally reflected and provided with 2 plications, anterior plication
more oblique than posterior. A large perforation is behind the lower
part of the columellar lip. Siphonal fasciole prominent, ornamented
with 3 to 4 closely-set coarse spiral lines.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370006) measures: Altitude, 35 mm.;
greatest diameter, 20 mm.; length of aperture, 22 mm.; greatest
width, 10 mm.
The new species is closely allied to Cancellaria venusta Tuomey
and Holmes, a species occurring both in the Waccamaw and Caloosa-
hatchee Pliocene, but differs from this species in having a much larger
shell, much more inflated and tabulated early spire whorls, and in
lacking the coarse cancellate ornamentation possessed by the Pliocene
species.


47







48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, station 1/946, Harvey
Creek, about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type
locality (common) ; station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County (rare) ;
borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County (rare) ; station 8176,
the "Deadens," Washington County (rare).
Outside occurrence: North Carolina, Natural Well. South Carolina,
Muldrow's place, 5 miles southeast of Mayesville; Darlington.

* ,, Subgenus NARONA H. and A. Adams, 1853
Cancellaria (Narona) agria Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 3, figure 1
Shell small, solid, turrited, strongly axially sculptured, with only
3 remaining whorls. Whorls inflated, strongly constricted at the
grooved suture. Body whorl much larger than preceding whorl. Axial
sculpture (on the body whorl 10) strong, high, rounded, retractive
ribs extending on the spire whorls from suture to suture and on the
body whorl to the canal and separated by a little wider rounded-
bottomed interspaces. Spiral sculpture of strong subrounded threads,
or weak cords, and weaker threads occupying the posterior shoulder
slope, all neatly overrunning the axials and interspaces with equal
strength and separated by interspaces about three times the width of
the spirals. On the earliest preserved whorl there are 3 stronger spirals
on the periphery and I weaker spiral on the posterior slope; on the
following whorl 2 weaker spirals occupy the posterior slope; and on
the back of the body whorl 2 weaker spirals occupy the posterior slope
and 11 stronger spirals extend forward from the posterior shoulder
to the siphonal fasciole. Aperture ear-shaped. Outer lip thin, marked
within with 5 short lirae, the posterior being farther separated from
the second than the others. Canal short, rather wide, weakly gyrate.
Parietal wall with reduced re-entering spirals. Columella provided
with 2 rounded oblique plications, the anterior one marginating the
canal. A small chink lies between the columellar wash and the
columella.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370010) measures: Altitude, 11 mm.;
(early whorls broken away) ; diameter 6 mm.; length of aperture,
5.5 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/962, cut in old road leading
to Watsons Landing, Liberty County, Fla., type locality; station 3671,
Hosford, Liberty County, Fla. Rare at both localities.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Cancellaria (Narona) coensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 3, 4
Shell small, rather fragile, turrited, with a large body whorl, and
51/2 whorls in all. Nucleus corroded but apparently consisting of 2
inflated smooth whorls, the apical one minute, followed by a much
larger turn. Following whorls moderately rounded in outline and
constricted at the suture. Sculptured with strong axials and weaker
spirals. Axial sculpture of (on the body whorl 10) strong, weakly
protracted, rounded ribs, crossing the whorl from suture to suture.
Spiral sculpture on spire whorls of 2 widely separated nearly flat
lines occupying the posterior and anterior shoulders; back of body
whorl and canal with 6 stronger spirals and 1 finer spiral inter-
calating near the lip margin the first and second and second and third
stronger threads. A faint spiral is adjacent and posterior to suture on
the penultimate whorl. Aperture ear-shaped. Outer lip, within, with
3 short lirations. Columella provided with 2 oblique plications, the
posterior being the stronger. Canal short and weakly gyrate. Siphonal
fasciole rather prominent, ornamented with 3 spiral threads.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370012) measures: Altitude, 7 mm.;
diameter, 3.5 mm.; length of aperture, 3.5 mm.
The type and two other specimens are imperfect. C. coensis is
-closely related to Cancellaria agria, n. sp., but it is separated from
that species by its fewer and wider-spaced spirals and shallower
;suture.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., type locality; station 1/962, cut in
.old road leading to Watsons Landing, Liberty County, Fla.

Subgenus TRIGONOSTOMA Blainville, 1826
Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) perspective alumensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 4, figure 5
The type locality of Cancellaria perspective Conrad, described1
in 1834 and figured2 in 1866, is near Smithfield, James River, Va.
The new subspecies is closely allied to the species but differs from
-the figured type in that the body whorl is more sloping toward the
-upper shoulder and is sculptured with weaker and more closely-set
axials. The spiral sculpture of the species, judging from the descrip-
tion, is very similar to that of the subspecies. The spiral sculpture of
the subspecies consists of narrow bands alternating with fine threads
separated by striae. Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) perspective Conrad


1Acad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia Jour., vol. 7, 1st ser., p. 136, 1834.
2Am. Jour. Conchology; vol. 2, pl. 3, fig. 6, 1866. -


49







50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

is reported by Dall1 from the Miocene of Duplin County, N. C. A
specimen so labeled in the U. S. National Museum collection and ob-
tained from the Miocene of North Carolina agrees with my new sub-
species and probably is the same specimen referred to by Dall.
The figured specimenS referred to Cancellaria perspective Conrad
and obtained from the St. Marys formation, Maryland, does not ap-
pear to compare very closely with Conrad's figured type and may be-
long to another species or subspecies.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. -No. 370014) measures: Altitude, 18 mm.;
diameter, about 13 mm.; length of aperture, 10 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, station 7081, upper bed at
Alum Bluff, type locality; station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County;
station 3423, lower upper Miocene bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon
County; borrow pit, Jackson Bluff. Specimens at the first two local-
ities are rare and at the last two localities imperfect or small.

Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) tenera Philippi
Plate 4, figure 7
1848. Cancellaria tenera Philippi, Zeitsch. fuiir Mal., vol. 5, p. 24.
1878. Cancellaria stimpsoni Calkins, Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci. Proc., vol. 2, p.
250, pl. 8, figs. 4, 5.
1890. Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) tenera Philippi. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci.
Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 43, pl. 10, fig. 8.
1919. Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) tenera Philippi. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad.
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, 1/946, Harveys Creek, half
a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (Gunter and Mansfield).
Outside occurrence: Upper Miocene: South Carolina, Muldrow's
Place, 5 miles southeast of Mayesville, Sumter County. Pliocene: Flor-
ida, Caloosahatchee marl. Recent: Gulf of Mexico.

Cancellaria carolinensis Emmons?
A fragment of the genus Cancellaria in the U. S. National Museum
collection (No. 124971), representing the lower part of the body
whorl surrounding the large umbilicus, collected from the upper bed
at Alum Bluff, Liberty County, Fla., is identified as Cancellaria caro-
linensis Emmons. This species is recorded from this locality by Dall'..
The type of Cancellaria carolinensis Emmons was collected at Mr.
Flowers's marl bed on the Cape Fear River, Bladen County, N. C.


'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 43, 1890.
'Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene, pl. 48, fig. 9, 1904.
'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1596, 1903.








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Superfamily RHACHIGLOSSA
Family OLIVIDAE
Genus OLIVA Martyn, 1786
Oliva sayana Ravenel
Plate 4, figure 4
1811. Oliva litterata Lamarck, Ann. Mus. XVI, p. 315. (Not Porphyria litterata
Bolten, 1789.)
1830. Oliva litterata Lam. Say, Am. Jour. Conchology, vol. 1, pt. 1, pl. 3.
1834. Oliva sayana Ravenel, Cat., p. 19.
1856. Strephona literata (Lam.). Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene fossils of South
Carolina, p. 140, pl. 28, fig. 13.
1858. Oliva literate Say. Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., pp. 259,
264, fig. 130.
1859. ?Strephona literate (Lam.) Tuomey and Holmes. Holmes, Post-Pleiocene
fossils of South Carolina, p. 75, pl. 12, fig. 7.
1863. Dactylus carolinensis Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc. for 1862,
vol. 14, p. 563.
1864. Oliva carolinensis Conrad. Meek, Check list of the invertebrate fossils of
North America, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. (183), p. 20, No. 660.
1890. Oliva litterata Lamarck. Dall (part), Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3.
pt. 1, p. 44.
1899. Oliva (Neocylindricus) carolinensis Conrad. Cossmann, Essais de paleo-
conchologie compare, vol. 3, p. 46, pl. 2, figs. 20, 24.
1904. Oliva litterata Lamarck. Martin, Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene, p. 169,
pl. 44, figs. la, lb.
1919. Oliva litterata Lamarck. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County (common) ; station 1/960, Darlings Slide, Chipola
River, Calhoun County (rare) ; station 8176, the "Deadens," Wash-
ington County; station 1/962, cut in old road to Watsons Landing,
Liberty County (rare) ; station 3422, upper bed at Jackson Bluff,
Leon County (common) ; station 1/946, Harveys Creek, about half
a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (common) ; station 1/964,
highest bed at abandoned mill on Harveys Creek (common) ; station
1/966, Double Branch, Leon County (rare).
This species begins in the Calvert formation of the Chesapeake
group and ranges upward to the Recent.

Genus OLIVELLA Swainson, 1831
Olivella mutica (Say) Dall
Plate 4, figure 1
1822. Oliva mutica Say, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., vol. 2 (1st ser.), p. 228.
1843. Oliva duplicate Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., vol. 1, p. 309.
1858. Oliva sp., Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept. p. 259, fig. 131a.
1859. Oliva mutica Say. Holmes, Post-Pleiocene fossils of South Carolina, p. 76,
pl. 12, fig. 8.


51







52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

1890. Olivella mutica (Say). Dall (part), Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 45.
1903. Olivella mutica Say. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, pp.
1596, 1599.
1919. Olivella mutica (Say). Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
1924. Olivella mutica (Say). Mansfield, Florida Geol. Survey Fifteenth Ann.
Rept., in faunal list opposite p. 28.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 3672, 1 mile north-
west of Hosford, Liberty County (abundant) ; station 3671, Hosford
(abundant) ; station 2210, Alum Bluff, Liberty County, upper bed
(rare) ; station 1/962, cut in old road to Watsons Landing, Liberty
County (rare) ; station 3422, Jackson Bluff, Leon County, uppermost
bed (rare) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County (rare).
Olivella duplicate (Conrad), from Wilmington, N. C., was de-
scribed but not figured. Its length as given by Conrad is half an 'inch.
Although this description indicates a larger shell than the general
run of 0. mutica, I have placed 0. duplicate in synonymy with 0.
mutica. Further study may prove that they are distinct species.
All the specimens referred to 0. mutica in my upper Miocene of
Florida are small.

Olivella mutica coensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 4, figure 2
Shell small, rather solid, subcylindrical, consisting of about 5
whorls. Posterior extremity broadly conical. Apical whorl small, fol-
lowing spire whorls submedially depressed. Body whorl cylindrical
and depressed a little above the middle. Suture narrow and shallowly
channeled. Aperture half the length of body whorl, narrow above and
gradually widening below. Outer lip margin sharp. Inner lip provided
with callus, which extends upon the body whorl to medial depression.
A callus fold superposes the lip callus at the base of the columella.
Inner lip without lirations.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370033) measures: Altitude, 6 mm.;
diameter, 2.6 mm.; length of aperture, 2.7 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford, Liberty County, type locality (common) ; station 3671,
Hosford (rare).
The new subspecies is separated from the form referred to 0.
mutica by its more cylindrical shell, its medially depressed whorls,
and the absence of lirations on the inner lip callus. In comparison
with the more slender forms referred to 0. mutica in the Recent
fauna, the new subspecies has a heavier shell and a medial depression.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Section DACTYLIDELLA Woodring, 1928
Olivella (Dactylidella) floridana Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 4, figure 3
Shell small, solid, subovate, five-whorled, with a very short broadly
conic spire and a large semi-elliptical body whorl. Apical whorl
minute. Following spire whorls rapidly enlarging. Suture narrow and
shallowly channeled. Aperture narrow and oblong above and ex-
panded at anterior end. Margin of outer lip broken. Outer lip, within,
with ten entering lirations. Base of body whorl provided with the
usual callus. Callus covers the inner lip and a part of the face of the
body whorl to the suture, heavy on the inner lip and lighter and
tapering on the body whorl. Another heavy and narrow callus, orna-
mented with six lirations, superposes the lip callus and extends pos-
teriorly to upper third of aperture length and anteriorly unites with
the border of the emargination.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370036) measures: Altitude, 7 mm.;
diameter, 3.8 mm.; length of aperture, 3.4 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, type locality; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County. Rare at both localities.
In respect to the lirations on the inside of the outer lip, the new
species shows a relationship to 0. galvestonensis Harris, a species de-
scribed from the deep well at Galveston, Texas, and taken at a depth
of 2410-2871 feet. However, the new species has a much shorter and
heavier shell than Harris's species. Three specimens in the U. S.
National Museum collection, labeled 0. mutica var., were collected at
the same depth in this well but are of different color, and appear
identical with my new species. These probably were not included by
Harris under 0. galvestonensis.
I do not find any species of the genus Olivella in the East Coast
Recent fauna possessing lirations on the inside of the outer lip.
Olivella jacksonensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 4, figure 6
Shell small, thin, subovate, about four-whorled, with a moderately
short and blunt spire. Whorls inflated. Suture very narrowly chan-
neled and weakly appressed. Apical half-turn smooth, large, and
hemispherical. Following spire whorls inflated, the periphery being
a little below the middle of the whorl. Body whorl subelliptical and
composing three-fourths of the shell length. Aperture narrow above
and wide below. Outer lip thin, simple; margin nearly straight except
at lower part where it gently incurves. Parietal wall, columella and
anterior extremity of shell provided with a thin wash of callus. Lower







54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

end of columella biplicate. Columella above the biplication smooth.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370039) measures: Altitude, 6.5 mm.;
diameter, 3.2 mm.; length of aperture, 3.5 mm.
Occurrence: Station 3423, Jackson Bluff, Leon County, from lower
upper Miocene bed.
The new species is founded upon one specimen.
The biplicate columella recalls 0. biplicata Sowerby, a Recent spe-
cies occurring on the west coast of California, but this species has a
much larger shell than the new species.
0. biplicata is the type of the subgenus Callianax of H. and A.
Adams.
Family MARGINELLIDAE
Genus MARGINELLA Lamarck, 1799
Marginella popenoei Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 9, 11
Shell large, rather fragile, elongate-ovate. Posterior end truncate
and moderately depressed at the vertex. Area at vertex slightly broken
but indicates a concealed nucleus. Aperture longer than body whorl,
uniformly narrow in upper two-thirds, wider below opposite colu-
mellar plications. Outer lip strongly curved at both extremities; be-
tween, gently arched; within, strongly denticulated except at posterior
end. Columella provided with four plications, anterior two strong and
oblique, posterior two weak and less oblique.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370040) measures: Altitude, 44 mm.;
maximum diameter, 22 mm.
One immature specimen obtained at station 1/946 shows the very
minute nucleus projecting above the truncated posterior end.
The new species is closely related to Marginella taylori Olsson, a
species described from the Yorktown formation, Chocowinity, N. C.,
but when compared with the illustration of Olsson's species my spe-
cies shows a shorter and proportionally wider shell with a wider
aperture at the anterior part, resulting from the more tapering and
narrower anterior part of the body whorl.
The new species is separated from Marginella antiqua Redfield by
its truncated posterior end.
The nearest allied Recent species is M. bullata Born, from Brazil.
The new species is named in honor of Mr. Willis P. Popenoe, of
the U. S. Geological Survey.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/964, highest bed exposed
at abandoned mill on Harveys Creek, Leon County, Fla., type locality;
station 1/946, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above abandoned
mill; borrow near Jackson Bluff, Leon County. Rare at all localities.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Marginella sp. aff. M. contract Conrad
There are two imperfect specimens from station '3423, lower upper
Miocene bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla., that are related
to Marginella contract Conrad.

Marginella sp. cf. M. gravida Dall
Two imperfect specimens from station 3423, lower upper Miocene
bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla., compare with Marginella
gravida Dall.2

Marginella minute Pfeiffer
Plate 4, figure 8
1840. Marginella minute Pfeiffer, Archiv. fiir. Naturgeschichte, I, p. 259.
1845. ?Marginella conulus H. C. Lea, Am. Philos. Soc. Trans., vol. 9, p. 273,
pl. 37, fig. 102.
1863. ?Porcellana (Marginella) conulus H. C. Lea. Conrad Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia Proc. for 1862, vol. 14, p. 563. [Name only.]
1864. ?Marginella (Volutella) conulus H. C. Lea. Meek, Check list Invertebrate
fossils of North America, Smith. Misc. Coll. (183), p. 19.
1890. Marginella minute Pfeiffer. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1.
p. 57. [Range only.]
1904. Marginella minute Pfeiffer. Martin, Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene, p.
170, pl. 44, fig. 4.
1919. Marginella minute Pfeiffer. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
I have not seen the type of M. conulus H. C. Lea, described from
Petersburg, Va., and am uncertain of its identity with M. minute
Pfeiffer.
The upper Miocene forms from Florida compare more closely
with specimens that range from the Duplin marl of the Carolinas to
the Recent.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 8862, half a mile
northwest of Clarksville, Calhoun County (rare) ; station 7081, upper
bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County (rare) ; stations 3671 and 3672,
Hosford, Liberty County, and 1 mile northwest of Hosford (com-
mon) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County (common); station 3422, uppermost bed
at Jackson Bluff, Leon County (common).

Marginella bella tersa Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 4, figure 10
The type locality of Marginella bella bella (Conrad)3 is Days
Point, James River, Va. I have collected good specimens from Vir-

1Conrad, T. A., Am. Jour. Conchology, vol. 6, p. 78, 1870.
2Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 55, pl. 5. fig. 8, 1890.
3Conrad, T. A., Am. Jour. Conchology IV, p. 67, pl. 6, fig. 4, 1868.







56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

ginia near, if not at, the same place from which Conrad's type came.
The new subspecies differs from M. bella bella in the following re-
spects: The shell is smaller, more cylindrical in outline, with a less
broadly conical spire and less shouldered body whorl. In other char-
acters it closely corresponds to Conrad's species. Dall' designated a
varietal name, bellula2 for a thinner, more oval form with a straighter
outer lip; and inepta' for a smaller form with a relatively higher
spire, a more evenly tapering shell, and the outer lip less convex in
the middle on the inside. In 1915 Dall4 raised these varieties to spe-
cific rank and showed that the types came from "silex beds," of the
Tampa limestone.
The nearest related Recent species appears to be Marginella veliei
Pilsbry, a species described from Dog Island, on the Gulf coast of
Florida.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370050) measures: Altitude, 8.3 mm.;
greatest diameter, 3.7 mm.; length of aperture, 6 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/955, Gully Pond, Wash-
ington County, Fla., type locality; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. Rare at both
localities.
Marginella bella hosfordensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 5, figure 8
The form referred to this new subspecies differs from Marginella
bella bella Conrad or Marginella bella tersa, n. subsp., in having a
much shorter and more cylindrical shell. The shoulder of the body
whorl is rounded, not angulated. The spire is very short and broadly
conic.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370052) measures: Altitude, 6.6 mm.;
greatest diameter, 4 mm.; length of aperture, 5 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, Fla., type locality; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half
a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. Rare at both
localities.
Marginella denticulata clarksvillensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 5, figure 6
The new subspecies is characterized by its strong shoulder above
and moderately depressed area below the suture and its thin outer
lip weakly denticulated within near the middle. The shoulder is sub-

-- Dall, W. H.. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 53, 1890.
Op. cit., pl. 4, fig. 8e. ,
Op, cit, pl.' 4, fig. 8d.
4Dall, W. H., U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 90, p. 53, 1915.... .







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


carinate on the spire whorls and subrounded on the body whorl.
In other features the new subspecies agrees with Marginella denticu-
lata denticulata Conrad.
The new subspecies is closely related to Marginella schmidti Ols-
son, described from the Duplin marl at the Natural Well, N. C., but,
when compared with the description and illustration of Olsson's spe-
cies, my subspecies possesses a stronger shoulder without the spiral
line below, and a wider aperture.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370054) measures: Altitude, 7.6 mm.;
greatest diameter, 3.5 mm.; length of aperture, 4.5 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/954, half a mile northeast
of Clarksville, Calhoun County, Fla., type locality; (?) 1/961, near
Woods, Liberty County, Fla. (fragments); (?) 1/706, Gully Pond,
Washington County, Fla. (fragments).

Marginella aureocincta Stearns
Plate 5, figure 9
1872. Marginella (Glabella) aureocincta Stearns, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc.,
vol. 15, p. 22.
1885. Marginella virginiana Verrill (not of Conrad), Connecticut Acad. Sci.
Trans., vol. 6, p. 420.
1885. Marginella smithii Verrill, idem., p. 452.
1885. Marginella smithii Verrill. Bush, idem., p. 462.
1890. Marginella aureocincta Stearns. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 52.
1919. Marginella aureocincta Stearns. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil-
adelphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 3422, upper bed
at Jackson Bluff, Leon County (rare) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek,
about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (abundant) ;
station 8176, the "Deadens," Washington County (rare).
This species occurs in the Duplin marl of North Carolina; in the
Pliocene of the Carolinas and Florida; and in the Recent fauna
ranging from Virginia to Florida. I have not seen it from the York-
town formation in Virginia.

Marginella precursor Dall
Plate 5, figure 11
1890. Marginella precursor Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 47,
* pl. 5, fig. 4.
Marginella precursor Dall was described from the Pliocene, Caloos-
hatchee marl, Florida.
In the upper Miocene of Florida there are two specimens from
Harveys Creek, about half a mile above the abandoned mill, Leon


57







58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN THREE.

County, that appear referable to M. precursor and three specimens
from the "Deadens," Washington County, that may belong to this
species. The individuals from the latter place have only four plaits
on the columella while Marginella precursor has five, the posterior
one being very weak.

Genus CYPRAEOLINA Cerulli-Irelli, 1911
Cypraeolina dacria (Dall)
Plate 5, figure 5
1892. Marginella (Volutella) dacria Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 2, p. 226, pl. 14, fig. 5.
1919. Marginella (Volutella) dacria Dall. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad.,Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Occurrence in Florida: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County,
1 specimen; borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County, 1 speci-
men, collected by Florida State Geological Survey.
The specimen from station 3671 is smaller and more globose than
the Pliocene form from the Waccamaw marl or Croatan sand. I ob-
serve that specimens referred to this species from the Duplin marl of
the Carolinas are usually shorter and more globose than the later
Pliocene form and compare with my Floridian Miocene form. How-
ever, the Miocene and Pliocene specimens are so nearly alike that a
subspecific separation is hardly warranted.
The species begins in the Duplin Marl (upper Miocene), or beds
of equivalent horizon, and ranges upward into the Pliocene.

Cypraeolina sp. cf. C. ovuliformis (d'Orbigny)
Two immature specimens from station 3421, Harveys Creek, Leon
County, Fla., about half a mile above the abandoned mill, compare
with Cypraeolina ovuliformis (d'Orbigny.1)

Family VOLUTIDAE
Genus AURINIA H. and A. Adams, 1853
Aurinia mutabilis (Conrad)
Plate 5, figure 10
1829. Voluta lambert Sowerby. Morton, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., vol. 6,
1st ser., p. 119. (Not V. lambert Sowerby, 1818.)
1830. Voluta lambert Sowerby. Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., 1st
ser., vol. 6, p. 210. (Not V. lambert Sowerby, 1818.)
1834. Fasciolaria mutabilis Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., vol. 7,
p. 135.
1841. Fasciolaria mutabilis [Conrad]. Conrad, Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 41, pp. 343,
346, pl. 2, fig. 7.

'd'Orbigny, A., Mollusques de Cuba, vol. 2, p. 101, pl. 20, figs. 33-35, 1853.


.1;








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


1843. Fasciolaria mutabilis Conrad. Conrad, Am. Assoc. Geologists and Nat-
uralists Trans., p. 109, pl. 5, fig. 7.
1845. Voluta mutabilis [Conrad]. Lyell, Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour., vol. 1.
p. 421.
1846. Voluta mutabilis [Conrad]. Lyell, Geol. Soc. London Proc., vol. 4, p. 555.
1856. Voluta mutabilis (Conrad). Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene Fossils of
South Carolina, p. 128, pl. 27, figs. 5, 6.
1863. Voluta (Volutifusus) mutabilis Conrad. Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel-
phia Proc. for 1862, vol. 14, p. 563.
1864. Voluta (Volutifusus) mutabilis Conrad. Meek, Miocene Check List. Smith-
sonian Misc. Colls. (183), p. 19.
1890. Scaphella (Aurinia) mutabilis Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans.,
vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 80.
1892. Scaphella (Aurinia) mutabilis Conrad. Dall, op. cit., pt. 2, p. 227.
1899. Scaphella (Aurinia) mutabilis Conrad. Cossmann, Essais de Paleoconch.
Comp., vol. 3, p. 129.
1903. Aurinia mutabilis Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6,
p. 1600.
1904. Scaphella (Aurinia) mutabilis (Conrad). Martin, Maryland Geol. Survey,
Miocene, p. 174, pl. 45, figs. 8, 9.
1919. Aurinia mutabilis (Conrad). Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County (common) ; station 3423, lower upper Miocene bed,
Jackson Bluff, Leon County (rare).
Aurinia mutabilis begins in the St. Marys formation in Maryland
and ranges upward into the Pliocene.

Genus MACULOPEPLUM Dall, 1906
Maculopeplum trenholmii (Tuomey and Holmes)
Plate 5, figure 12
1856. Voluta trenholmii Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene fossils of South Carolina,
p. 128, pl. 27, figs. 7, 8.
1890. Scaphella trenholmii (Tuomey and Holmes). Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci.
Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 88, pl. 6, fig. 10.
1903. Scaphella trenholmi Tuomey and Holmes. Dall, op. cit., pt. 6, pp. 1596, 1600.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County (2 imperfect specimens) ; (?) Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (fragment).
This species has not been found in beds older than the Duplin
marl in the Carolinas. It appears to be confined to the upper Miocene.


59







60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Family MITRIDAE
Genus MITRA Martyn, 1784
Mitra stephensoni Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 5, figure 4
Shell of moderate size, subbiconic, strongly spirally sculptured,
with 61/2 remaining whorls; nucleus and early whorls lost. Whorls
slightly convex in outline and weakly tabulated below the suture.
Suture indistinct, close-fitting. Spiral sculpture of (on spire whorls
4 and on body whorl 12) strong, erect, thin subacute, equidistant,
primary lirations; 2 to 3 small rounded secondary lines intercalating
the primary lirations; and, under magnification, tertiary threadlets
intercalating the secondary lines. Axial sculpture of quite regularly
spaced, flat, narrow bands-a little narrower than their interspaces-
lying in the valleys and slopes between the primary spirals and over-
run by the secondary spiral sculpture.
Aperture narrow, about half the length of the shell. Outer lip
gently arched, inner margin crenulated opposite primary spirals..
Columella bearing 4 folds, posterior two strong, anterior two weak.
Siphonal fasciole ornamented with 4 moderately strong, oblique
spirals.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370067) measures: Altitude, 31 mm.;
greatest diameter, 11 mm.; length of aperture, 18 mm.
This species belongs with the same group as M. henekeni Sowerby,
a species occurring abundantly in the Gurabo formation in the. Do-
minican Republic, and M. dariensis Brown and Pilsbry, a species oc-
curring in the Gatun formation, Canal Zone; but the new species has
a relatively wider shell with a more acute spire than these species.
The new species is named in honor of Dr. L. W. Stephenson, of
the U. S. Geological Survey.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, Fla., type locality (3 specimens) ; station 3672, 1 mile north-
west of Hosford (2 specimens) ; borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff,
Leon County (4 specimens).

Mitra wandoensis (Holmes)
Plate 5, figure 7
1858. ?Pyramidella reticulata Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., p. 268,
fig. 155. (Specific name preoccupied.)
1859. Volutomitra wandoensis Holmes, Post-Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina,
p. 77, pl. 12, figs. 10, 10A.
1887. ?Mitra rushii Dall, Conch. Exchange, vol. 2, p. 9.
1889. ?Mitra (Costellaria?) rushii Dall, Harvard College Mus. Comp. Zool. Bull.,
vol. 18, p. 160.







C OCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


1890. Mitra wandoensis (Holmes). Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 92.
1919. Mitra wandoensis (Holmes). Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphid Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
Mitra mauryi Olsson, from the Yorktown formation, James River,
north of Smithfield, Va., is closely allied to M. wandoensis (Holmes).
Occurrence in' Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys
,Creek, about half a- mile above the abandoned mill, Leon County
(1 specimen). This species ranges from the Duplin marl (upper
Miocene) in North Carolina to the Recent.

Mitra hosfordensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 5, figure 3
Shell small, rather slender, high-spired, with 11/2 nuclear and 6
postnuclear whorls. Nucleus somewhat corroded, small, bulbous, ini-
tial turn minute. Following whorls turrited at upper shoulder, in
outline nearly straight. Suture impressed. Body whorl about two-
fifths shell length. Spirally sculptured with a rather wide subsutural
band and below it with (on the spire whorls 4) flat, narrow bands
separated by slightly narrower interspaces and occupying the inter-
axial spaces. Spirals on the periphery of body whorl nearly obscure.
Axial sculpture of (on the body whorl 14) nearly straight, rather
prominent, rounded ribs, persisting across the whorl and separated
by rounded-bottomed interspaces twice as wide. Aperture short, some-
what crescentic. Outer lip arched, margin broken. Columella provided
with 3 plaits-the posterior one strongest.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370072) measures: Altitude, 6.2 mm.;
greatest diameter, 2.3 mm.; aperture length, 2 mm.
The type, the only specimen, occurs in the upper Miocene at sta-
tion 3671, Hosford, Liberty County, Fla.

Mitra hosfordensis libertiensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 5, figures 1, 2
1903. Mitra willcoxii Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1596.
(Not Mitra willcoxii Dall, idem., pt. 1, p. 93, 1890.)
The subspecies is similar to M. hosfordensis, n. sp., in a general
way, but differs from it in the following respects: The shell has a
greater apical angle and a larger nucleus. The sutural area is deeper
and the whorls more tabulated at the upper shoulder. The subsutural
band is much narrower and the spirals consist of threads instead of
narrow bands and are more distally separated from the subsutural
band.


61







62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370073) measures: Altitude, 5 mm.;
diameter, 2.6 mm. The type specimen may not be mature but it is the
only one that has a preserved nucleus.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, Fla., type locality; station 3672, 1 mile northwest of Hosford;
upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County; borrow pit, near Jackson
Bluff, Leon County, Fla. Rare at all localities.

Family XANCIDAE
Genus VASUM ("Bolten") Roeding, 1798
Vasum? sp.
A fragment of a shell consisting of the lower columella, collected
by Mr. Herman Gunter from Harveys Creek about half a mile above
the abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., may belong to this genus.

Family FASCIOLARIIDAE
Genus FASCIOLARIA Lamarck, 1799
Fasciolaria sparrowi Emmons
Plate 8, figure 2
1858. Fasciolaria sparrowi Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., p. 253,
fig. 115.
1890. Fasciolaria sparrowi Emmons. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 104.
1892. Fasciolaria sparrowi Emmons. Dall, idem., pt. 2, p. 230.
1903. Fasciolaria sparrowi Emmons. Dall, idem., pt. 6, p. 1596.
Dall1 placed F. sparrowi in synonymy with F. acuta Emmons and
questioningly considered the latter a variety of the former. As the
two fragments from the Floridian Miocene more closely agree with
the description and illustration of F. sparrowi Emmons, I prefer to
place the Florida specimens under this specific name. However, the
Florida specimens have stronger and more persistent ribs and finer
and wider spaced spirals than the specimens in the U. S. National
Museum collection referred to F. sparrowi from the Duplin marl of
North Carolina.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County (fragment of a lower whorl, collected by Frank
Burns); station 1/960, Darlings Slide, Calhoun County (fragment
of a spire, collected by W. C. Mansfield).


'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 229, 1892.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Fasciolaria gigantea harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 6, figure 1
The shape and general aspect of this new subspecies closely re-
semble those of Fasciolaria gigantea Kiener, a species occurring in the
Recent fauna and in the Pliocene of Florida. The difference consists
mainly in the nature of the spiral sculpture. In the new subspecies
the secondary and tertiary spirals are fewer and coarser, filling up the
interspaces between the primaries and consequently making these
spaces shallower than in F. gigantea. The spirals and surface of the
shell are crenulated by axial growth lines. The outer lip, within, is
marked by many closely-set, fine, entering lirations.
When compared with the Florida form identified as F. sparrowi,
the new subspecies shows a much slenderer shell ornamented with
fewer, shorter, and less angulated axials and weaker secondary spirals.
The new subspecies appears to be an intermediate form between F.
acuta Emmons from the Duplin marl of North Carolina and F. gi-
gantea in the Pliocene and Recent faunas.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370081) measures: Altitude, 73.5 mm.;
:greatest diameter, 30 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, about half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type and only locality
(T. W. Vaughan (1900), and H. Gunter (1925), collectors).

Fasciolaria rhomboidea Rogers
Plate 6, figures 2, 3
1839. Fasciolaria rhomboidea Rogers, Am. Philos. Soc. Trans., new ser., vol. 6,
p. 376, pl. 30, fig. 3.
1856. 'Fasciolaria distans Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene fossils of South Caro-
lina, p. 151, pl. 30; fig. 8. (Not of Lamarck.)
1858. Fasciolaria distans Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., p. 252,
fig. 113. (Not of Lamarck, in part.)
1863. Fasciolaria rhomboidea Rogers. Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc.
for 1862, p. 561.
1890. Fasciolaria (distans subsp.?) rhomboidea Rogers. Dall, Wagner Free Inst.
Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 102.
1903. Fasciolaria rhomboidea Rogers. Dall, idem, pt. 6, pp. 1596, 1600.
1919. Fasciolaria rhomboidea Rogers. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil-
adelphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 17.
The type of Fasciolaria rhomboidea came from Surry County, Va.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, upper bed at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County; Harveys Creek, half a mile above abandoned mill,
Leon County. Carolinas, Duplin marl. Virginia, Yorktown formation.
The only specimens from Virginia in the United States National
Museum were collected by me from the highest part of the Yorktown
formation. The species probably does not occur in the Pliocene.


63







64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

The Florida specimens are either imperfect or young. The speci-
mens from Alum Bluff show more fine impressed spiral lines on the
spire whorls and on the body whorl below the suture than specimens
of this species from Harveys Creek, Fla., or from Virginia or the-
Carolinas. This difference appears to be only of minor importance.

Genus PERISTERNIA Moirch, 1852
Peristernia filicata (Conrad)
Plate 17, figure 4
1843. Buccinum (Pollia) filicatum Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc.,
vol. 1, p. 308. *
1844. ?Fusus? cannabinus Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., vol. 1,
p. 326.
1863. Peristernia (Bucc.) filicata (Conrad). Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc. for 1862, p. 561.
1901. Lathyrus (Peristernia) filicatus (Conrad). Cossman, Essais Paleoconch.
Comp., vol. 4, p. 47, pl. 2, fig. 16.
1903. Latirus filicatus Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. .6,
p. 1597.
1919. Peristernia filicata Conrad. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila-
delphia Proc., vol. 71, p. 18.
1929. Peristernia filicata (Conrad). Cooke and Mossom, Florida Geol. Survey
Twentieth Ann. Rept., pl. 16, fig. 4.
The type of Peristernia filicata came from James River, Va.
Peristernia insula Olsson1 from Gatun stage, Water Cay, Panama,
as pointed out by Olsson, is somewhat like the young specimens of
P. filicata Conrad, differing from the latter in having a more pointed
spire and stronger sculpture.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, upper bed at Alum Bluff,,
Liberty County (common); station 3672, Hosford, Liberty County
(rare) ; station 3671, 1 mile northwest of Hosford (common) ; station
3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon
County (common) ; station 1/965, lower upper Miocene bed at aban-
doned mill, Harveys Creek, Leon County (rare) ; station 1/960, Darl-
ings Slide, Calhoun County (common) ; station 8176, the "Deadens,"
Washington County (rare) ; station 1/962, cut in old road to Watsons
Landing, Liberty County (rare); borrow pit near Jackson Bluff,
Leon County (rare).
Outside occurrence: Upper Miocene: North.Carolina, Duplin marl;
Virginia, Yorktown formation.


1Olsson, A. A., Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 9, p. 282, pl. 11, fig. 11, 1922.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Genus FUSINUS Rafinesque, 1815
Fusinus dalli Mansfield, n.'sp.
Plate 6, figures 5, 6
1903. Fusinus exilis Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6,
p. 1597. Not Fusinus exilis (Conrad), 1832.
Shell of moderate size with a conic, stout, uniformly expanding,
high spire and a long canal, consisting of 11/2 nuclear and 6 post-
nuclear whorls. Suture rather deep, closely fitting but not appressed.
Nucleus slightly corroded at apical end, first evolution flatly coiled,
and sculptured only with (10 on whorl preceding conch) axials. Fol-
lowing whorls evenly rounded in outline, sculpture of (5 to 6 on
spire whorls and 11 on body whorl) thin, erect, usually roundly
crested prominent cords and finer medial spiral threads. The spiral
sculpture begins as a submedial thread, slightly angulating the whorl,
shortly followed below by one and above by two threads. Axial sculp-
ture only on spire whorls 'of (11 on the penultimate whorl) prominent
rounded ribs persisting across the whorl. Whole surface of shell
roughed by axial growth lines. Aperture ovate. Outer lip thin, cren-
ulated within. Canal long and nearly straight.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 97493) measures: Altitude, 85 mm.;
greatest diameter, 32 mm. Some of the imperfect specimens referred
to this species show a shell one-third longer than the type specimen.
Fusinus exilis (Conrad) has a more slender shell and much shorter
canal and possesses more primary cords on the whorls than the new
species. The length of tile spire on the new species compares with
that of Fusinus equalis Emmons, a species occurring in the Duplin
marl in the Carolinas, but the shell of the latter species has a rela-
tively greater diameter and has feeble secondary spiral threads.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty
County, Fla., type locality (common) ; station 1/965, Harveys Creek,
Leon County, Fla., lower upper Miocene bed at abandoned mill
(rare).
Fusinus caloosaensis gunteri Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 6, figure 4
The new subspecies is related to Fusinus caloosaensis (Dall) from
the Pliocene Caloosahatchee marl of Florida, but is more closely
related to Fusinus caloosaensis carolinensis (Dall), from the Pliocene
Waccamaw marl of South Carolina. The nucleus closely resembles
the nuclei of those forms, consisting of two erect, rather finely axially
sculptured whorls. It has a much stouter shell than F. caloosaensis.
In shape it resembles F. caloosaensis carolinensis but differs from
that form in the following respects: The outline of the upper spire


65







66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

whorls is more conic and less drawn out; the suture is deeper and not
appressed; the spirals consist almost entirely of prominent primaries
with only an occasional secondary intermediate thread.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370112) measures: Altitude, 58 mm.;
greatest diameter, 27 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, about half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type locality (Herman
Gunter, collector) ; station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County, Fla. Rare
at both localities.

Genus BUSYCON Bolten, 1798
Busycon maximum alumense Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 7, figures 3, 4
1890. Fulgur maximum Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1,
pt. 115 (part).
1903. Busycon maximum Conrad. Dall, idem., pt. 6, p. 1596.
The new subspecies is very similar to Busycon maximum (Con-
rad), illustrated on plate 47.1 It differs from Conrad's species in the
following respects: The shell is smaller and broader; the shoulder
on the body whorl is more rounded; there is less tendency to develop
tubercles on the periphery of the two anterior spire whorls and body
whorls, only low undulations being present. I have collected a number
of specimens from the different beds at Yorktown, Va. The specimens
that compare with the description and figured specimen of Conrad's
species occur in the comminuted series at Yorktown and in beds of
the same horizon at other localities in Virginia. The individuals col-
lected from this horizon are usually without tubercles on the later
spire whorls, although some of the specimens indicate a tendency to
have developed them.
The new subspecies has a higher spire and a much wider canal
directly below the base of the last whorl than Busycon maximum
rapum (Heilprin), a species occurring in the Florida Pliocene.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370114) measures: Altitude, 127 mm.;
greatest diameter, 65 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty
County, Fla., type locality (abundant) ; station 1/962, cut in old road
to Watsons Landing, Liberty County, Fla. (rare).


1Conrad, T. A., Fossils of the Medial Tertiary United States, 1861.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Busycon maximum tudiculatum (Dall)
Plate 7, figure 2
1890. Fulgur maximum var. tudiculatum Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans.,
vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 115.
"Spire very low, base constricted, last whorl greatly inflated;
shoulder rounded, without keel or tubercles in the adult, excavated
somewhat in front of the suture, which is bordered by a tuberculate
or wavy elevated band formed by the thickened margin of the whorl
being laid over the tuberculated shoulder of the young shell; canal
slender, rather long, the pillar with a rather thick callus, but not
grooved. Lon. (about) 60; lat. 35 mm. (Upper bed at Alum Bluff.)"
(Dall, 1890.)
This subspecies is very rare, being represented only from the type
locality by two specimens, the type collected by Frank Burns and
another young specimen collected by me.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 112016) has never been figured before.

Busycon maximum rapum (Heilprin)
Plate 8, figure 5
1887. Fulgur rapum Heilprin, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 1, p. 71. fig. 4.
1890. Fulgur maximus var. rapum Heilprin. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans.,
vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 115.
There are several immature specimens and two fragments repre-
senting larger specimens, collected at, Harveys Creek, half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., that appear nearly if not
identical with Busycon maximum rapum (Heilprin), a subspecies
described from the Florida Pliocene. The shoulder on the Florida
Miocene specimens is usually less rounded than on the Pliocene speci-
mens but in other features the specimens at hand are so nearly alike
that their separation is hardly warranted. Specimens from the Duplin
marl of the Carolinas that have been referred to this subspecies have
a little higher spire and a less constricted basal body whorl than
B. maximum rapum but agree with it in other features.

Busycon scalarispira Conrad?
1890. Fulgur scalarispira Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 111. (Not of Conrad, 1863?)
Dall identified an imperfect specimen from the upper bed at Alum
Bluff, Florida, as Busycon scalarispira (Conrad), a species de-
scribed from the Miocene marls at Shiloh, New Jersey (Shiloh marl
member of Kirkwood sand). This fragment, when compared with
B. scalarispira, reveals much feebler tubercles on the angled pe-
riphery and a less depressed area between the suture and anterior


67







68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

peripheral angle. I am uncertain of the specific identity of the Florida
fragment with the form from the Shiloh marl but am inclined to
believe that when perfect specimens are procured from Alum Bluff
they will show a different species.

Busycon pyrum propeincile Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 9, figure 5
Shell of moderate size, solid, pyriform, having a low spire and a
long body whorl. Spire broadly conic. Subsutural area deeply but
narrowly channeled. Whorls shallowly depressed immediately below
the low carina bordering the subsutural channel. Nucleus lost. Spiral
sculpture of low, rounded tubercles on the periphery of the spire
whorls, reduced to low and weak undulations on the body whorl, and
rather closely-set, unequally spaced, rounded raised lines usually in-
terposed by finer lines or threads.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 112030) measures: Altitude, 130 mm.;
greatest diameter, 71 mm. The new subspecies is related to Busycon
pyrum incile (Conrad) but differs from the latter subspecies in lack-
ing the scalariform spire and having much finer spiral sculpture.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Fla. (1
specimen).

Busycon pyrum libertiense Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 10, figure 3
1903. Busycon var. incile Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans.. vol. 3, pt. 6,
p. 1596.
Two imperfect specimens from the upper bed at Alum Bluff, Lib-
erty County, Fla., resemble in general aspect Busycon pyrum incile
(Conrad) from the Yorktown formation but are not exactly like that
form. The principal difference is in the greater strength of the spiral
sculpture and the more angulated shoulder. The sculpture of the
Alum Bluff form consists of rather closely set fine spiral lines while
the sculpture of the Yorktown form consists of rather coarse bands
with finer intermediate threads. A strong raised spiral line lies in the
subsutural channeled area of the Alum Bluff form.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Fla., type
and only locality. U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 112029.








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Busycon pyrum aepynotum (Dall)
Plate 8, figures 1, 6
1890. Fulgur pyrum var. aepynotum Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 1, p. 113.
According to Dall this form "has a medium sutural canal, an ex-
cavated, keeled shoulder, undulate or subtuberculate and very coarse,
broad spirals with wider interspaces."
This subspecies, though much smaller, is closely related to Busycon
pyrum incile, a form occurring in the Yorktown formation of Vir-
ginia. The keeled shoulder suggests a close relationship with Busycon
canaliculatum (Linne).
The type has not been figured before. Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No.
112026) measures: Altitude, 46 mm.; greatest diameter, 25 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Fla., type
locality.
Busycon sp. aff. B. canaliculat.um (Linne)
Plate 7, figure 1
Several young specimens from stations 3671 and 3672, Hosford and
1 mile northwest of Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., and one specimen
from Harveys Creek, half a mile above the abandoned mill, Leon
County, appear to be closely related too Busycon canaliculatum
(Linne). When better specimens are procured the form may prove
to be that species or closely related to it.

Busycon perversum (Linnaeus)
Plate 10, figure 5
1766. Murex perverse Linnaeus, Systema naturae; p. 1222.
A synonymy and discussion of this species are given by Dall.'
One immature specimen from Harveys Creek, about half a mile
above the abandoned mill, and four specimens from borrow pit, near
Jackson Bluff, Leon County, were collected by the Florida Geolog-
ical Survey.
The species ranges from the Miocene of the Duplin marl of the
Carolinas to the Recent.
I have not found this species in the upper Miocene in Virginia.


'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 116, 1890.


69








70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Genus SOLENOSTEIRA Dall, 1890
Solenosteira vaughani Dall
Plate 17, figure 5
1903. Solenosteira vaughani Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6,,
p. 1596, pl. 60, fig. 18.
1929. Solenosteira vaughani Dall. Cooke and Mossom, Florida Geol. Survey
Twentieth Ann. Rept., pl. 16, fig. 5.
Following is a description of the undescribed species:
Shell solid, subovate, stronger axially sculptured than spirally,
with a broadly conic spire less than one-third the shell length, and
with 41/2 remaining whorls on type specimen-in all probably about
7 or 8 whorls. Whorls convex in outline and separated by a deep but
not appressed suture. Axial sculpture of (12 on the body whorl)'
rounded, moderately strong ribs, rather closely set on the spire and
persisting across the whorls, wider on the body whorl and terminating
at its base. Spiral sculpture of (5 on the spire whorls and 17 on the
face of the body whorl and canal) raised primary cords with 4 to 6
intermediate threads lying on the primary spiral slopes. On the spire
the medial secondary is usually stronger, with usually one smaller
thread above and below. Aperture oval. Canal rather short. Outer
lip, within, with about 13 sharp entering lirations. Inner lip and
parietal wall with a wash of callus and provided with 3 weak rounded
folds, opposite the upper part of the umbilicus. Siphonal fasciole
strongly developed.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 109266) measures: Altitude, 32 mm.;
greatest diameter, 20 mm.; length of aperture, 19 mm.
The form most closely allied to Solenosteira vaughani is S.
vaughani var. medioamericana Olsson, from Toro and Water Cay,
Panama, and Hill la, Banana River, Costa Rica. The shell of Olsson's
variety differs from that of Dall's species in having angulated whorls,
fewer axials, and weaker secondary spirals.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., type
and only locality.

Family CHRYSODOMIDAE
Genus ECPHORA Conrad, 1845
Ecphora quadricostata umbilicata (Wagner)
Plate 17, figure 7
1839. Fusus umbilicatus Wagner, pl. 2, fig. 2.
1848. Fusus umbilicatus Wagner, Bronn, Hand. Gesch. Nat. Index Pal., pt. 1,
p. 517. Questioningly places F. umbilicatus in synonymy with F. quad.
ricostatus Say (Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., vol. 4, p. 127, pl. 7,
fig. 5, 1824.).







CHOCT TWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


1849. Fusus quadricostatus var. umbilicatus Wagner. Bronn, Hand. Gesch. Nat.
Index Pal., pt. 2, p. 455.
1898. Ecphora quadricostata var. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 5,
No. 2, p. 9, pl. 2, fig. 2.
1903. Ecphora quadricostata Say. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6,
p. 1596.
1904. Not Ecphora quadricostata var. umbilicata (Wagner). Martin, Maryland
Geol. Survey, Miocene, p. 209, pl. 52, fig. 4.
1929. Ecphora quadricostata umbilicata Wagner. Cooke and Mossom, Florida
Geol. Survey Twentieth Ann. Rept., pl. 16, fig. 7.
A full synonymy of this variety probably is not included here. Defi-
nite citations to Ecphora from the Yorktown formation of Virginia
probably should be included.
The figure of the type of "Fusus umbilicatus" Wagner agrees with
later specimens collected from the Yorktown formation in Virginia.
Other species figured by Wagner on the same plate with "Fusus um-
bilicatus" and the two other accompanying plates are believed to
occur in Virginia and North Carolina.
Ecphora quadricostata (Say) is characterized by four strong revolv-
ing equal-sized marginally T-shaped costae on the body whorl. This
species occurs in the St. Marys formation of Maryland and Virginia
and in the later Miocene of North Carolina and South Carolina. At
Natural Well and Magnolia, N. C., it is very small and rare. It is rep-
resented in the U. S. National Museum by more and lafger specimens
from Darlington and Mayesville, S. C., than from the Duplin marl of
North Carolina. Ecphora quadricostata umbilicatus differs from the
typical E. quadricostata in having thin costae without the T-shaped
margins. The form from the Choptank formation, in Maryland, re-
ferred to this variety by Martin appears to belong to another variety
or species. The specimen figured by Martin as well as other specimens
from the Choptank formation, have strong spiral lines between the
costae and on the anterior slope of the posterior costae of the earlier
whorls. On the early whorls the anterior slope of the upper costae
assumes nearly a vertical position. Forms with weaker spiral lines
grade into forms with heavier spiral lines, which overrun the shell
between the costae. These characters are not found on specimens I
have seen in St. Marys Miocene or later.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, Alum Bluff, upper bed
Virginia, Yorktown formation.


71








72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Family BUCCINIDAE
Genus CANTHARUS ("Bolten") Roeding, 1798
Cantharus watsonensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 9, figure 6
Shell of moderate size, solid, semiovate, axially and spirally sculp-
tured, consisting of 5 whorls, nucleus broken off. Spire broadly conical
and about one-third shell length. Whorls rounded in outline-later
more so than earlier-separated by a moderately deep and flexuous
suture. Axial sculpture of (12 on penultimate whorl) rounded, mod-
erately strong retractive ribs, persisting across spire whorls and term-
inating a little below the periphery on last whorl, and separated by
narrower interspaces. The ribs are weaker on anterior half turn of
body whorl. Spiral sculpture of (8 on penultimate whorl and 18 on
last whorl and canal) narrow, semiacute lines separated by inter-
spaces twice as wide and overrunning ribs and valleys with about
equal strength. Spiral interspaces ornamented with a medial thread
and usually by a threadlet on either side of this thread. Fine and
closely-set axial growth lines overrun the surface of shell. Margin of
outer lip broken, within marked with short and rather coarse lira-
tions. Columella, medially, weakly concave, and bearing on the lower
border a single fold, furrowed above. Siphonal fasciole moderately
strong and marked with 3 or 4 oblique spirals.
Type (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370131) measures: Altitude, 37 mm.;
greatest diameter, 21.5 mm.; length of aperture, 20 mm.
The nearest related Recent species is Cantharus cancellaria (Con-
rad), a species ranging from Jupiter Inlet, southern Florida, to
Darien; but the fossil species has a much larger shell with more in-
flated whorls than the Recent species.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/962, cut in old road to
Watsons Landing, Liberty County, Fla., type and only locality.

Genus PTYCHOSALPINX Gill, 1867
Ptychosalpinx laqueata (Conrad)
Plate 17, figure 1
1832. Buccinum laqueatum Conrad, Fossil shells of the Tertiary formations of
North America, p. 19, pl. 4, fig. 5.
1863. Tritia (Bucc.) laqueata (Conrad). Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc. for 1862, p. 562.
1864. Tritia laqueata (Conrad). Meek, Check list of the invertebrate fossils of
North America, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. (183), p. 20, No. 685.
1892. Ptychosalpinx (Buccinum) laqueata (Conrad). Dall, Wagner Free Inst.
Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 237.
1901. Cominella (Ptychosalpinx) laqueata (Conrad). Cossmann, Essais de paleo-
conchologie compare, vol. 4, p. 151, pl. 6, fig. 8.








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


1903. Ptychosalpinx laqueata Conrad. Dall, op. cit., pt. 6, p. 1597.
1929. Ptychosalpinx laqueata Conrad. Cooke and Mossom, Florida Geol. Survey
Twentieth Ann. Rept., pl. 16, fig. 1.
The type locality of Ptychosalpinx laqueata (Conrad) is near
Smithfield, James River, Va.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, Alum Bluff, upper bed;
station 1/962, cut in old road to Watsons Landing, Liberty County.
Outside occurrence: Virginia, Yorktown formationrr, mainly from
the bed underlying the comminuted series.
The spiral sculpture on the specimens from Florida is a little
different from that on the specimens from Virginia, being more del-
icately ornamented with finer and more numerous threads inter-
calating the coarser lines. However, this difference is believed to be
due to a geographical rather than to a stratigraphical factor.

Genus DORSANUM Gray, 1847
Dorsanum? plicatilum (Biise)
Plate 17, figure 3
1906. Cominella plicatilis Biise, Instituto Geologico de Mlexico Bol. 22, p. 39,
pl. 4, figs. 22-24.
1929. Dorsanum? plicatilum (BSse). Cooke and Mossom, Florida Geol. Survey
Twentieth Ann. Rept., pl. 16, fig. 3.
"Cominella" plicatilis is reported1 from Paso Real cerca de Tux-
tepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.
I am uncertain as to the generic position of this species. It appears
to lie between Ptychosalpinx and Alectrion, probably nearer Alec-
trion. It may belong to the genus Dorsanum and is most nearly related
to "Buccinum" veneris Faujas from the European Miocene, a species
referred to the genus Dorsanum by Cossmann.2
Tritia golfoyaquensis Maury3 from Bluff 3, Cercado de Mao, Do-
minican Republic, appears to belong to the same genus as "Comin-
ella" plicatilis Biose.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half
a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (common) ; borrow pit,
near Jackson Bluff, Leon County (rare).
Outside occurrence: Duplin marl, near Natural Well, N. C.


1B6se, Emilio, op. cit.
2Cossmann, M., Essais Paleoconchologie Comparee, vol. 4, p. 220, 1901.
3Maury, C. J., Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5, p. 256, pl. 41, figs. 24, 25, 1917.


73








74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Family COLUMBRARIIDAE
Genus PHOS Montford, 1810
Phos sloani floridanus Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 9, figure 4; Plate 10, figure 4
Shell slender, high-spired, stronger axially than spirally sculp-
tured, about 9-whorled. Whorls nearly flat between axials, separated
by a shallow, distinct, closely fitting, gently undulated suture. Nucleus
of 21/2 smooth whorls; apical turn small and flattened, following turn
larger and globose. Axial sculpture on conch of 6 to 8 prominent
rounded ribs separated by wide, deep, and rounded valleys, and ex-
tending across the spire whorls and to the anterior fasciole on the
last whorl, being a little lower below the suture. Spiral sculpture of
(on spire whorls, 3, on body whorl and canal, 10) low, narrow bands,
narrower than interspaces, occupying the lower two-thirds of the
spire whorls. Three very narrow bands or flat spiral threads lie on
the upper third of the spire whorls and usually one finer median
thread intercalates the primaries on the spire whorls and on the face,
of the body whorl above the aperture. Aperture elongate-ovate. Canal
rather short, recurved, emarginate. Outer lip arched, marked sub-
marginally within with 8 strong elongate denticles. Inner lip callus,
bearing on the outer margin 9 to 10 short denticles of about equal
strength to opposing set. Siphonal fasciole strong, marked with 6
strong oblique spirals.
The description of the new species is made from two specimens,
the smaller specimen having a well-preserved nucleus.
Cotypes (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370139) measure: Larger specimen,
altitude, 21 mm.; greatest diameter, 8.5 mm.; length of aperture,
9 mm. Smaller specimen, altitude, 16.5 mm.; greatest diameter, 6.6
mm.; length of aperture, 7 mm.
The type locality of Phos sloani Gardner and Aldrich is Muldrow's
place, 5 miles southeast of Mayesville, Sumter County, S. C., Duplin
marl.
The new subspecies differs from Phos sloani in having much nar-
rower spiral bands and well-developed denticles on the border of
columellar lip callus.
Phos galvestonensis Harris, taken from a depth of 2158 to 2871
feet in the deep well at Galveston, Texas, is related to the new sub-
species, differing mainly in having larger nuclear whorls, a stronger
shoulder below the suture, and in being ornamented with more
axials.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, Fla., type locality (common); station 3421, Harveys Creek,.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


about half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. (rare) ;
station 1/955, Gully Pond, Washington County, Fla. (1 fragment and
identity uncertain).

Phos vaughani Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 9, figures 1, 8
Shell slender, solid, high-spired, rather strongly axially and spirally
sculptured, consisting of 9 whorls. Whorls moderately inflated and
evenly and gradually enlarging anteriorly. Suture close-fitting and
weakly undulating. Nucleus conical, small, with 21/2 smooth whorls;
apical turn minute, terminally shallowly immersed; "succeeding nep-
ionic half-turn sculptured with 8 arcuate, sharp riblets. Axial sculp-
ture on following whorls of about 12 arched, moderately strong ribs,
persisting across the spire whorls and to the fasciole on the body
whorl and separated by valleys about equal in width to axials. Axials
on the anterior part of last whorl more closely-set and finer. Spiral
sculpture of (3 on spire whorls and 9 on last whorl and canal) narrow
equally spaced bands, occupying the area from the upper shoulder
to the forward suture on the spire whorls and to the siphonal fasciole
on the last whorl and overriding the axials and valleys with equal
strength. Two smaller spirals lie on the shoulder slope behind the
suture and a median spiral thread intercalates all the primary bands
except those on the base of the body whorl. Outer lip arched, thin,
weakly marginally crenulated and internally marked below the mar-
gin with 7 sharp equally spaced lirations. Columellar lip callus,
weakly sculptured with irregular oblique elevations. Canal short, re-
flexed, and deeply emarginate. Siphonal fasciole strongly developed,
marked with poorly defined spirals and incrementals.
The description is based on two specimens. The smaller specimen
has a well-preserved nucleus.
Dimensions: Larger cotype (U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 370143) measures:
Altitude, 13.5 mm.; diameter, 5 mm.
Phos parvus var. intricatus Dall, a variety, according to Dall, oc-
curring in the Pliocene and Recent faunas, is related to the new
species, but the latter has a different type of nucleus and a less
crowded sculpture ornamentation.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Florida, station 3671, Hosford, Lib-
erty County (common), station 3672, 1 mile northwest of Hosford.







76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Family ALECTRIONIDAE
Genus ALECTRION Montford, 1810
Alectrion alumensis (Olsson)
Plate 8, figure 3
1916. Nassa alumensis Olsson, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5, p. 133, pl. 25, fig. 5.
This species is characterized by three smooth nuclear whorls, the
anterior whorl being large and strongly inflated; moderately strong
and widely spaced axials; fine and widely spaced spirals; short and
broadly conical spire; and weakly angulated whorls.
Figured topotype: U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 113159.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty
County, Fla. (common).

Alectrion cornelliana (Olsson)
Plate 8, figure 4
1914. Nassa cornelliana Olsson, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5, p. 45, pl. 11,
fig. 11.
The type locality of Alectrion cornelliana (Olsson) is Currie,
Pender County, N. C. This species, as pointed out by Olsson, is related
to Alectrion caloosaensis (Dall), a Pliocene species described from
the Caloosahatchee marl, Florida, but differs from that species in its
more elongate form, the lack of shoulder on its whorls, and its larger
size. Alectrion caloosaensis also possesses a much stronger and more
pointed nodule cresting the rib at the upper shoulder.
Figured specimen (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370147) from station
3671, Hosford, Liberty County, Fla.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County.
Outside occurrence: Specimens that have usually been referred to
Alectrion caloosaensis occur at the Natural Well and at Mrs. Guion's
marl bed, North Carolina, and near Mayesville, South Carolina. These
specimens are more closely related to A. cornelliana than to A. caloos-
aensis, being not more remotely related to the former than a sub-
species.

Alectrion floridana Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 9, figure 7
Shell small and solid, consisting of 2 nuclear and 5 gradually ex-
panding and nearly flat postnuclear whorls. Body whorl about half
the length of the shell, not proportionally enlarged, nor constricted
at the base by a spiral sulcus. Nuclear whorls smooth; first half-turn
minute and flatly coiled, following 1/2 turns moderately inflated and







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


gradually enlarging. Initial sculpture of postnuclear whorl of re-
tractive riblets, soon followed by the introduction of the subsutural
tuberculate spiral band and anterior spirals. Axial sculpture of weakly
retractive narrow ribs (12 on body whorl). On the base of the body
whorl the ribs gradually attenuate anteriorly to the siphonal fasciole.
Spiral sculpture on spire whorls of 3 narrow bands, the posterior and
anterior bands being tuberculate and of about equal strength, the
medial band smaller and separated from the posterior band by a
narrow sulcus. Body whorl with 8 spirals, the anterior five being
more closely set. Aperture subovate; outer lip with a thin margin,
strengthened behind with a varix and marked within with 3 equally
spaced denticles, the upper one being much stronger and medially
placed, the anterior one lying near the canal entrance; inner lip
callus, heavy, provided with 3 to 4 denticles, one of which lies near
the posterior commissure and 2 to 3 at the anterior part. Siphonal
fasciole weak, marked with 3 to 4 spiral lines. Canal very short and
wide.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370151) measures: Altitude, 6 mm.;
greatest diameter, 2.7 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, type locality (abundant) ; station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford (abundant); station 3422, uppermnost bed at Jackson Bluff,
Leon County (rare) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County (abundant) ; station 8176, the
"Deadens," Washington County (rare).
Other occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 5016, deep well at
Kissimmee, Osceola County, Fla., at a depth of 65 to 100 feet (1
fragment).
Alectrion quadridentata Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 9, figure 3
Shell small, solid, moderately slender, with 2 smooth nuclear
whorls and 4 strongly axially and spirally sculptured subsequent
whorls. Suture rather deep, closely fitting, and flexuous. Body whorl
about half the shell length. First nuclear whorl small, terminally
flattened; following turn much larger and globular. Postnuclear
whorls equally shouldered above and below. Axial sculpture of (10
on body whorl including strong lip varix) strong, rounded ribs, which
persist across the whorl and are separated by little wider, smooth, and
rounded-bottomed valleys. Spiral sculpture of (2 on spire whorls
and 6 on body whorl) rather narrow, widely spaced bands, being a
little heavier over the ribs and located at the upper and lower
shoulder on the spire whorl. Another fine spiral usually lies on the


77







&78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

posterior shoulder slope. Aperture subelliptical, weakly sulcated at
the posterior commissure. Outer lip marginally thin, sculptured
within with 4 widely separated, elongate denticles or short lirae, the
anterior of which marginates the canal. Pillar lip callus with 1 weak
denticle adjacent to the upper commissure and 3 to 4 weak denticles
over the columella. Canal short, wide, and recurved. Siphonal fasciole
strongly developed, marked off above with a strong constriction, and
sculptured with 3 to 4 strong spiral lines.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370160) measures: Altitude, 6.6
mm.; greatest diameter, 3.7 mm.
The new species is related to Alectrion bidentata (Emmons), but
it has a more slender shell and has four instead of two denticles on
the inside of the outer lip.
The specimens from the Pliocene of Florida referred by Dall' to
Alectrion bidentata (Emmons) are closely related to my new species.
The Pliocene form has three spirals on the spire whorls, instead of
two, and has more ribs.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, type locality (abundant) ; station 3672, 1 mile northwest of
Hosford (abundant); station 8862, half a mile northeast of Clarks-
ville, Calhoun County (rare) ; station 3422, upper bed at Jackson
Bluff, Leon County (common) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a
mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (rare) ; station 8176, the
"Deadens," Washington County (rare).

Alectrion consensa harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 11, figures 1, 3
Shell rather small, solid, with 21/2 smooth nuclear whorls and 4
axially and spirally sculptured postnuclear whorls. Nucleus conical,
with rapidly enlarging inflated whorls. Postnuclear whorls weakly
inflated, last whorl more than spire whorls, with periphery about
midway between sutures. Suture distinct, close-fitting, and flexuous.
Axials of (9 on the penultimate whorl) strong rounded ribs, persist-
ing across the whorl, separated by a little wider rounded-bottomed
valleys. Axials on half turn of nepionic whorl of closely-set crescentic
riblets. Spiral sculpture of wide, flat bands separated by incised lines
over nearly the whole surface, and about 10 flat, wavy threads over
the posterior shoulder slope. Aperture subovate; outer lip, within,
marked with 10 lirations, equally spaced, and continuous over the
entire length. Inner lip callus rather thin, marked with 1 denticle
near the upper commissure and 2 weak denticles on the anterior part.

'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 133, pl. 9, fig. 9, 1890.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Canal short, strongly recurved. Siphonal fasciole strongly developed,
bordered behind by a sulcus and marked with spiral lines and
incrementals.
Cotype (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370168) measures: Altitude, 7.7
mm.; diameter, 3.5 mm.
This new subspecies differs from the Recent shell, usually referred
to Alectrion consensa (Ravenel), in having a smaller and more
slender shell marked with more widely spaced incised spiral lines
and flatter interspaces. A. consensa does not appear to have been
figured. *
A. ambigua (Montagu) has a different type of nucleus and sculp-
ture than the new subspecies.
Alectrion consensoides (Olsson), described from the Duplin marl
at the Natural Well, N. C., is closely related to the new subspecies but
differs from it in having fewer axials and more distinct and more
widely separated spirals.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality (com-
mon) ; station 1/966, Double Branch, Leon County (1 fragment).

Alectrion consensa leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 10, figure 2
The new subspecies resembles Alectrion consensa harveyensis in
all characters except spiral sculpture. The spiral sculpture of A. con-
sensa leonensis consists of very narrow, raised, flat-topped threads
with interspaces of about equal width to threads.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370172) measures: Altitude, 6.5
mm.; diameter, 4.5 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality (com-
mon) ; station 3422, uppermost bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County
(1 fragment).

Family COLUMBELLIDAE
Genus ANACHIS H. and A. Adams, 1853
Anachis camax coensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 9, figure 2
Shell small, moderately slender, with 21/2 to 3 smooth inflated
nuclear whorls and 6 stronger axially than spirally sculptured sub-
sequent whorls. Nucleus conical, apical turn minute, anterior much
larger. Postnuclear whorls weakly turrited and slightly inflated at
posterior third, separated by a close-fitting suture. Axial sculpture of
(19 on the penultimate whorl) rounded, rather narrow, arcuate ribs,







80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

continuous across the spire whorls and terminating near the base on
the body whorl. Spiral sculpture of 4 to 5 flat closely set bands, pos-
terior two and those below the periphery on body whorl stronger;
other bands not distinct. Aperture moderately short and narrow;
outer lip with varix, within provided with 6 moderately strong,
equally spaced lirations or elongate denticles, extending from the
upper third to canal entrance. Inner lip callus nearly smooth. Canal
short and reflexed. Siphonal fasciole not distinctly marked off above,
sculptured with closely set, rounded, oblique spirals.
Dimensions: Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370176) measures:
Altitude, 11 mm.; greatest diameter, 4.5 mm.
This new subspecies differs from Anachis camax Dall, sensu strict,
in having a smaller shell with slightly inflated whorls instead of flat,
in the absence of reticulate sculpture on the face of the body whorl
below the periphery, and in the presence of much stronger denticles
within the outer lip.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty
County, type locality (rare) ; station 2210, upper bed at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County (1 fragment) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (7 specimens) ; bor-
row pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County (1 specimen).
Outside occurrence: Duplin marl: Natural Well, N. C., and near
Mayesville, S. C.

Anachis clappi Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 10, figure 1
Shell of medium size, solid, strongly axially sculptured, with only
5 remaining whorls, nucleus broken off. Spire conical. Whorls weakly
depressed above and weakly inflated below. Suture distinct and nar-
rowly grooved. Axial sculpture of about 16 rounded, slightly pro-
tractive ribs, separated by little wider interspaces, stronger over the
periphery and weaker above and extending across the spire whorls
but terminating at the base of the body whorl. Spirally sculptured
only on canal and siphonal fasciole with 7 to 8 narrow raised bands.
Outer lip within with 6 long denticles. Inner lip callus heavy and
nearly smooth. Canal terminally broken off but apparently short.
Dimensions: Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370180) measures:
Altitude, 14 mm.; greatest diameter, 6 mm.
Anachis styliola obsoleta Gardner and Aldrich, described from the
Natural Well, N. C., is related to the new species, but the latter is a
shorter and proportionally wider shell and is marked with fewer
and stronger ribs.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 8862, Calhoun County, half
a mile northeast of Clarksville, type and only locality.
The species is named in honor of the collector, Mr. F. G. Clapp.

Anachis wieserae Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 10, figures 6, 7
Shell rather small, subfusiform, axially and spirally sculptured,
with about 7 whorls in all. Earliest whorls on type lost in handling,
but observations and sketch of shell while complete indicate that these
4 earliest whorls are smooth, rounded in outline, and separated by a
.channeled suture. A young specimen showing the nuclear whorls and
believed to belong to this species was later collected by the Florida
Geological Survey. The character of the nuclear whorls corresponds
to the lost nuclear whorls of the type. Following whorls weakly con-
vex in outline. Suture appressed and marked below by a narrow and
weak band. Axial sculpture, retractive above and protractive below,
consists of narrow ribs separated by much narrower incised spiral
lines. Axials and interspaces sculptured by narrow spiral bands
-which are more prominent in the interspaces and on the anterior
part of last whorl. Aperture narrowly ovate. Canal short and mod-
erately expanded below. Much of the upper part of the outer lip is
broken away, but an unbroken part reveals a rounded anal notch at
the posterior border, which extends backward to the subsutural band.
The inside of anterior part of outer lip is smooth. Inner lip is pro-
-vided with a smooth callus.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370181) measures: Altitude, 8 mm.
(estimated) ; greatest diameter, 3 mm.
Occurrence: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County, type and only locality.
I have tentatively referred the new species to genus Anachis, al-
though when perfect specimens are procured it may be found that it
should be referred to some genus under the family Turritidae. I have
named the species in honor of Miss Frances Wieser, of the United
States Geological Survey, who retouched the prints of the illustra-
tions for this paper.
Genus STROMBINA Morch, 1852
Strombina gunteri Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 12, figure 2
Shell small, solid, turrited, with a broadly acute spire and a mod-
erately large body whorl, consisting of 3 smooth nuclear whorls and
6 axially prominent and spirally subordinate sculptured subsequent
-whorls. Nucleus narrowly conical, apical turn minute and terminally


81






82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

flattened, following turn larger and moderately inflated. Postnuclear
whorls tabulated below the distinct, close-fitting but not appressed
suture. Axial sculpture of (17 on penultimate whorl) rounded, re-
tractive ribs, continuous across the spire whorls and to the base on
body whorl but absent on terminal third of body whorl. Spiral sculp-
ture of a strong subsutural line, weakly nodulous over the ribs; 5 to
6 somewhat weaker widely separated lines on the basal slope and
base of last whorl; and about 6 closely-set strong lines on the siphonal
fasciole. Aperture wide opposite upper columella, constricted at pos-
terior extremity. Outer lip with strongly inflexed margin, within orna-
mented with 5 to 6 denticles, the posterior denticle, located at the
upper third of length, being strongest. Inner lip callus provided with
4 rounded lirations, the upper three short and marginal, the lowest
stronger and longer. A rounded callus knob lies on the face of the
body whorl opposite the subsutural raised line. Siphonal fasciole
strongly developed. Canal short and reflexed.
Dimensions: Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370184) measures:
Altitude, 10.7 mm.; greatest diameter, 6 mm.
Strombina sincola Olsson, from Hill la and Hill 3, Banana River,
Costa Rica, is related to the new species, differing from it mainly in
the more flattened area behind the outer lip and in the character of
the posterior extremity of the aperture.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Leon County, Harveys Creek, about
half a mile above abandoned mill, type and only locality.
The species is named in honor of Mr. Herman Gunter, State Geol-
ogist of Florida, the collector of the type specimen.

Strombina gunteri leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 12, figure 1
Shell small, stout, turrited, with 3 smooth nuclear whorls and 4
mainly axially sculptured postnuclear whorls. Body whorl propor-
tionately large, about two-thirds length of shell. Two early post-
nuclear whorls nearly smooth. Axial sculpture on subsequent whorls
of rather strong ribs, weakly nodulous below the suture. Spirally
sculptured only on the base of body whorl and canal with closely-set
low threads. Aperture similar to Anachis gunteri but without callus
knob on face of body whorl.
Dimensions: Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370186) measures:
Altitude, 4.2 mm.; greatest diameter, 2 mm.
This subspecies differs from Strombina gunteri in having a smaller
shell with less acute spire and in being more strongly sculptured
axially.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, about half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, type and only locality (rare).

Family MURICIDAE
Genus TYPHIS Montfort, 1810
Typhis harrisi Olsson
Plate 11, figure 6
1914. Typhis harrisi Olsson, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 5, p. 46, pl. 9, figs. 7, 9.
This species is closely allied to Typhis floridanus Dall, a species
occurring in the Pliocene beds of Caloosahatchee River, Fla., differing
mainly from the latter in having a much stronger intervarical rib be-
low the shoulder, produced by the tube.
Occurrence: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County (rare);
station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County (rare); station 8176, the
"Deadens," Washington County (rare).
Outside occurrence: Duplin marl at Natural Well, N. C.

Genus MUREX Linnaeus, 1758
Murex pomum Gmelin
Plate 11, figure 9 "
1792. Murex pomum Gmelin, Systema naturae, p. 3527.
A single specimen of Murex pomum was collected by the Florida
Geological Survey from Harveys Creek, half a mile above the aban-
doned mill, Leon County, Fla.
Murex globosa Emmons (=M. pomum Gmelin) was reported by
Emmons1 from the Miocene of Cape Fear River, N. C. I know of no
confirmed record that this species has been collected from the Duplin
marl at the Natural Well or at Wilmington, N. C.
This species occurs in the Bowden marl of Jamaica and is a com-
mon species in the Pliocene of Florida.
In the Recent fauna it ranges from Beaufort, N. C., to Venezuela.

Genus PURPURA Martyn, 1784
Purpura fluviana Dall
Plate 11, figure 7
1903. Pterorhytis (conradiana Dall, var.?) fluviana Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci.
Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1633, pl. 60, figs. 20, 21.
Following is a description of the apparently undescribed species:
Shell of moderate size, solid, with about 11/2 corroded nuclear and
4 strongly angulated postnuclear whorls. Whorls rapidly enlarging;
body whorl about three-fourths the shell length. Suture deep, not


'Emmons, Ebenezer, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., p. 247, fig. 105 A, 1858.


83







84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

appressed. Axial sculpture of 4 reflected, rather thin, facially undu-
lated, marginally sinuate varices on the later whorls and of about 9
ribs on the early whorls. Face of varices with thin marginally cren-
ulated laminae which are very faint between the varices. Spiral sculp-
ture of about 3 faint, rounded lines situated at and below the pe-
riphery. Aperture broadly ovate; outer lip with a small denticle sit-
uated at anterior part. Canal closed, moderately twisted.
Figured type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 163801) measures: Altitude,
34 mm.; greatest diameter, 25 mm.
Type locality: Pliocene of Shell Creek, Fla.
This species differs from Purpura conradi (Dall) in lacking the
strong spirals arid cancellate ornamentation between the varices.
Purpura conradi (Dall)1 is reported from the St. Marys formation,
Maryland, and from Goose Creek, South Carolina. One specimen
recorded as from Maryland is in the United States National Museum
collection and appears to be the specimen figured by Dall.

Purpura marshall Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 11, figure 4
Shell rather large, solid, with 11/2 nuclear and 6 postnuclear whorls.
Spire broady conical and about one-fifth shell length. Suture mod-
erately deep and on later whorls well appressed. Nuclear whorls
small, smooth, and rounded in outline. Axial sculpture on three early
postnuclear whorls of about 10 lamellar ribs and on the following
whorls of 4 thin, nearly erect, facially imbricated and marginally
crenulated varices. Spiral sculpture on the two early whorls of 2
spirals, the anterior of which is much stronger and forms the pe-
riphery of the whorl. Following whorls with a strong, rounded, feebly
imbricated spiral at the angled periphery, 3 to 4 weaker spirals below
the periphery, and fewer and weaker spirals above the periphery.
Aperture narrowly ovate. Outer lip with a denticulate margin and
a strong spike at the anterior third; within provided with a single
row of low, elongate elevations. Canal closed, weakly reflected.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370227) measures: Altitude, 52 mm.;
maximum diameter, 30 mm.
This species differs from Purpura fluviana Dall in having a much
shallower and more appressed suture and more erect and thinner
varices.
This species is named in honor of Mr. William B. Marshall, As-
sistant Curator of Mollusks, U. S. National Museum.


1Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 143, pl. 12, fig. 11, 1890.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Occurrence: Borrow pit near Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla.,
type locality (rare); station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County, Fla.
(rare).
Genus EUPLEURA H. and A. Adams, 1853
Eupleura miocenica Dall
Plate 17, figure 6
1890. Eupleura miocenica Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 146,
pl. 12, fig. 9.
1929. Eupleura miocenica Dall. Cooke and Mossom, Florida Geol. Survey Twen-
tieth Ann. Rept., pl. 16, fig. 6.
This species is separated from Eupleura miocenica var. intermedia
Dall, a form from the Caloosahatchee Pliocene, Florida, by its lower
and less angulated shoulder, weaker spiral sculpture, and much
shorter canal.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, type lo-
cality; station 1/960, Darlings Slide, Chipola River, Calhoun County.
Common at both localities.

Eupleura caudata brevispira Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 11, figure 5
Shell small, with a short, broadly conical spire and rather long
body whorl and canal, consisting of about 61/2 whorls in all; two
apical whorls broken off. Whorls tabulated below the suture. Axial
sculpture of (9 on the last whorl) rather strong ribs. Each rib is
crested with a hemiconical, rather stout spine, the base of which
crosses the tabulated subsutural area to the suture as a slightly raised
lamella. Spirally sculptured only below the shoulder of the last whorl
with about 9 rounded threads, which are weaker in the valleys than
over the ribs. Aperture narrowly ovate. Inner margin of outer lip
marked with 6 rounded denticles. One rounded denticle lies on the
parietal wall and two or three irregularly-spaced, small, rounded ele-
vations lie on the middle part of the columellar callus. Canal rather
long and straight.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370195) measures: Altitude, 12. 5 mm.;
greatest diameter, 7 mm.
The new subspecies differs from Eupleura caudata (Say) or E.
caudata var. sulcidentata Dall in having a shorter spire and in the
absence of the spiral line connecting the ribs at the upper shoulder.
Occurrence: Station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County, Fla., type and
only locality.







86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Eupleura caudata leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 11, figure 2
Eupleura caudata leonensis closely resembles both Eupleura cau-
data sulcidentata Dall and E. caudata brevispira, new subspecies. It
differs from the former in having more tabulated whorls and fewer
and weaker spiral lines on the body whorl. E. caudata brevispira has
a less acute spire. In other features the two Miocene subspecies closely
agree.
The shell is rather large and consists of about seven whorls.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370197) measures: Altitude, 36 mm.;
greatest diameter, 20 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type and only locality. The type
was collected by the Florida State Geological Survey.

Genus UROSALPINX Stimpson, 1865
Urosalpinx trossulus (Conrad)?
A fragment of a shell consisting of the body whorl was collected
by Mr. Herman Gunter from Harveys Creek, about half a mile above
an abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. This fragment may belong to
Urosalpinx trossulus (Conrad). The type locality of Urosalpinx tros-
sulus (Conrad) is James River, near Smithfield, Va. This species oc-
curs in the Yorktown formation of Virginia, in and above the com-
minuted series; in the Duplin marl of the Carolinas; and in the
Pliocene beds of Florida.

Genus MURICIDEA (Swainsori) Morch, 1852
Muricidea floridana libertieinsis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 11, figure 8
None of the specimens referred to this new subspecies are perfect.
The description of the specimen selected for the type is as follows:
Shell of moderate size, solid, stronger axially sculptured than
spirally, with 6 remaining whorls. Whorls uniformly expanding, in-
flated, nearly flat below the strongly appressed suture. Axial sculp-
ture of (on the body whorl 8) broad, rounded ribs, which extend over
the lower two-thirds of the whorl. Spiral sculpture of rather strong,
rounded, widely-spaced lines, of which 2 lie on the upper shoulder
slope, 2 on the periphery of the spire whorls, and 6 on the last whorl
to the canal. A weaker spiral intercalates the first and second posterior
primaries of the body whorl. Margin of outer lip broken, within
marked with 7 entering lirations. End of canal broken off.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370230) measures: Altitude, 22 mm.;
greatest diameter, 12 mm.
The new subspecies differs from Muricidea floridana (Conrad) in
having a wider and flatter subsutural area, a less steeply inclined
posterior shoulder slope, and wider and stronger axials.
, Occurrence: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County, Fla., type
locality; station 3672, 1 mile northwest of Hosford, Liberty County,
Fla. Rare at both localities.

Muricidea floridana conradi Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 12, figure 3
Shell of moderate size, solid, stronger axially sculptured than
spirally, and consists of 5 whorls, tip decollate. Whorls enlarging
rather uniformly, constricted below the suture on the later whorls
and at the base of the body whorl. Suture more appressed on the
earlier than later whorls. Axial sculpture of (9 on the body whorl)
prominent rounded ribs separated by rounded-bottomed interspaces
equal in width to ribs, Spiral sculpture of rather strong, weakly
crenulated, rounded primary lines which are usually intercalated
with slightly weaker secondaries. Outer lip, within, strongly marked
with 9 entering lirations. Pillar large, end provided with a large
perforation.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370203) measures: Altitude, 30 mm.;
greatest diameter, 16 mm.
The new subspecies differs mainly from Muricidea floridana (Con-
rad), a species described from the Recent fauna of Tampa Bay, Fla.,
in having less angulated whorls and a much more constricted pillar
at the junction of the body whorl. Muricidea floridana libertiensis
has a more slender shell and lacks the secondary spiral sculpture
lines.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, half a mile above the
abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type and only locality. Collected
by the Florida Geological Survey.

Suborder STREPTODONTA
Superfamily PTENOGLOSSA
Family EPITONIIDAE
Genus EPITONIUM ("Bolten") Roeding, 1798
Epitonium sayanum (Dall), n. subsp.?
A fragment of a shell consisting of the three lower whorls, belong-
ing to the genus Epitonium, collected at station 3421, Harveys Creek,
half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., may prove to


87







88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

be the same as Epitonium sayanum (Dall)1 or a new subspecies, when
better specimens are procured.
The fragment has 7 thin, reflected, posteriorly angled, continuous
and contiguous, rather high costae. On the base of the last whorl
faint spiral striae intercalate the costae.
Dall' reports Epitonium sayanum from the "Pliocene of the
Caloosahatchee. Post Pliocene of South Carolina. Recent from Texas
to Key West, and northward to Virginia."

Epitonium turriculum (Sowerby)
Plate 12, figure 6
1847. Scalaria turricula Sowerby, Thesaurcs, "Scalaria." p. 92, pl. 33, fig. 61; pl.
34, fig. 88.
1876. Scala (Amoea) turricula (Sowerby). Mirch, Acad. Nat. Sci. Jour., 2d ser.
vol. 8, p. 200. pl. 29, fig. 7.
1890. Scala turricula (Sowerby). Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 1, p. 157.
This species is mainly characterized by having microscopic axial
lines between the spirals.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 8176, the "Deadens," Wash-
ington County (rare) ; ?3671, Hosford, Liberty County; ?1/961, near
Woods, Liberty County.
Outside occurrence: Upper Miocene, Petersburg, Va. (1 fragment).
Pliocene, Caloosahatchee River and Shell Creek, Fla. Living in the
eastern Antilles and northward to Cape Hatteras.
Epitonium duplinianum (Olsson), described from the Duplin marl,
Natural Well, N. C., is very closely related to E. turripulum, differing
from the latter in having more secondary spiral lines between the
primaries.
Epitonium alumensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 12, figure 5
Scala, near acicula Lea, Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 6, p. 1597,
1903.
Shell rather small, fragile, consisting of 5 whorls; apex broken off.
Whorls roundly angulated at the periphery and separated by a deep
and distinct suture. Body whorl much larger than preceding and more
strongly angulated. Axial sculpture of fine, weakly arcuate, low, and
rather sharp costae crossing the whorl with equal strength. Base with
a slightly raised area, restricted above by a low ridge and marked
with costae. Aperture not entire in the holotype, subcircular in out-



1Dall, W. H., Harvard College Mus. Comp. Zool. Bull., vol. 18, p. 309, 1889.
2Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 158, 1890.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


line. Margin of outer lip broken away. The holotype may not be
adult, but it is well characterized by a rather large body whorl and
rounded angled whorls.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 112711) measures: Altitude, 5.5
mm.; greatest diameter, 3 mm.
The new species is related to an undescribed new species from
the Yorktown formation of Virginia but differs from that species in
having finer costae and whorls more strongly angulated. "Scalarina"
acicula Lea, as indicated by the illustration, has rounded whorls and
a different aperture.
Occurrence: Upper bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty County, type and
only known locality.

Superfamily GYMNOGLOSSA
Family MELANELLIDAE
Genus MELANELLA Bowdich, 1822
Subgenus MELANELLA Bowdich
Melanella (Melanella) bartschi Gardner and Aldrich
Plate 12, figure 7
1919. Melanella bartschi Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc.,
vol. 71, p. 37, pl. 2, fig. 1.
This species is characterized by its elongate-conic shell, full, rather
short, and evenly rounded basal whorl, and short, obliquely subovate
aperture.
Magnolia, Duplin County, N. C., is the type locality of this species.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 3671, Hosford,
Liberty County (abundant) ; station 3672, 1 mile northwest of Hos-
ford (abundant) ; station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County (rare) ; 3423, lower upper Miocene bed
at Jackson Bluff, Leon County (rare); ?3422, uppermost bed at \
Jackson Bluff (1 fragment); ?1/422, Hamlin Pond, Washington
County (fragments); station 8176, the "Deadens," Washington
County; borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff (rare).
Figured specimen (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370215) is from station
3671, Hosford, Liberty County, Fla.

Melanella (Melanella) magnoliana Gardner and Aldrich
Plate 12, figure 12
1919. Melanella magnoliana, Gardner anl Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 38, pl. 2, fig. 8.
This species is closely related to Melanella bartschi Gardner and
Aldrich, differing mainly in having a smaller and stouter shell.


89







90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Magnolia, Duplin County, N. C., is the type locality of this species.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County (common) ; station 1/706, Gully
Pond, Washington County (common).
Figured specimen (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370223) is from station
3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County,
Fla.
Genus STROMBIFORMIS Da Costa, 1778
Strombiformis leonensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 12, figures 4, 8
Shell imperforate, polished, slender, consisting of about 11 whorls
in all; only seven remaining on the type. Three early whorls weakly
inflated and separated by a distinct suture, following whorls nearly
straight in outline, later whorls more so than earlier. Suture appressed
and shallowly depressed. Base broadly rounded. Aperture elongate-
ovate; posterior angle acute, outer lip thin, weakly contracted above.
Inner lip closely appressed to the parietal wall and reflexed over the
columella below. Very faint spiral color bands are indicated on the
shell. The description is based on the holotype with a broken-off
apex and a paratype with a preserved nucleus.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370229) measures: Altitude, 9.5
mm.; greatest diameter, 2.2 mm.; length of aperture, 2.8 mm.; width
of aperture, 1.2 mm.
Strombiformis dalli Gardner and Aldrich,' described from the
Pliocene of Caloosahatchee River, Fla., is probably a descendant of
my new species and consequently closely related. Strombiformis dalli
has a more slender shell with more depressed whorls below the suture
and a longer and narrower aperture than my new species. Gardner
and Aldrich2 reported the occurrence of S. dalli in the Yorktown
formation of Virginia and the Duplin marl of North and South Caro-
lina. There are specimens in the U. S. National Museum collection
from the Yorktown formation of Virginia and the Duplin marl of
the Carolinas that compare with my new species and I have assigned
them to it.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys
Creek, half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality
(common); station 3422, uppermost bed at Jacksoh Bluff, Leon
County (rare) ; station 1/706, Gully Pond, Washington County
(rare) ; station 3671, Hosford, Liberty County (one fragment and
identification uncertain).
'Gardner, J. A., and Aldrich, T. H., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 71, pp. 39, 40,
pl. 2, fig. 5, 1919.
Op. cit., p. 40.








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Strombiformis leonensis harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 12, figure 11
One specimen collected at station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County, is a little different from Strombi-
formis leonensis, n. sp. The subspecies differs from the species in
having a less slender shell with spire whorls slightly enlarged below
the suture and body whorl lowly angled at the periphery.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 166382) measures: Altitude, 9.3
mm.; greatest diameter, 2.4 mm.; length of aperture, 2.9 mm.; width
of aperture, 1 mm.
Genus NISO Risso, 1826
Niso willcoxiana gunteri Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 12, figure 9
Shell polished, elongate-conic, rather narrowly umbilicated, con-
sisting of 121/2 whorls, nucleus broken off. Earliest two whorls slightly
rounded, following whorls nearly straight in outline and uniformly
increasing in size. Suture distinct, shallowly depressed. Periphery of
body whorl angulated, with a very narrow and low brownish-color
band at the angulation. Surface of whorls marked with very faint
axial striae. Spiral sculpture above the periphery and on the base of
body whorl of widely spaced very weak threads. Aperture subovate;
margin broken off. Umbilicus about two-fifths of greater diameter of
shell.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370231) measures: Altitude, 16.7 mm.;
greatest diameter, 6.2 mm.
The new subspecies differs from Niso willcoxiana Dall, a species
described from the Pliocene of Caloosahatchee River, Fla., in having
a more slender shell with more uniformly expanding whorls and a
narrower umbilicus.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, half a
mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality (2 specimens
including holotype) ; station 1/422, Hamlin Pond, Washington
County (1 specimen) ; station 8176, the "Deadens," Washington
County (2 specimens).
Outside occurrence: Very small specimens at Natural Well, N. C.,
and near Mayesville, S. C., may belong to this new subspecies.


91








92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Family PYRAMIDELLIDAE'
Genus PYRAMIDELLA Lamarck, 1799
Pyramidella species a
A juvenile specimen belonging to the genus Pyramidella was col-
lected at station 1/955, Gully Pond, Washington County, Fla. This is
designated species a.

Pyramidella species b
A single young specimen belonging to the genus Pyramidella was
collected on Harveys Creek, half a mile above the abandoned mill,
Leon County, Fla., by Mr. Herman Gunter, State Geologist of Florida.
This apparently belongs to the subgenus Triptychus and is designated
species b.

Pyramidella species c
A single specimen representing four lower whorls, belonging to
the genus Pyramidella, was collected by the Florida Geological Sur-
vey at borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla. This speci-
men is designated species c.

Genus TURBONILLA Risso, 1826
Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) species a
Occurrence: Station 1/672, Darlings Slide, Chipola River, Calhoun
County; station 1/954, half a mile northeast of Clarksville, Calhoun
County; station 1/670, upper fossiliferous bed at Alum Bluff, Liberty
County.

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) species b
Occurrence: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half a mile above aban.
doned mill, Leon County; station 1/955, Gully Pond, Washington
County; station 11732, borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County.

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) species c
Occurrence: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County; station 1/422, Hamlin Pond, Washington
County; station 1/706, Gully Pond, Washington County; station
11732, borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County.

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) species d
Occurrence: Station 1/706, Gully Pond, Washington County; sta-
tion 1/422, Hamlin Pond, Washington County; station 11732, borrow
pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County (var.?).

'The species referred to the genera Pyramidella and Turbonilla are separated into species
and designated by alphabetical symbols.








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) species e
Occurrence: Station 1/953, 1 mile below Econfina bridge, Bay
'County; station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half a mile above abandoned
mill, Leon County; station 11732, borrow pit, near Jackson Bluff,
Leon County.
Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) species f
Occurrence: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half a mile above the
.abandoned mill, Leon County.

Suborder PECTINIBRANCHIATA
Superfamily TAENIOGLOSSA
Family CASSIDIDAE
Genus SCONSIA Gray, 1847
Sconsia hodgei (Conrad)
1841. Cassis Hodgii Conrad, Am. Jour. Sci., 1st ser., vol. 41, p. 346, pl. 2, fig. 10.
1856. Galeodia Hodgii Conrad. Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene fossils of South
Carolina, p. 138, pl. 28, fig. 10.
1858. Galeodia Hodgii Conrad. Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., p.
257, text-fig. 128.
1863. Sconsia (Cassis) Hodgii Conrad. Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc. for 1862, vol. 14, p. 564.
1864. Sconsia Hodgei Conrad. Meek, Check list of the invertebrate fossils of
North America, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. (183), p. 19, No. 639.
1903. Cassis (Sconsia) Hodgei Conrad. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol.
3, pt. 6, p. 1597. (Listed from upper bed at Alum Bluff, Fla.)
1903. Sconsia Hodgei Conrad. Dall, idem, p. 1600.
1919. Cassis Hodgei Conrad. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia
Proc., vol. 71, p. 18.
This species has a large, thin, rather finely spirally sculptured
shell with inflated whorls.
Occurrence in Florida: A fragment of the anterior part of the
last whorl collected at station 2210, upper bed at Alum Bluff, prob-
ably should be referred to Sconsia hodgei. A perfect specimen of this
species was collected at borrow pit, Jackson Bluff, Leon County, by
the Florida Geological Survey after the plates for this paper had been
made up.
Outside occurrence: Duplin marl, North and South Carolina.

Family FICIDAE
Genus FICUS ("Bolten") Roeding, 1798
Ficus aff. F. papyratium (Say)
One fragment of the genus Ficus collected by Mr. Herman Gunter
from Harveys Creek, about half a mile above the abandoned mill,
Leon County, Fla., appears to be closely related to Ficus papyratium
(Say), a species ranging from the Pliocene into the Recent.


93








94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Family CYPRAEIDAE
Genus CYPRAEA Linnaeus, 1758
Cypraea carolinensis Conrad
1841. Cypraea carolinensis Conrad, Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 1, vol. 41, p. 346, pl. 2,
fig. 6.
A nearly perfect specimen of Cypraea carolinensis was collected
in the borrow pit, Jackson Bluff, Leon County, by the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, after the plates for this paper had been prepared.
Fragments of a shell, probably representing C. carolinensis, were col-
lected by me at station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half a mile above the
abandoned mill, Leon County.
The type locality of C. carolinensis is the Natural Well, Duplin
County, N. C. This species appears to be confined to the upper Mio-
cene deposits in the Carolinas.

Family CYMATIIDAE
Genus CYMATIUM ("Bolten") Roeding, 1798
Subgenus LINATELLA Gray, 1857
Cymatium (Linatella) floridanum Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 12, figure 10
Shell small, rather fragile, subovate, mainly spirally sculptured,
and consists of 2 preserved nuclear and 3 postnuclear whorls. Nucleus
distinct, smooth, porcelaneous, and erect. Postnuclear whorls inflated,
body whorl and canal about four-fifths of shell length. Spiral sculp-
ture of flat bands usually alternating in width. Axial sculpture of faint
incremental threads. Aperture semicircular in outline, outer lip cren-
ulated within. Lower columella provided with 6 weak plications
shortening in length anteriorly.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370465) measures: Altitude, 26 mm.;
greatest diameter, 16 mm.; length of aperture, 18 mm.
The shell of the new species may not be adult. The new species
apparently belongs to the subgenus Linatella Gray and is most nearly
related to the form referred by Tryon1 to Triton (Linatella) cingu-
latus Lamarck, a species reported on the Atlantic side at St. Thomas,
W. I.
Occurrence: Station 11732, borrow pit near Jackson Bluff, Leon
County, Fla. Type and only specimen collected by the Florida Geo-
logical Survey.


1Tryon, G. W., Manual of Conchology, (1st ser.) vol. 8, p. 15, pl. 8, figs. 55, 56, 1881.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Family STROMBIDAE
Genus STROMBUS Linnaeus, 1799
Strombus pugilis floridanus Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 13, figures 9, 10
Shell of moderate size, rather stout, consisting of 2 corroded, ap-
parently smooth, nuclear and about 8 sculptured subsequent whorls.
First five postnuclear whorls narrowly conical; succeeding, broadly
conical. First and second postnuclear whorls weakly inflated, not
shouldered; third, fourth, and fifth shouldered; sixth and seventh not
shouldered; body whorl roundly shouldered. Spiral sculpture of nar-
row raised bands over the whole surface except on the back of the
* body whorl of adult specimens. Axial sculpture of arcuate riblets on
the early whorls, which become gradually shorter on ascending the
spire, and on the penultimate whorl are rather low, rounded tubercles
situated behind the suture. Body whorl without tubercles. Angled
color bands are visible on the back of the body whorl. The apices of
the angles of the color bands point backward and originate near the
middle of the whorl. The description of the subspecies is based upon
two specimens, type and paratype.
Type (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 370260) measures: Altitude, 62
mm.; greatest diameter, 36 mm. Paratype (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No.
370259) measures: Altitude, 45 mm.; greatest diameter, 24 mm.
The new subspecies is closely related to Strombus pugilis alatus
Gmelin but differs from the latter in having a shorter shell with a
lower and less turrited spire, and fewer nodules or tubercles. In the
new subspecies, the suture winds upon or above the spiral row of
tubercles except on the earliest whorls and on the last half of the
body whorl. On S. pugilis alatus the suture falls below the tuberculate
shoulder.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality (common) ; station 3422,
uppermost Miocene bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County, paratype
locality (rare).
Family TRIPHORIDAE
Genus TRIPHORA Blainville, 1828
Triphora, species indeterminable
ThMe genus Triphora is represented at three localities by three
fragments, which may represent two species.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/706, Gully Pond, Wash-
ington County, Fla.; station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla.; station 11732, borrow pit near
Jackson Bluff, Leon County, Fla.


95








96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Family CERITHIOPSIDAE
Genus CERITHIOPSIS Forbes and Hanley, 1853
Cerithiopsis, species a
A revision of the Recent species of the genus Cerithiopsis of our
east coast and Gulf has not been completed, and until it is the species
from the upper Miocene of Florida can not be readily named. Con-
sequently the forms are separated and designated by alphabetical
symbols.
Cerithiopsis species a agrees very closely to a form from the Duplin
marl at the Natural Well, North Carolina, and from the Pliocene of
Florida, a form that has usually been referred to Cerithiopsis sub-
ulata Montagu, differing only from the latter in having a slightly
more slender shell.
Occurrence: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County, Fla.

Cerithiopsis species b
Cerithiopsis species b is related to Cerithiopsis greenii (C. B.
Adams). Cerithiopsis greenii has been reported by Dall1 from the
Pliocene of Florida to the Recent. Specimens in the U. S. National
Museum collection from the Natural Well, North Carolina, labeled
"Cerithiopsis greenii," agree more closely with Cerithiopsis sp. b,
differing from it mainly in having a more slender shell.
Occurrence: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above aban-
doned mill, Leon County, Fla.

Cerithiopsis species c
Cerithiopsis sp. c. is represented by two small, perhaps immature,
specimens. It is related to Cerithiopsis sp. b but has a much stouter
shell.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/966, Double Branch, just
above highway bridge, Leon County, Fla.

Genus SEILA A. Adams, 1861
Seila clavulus (H. C. Lea)
Plate 13, figure 7
1843. Cerithium clavulus H. C. Lea, Am. Philos. Soc. Proc., vol. 3, p. 164 (List,
nomen nudum).
1845. Certithium clavulus H. C. Lea, Am. Philos. Soc. Trans., vol. 9, p. 268, pl.
37, fig. 89.
1858. Cerithium annulatum Emmons, North Carolina Geol. Survey Rept., p. 269,
text-fig. 161.


'Dall, W. H., Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 269, 1892.






CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS. 97

:1863. Cerithiopsis (Cerithium) annulatum Emmons. Conrad, Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia Proc. for 1862, vol. 14, p. 566.
1863. Cerithiopsis (Cerithium) clavulus H. C. Lea. Conrad, idem.
1864. Cerithiopsis annulata (Emmons) Conrad. Meek, Check List invertebrate
fossils of North America. Miocene: Smithsonian Misc. Coll. No. 183,
p. 17, No. 574.
1864. Cerithiopsis clavula (H. C. Lea) Conrad. Meek, idem., No. 575.
1892. Seila adamsii Dall (not H. C. Lea, part), Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans.,
vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 267.
1903. Seila adamsi Dall (not H. C. Lea), idem., pt. 6, p. 1600.
?1904. Seila adamsii Martin (not H. C. Lea), Maryland Geol. Survey, Miocene,
p. 228, pl. 55, fig. 6.
1919. Seila clavulus (H. C. Lea). Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel-
phia Proc., vol. 71, p. 18.
The type locality of Seila clavulus (H. C. Lea) is Petersburg, Va.
There are in the U. S. National Museum a number of individuals of
the genus Seila from Petersburg, Va., that compare with the descrip-
tion and illustration of Seila clavulus. When the Petersburg form is
compared with Seila adamsii (H. C. Lea), a Recent species from the
New England coast (New Bedford, Mass.), the two forms do not ap-
pear to be identical and cannot be united under one specific name.
The fossil shell differs from the Recent in having a more slender shell
with whorls more deeply depressed at the sutural area and a longer
canal.
Occurrence in Florida: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys
Creek, half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County (common);
station 3423, lower upper Miocene bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County
(rare) ; station 1/706, Gully Pond, Washington County (rare) ; ?sta-
tion 1/422, Hamlin Pond, Washington County; station 1/953, 1 mile
below Econfina bridge, Bay County (rare). Pliocene of Caloosahat-
chee River and Shell Creek.
Outside occurrence: Upper Miocene: Yorktown formation, Vir-
ginia; Duplin marl, North and South Carolina. Pliocene: Waccamaw
marl, South Carolina.

Family CERITHIIDAE
Genus CERITHIUM Bruguiere, 1792
Cerithium floridanum leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 13, figures 1, 4
Shell rather small and solid, with a moderately acute spire, con-
sisting of 9 whorls, apex broken off. Whorls weakly constricted at
the upper third, medially enlarged, separated by an appressed suture.
Spiral sculpture of impressed lines on spire and body, separated by
slightly raised primary, secondary, and tertiary interspaces. Axial
sculpture of strong rounded ribs on the earlier whorls, but on the








98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

later spire whorls these ribs become gradually shorter and higher
until they are represented by elongate nodules occupying the pe-
riphery of the whorl. Spire whorls ornamented with a single row of
low spiral nodules slightly below the suture and a similar and stronger
row at the periphery. The basal whorl, aside from its 2 stronger
nodulous bands, has 4 smaller beaded bands, one lying behind the
periphery and three below it. Aperture ovate with a sinus at the
posterior end. Subsutural ridge strong. Canal short and recurved.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370275) measures: Altitude, 26 mm.;
greatest diameter, 10.5 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half
a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla.,' type locality; bor-
row pit, near Jackson Bluff, Leon County.
Cerithium floridanum leonensis is the ancestor of Cerithium flor-
idanum Moirch and differs from the latter in having a slightly more
slender shell, which is ornamented on the earlier whorls with weaker
and farther separated beads or nodules on the subsutural band.

"Cerithium" harveyensis Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 13, figure 8
Shell subovate, moderately solid with acute spire, consisting of
about 7 whorls. Whorls rounded in outline, later whorls more so than
earlier. Suture appressed and shallowly depressed. Sculpture on the
spire whorls of rather closely-set spiral incised lines, marking the
entire surface of the shell, and three rows of spiral beads or low
nodules connected by a very low spiral band. The beads composing
the subsutural row are lower than those in the other two rows, one
of which is at the upper third and the other at the lower third of the
whorl. Face of body whorl reveals six rows of beads. Outer lip and
lower columella broken off. Posterior sinus deep and narrow. Sub-
sutural ridge rather strong.
Type and only specimen (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370278) measures:
Altitude, 22 mm.; greatest diameter, 11.5 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. Mr. Herman Gunter, collector.
"Cerithium" harveyensis is perhaps related to Cerithium literatum
Born, a Recent species geographically ranging on the east coast from
Florida southward. It differs from the latter species in having much
more inflated whorls with different sculpture features. The new spe-
cies apparently belongs to the same group with Thericium macu-
losum (Kiener), a west coast Recent species geographically ranging
from Lower California to Panama and Galapagos.







CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Genus ALABINA Dall, 1902
Alabina adamsi floridana Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 13, figures 2, 5
Shell rather small, moderately thin, with 3 smooth, narrowly conic,
inflated nuclear whorls and 6 angulated, axially and spirally sculp-
tured subsequent whorls. Suture narrowly channeled. Early whorls
of spire more strongly angled than later, the body whorl being nearly
rounded at the periphery. Axial sculpture of arcuate ribs, weak and
closely-set on first postnuclear whorl, becoming gradually stronger
and wider spaced on the later whorls, extending across the spire
whorls and terminating at the upper base on the body whorl. Spiral
sculpture of narrow, rounded threads overrunning the axials, the
spiral at the periphery and those on the lower half of the body whorl
being stronger. Aperture elliptical.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370279) measures: Altitude 4.6 mm.;
greatest diameter, 1.7 mm.
The new subspecies differs mainly from Alabina adamsi (Dall),
described from a Recent species, in the character of the early whorls.
The Recent species has fewer and stronger axials and a more reticu-
late sculpture on the early whorls than the Miocene fossil species.
The latter differs from the Pliocene of Caloosahatchee River and
Shell Creek, Fla., in having finer sculpture ornamentation. A form
closely allied to the new subspecies occurs in the upper Miocene at
Petersburg, Va. The latter is also closely allied to the Pliocene form.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a
mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality (abundant) ;
station 1/966, Double Branch, above highway bridge, Leon County
(rare) ; station 3422, highest upper Miocene bed at Jackson Bluff,
Leon County (rare) ; station 1/955, Gully Pond, Washington County
(common).

Alabina adamsi leonensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 13, figure 3
This form differs from Alabina adamsi floridana in having fewer
and coarser axials. It has 3 smooth, narrow-conical, inflated nuclear
whorls and 5 axially and spirally sculptured subsequent whorls. The
two earliest postnuclear whorls have 2 spiral threads; on the later
whorls the posterior thread forms the periphery of the whorls.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370286) measures: Altitude, 3.2 mm.;
greatest diameter, 1.3 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/964, Harveys Creek, high-
est bed at abandoned mill, Leon County, type locality (rare) ; station


99








100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County
(common) ; station 3422, highest bed at Jackson Bluff, Leon County
(rare) ; station 1/961, near Woods, Liberty County (rare).

Alabina adamsi harveyensis Mansfield, n. subsp.
Plate 13, figure 6
This form differs from Alabina adamsi floridana and Alabina
adamsi leonensis in having a more slender shell and weaker angulated
whorls. The type has 3 smooth, narrowly conic, inflated nuclear
whorls and 7 axially and spirally sculptured subsequent whorls. Spir-
als little stronger than axials and consist of narrow threads. Aperture
broadly ovate.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370291) measures: Altitude, 3.8 mm.;
greatest diameter, 1.4 mm.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 1/946, Harveys Creek, half
a mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, type and only locality.

Family MODULIDAE
Genus MODULUS Gray, 1847
Modulus woodringi Mansfield, n. sp.
Plate 14, figures 1, 2, 3
Shell small, turbinate, low-spired, axially and spirally sculptured,
consisting of 5 whorls. Posterior three whorls broadly conical, an-
terior two weakly tabulated below the suture, last whorl more so than
preceding. Whorls weakly depressed behind the suture. Nucleus cor-
roded. Axial sculpture of (11 on the last whorl) strong, short, rounded
ribs, situated mainly at the periphery. Spiral sculpture of a strong
flat-topped band at the periphery of the whorl, 2 rounded threads
above, one being at the upper shoulder and the other below, and 1 or
2 very faint threads lying between the shoulder thread and suture.
Base ornamented with 8 nearly flat-topped, narrow, raised bands. A
wider space separates the posterior band from the peripheral band
and the posterior series of four from the anterior. Surface of shell
overrun by retractive impressed growth lines and microscopic in-
cised spirals. Border of outer lip and lower columella broken away.
Type (U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 370293) measures: Altitude, 7 mm.;
greatest diameter, 9 mm.
The new species is most closely related to Modulus floridanus Con-
rad, differing from the latter in having shorter axials and finer and
more numerous spirals on the base.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a
mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., type and only locality.
The new species is named in honor of Dr. Wendell P. Woodring.








CHOCTAWHATCHEE GASTROPODS AND SCAPHOPODS.


Family CAECIDAE
Genus CAECUM Fleming, 1813
Caecum cooper S. Smith
Plate 14, figure 7
1860. Caecum cooper S. Smith, Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York Annals, vol. 7,
p. 154.
1870. Caecum cooper S. Smith. Smith and Prime, idem, vol. 9, p. 393, fig. 3.
1872. Caecum smithii Cooper, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., vol. 24, p. 154.
1872. Caecum costatum Verrill, Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., vol. 3, p. 283, pl. 6, fig. 6.
1886. Caecum cooper S. Smith. Tryon, Manual of Conchology, vol. 8, p. 221, pl.
67, figs. 84, 85.
1892. Caecum cooper S. Smith. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 2,
p. 299.
1903. Caecum cooper S. Smith. Dall, idem, pt. 6, p. 1600.
1919. Caecum cooper S. Smith. Gardner and Aldrich, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel-
phia Proc., vol. 71, p. 18.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a
mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. (rare).
Outside occurrence: Yorktown formation comminutedd series),
Virginia; Duplin marl, North and South Carolina; Pliocene of Flor-
ida; living from Vineyard Sound, Mass., to Florida and the Antilles,
being more abundant from Cape Hatteras north.

Caecum floridanum compactum Dall
Plate 14, figure 9
1892. Caecum floridanum compactum Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 2, p. 298, pl. 20, fig. 9b.
A single specimen from station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile
above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., is referred to Caecum flor-
idanum compactum Dall, a form reported by Dall from Cape Fear
River, N. C., and the Pliocene Caloosahatchee marl, Fla.

Caecum coronellum Dall
1892. Caecum coronellum Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 2,
p. 298, pl. 20, fig. 11a.
One young individual and two fragments of a shell collected from
the upper Miocene at station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above
abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla., appear to be Caecum coronellum
Dall. The type locality of Dall's species is Mrs. Purdy's marl pit, Cape
Fear River, N. C. The species occurs rather abundantly in the Plio-
cene of Florida and is living 20 miles off the coast from Cape Hatteras,
N. C., in 15 fathoms of water.


101








102 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THREE.

Caecum regular Carpenter
Plate 14, figure 5
1858. Caecum regular Carpenter, Zool. Soc. London Proc., p. 16, No. 22.
1892. Caecum regular Carpenter. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 2, p. 299.
Occurrence: Upper Miocene: Station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a
mile above abandoned mill, Leon County, Fla. (figured specimen);
station 1/706, Gully Pond, Washingon County, Fla.
Outside occurrence: Pliocene of Florida and living in the Aritilles.

Genus MEIOCERAS Carpenter, 1858
Meioceras nitidum (Stimpson) Carpenter
Plate 14, figure 6
1851. Caecum nitidum Stimpson, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc., vol. 4, p. 112.
1858. Meioceras nitidum (Stimpson). Carpenter, Zool. Soc. London Proc., p. 26.
1892. Meioceras nitidum (Stimpson). Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3,
pt. 2, p. 302.
Four specimens collected from the upper Miocene of Florida at
station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon
County, appear referable to Meioceras nitidum (Stimpson).
This species occurs in the Pliocene of Florida and is living from
Tampa Bay, Fla., to the West Indies.

Meioceras sp. aff. M. cingulatum Dall
Plate 14, figure 8
Four specimens collected from the upper Miocene of Florida, at
station 3421, Harveys Creek, half a mile above abandoned mill, Leon
County, are related to Meioceras cingulatum Dall, a species described
from the Pliocene of the Caloosahatchee River, Fla. The Miocene
form is less strongly arched and is less tumid at the equator than the
Pliocene form.

Family VERMETIDAE
Genus SERPULORBIS Sassi, 1827
Serpulorbis granifera (Say) Dall
Plate 14, figure 4
1824. Serpula granifera Say, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Jour., vol. 4, 1st ser.,
p. 154, pl. 8, fig. 4.
1873. Vermetus decussatus Gabb (not Gmelin), Am. Philos. Soc. Trans., vol. 15,
p. 240.
1892. Serpulorbis granifera Say. Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pt. 2,
p. 303 (In part?).
1894. Anguinella virginiana Whitfield (not Conrad), U. S. Geol. Survey Mon.
24, p. 132, pl. 24, figs. 1-5.
1903. Serpulorbis granifera Say. Dall, op. cit., pt. 6, p. 1600.