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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Descriptions of species
 Plates 1-7
 Index


FGS



The Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 6 )
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 Material Information
Title: The Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 6 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Bulletin 6 )
Physical Description: 79 p. : 7 pl., fold. tab. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cole, William Storrs, 1902-
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1931
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Foraminifera, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Pliocene   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Pleistocene   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by W. Storrs Cole.
General Note: Includes references.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002037012
oclc - 01349249
notis - AKM4773
lccn - gs 31000121
System ID: UF00000435:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
        List of localities
            Page 8
            Page 8a
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Pliocene foraminifera
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Pleistocene foraminifera
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Acknowledgments
            Page 17
    Descriptions of species
        Page 18
        Textulariidae
            Page 18
        Miliolidae
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Ophthalmidiidae
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Lagenidae
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Polymorphinidae
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Peneroplidae
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Buliminidae
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Rotaliidae
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Amphisteginidae
            Page 52
        Cymbaloporettidae
            Page 53
        Cassidulinidae
            Page 54
        Globigerinidae
            Page 55
        Anomalinidae
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Planorbulinidae
            Page 58
    Plates 1-7
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Index
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
Full Text













































FGS
Bull
6
c.1













FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, State Geologist






BULLETIN NO. 6







THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE
FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA

By W. STORRS COLE,
Dallas, Texas.









TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA,
April, 1931.
CALFORNIA STATE DIVISION l IES


JUN 24 1931


San Fra c, California

















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


To His Excellency, Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith for publication the sixth
scientific bulletin of this Department consisting of a detailed report or
catalogue of the foraminifera contained in the formations of Florida
of Pleistocene and Pliocene age. For comparative purposes conclu-
sions resulting from studies of collections by Dr. Cole from formations
of similar age occurring in other states within the Coastal Plain are
included. Such comparisons have made this report much more in-
clusive and I feel sure that it will serve a very useful purpose. These
minute fossils have been found very helpful in working out strati-
graphic problems in the more precise identification of geological
horizons and with the progression of such detailed work the fossils
contained in the formations of Florida are gradually becoming better
known.
Respectfully,
HERMAN GUNTER,
State Geologist.
Tallahassee, Florida,
April, 1931.

















CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION .............. ............................. .........** 7-17
List of Localities ...................................... .......... .. 8-10
Table of Ranges of Species................................ between 8 and 9
Pliocene foraminifera ................... .......................... 12-14
Pleistocene foraminifera ......................................... 15-17
Acknowledgments ................................................... 17

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES ................................................. 18-58
Textulariide .................. ........ ... ................. 18-19
Miliolidae ................................. ...................9. 19-22
Ophthalmidiid ......................... ............................ 23-27
Lagenidae ............. ...................................... 27-28
Polymorphinidae ................ ............ ................... 29-37
Peneroplidae ......... ........... .............................. 37-39
Buliminidae ......................... ......... .... ............ 3945
Rotaliidae .................... ...................................... 45-52
Amphisteginidae .................................................. 52-53
Cym baloporettidae ................................................. .. 53
Cassidulinidae .................... ................................. 54.55
Globigerinidae ............................. ..................... 55-56
Anomalinide ................................ ..... .............. 56-58
Planorbulinidae .................. .......... .. .................. 58

PLATES 1-7 ............ ............ .. ......................... 59-73

INDEX .................................................................. 75











[5]












THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE
FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA


By W. STORRS COLE,
Dallas, Texas.



ABSTRACT
The Pliocene and Pleistocene formations of Florida contain characteristic
faunal groups of foraminifera by means of which the individual formations may
be recognized. These organisms also supply valuable information with regard to
the depositional history. The Caloosahatchee marl Pliocene) contains the most
varied and abundant fauna with many of the species found therein actually living
at present in the West Indian region. It is indicative of shallow, warm water
depositional conditions. The Charlton formation (Pliocene?) is represented by
only one species and is evidently of brackish water type. Of the two Pleistocene
formations discussed, the Fort Thompson has a fauna which is most closely related
to the underlying Caloosahatchee marl. The fauna of the Anastasia formation is
of shallow, relatively cool water type. The Florida Pliocene faunas are compared
with those of the Waccamaw marl (North and South Carolina), while the Pleisto-
cene faunas are compared with those of the Wadmalaw marl (South Carolina), the
Chowan? formation (North Carolina) and the Talbot formation (Maryland).


During the summer of 1929, through the kindness of Mr. Herman
Gunter, State Geologist of Florida, I was able to make a considerable
collection of Pliocene and Pleistocene foraminiferal material from
that state. Later, that same summer I supplemented this material by
additional collections for comparison purposes as far north as Mary-
land. Additional Florida material has been sent me from time to
time during the preparation of this paper by Mr. Gerald M. Ponton
of the Florida State Geological Survey.
The Pliocene foraminifera from Florida were collected from the
Caloosahatchee marl,' including deposits which were formerly called
Nashua,2 but are now included under the name Caloosahatchee.
Material for comparison was collected from the Waccamaw3 formation
of North and South Carolina. Samples were obtained also from the
Charlton formation of Florida. This formation is of questioned
Pliocene age.

1For a detailed description of the stratigraphy of Florida see: Cooke, C. W,
and Mossom, S., "Geology of Florida", Florida Geol. Survey, Twentieth Ann. Rept.,
1929, pp. 31-227.
2Ibid: p. 152.
SVaughan, T. W., Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 1924, p. 742.


1




_ a


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


The Pleistocene foraminifera were collected from the Fort Thomp-
son and Anastasia formations. Comparative material was obtained
from the Simmons Bluff, S. C., Pleistocene along the Neuse4 River and
the Talbota formation of Maryland. Samples were obtained also from
the "Miliolite limestone," Levy County, Florida, assigned by Cooke'
and Mossom to the Pleistocene.
NOTE:-Examination of the samples of the "Miliolite Limestone" collected by
Cole and Ponton from near Ellzey and Otter Creek, Levy County, showed a more
or less intimate mixture of Ocala limestone (Eocene) and Pleistocene material.
The Eocene formation being represented by the echinoderms Eupatagus floridanus
ar1l Laganum archerensis and the foraminifera Gypsina globulus, Coskinolina prob-
ably C. cookei, and fragments of Operculinella willcoxi and Lepidocyclina, prob-
ably L. ocalana.
The PleistoceTre is represented by Chione cancellata and fragments of Mellita
cf. pentaphora. .tfle'iiamerous specimens of the family Miliolidae are too poorly
preserved for sp'ecifTc nfeticitation. It is not surprising that such an admixture of
formations exists in this area; .The waves of the shallow Pleistocene sea could easily
break up the soft Ocala limiestobn and:mix it with the material being laid down at
the time. It,.is known that the Miliolite limestone is comparatively thin as several
borrow-pits operated for grading roads liavepen~etrated the formation exposing the
undisturbed Ocala limestone. In the pits referred to the greatest thickness noted
was six feet.-G. M. PONTON. .

The following is a.list of localities at which collections were made.
If time had'pemnitted, minfy more localities could have been visited.
However, it is felt that-a.sufficient number have been examined to give
a representative cross-Aectio6nof the fauna.

Station 1. Pleistocene-Talbot forn4ation. Wailes Bluff, 1 mile
above Cornfield Point or the left bank of the Potomac
River, St. Mary's County, Maryland.-Collector, W. S.
Cole.
Station 2. Pleistocene-Talbot formation. Langley's Bluff on the
bay shore about 51/2 miles south of Cedar Point, St.
Mary's County, Maryland.-Collector, W. S. Cole.
Station 3. Pleistocene-Chowan (?) formation. Neuse River, on
the right bank about 10 miles below New Bern, Craven
County, N. C., near the residence of W. B. Flanner.-
Collector, W. S. Cole.
Station 4. Pleistocene-Wadmalaw marl. Simmons Bluff, Yonge's
Island, South Carolina.-Collector, W. S. Cole.
Station 5. Pleistocene-Anastasia formation. Rose's Bluff, right
bank of St. Mary's River, Nassau County, Florida.-
Collector, W. S. Cole.

4Mansfield, W. C., U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 150-F, 1928, p. 136.
5Ibid: pp. 129-132; Maryland Geol. Survey, Pliocene and Pleistocene 1906,
pp. 95-136.
6Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, S., "Geology of Florida," Florida Geol. Survey,
Twentieth Ann. Rept., 1929, p. 216.





r.b1e I.


Staixox. 1 .... 2 a ix. M3..,.1.d. 3. 13 ax.. 14 ix. 1Nx..h CaIoix. 4. 15 ..x. 16 i.. 3x...x C-x.Iix~. .an +I. .-st 1x Ford.~ 8e ii in .e

1-s- 2- 3litc ~ 4 Pl 6e


umber i 2 3 4

T tlaria foridana. ................. -2056 .

Qr.xnezk. ---------- 20-- --- -
Q-in-uelulina agglutina ........ S--2060

So0 7r... ... : S-2061 .
xoox.s.x... 3 s--2065
fusa. .............. -3-206.
Iamarcia........... S--20673 -------- C-
poey ... .......... S-206.
Aeriinula. .--. .. ... 3-2065 V
ostata.. ...... .... .. S-2071





------- ------- -20174
Articuia tilrum. t ... ........... -20....
e l +* f ." - -- S --2070 .
---2071

Spirolocullna antillrum var. mgulata. S-2072 .


lbrata~ ............... -207
rehiculosa .............. S-207

Frilocnila u bi....rinata- .............. S-02088
circularis. ................. --2075
lix. eiax.xa. 3v- 7.
caloosaba-b-e----- a n v--. S2 78 ..




lt. = Ru-. ........ ..... S-200 ---
p -ricaria .................. S-2081 ..9
trionula. ................ -203.
G Fliobi rmbusa% ...... ............... -208.
nt ul - -2
ueoa clavatap... ...i ......... S1-2083


hexa n ... .. -- --.............--- .- S--208 .... .. ..
pul lla. ................. S-20 -
p ble0a.8. S200 V
tGlobuli ibba. ........... -..... S-2093
iaequalis -20 5 -- ---- .. ..
X Ieudopolx-o- -hia- rutila -.. S-205.



-i-h-d-m---------ul-- ............. -2 IM
Noio Iab r ia.tu r. ~ vn S209
Ipom-ilioides ........ ....... S-20907 V




Ephidium fim riatul ............. S-2100 --
fii7briatulux var. a-l----um. S-01 -.....--..... V I C .



3-2109
P..... disoidale -.-----..-.-.- -21021
uSri 2. s--- --------- --2103
icertua it ......7.......... -2104 C C A A
lar ieri. .................. 21V0
oeyn u--------..... ----........ --- 2106 ----
sali gnhi. d- 6 i.x................. S-2101 .... ....
Peeroplis pote. .................. -21081
ArchaEit s lngulutus......... ......... S2101 R ] .
Sorites xargieials -2110
Buliminlla ulelantissizra. ..p.. ....... 5 -2111 1... ... ---- C -- C

Entooeoiluia .............. S-2112
Viruli pu cta. ...- ..--..-------- S-2115 .
xBoliviadoiep-i.-.........--..... ----21108 a -- VV--


p. 3-2113
perlchlla var. prima -.... S-2118
rhxomboidlis] ............. S-2120
xosoma geri. .... S-2121
f. mayor. .... ......-... --2122
etsia apinoulos...i. .. -- .... S-2123





Uvigehia-n peregri .vr.- brady- ...... _-2124 .... ....
Anigager inc i--- ----. S-2125 ----- V
Sprillin. limbata..... -212a
irbis alloxoxphixoide. .......... -2128
flroridano. ..... .......... S-2129 ......... V
o mira a ..o .................. S-2130
gldysde no sp. 3....... -2131 --- V ... C






ubarSusn. ............... S-2132 ..









F]= ------ --- -- .........-- 21-3
beca-r .pvia. o a.... S-2137 C .
be.carii vxr. .epida -. S..... 21 A C A
caloonashat-cfaeeni x. ayt -213.
SiCrxxoidxad pulc1xra. S-2140
Caixcis sairax.x b .x.i.. x.i -....... S-2141
AmphiatCg)ab x ibbosa. ......-......... S21492
CymbaloporAetta squaxx mois&..... ..3- S2143
C2Leviiat. var. 3ari1at51.. 214S -. .- --
Cass2dulibXoidee brisxioie ... -S214 .


xomalina basiloba. ................. 3-2150 3.

rIanorbulina. nedito-ra-ienjria ........ S-2153 -..-- -.


7 I8 I 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


I.


It
ItV






V


Rt


I I i I i


21122 28
V


24 25

.. .V








.... V





.... V
... V








V..

V
V

















A.


















V


V






V
_V_
'. '. n









'. '' ~ V ~

. .


(A-ehvndanf C--~ommo~. Rrare, V-very rare), (not over three apeeime~e to a sample)









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 9

Station 6. Pleistocene-Anastasia formation. From shell bed ex-
posed in a drainage canal just south of Bradenton, Mana-
tee County, Florida.-Collectors, W. S. Cole and G. M.
Ponton.
Station 7. Pleistocene-Fort Thompson formation. Seven miles
west of West Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida.-
Florida State Survey Collection.
S Station 8. Pleistocene-Fort Thompson formation. Canal bank
along Highway No. 25 between Clewiston and West Palm
Beach, 9.4 miles west of West Palm Beach, Palm Beach
County, Florida.-Florida State Survey Collection.
Station 9. Pleistocene-Anastasia formation. Ditch of St. Peters-
burg water pipe line, two miles west of Cosme, northwest
corner of Hillsborough County, Florida, six feet below
.- surface of the ground.-Florida State Survey Collection.
Station 10. Pleistocene-Anastasia formation. On the south bank
of the main Crane Creek Canal at its junction with a
small canal entering it at right angles from the south,
being 1/ mile north of a point on Highway No. 24 which
is 4.7 miles west of depot at Melbourne, Brevard County,
Florida.-Florida State Survey Collection.
Station 11. Pleistocene-Anastasia formation. Marl pit, Port Orange,
Volusia County, Florida.-Collector, G. M. Ponton.
Station 12. Pleistocene-Type locality of the Fort Thompson forma-
tion. Goodno's Landing at old Fort Thompson on the
left bank of the Caloosahatchee River above La Belle,
Florida.-Collectors, W. S. Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 13. Pliocene-Waccamaw formation. Walker's Bluff, Cape
Fear River, Bladen County, North Carolina.-Collector,
W. S. Cole.
Station 14. Pliocene-Waccamaw formation. Neill's Eddy Landing,
28 miles above Wilmington, North Carolina, on the Cape
Fear River.-Collector, W. S. Cole.
Station 15. Pliocene-Waccamaw formation. Nixonville, Horry
County, South Carolina, which is near Tilly's Lake, a
tributary of the Waccamaw River.-Collector, W. S. Cole.
Station 16. Pliocene-Waccamaw formation. Nixon's Landing,
about 7.5 miles in a straight line upstream on the Wacca-
maw River from Conway, Horry County, South Carolina.
-Collector, W. S. Cole.
Station 17. Pliocene-Caloosahatchee marl. Left bank Sh'ell Creek,
about 31/ miles upstream from Washington's place,








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


which is 8 miles east of Cleveland, Charlotte County, Flor-
ida.-Collectors, W. S. Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 18. Pliocene-Caloosahatchee marl. On left bank of the
Caloosahatchee River, at Ayer's Landing, 5 miles down
river from La Belle, Hendry County, Florida.-Collectors,
W. S. Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 19. Pliocene-Caloosahatchee marl. Left bank Caloosa-
hatchee River, about 1/ mile below Crawford's Run, a
small tributary, approximately 41/2 miles below La Belle,
Florida.-Collectors, W. S. Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 20. Pliocene-Caloosahatchee marl. Right bank, 3 miles
downstream along the Caloosahatchee River from La
Belle, Florida.-Collectors, W. S. Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 21. Pliocene-Caloosahatchee marl (formerly Nashua). City
marl pit, Orange City, Florida.-Collectors, W. S. Cole
and G. M. Ponton.
Station 22. Pliocene-Caloosahatchee marl (formerly Nashua). City
marl pit just south of DeLand, Florida.-Collectors, W. S.
Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 23. Pliocene-Caloosahatchee marl (formerly Nashua).
DeLeon Springs, Volusia County, Florida, on the golf
links about a mile south of the spring.-Collectors, W. S.
Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 24. Pliocene (?)-Charlton formation. St. Mary's River at
the Florida end of the Atlantic Coast Line railroad bridge,
3 miles southeast of Folkston, Georgia.-Collectors, W. S.
Cole and G. M. Ponton.
Station 25. Pliocene (?)--Caloosahatchee marl (?). Five feet be-
low surface along Tamiami Trail, 42 miles west of Miami,
Dade County, Florida.-Collector, G. M. Ponton.
While the main emphasis in this paper will be placed on the Florida
material, Mr. Gunter has very kindly allowed the writer to introduce
as much comparative material from other states as is necessary in
order to completely show the relationships of the foraminifera occur-
ring in the Florida formations with those of the other Pliocene and
Pleistocene formations of the Atlantic coastal plain.
While foraminifera do not form a considerable portion of the
material examined from any of the localities, by concentrating the
material after washing, a sufficient number of specimens can usually
be obtained. Even though the fauna of the Pliocene formations is
much more varied than that of the Pleistocene, the Pleistocene samples
generally contain more individuals of a given species. Most of the









TE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 11

les recorded have their counterpart in the recent faunas, particu-
that of the West Indian region. A few, however, have not as yet
described in either the recent or the fossil faunas.
Previous workers have not examined the Atlantic coastal plain
ocene and Pleistocene deposits in much detail for fossil foraminifera.
first notes on Pleistocene foraminifera are given by Bagg' in his
port on "The Tertiary and Pleistocene Foraminifera of the middle
dantic Slope." Later Clarks utilized Bagg's observations on the
leistocene foraminifera of Maryland, listing four species. The most
nsive and comprehensive work is that of Cushman' on the "Pliocene
oraminifera of the Coastal Plain of the United States." Cushman has
also published some short notes on Pleistocene foraminifera faunules
from Panama."'" Recently, Cushman and Cole12 have published some
thort notes on the Pleistocene foraminifera of Maryland.

;Bagg, R. M., Bull. Amer. PaL, voL 2, No. 10, 1898, pp. 1-54 (295.348), pis.
131-133).
S Clark, W. B., Maryland Geol. Survey, Pliocene and Pleistocene, 1906, pp. 214-
216, pl. 66.
9Cnshman, J. A., U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, pp. 1-45, pls. 1-8.
0 Cushman, J. A., Amer. Geol., vol. 33, 1904, p. 266.
"lCushman, J. A., U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, 1918, pp. 45-87, pls. 19-33.
'2Cushman. J. A., and Cole, W. S., Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 6,
Spt. 4, 1930, pp. 94-100, pl. 13.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


THE PLIOCENE FORAMINIFERA

The Pliocene faunas are much more varied than those of the over-
lying Pleistocene, and seem to indicate much warmer conditions of
deposition. The occurrence in the Caloosahatchee marl of such genera
as Amphistegina, Archaias, Cymbaloporetta, Peneroplis, Sorites, and
Vertebralina are evidence of warm shallow waters like those of the
present West Indian region. As will be pointed out later, the Pliocene
Caloosahatchee fauna is very similar to the present West Indian fauna.
These genera just mentioned do not occur in the overlying Pleistocene,
although many of the more hardy and adaptable forms like Elphidium
incertum (Williamson) are found in both the Pliocene and Pleistocene.
From a study recently published by Norton13 on the "Ecological
Relations of Some Foraminifera" in which most of the samples used
were from recent Florida or West Indian deposits, it is apparent that
the typical Caloosahatchee and Waccamaw formations fall in his zones
A and B (0-60 fathoms) with a temperature range of about 200-320 C.
As will be pointed out in more detail later, the Waccamaw deposition
took place under temperatures nearer the lower end of this range,
while that of the Caloosahatchee was at least above 220 C. The depth
was probably not over 16 fathoms, if the relationships as shown by
Norton are correct. It is highly probable that without the climatic
disturbances which accompanied the Continental ice sheet, the fauna
of the Pleistocene of Florida would have been about the same as both
the West Indian recent faunas and the Pliocene. It is apparent on
studying these faunas, that the more tropical elements of the Pliocene
fauna were forced farther south during Pleistocene time, while the
more adaptable forms of the Pliocene remained, and comprise the
fauna of the Pleistocene deposits in Florida.
The species in the Pleistocene of Panama are more nearly like
the Pliocene fauna than the Pleistocene of Florida. Cushman'4 reports
such forms as Sorites marginalis and Peneroplis pertusus in the Panama
Pleistocene. These are present in the Pliocene, but not the Pleistocene
of Florida.
The difference then between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene
faunas of Florida becomes one of temperature and adaptability of
species rather than the dying out and replacement by new species.
This differentiation and adaptation was emphasized by the fact
that the faunas in all cases were those of shallow water. This habitat
would reflect climatic changes much more rapidly than the deeper,

'1Norton, R. D., Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Tech. Ser., vol. 2, No. 9,
1930, pp. 331-388.
14Cushman, J. A., Amer. Geol., vol. 33, 1904, p. 266.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 13

more uniform waters of the outer continental shelf. Deeper-water
genera and species are generally lacking or represented at the best by
one or two individuals.
In a comparison between the Pliocene faunas from the various
localities studied, it is apparent that the fauna from the typical Caloosa-
hatchee represents the warmest waters and is most like the present
West Indian fauna. However, the differences between the Caloosa-
hatchee and Waccamaw are not as strongly marked as believed by
Cushman.15
While Archaias angulatus, Peneroplis proteus, Sorites marginalis
and Vertebralina cassis are apparently confined to the typical Caloosa-
hatchee, Amphistegina gibbosa, Cymbaloporetta squammosa, Planor-
bulinella larvata, together with typical tropical Miliolidae, occur in
the Waccamaw formation.
The fauna of the "Nashua" apparently differs from both the typical
Caloosahatchee and the Waccamaw. In the case of the Mollusca, the
"Nashua" fauna more nearly resembles the Waccamaw than the
Caloosahatchee, according to Mansfield.'1 Miliolidae are absent in all
the samples from the "Nashua" examined by me. The most charac-
teristic species occurring is Elphidium gunteri n. sp. Rotalias comprise
nearly all the remaining individuals from these localities, except for a
few specimens of Reussia spinulosa, Lagena clavata, and others as noted
in Table I. It is surprising that more genera and species do not occur.
The sample from Station 25 is different from other samples exam-
ined. In the majority of its species, it resembles the Caloosahatchee
fauna, but some of the species indicate Miocene age. It contains
S Dyocibicides biserialis as its most abundant species, and this form was
not found in any other samples. As it is impossible to absolutely
determine the age of this sample from the foraminifera, I am including
it with the Pliocene material, although a study of the molluscan fauna
may establish its age to be Miocene.
The only foraminifer found in the samples from the Charlton for-
mation was Rotalia beccarii var. tepida. As this species is not diag-
nostic, it is impossible to state from foraminiferal evidence what the age
of that deposit is. It was probably deposited under very brackish water
conditions which were entirely unsuited for foraminiferal life.
15Cushman. J. A.. U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, pp. 5-6.
16Mansfield. W. C., Florida Geol. Survey, Fifteenth Ann. Rept., 1924, p. 30.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


The following 44 species are common to both the Caloosahatchee
marl and the recent West Indian faunas:
Amphistegina gibbosa Peneroplis proteus
Angulogerina occidentalis Planorbulina mediterranensis
Archaias angulatus Pyrgo subsphaerica
Articulina antillarum Quinqueloculina agglutinans
Bolivina rhomboidalis costata
Cancris sagra lamarckiana
Cymbaloporetta squammosa poeyana
Discorbis floridana Reussia spinulosa
mira Rotalia beccarii
orbicularis var. parkinsoniana
subaraucana var. tepida
Elphidium fimbriatulum Sigmomorphina undulosa
var. advenum Siphonina pulchra
discoidale Spiroloculina antillarum
poeyanum var. angulata
sagrum Textularia candeiana
Globigerina bulloides floridana
triloba mayor
Globulina inaequalis Triloculina bicarinata


var. caribaea
Guttulina pulchella
Loxostoma cf. mayor
Nonion grateloupi
Orbul'na universe


circularis
oblonga
tricarinata
Vertebralina cassis
Virgulina punctata


Certain species occur in the Waccamaw which have not been found
in the Florida material. These are:
Anomalina ammonoides (? Planulina ariminensis
Eponides repanda Quinqueloculina cf. funafutiensis
Faujasina carinata Sigmomorphina semitecta
Guttulina costatula var. terquemiana
lactea Spirillina decorate
Planorbulinella larvata Spiroloculina planulata

Cushman records the following species from the Caloosahatchee
marl which have not been found by me. This difference is to be
expected in view of the scarcity of certain species.


Discorbis globularis
Hauerina ornatissima
Lagena semistriata


Peneroplis discoideus
Spiroloculina excavata
Truncatulina ungeriana








PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 13

THE PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA
has been pointed out before in this paper, and can readily be
on consulting the range table, the Pleistocene fauna is compara-
'limited in number of species, but often these are very prolific in
rs of individuals at a given locality.
Of the two marine Pleistocene formations of Florida studied in this
aperr, the Anastasia has a much more varied and prolific fauna than
that of the Fort Thompson formation.
The foraminifera from the Fort Thompson are exceedingly scarce,
but seem to indicate a close connection with the underlying Pliocene.
Elphidium incertum, Elphidium sagrum and Rotalia beccarii var.
ornata are the commonest forms found. It is of interest to note that
Rotalia beccarii var. ornata, which is one of the commonest fossils in
the Pliocene and Fort Thompson beds (Pleistocene) of Florida, is also
found in the Talbot formation of Maryland, where it is exceedingly
well developed and abundant.
The species which especially characterize the Anastasia formation
are Angulogerina occidentalis, Bolivina doniezi, Buliminella elegan-
tissima, Elphidium incertum, Elphidium fimbriatulum var. advenum,
Elphidium poeyanum and Rotalia beccarii var. tepida. Rarer species
are Bolivina striatula, Cassidulina crassa, Elphidium sagrum, Lagena
clavata and Nonion grateloupi.
Norton1 points out that the genus Buliminella seems to be more or
lees confined to deep cool waters in temperatures from about 20 to 8 C.
This is the commonest genus observed in samples from the Anastasia
Formation. As the other forms associated with it are typically of
Shallow water type, it may be assumed that the temperature conditions
were the controlling factor in its abundance. It is probable that the
Temperature during the deposition of the Anastasia was higher than
8* C, but lower than 20. The depth is indicated as being about the
same as in the Caloosahatchee and Waccamaw deposition.
S. The fauna of Simmons Bluff, South Carolina, is very similar to
tjthat of the Anastasia formation of Florida, as it contains Buliminella
P4egantissima, Elphidium incertum, Elphidium fimbriatulum var.
S'advenum and Rotalia beccarii var. tepida. Quinqueloculina lamarck-
i'ana is also found in some numbers. The occurrence of Elphidium
I.. acertum var. clavatum and Nonion cf. sloanii with the above, however,
begins to suggest a connection between the Simmons Bluff fauna and
Sthe more temperate fauna of Flanner's Bluff (Neuse River, N. C.) and
'of the Talbot formation of Maryland. The fauna of Flanner's Bluff,

*TNorton, R. D., Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Tech. Ser., vol. 2, 1930,
p. 348.











16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX

while comparatively poor in number of species and individuals, is
closely related to that of Maryland.
The Maryland fauna is decidedly distinct.'8 Elphidium incertum
var. clavatum and Rotalia beccarii var. ornata are its commonest and
most abundant species. Elphidium fimbriatulum var. margaretaceum,
Elphidium discoidale, Eponides frigida var. calida, Elphidium incer-
tum, Entosolenia lucida, Nonion pompilioides, Nonion sloanii, Quin-
queloculina seminula, Rotalia beccarii var. parkinsoniana and Trilo-
culina rotunda are rarer appearing species.


Table II.

Ranges of Species Not Found at the Florida Localities.
Stations 1 and 2 are in Maryland, 3, 13 and 14 in North Carolina and 4, 15 and 16 in
South Carolina. See list in text.


Pleistocene


1 2


Textularia candeiana........
Quinqueloculina flexuosa ....
cf. funa-
futiensis ...
Spiroloculina planulata......
Triloculina rotunda.........
Guttulina costatula.........
lactea ............
Sigmomorphina semitecta
var. terquemiana.
Nonion sloanii .............
Elphidium fimbriatulum var.
margaretaceum
incertum var.
clavatum. .....
Faujasina carinata..........
Spirillina decorata..........
Eponides frigida var. calida..
repanda..........
Anomalina ammonoides (?)..
Planulina ariminensis .......
Planorbulinella larvata......


3 4


. . . .. .
V I ..... ...... .. V .



'. . . .

'. '. . . .

. . . .
V .









. . . .. .
........ V V







. . . .. ..


I.
~ ~ ~ ''' '' .' ..........


Pliocene


13 14 15 16

R ...... R


... R V
. C R V
..... .R .

V R ............

V- V ...........


V
V



V
. ... .
* -


S V .....

V V V
v ...... .. ....

V ...........


(A-abundant, C-common, R-rare, V-very rare)
(not over three specimens to a sample)

The species in the table are not listed in the catalogue below, but are tabulated
here to make the lists of foraminifera from these localities as complete as possible.

1sCushman, J. A., and Cole, W. S., Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 6,
pt. 4, 1930, pp. 94-100, pl. 13.


I




w,,.


PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 17

eld19 has already pointed out by means of the molluscan
ihe Talbot formation of Maryland, the Neuse River Pleistocene
.fauna at Rose's Bluff, Florida (Anastasia formation) are nearly
ent in age. He considers the Simmons Bluff, South Carolina,
slightly older than these. The molluscan fauna indicates that
euse River and Maryland fauna are much more temperate in
than the Simmons Bluff and Rose Bluff faunas. The foramini-
| indicate similar conditions and age relationships.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

To the following, the writer wishes to acknowledge his indebted-
esand express his appreciation for their aid in the preparation of
s paper: to Mr. Herman Gunter, State Geologist of Florida, for
y helpful suggestions, complete freedom in the preparation of this
paper and for every possible courtesy and aid while collecting in
Florida; to Mr. Gerald M. Ponton, who accompanied the writer on
.the Florida collecting trip, for his knowledge of Florida fossil localities
and for the preparation of many of the slides used in the paper; and
to Dr. Joseph A. Cushman for generous use of his laboratory and for
personally checking some of the species.
" All of the holotypes as well as specimens of all the species discussed
this paper are filed in the Florida State Geological Museum at
allahassee.

1iMansfield, W. C., U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 150-F, 1928, pp. 138-140.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

Family TEXTULARIIDAE
Subfamily Textulariinae
Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824
TEXTULARIA FLORIDANA Cushman
Textularia transversaria Flint (not H. B. Brady), Rept. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1897 (1899),
p. 283, pl. 28, fig. 4.
Textularia floridana Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311,1922, p. 24, pl. 1,
fig. 7; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, 1922, p. 18, pl. 2, figs. 11, 12; Florida Geol.
Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 18, pl. 1, figs. 9a, b.
Numerous specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl of Florida seem
to fit the description given by Cushman for this species. The sutures
are nearly at right angles to the edge of the test, and give the chambers
a very square appearance. Specimens referable to this species occur
also in the Waccamaw formation.
There are other specimens in the Waccamaw which are referable to
T. candeiana d'Orbigny, a species which was not noted in the Florida
deposits. It is easily recognized by its highly inflated chambers, par-
ticularly the final ones.
Textularia gramen (P1. 2, fig. 1 [not P1. 1, fig. 1], U. S. Geol. Survey,
Bull. 676) as reported by Cushman from the Pliocene is probably T.
floridana. His figure shows a rounded periphery and straight sutures
rather than the subacute periphery and sloped sutures of T. gramen.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2056.

TEXTULARIA GRAMEN d'Orbigny
Textularia gramen d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Vienne, 1846, p. 248, pl. 15, figs. 4, 6.
Textularia gramen Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 8, pl. 1, fig. 1.
Textularia gramen Cushman and Valentine, Contr. Dep. Geol. Stanford University,
vol. 1, No. 1, 1930, p. 8, pl. 1, figs. 2a, b.
A few specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl of Florida seem to
fit d'Orbigny's species from the Vienna basin very closely. It is a
relatively small form with high chambers, subacute periphery and
rather compressed test. Specimens referable to this species also occur
in the Waccamaw formation.
Localities: Pliocene stations 16, 18, 19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2057.
TEXTULARIA MAYOR Cushman
Plate 2, figure 12; Plate 7, figure 1
Textularia mayor Cushman. Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 23, pl. 2,
fig. 3; U. S. Nat. Mus, Bull. 104, 1922, pt. 3, p. 7; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4,
1930, p. 17, pl. 1, figs. 6.8.
Test compressed, increasing rather rapidly in breadth from the
bluntly rounded initial end; apertural end obliquely truncate; cham-









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

Family TEXTULARIIDAE
Subfamily Textulariinae
Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824
TEXTULARIA FLORIDANA Cushman
Textularia transversaria Flint (not H. B. Brady), Rept. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1897 (1899),
p. 283, pl. 28, fig. 4.
Textularia floridana Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311,1922, p. 24, pl. 1,
fig. 7; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, 1922, p. 18, pl. 2, figs. 11, 12; Florida Geol.
Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 18, pl. 1, figs. 9a, b.
Numerous specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl of Florida seem
to fit the description given by Cushman for this species. The sutures
are nearly at right angles to the edge of the test, and give the chambers
a very square appearance. Specimens referable to this species occur
also in the Waccamaw formation.
There are other specimens in the Waccamaw which are referable to
T. candeiana d'Orbigny, a species which was not noted in the Florida
deposits. It is easily recognized by its highly inflated chambers, par-
ticularly the final ones.
Textularia gramen (P1. 2, fig. 1 [not P1. 1, fig. 1], U. S. Geol. Survey,
Bull. 676) as reported by Cushman from the Pliocene is probably T.
floridana. His figure shows a rounded periphery and straight sutures
rather than the subacute periphery and sloped sutures of T. gramen.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2056.

TEXTULARIA GRAMEN d'Orbigny
Textularia gramen d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Vienne, 1846, p. 248, pl. 15, figs. 4, 6.
Textularia gramen Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 8, pl. 1, fig. 1.
Textularia gramen Cushman and Valentine, Contr. Dep. Geol. Stanford University,
vol. 1, No. 1, 1930, p. 8, pl. 1, figs. 2a, b.
A few specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl of Florida seem to
fit d'Orbigny's species from the Vienna basin very closely. It is a
relatively small form with high chambers, subacute periphery and
rather compressed test. Specimens referable to this species also occur
in the Waccamaw formation.
Localities: Pliocene stations 16, 18, 19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2057.
TEXTULARIA MAYOR Cushman
Plate 2, figure 12; Plate 7, figure 1
Textularia mayor Cushman. Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 23, pl. 2,
fig. 3; U. S. Nat. Mus, Bull. 104, 1922, pt. 3, p. 7; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4,
1930, p. 17, pl. 1, figs. 6.8.
Test compressed, increasing rather rapidly in breadth from the
bluntly rounded initial end; apertural end obliquely truncate; cham-









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 19

brs indistinct initially, becoming more distinct aperturally with
lightly depressed sutures separating these final chambers from each
other; periphery rather regular, rounded with the exception of the
final chambers which develop a short conical peripheral spine; wall
arenaceous with much cement so that the test has a very smooth appear-
ance; aperture low, small, at the base of the last formed chamber.
Length 0.38 to 0.86 millimeter.
The type specimen of this species has many more peripheral spines
than are found on the fossil specimens. Cushman has pointed out in
his study of the Florida Miocene specimens assigned by him to this
species that, while the Miocene specimens are very similar to the living
ones, they are less accelerated, the early chambers usually being without
spines. This is also true of the Pliocene specimens.
This species occurs only rarely in the Caloosahatchee marl.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2058.

Family MILIOLIDAE
Genus QUINQUELOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
QUINQUELOCULINA AGGLUTINANS d'Orbigny
Plate 1, figure 12
Quinqueloculina agglutinans d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. PoL Nat. Cuba,
Forams, 1839, p. 195, pl. 12, figs. 11-13.
Quinqueloculina agglutinans Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, pp. 22,
23, pL 7, fig. 6; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, 1929, p. 22, pl. 1, figs. la-c.
Test broader than long, the periphery broadly rounded; sutures
fairly distinct; wall composed of rather large, agglutinated sand grains
which give it a very rugose appearance; aperture slightly extended,
teeth not observed.
Length 0.58 millimeter.
This species was observed only from localities along the Caloosa-
hatchee River. In recent deposits, it is characteristic of warm, shallow
waters of the West Indian region. Associated with it is Q. fusca H. B.
Brady, another arenaceous form, from which it differs by its more
rugose appearance and broadly rounded periphery.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2060.
QUINQUELOCULINA CONTORTA d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina contorta d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Vienne, 1846, p. 298, pl. 20, figs. 4-6.
Quinqueloculina contorta Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 29, pl. 3,
figs. 6a-c; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 20, pl. 2, figs. 6a.c.
Test slightly longer than broad; chambers polygonal in transverse
section, with both the periphery and sides flat, or slightly concave;
angles acute with very slightly raised ridges; sutures distinct, but










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


slightly depressed; wall smooth, porcellanous; aperture tending to
be rectangular, somewhat like the cross-section of the final chamber,
slightly projecting, tooth large, weakly bifid.
Length 0.72 millimeter. Breadth 0.46 millimeter.
This interesting species is common at some localities of the Wacca-
maw formation, and appears only rarely in the Caloosahatchee. Its
abundance may be of some practical use in serving to distinguish
samples from these formations.
Cushman reports this species from the Miocene of Florida. It
apparently does not occur in the recent West Indian fauna.
Localities: Pliocene stations 14 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2061.
QUINQUELOCULINA FUSCA H. B. Brady
Plate 1, figure 13
Quinqueloculina agglutinans H. B. Brady (not d'Orbigny) Nat. Hist. Trans. North-
umberland and Durham, vol. 1, 1865, pp. 87, 95.
Quinqueloculina fusca H. B. Brady, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 6, 1870. p. 286,
pl. 11, fig. 2.
Quinqueloculina bidentata Cushman (not d'Orbigny), U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676,
1918, pp. 23, 24, pl. 7, fig. 5.
Quinqueloculina fusca Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pp. 23-24, pl.
1, figs. 4a-c; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 19, pl. 1, figs. 11-12.
Test elongate, nearly twice as long as wide, subtriangular in end
view; chambers distinct, sutures slightly depressed; periphery bluntly
angulate; surface of test composed of sand grains, some of which are
rather large and project above the general surface; aperture large,
circular; tooth not observed.
Length 0.40 millimeter. Width 0.28 millimeter.
The Florida specimens seem identical with the figures given by
Brady. This is evidently the species reported by Cushman as Q. bid-
entata; but that form has a considerably different shape, as can readily
be seen on a comparison of figures of it with the Florida specimens of
Q. fusca.
This is a rather common form in the Caloosahatchee marl on the
Caloosahatchee River.
Localities: Pliocene stations 17 and 18.
Florida Geological Survey Cat. No. S-2062.
QUINQUELOCULINA LAMARCKIANA d'Orbigny
Plate 1, figures 9, 10
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
Forams., 1839, p. 189, pl. 11, figs. 14, 15.
Quinqueloculina auberiana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
Forams., 1839, p. 193, pl. 12, figs. 1-3.
Quinqueloculina auberiana Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 23, pl.
5, fig. 3.
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922,
p. 64; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, 1929, pp. 26, 27, pl. 2, figs. 6a-c; Florida
Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930. p. 20, pl. 2, figs. 3-5.









STHE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 21

Test nearly as broad as long; sutures distinct, slightly depressed;
chambers triangular in tranverse section, margins acute, but not cari-
; wall smooth, unornamented, tending to be rather dull; apertural
end but slightly extended, forming a short elliptical neck without a
definite lip; tooth long, narrow, bifid.
Length 0.64 millimeter. Width 0.49 millimeter. Thickness 0.38
n illimeter.
This species is well distributed in the West Indian region. It is one
.l f'the common species in the Caloosahatchee deposits along the Caloo-
sahatchee River. It is also common in the Pleistocene of Simmons
Bluff, S. C. The specimens from Simmons Bluff are smaller and the
Surface of the test is smoother and more polished.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4 and 7; Pliocene stations 13, 14,
15,16,18,19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2063.

QUINQUELOCULINA POEYANA d'Orbigny
Plate 6, figure 10
Quinqueloculina poeyana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba,
Forams., 1839, p. 191, pl. 11, figs. 25-27.
Quinqueloculina poeyana Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 24, pl. 6,
fig. 2; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 31, pl. 5, figs. 2a-c.
There are a few specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl along the
: Caloosahatchee River and on Shell Creek which agree with figures
: given of this species. The costae on the fossil specimens are somewhat
finer than those illustrated on recent specimens.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2064.

QUINQUELOCULINA SEMINULA (Linnaeus)
Serpula seminulum Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1767, p. 1264.
Quinqueloculina seminulum Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pp. 24,
25, pl. 2, figs. 1, 2.
Quinqueloculina seminulum Cushman and Cole, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,
vol. 6, pt. 4, 1930, p. 95, pl. 13, figs. la-c.
This species was reported by Cushman from the Waccamaw for-
mation and the Caloosahatchee marl on Shell Creek. I have a doubtful
specimen referable to it from Shell Creek. The Waccamaw formation
had several typical specimens evidently belonging under this species.
It also occurs in the Talbot formation of Maryland.
In the recent faunas the typical Q. seminula seems to be confined to
cool, shallow waters. It is therefore not surprising that it is not found
in the typical Caloosahatchee and is a rare species in the Waccamaw.
Localities: Pleistocene station 1; Pliocene stations 13 and 17.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2065.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


QUINQUELOCULINA SEMINULA (Linnaeus) var.
Plate 7, figure 13
The form figured may be considered a variety of this species. It
is very simliar to the variety figured by Cushman from the Miocene of
Florida. (Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, pl. 2, figs. 2a-c).
A few specimens were found in the typical Caloosahatchee.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2066.
QUINQUELOCULINA COSTATA d'Orbigny
Plate 2, figure 1
Quinqueloculina costata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 301, No. 3.
Quinqueloculina costata Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, pp.
66,67, pl. 11, fig. 5; U. S. Nat. Mus., BulL 104, pt. 6, 1929, p. 31, figs. 7a-c.
A few specimens from the typical Caloosahatchee may be referred
to this species. It is characteristic of warm water and has been reported
by Cushman from the Tortugas region.
Except for being of slightly larger size, the Florida specimens agree
very well with figures given of the Tortugas specimens.
Localities: Pliocene stations 17 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2067.
QUINQUELOCULINA sp.
Plate 1, figure 1
A single specimen which is figured for future reference was found
in the sample from the Tamiami Trail locality (Sta. 25). It is very
similar to Q. candeiana d'Orbigny and with more specimens for com-
parison may prove to be that species or a variety of it.
Locality: Pliocene station 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2068.
Genus ARTICULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
ARTICULINA ANTILLARUM Cushman
Plate 2, figure 11
Articulina antillarum Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 71,
pl. 12, fig. 4; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, 1929, pp. 52-53, pl. 12, fig. 4.
A single broken specimen from the Caloosahatchee (Sta. 18) is
referred doubtfully to this species. It represents the final chamber and
seems to be characteristic.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2069.
ARTICULINA sp.
Plate 7, figure 9
A single specimen from the Caloosahatchee is figured for future
reference. It is near Articulina mexicana Cushman, and may be a
young specimen of that species.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2070.








PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 23

Family OPHTHALMIDIIDAE
Subfamily Ophthalmidiinae
Genus VERTEBRALINA d'Orbigny, 1826
VERTEBRALINA CASSIS d'Orbigny
Plate 5, figure 8
lincassis d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
39, p. 51, pl. 7, figs. 14, 15.
alinacassis Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 25; Carnegie Inst.,
ashington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 262; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 96,
22, figs. 4a, b.
"Test compressed, for the most part planispiral; periphery of each
er with a broad, thin keel, two to three chambers in the last
d coil, the main body of each chamber with numerous, somewhat
e costae, the last formed chamber often projecting beyond the
phery of the preceding coil, but carinate, like the earlier ones;
ture elongate, with a distinct, everted lip; early chambers, where
le, spiroloculine."-Cushman.
Length 1.01 millimeters. Breadth 0.75 millimeter.
This species is confined to the Caloosahatchee marl, occurring at
tons on Shell Creek and the Caloosahatchee River. In the recent
as, it is largely limited to warm, shallow waters of the West Indian
ion. It is absolutely typical with the type as described by d'Orbigny.
Localities: Pliocene stations 17-20.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2071.
Genus SPIROLOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
SPIROLOCULINA ANTILLARUM d'Orbigny var. ANGULATA Cushman
Plate 2, figure 14
ioloculina grata H. B. Brady (part) (not Terquem) Rept. Voy. Challenger,
Zoo., vol. 9, 1884, pl. 10, figs. 22. 23.
iroloculina antillarum var. angulata Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 100, vol. 4,
1921, p. 408, pl. 81, figs. 5a, b; Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 62;
U. S. Nat Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, 1930, pp. 43-44, pl. 9, figs. 4a, b.
SA few specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl along the Caloosa-
atchee River are referred to this variety. The angulate edges, together
th the costae which extend the length of the periphery, are identical
th figures of recent specimens from Tortugas given by Cushman.
My specimens appear to be the same as that figured by Cushman as
S. antillarum (U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, pl. 8, fig. 2).
Length 0.58 millimeter.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2072.
SPIROLOCULINA GLABRATA Cushman
Plate 1, figure 2
Spiroloculina glabrata Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 22, pl. 6, fig. 3.
A few very small specimens which I am referring to Cushman's
species were found in the typical Caloosahatchee material. The orig-









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


final description is rather meager and the figure poor. The specimens
in mv collection are entirely smooth, with the exception of the final
chamber which has a few slightly raised ridges, more pronounced near
the aperture, which is strongly compressed, quadrangular, with a dis-
tinct lip.
Length 0.23 millimeter. Width 0.17 millimeter.
Localities: Pliocene stations 18 and 19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2073.
SPIROLOCULINA RETICULOSA Cushman
Plate 1, figure 11
Spiroloculina reticulosa Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 21, pl. 6,
fig. 4.
Test large, elongate, elliptical; periphery rounded; sutures fairly
distinct; center of the test slightly excavated; wall ornamented by a
series of relatively coarse costae which anastomose freely; aperture
circular at the end of a slightly produced neck; tooth small, weak, bifid.
Length 0.93 millimeter.
An easily recognized, but rare species found only in the Caloosa-
hatchee marl on the Caloosahatchee River and Shell Creek, Florida.
This is one of the few species which to date has not been reported
in the recent faunas and is evidently confined to the Pliocene.
Localities: Pliocene stations 17 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2074.
Genus TRILOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
TRILOCULINA BICARINATA d'Orbigny
Plate 1, figure 7
Triloculina bicarinata d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 158, pl. 10, figs. 18.20.
Triloculina bicarinata Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 76,
pl. 12, fig. 7; U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 66, pl. 17, fig. 5.
Test slightly longer than broad, chambers with a truncate periphery,
the angles of which are slightly ridged or extended like a small keel;
chambers relatively distinct; sutures, but slightly depressed; surface
ornamented by more or less rectangular reticulations which give the
test a rather rugose appearance; aperture elongate, rectangular, with
definite thin lips, slightly everted, tooth elongate, narrow extending
slightly above the general outline of the test.
Length 0.58 millimeter.
This species is found in the Caloosahatchee marl, occurring at the
Caloosahatchee River localities. A few specimens were also found at
the Tamiami Trail locality (Sta. 25). It is very distinctive and easily
recognized.
Localities: Pliocene stations 18 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2076.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 25

TRILOCULINA CIRCULARIS Bornemann
circularis Bornemann, Zeitschr, deutsch. geol. Ges.. vol. 7. 1855, p. 349.
a circularis Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 73;
S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 58, pl. 13, figs. 6, 7; pl. 14, figs. 1, 2.
Test of three visible chambers, rounded, inflated, slightly com-
laterally, the last formed chamber the largest, embracing the
r chambers rather strongly; sutures distinct, depressed; wall
ooth, highly polished; aperture a narrow crescentiform slit with a
ge, flattened semicircular tooth.
Length 0.56 millimeter. Breadth 0.40 millimeter.
This species occurs in both the Pleistocene and Pliocene, although
is very rare. All the specimens are very typical.
SLocalities: Pleistocene station 11; Pliocene stations 14, 18, 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2077.
TRILOCULINA LINNEIANA d'Orbigny var. CALOOSAHATCHEENSIS n. var.
Plate 1, figures 4, 5, 6
oCulina linneiana Cushman (not d'Orbigny), U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918,
pp. 24-25, pl. 7, fig. 1.
SVariety very near the typical, but differing in having more and not
Strongly raised ridges; in being more compressed, with a slightly
cated periphery; the tooth very small and not so well developed
in the typical.
Length 0.90 millimeter. Breadth 0.49 millimeter. Thickness 0.29
meter.
Types from station 18, Ayres Landing on the Caloosahatchee (Plio-

Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2078.
SThis variety occurs in some numbers in both the Waccamaw and
oosahatchee formations. While it is very close to the typical form,
re seems to be enough variation to warrant the erection of a varietal
e. Some specimens approach the typical rather closely, but the
er of costae seem to be more in all cases.
SLocalities: Pliocene stations 14, 16-19.
TRILOCULINA OBLONGA (Montagu)
lclum oblongum Montagu, Test. Brit., 1803, p. 522, pl. 14. fig. 9.
lina oblonga d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 300, No. 16.
oblonga Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 73;
SU. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, 1930, p. 57, pl. 13, figs. 4, 5.
This widely distributed species occurs in both the typical Caloosa-
hatchee and Waccamaw formations. It is very rare, only three or four
specimens being noted to a sample. Its elongate, smooth shining test
makes it an easily recognized form.
Localities: Pliocene stations 14 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2079.


m








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


TRILOCULINA TERQUEMIANA (H. B. Brady)
Plate 1, figure 8
Miliolina terquemiana Brady, Rept. Voy. Challenger, Zoo., 1884, p. 166, pl. 64, fig. 1.
There are a few specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl on the
Caloosahatchee River which seem referable to this species. The angles
of the test are not quite as sharp as in some of the figures given. (See
Millett, Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc., 1898, p. 503, pl. 11, figs. 10, 11). The
number, arrangement and size of the costae, together with the type of
aperture, however, make it seem desirable to refer the Florida speci-
mens to this species.
Length 0.44 millimeter. Width 0.32 millimeter.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2080.

TRILOCULINA TRICARINATA d'Orbigny
Plate 1, figure 3
Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 299, No. 7; Modeles,
1826, No. 94.
Triloculina tricarinata Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pp. 56-57, pl.
13, figs. 3a-c.

A few specimens evidently referable to this species are recorded
from the Caloosahatchee marl on the Caloosahatchee River. It has the
angles of the chambers very sharply angled with almost the suggestion
of a slight keel. As Cushman has already pointed out, a great number
of forms have been referred to this species. Our specimen agrees rather
closely with the figures given by Cushman of a recent specimen from
Tortugas referred to this species.
Length 0.35 millimeter. Width 0.29 millimeter.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2081.

TRILOCULINA TRIGONULA (Lamarck)
Miliola trigonula Lamarck, Ann. Mus., vol. 5, 1804, p. 351, No. 3; vol. 9, 1807, pl. 17,
fig. 4.
Triloculina trigonula Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 56, pL 12,
figs. 10, 11, pl. 13, figs. 1, 2.

Test with three visible chambers, test somewhat longer than broad,
angles rounded, the periphery broadly convex; triangular in end view;
sutures depressed, distinct; wall smooth; aperture round with a bifid
tooth occupying the greater part of the aperture.
Length 0.35 millimeter. Width 0.26 millimeter.
A few specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl along the Caloosa-
hatchee River are referred to this species.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2082.








HE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 27

Genus PYRGO Defrance, 1824
PYRGO SUBSPHAERICA (d'Orbigny)
subsphaerica d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. PoL Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
S1839, p. 162, pL 8, figs. 25-27.
ioculina laevis Cushman (not Defrance), U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p.
S25, p. 7, figs. 3, 4.
go subsphaerica Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 68, pL 18,
figs. 1, 2; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 23, pl. 3, figs. 5a-c.
Test small, rotund, inflated, slightly broader than long, about as
road as thick, chambers rounded, periphery broadly rounded; suture
distinct, depressed, in side view having an undulating curved appear-
ance; wall smooth, shiny, polished; aperture broadly oval with a flat-
tened bifid tooth which only partially fills the apertural opening.
Length 0.38 millimeter. Breadth 0.29 millimeter. Thickness 0.32
iimeter.
This species occurs in both the Waccamaw and Caloosahatchee
ormations, but is rather rare. It is a common form in the recent West
Indian fauna.
Localities: Pliocene stations 14, 18, 19.
SFlorida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2083.
Genus FLINTIA Schubert, 1911
FLINTIA ROBUSTA (H. B. Brady)
Plate 2, figure 13
Spiroloculina robusta H. B. Brady, Rept. Voy. Challenger, Zoo., vol. 9, 1884, p. 150,
pL 9, figs. 7, 8.
Flintia robusta Schubert, Abhandl. K. K. Geol. Reichs., vol. 20, pt. 4, 1911, p. 124.
Flintia robusta Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, 1929, p. 75, pl. 20, figs. 1, 2.
There are several specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl along
the Caloosahatchee River and two specimens from the Tamiami Trail
locality (Sta. 25) which are referred to this species.
In the recent faunas, this species is characteristic of deep water.
This would account for its rarity in the Pliocene deposits, as they are
of shallow-water type.
Length 0.47 millimeter.
Localities: Pliocene stations 18 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2084.

Family LAGENIDAE
Subfamily Nodosariinae
Genus LENTICULINA Lamarck, 1804
LENTICUIINA sp.
Plate 6, figure 1
The specimen from the Caloosahatchee marl, station 18, which I
am figuring for future reference, is the only one of this genus found in
either the Pleistocene or Pliocene of Florida. It is very small, with the
final chamber broken, so that a specific determination is impossible.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


It resembles slightly a form figured by Cushman in his Tortugas report.
(Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 32, pl. 4, fig. 3). It
evidently belongs in the general group represented by L. convergens.
This form is also represented by a single specimen from the Waccamaw
formation (Sta. 13).
Localities: Pliocene stations 13 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2085.

Subfamily Lageninae
Genus LAGENA Walker and Jacob, 1798
LAGENA CLAVATA (d'Orbigny)
Plate 6, figure 6
Oolina clavata d'Orbigny, Foram. Foss. Vienne, 1846. p. 24, pl. 1, fig. 2.
Lagena clavata Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 5, pt. 3, 1929, p. 68,
pl. 11, fig. 3; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, pp. 29, 30, pi. 5, figs. 6a, b.

Test form variable, elongate, clavate or fusiform, with a long slim
neck at the apertural end, and a relatively short but somewhat variable
prolongation at the base; surface smooth, unornamented; wall thin;
aperture circular at the end of the long neck, with a small phialine lip.
Length 0.32 millimeter.
This species is rather small and easily overlooked. It has been
found in both the Pleistocene and Pliocene of Florida. It also occurs
in the Waccamaw formation.
Cushman reports Lagena semistriata Williamson from his Shell
Creek locality, but it has not been found by me.
Localities: Pleistocene station 10; Pliocene stations 14, 15, 16, 18,
19, 20, and 21.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2086.

LAGENA HEXAGONA (Williamson)
Plate 6, figure 7
Entosolenia squammosa Montagu var. hexagona Williamson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,
ser. 2, vol. 1, 1848, p. 20, pl. 2, fig. 23; Rec. Foram. Great Britain, 1858, p. 13, pl. 1,
fig. 31.
Lagena hexagona Siddal, Cat. Brit. Rec. Forams., 1879, p. 6.
Lagena hexagona Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4,1930, p. 30, pl. 5, figs. lla, b.

A single specimen referable to this species was found at Rose's Bluff,
Florida.
In the comparison material from Simmons Bluff, another typical
specimen was found. It was not noted in the Pliocene material.
The hexagonal, reticulated surface makes this species both distinc-
tive and easily recognized. It can scarcely be confused with other
species of Lagena.
Locality: Pleistocene station 4.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2087.









PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 29

Family POLYMORPHINIDAE
Subfamily Polymorphininae
Genus GUTTULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
GUTTULINA CAUDATA d'Orbigny
Plate 4, figure 11
licaudata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 266, No. 16.
inacaudata Fornasini, Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., vol. 19, 1900, p. 137, fig. 2 (in text).
ina caudata Cushman and Ozawa, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 77, Art. 6, 1930,
p. 36, pl. 6, figs. 4, 5.

A few specimens of this species were found in the typical Caloosa-
chee and the Waccamaw formation of the Carolinas.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 23, 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2088.

GUTTULINA PULCHELLA d'Orbigny
Plate 4, figure 12
ina pulchella d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 129, pl. 2, figs. 4-6.
lymorphina pulchella Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 33,
pL 4, figs. 7, 8.
ulinpulchella Cuslman, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 77, Art. 6, 1930, p. 33, pl. 5,
figs. 7a-c.

Test elongate, fusiform, somewhat compressed, both ends acute,
*tial end occasionally having a short spine; sutures distinct, only
ghtly depressed; chambers few, ornamented by distinct longitudinal
state which run unbroken the entire length of the test; aperture pro-
aced, radiate.
Length 0.78 millimeter.
This species was originally described by d'Orbigny and later re-
ported by Cushman from the Tortugas region. It is one of the pret-
lest foraminifera occurring in the Pliocene. It is apparently charac-
eristic of the warm, shallow waters of the West Indian region. Its
occurrence in the Pliocene extends its vertical range considerably, and
further indicates the close connection between the Pliocene and recent
faunas of these regions. It is very rare.
Localities: Pliocene stations 18 and 20.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2089.

GUTTULINA PROBLEMA d'Orbiany
Polymorphina (Guttulina) problema d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 266,
No. 14.

Specimens which seem to be identical with d'Orbigny's figures occur
very rarely in both the Pleistocene and Pliocene of Florida.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4 and 10; Pliocene stations 13, 14,
17, 18 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2090.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


Genus GLOBULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
GLOBULINA GIBBA d'Orbigny
Globulina gibba, Ann. Sci. Nat., voL 7, 1826, p. 266, No. 10; Modeles No. 63.
Globulina gibba Cushman and Ozawa, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 77, Art 6, 1930, p.
60, pl. 16, figs. 14.
Polymorphina gibba Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull 676, 1918, p. 10, pl. 2, fig. 4.
There are only a few, rather large, smooth, globular forms from the
typical Caloosahatchee which may be referred to this species. They
are easily distinguished from the following species by the smooth pol-
ished surface of the test.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2093.
GLOBULINA INAEQUALIS REUSS var. CARIBAEA d'Orbigny
Plate 7, figure 12
Globulina caribaea d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba. Forams., vol.
6, 1840, p. 130, pl. 2, figs. 7, 8.
Polymorphina lactea Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 34,
pl. 4, figs. 10, 11.
Globulina inaequalis Reuss var. caribaea Cushman and Ozawa, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc.,
vol. 77, Art. 6, 1930, p. 75, pl. 18, figs. 5, 6.
This is one of the most persistent species, occurring in the typical
Caloosahatchee, the "Nashua" equivalent of the Caloosahatchee, and
the Waccamaw formation. It also occurs at certain of the Pleistocene
localities. It is readily recognized by its sub-globular, slightly com-
pressed shape and roughened test wall.
Length 0.58 millimeter.
Localities: Pleistocene station 10; Pliocene stations 13, 14, 15, 18-23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2094.

Genus PSEUDOPOLYMORPHINA Cushman and Ozawa, 1928
PSEUDOPOLYMORPHINA RUTILA (Cushman)
Plate 4, figure 13
Polymorphina regina H. B. Brady, Parker and Jones, var. rutila Cushman, U. S.
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, 1923, p. 34, pl. 5, figs. 7, 8.
Pseudopolymorphina rutila Cushman and Ozawa, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 77, Art.
6, 1930, p. 100, pl. 26, figs. 3a, b.
Test elongate, somewhat fusiform, flattened; chambers somewhat
inflated; sutures distinct, but slightly depressed; wall ornamented by
few, rather heavy costae which are continuous the length of the test;
the initial portion of the test often with a short spine; aperture some-
what produced, radiate.
Length 0.96 millimeter.
A few specimens were found in the Pliocene deposits along the
Caloosahatchee River. With it occur forms which are assigned to
Guttulina pulchella (d'Orbigny). P. rutila is more compressed and
has fewer but more prominent longitudinal costae than G. pulchella.
Localities: Pliocene stations 18 and 20.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2095.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 31

Genus SIGMOMORPHINA Cushman and Ozawa, 1928
SIGMOMORPHINA UNDULOSA (Terquem)
Text figures 1-3
Polymorphina amygdaloides Terquem (not Reuss) Mim. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3,
voL 1,1878, p. 39, pl. 3 (8), figs. 22,25 (not 23, 24, 26-30).
'Polymorphina undulosa Terquem, Mim. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3, vol. 1, 1878, p. 41,
pl. 3 (8), figs. 35 a, b, (not 36).
Sigmomorphina undulosa Cushman and Ozawa, Proc., U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 77, Art.
6, 1930, p. 131, pl. 34, fig. 4, 5.
S One specimen referred to this species was found in the Caloosa-
Slhatchee marl at the Shell Creek locality. It is very near S. semitecta
v (Reuss) var. terquemiana (Fornasini) reported from the Waccamaw
formation. It differs from that species however, in that each preced-
Sing chamber is much further removed from the base and does not
extend down to the base as in that species.
It is not surprising to find this fossil in the Caloosahatchee marl as
Cushman and Ozawa report it in recent deposits from the Dry Tortugas,
Fla. (in 18 fathoms).
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2154.










S 3
FIc. 1. Sigmomorphina semitecta (Reuss) var. terquemiana (Fornasini) from
Waccamaw formation.
FIcs. 2, 3. Sigmomorphina undulosa (Terquem) from Caloosahatchee marl, show.
ing general plan and fistulose tubes (opposite sides of same specimen) X 35.

Family NONIONIDAE
Genus NONION Montfort, 1808
ONION GLABRELLA Cushman
Nonion glabrella Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 38, pl. 6, figs. 6a, b.
A single specimen from the Caloosahatchee marl along the Caloosa-
hatchee River, seems identical with this species described by Cushman
from the Miocene of Florida. The highly polished surface of the test
is the same as noted by Cushman in the Miocene specimens.
A very few specimens were also recorded from the Waccamaw for-
mation.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2096.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


ONION POMPILIOIDES (Fichtel and Moll)
Plate 6, figure 2
"Nautilus melo" Soldani, Testaceographia, vol. 2, 1798, p. 38, pl. 8, figs. zz, A. B. C.
Nautilus pompiloides Fichtel and Moll, Test. Micr., 1798, p. 31, pl. 2, figs. a-c.
Nonionina depressula Cushman. U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 19, pl. 1, fig. 6.
Nonion pompilioides Cushman. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 4, pl. 1. figs.
7-11; pl. 2, figs. 1-2.
The Florida specimens are very near figures given for N. pom-
pilioides in the recent faunas. It occurs only sparingly in the Pliocene
of Florida and also in the Talbot formation of Maryland.
Localities: Pleistocene station 1; Pliocene stations 18 and 19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2097.
NONION GRATELOUPI (d'Orbigny)
Plate 7, figures 7, 8
Nonionina grateloupi d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 46, pl. 6, figs. 6, 7.
Nonionina grateloupi Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 55,
pl. 9, figs. 7, 8.
Nonion grateloupi Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, pps. 36, 37. pl. 6,
figs. 1-3.
Test small, nearly bilaterally symmetrical, in front view the sides
of the chambers nearly parallel, 9-12 chambers in the last formed coil,
gradually increasing in length as added; periphery broadly rounded;
sutures slightly depressed, distinct; wall smooth, finely punctate: cham-
bers of the initial coils partly visible; aperture small, at the base of
the last formed chamber.
Length 0.29 millimeter (Pleistocene) to 0.58 millimeter (Pliocene I.
N. grateloupi occurs in both the Pleistocene and Pliocene of Florida.
The specimens from the Pliocene are much larger and better developed
than those of the Pleistocene. However, the major features are the
same.
Some of the larger specimens from the Pliocene approach N. pizar-
rensis Berry. The roughness about the umbilicus which seems char-
acteristic of this species was not observed. As these larger specimens
grade through others into the typical N. grateloupi, all are assigned to
this species.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4, 6, 10; Pliocene stations 18, 19,
20, 23 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2098.

Genus NONIONELLA Cushman, 1926
NONIONELLA PSEUDO-AURIS n. sp.
Plate 5, figures 4, 5
Test small, subtrochoid, the final evolution composed of 7-8 cham-
bers; periphery rounded; sutures rather indistinct between the initial
chambers of the final whorl, becoming more pronounced between the
final chambers in this whorl, very slightly recurved; the last chamber








THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 33

produced into a distinct lobe on the ventral side which completely
flls the umbilicus; wall finely perforate aperture low, elongate.
| Length 0.32 millimeter. Width 0.22 millimeter.
Type from Station 21, Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2099.
While very near N. auris d'Orbigny, this species differs in having
fewer chambers, slightly different form and less distinct sutures. It is
very near the form figured by Cushman from Queen Charlotte Sound,
British Columbia, as N. auris.
It is a very rare species in the Caloosahatchee marl.
SLocality: Pliocene station 21.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2099.

Genus ELPHIDIUM Montfort, 1808
ELPHIDIUM FIMBRIATULUM (Cushman)
Plate 4, figure 7
lphidium fimbriatulum Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 20, pl. 8,
fig5.
Elphidium advenum Cushman, Florida Geol. Survev, Bull. 4, 1930, pps. 4041, pl. 7,
figs. 7a, b. (not Elphidium advenum Cushman, 1922).
Test of medium size for the genus, strongly compressed, periphery
cute, with a narrow carina in most specimens, but apparently lacking
in a few, slightly lobate initially, but becoming more so in the final
chambers; umbilical region depressed, with generally a central small
boss of clear shell material which however does not project out beyond
he general contour of the test; chambers distinct, very narrow at the
umbilicus, gradually increasing in size as they approach the periphery,
lightly recurved, about 12 in the final evolution; sutures markedly
pressed so that the chambers stand up as raised equally sloped ridges
Between, retral processes, short, about as wide as the initial portion
.the chamber, distinct, 12 to 15 in number; wall smooth, opaque,
y finely perforate; aperture composed of a series of small rounded
es at the base of the apertural face.
Diameter 0.44 millimeter. Thickness 0.12 millimeter.
'This is one of the most common and characteristic species of the
oosahatchee. It is rarer in the Waccamaw. Its range in Florida is
m Miocene to Pliocene; in the Pleistocene it is replaced by the
ety advenum described below.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14, 18 and 19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2100.
ELPHIDIUM FIMBRIATULUM (Cushman) var. ADVENUM (Cushman)
Plate 4, figure 6
ystomella advena Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 56,
., pL 9, figs. 11, 12; Publ. 342, 1924, p. 48; Publ. 344, 1926, p. 80.
hidium advenum Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 101, pt. 7, 1930, p. 25, pl. 10,
igs. 1.2.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


The variety differing from the typical mainly in the shape of the
chambers which are more flaring as they approach the periphery and
not as distinctly ridged as in the typical; the retral processes are also
of slightly different shape.
Diameter 0.41 millimeter.
It is apparent on detailed study that the E. advenum of Cushman
from the recent deposits of the West Indian area should be made a
variety of the Florida Pliocene E. fimbriatulum. The general similar-
ity between the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene and recent forms re-
ferred to these two types is striking, and at first it was believed they
should be referred to only one species; but the chamber shape serves
to differentiate them into two types: E. fimbriatulum, slightly small in
size, with ridged, about equally sloped almost costae-like shaped
chambers confined to the Miocene and Pliocene, and E. fimbriatulum
var. advenum, ranging from Pleistocene to recent, with much more
flaring, rather flat or gently rounded chambers, which are generally
more greatly recurved on the anterior side than on the posterior.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4, 5, 6 and 10.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2101.

ELPHIDIUM DISCOIDALE (d'Orbigny)
Polystomella discoidalis d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 56, pl. 6, figs. 23, 24.
Polystomella discoidalis Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 56,
pl. 10, figs. 3, 4.
Elphidium discoidale Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pp. 22, 23, pl.
8, figs. 8., 9.
Elphidium discoidale Cushman and Cole, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 6,
pt. 4, 1930, p. 97, pl. 13, figs. 10a, b.

Test of medium size for the genus, periphery subacute, sides convex
in peripheral view rising to a high point at the umbilicus; margin
slightly lobate; umbilical regions with a large rounded boss which
projects rather strongly beyond the general outline of the test; cham-
bers rather numerous, about 14 in the last formed whorl, distinct;
sutures slightly depressed, marked by rather short retral processes
about 12 in number; wall smooth, transparent, distinctly perforate;
umbos with rather coarse tubules; aperture composed of small,
rounded pores at the base of the apertural face.
Diameter 0.44 millimeter. Thickness 0.35 millimeter.
Localities: Pleistocene station 1; Pliocene stations 18 and 21.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2102.

ELPHIDIUM GUNTERI, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 9, 10
Test of medium size for the genus, margin entire, broadly rounded,
sides slightly convex in peripheral view, umbilical region with a group









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 35

of irregular, slightly raised areas of clear shell material; chambers
distinct, not inflated, averaging about 14 in the last evolution; sutures
not depressed, marked by slightly raised, rectangular shaped retral
processes which at the base of the chambers tend to fuse together; wall
smooth, shiny, distinctly and rather coarsely perforate; aperture com-
posed of several rounded openings at the base of the apertural face.
Diameter 0.44 millimeter. Thickness 0.26 millimeter.
Type from Station 21, Orange City, Florida (Pliocene).
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2103.
This is probably the same form that Cushman referred to Poly-
stomella craticulata var. in his Pliocene paper. It is very common in
the "Nashua" equivalent of the Caloosahatchee marl in Florida. It
is found rarely in the typical Caloosahatchee marl and in the Wacca-
maw formation of the Carolinas.
This form is evidently closely related to several of the recent species
of Elphidium. From E. lanieri, it differs in its lesser number of cham-
bers, more broadly rounded periphery, and the irregular raised areas
of shell material instead of a single umbilical knob; from E. craticu-
latum in its smaller number of chambers, smaller umbilical area and
different arrangement of the bridgings. E. discoidale differs from
E. gunteri by its slightly lobate margin, its sub-acute periphery and
different shaped retral processes.
This species is named in honor of Mr. Herman Gunter, State Geol-
ogist of Florida, whose help made the publication of this paper possible.
Localities: Pliocene stations 14, 21, 22, and 23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2103.
ELPHIDIUM INCERTUM (Williamson)
Plate 4, figure 8
Polystomella umbilicatuda var. incerta Williamson, Rec. Foram. Great Britain, 1858,
p. 44, pl. 3, figs. 82, 82a.
Polystomella striatopunctata Cushman (not Fichtel and Moll), U. S. Geol. Survey,
Bull. 676, 1918, p. 19, pl. 8, fig. 4.
Elphidium incertum Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, 1930, pp. 18-20, pl. 7, figs.
4-9; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, pps. 39, 40, pl. 7, figs. 2a, b.
Test nautiloid, compressed, the sides nearly parallel in end view,
periphery broadly rounded, lobate, especially in the final 3 or 4 cham-
bers (the degree of location often depending on the age and size of
the specimen), umbilical region slightly depressed, sometimes with a
slight knob or irregularities due to the ending of the slit-like sutures;
about 9-10 chambers comprising the last evolution; sutures distinct,
plainly marked by the openings which are in a single row, retral proc-
esses few, distinct, the inner ends of the sutures slit-like; shell wall
opaque, aperture a series of pores at the base of the apertural face with
occasionally secondary pores scattered over the entire face.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


Diameter 0.61 millimeter. Thickness 0.20 millimeter.
Cushman records this species as only occurring in the deeper, colder
waters of the Atlantic, north of Hatteras. It occurs in the Pliocene,
however, associated with a shallow, warm-water fauna. It is also an
abundant species in the Pleistocene as far north as the Simmons Bluff
locality. It can scarcely be mistaken, because of the character of the
inner ends of the sutures to form slit-like depressions. Since Pleisto-
cene times, it has evidently adapted itself to a different mode of environ-
ment. This change was taking place during Pleistocene time, as this
species is one of the prolific forms in the Pleistocene deposits which
were evidently deposited in much cooler water than that of the Pliocene
period.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 1 to 12; Pliocene stations 13, 16
to 23 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2104.

ELPHIDIUM LANIERI (d'Orbigny)
Polystomella lanieri d'Orbigny. in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 54, pl. 7, figs. 12, 13.
Elphidium lanieri Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 23, pl. 9, fig. 7.
A few individuals referred to this species, occur in the typical
Caloosahatchee and the "Nashua" equivalent.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2105.

ELPHIDIUM POEYANUM (d'Orbigny)
Polystomella poeyana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 55, pl. 6, figs. 25, 26.
Polystomella poeyana Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 55,
pl. 9, figs. 9, 10.
Elphidium poeyanum Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pp. 25-26,
pl. 10, figs. 4, 5; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 39, pl. 7, figs. 3, 4.

Test of small size for the genus, composed of 10-12 chambers in the
final evolution, compressed, slightly umbilicate, periphery broadly
rounded; peripheral margin only slightly lobate; sutures distinct,
slightly depressed, retral processes short, broad, about 15 in number;
wall thin, smooth, translucent, finely perforate; aperture a series of
round small pores at the base of the apertural face.
This species, with E. incertum, is one of the commonest forms in
both the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Florida. It can easily be recog-
nized from that species by its smaller size, more rounded outline and
different arrangement of retral processes.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4, 5, 6, 10, and 11; Pliocene stations
13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2106.










THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 37

ELPHIDIUM SAGRUM (d'Orbigny)
Plate 4, figure 5
Polystomella sagra d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 55, pl. 6, figs. 19, 20.
Elphidium sagrum Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, 1930, p. 24. pl. 9, figs. 5-6;
Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 40, pl. 7, figs. 6a, b.

Test of medium size for the genus, periphery broadly rounded, not
lobate, except some specimens have the final chamber slightly inflated;
sides convex, the test often appearing roughly spherical; umbilical
region flattened rather than depressed; chambers fairly distinct, except
in adults where the retral processes form such heavy ridges that the
initial chambers are concealed; sutures only depressed in the final
2 or 3 chambers; marked by retral processes which form distinct
ridges or welts; apertural face very narrow, apertures a row of small
pores at the base of the apertural face.
Diameter 0.48 millimeter.
This is a very characteristic species, which occurs rather commonly
in the Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson formations, and much more
sparingly in the Pleistocene deposits. A few specimens also have been
found in the Waccamaw. It is easily recognized by its raised retral
processes.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 6, 11 and 12; Pliocene stations 13,
14, 15, 18, 21 and 22.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2107.


Family PENEROPLIDAE
Subfamily Spirolininae
Genus PENEROPLIS Montfort, 1808
PENEROPLIS PROTEUS d'Orbigny
Peneroplis protea d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams., 1839,
p. 60, pl. 7, figs. 7-11.
Peneroplis pertusus Cushman (not Forskal), U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918,
p. 26, pl. 8, fig. 1.
Peneroplis proteus Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, p. 37, pl. 13,
figs. 1-17.

Test plano-spirally coiled, the earlier portion closely coiled and
complete involute, later portion not entirely embracing, rather flar-
ing; about 12 chambers comprise the final coils; sutures distinct,
depressed; wall smooth, thick, rather shiny; apertures a row of pores
along the median line of the apertural face.
Length 0.41 millimeter. Width 0.29 millimeter.
This common West Indian species occurs but rarely in deposits of
Caloosahatchee age at Shell Creek and along the Caloosahatchee
River. The Florida specimens resemble figures given by Cushman










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


of specimens from Bermuda and from San Juan Harbor, Porto Rico.
(See U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pl. 13, figs. 7, 8).
Localities: Pliocene stations 17 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2108.

Subfamily Archaiasinae
Genus ARCHAIAS Montfort, 1808
ARCHAIAS ANGULATUS (Fichtel and Moll)
Plate 5, figures 2, 3
Nautilus angulatus Fichtel and Moll, Test. Micr., 1803, p. 112, pl. 21.
Orbiculina adunca Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 27, pl. 7, fig. 2.
Archaias angulatus Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pp. 46-47, pl. 16,
figs. 1.3; pl. 17, figs. 3-5.
"Test compressed, the early portion closely coiled, later becoming
more or less complanate or even circular, periphery truncate; early
chambers simple, later ones divided into a series of chamberlets by
partitions generally at right angles to the periphery, distinct, elongate,
low; sutures distinct, depressed; wall imperforate; aperture in the
early stages, as in Peneroplis, a narrow slit, then a series of pores, one
to each chamberlet, in a slight depression in the median line of the
peripheral face."
Diameter 0.67 to 1.16 millimeters.
This is one of the restricted species apparently confined to the
Caloosahatchee marl along the Caloosahatchee River and Shell Creek.
It is exactly like recent specimens from the south coast of Florida in
my collection, and fits Cushman's recent description so well that we
have quoted the largest part of it.
Localities: Pliocene stations 17 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2109.

Subfamily Orbitolitinae
Genus SORITES Ehrenberg, 1838
SORITES MARGINALIS (Lamarck)
Plate 5, figure 10
Orbulites marginalis (Lamarck), Syst. Anim. sans Vert., vol. 2, 1816, p. 196, No. 1.
Orbitolites marginalis H. B. Brady, Rept. Voy. Challenger, Zoo., vol. 9, 1884, p. 214,
pl. 15, figs. 1-5.
Orbitolites marginalis Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 27.
Sorites marginalis Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, 1930, pp. 49-50, pl. 18,
figs. 1-4.
Test relatively large, thin, very compressed, flat, circular in out-
line in the adult, the entire test composed of a single layer of cham-
bers, each with a single layer of chamberlets throughout, early cham-
bers in a spiral, later extending back, finally meeting and in most of
the chambers forming annuli; aperture a single row of pores along
the periphery of the test.
Adult diameter 2.18 millimeters.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 39

A few specimens were found in the Caloosahatchee marl from the
Shell Creek and Caloosahatchee River localities. It is comparatively
rare, probably because of its relatively fragile test which could easily
be broken and destroyed.
In the recent faunas this species is characteristic of warm, shallow
water. It is a rather common species in the recent West Indian fauna,
where it occurs in an average water depth of about 42 feet with a fine
sand as bottom material.
Localities: Pliocene stations 17, 18 and 19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2110.

Family BULIMINIDAE
Subfamily Turrilininae
Genus BULIMINELLA Cushman, 1911
BULIMINELLA ELEGANTISSIMA (d'Orbigny)
Plate 2, figure 8
Bulimina elegantissima d'Orbigny, Voy. Am6r. MWrid. Forams., vol. 5, No. 5, 1839,
p. 51, pl. 7, figs. 13, 14.
Buliminella elegantissima Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 42, pl. 8,
figs. 2, 3.
This species is relatively abundant in the Pleistocene of Florida
and rare in the Pliocene except in the "Nashua" where it is relatively
abundant. It is easily overlooked on account of its small size. It
seems to be typical in every way with recent specimens referred to
this species.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4, 6 and 10; Pliocene stations 18,
19, 21, 22 and 23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2111.

Genus BULIMINA d'Orbigny, 1826
BULIMINA MARGINATA d'Orbigny
Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, p. 269, No. 4, pl. 12, figs.
10-12.
Bulimina marginata Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, 1922, pp. 91-93, pl.
21, figs. 4, 5.
A very few specimens of this beautiful species were found at Sta.
21. The distinct chambers, which are cut deeply under the base, with
the basal margin broken into small teeth, make it easily recognized.
Locality: Pliocene station 21.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2112.
BULIMINA sp.
Plate 5, figure 13
This form is somewhat similar to B. afinis d'Orbigny. Only one
specimen was found in the Caloosahatchee marl on the Caloosahatchee









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


River. A single specimen of this same species was found in the
Waccamaw formation.
Length 0.29 millimeter.
Localities: Pliocene stations 16 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2113.

Genus ENTOSOLENIA Ehrenberg, 1848
ENTOSOLENIA LCCIDA (Williamson)
Plate 7, figures 5, 6
Entosolenia marginata Walker and Boys, var. lucida Williamson, Rec. Foram. Great
Britain, 1858, p. 10, pl. 1, figs. 22, 23.
Test small, compressed slightly, shape variable, generally some-
what pyriform, marginal portion and central area clear and trans-
lucent, an opaque band between; wall smooth; aperture fissurine.
Length 0.25 millimeter.
This species has been found in both the Pliocene and Pleistocene
of Florida. It occurs also in the Talbot formation of Maryland. It
is a very rare species and hard to distinguish on account of its small
size.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 1, 2, 6, and 10; Pliocene station 20.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2114.

Genus VIRGULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
VIRGULINA PUNCTATA d'Orbigny
Plate 6, figure 14
Virgulina punctata d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 139, pl. 1, figs. 35, 36.
Virgulina puncata Cushman, Carnegie Inst.. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 31, pi. 3,
fig. 9; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, pp. 44-45, pl. 8, figs. 7a, b.
Test minute, elongate, widest just below the apertural end, aper-
tural end less pointed than the initial end; axis of test slightly twisted;
sutures oblique, but slightly depressed; triserial portion small;
biserial chambers slightly inflated, rather numerous; wall finely
punctate, smooth; aperture elongate.
Length 0.44 millimeter.
This small form occurs in both the Waccamaw and Caloosahatchee
marl. It is very small and easily overlooked.
Localities: Pliocene stations 15, 16, 18, 19, and 20.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2115.

Genus BOLIVINA d'Orbigny, 1839
BOLIVINA DONIEZI Cushman and Wickenden
Plate 6, figures 3, 4
Bolivina doniezi Cushman and Wickenden, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 75, 1929, p. 9,
pl. 4, figs. 3a, b.
Numerous specimens which seem to agree with the species de-
scribed by Cushman and Wickenden from the West coast of South
America are found in the Pleistocene of Florida.










THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 41

Localities: Pleistocene stations 3, 4, 5 and 10; Pliocene stations
14 and 23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2116.

BOLIVINA PLICATELLA Cushman
Bolivina plicatella Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 46, pl. 8, figs.
10a, b.
A very few specimens from the typical Caloosahatchee along the
Caloosahatchee River and from the Waccamaw seem to be identical
with the form described by Cushman from the Miocene of Florida.
The surface ornamentation of the test seems characteristic. The
last two chambers are not covered. The two main longitudinal ridges,
with the connecting, secondary, transverse ribs are nicely developed
on the Pliocene specimens.
Localities: Pliocene stations 14 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2117.

BOLIVINA PULCHELLA d'Orbigny var. PRIMITIVE Cushman
Plate 2, figure 10
Bolivina pulchella d'Orbigny var. primitive Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull.
4, 1930, p. 47, pl. 8, figs. 12a, b.
The variety differs from the typical in having fewer biserial cham-
hers, averaging two to four, the major portion of the test made of
triserial chambers; wall coarsely perforate.
Length 0.47 millimeter.
Very rare in the typical Caloosahatchee marl.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2118.

BOLIVINA STRIATULA Cushman
Plate 2, figure 9
Bolivina striatula Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, pp. 27-28,
pl. 3, fig. 10.
Original description:
"Test elongate, gradually tapering from the somewhat rounded
initial end to the broad apertural end; chambers numerous distinct,
slightly inflated; sutures very slightly depressed; early portion of the
test less compressed than the adult, the peripheral margin rounded
in the young, sharply angled in the adult, early portion of the test with
numerous longitudinal striations occupying about half the length of
the test, following the chambers with a very fine reticulate pattern, the
final chambers being smooth, punctate."
Length 0.38 millimeter.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


As Cushman has already pointed out, this species is rather easily
distinguished by its peculiar ornamentation. It is rather rare in the
Pleistocene, and apparently does not occur in the Pliocene deposits.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 6 and 10.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2119.
BOLIVINA RHOMBOIDALIS (Millett)
Textularia rhomboidalis Millett, Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc., 1899, p. 559, pl. 7, fig. 4.
Bolivina rhomboidalis Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 28.
Only one specimen of this characteristic species was found, that
from the typical Caloosahatchee at Station 18. It is readily recognized
by its triangular shape in front view and rhomboid shape in end view.
It is identical with the excellent figure given by Millett.
Cushman records this species in his Tortugas report; so it is not
surprising to find it in the fossil condition.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2120.

Genus LOXOSTOMA Ehrenberg, 1854
LOXOSTOMA GUNTERI Cushman
Plate 2, figures 2, 3, 4
Bolivina karreriana Cushman (not Brady), U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 8,
pl. 2, fig. 5.
Loxostoma gunteri Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 47, pl. 8, figs.
lla, b.
Test elongate, compressed, periphery rounded, apical and apertural
ends broadly rounded; chambers numerous, more distinct initially
than aperturally; sutures, where showing, slightly depressed, but not
affecting the ornamentation, limbate; test ornamented by numerous
raised costae which run the length of the test, joining and branching
freely, particularly towards the aperture; aperture terminal, rather
large, elliptical and bordered by raised slightly recurved lips.
Length 0.46 millimeter. Width 0.20 millimeter.
This species differs from L. karreriana in having the initial end
rounded whereas that species typically has a rather sharply pointed
initial end with a strong apical spine. The costae on L. gunteri are
finer and more numerous.
It is evidently a shallow-water tropical species and seems to be
confined to the Caloosahatchee marl on the Caloosahatchee River and
Shell Creek in the Pliocene deposits. Cushman described this species
from the Florida Miocene.
Localities: Pliocene stations 17 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2121.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 43

LOXOSTOMA cf. MAYOR (Cushman)
Plate 6, figure 5
Bolivina mayor Cushman, Carnegie Inst, Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 27, pl. 3,
figs. 5, 6.

Only one specimen was found which can be assigned to this species.
It is evidently an adult specimen with the final chamber contracted,
as has been noted by Cushman in his original description of the species.
The depressed sutures and coarse punctations are also very character-
istic.
This species occurred in the Caloosahatchee marl along the Caloosa-
hatchee River.
Length 0.55 millimeter.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2122.

Subfamily Reussiinae
Genus REUSSIA Schwager, 1877
REUSSIA SPINULOSA (Reuss)
Plate 2, figure 6
Verneuilina spinulosa Reuss, Denkschr. Wiss. Wien, vol. 1, 1850, p. 374, pl. 47, fig. 12.
Verneuilina spinulosa Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 28,
pl. 3, fig. 11.

The figured specimen was obtained from the Caloosahatchee marl
along the Caloosahatchee River. It is apparently this species,
although the spines are not as strongly developed as in some figures
given of this species. Cushman described a specimen from the Wacca-
maw formation as R. glabrata, because while it resembled R. spinulosa,
it apparently had a more tapering form and was non-spinose. It is
probable that the specimen in his possession was merely a variation
of R. spinulosa.
It was observed rarely in the typical Caloosahatchee, but occurred
in some numbers in the "Nashua" equivalent.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 19, 22 and 23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2123.

Subfamily Uvigerininae
Genus UVIGERINA d'Orbigny, 1826
UVIGERINA PEREGRINA Cushman var. BRADYANA Cushman
Plate 6, figure 13
Uvigerina peregrina var. bradyana Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 4, 1925,
p. 168, pl. 42, fig. 12.

Test elongate, about 3 times as long as wide, widest just above the
middle, ends rounded, initial end slightly more pointed than the
apertural; chambers numerous, slightly inflated; sutures distinct
depressed; wall ornamented by numerous longitudinal costae, which


F






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


under low power appear almost continuous, but under higher power
are apparently slightly offset, the costae low, rounded, the costae to-
ward the apertural end, tending to break up into spines on some speci-
mens, on others continuous up to the neck; wall between the costae
perforate; aperture circular at the end of a short cylindrical neck.
Length 0.41 millimeter.
The recent type of this species is from relatively deep water off the
northeastern coast of the United States. The Florida specimens as-
signed to this variety agree very closely with Cushman's figure of the
recent form. It is very rare, a few specimens were found from Station
21 only.
This is a different form from that which was referred to U. tenuistri-
ata Reuss by Cushman from the Waccamaw marl. His figure indicates
that the Waccamaw specimen is different from the Florida specimens,
as it is much shorter and the costae are missing on the final chamber.
It is interesting to record this variety in a relatively shallow-water
fossil deposit. Because of its rarity and absence at other stations, it, is
probable that it was washed in from the more open ocean.
Locality: Pliocene station 21..
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2124.

Genus ANGULOGERINA Cushman, 1927
ANGULOGERINA OCCIDENTALIS (Cushman)
Plate 2, figure 5
Uvigerina angulosa Cushman (not Williamson), U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918,
p. 11, pl. 2, fig. 2.
Uvigerina angulosa Cushman (not Williamson), Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ.
311,1922, p. 34, pl. 5, figs. 3,4.
Uvigerina occidentalis Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 4, 1923, pp. 169-170.
Angulogerina occidentalis Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 50, pl. 9,
figs. 8, 9.
Test, minute, of different lengths, some being rather short, others
rather elongate; in general, triangular in cross-section, although in
the initial chambers little triangularity is shown, but the final chambers
decidedly triangular; chambers distinct, sutures depressed; the final
chambers tending to be added uniserially; wall ornamented with com-
paratively large, high costae, which do not appear to be continuous;
final chamber unornamented; aperture on the end of a tubular neck
with a slight phialine lip.
Length 0.32 to 0.38 millimeter.
The type specimens of the species are from the Tortugas region.
The specimens from Florida and the Carolinas agree exactly with
Cushman's figures. His figured specimen in the Pliocene report from
the Waccamaw River, South Carolina, is evidently generalized. It
shows the final chamber costate. The specimens in my collection from








THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 45

Florida and the Carolinas do not exhibit this feature. Some of my
specimens, particularly those from the Caloosahatchee River, are
rather elongate, appearing the same as the one illustrated on Plate 5,
figure 4 of the Tortugas report. It is undoubtedly only a form of
A. occidentalis and this variation should be attributed to senescence
as already noted by Cushman.
This form is easily overlooked on account of its small size. Its
occurrence indicates the close relationship between the Waccamaw
and Caloosahatchee formations and the recent deposits of the Tortugas
region. It also occurs in the Pleistocene deposits of Florida, so that its
range is complete from Miocene to recent.
This species is easily distinguished from A. angulosa (Williamson)
by its rather coarse costae, the nudity of its final chamber and further
that it does not show the regularity of triangular cross-section as the
typical angulosa does.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4, 5 and 6; Pliocene stations 13, 14,
15, 18, 19, 21 and 23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2125.

Family ROTALIIDAE
Subfamily Spirillininae
Genus SPIRILLINA Ehrenberg, 1841
SPIRILLINA LIMBATA H. B. Brady
Spirillina limbata H. B. Brady, Quart. Jour. Roy. Micr. Sci., vol. 19, 1879, p. 278,
pl. 8, fig. 26a, b; Rept. Voy. Challenger, Zoo., vol. 9, 1884, p. 632, pl. 85, figs. 18-21.
Spirillina limbata Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 5, 1915, p. 5, pl. 2, figs. 1, 2.

A few specimens referred to this species were found in the typical
Caloosahatchee. It differs from S. decorate, which occurs in the
Waccamaw formation, in having a square peripheral border and lack-
ing the characteristic ornamentation of that species.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2126.

Subfamily Discorbisinae
Genus DISCORBIS Lamarck, 1804
DISCORBIS ALLOMORPHINOIDES (Reuss)
Plate 6, figures 8, 9
Valvulina allomorphinoides Reuss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien., vol. 40, 1860, p. 223, pl.
11, fig. 6.
Discorbis allomorphinoides Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 71, pt. 5, 1915, pp. 21,
22, pl. 9, fig. 1.

There are a few specimens from one locality in Florida (Sta. 25)
which are evidently closely related to Reuss' species. As can be seen









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


by referring to my figure of the Florida form, there is some difference
in shape of the final chamber between this and that of the typical.
Length 0.31 millimeter.
Locality: Pliocene station 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2128.
DISCORBIS FLORIDANA Cushman
Plate 3, figures 11, 12
Discorbis floridana Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, pp. 39, 40,
pl. 5, figs. 11, 12.
Test rotaliform, plano-convex, the dorsal side strongly convex, the
ventral side slightly concave, umbilicate; periphery slightly lobate,
rounded; last whorl composed of 5-6 chambers, which gradually
increase in size; sutures of the earlier whorls limbate, those of the
outer whorl slightly depressed dorsally, more strongly so ventrally, not
limbate on the outer whorl; wall coarsely punctate dorsally, finely
punctate ventrally with the coarser punctations near the outer border;
aperture an elongate, arched opening at the base of the last formed
chamber, extending in to the umbilical area, sometimes with a thin lip.
Diameter 0.29 millimeter. Height 0.17 millimeter.
This species occurs in both the Caloosahatchee and Waccamaw
formations. It is exactly like the specimens figured by Cushman from
the West Indian region.
Localities: Pleistocene station 4; Pliocene stations 13, 14, 18 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2129.
DISCORBIS MIRA Cushman
Plate 3, figures 7, 8
Discorbis mira Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 39, pl. 6,
figs. 10, 11; Florida GeoL Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 52, pl. 10, figs. 2a-c.
Test conical, trochoid, piano-convex, the dorsal side forming a low
cone, the ventral side generally slightly concave, periphery acute, about
five chambers in the last formed whorl; sutures on the dorsal side
limbate, flush with the surface, oblique, slightly recurved, ventrally
slightly depressed, nearly radial; wall smooth, rather coarsely per-
forate; aperture an elongate, slightly arched slit at the ventral margin.
Diameter 0.32 millimeter.
This species is common to both the Caloosahatchee marl of Florida
and the Waccamaw formation of the Carolinas. While never very
abundant, it appears in most of the samples examined from these for-
mations. The finding of this subtropical species in the Waccamaw
helps to indicate the similarity in conditions of deposition in both the
Caloosahatchee and Waccamaw formations.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 18, 19, 22 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2130.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 47

DISCORBIS GLADYSJE, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 9, 10
Test biconvex, dorsal side more strongly so than the ventral which
is slightly concave; periphery lobate, rounded; 6 chambers comprise
the last formed coil, final chamber very large; sutures curved, de-
pressed, more strongly so ventrally than dorsally; dorsally, a marked,
depressed line separating the outer whorl of chambers from the inner
whorls; wall rather coarsely perforate; aperture a curved slit at the
base of the last formed chamber, extending into the umbilicus; gen-
erally covered by a slight lip.
Diameter 0.32 millimeter.
Type from Station 6, Bradenton, Florida (Pleistocene).
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2131.
This species is similar in general outline to Discorbis obtusa
(d'Orbigny) from the Miocene of the Vienna Basin. It lacks the
marked tuberculate area shown on the ventral side of that species and
the final chamber is not so extended into the umbilicus.
This species occurs with slight variation in both the Pleistocene and
Pliocene of Florida. It was found in greatest numbers of individuals
in the Pleistocene deposits south of Bradenton. A few specimens
referable to this species were found in the Waccamaw formation. It
is easily recognized by the depressed area which separates the final
whorl from the initial whorls.
This species is named in honor of my wife, Gladys W. Cole, to whom
most of the credit for organizing the material for this paper must go.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4, 6 and 10; Pliocene stations 14,
18, 19 and 21.
DISCORBIS SUBARAUCANA Cushman
Plate 6, figures 11, 12
Discorbis subaraucana Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922, p. 41.
pl. 7, figs. 1, 2; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 52, pl. 10, figs. la-c.
Test unequally biconvex, dorsal side somewhat arched, the ventral
side flat or slightly concave; periphery not lobate initially, but the final
two or three chambers slightly lobate, not keeled, bluntly rounded;
sutures oblique, curved, depressed, limbate both dorsally and ventrally
except the final 2-3 chambers which do not have limbate sutures; test
composed of about 2.5 to 3 coils with generally 6 chambers in the
final evolution, the final chamber occupying about one-fourth the area
of the test; walls with numerous rather coarse punctae; aperture a
narrow slit at the base of the last formed chamber extending from the
periphery well into the umbilicus, covered by a slight projecting lip.
Diameter 0.44 millimeter.
This is a very pretty species, which is found in both the Waccamaw


____









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


and Caloosahatchee formations. While it is generally rather rare,
enough specimens were obtained from most localities to give a complete
suite. Upon comparison of the fossil material with recent material at
the Cushman laboratory, they were found to be identical. This species
furnishes a further connection with the Pliocene of Florida and the
recent West Indian fauna. Cushman also records it from the Miocene
of Florida.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 16, 18 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2132.
DISCORBIS SUBRUGOSA Cushman
Plate 5, figures 6, 7
Discorbis subrugosa Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, BulL 676, 1918, p. 14, pl. 5, figs.
4a, b.
Test small, plano-convex, the ventral side flat or slightly concave,
the dorsal side strongly concave; 6 chambers comprising the last volu-
tion; sutures distinct, depressed, more strongly so dorsally than ven-
trally; chambers extend into the center ventrally so that there is no
marked umbilicus; wall deeply and coarsely punctate dorsally, giving
a very rugose appearance, ventrally finely punctate, smooth; periphery
subacute; aperture a narrow slit on the ventral side of the final chamber
extending from the periphery into the small umbilical area.
Length 0.24 millimeter. Width 0.20 millimeter.
This species was described by Cushman from the Caloosahatchee
marl on the Caloosahatchee River. It is very rare, and is represented
by only two specimens in the present collection.
It is easily recognized by the coarse punctations on the dorsal side.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2133.
DISCORBIS ORBICULARIS (Terquem) (?)
Rosalina orbicularis Terquem, Anim. sur la Plage de Dunkerque, 1876, p. 75, pl.
9, figs. 4a, b.
Discorbis orbicularis Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 13, pl. 3, fig. 4.
Test conical, trochoid, convex dorsally, concave ventrally, peri-
pheral margin angular; 3 to 5 chambers showing in the last evolution,
chambers elongate; narrow; sutures indicated by extremely fine lines
nearly flush with the surface of the test; strongly oblique; recurved;
wall smooth, very finely perforate; aperture a small slit at the base
of the last chamber, opening into the umbilicus.
Diameter 0.28 millimeter.
This species was found in both the Caloosahatchee marl and the
Waccamaw formation. Cushman reports it only from the Caloosa-
hatchee.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 49

It is somewhat similar to D. mira Cushman, but differs from that
species in its smaller size and very oblique sutures.
Localities: Pliocene stations 14, 15, 18, 22 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2134.

Subfamily Rotaliinae
Genus ROTALIA Lamarck, 1804
ROTALIA BECCARII (Linne) var. ORNATA Cushman
Plate 5, figure 9
Rotalia beccarii var. ornata Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 18, pl. 8,
fig. 7.
Rotalia beccarii var. ornata Cushman and Cole, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res,
vol. 6, pt. 4, 1930, p. 100, pl. 13, figs. 15a-c.
Test biconvex, the dorsal side generally more convex than the
ventral which has a tendency to be slightly flattened, 10-12 chambers
comprising the final whorl; sutures covered by a raised ridge of clear
shell material, both dorsally and ventrally; umbilicus distinct, gen-
erally filled with a plug of clear shell material which projects slightly
beyond the-general surface of the test; aperture a small arched opening
at the base of the final chamber, extending into the umbilicus.
Diameter 0.48 millimeter (Pliocene, Fla.) to 0.67 millimeter (Pleis-
tocene, Md.)
This variety may be deserving of specific rank, as it has features
which make it very distinctive. It is a rather common fossil in the
Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson formations. It reaches its best
development in the Talbot formation of Maryland (Pleistocene).
Cushman, in his Pliocene paper, considers it a tropical variety of R.
beccarii, but it may be that other environmental conditions as well as
warm water give rise to such modifications. The Maryland deposit
must have been laid down under much more temperate conditions
than either the Caloosahatchee or Fort Thompson formations. It is
surprising that this form is very rare or lacking in the other Pleistocene
deposits of Florida. It tends to show how much a form may be affected
and the localization and migrations which may take place in faunas
and individual species.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 1, 2 and 12; Pliocene stations 17,
18, 19 and 20.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2136.
ROTALIA BECCARII (L.inn6) var. PARKINSONIANA (d'Orbigny)
Plate 3, figures 5, 6
Rosalina parkinsoniana d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams,
1839, p. 99, pl. 4, figs. 25-27.
Rotalia beccarii var. parkinsoniana Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930,
p. 56, pl. 11, figs. 3a-c.
As Cushman has pointed out the "variety differs from the typical
in the number of chambers which in the variety rarely have more than


_ _









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


ten in full grown specimens, the shorter broader chambers on the ven-
tral side, the almost entire lack of beading at the sides of the chambers,
and the lack of thickening of the sutures on the dorsal side."
Diameter 0.52 millimeter.
While this variety is evidently distinct, specimens referred to it
approach the type species from Rimini on the Adriatic. Fig. 5, given
by Cushman (Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 4, pt. 4, 1928,
p. 106, pl. 15) in the series of type material of R. beccarii, is very close
to the Florida specimens referred to this variety.
This is rather a common form in the Pliocene and rare in the Pleis-
tocene of Florida.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 1, 2, 3, 11 and 12; Pliocene stations
13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2137.
ROTALIA BECCARII (Linne) var. TEPIDA Cushman
Plate 3, figures 3, 4
Rotalia beccarii Cushman (not Linne), Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 1922,
pp. 52-53, pl. 8, figs. 7-9.
Roralia beccarii var. tepida Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 344, 1926,
p. 79. pl. 1.
Test small, trochoid, almost equally biconvex, 6-8 chambers com-
prising the final whorl; periphery broadly rounded; sutures of the
final coil depressed both dorsally and ventrally, more strongly so
ventrally, limbate on the inner whorls dorsally; umbilicus open, pro-
nounced, the ends of the chambers of the final whorl produced into a
point which projects slightly into the open umbilicus; wall smooth,
finely punctate; aperture a narrow slit beneath the inner angle of
the last formed chamber.
Diameter 0.46 millimeter.
This is a common species in both the Pliocene and Pleistocene of
Florida. It is identical with the recent variety described by Cushman
from the West Indian region. It is quite similar to young megalo-
spheric forms from Rimini (Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab. Forams.
Res., vol. 4, pt. 4, 1928, p. 107) when compared with type material
which Dr. Cushman kindly supplied me. As no typical R. beccarii are
found associated with this form which is evidently an adult, the varietal
distinction is warranted. It shows very little change throughout either
its vertical or horizontal range in the material examined by me.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11; Pliocene
stations 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2138.









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 51

ROTALIA CALOOSAHATCHEENSIS, n. sp.
Plate 3, figures 1, 2

Test small, biconvex, strongly so on the dorsal side, ventral side very
slightly convex; umbilical area with a distinct but small plug of shell
material; periphery acute, thickened to form a narrow carina; six
chambers comprise the last formed whorl, indistinct on the dorsal side,
but plainly marked ventrally; sutures deeply depressed ventrally,
straight radial, indistinct dorsally, not depressed, slightly curved; wall
coarsely perforate, the perforations more plain ventrally; aperture a
narrow slit at the base of the last formed chamber extending toward
the umbilicus.
Diameter 0.40 millimeter.
Type from Station 18, Ayer's Landing on the Caloosahatchee
(Pliocene).
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2139.
This species is somewhat similar to Rotalia turbinata Cushman and
Valentine, but differs in having a much smaller umbilical plug and a
much more pointed dorsal spire. The ventral sutures are also more
nearly radial.
This is a rare form only found at Sta. 18. It is remarkably like the
figure given by Cushman for Discorbis vilardeboana, in his Pliocene
paper, although his description would not fit R. caloosahatcheensis.
The figure given by Cushman of his Pliocine form is considerably dif-
ferent from d'Orbigny's figure of D. vilardeboana.Y2

Subfamily Siphonininae
Genus SIPHONINA Reuss, 1849
SIPHONINA PULCHRA Cushman2t
Plate 4, figure 2
A young specimen evidently referable to this species, was found at
one station in the Caloosahatchee marl along the Caloosahatchee River.
This species is still living in the recent West Indian fauna.
Diameter 0.26 millimeter.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2140.


20D'Orbigny's Rosalina (Discorbis of later authors) vilardeboana, is now re-
ferred to the genus Valvulineria.
21For details regarding this genus and its species see J. A. Cushman, Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus., vol. 72, Art. 20, (1927), pp. 1-15, pls. 1.4.


~









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


Subfamily Baggininae
Genus CANCRIS Montfort, 1808
CANCRIS SAGRA (d'Orbigny)
Rotalina sagra d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams., 1839,
p. 77, pl. 5, figs. 13-15.
Pulvinulina sagra Cushman, U. S. GeoL Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 65, pl. 22, fig. 3;
pl. 23, fig. 1.
Cancris sagra Cushman, Florida GeoL Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 56, pl. 11, figs. 4a-c.
Cancris sagra, Cole and Ponton, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 5, 1930, pp. 43.44, pl. 5,
fig. 6; pl. 11, fig. 1.
Test biconvex, longer than broad, the ventral side generally the most
convex, about 6-7 chambers forming the last coil, these chambers
increasing in size so that the final one occupies at least a fourth of the
area of the test; sutures distinct, nearly flush with the surface dorsally,
ventrally markedly depressed; peripheral margin of the test sharp,
angulate, in some specimens bearing a slight keel, lobate; wall smooth,
very finely perforate; aperture a narrow slit at the base of the final
chamber in the umbilicus concealed by a thin plate of clear shell
material which extends out over the umbilicus from the last chamber.
Length 0.49 millimeter. Width 0.38 millimeter.
This is a rather rare species but has been found both in the Wacca-
maw and Caloosahatchee formations. Specimens referred to this
species from the Marianna limestone are found to be identical with
our Pliocene specimens. Cushman has also reported this species from
the Miocene of Florida. Thus with the exception of the Pleistocene
strata of Florida, this species has a continuous range from Oligocene
to recent in Florida.
That this species occurs in both the Caloosahatchee and Waccamaw
formations, is considered additional proof that the two were deposited
under nearly like conditions.
Localities: Pleistocene station 10; Pliocene stations 13, 14, 15, 16,
19, 23 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2141.

Family AMPHISTEGINIDAE
Genus AMPHISTEGINA d'Orbigny, 1826
AMPHISTEGINA GIBBOSA d'Orbigny
Plate 5, figure 14
Amphistegina gibbosa d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra. Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams.,
1839, p. 120, pl. 8, figs. 1-3.
Amphistegina gibbosa Cushman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, No. 2369, 1921, p. 62.
Test unequally biconvex, the dorsal side strongly convex, composed
of from 12-14 chambers in the final evolution; sutures of clear shell
material, radiating outward on the dorsal side from a small knob of
clear shell material, but strongly recurved and angulate near the bor-
der; ventrally divided into two lobes; surface of test smooth except









THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 53

near the aperture where it is strongly papilate; margin of test sub-
angular; aperture simple, rotaliform.
Diameter 1.19 millimeters.
This form appears to be a valid species rather than a form of A.
lessonii, which is generally figured as being nearly biconvex with about
25 chambers in final evolution. While the sutures are angled near the
periphery, they are not represented as being so much so as in A. gibbosa.
The margin of A. lessonii is also more bluntly rounded than is the case
in our specimens.
This is a characteristic form in both the Caloosahatchee and Wacca-
maw formations, but it has not been found in the Pleistocene deposits.
This fact of its occurrence in the Pliocene and not in the Pleistocene is
one of the points on which is based the conclusion that the Pliocene
deposition occurred under more tropical conditions than the latter
deposits.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14, 17, 18 and 19.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2142.

Family CYMBALOPORETTIDAE
Genus CYMBALOPORETTA Cushman, 1928
CYMBALOPORETTA SQUAMMOSA (d'Orbigny)
Plate 4, figure 1
Rotalia squammosa d'Orbigny, Ann. ScL Nat., vol. 7,1826, p. 272, No. 8.
Rosalina squammosa d'Orbigny, in De La Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams..
1839, p. 91, pl. 3, figs. 12-14.
Cymbalopora squammosa Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922,
pp. 41-42, pl. 6, figs. 4-6.
Test subconical, trochoid, dorsal side forming a cone of various
heights, ventral side concave, consisting of 5-7 chambers widest at the
periphery, bluntly pointed in the umbilicus, constricted very slightly
in the center; umbilical area marked; dorsal chambers rather irregular,
smallest at the top of the cone; margin of the test irregularly lobate;
sutures depressed, distinct; wall rather coarsely perforate; aperture
consisting of rounded pores along the ventral sides of the chamber.
Diameter 0.40 millimeter.
This species was found in the Pliocene deposits of Florida and the
Waccamaw formation. It is a characteristic species in recent deposits
of warm, shallow-water type.
The apertures are apparently of two types: one, the rounded pores
leading through the ventral surface from one chamber to the next and
second, a larger aperture opening directly into the umbilicus, observed
only in the final chambers.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14, 18, 19 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2143.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


Family CASSIDULINIDAE
Subfamily Cassidulininae
Genus CASSIDULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
CASSIDULINA CRASSA d'Orbigny
Plate 7, figure 2
Cassidulina crassa d'Orbigny, Voy. Am&r. MWrid. Forams., vol. 5, No. 5. 1839, p. 56,
pL 7, figs. 18-20.
Test small, biconvex, oval in outline, periphery broadly rounded;
chambers comparatively few, inflated; sutures slightly depressed; wall
smooth, very finely perforate; aperture a long narrow slit just below
and nearly parallel with the periphery of the test.
Length 0.17 millimeter.
This species occurs in some numbers at several stations in the Caloo-
sahatchee formation. It also occurs sparingly at some stations in the
Waccamaw formation of North and South Carolina and the Pleistocene
of Florida.
With it occur specimens which are referable to Cassidulina laevigata
d'Orbigny var. carinata Cushman. This form has a sharply angulate
periphery with a slight carina while C. crassa has a broadly rounded
periphery. These two species may be easily separated on that character.
Localities: Pleistocene station 10; Pliocene stations 14, 21 and 22.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2144.
CASSIDULINA LAEVIGATA d'Orbigny var. CARINATA Cushman
Plate 4, figure 4
Cassidulina laevigata d'Orbigny var. carinata Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104,
pt. 3, 1922, p. 124, pl. 25, figs. 6, 7; Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 58, pl. 11,
figs. 7a, b.
Cassidulina laevigata Cushman (not d'Orbigny), U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918,
p. 9, pl. 1, fig. 5.
A very few specimens which are referred to this variety are found
in samples from the typical Caloosahatchee and in the Waccamaw
formation. Cushman reports it only from the Waccamaw formation.
It is easily overlooked on account of its small size.
The variety differs from the typical in the thinner more compressed
test, with a small distinct carina bordering the periphery.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14 and 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2145.

Genus CASSIDULINOIDES Cushman, 1927
CASSIDULINOIDES BRAZILIENSIS (Cushman)
Plate 2, figure 7
Cassidulina braziliensis Cushman, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, 1922, p. 130,
pl. 25, figs. 4, 5.
Test elongate, slightly compressed, initial portion closely coiled,
later portion uncoiled; axis of test curved; chambers relatively few,








THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 55

distinct; sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall thin, finely perforate;
aperture in slight depression, elongate, comma-shaped.
Length 0.20 millimeter. Width 0.14 millimeter.
This is a rare species. While it agrees in general with Cushman's
description and figures, there are some points of difference. The Flor-
ida specimens from the Caloosahatchee marl appear to be slightly less
compressed, and the arrangement of the final chambers is slightly
different. It is felt best to refer it to this species for the present, how-
ever, on account of the general agreement with this species.
Locality: Pliocene station 21.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2146.

Family GLOBIGERINIDAE
Subfamily Globigerininae
Genus GLOBIGERINA d'Orbigny, 1826
GLOBIGERINA BULLOIDES d'Orbigny
A few specimens which can be considered under this species have
been found in both the Pliocene and Pleistocene. They probably
drifted in from the more open ocean and are not indigenous to these
faunas.
As the Globigerinidae are at present in a very chaotic condition
with regard to classification, it is difficult to assign species definitely in
this family. However, as noted above, the Florida specimens agree
with recent forms generally assigned to this type.
Localities: Pliocene stations 13, 14, 19-23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2147.
GLOBIGERINA TRILOBA Reuss
Plate 7, figures 10, 11
Several individuals of a three-chambered Globigerina occur at the
Tamiami Trail locality and rarely at several other localities of both the
Pliocene and Pleistocene. They appear very similar to figures given
of this species in papers on the recent faunas.
Length 0.46 millimeter.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4, 5, 10 and 11; Pliocene stations
18, 23 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2148.

Subfamily Orbulininae
Genus ORBULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
ORBULINA UNIVERSE d'Orbigny
Orbulina universal d'Orbigny, in De la Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Forams., 1839,
p. 3, pl. 1. fig. 1.
Orbulina universe Cushman. U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 12, pl. 3, fig. 3.
While not abundant, specimens of this species have been found in
both the Waccamaw and Caloosahatchee formations. As this is a









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


pelagic species, it probably drifted into the shallower waters. This
would account for its comparative rarity.
Diameter 0.32 millimeter.
Localities: Pliocene stations 14, 17, 18, 19 and 23.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2149.

Family ANOMALINIDAE
Subfamily Anomalininae
Genus ANOMALINA d'Orbigny, 1826
ANOMALINA BASILOBA (Cushman)
Plate 4, figure 3; Plate 7, figures 3, 4
Truncatulina basiloba Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 64, pl. 21, fig. 2.

Test relatively large, plano-convex, the dorsal side flat, the ventral
side strongly convex, periphery subangular, 7 to 8 chambers in the
last formed whorl; sutures slightly depressed initially, strongly de-
pressed between the last formed chambers, limbate in the initial por-
tion of test; a definite umbilicus on the dorsal side, a smaller umbilical
area on the ventral side; a definite backward projection or lip on each
chamber which projects into and over the umbilicus, these projections
slightly overlapping; surface smooth, finely punctate; aperture peri-
pheral, a rather large curved opening, with a definite lip and extending
ventrally as a narrow slit.
Diameter 0.52 millimeter (Florida) to 0.96 millimeter (South Caro-
lina).
This species raises the question as to generic classification. It is of
intermediate type similar to Cibicides americanus. The type of aper-
ture in A. basiloba seems to warrant placing it under A4nomalina rather
than Cibicides.
This striking, easily recognized species occurs in both the Wacca-
maw and Caloosahatchee formations. It was described by Cushman
from the Miocene, and is one of the connecting species ranging from
the Miocene to the Pliocene in Florida.
Localities: Pleistocene station 10; Pliocene stations 14, 15, 18, 21,
22, 23 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2150.

Subfamily Cibicidinae
Genus CIBICIDES Montfort, 1808
CIBICIDES LOBATULUS (Walker and Jacob)
Nautilus lobatulus Walker and Jacob, Adam's Essays on the Microscope, Kanmacher's
ed, 1798, p. 642, pl. 14, fig. 36.
Truncatulina lobatula Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, 1918, p. 16, pl. 1, fig. 10.
Test typically plano-convex, dorsal face flat, ventral moderately
convex; peripheral margin rather sharp, often slightly lobate with the








THE PLIOCENE AND PLEISTOCENE FORAMINIFERA OF FLORIDA 57

suggestion of a narrow keel; chambers few about 7 in the last coil;
sutures distinct, slightly limbate; wall punctate; aperture a slit which
extends over on the dorsal face.
Length 0.46 millimeter. Width 0.35 millimeter.
Some of the Florida specimens from both the Pleistocene and
Pliocene evidently belong under this species. The specimens which I
have from the Waccamaw formation (Sta. 14) apparently should be
placed under C. advenus (d'Orbigny) rather than C. lobatulus. The
sutures of C. advenus are not limbate, they are markedly depressed
and the peripheral margin is decidedly rounding.
Localities: Pleistocene stations 4 and 5; Pliocene stations 13, 14,
18, 19, 20, 22, 23 and 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2151.

Genus DYOCIBICIDES Cushman and Valentine, 1930
DYOCIBICIDES BISERIALIS Cushman and Valentine
Plate 5, figures 11, 12
Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman and Valentine. Contr. Dep. Geol. Stanford Univer-
sity, vol. 1, No. 1, 1930, p. 31, pl. 10, figs. 1, 2a, 2b.
Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 1930, p. 62, pl. 12,
figs. 6a, b.

Test fairly large, in adults composed of two distinct portions, the
early portion coiled appearing like Cibicides, the latter portion made
up of spreading, biserial plano-convex chambers, the dorsal, attached
side flattened; 6-8 chambers show in the initial coil, these chambers
not inflated, sutures depressed ventrally, dorsally flush with the surface,
limbate; chambers of the biserial portion large, inflated, sutures
markedly depressed ventrally, about flush with the surface dorsally;
wall coarsely perforate; aperture in the uncoiled portion peripheral
or slightly dorsal, in the uncoiled portion an elongate slit at the outer
edge of the chamber at the line of attachment.
Length 0.75 millimeter.
Cushman and Valentine described this new genus and two species,
D. biserialis and D. perforata, from the recent fauna of the Channel
Islands of Southern California. Most of our specimens appear more
nearly like D. biserialis, although some resemble the other species. In
our material there seems to be some graduation of forms and we believe
that these two species are only different stages of one form.
This interesting form is recorded from only one locality (Sta. 25),
but it occurred in some numbers. It suggests some relationship between
the Pliocene fauna of Florida and the recent fauna of the west coast.
Dr. Cushman informs me that this genus occurs also in the recent
fauna of the Southern Atlantic Coast.
It has been reported previously by Cushman from the Miocene of









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN SIX


Florida. Locality 25, as indicated in the introduction, is the only
station from which I have this form. It may prove later to be Miocene
in age, but the assumption now is that it is early Pliocene.
Locality: Pliocene station 25.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2152.

Family PLANORBULINIDAE
Genus PLANORBULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
PLANORBULINA MEDITERRANENSIS d'Orbigny
Plate 5, figure 1
Planorbulina mediterranensis d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1826, pl. 14, figs. 4-6;
Mod6les, 1826, No. 79.
Planorbulina mediterranensis Cushman, Carnegie Inst., Washington, Publ. 311, 1922,
pp. 45, 46, pl. 6, figs. 1, 2.
Test adherent in life, at least in the young, piano-convex, dorsal
side flattened, ventral side slightly convex; early chambers distinct
spiral, later ones irregularly annular in arrangement, inflated in
ventral view; ventral sutures markedly depressed, particularly be-
tween the last formed chambers; wall rather coarsely perforate;
apertures simple with a slightly raised lip.
Diameter 1.02 millimeters.
This is a very rare species and is represented by only a few speci-
mens from the typical Caloosahatchee.
Planorbulinella larvata was noted in the Waccamaw formation.
It is easily differentiated from Planorbulina mediterranensis by the
development of the tubercles over the central area of the test which
makes the sutures indistinct. Planorbulinella larvata, like Planorbu-
lina mediterranensis, is essentially a shallow warm water type and
serves to indicate the similarity in deposition between the Waccamaw
and Caloosahatchee formations.
Locality: Pliocene station 18.
Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-2153.


ENEEEMENI





























PLATES 1-7


[59


1_1 ~_ ~_ __ =_ _~






















PLATE 1.
Fic. 1. Quinqueloculina sp.; front view; X 85; locality 25. Page 22.
FIc. 2. Spiroloculina glabrata Cushman; front view; X 120; locality 18. Page 23.
FIc. 3. Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny; front view; X 85; locality 18. Page 26.
FIcs. 4, 5, 6. Triloculina linneiana d'Orbigny var. caloosahatcheensis n. var.; 4,
apertural view; 5, 6, opposite sides; X 45; locality 18. Page 25.
FIc. 7. Triloculina bicarinata d'Orbigny; front view; X 50; locality 18. Page 24.
FIc. 8. Triloculina terquemiana (H. B. Brady) ; front view; X 75; locality 18.
Page 26.
FIcs. 9, 10. Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d'Orbigny; 9, apertural view; 10, front
view; X 85; locality 18. Page 20.
FIc. 11. Spiroloculina reticulosa Cushman; front view; X 40; locality 18. Page 24.
Fic. 12. Quinqueloculina agglutinans d'Orbigny; front view; X 85; locality 18.
Page 19.
FIc. 13. Quinqueloculina fusca H. B. Brady; front view; X 85; locality 18.
Page 20.


[60]








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BULLETIN SIX. PLATE 1


[61 1


-1




















PLATE 2.

FIc. 1. Quinqueloculina costata d'Orbigny; front view; X 45; locality 18.
Page 22.
FIG. 2. Loxostoma gunteri Cushman; side view of a mature specimen; X 85;
locality 18. Page 42.

Fic. 3. Loxostoma gunteri Cushman; side view of a younger specimen; X 85;
locality 18. Page 42.
Fic. 4. Loxostoma gunteri Cushman; peripheral view; X 85; locality 18.
Page 42.
FIG. 5. Angulogerina occidentalis (Cushman); X 85; locality 18. Page 44.
Fxc. 6. Reussia spinulosa (Reuss); X 85; locality 19. Page 43.
FIc. 7. Cassidulinoides braziliensis (Cushman) ; side view; X 140; locality 21.
Page 54.
FIc. 8. Buliminella elegantissima (d'Orbigny); X 140; locality 6. Page 39.
FIc. 9. Bolivina striatula Cushman; side view; X 140; locality 6. Page 41.
FIG. 10. Bolivina pulchella d'Orbigny var. primitive Cushman; side view; X 85;
locality 18. Page 41.
FIc. 11. Articulina antillarum Cushman; final chamber; X 75; locality 18.
Page 22.
Fxc. 12. Textularia mayor Cushman; side view of adult almost lacking in spines;
X 85; locality 18. Page 18.
FIc. 13. Flintia robusta (H. B. Brady) ; side view; X 85; locality 18. Page 27.
FIc. 14. Spiroloculina antillarum d'Orbigny var. angulata Cushman; side view;
X 85; locality 18. Page 23.


[62]










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


"

[631


BULLETIN SIX. PLATE 2


D.-.^


















PLATE 3.

Fic. 1. Rotalia caloosahatcheensis n. sp.; dorsal view; X 75; locality 18.
Page 51.
FIc. 2. Rotalia caloosahatcheensis n. sp; ventral view; holotype; X 75; locality 18.
Page 51.

FIc. 3. Rotalia beccarii (Linne) var. tepida Cushman; ventral view; X 85;
locality 6. Page 50.
FIc. 4. Rotalia beccarii (Linn6) var. tepida Cushman; dorsal view of another
specimen; X 85; locality 6. Page 50.
FIc. 5. Rotalia beccarii (Linne) var. parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny); ventral view;
X 85; locality 21. Page 49.
Fic. 6. Rotalia beccarii (Linne) var. parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny); dorsal view of
another specimen; X 85; locality 21. Page 49.
FIc. 7. Discorbis mira Cushman; dorsal view; X 120; locality 18. Page 46.
FIc. 8. Discorbis mira Cushman; ventral view of another specimen; X 120;
locality 18. Page 46.
FIc. 9. Discorbis gladysae n. sp.; dorsal view; holotype; X 120; locality 6.
Page 47.
FIc. 10. Discorbis gladysae n. sp.; ventral view of another specimen; X 120;
locality 6. Page 47.
FIc. 11. Discorbis floridana Cushman; dorsal view; X 120; locality 25. Page 46.
FIc. 12. Discorbis floridana Cushman; ventral view; X 120; locality 25. Page 46.


[ 64]


i









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


[651


BULLETIN SIX. PLATE 3




















PLATE 4.
FIt. 1. Cymbaloporetta squammosa (d'Orbigny); dorsal view; X 90; locality 19.
Page 53.
FIc. 2. Siphonina pulchra Cushman; ventral view; X 140; locality 18. Page 51.
FIc. 3. Anomalina basiloba (Cushman); peripheral view to show character of
aperture; X 45; locality 14. Page 56.
Fic. 4. Cassidulina laevigata d'Orbigny var. carinata Cushman; ventral view;
X 140; locality 18. Page 54.
FIc. 5. Elphidium sagrum (d'Orbigny); apertural view; X 75; locality 12.
Page 37.
FIG. 6. Elphidium fimbriatulum (Cushman) var. advenum (Cushman) ; side view;
X 85; locality 6. Page 33.
FIc. 7. Elphidium fimbriatulum (Cushman); side view; X 70; locality 18.
Page 33.
Fxc. 8. Elphidium incertum (Williamson) ; side view; X 60; locality 6.
Page 35.
FIG. 9. Elphidium guntcri n. sp.; apertural view; X 85; locality 21. Page 34.
FIe. 10. Elphidium gunteri n. sp.; side view; holotype; X 85; locality 21.
Page 34.
FIG. 11. Guttulina caudata d'Orbigny; X 85; locality 18. Page 29.
Ftc. 12. Guttulina pulchella d'Orbigny; X 85; locality 20. Page 29.
FIc. 13. Pseudopolymorphina rutila (Cushman); X 85; locality 20. Page 30.


L661







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


[ 67]


BULLETIN SIX. PLATE 4


~I



















PLATE 5.
FIc. 1. Planorbulina mediterranensis d'Orbigny; dorsal view; X 28; locality 18.
Page 58.
FIc. 2. Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll); side view of small specimen;
X 40; locality 18. Page 38.
FIG. 3. Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll); side view of a large specimen;
X 28; locality 18. Page 38.
FIc. 4. Nonionella pseudo-auris n. sp.; peripheral view; holotype; X 120;
locality 21. Page 32.
FIc. 5. Nonionella pseudo-auris n. sp.; ventral view; holotype; X 85; locality 21.
Page 32.
Fxcs. 6, 7. Discorbis subrugosa Cushman; 6, ventral view; 7, dorsal view; X 125;
locality 18. Page 48.
FIG. 8. Vertebralina cassis d'Orbigny; side view of a coiled specimen; X 28;
locality 18. Page 23.
FIG. 9. Rotalia beccarii (Linni) var. ornata Cushman; dorsal view; X 80:
locality 18. Page 49.
FIc. 10. Sorites marginalis (Lamarck) ; X 20; locality 17. Page 38.
FrGs. 11,12. Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman and Valentine; 11, ventral view of
specimen of D. perforata type; 12, dorsal view of the D. biserialis type;
X 85; locality 25. Page 57.
FIc. 13. Bulimina sp.; X 130; locality 18. Page 39.
Fic. 14. Amphistegina gibbosa d'Orbigny; ventral view; X 40; locality 14.
Page 52.


[ 68]









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


[69]


BULLETIN SIX. PLATE 5
























PLATE 6.
Fic. 1. Lenticulina sp.; X 85; locality 18. Page 27.
FIG. 2. Nonion pompilioides (Fichtel and Moll); X 85; locality 18. Page 32.
Fics. 3, 4. Bolivina doniezi Cushman and Wickenden; X 85; locality 10. Page 40.
Fxc. 5. Loxostoma cf. mayor (Cushman); X 78; locality 19. Page 43.
Fic. 6. Lagena clavata (d'Orbigny) ; X 78; locality 18. Page 28.
Fic. 7. Lagena hexagona (Williamson); X 85; locality 4. Page 28.
FIc. 8. Discorbis allomorphinoides (Reuss); ventral view; X 85; locality 25.
Page 45.
Fic. 9. Discorbis allomorphinoides (Reuss); dorsal view; X 85; locality 25.
Page 45.
FIG. 10. Quinqueloculina poeyana d'Orbigny; X 78; locality 18. Page 21.
FIc. 11. Discorbis subaraucana Cushman; ventral view; X 85; locality 25.
Page 47.
FIc. 12. Discorbis subaraucana Cushman; dorsal view; X 85; locality 25.
Page 47.
FIc. 13. Uvigerina peregrina Cushman var. bradyana Cushman; X 78; locality 21.
Page 43.
Fxc. 14. Virgulina punctata d'Orbigny; X 78; locality 18. Page 40.


[70]











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


4-


:: ~s




\\: !iiiii
i rii
i -


: : :
13


'4


BULLETIN SIX. PLATE 6


ri'6























PLATE 7.
Fic. 1. Textularia mayor Cushman; young specimen showing development of
peripheral spines on final chambers; X 70; locality 18. Page 18.
Fic. 2. Cassidulina crassa d'Orbigny; ventral side; X 160; locality 21. Page 54.
Fic. 3. Anomalina basiloba (Cushman); ventral view; X 85; locality 21.
Page 56.
Fic. 4. Anomalina basiloba (Cushman) ; dorsal view; X 85; locality 21.
Page 56.
Fic. 5. Entosolenia lucida IWilliamson); side view; X 160; locality 6. Page 40.
FIc. 6. Entosolenia lucida IWilliamson); peripheral view; X 160; locality 6.
Page 40.
FIG. 7. Nonion grateloupi (d'Orbigny) ; Pleistocene specimen; X 78; locality 6.
Page 32.
FIc. 8. Nonion grateloupi (d'Orbigny) ; Pliocene specimen; X 78; locality 18.
Page 32.
Fic. 9. Articulina sp.; X 120; locality 18. Page 22.
FIc. 10. Globigerina triloba Reuss; dorsal view; X 78; locality 25. Page 55.
FIc. 11. Globigerina triloba Reuss; ventral view; X 78; locality 25. Page 55.
FiG. 12. Globulina inaequalis Reuss var. caribaea d'Orbigny; side view; X 78;
locality 18. Page 30.
Fic. 13. Quinqueloculina seminula (Linn6) var.; X 85; locality 18. Page 22.


[72








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


[73]


---


BULLETIN SIX. PLATE 7


6 7








9











INDEX


This index includes families, sub-families and species of foraminifera only. Page
numbers in heavy type refer to descriptions and illustrations.

A


Amphistegina gibbosa ................ .... ...........
lessonii ...........................
Amphisteginide ............... ..... .................
Angulogerina angulosa .............................. ..
occidentalis ................................. ...
Anomalina ammonoides (?) ..............................
basiloba ..........................................
Anomalinida ............................................
Anom alinine ...........................................
Archaias angulatus .....................................
Archaiasine ..........................................
Articulina antillarum .....................................
mexicana ........................................
sp .... ........................................... .


13,14,52,68
53
52
45
14,15,44, 45, 62
14,16
56, 66, 72
56
56
13,14,38,68
38
14,22, 62
22
22,72


Baggininau .......... .............................. 52
Biloculina laevis ................ ..... ......... ......27 27
subsphaerica ..................................... 27
Bolivina doniezi ............................... ... 15, 40, 70
karreriana ....................................... 42
mayor ......................................... 43
plicatella ............................... ... 41
pulchella var. primitive ........................... 41, 62
rhomboidalis ........... ... .. 14, 42
striatula ........................................ 15,41, 62
Bulimina affinis ................................... ....8 39
elegantissima ................................. ... 39
marginata ...... ................................ 39
sp. ... ...................................... 39, 68
Buliminella elegantissima ................................ 15,39, 62
Buliminidae ................ ....................... 39

C
Cancris sagra ............... ................... 14,52
Cassidulina braziliensis ......................... ......... 54
crassa ...................... .................... 15, 54, 72
laevigata ........................................ 54
var. carinata ................................. 54, 66
Cassidulinid ............................................ 54
Cassidulinina .......... ................................. 54
Cassidulinoides braziliensis ........................... 54, 62
Cibicides advenus ...................................... 57
am ericanus ....................................... 56
lobatulus ......................................... 56
Cibicidin .............................................. 56
Cymbalopora squammosa ............................... 53
Cymbaloporetta squammosa .............................. 13,14, 53, 66
Cymbaloporettidae ...................................... 53


[ 75]










INDEX-Continued


D
Discorbis allomorphinoides .............................
floridana ........................................
gladysa ...........................................
globularis .........................................
mira .............................................
obtusa ...........................................
orbicularis (?) ....................................
subaraucana .......................................
subrugosa ........................................
vilardeboana ......................................
Dyocibicides biserialis ...................................
perforata .........................................

E

Elphidium advenum ................................... ..
craticulatum ......................................
discoidale .......................................
fimbriatulum .....................................
var. advenum ................................
var. margaretaceum .........................
gunteri n. sp. ................... ...................
incertum ..........................................
var. clavatum ................................
lanieri .. .......................................
poeyanum .......................................
sagrum .........................................
Entosolenia lucida ................. ......................
m arginata var. lucida ..............................
squammosa .......................................
Eponides frigida var. calida ...........................
repanda ......... ................................


45,70
14, 46, 64
47, 64
14
14,46, 49, 64
47
14,48
14,47,70
48, 68
51
13,57, 68
57


33,34
35
14,16,34,35
33, 34, 66
14,15,33, 34, 66
16
13,34,35,66
12,15,16,35,36,66
15,16
35,36
14,15,36
14,15,37, 66
16,40,72
40
28
16
14,16


Faujasina carinata ..................................... 14, 16
Flintia robusta ........................................ 27, 62

G

Globigerina bulloides ................................... 14, 55
triloba ................. ......................... 14, 55, 72
Globigerinidae ......................................... 55
Globigerinina ........ ................................... 55
Globulina caribaea .... .................................. 30
gibba ........................................... 30
inequalis var. caribaea ........................... 14, 30, 72
Guttulina caudata ........................................ 29, 66
costatula ........................................ 14, 16
lactea ......................................... 14, 16
problema ....................................... 29
pulchella ......................................... 14,29, 66

H
Hauerina ornatissima ................................... 14


[76]










INDEX-Continued


L
Lagena clavata ........................................... 13, 15, 28, 70
hexagona ......................................... 28, 70
sem istriata ........................................ 14,28
Lagenide ........................................... 27
Lagenin ............................................ 28
Lenticulina convergens ................................ 28
sp. .............................................. 27,70
Loxostoma gunteri .................................... 42, 62
karreriana ........................................ 42
cf. mayor ......................................... 14, 43, 70

M
Miliola trigonula ...................... ............... 26
Miliolidae ........................................... 8, 19
Miliolina terquemiana .................................... 26

N
"Nautilus melo" ..................................... 32
Nautilus angulatus ...................................... 38
lobatulus ......................................... 56
pompiloides ....................................... 32
Nodosariinae ................ .......................... 27
Nonion glabrella ......................................... 31
grateloupi ........................................ 14,15,32,72
pizarrensis ....................................... 32
pom pilioides ...................................... 16, 32, 70
cf. sloanii ......................................... 15, 16
Nonionid.e .......................................... 31
Nonionella auris ........................................ 33
pseudo-auris .................................... 32, 68
Nonionina depressula .................................... 32
grateloupi ....................................... 32

0
Oolina clavata ................ ......................... 28
Ophthalmidiida ........................................ 23
Ophthalmidiinae ...................................... 23
Orbiculina adunca ...................................... 38
Orbitolites marginalis ....................................... 38
Orbulina universe ..................................... 14,55
Orbulinin.. .......................................... 55
Orbulites m arginalis ..................................... 38

P
Peneroplis discoideus .................................. 14
pertusus ......................................... 12,37
protea, proteus .................................... 13,14,37
Peneroplida ........................................... 37
Planorbulina mediterranensis ........................... 14, 58, 68
Planorbulinella larvata ................................... 13, 14,16, 58
Planorbulinidae .. ..................................... 58
Planorbulinin ..................................... ...... 58
Planulina ariminensis ................................... 14,16

[77]


I II I I i








INDEX-Continued


Polymorphina gibba ....................................
lactea ............................................
problem a .........................................
pulchella ................................. .........
Polymorphinida .......................................
Polymorphininae ........................................
Polystomella advena ...................................
craticulata var. ................... .................
discoidalis ........................................
lanieri ...........................................
poeyana .........................................
sagra .................... ........... .......
striatopunctata ....................................
umbilicatula var. incerta ..........................
Pseudopolymorphina rutila .............................
Pulvinulina sagra .................. .....................
Pyrgo subsphaerica ......................................

Q
Quinqueloculina agglutinans .............................
auberiana ........................................
bidentata ........................................
contorta .......... ................................
costata ........... ................................
flexuosa ..........................................
cf. funafutiensis ...................................
fusca ..................................... ....
lam arckiana ........ ...... .......................
poeyana ...........................................
sem inula ..................... ....................
seminula var. ................... ...................
sp ...............................................

R
Reussia spinulosa ....................................
Reussiinae ...........................................
Rosalina orbicularis ............ ........................
parkinsoniana .....................................
souammosa .......................................
vilardeboana .....................................
Rotalia beccarii .........................................
var. ornata ..................................
var. parkinsoniana ...........................
var. tepida ..................................
caloosahatcheensis .................................
squam m osa ........................................
turbinata .........................................
R otaliida ...............................................
R otaliin e ........................ ....................
Rotalina sagra ................... ...................

S
Serpula seminulum .....................................
Sigmomorphina semitecta var. terquemiana ................
undulosa ..........................................


30
30
29
29
29
29
33
35
34
36
36
37
35
35
30, 66
52
14,27


14,19, 20,60
20
20
19
14,22,62
16
14,16
19,20,60
14,15,20,60
14, 21, 70
16,21
22,72
22,60


13,14,43,62
43
48
49
53
51
49, 50
15,16.49,68
14, 16,49, 64
13,14,15,50,64
51, 64
53
51
45
49
52


21
14,16,31
14,31


78 1











INDEX-Continued



Siphonina pulchra ...................................... 14,51, 66
Siphonininae ......................................... 51
Spirillina decorate ...................................... 14,16,45
limbata ......................................... 45
Spirolinina. ......................................... 37
Spiroloculina antillarum ............................... 23
var. angulata ............................... 14, 23, 62
excavata ......................................... 14
glabrata ......................................... 23, 60
grata .......................................... 23
planulata ......................................... 14,16
reticulosa ......................................... 24, 60
robusta ......................................... 27
Sorites marginalis ....................................... 12, 13, 38, 68

T
Textularia candeiana ..................................... 14,16
floridana ......................................... 14,18
gramen ............................................. 18
mayor ............................... ........... 14,18,62,72
transversaria ...................................... 18
Textulariida .......................................... 18
Textulariinae ........................................ 18
Triloculina bicarinata .................................. 14,24, 60
circularis ......................................... 14,25
linneiana ...................... .................. 25
var. caloosahatcheensis ....................... 25, 60
oblonga ......................................... 14, 25
rotunda ......................................... 16
terquemiana ..................................... 26, 60
tricarinata ...................................... 14, 26, 60
trigonula ......................................... 26
Truncatulina basiloba .................................. 56
lobatula ......................................... 56
ungeriana ....................................... 14
Turrilininne ................ ......................... 39

U :..;** .:
Uvigerina angulosa ...................................... 44 ... '
occidentalis .................................... 44 .....
peregrina var. bradyana .......................... 43, 70 .*.'* .**; .... .
tenuistriata ........................................ 44 ... *
Uvigerininae ................. ... .. ............. .......... 43 .
.. : *.. .....
V .. *.

Valvulina allomorphinoides ............................. 45 *** :
Valvulineria vilardeboana ................................ 51 ....
Vermiculum oblongum .............................. 25 *
Verneuilina spinlosa .................................. 43 ,**
Vertebralina cassis .................................... 13, 14, 23, 68 .**** .
Virgulina punctata .................................... 14,40,70 -*





[79]


El