• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Definitions
 Western Hemisphere
 Eastern Hemisphere
 North America
 History of North America
 The United States
 History of the Eastern States
 History of the Middle States
 History of the Southern States
 South America
 Europe
 Asia
 Africa
 Recapitulation
 Back Cover






Group Title: National geographical series ;, no. 1
Title: First lessons in geography, or, Introduction to "youth's manual of geography"
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000411/00001
 Material Information
Title: First lessons in geography, or, Introduction to "youth's manual of geography"
Series Title: National geographical series
Alternate Title: Intruduction to "youth manual of geography"
Monteith's first lessons in geography, for beginners
Physical Description: 62 p. : ill., col. maps ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Monteith, James ( Author, Primary )
Derby, Henry W ( Publisher )
Steel, J. B ( Publisher )
Orr, John William, 1815-1887 ( Engraver )
Wilson, Mathew, 1814-1892 ( Illustrator )
A.S. Barnes & Co ( Publisher )
Carr & Buchanan ( Publisher )
D.B. Cooke & Co ( Publisher )
J.W. Bond & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: A.S. Barnes & Co
Carr & Buchanan
H.W. Derby
D.B. Cooke & Co.
J.B. Steel
J.W. Bond & Co.
Place of Publication: New York
St. Louis
Cincinnati
Chicago
New Orleans
Baltimore
Publication Date: 1856
Copyright Date: 1854
 Subjects
Subject: Geography -- Textbooks -- Juvenile literature -- 1800-1870   ( lcsh )
Children's questions and answers   ( lcsh )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1856   ( local )
Maps -- 1856   ( lctgm )
Readers -- 1856   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding) -- 1856   ( rbbin )
Orr -- Signed bindings (Binding) -- 1856   ( rbbin )
Wilson -- Signed bindings (Binding) -- 1856   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1856   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1856
Genre: Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
Maps   ( lctgm )
Readers   ( rbgenr )
Printed boards (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Signed bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Ohio -- Cincinnati
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States -- Louisiana -- New Orleans
United States -- Maryland -- Baltimore
United States -- Missouri -- St. Louis
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James Monteith.
General Note: Maps are hand-colored.
General Note: Binding design signed: Wilson and J.W. Orr.
General Note: Frontispiece and front cover on printed board share the same image engraved by J.W. Orr drawn after Wilson <i.e. Matthew Wilson?>.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement: back cover.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000411
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234516
oclc - 47012294
notis - ALH4948
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
    Definitions
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Western Hemisphere
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Eastern Hemisphere
        Page 16
        Page 17
    North America
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    History of North America
        Page 21
    The United States
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        The eastern states
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
    History of the Eastern States
        Page 31
        The middle states
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
    History of the Middle States
        Page 35
        The southern states
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
    History of the Southern States
        Page 39
        The western states
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
    South America
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Europe
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Asia
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Africa
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Recapitulation
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHCAL EIE-o 1.
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL 8ERIES.-.o I.


BY N SE. to Eork: I
^te. ^5. B urnsre & &i. .

> BOLD BY BOOfKSELLERS GENERALLY.
r ^ ^ .r ^ ^.~~..-I GEN-E-..,^-. -.r ALLy.


"",11







NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES.-NO. I.


FIRST LESSONS

IN


GEOGRAPHY;







-- : =....- :-: : : '2 "
_- _" .... ,. ,Q 7-







OR,
INTRODUCTION TO "YOUTH'S MANUAL OF GEOGRAPHY."

BY JAMES MONTEITH.


NEW YORK:
A. S. BARNES & CO., 51 JOHN-STREET.
ST. LOUIS: CARE & BUCHANAN.-CINCINNATI: EH. W. DERBY.-CHICAGO:
D. B. COOKE & CO.--NEW ORLEANS: J. B. STEEL.--
BALTIMORE: J. W. BOND &. CO.
1856..

















NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES.




No. 1.-MONTEITH'S FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY, for Beginners.
No. 2.-MONTEITH'S YOUTH'S MANUAL OF GEOGRAPHY, for Junior
and Intermediate Classes.

No. 3.-McNALLY'S SYSTEM OF GEOGRAPHY, for Advanced Classes in
Schools, Academies, and Seminaries.



The above Books, which are written by Practical Teachers, constitute the
most complete GEOGRAPHICAL SCHOOL SERIES extant; and they are so adapted
to each other, that the learner advances from one to the other with satisfac-
tion and success.
A BARNES & CO.









Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854,
BY JAMES MONTEITH,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District
of New York.











PREFACE.



IT is evident, that to secure a complete system of teaching
Geography in our Schools, there should be at least three grades
of Text-books; namely, INTRODUCTORY, INTERMEDIATE, and
ADVANCED. As the necessity for a Geography more intro-
ductory in its character than those now in use has been long
felt, the Author would respectfully solicit the notice of his
fellow-teachers to this little work.
Its plan is such, that the subject is presented in the most
simple form.
It treats of GENERAL FEATURES, such as the locality and
description of Continents, Countries, States, Rivers, Mount-
ains, &c., without dwelling prematurely upon the minute de-
tails that embarrass the learner in his first effort.
The EXERCISES are arranged in Question and Answer.
The MAPs are free from all meridians, parallels of latitude,
and any superabundance of names; thereby giving a greater
prominence to the general divisions of land and water.








COENENTS.



DEFINITIONS .................... PAGE 7.
PAGE PAGE
MAP OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 14 MAP OF THE SOUTHERN STATES ... 36
MAP OF THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE 16 MAP OF THE WESTERN STATES.... 40
MAP OF NORTH AMERICA ........ 18 MAP OF SOUTH AMEICA ........... 44
MAP OF THE UNITED STATES ...... 22 MAP OF EUROPE .................. 48
MAP OF THE EASTERN STATES .... 28 MAP OF SIA ........... ...... 52
MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES .... MAP OF AFRICA ....... ...... 56












3111111 I1 "'
...... I I I -




















PAGE PAGE
HISTORY OF NORTH AMERICA..... 21 HISTORY OF THE WESTERN STATES. 43
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 25 HISTORY OF SOUTH AMERICA ..... 47
HISTORY OF TIE EASTERN STATES 31 HISTORY OF EUROPE ............ 51
HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE STATE. 35 HISTORY OF ASIA ................. 55
IISTOR' OF THE SOUTIIERN STATES 39 HISTORY OF AFRICA ...... .... 59







FIRST LESSONS
INT

GEOGRAPHY.












Going to SchooL

LESSON I.
Q. What is Geography?
A. A description of the Earth's surface.
Q. What is the Earth?
A. The planet or body on which we live.
Q. What is the shape of the Earth?
A. Round, like a ball.
Q. Of what is the Earth composed I
A. Land and Water.






8 LESSON II.

Q. What is a Continent
A. The largest division of the land.
Q. How many Continents are there?
A. Two; the Eastern and the Western.
Q. On which Continent do we live ?
A. On the Western Continent.
Q. What are the divisions of the Western Continent ?
A. North America and South America.









I


Q. What are the divisions of the Eastern Continent ?
A. Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Q. What is an Ocean?
A. The largest division of the water.
Q. How many Oceans are there ?
A. Five; Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern or
Antaictic, Northern or Arctic.
*






LESSON III. 9

Q. Which is the largest Ocean
A. The Pacific Ocean.
Q. What is an Island
A. A portion of land entirely surrounded by water.
Q. What is a Peninsula
A. A portion of land almost surrounded by water.
















The Earth.
Q. What is a Lake?
A. A body of water almost surrounded by land.
Q. What is an Isthmus?
A. A neck joining two larger portions of land.
Q. What is a Strait?
A. A passage connecting two larger bodies of water.
1*
.--












Q. Wat i a Lke







10 LESSON IY.

Q. What is a Cape?
A. A point of land extending into the water.
Q. What is a Mountain ?
A. A vast elevation of land.
Q. What is a Hill?
A. A small elevation of land.











Studying Geography.

Q. What is a Volcano?
A. A mountain which sends out fire, smoke, and lava.
Q. What is a Valley?
A. The low land between hills or mountains.
Q. What is a Plain?
SA. A level tract of land.
Q. What is a Desert?
A. A barren region of country.







.ILESSO:N V.


What is a Sea?
The division of water, the next in size to an ocean.
What is, a Gulf or Bay ?
A body of water extending into the land.
What is a River ?
A stream of water flowing through the hind.


A River. A Windmill
By what are Rivers formed ?
By Springs.
What is a Spring ?
Water flowing from the ground.
What are Small Streams called ?
Brooks and Creeks.


Q.
A.
Q.
A.
Q.
A.


Q.
A.
Q.
A.
Q.
A.


_ ______ _


11


i_._







12 LESSON VI.

Q. Who governs an Empire ?
A. An Emperor.
Q. Who governs a Kingdom?
A. A King or a Queen.
Q. Who governs a Republic?
A. Men elected by the People.














A Caravan crossing a Desert.

Q. Which is the largest Empire in the world ?
A. Russia.
Q. Which is the largest Kingdom in the world ?
A. Great Britain.
Q. Which is the largest Republic in the world ?
A. The United States.







LESSON VII. 13







VVF !. , // VO-,,.ANO
WEST -'-C E .rI EAST


__PI




Q. What is a Map ?
A. A picture of the whole, or a part, of the Earth's
Surface.
Q. What are the directions on a Map?
A. Toward the top, North; toward the bottom, South;
to the right, East; to the left, West.
Q.- In what direction from the centre of the picture is the Island?
A. North.
Q. In what direction is the Volcano? The Cape ?
Q. The Bay ? The Lake ? The Strait ? The Mountains ?
Q. The Isthmus?
Q. What is in the East? In the West? In the South? In the
North? In the Northwest ? In the Southeast ? In the Northeast?
In the Southwest ?








MAP OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.






LESSON VIII


Q. In what Division of the Earth do
we live ?
A. In North America.
Q. What Divisioqp south of North
America ?
A. South America.
Q. When you look at the rising
Sun, what Ocean is before you ?
A. Atlantic Ocean.
Q. Where does the Sun rise ?
A. In the East.


Q. Where, then, is the Atlantic
Ocean?
A. East of America.
Q. When you look at the setting
Sun, what Ocean is before you ?
A. Pacific Ocean.
Q. Where does the Sun set ?
A. In the West.
Q. Where is the Pacific Ocean?
A. West of America.
Q. What Ocean north of America ?
A. Northern Ocean.


LESSON IX.


Q. What Ocean south of America?
A. Southern Ocean.
Q. What Isthmus joins South
America to North America ?
A. Isthmus of Darien.
Q. Which is the most northern
Country of North America
A. Greenland.
Q. What Bay west of Greenland
A. Baffin's Bay


Q. Do you live in North America
or in South America?
Q. What Ocean east of America ?
Q. What Ocean west of America ?
Q. Where is the Northern Ocean
Q. Where is the Southern Ocean ?
Q. In what Ocean are the Sandwich
Islands ?
Q. In what Ocean are the Cape
Verd Islands ?


15


- --- ------








MAP OF THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE.


C UE


cVe


A; P:ltE"
'r


goabaslmr







LESSON X.


Q. What are the Divisions of the
Eastern Continent ?
A. Europe, Asia, and Af-
rica.
Q. Which is the largest?
A. Asia.
Q. Which is the smallest ?
A. Europe.
Q. Which is furthest to the right,
or east ?
A. Asia.


Q. Which is furthest south ?
A. Africa.
Q. What Ocean east of Asia
A. Pacific Ocean.
Q. What Ocean south of Asia?
A. Indian Ocean.
Q. What Ocean west of Africa ?
A. Atlantic Ocean.
Q. What Sea south of Europe ?
A. Mediterranean Sea.


LESSON XI.


Q. What Sea east of Africa ?
A. Red Sea.
Q. What Cape in the south of
Africa ?
A. Cape of Good Hope.
Q. What Division of the Earth is
composed of Islands ?
A. Oceanica.
Q. Which is the largest Island in
the World ?
A. Australia.


Q. What Oceans do you find on the
Eastern Hemisphere ?
Q. What Division between the At.
lantic and Indian Oceans ?
Q. What Division west of Asia ?
Q. What Division south of Europe ?
Q. Between what Divisions is the
Mediterranean Sea ?
Q. Between what is the Red Sea?
Q. Where is the Cape of Good
Hope?


17


- -------2-~





I







MAP OF NORTH AMERICA.


SE R I
AV- d


TLFo


-------- _~ .. ~_. ......_.
---- --------- --1------;
I
---- ---- ----- --- -- -- -


"a ~~



~3~~ ~a







LESSON XI1.


Q. What three Oceans around
North America I
A. Arctic, Atlantic, and
Pacific.
Q. What Country furthest north ?
A. Greenland.
Q. What Country furthest south ?
A. Central America.
Q. In what Country do we live ?
A. In the United States.


Q. What Country north of the
United States ?
A. British America.
Q. What Country south of the
United States
A. Mexico.
Q. What Country in the northwest?
A. Russian America.
Q. What Peninsula in the south ?
A. Yucatan.


LESSON XIII.


Q. Between what two Oceans is the
United States?
A. Atlantic and Pacific.
Q. What Bay west of Greenland?
A. Baffin's Bay.
Q. What Bay in British America?
A, Hudson's Bay.
Q. What large Sea southeast of
North America?
A. Caribbean Sea.


Q. Which are the largest two Coun-
tries of North America ?
Q. Between what two Countries is
the United States?
Q. In what Country is Hudson's
Bay?
Q. Between what two Countries is
Baffln'As ay?
Q. What large Island southeast of
the United States?
Q. Where is Cape Farewell?


19


I


- -- ---







20 L LESSON XIV.

Q. What large Gulf south of the United States
A. Gulf of Mexico.
Q. Where is the Gulf of Mexico?
A. South of the United States.
Q. What two great Rivers in the United States ?
A. Mississippi and Missouri.


Icebergs near Greenland.
Q. What Mountains in the western part of N. America?
A. Rocky Mountains.
Q. Where are the Rocky Mountains?
A. In the western part of N. America
Q. What Island east of Greenland ?
A. Iceland.
Q. Where is Iceland?







LESSON XV. 21

NORTH AMERICA.
Q. By whom was America discovered?
A. By Columbus; about 360 years ago.,
Q. What kind of People did he find here
A. Dark-colored Savages.
Q. What did Columbus name them
A. Indians.
:-- =_

;-- -~--== ---------
7 .........










Columbus discovering America.
Q. After whom was America named ?
A. A man named Americus.
Q. What can'you say of the Northern part of N. America ?
A. It is very cold.
Q. What of the Southern part of N. America ?
A. It is very warm.
yf I







MAP OF THE UNITED STATES.








T "rR""A--..



*. RE IB 0^-^' Ro
N.o .I > r. ;vplt "
........No"
~ -~C, 'e If~~C3R







LESSON XVI.


Q. How many States are there ? 31.
Q. How are they divided
A. Into Eastern, Middle,
Western, and Southern
States.
Q. Which is the largest State
A. Texas.
Q. Which is the smallest State .
A. Rhode Island.
Q. What State on the Pacific?
A. California.


Q. What State in the north, almost
surrounded by Lakes?
A. Michigan.
Q. Which is the largest of these
Lakes?
A. Lake Superior.
Q. What Lake east of Michigan ?
A. Lake Huron.
Q. What Lake west of Michigan
A. Lake Michigan.
Q. What River west of Texas ?
A. Rio Grande.


LESSON XVII.


Q. What large River flows south
into the Gulf of Mexico ?
A. Mississippi River.
Q. What large Rivers flow into the
Mississippi?
A. Missouri, Ohio, Arkan-
sas, and Red.
Q. What River between Texas and
Mexico ?
A. Rio Grande.


Q. What Ocean east of the United
States?
Q. What Ocean west?
Q. What Country south I
Q. What Gulf south ?
Q. In what State do you live
Q. What States touch your State
Q. Where is Lake Superior?
Q. What Lake in Utah?
Q. Into what does the Ohio flow?


23







24 LESSON XVIII.

Q. Which State is furthest northeast?
A. Maine.
Q. Where is Maine
A. In the northeastern part of the United States.
Q. Which State is furthest south ?
A. Florida.

----
_. --- ~- ----=--- ---- --- ------- .









Locomotive. Telegraph. Steamship.

Q. Between what Ocean and Gulf is Florida ?
Q. What State is furthest west?
A. California.
Q. Where is California?
Q. What States touch the Mississippi River
Q. What States touch the Gulf of Mexico ?
Q. How many Territories are there ? Eight.
Q. Which is the largest Territory Nebraska.






LESSON XIX. 25

THE UNITED STATES.
Q. What are the people of the United States called ?
A. Americaus.
Q. Who governed this Country about 80 years ago?
A. The King of England.
Q. How did the Americans obtain their freedom ?
A. By a war which lasted nearly eight years.














Settlers attacked by Indiana
Q. What great man led the American army ?
A. George Washington, who became the first President.
Q. How has this Country increased ?
A. From 13 to 31 States.
Q. What troubles had the settlers of this Country ?
A. Many were murdered by the Indians.
i____________________--i-- -







LESSON XX.


CAPITALS.

CAPITAL OF THE UNITED STATES,


WASHINGTON,


States.
MAINE,
NEW IAMPSHIRE,
VERMONT,
MASSACHUSETTS,

RHODE ISLAND,


CONNEMriOUT,*


on the


EASTERN STATES.
Capitals.
Augusta, on the
Concord, "
Montpelier, "
Boston, "
Providence, "
Newport,
SHartford, "
New Haven, "


Potomac River.


Situation.
Kennebec.
xerrimac.
Onion.
Boston harbor.
Providence Bay.
Rhode slJand.
Connecticut.
.New Haven Bay.


LESSON XXI.

MIDDLE STATES.


States.
NEW YORK,
NEW JERSEY,
PENNSYLVANIA,
DELAWARE,


Capitals.
Albany,
Trenton,
Harrisburg,
Dover,


on the

"


Situation.
Hudson.
Delaware.
Susquehanna.
Jones' Creek.


* kon,-net'e-lkt.


26


i _I _







LESSON


XXII..


States.
MARYLAND,
VIRGINIA,
NORTH CAROLINA,
SOUTH CAROLINA,
GEORGIA,
FLORIDA,
ALABAMA,
MISSISSIPPI,
LOUISIANA,
TLouX A,
TEXAS,


SOUTHERN STATES.
Capitals.
Annapolis, on the
Richmond, "
Raleigh, near the
Columbia, on the
Milledgeville, "
Tallahassee,
Montgomery, "
Jackson, 44
Baton Rouge,* "
Austin, "


LESSON XXIII.


States.
ARKANSAS,
TENNESSEE,
KENTUCKY,
OHIO,
MICHIGAN,
INDIANA,

ILLINOIS, (oy)
WISCONSIN,
IOWA,
MIssoutRI,
CALIFORNIA,
bat'on-roosh.


WESTERN STATES.
Capitals.
Little Rock, on the
Nashville, "
Frankfort, "
Columbus, "
Lansing, "
Indianapolis, "

Springfield, near the
Madison, on the
Iowa City, "
Jefferson City, "
Sacramento, "


Situation.
Arkansas.
Cumberland.
Kentucky.
Sciota.
Grand.
West Fork of the
White.
Sangamon.f
Fourth Lake.
Iowa.
Missouri.
Sacramento.


t sang'ga-mon.


27


Situation.
Severn.
James.
TNeuse.
Congaree.
Oconee.
Inland.
Alabama.
Pearl.
Missisdsii.
Colorado.


I_


- -C "~'





MAP OF THE EASTERN STATES.


4,
4






LESSON


Q. How many Eastern States are
there ? A. Six.
Q. What two States north of Mas-
sachusetts?
A. New Hampshire and
Vermont.
Q. What two States south of Mas-
sachusetts ?
A. Connecticut and Rhode
Island.
Q. What State west
A. New York.


Q. What large River between Ver-
mont and New Hampshire ?
A. Connecticut River.
Q. Through what States does it
flow
A. Massachusetts and Con-
necticut.
Q. What Rivers in Maine
A. Kennebec and Penob-
scot..
Q. What River in New Hampshire?
A. Merrimac River.


LESSON XXV.


Q. Through what other State does
the Merrimac flow ?
A. Massachusetts.
Q. What Mountains in Vermont?
A. Green Mountains.
Q. Where are the White Moun-
tains?
A. In New Hampshire.
Q. What large Sound south of Con-
necticut ?
A. Long Island Sound


Q. Name the Eastern States.
Q. Which is the largest?
Q. Which is the smallest ?
Q. Where are the Green Mountains ?
Q. What large River flows into Long
Island Sound ?
Q. What Cape in the eastern part
of Massachusetts ?
Q. What three Rivers flow into the
Atlantic Ocean ?
Q. Describe the Connecticut River.


XXIV.


29t


_ __I __ _1__1____ ~~~_~1__ _~_7___ __ ~ t


_ I







LESSON XXVI.


Q. What Country north of the Eastern States

A. Canada.

Q. What State west?

A. New York.

Q. What large Island south of Connecticut
A. Long Island.


fill ,
!!i II


Canal. Factories. Cattle.


Q. Where is Long Island ?
A. South of Connecticut.

Q. What Lake between Vermont and New York ?
A. Lake Champlain. -

Q. Where is Lake Champlain?
A. Between Vermont and New York.


30


_ __ _1__


- ---- ----


r;
T;T;1I'""I'
f;~h
~ \ 4 S5j.: i ~E~LY.i-
~'-ctitrl ,
~----_
,J~-~-~n L~~ta3B~R






LESSON XXVII. 31

THE EASTERN STATES.
Q. What are these six States together called
A. New England.
Q. Who first came to New England?
A. People from England, called Puritans.
Q. For what are some of these States noted ?
A. For Woolen and Cotton Manufactures.














Q. What is obtained from Maine?
A. Lumber.
Q. For what animals is Vermont rioted
A. For Sheep.
Q. Which is the largest City in New England ?
A. Boston.





MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES.







LESSON XXVIII.


Q. How many Middle States are
there A. Four.
Q. Which is the largest?
A. New York.
Q. Which is next in size?
A. Pennsylvania.
Q. Which is the next?
A. New Jersey.
Q. Which is the smallest?
A. Delaware.


LESS N


Q. What large River flows through
Pennsylvania?
A. Susquehanna River.
Q. What large River flows north-
east from Lake Ontario?
A. St. Lawrence River.
Q. What Mountains in New York?
A. Catskill and Highlands.
Q. What large City in New York?
A. New York.


Q. What Country north of New
York ?
A. Canada.
Q. What two Lakes on the west?
A. Ontario and Erie.
Q. What two large Rivers in the
eastern part of New York ?
A. Hudson and Mohawk.
Q. What large River in the western
part of New York?
A. Genesee River.


XXIX.

Q. Name the Middle States.
Q. What States south of New York ?
Q. What States east of New York ?l
Q. Where is Lake Erie ?
Q. Where is Lake Ontario
Q. Where is the Hudson River I
Q. Where is the St. Lawrence ?
Q. Into what Lake does the Gene-
see River flow ?
Q. What Lake northeast of New
York?


33


____ ___~__~_1__1 _I__ ~i__ __~1 _~ __ I____~~____ ___ _1___ __


(_ I II.-I-LL.__~


_ __ _






LESSON XXX.


Q. What River between Pennsylvania and New Jersey ?
A. Delaware River.
Q. Where is the Delaware River?
A. Between Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
Q. What Bay between New Jersey and Delaware ?
A. Delaware Bay:


Train of cars in fill speed.
Q. Where is the Delaware Bay?
A. Between New Jersey and Delaware.
Q. What large Bay in Maryland ?
A. Chesapeake Bay.
Q. What Mountains in Pennsylvania?
A. Alleghany and Blue Ridge.


34


_ __






LESSON XXXI. 35

THE MIDDLE STATES.
Q. For what are the Middle States noted ?
A. For Canals and Railroads.
Q. What Waterfall between Lakes Erie and Ontario?
A. Niagara Falls.
Q. What do we get from Pennsylvania?
A. Coal and Iron.



.----s~~- _








Coal Mines.
Q. What does the word Pennsylvania mean ?
A. Penn's Woods.
Q. Who was William Penn ?
A. A Quaker from England, who. was
good and just to the Indians.
Q. Which is the largest City in Pennsylvania?
A. Philadelphia.






MAP OF THE SOUTHERN STATES.


U L X- of



aM X I C


i .O







LESSON XXXII.

Q. How many Southern States are Q. What States
there? A. Ten. A. Georgia
Q. Which is the largest? Q. What River
A. Texas. A. Ohio Riv
Q. Which is furthest south? Q. What Rive
A. Florida. northern part
Q. What division of land is Florida? A. Tennesse
A. A Peninsula. Q. Into what
Q. What Island south of Florida? nessee flow ~
A. Cuba. A. Into the


37

s north of Florida ?
and Alabama.
touches Virginia ?
rer.
r flows through the
of Alabama ?
e River.
liver does the Ten-

Ohio River.


LESSON XXXIII.


4. What State east of Maryland ?
A. Delaware.
Q. What State west of North Car-
olina?
A. Tennessee.
Q. What River between South Car-
olina and Georgia ?
A. Savannah River.
Q. Into what does it flow ?
A. Into the Atlantic Ocean.


Q. Name the Southern States.
Q. Name the States that touch the
Atlantic Ocean.
Q. Name the States that touch the
Gulf of Mexico.
Q. What two Southern States touch
the Mississippi River ?
Q. Between what Ocean and Gulf
is Florida?
Q. Where is Cape Sable ?


I I ----






38 LESSON XXXIV.

Q. What Mountains in the Southern States?
A. Cumberland, Alleghany, and Blue Ridge.
Q. Wh it large Island south of Florida?
A. Cuba.
Q. Where is Cuba?
A. South of Florida.













Sugar. Tobacco. Cotton.

Q. What Strait between Florida and Cuba
A. Florida Strait.
Q. Where is Florida Strait?
A. Between Florida and Cuba.
Q. What Ocean and Gulf does it connect
A. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.







LESSON XXXV. 39

THE SOUTHERN STATES.
Q. What is the Climate of the Southern States ?
A. Warm.
Q. What do the Planters of the Southern States own ?
A. Large plantations cultivated by slaves.
Q. What are raised on these plantations ?
A. Sugar. Tobacco, and Cotton.













Catching Wild Horses with the Lasso
Q. From what State does most of the Sugar come
A. Louisiana.
Q. What Presidents were born in Virginia?
A. Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe,
Harrison, and Taylor.
Q. How are wild horses caught?
A. By means of a leather rope called a Lasso.






MAP OF THE WESTERN STATES.







LESSON XXXVI.


Q. How many Western States are
there ? A. Eleven.
Q. What two are furthest north ?
A. Michigan and Wiscon-
sin.
Q. What three lie on the west side
of the Mississippi River ?
A. Iowa, Missouri, Arkan-
sas.
Q. What three lie on the north
side of the Ohio River ?
A. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois.





LESSON

Q. What Western State does not
appear on this map ?
A. California.
Q. What four great Rivers flow
through the Western States ?
A. Mississippi, Ohio, Mis-
souri, and Arkansas.
Q. In what direction do nearly all
the Rivers in the Western States
flow?
A. Toward the Mississippi.


Q. What two south of the Ohio ?
A. Kentucky and Tennes-
see.
Q. What Lake north of Michigan ?
A. Lake Superior.
Q. What Lake east of Michigan?
A. Lake Huron.
Q, What Lake west of Michigan?
A. Lake Michigan.
Q. What Lake north of Ohio?
A. Lake Erie.





XXXVII.

Q. Name the Western States.
Q. What four large Lakes touch
the Western States ?
Q. 'Name the largest four Rivers in
the Western States.
Q. What River in Ohio ?
Q. What River between Indiana
and Illinois ?
Q. What States south of Tennes-
see ?
Q. What State east of Kentucky?


41


__


1 ( LI O: r


___W_






42 LESSON XXXVIII.

Q. What River in Wisconsin
A. Wisconsin River.
Q. What River in Iowa?
A. Iowa River.
Q. What River flows through Missouri ?
A. Missouri River.




--







Western Steamboat.
Q. What River flows through Arkansas?
A. Arkansas River.
Q. What River flows through Tennessee ?
A. Tennessee River.
Q. What River in Illinois ?
A. Illinois River.
Q. Where do they all empty ?
A. All except the Tennessee empty into
the Mississippi.






LESSON XXXIX. 43

THE WESTERN STATES.
Q. What grow in the Western States?
A. Corn, Wheat, Rye, and Fruit.
Q. For what are the Western States noted ?
A. For fine Rivers and Steamboats.
Q. Which of the Western States is noted for Gold t
A. California.













Indians in their Canoes conducting Travellers over Rapids.
Q. Where do the Indians of the United States mostly live ?
A. In the Western Territories.
Q. What are many of the Indians?
A. Good farmers and quiet people.
Q. In what are some of them very expert?
A. In conducting travellers past dangerous places.
2- (- -


















a. In conducting travellers past dangerous places.






MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA.

CA RIBgBEAN SEK

& MI neo P


0


I L


;IRO

. v


SlPlalta


$S


Selkift hn









Strau't of Magei
vier %Js


(ms







LESSON XL.


Q. What natural division of land
is South America ?
A. A Peninsula.
Q. What Division of the Earth is
north of South America ?
A. North America.
Q. What Ocean east ?
A. Atlantic Ocean:
Q. What Ocean west ?
A. Pacific Ocean.


Q. What Sea north?
A. Caribbean Sea.
Q. Which is the largest River in
South America ?
A. Amazon River.
Q. How long is the Amazon ?
A. Four thousand miles.
Q. What River further north than
the Amazon ?
A. Orinoco River.


LESSON XLI.


Q. What River in the southeast ?
A. La Plata River.
Q. Into what do these Rivers flow?
A, Into the Atlantic Ocean.
Q. What great chain of Mountains
in the west ?
A. Andes Mountains.
Q. Which is the largest Country of
South America ?
A. Brazil.


Q. Between what two Oceans is
South America ?
Q. Where is the Caribbean Sea ,
Q. Where are the West Indies ?
Q. Where are the Andes ?
Q. What three large Rivers in
South America ?
Q. Name all the Countries of South
America.
Q. What three in the north ?


45


L----~








LESSON XLII.


Q. What Isthmus joins North and South America ?

A. Isthmus of Darien.

Q. What Islands north of South America?

A. West Indies.

Q. Which is the most southern Country of South America ?
A. Patagonia.


Q. What Strait south of Patagonia

A. Strait of Magellan.

Q. What is the southern Cape of South America?

A. Cape Horn.

Q. What two Oceans meet there ?
A. Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.


46


~


- --- -- --


-~1.
i ~:-I-- .~.
h


...,,
--i~e~t~c
"r?~~sl r~ ly~ ~
-'-i L~;






LESSON XLIII. 47

SOUTH AMERICA.
Q. For what is South America noted
A. For the largest rivers and longest mountain-chain
in the world.
Q. What can you say of the Andes Mountains ?
A. The tops of some are continually covered with ice
and snow; while at the foot of the mountains, the
heat is very great.





i l .









Dangers in travelling over the Andes.
Q. What careful animal is used in crossing the Mountains ?
A. The Mule.
Q. What if the mule should lose his foothold ?
A. Both mule and rider might fall and perish.
Q. What take place in South America?
A. Earthquakes.







MAP OF EUROPE.


lCrtj


"" --~ ~---------.-- --rlr







LESSON

Q. What Ocean north of Europe ?
A. Arctic Ocean.
Q. What Ocean west of Europe
A. Atlantic Ocean.
Q. What Sea south of Europe ?
A. Mediterranean Sea.
Q. What is the Mediterranean Sea?
A. The largest Sea in the
world.
Q. What Bay west of France ?
A. Bay of Biscay.


XLIV. 49

Q. Which is the largest country of
Europe?
A. Russia.
Q. Which is the smallest?
A. Switzerland.
Q. What two Countries touch Rus
sia on the southwest ?
A. Austria and Turkey.
Q. What Country scuth of Turkey
A. Greece.


LESSON XLY.


Q. What two Countries west of the
North Sea ?
A England and Scotland.
Q. What Country west of England?
A. Ireland.
Q. What Country south of Eng-
land ?
A. France.
Q. What Country south of France ?
A. Spain.


Q. What two Oceans touch Eu-
rope ?
Q. What five large Seas do you
find on the map of Europe ?
Q. What four Rivers ?
Q. What Strait connects the Medi-
terranean Sea with the Atlantic ?
Q. What Cape in the north of Eu-
rope ?
Q. What Gulf east of Italy ?
Q. Where is the White Sea ?


I --







LESSON XLVI.


Q. What Sea north of Prussia ?
A. Baltic Sea.
Q. What large Sea south of Russia?
A. Black Sea.
Q. What large River runs through Austria and Turkey?
A. Danube River.


Sleighing in Russia.


Q. What Mountains between France and Spain?
A. Pyrenees Mountains.
Q. What large Island west of Norway?
A. Iceland.
Q. What Island south of Italy ?
A. Sicily.


50







LESSON XLVII. 51

EUROPE.
Q. Which are the most powerful Countries in Europe
A. Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Q. What great General, a few years
ago, led the most powerful army __i
in the world?
A. Napoleon Bonaparte.
Q. Where was he- finally over-
thrown
A. At the Battle of Water- .
1oo, in the year 1815.
Q. What brave man was a Swiss _
A. William Tell.
Q. What remarkable building in L J"i
Italy I I
A. The Leaning Tower. -
Q. What law in Prussia about at-
tending school ? Leaning Tower in Italy.
A. Every boy and girl is obliged to attend school
regularly.
Q. What can you say of the northern part of Europe ?
A. It is so cold, that there is good sleighing all the
year.







MAP OF ASIA.


- bAN


- -- I






LESSON XLYIII.


Q. What can you say of the size of
Asia ?
A. It is the largest Grand
Division of the Earth.
Q. What Ocean north of Asia ?
A. Arctic Ocean.
Q. What Ocean east I
A. Pacific Ocean.
Q. WIhat Ocean south
A. IndianOcean.


Q. What Sea south of Asia ?
A. Arabian Sea.
Q. What Bay south of Asia ?
A. Bay of Bengal.
Q. What four Seas east of Asia ?
A. China, Yellow, Japan
and Ochotsk.
Q. What Sea between Arabia and
Africa ?
A. Red Sea


LESSON XLIX.


Q. What Division of the Earth is Q. What three Oceans touch Asia ?
west of Asia? Q. What two Seas between Asia
A. Europe. and Europe ?
Q. What Division southwest? Q. What Sea between Asia an(
A. Africa. Africa?
Q. WhatQ.lae C n te nor What two countries of Asia ar4
Q. What large Countryinthe north- furthest north
ern part of Asia r
e r f Asia? Q. Between what two Countries is
A. Siberia. the Persian Gulf?
Q. What Empire in the east? Q. What Cape in the north of
A. Chinese Empire. Asia


53


___


i


~__~_ _~C _* I_ ~^ _







54 LESSON L.

Q. What country in the southeastern part of the Chinese Empire ?
A. China.
Q. What Country between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal?
A. Hindoostan.
Q. What Country in Asia is furthest southwest ?
A. Arabia.



~---R" k-

-: ....... .. -- ------- -








The Great Wall of China.

Q. What Mountains between Asia and Europe ?
A. Ural Mountains.
Q. What large Island south of China Sea?
A. Borneo.
Q. What large Island southeast of Borneo ?
A. Australia.







LESSON LI. 55


ASIA.
Q. What Division of the Earth was first inhabited I
A. Asia.
Q. Who first lived in Asia
A. Adam and Eve.
Q. What is the color of the Asiatics ?
A. Yellow.

.-- --~- -------


Camels in a Desert


Q. What do many worship ?
A. Idols.
Q. For what purpose did the Chinese build the Great Wall t
A. To defend themselves from their enemies.
Q. What animal is very useful in crossing the Ifeserts ?
A. The Camel.


" ~.~~.





MAP OF AFRICA.


TLAN TIC


0 E A.







LESSON LII.


Q. What Division of land is Africa ?
A. A Peninsula.
Q. Between what two Oceans is
Africa ?
A. Atlantic and Indian.
Q. What Division of the Earth
north of Africa I
A. Europe.
Q. What Sea north of Africa
A. Mediterranean Sea.


Q.


What Division of the Earth


northeast of Africa ?
A. Asia.
Q. What Sea east of Africa?
A. Red Sea.
Q. What Gulf west of Africa ?
A. Gulf of Guinea.
Q. What large Island southeast of
Africa ?
A. Madagascar.


LESSON LIII.


Q. What Country in the north-
eastern part of Africa
A. Egypt.
Q. What Country south of Egypt?
A. Nubia.
Q. What Country south of Nubia ?
A. Abyssinia.
Q. Which are the large t two Riv-
ers in Africa?
A. Nile and Niger


Q. With what Ocean is the Medi,
terranean Sea connected ?
Q. With what Ocean is the Red
Sea connected ?
Q. What three Countries of Africa
touch the Red Sea?
Q. What large River flows into the
Mediterranean Sea?
Q. What large River flows into the
Gulf of Guinea?
Q. Onwhich side ofAfrica is Guinea.?


57


_ __ __ _


~----- I I IIC III







58 LESSON LIV.

Q. What Desert in the northern part of Africa
A. Sahara, or Great Desert.
Q. What Mountains in the centre?
A. Mountains of the Moon.
Q. What Isthmus joins Africa with Asia?
A. Isthmus of Suez.






--- /ii






A Traveller attacked by a Crocodile.

Q. What Country in Europe is nearest Africa I
A. Spain.
Q. What Strait between Africa and Spain ?
A. Strait of Gibraltar.
Q. What Cape in the southern part of Africa I
A. Cape of Good Hope.


__ ~_~_







LESSON LV.


59


Q. What is Africa?
A. The warmest Division of the Earth.
Q. What animals are found in Africa?
A. Elephants, Lions, and Leopards.
Q. What dangerous reptiles in Afiica?
A. Serpents and Crocodiles.


A Sand Storm in the Desert.


Q. What is a great part of Africa ?
A. A Desert, or vast Sandy Plain.
Q. How do men cross the Desert?
A. In large companies, called Caravans.
Q. What storms sometimes overtake Caravans?
A. Storms of scorching sand, raised by the wind.







RECAPITULATION.


Where is f
Pacific Ocea
Atlantic Oce
Northern Oc
Southern Oc
Indian Oceaw





Where is?
Amazon
Mississippi
Missouri
Ohio .
Arkansas .
Connecticut
Hudson
Susquehanna
Delaware.
Volga .
Danube .
Nile. .


n
an .
ean
ean.
i


OCEANS.

. West of America.
. East of America.
. North of North America.
. South of South America.
. South of Asia.


RIVERS.


. in the northern part of S. America.
. In the IUnited States.
. In the United States.
. In the United States.
. In the United States.
tn the Eastern States.
I the eastern part of New York.
. Runs through Pennsylvania.
. Between Pennsylvania and Delaware.
. n Russia.
. Runs through Austria and Turkey.
. In the northeastern part of Africa-


60


--


1







RECAPITULATION.


Where is ?
Mediterranean
Black and Cas
North Sea
Baltic Sea
Caribbean Sea
Arabian Sea.
China Sea
Red Sea .





Where is?
Baffin's Bay.
Hudson's Bay
Gulf of Mexic
Bay of Biscay
Gulf of Guinea
Chesapeake B
Delaware Bay


,SEAS.


Sea Between Europe and Africa.
pian Between Europe and Asia.
Test of Europe.
S. TWest of lRussia.
North of South America.
.. .. South of Asia.
South of China.
Between Africa and Asia.




GULFS AND BAYS.

West of Greenland.
In British America.
o. South of the United States.
S. West of France.
S. West of Africa.
ay In .2~aryland.
S Between 3ezo Jersey and Delaware.


61


-







RECAPITULATION.


Tere is LAK E S.
Lake Superior North ofthe United States.
Lake Michigan. In the northern part of the United States.
Lake Erie North of the United States.
Lake Ontario North of the United States.


Where aret MOUNTAINS.
Rocky . In the western part of N. America.
Andes ..... In the western part of S. America.
Alleghany. .. In the eastern part of the United States.
Green . In Vermont.
White .... In New Hampshire.
Ural ... Between Europe and Asia.
Alps North of Italy.
Pyrenees . Between France and Spain.


Where is? ISLANDS.
Australia. .. Southeast of Asia.
Iceland East of Greenland.
Cuba ..... .South of the United States.
Madagascar. southeast ofAfrica.
Nova Zembla North' of Russia.
Sicily ..... South of Italy.


62


__ f ~








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