Eocene mollusks from Citrus and Levy counties, Florida (FGS : Bulletin 35)

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Eocene mollusks from Citrus and Levy counties, Florida (FGS : Bulletin 35)
Series Title:
Geological bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 35
Physical Description:
95 p. : 13 plates ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Richards, Horace Gardiner, 1906-1984
Palmer, Katherine V. W. ( Katherine Van Winkle ), 1895- ( joint author )
Donor:
unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher:
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1953

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mollusks, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Eocene   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography; p. 60-63.
General Note:
"A new species of decapod crustacaen from the Inglis member by Henry B. Roberts": p. 60-67.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Horace G. Richards and Katherine V.W. Palmer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1612
ltuf - AKM4740
alephbibnum - 002036980
oclc - 01723437
lccn - a 54009419
System ID:
UF00000406:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA

STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Charlie Bevis, Supervisor


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Herman Gunter, Director






GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 35





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM

CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES, FLORIDA





By

Horace G. Richards, Associate Curator
Department of Geology and Paleontology


Katherine V. W. Palmer, Director
Paleontological Research Institution





Published for
THE FLORIDA*GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, 1953









FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION







DAN McCARTY
Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instructzon


CLARENCE M. GAY
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


CHARLIE BEVIS
Supervisor of Conservation





LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


fioria Jeoloqical Survey

Callahassee

June 20, 1953



MR. CHARLIE BEVIS, Supervisor
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

SIR:

As part of the services rendered by the Florida Geological
Survey to the stratigraphers and oil workers of the Gulf Coast
States, a study of an unusual association of upper Eocene mollusk
shells discovered in Citrus and Levy counties, Florida, was under-
taken in 1948. The description of this fauna was made by Dr.
Horace G. Richards, Associate Curator of the Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Mrs. Katherine Van Winkle
Palmer, Director, Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca,
New York; and by Henry B. Roberts of the staff of the Wagner
Free Institute of Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

This study is of importance in the correlation of the Florida
rocks with similar rocks of the remaining states of the Gulf coast.
It is being published as Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 35.

Respectfully yours,


HERMAN GUNTER, Director















































































































THE E. 0. PAINTER PRINTING CO., DELAND, FLA.






TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Letter of Transmittal --------III

Part 1-Introduction by Horace G. Richards 1
The Eocene of Florida ---- ---------...... 1
Present Project 3-------------.--------- 3
Procedure and Acknowledgments _----- 4
List of Localities ------- ------- --- 4

Part 2-Gastropeda by Katherine V. W. Palmer ---- 9
Introduction .......----------------- 9
List of Species ...------------------- 10
Systematic Descriptions ------ ---------- 12

Part 3-Pelecypoda by Horace G. Richards ---- 42
Introduction --- --- ------ ----- 42
List of Species .------.--------- ---- 42
Systematic Descriptions .....--------------- 44
Other Specimens 55

Part 4-Discussion by Richards and Palmer ------- 56
Avon Park Fauna ----------- --- 56
Inglis Fauna .. -----. .------------- 56
Tethyan Fauna -. .......----------------- -58
Age of the Avon Park and Inglis Faunas 59

Bibliography ...------------------60

Appendix .-------- -------------- -- 64
A New Species of Decapod Crustacean from the
Inglis Member by Henry B. Roberts -- 64


Plates







EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM

CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES, FLORIDA

PART I-INTRODUCTION

by

HORACE G. RICHARDS

The Eocene of Florida.-Prior to 1944 the Ocala limestone was
the only Eocene formation known from the state of Florida, and
this was also regarded as the oldest outcropping formation within
the state.
Although limestones in the vicinity of Ocala have been well
known for manyyears, the first formal use of the term Ocala lime-
stone was by Dall in 1892. For a while there was considerable con-
fusion between these beds and the overlying "Orbitoides limestone,"
now known to be of Oligocene age. Cooke (1915) was the first to
point out the true age of the Ocala limestone by showing a correla-
tion between it and the deposits of Jackson age of Alabama and
Mississippi. He, therefore, concluded that the formation was of
late Eocene age.
The considerable amount of drilling and consequent study of
the well samples including especially the microfossils, has led Cole
(1944), Applin and Applin (1944) and others to recognize various
formations of Eocene and Paleocene age older than the Ocala that
underlie it in central and southern Florida. The following Table is
based on the correlation of the Applins (1944, p. 1678).

Upper Ocala Is. Upper JACKSON
Eocene Lower J
Le Avon Park
Late Is.
Middle s
Eocene Tallahassee CLAIBORNE
Is.
Early Lake City
Middle Is.
Eocene
Lower Oldsmar WILCOX
Eocene Is.
Paleocene Cedar Keys MIDWAY
Is.

In this work the Applins recognized an upper and lower mem-
ber of the Ocala with differences both in lithology and in micro-
fauna.





2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Ericson (1945) described beds of dolomite and dolomitic lime-
stone that cropped out in the Gulf Hammock region in Levy and
Citrus counties, and assigned them to the Gulf Hammock forma-
tion. This he thought was equivalent to the Avon Park formation
as described by the Applins from the subsurface and dated as
Claiborne in age. He proposed the abandonment of the term Avon
Park in favor of Gulf Hammock since the latter was named from
an outcrop area instead of from the subsurface.
A short time later the present writer (Richards, 1946) de-
scribed a new species of gastropod of the genus Velates from ex-
cavations from the Withlacoochee River 1/8 to 1 mile below the
Florida Power Corporation Plant in Citrus County. This was the
first record of the genus from eastern North America, although it
was widely distributed throughout the Eocene of other parts of
the world. It was suggested that the Velates came from a different
faunal assemblage than that of the Ocala limestone, but whether
the bed be of lower Jackson or Claiborne age was not stated.
Vernon (1947) summarized the geology of the area and in his
extensive report on the geology of Citrus and Levy counties Vernon
(1951, p. 112) made the following subdivisions of the upper part
of the Eocene section:

Ocala limestone
V (restricted)

j Williston member


S 2 Inglis member
s-
Disconformity

S. Avon Park limestone

Disconformity

J Lake City limestone


Vernon has retained the term Ocala limestone in a restricted
sense (?= upper Ocala of the Applins) and has correlated the
lower Ocala beds with the Moodys Branch formation, originally
described from the vicinity of Jackson, Mississippi. He further sub-
divided the Moodys Branch formation into two members, the Wil-
liston and the Inglis. Beneath these there is another limestone
which Vernon correlated with the Avon Park formation of Clai-





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


borne age. In a paper to be published by the Florida Geological
Survey, H. S. Puri (personal communication) will call all upper
Eocene beds, the Ocala group and may raise the Inglis and Wil-
liston members of "the Moodys Branch formation" to formational
rank.
According to Vernon (1951, p. 104) Ericson's "Gulf Hammock"
formation, as defined, includes the Inglis member of the Moodys
Branch formation and the upper part of the Avon Park limestone.
Because of the confusion and overlapping of terms, Vernon has
suggested that the term "Gulf Hammock" be abandoned.
The Foraminifera from the Avon Park limestone and the Inglis
member have been described by Cole (1942), Applin and Applin
(1944), Applin and Jordan (1945), Vernon (1951) and others.
The ostracodes were described in a recent bulletin by Howe (1951)
and the echinoids by Fischer (1951). A preliminary list of the
mollusks was submitted to the Florida Geological Survey by
H. B. Stenzel (see Vernon, 1947, pp. 7, 12, 16, 17) and a list by the
present writer was included in the main report on the two counties
(Vernon, 1951, pp. 119-21). Harris (1951) described and figured
many of the pelecypods from the Ocala limestone from Georgia and
Florida. For further details on the stratigraphy of the region, the
reader is referred to reports by Cooke (1945) and Vernon (1951).

Present Project.-The writer's attention was first called to the
fauna by Dr. A. G. Fischer and Mr. Joseph Banks, then of the
Stanolind Oil and Gas Company, who in September, 1945, showed
him the specimens of Velates mentioned above. In February, 1948,
he spent a few days visiting localities in Citrus and Levy counties
in the company of Dr. Robert O. Vernon. Sometime after that
field trip he was requested by the Florida Geological Survey to
prepare a report on the mollusks from the Eocene outcrops that
Dr. Vernon had collected in his studies of the area. The writer in-
vited Dr. Katherine V. W. Palmer of the Paleontological Research
Institution of Ithaca, N.Y., to collaborate with him in the study, and
consequently the material thus far obtained was shipped from Tal-
lahassee to Philadelphia and Ithaca for study.
Dr. Palmer had already visited localities of Ocala limestone in
the region of Ocala and in March, 1952, stopped in Tallahassee to
examine material in the collections of the Florida Geological Survey.
Material was received from both the Avon Park limestone and
the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation. The most
surprising feature of the two faunas was the meager specific simi-
larity with the well-known Eocene faunas of the Mississippi em-





4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

bayment. On the other hand there was a rather remarkable cor-
relation of these Florida mollusks with Eocene faunas from other
parts of the world, especially from the Paris Basin, England, and
northern Italy. A preliminary report stressing this old world
affinity was presented before the International Geological Congress
in Algiers, in September, 1952 (Palmer and Richards, 1952).
Because of the necessity of comparing the Florida mollusks
with material or descriptions from so many parts of the world,
the work was considerably more difficult than anticipated, causing
the consequent delay in the completion of this report.

Procedure and Ackno wledgments.-Although the two authors
have conferred at various times both in Ithaca and Philadelphia,
it was decided that the present author (Richards) should be re-
sponsible for the pelecypods and Dr. Palmer, the gastropods. The
discussions and conclusions were written jointly by the two authors.
The authors are indebted to Dr. Vernon, of the Florida Geologi-
cal Survey, for the opportunity of studying this unique fauna and
for providing funds for certain phases of the investigation. We are
also indebted to the American Philosophical Society for additional
funds to cover other expenses of the project including those of both
authors to Washington, D.C., to compare specimens at the United
States National Museum where the collections were made available
through the courtesy of David Nicol. Others who have offered sug-
gestions throughout the course of the study include: G. D. Harris,
Axel Olsson and Charles Wurtz. James Dahlhausen assisted with
the sorting and preparation of the fossils at the Academy of
Natural Sciences.
Thanks are due to Mrs. Venia Phillips, Librarian, and her staff,
of the Academy of Natural Sciences, for making available litera-
ture which was difficult to obtain elsewhere. We wish to acknowl-
edge the courtesy of Dr. L. R. Cox, British Museum (Natural
History) for the privilege by H. G. Richards of the examination
of Italian Mont Postale and Ronca Eocene material in that museum.
The type and figured specimens are in the collections of the
Florida Geological Survey in Tallahassee, Florida. A few dupli-
cate specimens are in the collections of the Paleontological Re-
search Institution at Ithaca, New York, and the Academy of Natural
Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

List of Localities from R. O. Vernon, Florida Geological Survey
L-73 Avon Park limestone. On the dredged channel of the
Waccassassa River in the southwest quarter of southwest quarter




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


of Section 8, Township 14 South, Range 16 East, below the bridge
on State Road 55, Levy County, Florida. Tan to brown, fairly hard,
porous, massive dolomite. The porosity is almost entirely molds of
mollusks and foraminifers. The bed is 0.2 to 0.8 foot thick. Bed
No. 2 of section described by Vernon (1951, pp. 102-103).

L-76 Avon Park limestone. Exposed as ledges in the timber
road in the northwest corner of the southwest quarter of Section 14,
Township 14 South, Range 15 East, Levy County, Florida. Hard,
porous, cream to light gray-purple tinted, massive, miliolid, frag-
mental, marine limestone. Some of the miliolids are the size of
buckshot and numerous undescribed mollusks are present. See
Vernon (1951, p. 104).
L-92 Avon Park limestone. This, the thickest limestone section,
can be reached by driving from the town of Gulf Hammock, leaving
State Road 55, four-tenths mile southeast of the town, on a narrow
pavement and driving two and one-quarter miles to the end of the
pavement, and turning northwest on a dirt road to Sulphur Springs
Landing on the left bank of Wekiva River in the southwest quarter,
northwest quarter of Section 32, Township 14 South, Range 16 East.
The fossils come from Bed 2 (Vernon, 1951, pp. 105-106) which
is 1.5 feet of cream to white, mottled, hard ledge of dense, very
fossiliferous, marine limestone, containing excellent specimens of
Peneroplid sp. "X" (Gen. et. sp. nov.) and other Avon Park micro-
fauna.
L-93 Inglis member-Moodys Branch formation. A road metal
pit 2.9 miles south of the north limits of the town of Gulf Ham-
mock just southwest of State Road 55 in the southwest quarter of
Section 34, Township 14 South, Range 16 East. Boulders of very
indurated, cream to tan, hard, dense limestone containing numer-
ous Periarchus lyelli floridanus and well-preserved mollusks. A
preliminary list has been published (Vernon, 1951, pp. 119-121,
126).
L-118 Avon Park limestone. The New Labanon dolomite pit
located in the southwest quarter, northeast quarter of Section 12,
Township 16 South, Range 16 East. The following section is re-
produced from Vernon (1951, pp. 108-110) and was measured
December 14, 1946:
Locality L-118
Pleistocene series Feet
Pamlico formation
8) White to gray, fine, argillaceous, quartz sand 1.5 to 4.0





6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Unconformity
Upper Eocene series
Moodys Branch formation
Inglis member
7) Tan, dense, hard, massive dolomite containing
scattered molds of foraminifers and broken
mollusks ----- --.-.-....... .. .... .----------- 2.35
6) Tan, very soft, friable, finely crystalline, porus
to dense, thinly-bedded dolomite composed of silt-
sized euhedral crystals. Grades laterally into
large, massive, dolomite beds containing platy
dolomite pebbles, apparently reworked from beds
below. This bed is high and low along the
quarry face and apparently has covered an ero-
sional surface of relief up to 10 feet -- 9.75
Unconformity Feet
Middle Eocene series
Avon Park limestone
5) High areas extending into bed 6-Tan to brown,
extremely platy and laminated by alternate lay-
ers of plant remains and silt-sized euhedral
crystals of dolomite. The base is dark brown,
heavily laminated and contains thin beds of peat
and specimens of Peneroplid sp. "X (Gen. et.
sp. nov.)," Coskinolina, Dictyoconus and Lituo-
nella. Extensively exposed in the south side of
the quarry --- Variable to 3.0
4) Tan to brownish-gray, dense, fine-grained, frag-
mental dolomite cut by numerous long, narrow
borings made by worms or boring mollusks.
Many molds of "Cerithium" are present and the
bed is absent at places -- -------- 0.35 to 0.85
3) Brownish-gray, purple-tinted, very dense, fine
grained, lithographic dolomite. Beds 3 and 4
grade laterally and vertically into bed 2 or
where absent into bed 1 ----- 0.7 to 1.6
2) Brown to greenish-gray, very pure, thin-bedded,
dense carbonate having the texture and consist-
ency of clay when wet and analyzing 95 to 98
percent calcium-magnesium carbonate. Upon
drying the material cements solidly. The bed is
laminated by carbonized plant remains, thin
peat beds in places, and a pavement-like bryozoa.
It contains an abundant and beautifully pre-
served microfauna of the Avon Park limestone
and includes Elphidium sp. "A," Coskinolina
floridana and Dictyoconus cookei in great abun-
dance, and an ostracod fauna that has been de-
scribed by Dr. H. V. Howe and is published in
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 34 0.7 to 1.0
1) Brownish-gray to brown, purple-tinted, soft but
tough, granular, massive, porous limestone con-
taining an abundant Avon Park fauna. Penero-
plid sp. "X," Elphidium sp. "A" are prominent.
On November 15, 1947, and July 11, 1948,
boulders of this limestone, completely dolomi-
tized, were mined in the north side of the pit,
and these contained the large Lucinia of L-123,
a Manatee rib, and numerous dolomite casts of
"Cerithium" n.sp. ...... ____ 3.0
Maximum cumulative thickness 25.55
Specimens labeled L-118A are from Bed 1, and those labeled L-118B are
from Bed 4.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


L-135 Inglis member-Moodys Branch formation. One of the
type localities located about one-eighth mile below the Florida
Power Corporation Plant at Inglis, Florida, on the right bank of
of the Withlacoochee River in the southeast quarter of the north-
west quarter of Section 3, Township 17 South, Range 16 East.
Boulders of cream-colored, soft, granular, porous miliolid lime-
stone. See Vernon (1951, p. 124, type 2).

L-139 Inglis member--Moodys Branch formation. An exten-
sive exposure along the Withlacoochee River at the dam of the
Florida Power Corporation in the southwest quarter, southwest
quarter of Section 8, Township 17 South, Range 17 East. The fossils
come from Bed 4 of the following section, reproduced from Vernon
(1951, pp. 129-)30)
Locality L-139
Upper Eocene series
Moodys Branch formation Feet
Inglis member
5) Tan, very soft, finely crystalline, massive dolo-
mite containing abundant foraminifers, barnacle
and mollusk molds, Coskinolina sections, shrimp
claws, and Periarchus lyelli floridanus 1.0
4) Similar dolomite containing pebbles of laminated
dolomite and abundant nodular concretions of
hard, brown to gray, crystalline, dolomitic lime-
stone. Periarchus lyelli floridanus, Cassidulus
ericsoni, C. globosus, Eupatagus mooreanus, all
dolomitized and deformed but beautifully pre-
served, sections of Coskinolina, Dictyoconus and
Lituonella, impressions of Peneroplid sp. "X"
and buckshot miliolids are present. Grades
into bed 3 . . . . . . ..- .. 1.9
3) Tan, soft, finely crystalline, massive dolomite
containing many molds of the mollusks above.
The base contains boulders and pebbles of tan,
laminated dolomite and many oxidized concre-
tions. A reworked soil mantle developed on bed 2 2.15
Unconformity
Middle Eocene series
Avon Park limestone
2) Soft, tan, finely crystalline, platy dolomite,
laminated by differing colors and textures of
dolomite and by carbon residues of eel(?) grass
and other plant remains. The top has many
brown to tan concretions that are more calcar-
eous than the matrix and elongate, meandering
tubes that appear to be animal borings. Molds
of the Avon Park microfauna are numerous
to water level __..._...______.___... _-.. ...._ ..____ 1.4
1) Bed 2 visible below water 1.5
Total thickness 6.95

C-11 Inglis member-Moodys Branch formation. Boulders of
crystalline, tan to brown, hard, fragmental marine limestone




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

thrown out of a pit of the Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Company
located in the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of Section
10, Township 18 South, Range 19 East. For further discussion see
Vernon (1951, pp. 134-135).
VL-187 Inglis member-Moodys Branch formation. Boulders
of hard, crystalline, tan, fragmental marine limestone, exposed
in a road metal pit in the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter
of Section 14, Township 15 South, Range 16 East. Not included
by Vernon in Bulletin 33.





PART 2.-GASTROPODA


by
KATHERINE V. W. PALMER

INTRODUCTION

The collection of gastropods from the Avon Park limestone in-
cludes specimens from localities L-73, L-76 and L-118. The species
identified are all new and represent such Eocene genera as Tec-
tariopsis, Bellatara, Hipponix, Pseudocrommium and Conomitra.
Of those genera Tectariopsis is a Lutetian genus from France. Bel-
latara previous to the record of this Floridian material was known
only from the middle Eocene of Europe. Pseudocrommium occurs
in the middle Eocene of Europe and in the upper Eocene of Colom-
bia. The evidence of the identifiable gastropods corroborates a
middle Eocene or Lutetian age of the Avon Park limestone as
previously assigned by the members of the Florida Geological
Survey.
The greater portion of the material submitted for study came
from a horizon stratigraphically higher than the Avon Park lime-
stone (see Bull. 33, Fla. Geol. Surv.), the Inglis member of the
Moodys Branch formation which is lower than the Ocala limestone
(restricted) (Jackson Eocene). Well-preserved gastropods were re-
covered from the Inglis member at localities L-93, L-139, L-135 and
C-11, Levy and Citrus counties respectively. There was also a large
number of fragments in the form of casts and impressions which
would not warrant description but which do indicate that the fauna
was more prolific than the listed species. Of the localities L-93
yielded the best preserved and most abundant specimens.
Of the genera identified from the Inglis member Velates (one
species in the Cretaceous), Bellatara, Pseudoaluca, Personella,
Pseudocrommium, Papillina, Lapparia, Eovasum and Pseudotoma
and confined to the Paleocene and Eocene. Seraphs which is a
predominantly Eocene subgenus does range into the Oligocene.
Batillaria, Hipponix, Agaronia, Olivella (Callianax), Conomitra,
Athleta, and Lyria though not limited to the Eocene are common
during that period. Laevella, Voluticella, and Sycospira are new
genera which are unique. Caricella, Lapparia and Papiiina are
genera which are typical of the Mississippi embayment area and
except Caricella are confined to that region. Species of these genera
predominate in the Floridian material and have associated with




10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

them the Tethyan genus, Velates. Jamaica, B.W.I., California, and
Panama, are the only other places in the Western Hemisphere at
which Velates has been found. The Floridian species of Bellatara
resemble forms from the lower Claiborne formations to the west
as well as to species of Europe. Specifically the ubiquitous Calyp-
traea aperta (Solander), Cypraedia fenestralis Conrad and Dis-
torsio jacksonensis (Meyer) make up the list common to the
Floridian and Mississippian provinces. Calyptraea aperta is of no
subdivisional value in the Eocene.
The presence of the above genera and species is weighed against
that of Velates, Eovasum, and Pseudoaluca. Seraphs is abundant
in the Floridian material while only meager specimens of Tere-
bellum, s.s., have been found in the Mississippi embayment Eocene
fauna. The fauna presents a more striking resemblance to genera
and species of the middle and upper Eocene of the Paris Basin,
northern Italy and the Moquattam beds in Egypt. Certainly a
portion of the gastropod fauna of the Florida Eocene, during the
deposition of the Avon Park limestone and the Inglis member of
the Moodys Branch formation, was supplied from the Tethyan
source. Analysis of the fauna confirms that the Inglis is low in
the upper Eocene.
As yet the molluscan remains of the Ocala limestone have not
been critically and thoroughly described. Field studies of the ma-
terial definitely indicate that it also contains a majority of Old
World and new elements. Lack of an identified list of the Ocala
shells prevents a comparison with the earlier genera and species,
but those studies are underway and the present paper will furnish
a preliminary list as a basis of comparison.

LIST OF SPECIES
GASTROPODA
Formation Inglis member,
Name Avon Park limestone Moodys
Tectariopsis (?) avonensis, n.sp. L-73
Astraea withlacoochensis, n.sp. L-135
Velates floridanus Richards L-73 (Vernon) L- 35
Turritella fischeri, n.sp. L-135; L-93 (type)
Diastoma, sp. L-139
Batillaria advena, n.sp. L-93
Bellatara americana, n.sp. L-76 L-135; L-93 (type)
Bellatara citrana, n.sp. L-76; L-118 C-11 (type)
Bellatara floridana, n.sp. L-118 L-135 (type)
Pseudoaluca clarki, n.sp. L-93
Hipponix floridanus, n.sp. L-73 L-93 (type)
Calyptraea aperta (Solander) L-93
Xenophora, sp. L-135
Tugurium grayi, n.sp. C-11
Laevella floridana, n.g., n.sp. C-11; L-93 (type)





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Terebellum (Serapli) belemnitum,
n.sp.
Cypraedia fenestralis Conrad
Ampullinopsis citrinensis, n.sp.

Pseudocrommium brucei, n.sp.

Pseudocrommium occiduum, n.sp. L-76
Distorsio (Personella) jacksonensis
(Meyer)
Papillina gunteri, n.sp.
Agaronia inglisia, n.sp.
Olivella (Callianax) poinciana,
n.sp.
Conomitra, sp. L-73
Lapparia conradi, n.sp.
Eovasum vernoni, n.sp.
Athleta arangia, n.sp.
Sycospira eocenica, n.g., n.sp.
Caricella obsoleta, n.sp.
Voluticella levenais, n.g., n.sp.
Lyria citrusensis, n.sp.
Lyria pycnopleura eocenia, n. subsp.
Pseudotoma floridana, n.sp.
Conus, sp. A
Conus, sp. B
Scaphander richardsi, n.sp.


L-93
L-93
C-11; L-139; L-
93 (type)
L-135; L-139; L-
93 (type); C-11

L-93
L-93
L-93

L-93
L-93
L-93
L-93
C-11; L-93 (type)
L-93
L-93
L-93; VL-187
C-11
L-93
L-93
L-93
L-93
L-93


11





12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS

Family Turbinidae
Genus Tectariopsis Cossmann, 1888
Tectariopsis (?) avonensis Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 1, figures 10, 11
Shell medium in size, turbiniform; spire small, elevated, pointed;
postnuclear whorls of spire about two; nuclear whorls not well pre-
served; suture impressed with a strong sutural cord; body whorl
with four strong muricated spiral ribs which form a shoulder above
and a carinated base below; about three fine spiral threads between
the primary ribs; two muricated secondary spiral ribs are present
on the base next to the umbilical area with two, more or less,
spiral threads just below the carination of the base and one be-
tween the shoulder margin and the sutural cord; finer threads occur
between the secondary ribs. The primary ribs are well developed
on young specimens but do not yield the murications, and the fine
spiral threads are not apparent. The aperture and umbilical areas
are unknown. Fragments of a larger specimen than the holotype
has the murications less pronounced than that individual, but the
spiral threads are more numerous.
This species is represented by four plastotypes with additional
fragments. All are casts which were made in the field from original
molds. They are from young, immature and adult shells. The spe-
cies belongs in the Turbinidae but because the critical characters
of the aperture and umbilical areas are not preserved the generic
placement cannot be definite. The form is common at the type
locality, and the specific features are distinct and different from any
known form of the Gulf Coast Eocene, hence its definition as new is
warranted. The species is placed temporarily in Tectariopsis Coss-
mann, 1888, a genus represented by several species in the Lutetian
(middle Eocene) of France.
Dimensions.-Adult; height, 15 mm.; greatest diameter, 18 mm.
young: height, 9 mm.; greatest diameter, 8 mm.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7391; paratypes, Nos. 1-7392-94, Fla.
Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone,'loc. L-73, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Astraea Roeding in Bolten, 1798
Astraea withlacoochensis Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 1, figure 12
Shell medium, pyramidal line of whorls continuous, concave
above the flaring margin of the whorl just above the suture; apical




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


whorls destroyed, five remaining whorls; anterior margin of each
whorl pinched into a slightly spreading irregular rim compressed
over the suture below; surface with fine irregular spiral lines, some
more pronounced than others; base unknown. This species is like
A. fimbriatum (Lamarck) figured by Pilsbry (Man. Conch., X,
1888, pl. 54, figs. 46-54), Recent of Australia. The spiral lines in
the Florida Eocene are fewer and more unequal in size than those
of A. fimbriatutm. The species belong in a subgroup which have
been placed in Cyclocantha Swainson, 1840, or Calcar Montfort,
1810, the nomenclature of which is technically unsettled. There is
a species in the Eocene of Australia, A. flindersi Tenison Woods
which was placed in Calcar by Cossmann (Essais Paleonconch.
comp., 11 liv.. 1918, p. 145). Because the umbilical area and aper-
ture is unknown the generic placement cannot be definite.
Clark in Clark and Durham (1946, p. 13) identified an Astraea,
sp. from the upper Eocene of Colombia. It is not so well preserved
as this Florida shell and is of a different shape.
The species is known by the holotype only but its distinctness in
form and sculpture justifies its description.
Dimensions.-Height, 27 mm.; greatest diameter, 29 mm.
Holotype.-No. 1-7395, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-135, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Neritidae
Genus Velates Montfort, 1810
Velates floridanus Richards
Plate 1, figures 6-9
Velates floridanus Richards, 1946, Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia,
Notulae Naturae, No. 177, p. 2, pls. 1, 2.
Three specimens of Velates were recovered from L-135 which
is the type locality for V. floridanus. This locality is further dis-
cussed by Vernon (1951 p. 123, 124) and several sections are given.
V. floridanus is mentioned in the fauna.
Velates is widely distributed in the Eocene of Europe, Africa,
and Asia.
In the Western Hemisphere it is known from Jamaica, Cali-
fornia, Panama, and Florida. The type species, V. perversus (Gme-
lin) from the Eocene of France ranges through the Eocene in
Europe; in Africa and Asia it is known from lower through upper
Eocene. In California and Jamaica it occurs in the middle Eocene.
In Florida, V. floridanus is present in the lower upper Eocene.





14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Vernon (1951, p. 103) listed "Velates, sp. (juvenile?)" from L-73
in the Avon Park limestone, middle Eocene.
Cossmann and Pissarro (1909, p. 76) pointed out a basic criter-
ium for differentiating specimens from the variable, widely dis-
tributed V. perversus. They noted a difference in the number of
teeth on the inner lip. V. perversus has usually eight teeth while
in other species such as V. noetlingi Cossmann and Pissarro, there
are only six. Vokes (1935, pp. 381-389, pls. 25, 26) utilized this
point in describing a species from California (V. californicus
Vokes).
A large (90 mm., length) internal mold from L-135 has the im-
pressions on the inner lip of seven (possibly six) large teeth more
regular than as usual in V. perversus (Gmelin). This feature of
the Florida shells suggests that the species is not of the typical
V. perversus group. Differences in size and shape bear little weight
in distinguishing the smooth specimens of Velates specifically. Be-
cause of the apparent difference from V. perversus in character of
the teeth the Florida shells are retained in the distinct species.
Specimens of Velates from Jamaica, B.W.I., in the senior author's
collection measure 127 mm. in length. None of the Jamaican in-
dividuals has the teeth preserved.
Specimens figured.-Nos. 1-7396, 1-7397, 1-7398, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-135, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Turritellidae
Genus Turritella Lamarck, 1799
Turritella fischeri Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 1, figures 1-5
Shell medium in size (greatest diameter, 18 mm.) ; tapering;
17 whorls-- (an immature specimen has 17 whorls) ; postnuclear
whorls are tricarinate in sculpture, the middle rib the weaker; with
age an additional spiral line develops which becomes stronger so
that a whorl or two in the ontogeny of the shell has four primary
spiral ribs (see Plate 1, figure 1). The adult sculpture consists of
two strong spirals above the suture and two below the suture on
the posterior part of the lower whorl; the basal ribs are the stronger
of the two pairs; there are fine spiral striations on the medial re-
gion of the whorls; the middle of each whorl is close and slightly
overhangs the suture.
The nuclear and postnuclear whorls of a Turritella are the key
portions of the shell to determine the general groups to which the
species may belong. A discussion of the types of apical carination





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


of the southern United States Eocene Turritellas has been pre-
sented by Palmer (1937), Bowles (1939), and Palmer (1947).
The collection of this species does not contain a specimen with
the apical whorls preserved. However, several immature individ-
uals, including the one figured herein (Plate 1, figure 1) present
the early apical whorls in which the tricarination of the spiral rib-
bing is revealed. Such a primary factor places the species in the
tricarinate group of which T. ghigna de Gregorio (T. carinata Lea)
of the Claiborne group and T. pcrdita Conrad are representatives.
Specimens of T. fischeri bear a superficial resemblance to shells of
those species and in a preliminary survey of the material the shells
were temporarily so assigned (see list, p. 119, Bull. 33, Fla. Geol.
Surv.). On detailed examination and preparation of additional
specimens th differences from the specimens mentioned seem to
warrant a distinct separation.
The character of the closer overhanging basal spiral rib dis-
tinguishes T. fischeri from both T. ghigna and T. perdita. The
specimen which had been thought to resemble T. ghigna apparently
is of the same species as the remainder of the individuals. On the
later part of the tricarinate stage of T. fischeri, the middle spiral is
weaker than the posterior and the anterior two ribs are stronger
than the third.
Named in honor of Dr. Alfred G. Fischer who studied the echi-
noids of these counties.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7399; paratypes, Nos. 1-7400-7403, Fla.
Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93 (type) and L-135, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Diastomatidae
Genus Diastoma Deshayes, 1850
Diastoma sp.
Plate 7, figure 8
A fragment of 10 whorls reveals well-preserved sculpture of
spiral fine lines alternating in strength. Moderately strong longi-
tudinal folds extend the length of each whorl. Varices are appar-
ent on two whorls. The shell would have been slender.
Only one side of one specimen of this species is available. Hence
the known characters are not enough for description. But the fea-
tures are adequate to identify additional material of the same
species. Future collections may contribute the data as to the pres-
ent missing characters.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7404, Fla. Geol. Surv.





16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-139, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Cerithiidae
Dall in 1892 (p. 277) remarked on the apparent scarcity of
Cerithiidae in the American Eocene and thought that it was due
in part to lack of material and poor preservation. Large collections
of well-preserved specimens from formations of Claiborne and
Jackson Eocene of the Gulf states have not yielded a noticeable
representation of the family such as that from Eocene sediments of
the Old World. In contrast the Eocene deposits of Citrus and Levy
counties, Florida, contain fragments which indicate that there was
a better representation of cerithiids in the Floridian Eocene than
in the Mississippi Embayment area. Portions of specimens each
with a different type of sculpture indicate that there would be at
least four cerithiid species in the present small collection.
The name "Cerithium" has been used and continues to be used
as a general term rather than as a generic name in the strict
sense. The generic name Cerithium Bruguiere is at present in a
debatable nomenclatorial situation (see foot note under Bellatara
rwechensensis.)

Genus Batillaria Benson in Cantor 1842
Batillaria advena Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 2, figures 4, 5
Shell small; nine whorls; first nuclear whorl not known, last
smooth; first two or three postnuclear whorls with three spiral
ribs crossed by the longitudinal folds; the remainder of the whorls
of the spire and the posterior portion of the body whorl have four
coarse spiral ribs and stout longitudinal folds. The folds do not
cross the revolving ribs over the basal portion of the body whorl;
microscopic spiral threads are present between the axial ribs; the
labrum is bounded by a varix; labium moderately thickened and
reflected, spread to the posterior point and divided from the out-
er lip by a notch; short anterior notch or channel present. There
are 8-10 longitudinal coarse folds which extend over all the whorls
except the basal portion of the body whorl.
This species is representative of a genus not recorded previously
from the United States. The genus extends from the Paleocene in
India, through Eocene-Oligocene in Europe and Pliocene to Recent
in the Indo-Pacific (Davies, 1935).
The species resembles the figure of "Potamides transecta" Dall
(1890, pl. XI, fig. 7; Dall, 1915, pl. 14, fig. 3) in the coarse ribbing.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


number of revolving ribs on the whorls of the spire and posterior
notch. It differs from Dall's species in a larger number of spiral
ribs on the base of the body whorl, fewer on the posterior portion,
smaller number of longitudinal folds, less recurved anterior canal
and less concave basal outline of the body whorl. "Potamides"
transecta is from the lower Miocene Tampa limestone.
For generic relationship B. advena may be compared with the
abundant western Atlantic Recent species B. minima (Gmelin)
(Bequaert, 1942, p. 8, pl. 5). B. minima was placed in the sub-
genus Lampanella M6rch (1876) by Bequaert but he did not believe
such a division was warranted. Dall (1890, p. 189; 1915, p. 91)
placed "Potamides" transecta in Lampanella.
Cerithium (Bittium) plaga Oppenheim (1901, p. 266, pl. XV,
figs. 10, 10a) from the Eocene of Dolnja Tuzla has a comparable
general pattern of sculpture. The longitudinal folds die out on
the posterior area of the body whorl in both species. The longi-
tudinal ribs are stronger but fewer in the Florida species, and
there are less spiral ribs on the whorls of the spire.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7405; paratype, 1-7406, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrencc.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Bellatara Strand, 1928
(Bellardia Mayer-Eymar, 1870 not Bellardia Robineau-Des-
voidy, 1863 or of Roudani, 1864, or of Bucquoy, Dautzenberg,
and Dollfus, 1883).
Bellatara is a middle Eocene genus of northern Italy and the
Balkan Peninsula. It was assigned to the marine family Cerithiidae
by the early authorities but Davies (1935, p. 257) referred the
forms to Melanopsidae, the fluviatile group. He briefed the de-
scription of the genus as with no posterior notch. However, the
type species has a posterior notch. Cox (1931, p. 46) reiterated
the cerithiid position of the genus. The association of the type
species is marine. The discovery of specimens of B. americana, B.
citrana and B. floridana extends the range of the genus into the
lower upper Eocene in Florida.
The apparent abundance of this genus including specific dif-
ferentiation in the Florida Eocene reveals a faunal element not
heretofore noted in the southern American Eocene. The associa-
tion bears a resemblance to that of the fauna of the middle Eocene
beds of Mt. Postale, northern Italy. The Floridian species, however,
range from the middle Eocene into the lower upper Eocene equally
as well developed in each horizon.





18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Bellatara americana Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 2, figures 3, 9, 12
Shell large, robust, whorls narrow and broad in adults; suture
sharp and impressed; canal short, reflected, concave behind; pos-
terior notch present with lines of growth curved on the body whorl
following the strong swing of the labrum into the short canal; a
strong incised line is present on the whorls above the midline of
the whorl and forming a broad well-marked area parallel with the
suture. Apical whorls with fine spiral threads crossed by incipient
longitudinal ribs. Both become obsolete on the adult whorls. Fig-
ure 12, Plate 2 is an immature shell showing primitive longitudinal
striae. On the apical whorls of the holotype rudimentary varices
are present. They are not noticeable beyond the sixth whorl.
Probably the varix-like folds are what in B. floridana persist as
strong nodes on the adult whorls. B. americana differs from B.
floridana in the lack of nodes in the mature stage and in the pres-
ence of the subcentral incised line on B. americana.
The holotype of this species is complete except for the earlier
apical whorls. The specimen bears a close resemblance to "Cer-
ithium gomphoceras Bayan" figured by De Gregorio (Ann. Geol.
Paleont., 14 liv., 1894, p. 19, pl. 3, figs. 77-87) from Mt. Postale,
Italy.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7407; paratypes, 1-7408, 7409, 7410,
Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone. loc. L-76; Inglis member,
Moodys Branch formation, loc. L-93 (type), L-135, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Bellatara citrana Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 2, figure 8
Shell large, robust, sides of whorls straight; suture sharp and
impressed, whorl slightly raised at suture in the body whorl and
penultimate whorl, thereafter on the whorls of the spire the upper
margin of each whorl becomes increasingly enlarged until it forms
a distinct rounded rib margin; on the young and probably corre-
sponding apical whorls of the adult this is a large revolving swollen
rib which is the most conspicuous feature of the shell. On the an-
terior portion of older whorls of the spire there are two minor re-
volving ribs, these are present in the young but on the postnuclear
whorls there is only one spiral. The sutural rib may be finely nodose.
There are inconspicuous nodes or tubercles just above the suture
on the penultimate whorl. This character reveals generic affinity.
The canal is short; aperture unknown.
This species differs from B. floridana and B. americana in the





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


presence of the revolving ribs on the lower portion of the whorls
of the spire and the strong sutural rib just below the suture. It
lacks the strong nodes of B. floridana and the revolving incised line
of B. americana. The revolving ribs on the lower portion of the
whorls including the body whorl suggest that of Campanile. In
Campanile (see Favre, 1918, pl. 12, figs. 200-201 for one of the best
illustrations of C. giganteum Lamarck) the nodes on all the whorls
are near the upper margin of the whorl. In this species nodes are
conspicuously absent except on the penultimate whorl. They occur
just above the suture.
The author is aware of the wide variation in the ontogeny of
cerithiid species. On that basis I have endeavored preliminarily
to divide the specimens of Bellatara into three species.
Types.--Holotype, No. 1-7412; paratypes, Nos. 1-7411, 7413
(all plastotypes), Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, loc. L-76; L-118; Inglis
member, Moodys Branch formation, loc. C-11 (type), Fla. Geol.
Surv.

Bellatara floridana Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 2, figures 10, 11, 13
Shell large, robust, adult with more than nine whorls, line of
whorls straight; suture impressed, sharp; surface of immature in-
dividuals and of the whorls of mature shells excluding the body
whorl and penultimate whorl is smooth; on the penultimate whorl
there are large nodes with the line of the base of each just above
the center or about the center of the whorl; there are probably six
or seven of the nodes; obscure revolving lines are present on the
last two whorls mainly on the posterior area; faint curved longi-
tudinal striae are seen on the body whorl of the holotype. Immature
shells of 25+ mm. in length and of at least eight whorls are smooth.
The canal is short; aperture not known.
This species is congeneric with B. palaeochroma (Bayan) from
the middle Eocene (Lutetian) of Mt. Postale, northern Italy. The
striking resemblance may be seen in Cossmann (Essais Pal6o-
conch. comp., 7 liv., p. 70, 1906, pl. 2, figs. 6-8) and better because
of the series of figures in De Gregorio (Ann. Geol. Paleont., 14 liv.,
1894, pl. IV, figs. 88-93) as well as in Oppenheim (Palaeont., vol.
XLIII, 1897, pl. XV, figs. 1-3). B. floridana differs from B. pal-
aeochroma in that the nodes are smaller with a greater number,
and they may also appear on other whorls of the spire and the body
whorl. B. palaeochroma (Bayan) is the type species of Bellardia
Mayer-Eymar, 1870=Bellatara Strand, 1928.





20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

This species is represented in the material studied by three adult
individuals and three immature specimens from locality L-135 and
one immature shell from L-118. These specimens were part of a
suite of what were preliminarily referred to as Campanile, n.sp.
(see Fla. Geol. Sur., Bull. 33, p. 119). The form is fairly abundant.
The genus, as yet known, is limited to the middle and lower upper
Eocene.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7414 (plastotype) ; paratypes, Nos.
1-7415, 7416, 7417, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, L-118; Inglis member,
Moodys Branch formation, loc. L-135 (type), Fla. Geol. Surv.

Bellatara wechesensis (Stenzel in Renick and Stenzel)
Cerithium vinctum Dall, 1892, Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Phila-
delphia, vol. III, pt. II, p. 285, pl. 22, fig. 9 not C. vinctum
Whitfield, 1865, p. 265, pl. 27, fig. 8.
Vertagus wechesensis Stenzel in Renick and Stenzel, 1931, Univ.
Texas Pub., Bull., No. 3101, pl. VI, fig. 8.
Clava ("Ochetoclava") vincta Palmer, 1937, p. 217 in part, pl.
29, figs. 15, 16 not C. vinctum Whitfield, 1865.
Clava wechesensis (Stenzel), 1938, Univ. Texas Pub., Bull., No.
3818, p. 112 footnote.
This species and B. vincta (Whitfield) are not typical Cerith-
ium' Bruguiere, 1789, nor Clava Martyn,2 1784, type species C.
rugata Martyn (Vertagus Schumacher, 1817, not Link, 1807) where
they have been indefinitely assigned previously. Both species are
represented in the lower Claiborne Eocene of the Mississippi Em-
bayment area: B. vincta (see Palmer, 1937, pl. 29, figs. 10, 11;
Gardner, 1945, pl. 14, figs. 3, 7) from the Lisbon formation" of
Lisbon, Alabama, and B. wechesensis from the Weches formation
of Texas (Stenzel, 1938). These forms exhibit relationships with
Bellatara and particularly with pertinent similarities with the
Florida species so classified. The incised line of B. americana sug-
gests affinity. The longitudinal sculpture of the young shells and
apical whorls of the adults is stronger in the species to the west
'The status of Cerithium rests upon the identification of "Le Cerite" Adan-
son, 1757. That shell has been regarded as C. adansoni Bruguiere (Stewart,
1927, p. 355; fig'd by Cossmann, 1906, pl. 1, figs. 3-4). However, Piette-Fischer
and Fischer (1940, pp. 116-118) have studied Adanson's type and believe it
to be C. erythraeonense Lamarck, 1822, which may be a variety of C. nodu-
losum Bruguiere, 1789. This is the type species used by Cossmann, 1906.
2There is adverse opinion as to using Martyn's names (Winckworth, 1929,
pp. 228-229) in spite of Dall's (1905, 1907) recommendation that six of the
generic names, including Clava, were on a binomial basis.
"Name preoccupied.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


than in the Floridian, B. americana. The canal is longer in B.
wechesensis than in the Floridian species.
Clark (in Clark and Durham, 1946) figured a large single
poorly preserved specimen from Zone C, Carmen area, Department
of Bolivar, Colombia, in which he pointed out an affinity with B.
vincta (Whitfield). The illustration by Clark (pl. 24, fig 1) exhibits
a specimen of the character of B. americana, n.sp. It certainly re-
veals the presence of this same group of gastropods such as the
Floridian shells. Clark correlated Zone C with the Saman sand-
stone and the Chira shale of Peru. Olsson (1930-31) regarded the
Saman sandstone as upper Eocene and the Chira shales as lower
Oligocene. Clark included both formations in the upper Eocene.

Genus Pseudoaluca Clark, 1946
Pseudoaluca clarki Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 8, figures 5, 12
Shell medium in size, height probably up to 45 mm. (adult) and
maximum diameter, 10 mm., apical whorls and complete aperture
not known; whorls sculptured with conspicuous primary revolving
ribs, about four on early whorls increasing to seven or eight on
later whorls. Between the primaries are microscopic spiral striae,
usually two; below the first and, or second primary there is a con-
cave area constricting the ribs above the suture as a subsutural
collar; longitudinal folds occur which are well developed on the
early whorls and become obsolete on the body whorl; the spiral
primaries are beaded where the longitudinals cross; irregular wide-
ly swollen varices, usually one to a whorl are conspicuous; sutural
margin at the point of the labrum swings upward to take care of
the extended posterior canal.
Bruce Clark in 1946 (Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 16, p. 28) de-
scribed the new genus Pseudoaluca to accommodate shells he found
in the upper Eocene of Colombia. He designated a Paris Basin
Lutetian species Cerithium jussieui Mayer-Eymer as the type
species. This species is expertly illustrated by Cossmann and
Pissarro (Icon. comp. Coq. fos. l'Eocene Env. Paris, 1910-1913, pl.
XXIV, fig. 137-23) so that details of the sculpture and aperture may
be determined.
The present species is represented by 10 specimens besides the
holotype. Although the apical whorls and complete aperture are
destroyed, many pertinent characters are well preserved and show
a close resemblance to the type species of Pseudoaluco. P. clarki has
stronger varices than the type species and there are more striae
between the primaries. The Florida species is congeneric with the





22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

sculptured forma which De Gregorio (1896, pp. 135-137) grouped
under "Cerithium corvinum" (Brongniart, 1823).
De Gregorio (1896, pl. 25, fig. 13-15 a, b) illustrated shells from
the Eocene of Mt. Pulli, Italy, as C. fontis felsinae Oppenheim.
Specimens of P. clarki resemble those figures more than they do
the originals of Oppenheim (Deutsche Geol. Gesell., Zeit. 46, 1894,
p. 396, pl. XXV, figs. 8-10). De Gregorio showed that sculpture
and nonsculpture were transitional.
Named in honor of the late Dr. Bruce Clark who described the
genus.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7641, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, C-11 Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Hipponicidae
Genus Hipponix Defrance, 1819
Hipponix floridanus Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 3, figures 6-8
Shell large; convex; apex strongly curved; inner margin of
the aperture wider across the area beneath the apex, narrowing on
both sides to the sharp margin anteriorly; surface covered with
coarse radiating ribs which have interspaces about equal in size.
The ribs may die out with age but not with size. Some of the large
individuals have the surface completely sculptured while smaller
gerontic shells have the surface smooth. Usually in such individuals
the umbonal area retains the spiral ribs.
This species differs from H. pygmaeus Lea (1833) of the Claib-
orne and Jackson Eocene of the Mississippi embayment area (Pal-
mer, 1947, p. 265, pl. 32, figs. 1-3) in size and character of the
radiating ribs. In size and ribbing this species falls in the cate-
gory of H. vagus (Palmer, 1944, p. 6, pl. 2, figs. 1-3) from the
Gosport sand of Claiborne Bluff. That species is known so far only
from the well-preserved holotype. The present species represented
by eight specimens are all strongly curved while H. vagus with age
has the umbo elevated as in H. cornucopiac Lamarck of the Lute-
tian and Bartonian of the Paris Basin (Cossmann and Pissarro,
1913, t. 2, pl. XII, figs. 74-1).
The species is well represented in the Inglis member, loc. L-93.
One specimen was collected from the Avon Park limestone.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7418; paratypes, 1-7419, 7420, 7421,
Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, loc. L-73; Inglis member,
Moodys Branch formation, loc. L-93 (type).




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Family Calyptraeidae
Genus Calyptraea Lamarck, 1799
Calyptraea aperta (Solander)
Plate 2, figures 1, 2
Trochus aperta Solander in Brander, 1766, p. 9, pl. 1, figs. 1, 2.
For continued synonymy see Palmer, 1937, p. 145.
This species is known from the English, French, and American
Eocene. In the southern states it occurs in the Sabine (Wilcox),
Claiborne, and Jackson Eocene (Palmer, 1937, p. 145; Palmer, 1947,
p. 261). Similar variations are exhibited in the different geographic
and geologic locales.
Four specimens from the Inglis member at L-93, with shape
and sculpture well preserved, are typical of the species.
Specimens.-- o. 1-7422, 7423 (figured), 7424, 7425, Fla. Geol.
Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, L-93,
Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Xenophoridae
Genus Xenophora Fischer de Waldheim, 1807
Xenophora, sp.
Plate 2, figure 6
The cast of this species resembles the usual specimens in the
Eocene which have been identified as X. trochiformis (Born)
(Palmer, 1947, pl. 30, figs. 15, 18). The specimen figured is from
Levy County at L-135, Inglis member of the Moodys Branch forma-
tion. Another specimen (No. 1-7427) from L-139, same formation,
is not so well preserved.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7426, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Tugurium Fischer, 1880
Tugurium grayi Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 2, figure 7
Shell high, moderately large; whorls six; fragments which were
cemented to the whorls were coarse.
Although this species is represented in the collections by the
holotype only, because of the high spire it is distinct from the other
species of Xenophoridae so far described from the Eocene of the
southern United States. Usually the Eocene specimens of Xeno-
phora are not well preserved, and they have been compared to the
Recent X. trochiformis (Born) (Palmer, 1937, p. 143; Clench and
Aguayo, 1943, p. 2; Palmer, 1947, p. 258) or indicated merely as
"species." Two such specimens in this material are so labelled





24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

(Plate 2, figure 6, one figured). T. grayi differs from all such speci-
mens in its elevated shape. In that respect it is conspicuously like
Xenophora delecta floridana Mansfield (1930, p. 121) from the
Choctawatchee Miocene of Florida. The size is about the same
in both species. The whorls of T. grayi differ from X. floridana in
having the point of greatest convexity below the midline of the
whorl. In X. floridana that point is about at the central line of
height of the whorl. The base of T. grayi is not available. The
whorls apparently did not carry many objects as only about three
impressions of such are noted but more may have been on the
broken basal whorl. Tugurium differs in one respect from Xeno-
phora in that only a few particles are cemented to the whorls. The
other pertinent characters of each genus are not available in the
holotype to identify the distinction with certainty.
Named in honor of Carlton Gray who prepared many of the
specimens for this study.
Type.-Holotype, No. 1-7428, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
C-11, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Strombidae
Genus Laevella Palmer, n.genus
Type species, L. floridana Palmer, n.sp.
Shell medium in size; spire moderate; canal short, wide with
a slight but definite notch bounded anteriorly by a thick margin;
outer lip expanded, flaring and thickened; aperture narrow; pos-
terior canal cuts obliquely and deeply across the thickened labrum;
posterior canal extends narrowly but completely over the apex
and down over the spire to the suture of the body whorl; shell
smooth except for two or three sharp lines just over the anterior
canal; on one adult shell obsolete longitudinal folds may be dis-
cerned over the body whorl.
The complete smoothness of the shell, the abbreviated but wide
canal with slight notch and pointed margin of it, the wide calloused
labrum, obliquely cut posterior canal characterize this genus as
different from any rimellid so far known. It appears to be allied
nearest to Ectinochilus canalis (Lamarck) type species of Ectino-
chilus Cossmann, 1889, but there are too many critical differences
with that genus to include the Florida species in it. Laevella is like
Ectinochilus in the abbreviated canal, but it does not have the two
notches in the canal margin as in that genus. The spire is shorter
in Laevella, the labrum is more extended and the surface is smooth.




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Laevella floridana Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 3, figures 1-5
The description of the species has been presented in the charac-
terization of the genus. The species is so far unique. It is abun-
dant at the type locality.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7436: paratypes, 1-7437, 7438, Fla.
Geol. Surv.
Occurrcnce.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93 (type) and C-11, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Terebellum Roeding in Bolten, 1798
Subgenus Seraphs Montfort, 1810
Terebellum (Seraphs) belemnitum Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 3, figures 9, 12
Shell large, cylindrical; the spire is enveloped and the aperture
extends to about one millimeter from the apex of the spire. The
aperture is linear for the upper third of the shell, appearing as a
groove, anteriorly from above the midline the inner lip curves
backward and the margin of the labrum projects outward thus
widening the aperture two or three times the width of the posterior
end; cross section of the shell is a regular wide spiral; sutures not
discernible.
T. belemnitum resembles most T. (Seraphs) californicum Vokes
(N.Y. Acad. Sci., Ann., vol. XXXVIII, 1939, p. 157, pl. 20, figs. 7, 8,
11) from the Domengine, lower upper Eocene of California.
This species is the first described Terebellum or Seraphs from
the Eocene of the southern United States. "T. fusiforme Lamarck"
(not Lamarck, Ann. du Mus., 1803, p. 390) mentioned by De
Gregorio (Ann. de Geol. Pal., 1 liv., 1890, p. 116, pl. 10, figs. 7-10)
is not a Seraphs but Terebellum s.s., with well-marked sutures.
The specimens did not come from the Gosport sand but probably
from the Ocala "limestone" above "the sand." The report of "Tere-
bellum, sp." listed by Kennedy (Acad. Nat. Sci., Proc., vol. 47, 1895,
p. 114) from Alto, Cherokee County, Texas, was probably taken
from labels which had been made by G. D. Harris or from Harris'
Texas manuscript which was never published. The Harris draw-
ing of a fragment, 14 mm. in length (plus 5 or 6 mm. destroyed) is
of a Terebellum with a short spire and visible sutures, inflated
medially. The species was never named.
Harris (Amer. Geol., vol. 5, 1890, p. 315) called attention to
casts in the collection of the U.S. National Museum, Sta. No. 2056,
Mt. Enterprise, southeastern Rusk County, Texas, Claiborne group,





26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Reklaw formation, middle Eocene, which he noted probably be-
longed to Tercbellum.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7642; paratype, No. 1-7643, Fla. Geol.
Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Cypraeidae
Genus Cypraedia Swainson, 1840
Cypraedia fenestralis Conrad
Plate 5, figures 2, 3
Cypraea (Cypraedia) fenestralis Conrad, 1854, Wailes, Rept.
Agr. Geol. Mississippi, p. 289, pl. XVII, figs. 5a, 5b; Conrad,
1855, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Proc., vol. VII, p. 262;
1939, Reprint, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XXIV, No. 86, pp.
8, 19, pl. 4, figs. 5a, 5b.
Cypraedia fenestralis Conrad, Ingram, 1942, Bull. Amer. Pale-
ont., vol. XXVII, No. 104, p. 19, pl. 4, figs. 2, 3; Palmer, 1947,
Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XXX, No. 117, pt. 2, p. 320, pl. 40,
figs. 9, 10, 17, 18.
Two specimens, not complete, but exhibiting excellently pre-
served sculpture were recovered in the Inglis member sediments.
They seem to be typical of the species from the Moodys Branch
formation in the Mississippi embayment area.
Specimens figured.-Nos. 1-7439, 7440, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
No. L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Ampullospiridae
Genus Ampullinopsis Conrad, 1865
(Megatylotus Fischer, 1887)
Ampullinopsis citrinensis Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 3, figures 10, 11
Shell large, spire elevated, body whorl globose, whorls five,
apical whorls poorly preserved; suture conspicuously channelled;
large and wide umbilical callus with faint groove centrally directed
posteriorly from a rim of the exposed umbilical sheath; remainder
of anterior tip of shell unknown. Even fragments of the spire of
this species may be known by the channelled suture.
This species is related to the Vicksburg A. mississippiensis
Conrad and A. crassatina (Lamarck), an important middle Oligo-
cene (Rupelian) marker in Europe. The Florida Eocene species
differs from A. crassatina in having a broader heavier callus and





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


a faint umbilical groove. A. amphora (Heilprin) (1887, p. 112,
pl. 16, fig. 50; Dall, 1915, p. 108, pl. 11, fig. 5) from the Tampa,
lower Miocene, Florida, has a wider shoulder to the whorls than
A. citrinensis does. A. citrinensis has been compared with the holo-
type and five other Conradian specimens of A. mississippiensis
Conrad from the Vicksburg at the Academy of Natural Sciences
in Philadelphia. A. citrinensis is typical generically of those speci-
mens with perhaps a slightly heavier callus. The additional speci-
mens which Conrad had are larger and better preserved than his
holotype.
A species which resembles the Florida shells in the feature of
the heavy callus is "Natica (Ampullina) incomplete Zittel" in
Oppenheim (1901, p. 153, pl. XL, figs. 9-11) upper Lutetian Eocene
of Guttaring, ftusta Forna and Dabrica (Herzegowina). The
whorls of that form are more sharply shouldered that those in
A. citrinensis.
In the Nanggulan upper Eocene fauna of Java (Martin, 1914,
p. 173, pl. VI, figs. 152-154), A. ickei Martin has a smaller spire,
narrower whorls and more exposed umbilical sheath than A.
citrinensis has.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7434; paratype, No. 1-7435, Fla. Geol.
Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
C-11 (type) ; L-139, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Pseudocrommium Clark, 1946
Pseudocrommium brucei Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 4, figures 2-8
Shell large; spire high and sharp; composed of about seven
whorls; about one and one-half nuclear whorls, bulbous; body whorl
globose; whorls broadly shouldered, concave at the suture sloping
to a rounded shoulder margin; the surface of the shell has promi-
nent regularly spaced enlarged longitudinal growth lines which
give the appearance of fine sharp ribs. These are developed strong-
est on the concave area of the shoulder. Some shells, particularly
a figured paratype, have the lines conspicuously developed over
large portions of the whorls. Although microscopic on the young
specimens they are intimated most strongly just below the suture.
They are less well developed on the earlier whorls of the spire;
umbilical area may be completely closed with callus or a slight nar-
row opening may be present; the callus may be broken back in
adults revealing an irregular funicular ridge with a groove behind;
margin of the callus recurved below and flaring.





28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

This species resembles P. occiduum, n. sp. in the elevated spire,
with about the same number of whorls, and by the shouldered whorls
of the spire. P. brucei differs from the older species in being
smaller, narrower, and by the less channelled sutural area.
This group of ampullinids is represented in the middle Eocene
of the Paris Basin and English Basin and Italy. They have been
designated as Ampullaria, Ampullospira, Pachycrommium, and
Ampullina. (See Cox, 1931; Wrigley, 1946). In America, P. pero-
vatum Conrad (Claiborne, Gosport sand and P. jacksonense (Har-
ris) ) (Jackson, Moodys Branch formation) are from the Eocene of
the southern United States. The type species and another are from
the upper Eocene of Colombia (Clark, 1946, p. 19).
This species was referred to in preliminary lists as Crommium,
n.sp. (Fla. Geol. Sur., Bull. 33, p. 120).
The incised longitudinal lines are suggestive of Pseudomaura
Fischer (1885) of the Rauracian (Jurassic) through Neocomian
according to Cossmann (1925, pp. 22-24). Wenz, however, extends
the genus from the middle Triassic through the Miocene (Wenz
1941, p. 1021, fig. 2927 P. bulbiformis (Sowerby), type species).
Although the incised lines are more continuous and frequent than
shown on the illustration of a paratype of Pseudocrommium brucei,
they do not completely cover all of the whorls as in the type species
of Pseudomaura.
Amaurellina (Euspirocrommium) clarki Stewart (see Weaver,
Univ. Washington Publ. Geol., vol. 5, pt. II, 1943, p. 345, pl. 70, figs.
10, 18) may be a related species which existed in the middle Eocene
(Domengine) of California and upper Eocene (Cowlitz) of Wash-
ington.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7429; paratypes, 1-7430-32, 1-7640
Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93 (type), loc. L-139, L-135, C-11, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Pseudocrommium occiduum Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 4, figure 1
Shell large, broad, spire high and pointed, seven whorls broadly
shouldered with a concave channel at the sutures. No impressions
of pronounced growth stages as in P. brucei where the longi-
tudinal lines are coarse at regular intervals.
This species is known by the holotype only which consists of the
external impression of the spire and upper body whorl and the in-
ternal mold of the same which includes the complete body whorl.
This species attains a size about twice that of P. brucei. The





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


shoulders are concave at the suture and flatter at the periphery of
the shoulder than in P. brucei. P. occiduum also lacks the conspicu-
ously marked growth stages of P. brucei. The photographs of the
holotypes of each species are deceiving as to size if taken as illus-
trated. That of P. occiduum is reduced in size.
P. occidmum approaches in size P. scalariformis (Deshayes)
(1837, pl. 16, figs. 8, 9; Cossmann and Pissarro, 1910-1913, P1. XI,
fig. 64 bis 3) from the Paris Basin and English Lutetian. Where
the holotype of P. occiduum is about 110 mm. (est.), the height of
P. scalariformis is about 130 mm. The spire is more elongate, 50
mm., length to 45 mm., width, while in P. occiduum the ratio be-
tween the same areas is 1:1. The character of the shouldered whorls
are similar in the two species and is closer than that of American
ampullinid species are to P. occiduum. Both species are from the
middle Eocene.
Type.-Holotype, No. 1-7433, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, loc. L-76, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Cymatiidae
Genus Distorsio Roeding in Bolten, 1798
Subgenus Personella Conrad, 1865
Distorsio (Personella) jacksonensis (Meyer)
Plate 7, figures 10, 11
Distortrix Jacksonensis Meyer, 1885, Am. Jour. Sci., vol. XXIX,
3d ser., pp. 464, 468; Meyer and Aldrich, 1886, Cincinnati
Soc. Nat. Hist., Jour., vol. IX, No. 2, p. 50.
Distorsio (Personella) septemdentata jacksonensis (Meyer),
Palmer, 1947, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 30, No. 117, pt. 2,
p. 336, pl. 44, figs. 7-9.
One medium-sized specimen of Personella was recovered from
the material at locality L-93, Levy County. The shell is well pre-
served. Even though compared to P. jacksonensis (Meyer) from
Jackson, Mississippi, by means of a single shell it adheres to the
specific characters of P. jacksonensis rather than to those of P.
septemdentata Gabb (1860, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Jour., 2d
ser., IV, p. 380, pl. 67, fig. 21; Palmer, 1937, p. 260, pl. 34, figs. 10,
11 in formations and members of the lower Claiborne of Texas,
Louisiana and Mississippi). This influenced me to recognize a
specific differentiation, as Meyer originally did, between the lower
Claiborne form and the Jackson species.
The Florida specimen is intermediate in age (14 mm., height)
between adult individuals of P. septemdentata of 22 mm., height
and specimens of P. jacksonensis of 9 mm. in height. It has two





30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

large teeth on the posterior area of the interior of the labrum with
four minor ones anteriorly to the brink of the canal. This is simi-
lar to the condition in P. jacksonensis while in P. septemdentata
there are seven robust teeth, but about uniform in size, on the
same region. In the Florida and Jackson forms the teeth on the
inner lip are larger and fewer, three in number, than on P. septem-
dentata. The Florida shell, like P. jacksonensis, is less distorted
than P. septemdentata. It has the revolving ribs closer with a
microscopic spiral thread in the interspaces as in P. jacksonensis.
P. septemdentata has wide interspaces. Of two small Jackson speci-
mens examined one has a short blunt canal, the other sharper and
more elongate. The Florida shell has the blunt canal.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7644, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Fasciolariidae
Genus Papillina Conrad, 1855
Papillina gunteri Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 8, figures 1-4
Shell large with huge spines in adult. Nuclear whorls smooth,
about four and one-half; apical whorl minute, flattened; post-
nuclear whorls begin abruptly with spiral ribs and obscure longi-
tudinal folds. A suite of three immature individuals reveal the
Papillina nucleus of this species. The youthful stage of sculpture
identifies the species as distinct from P. dumosa (Conrad) (Wailes,
Rept. Agr. Geol. Mississippi, 1854, p. 289, pl. XVII, figs. 10a, 10b
see Palmer, 1947, p. 389 for further reference and figures) of the
Jackson Eocene.
The immature shells have coarse spiral lines and wide longi-
tudinal folds which extend obliquely across the whorls. With ma-
turity the longitudinal ridges become pinched into large sharp
spines. On a gerontic specimen such as the holotype the spiral
lines are obsolete except obscurely on the midportion of the body
whorl. As illustrated the canal is long and straight. The specimen
of middle age as of figure 2, plate 8, has the spiral ribs still con-
spicuous. Specimens of this age could be confused with P. dumosa
(Conrad). The spinous character of the longitudinal folds of P.
dumosa develop before maturity and the young shells do not have
the longitudinal ridges the length of the whorl as in P. gunteri.
The extreme size of this shell is remarkable, approaching 200
mm. in length. This surpasses the size of P. dumosa Conrad or





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Levifusus branneri Harris of the Jackson (Moodys Branch forma-
tion) Eocene of the Mississippi embayment area.
Named in honor of Dr. Herman Gunter, State Geologist of
Florida.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7645; paratypes, 1-7646-49, Fla. Geol.
Surv. (1-7649 unfigured.)
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Olividae
Genus Agaronia Gray, 1839
Agaronia inglisia Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 6, figures 5, 8, 13
Shell largAe composed of four whorls; nuclear whorls bulbous,
of about 11/ whorls; suture deeply grooved; anterior marginal cal-
lus cut by three prominent grooves, first marking the posterior edge,
second anteriorly placed, and the third is about in the midportion;
the callus is strongly plicate in the columellar area.
The holotype is like specimens from the Moodys Branch forma-
tion at Montgomery, Louisiana, which I identified (1947, p. 410) as
A. mississippiensis Conrad (1847, p. 289). The latter is a Vicks-
burg Oligocene species. The types of this species were compared
with the holotype and five topotypes of A. mississippiensis in the
Conrad collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences at Phila-
delphia, as well as with topotypes from Vicksburg localities. The
similarity is close but the difference in shape seems to warrant
separation.
The shape in A. inglisia is more slender and the spire more ele-
vated. A large specimen (apical whorls gone) of 37 mm. was re-
covered. This indicates that the species probably attained a larger
size than A. mississippiensis.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7604; paratypes, Nos. 1-7605, 1-7606,
Fla. Geol. Surv. (1-7606 unfigured.)
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Olivella Swainson, 1831
Subgenus Callianax H. and A. Adams, 1853
Olivella (Callianax) poinciana Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 6, figures 7, 10
Shell small, broad, stout; moderate spire; whorls four, nuclear
whorl large, bulbous, tip minute; sutures channelled, deepened by
erosion; inner lip with short callus, one deep groove and a smaller,




32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

fainter one anteriorly; siphonal fasciole bordered above by spiral
groove; anterior emargination wide.
This species is suggestive of C. ventricosa (Defrance) (Coss-
mann and Pissarro, 1910-1913, pl. XLVI, fig. 210-1) from the Bar-
tonian of France. It is stouter than that species. Callianax bran-
deri (Sowerby) occurs in the Barton of England. C. lata (Dall)
from the Tampa lower Miocene beds is lower spired and less grooved
on the columellar callus.
The type species of Callianax is a common Recent species,
Olivella biplicata (Sowerby) of the Pacific Coast. The subgenus
extends from the Paleocene but was widely distributed in the
Eocene from Asia, Europe to the Americas.
O. poinciana is represented in the collection by nine specimens,
two of which are figured herein.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7607; paratype, 1-7608, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.- Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Mitridae
Genus Conomitra Conrad, 1865
Conomitra sp.
Plate 6, figures 9, 14
A poorly preserved specimen (plastotype) of a Conomitra was
found in the Avon Park limestone (L-73, Bed No. 2). Its generic
characters are available which reveal that the shell was a smooth
Conomitra. It is like the smooth form of C. lepa, C. fusoides (Lea)
(Palmer, 1937, pl. 66, figs. 23-28) the Claiborne species, except that
it is about 4-5 mm. taller with a higher spire. There are no visible
longitudinal striations on the apical whorls of this individual. They
may or may not be present in C. fusoides lepa. Three plications are
preserved on the columella, there probably were four.
A single better preserved shell of the same species was re-
covered from the Inglis member at L-93. This specimen has micro-
scopic spiral striations preserved on the basal area of the body
whorl. No striations are visible on the apical whorls.
Specimens figured.-Nos. 1-7609, 1-7610, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, loc. L-73, Bed No. 2; Inglis
member, Moodys Branch formation, loc. L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Lapparia Conrad, 1855
Lapparia conradi Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 8, figures 9-11
Shell elongate, spire 4 or 5 mm. shorter than the length of the





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


body whorl; nuclear whorls smooth, broadly ovate, consists of about
21/ whorls; postnuclear whorls begin with spiral lines crossed by
longitudinal ribs; below the suture there is a concave area in which
the spiral lines are stronger than over the middle area of the shell.
There are about 16 longitudinal folds which are obsolete in the
spiral furrow and increase in strength below; subdued nodes are
formed at the margin of the furrow. The spiral lines are coarse on
the anterior portion of the body whorl; the fasciole is strong and
curved; canal short; four plications on the columella; outer lip thin
at the posterior end but thickened from the midline anteriorly by
the combination of the last longitudinal rib and the margin of the
shell.
The similarity between characters of Mitreola Swainson, 1833,
of the Paris Basin Eocene and Lapparia Conrad has been con-
sidered. The resemblance between L. pactilis (Con.) has been re-
iterated by Stenzel and Turner (Type Invert. Fos. N. Amer.,
119421, card No. 40) but because of apertural differences the species
were retained as belonging to distinct genera. In some species of
Mitreola there is a tooth on the inner margin of the labrum. The
thickened outer lip of L. conradi is like Mitreola but in the other
features the shell is more like Lapparia. There is no species of either
genus to which this Florida form is related specifically. It lacks the
spines of the Claiborne and Jackson species and is more nodose than
the smoothest Lapparia, L. pactilis.
It resembles most L. dumosa exigua Palmer (1937) of the
Moodys Branch marl of Mississippi and Louisiana but differs from
that subspecies in the longitudinal folds.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7611; paratypes, Nos. 1-7612, 13, Fla.
Geol. Surv. (1-7613 unfigured.)
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, Loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Vasidae
Genus Eovasum Douville, 1920
Eovasum vernoni Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 7, figures 4-7
Shell large; spire short, narrow, pointed, whorls not convex,
crowded; suture appressed; body whorl with row of 11 or 12 strong
spines at the shoulder and another about halfway between the pos-
terior row of spines and the basal notch; the lines of growth are
convex from the posterior spines to the suture; strong fasciole
with probably a large notch; surface of the body whorl covered with
spiral ribs with wide interspaces, less developed on the shoulder





34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

and obsolete on the obscure whorls of the spire; spines tubular;
aperture tapering not so wide as typical of the genus. There are
four columellar folds which become large and prominent with age;
callus is wide and thick spreading posteriorly over the spines. The
spines appear like nodes on the upper whorls of the spire.
In the character of the spire, position of rows of nodes and
number of nodes this shell bears a striking resemblance to Galeo-
des millsapsi Sullivan and Gardner (in Gardner, 1939). The char-
acter of the spire, position of the nodes or spines are different in
the two forms. The presence of the fasciole in G. vernoni places it
in the genus which has a basal notch instead of the elongated curved
canal.
This species is congeneric with Eovasum frequens (Mayer-
Eymer) (1895; Oppenheim, 1906) of the middle and upper Eocene
of the Moqattam (Mokattam) beds in Egypt. That species is the
type species of Eovasum Douville. The strong generic features of
the four robust columellar plications, the short canal, short spire,
nodose shoulder and row of nodes on the lower body whorl are
common in both species.
E. vernoni differs from the Egyptian form in less mammiform
apical whorls, higher nodose apical whorls, in more sloping spire
and convex instead of concave outline of the body whorl. For
illustrations of E. frequent see Oppenheim, 1906 (Palaeontograph-
ica, Bd. XXX, Abt. 111, p. 318, pl. XXIV, figs. 1-7)
The Florida species also resembles E. douvillei Olsson (1930, p.
49, pl. 8, figs. 4, 6) from the Restin formation, upper middle Eocene,
north of Negritos, Peru. E. douvillei has a broader spire than E.
vernoni.
Named in honor of Dr. Robert O. Vernon, Associate State
Geologist of Florida.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7614; paratypes, Nos. 1-7615, 16, Fla.
Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Volutidae
Genus Athleta Conrad, 1853
Athleta arangia Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 8, figures 6, 8
Shell medium in size, spire moderate, nuclear whorls worn;
whorls four, those of the spire without spiral threads; longitudinal
folds are pronounced and are abrupt and sharp just below a con-
cave groove below the suture; the longitudinal ridges extend an-





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


teriorly below the midline of the body whorl; the entire surface of
the body whorl is covered with conspicuous spiral threads.
This species bears a relationship with the A. petrosa (Conrad)
stock (Palmer, 1937, pl. 58) which is a variable species from the
Sabine (Wilcox) through Jackson Eocene. A. arangia resembles
A. ficulina Lamarck (Palmer, 1937, pl. 57, fig. 4) from the Bur-
digalian Miocene of France, except that the spire of the Florida
species lacks the spiral lines and the body whorl is more elongate.
A. ficulina Lamarck is the normal stage of A. rarispina Lamarck
which is the type species of Athleta Conrad. Of the A. petrosa
group, A. arangia falls in the category of such forms as A. petrosa
indenta Conrad in the Crockett formation, middle Eocene of Texas.
It differs from A. indenta in having the longitudinal ribs much
stronger over the ifody whorl and a more elongate body whorl.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7617; paratypes, 1-7618, 1-7619, Fla.
Geol. Surv. (1-7619 unfigured.)
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93 (type, and C-11, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Sycospira Palmer, new genus
Type species, Sycospira eocenica Palmer, n.sp.
Shell large, smooth, whorls four, sutures appressed; shell thin;
young shell, 28 mm. in height, bulbous with immense nucleus (15
mm., greatest diameter) ; sutural line of nuclear whorls deep and
curved vertically; columellar callus thin; two columellar plications,
not visible from front view of shell; plications well developed on
the young of above dimension.
This genus is known by two specimens, an adult and a juvenile.
The nuclear whorls of the young specimen are as broad as the body
whorl and half as high as the whorl. The immense inflated nucleus
is similar to that of Pterospira and was tentatively placed there.
Pterospira G. F. Harris (Cat. Tert. Moll. Brit. Mus., pt. 1, 1897,
p. 100) was described from the Eocene of Australia. That genus
has three plications and a winglike expansion of the labrum. The
whorls are nodose. Therefore, S. eocenica does not belong in
Pterospira.
The adult shell of this genus has a nearly straight canal and
lower columellar area and is not congeneric in shape and aperture
with Mamillana Crosse (Jour. de Conchyliol., 19, 1871, p. 308)
which also has a huge type of nucleus. Mamillana is Recent in the
Australasia region.
An association of the specimens included under this genus and
species was made in the first examination. But apparent lack of





36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

plications on the large specimens and its close resemblance to
species of Sycostoma in the English and Paris basins Eocene led to
the identification under Sycostoma and it was so reported in the
abstract of the work (Palmer and Richards, 1952).
On deeper excavation of the columellar area two large plications
were revealed. These would place the species in the Volutidae and
indicate that the two specimens, young and adult, do belong to
the same species. The young shell also has two large plications
deeply placed.
Sycospira eocenica Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 7, figures 1-3, 9
Description of the species same as for the genus. So far as is
known the species is unique.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7620; paratype, 1-7621, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch marl, loc. L-93,
Fla. Geol. Surv.
Genus Caricella Conrad, 1835
Caricella obsoleta Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 5, figures 9-13
Shell elongate; nuclear whorls bulbous, smooth, about two whorls
the first rarge, the second narrow in height; postnuclear whorls
begin with about six or seven coarse spiral ribs which cover the
entire whorl; on the remaining whorls of the spire on adult shells,
the spiral ribs are present only on the upper portion of the whorl,
between the suture and the shoulder in a concave area; the spiral
ribs are present on the lower portion of the body whorl from about
the midline of the columella anteriorly. The basal revolving ribs
may have interspaces equal to the width of the rib or they may
have fine intervening threads; four or five columellar plications.
This species is like C. pyruloides (Conrad) of the Gosport sand
and C. polita Conrad from the Jackson Eocene in the presence of
the spiral threads or fine ribs over the whorls of the spire and
upper and lower portion of the body whorl on the adult. The spiral
sculpture in this species differs from those two forms in that the
young and immature specimens of C. obsoleta do not have spiral
lines over the entire shell (P1. 12, figs. 12, 13). The three species
are similar in general shape. Of the group C. pyruloides has the
finest spiral threads or ribs and C. obsoleta, the coarsest.
The largest specimen of C. obsoleta found measures approxi-
mately 55 mm. in height and 32 mm., greatest diameter.
Types.-Holotype, 1-7622; paratypes, 1-7623, 7624, Fla. Geol.
Surv.






EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Genus Voluticella Palmer, new genus
Type species, Voluticella levensis Palmer n.sp.
Shell medium in size; body whorl enlarged, pyriform, forming
practically all of the shell; nuclear whorls smooth, flattened, the
initial point is a low elongated knob, about 1 mm. in length, the
first and second whorls are broad, narrow in height and flattened;
the last half whorl of the nucleus is smooth and narrow, 3 mm.
in height; postnuclear portion of the spire is coarsely sculptured,
first with longitudinal ribs with spirals becoming conspicuous
thereafter; sutures impressed, border of the lower whorl is con-
stricted with a groove below; the shoulder of the body whorl is
rounded. The whole surface of the shell is covered with coarse
spiral ribs; longitudinal lines cross the spiral ribs and give the
surface of medium-sized shells a reticulate appearance; the inter-
sections of the two lines develop granular threads or small nodes,
which are more crowded toward the sutures; aperture narrow,
elongate, canal short; five plications present on the columellar cal-
lus with several small ones posteriorly on some specimens; callus
thin.
The type species is abundant at the type locality with young,
medium and adult shells present. Individuals have been recovered
from two different localities.
The genus appears superficially like a reticulately sculptured
Caricella but differs from Caricella in the increased number of
columellar plications. The highly ornamented Caricellas known in
the American Eocene and Oligocene, C. reticulata Aldrich, C. reticu-
lata stenzeli Palmer and C. turner Palmer have an elevated spire.
The nuclear whorls of Voluticella are flatter than those of Caricella.
The species, which illustration and description suggest that it
belongs to this genus, is a form from the uppermost Ranikot (Paleo-
cene) of Jhirak, in India which Cossmann and Pissarro (1909, p.
27, pl. III, figs. 10-12) tentatively placed in Volutoconus Crosse,
1871. However, Volutoconus, typified by V. coniformis (Cox),
living in Australia, is smooth with four columellar plications. The
resemblance between V. levensis and V. funiculifer (Cossmann and
Pissarro) is striking. V. funiculifer has 10 columellar plications
which decrease in size posteriorly, the anterior four or five are
strong and the posterior weak as in V. levensis.
Caricella praetenuis Conrad of the Gosport sand may have five
plications. They are situated on the columellar area. Additional





38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

plications other than the five, in V. levensis are irregular in size
and occur in the parietal area. The labial callus is thin and on some
specimens the coarse spiral ribs protrude through the callus like
small plications. In such cases in the parietal area the protruded
ribs may suggest low plications for they are extended obliquely to
the direction of the ribs.
Low-spired and broad-shouldered Claiborne Caricellas, such as
C. praetenuis Conrad and C. doliata Conrad (Palmer, 1937, pl. 64)
are the nearest approach in shape to Voluticella levensis. The apical
whorls of the spire of those species are more elevated than in
Voluticella.

Voluticella levensis Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 5, figures 4-8
Description as for the genus.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7625; paratypes, Nos. 1-7626-7628, Fla.
Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93 (type) and VL-187.

Genus Lyria, Gray, 1847
Lyria citrusensis Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 8, figure 7
Shell medium in size, robust; spire short; whorls about four;
nuclear whorls worn; whorls with strong longitudinal ribs, about
nine or ten ribs on the body whorl, the last enlarged fold forming
a strong varix on the margin of the labrum; concave groove below
the suture developing a shoulder to the ribs; about 10 plications
on columella, the anterior ones are larger and more regular.
The species is represented by the holotype only which is a plasto-
type.
This species differs from the common form L. pycnopleura
eocenia in the Inglis member by the shorter spire, the plumper
shape, and lack of spiral threads in L. citrusenosis. Possibly it has
more longitudinal ribs than L. eocenia has.
Holotype.-No. 1-7629 (plastotype), Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
C-11, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Lyria pycnopleura eocenia Palmer, n.subsp.
Plate 5, figures 1, 14
Shell medium in size, solid, spire elevated; postnuclear whorls
five; nuclear whorls smooth, of about 2 or 21/. whorls; whorls with





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


eight or nine large coarse longitudinal lirae, those over the body
whorl somewhat irregular in size and position; the lirae crossed by
fine spiral striations, most conspicuous on the body whorl; below
the suture there is a concave appressed area which causes the lirae
to be nodose between it and the suture and the lirae slightly nodose
just below it; anterior notch recurved, short in length but deep
with coarse spiral lines above it; columellar callus thick; plications
medium in size.
This species is related to L. pycnopleura Gardner (1937, p. 404,
pl. XLVIII, figs. 1, 2) from the Chipola Miocene of Florida. That
Miocene species was earlier figured by Dall (1915, pl. 9, figs. 1, 4)
as L. musicina Heilprin from the lower Miocene of Ballast Point,
Florida. Dr. Gardner differentiated the two forms specifically but
intimated their relationship, as well as with L. costata ("Sowerby")
(Solander in Brander, 1766, pl. III, fig. 45) of the Barton, upper
Eocene of England.
The present Eocene species is allied to L. pycnopleura and not
to L. musicina Heilprin (Mansfield, 1937, p. 106, pl. 3, figs. 1, 4)
or L. costata (Solander).
The general shape, character of the longitudinal costae and
slight groove below the suture with nodose costae between it and the
suture are similar in L. pycnopleura and L. eocenia. L. eocenia has
eight longitudinal costae and the spiral lines seem more prominent
than on the Miocene species.
Gardner had enough material of her species to evaluate a range
in size. Unfortunately this form is known only by the holotype and
one paratype which are smaller than the holotype of L. pycnopleura.
That species ranged to an altitude of 63 mm.
Dimensions.-Height, 21+ mm.; greatest diameter, 11 mm. (holo-
type).
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7630; paratype, No. 1-7631, Fla. Geol.
Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Turridae
Genus Pseudotoma Bellardi, 1875
Pseudotoma floridana Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 6, figures 6, 11
Shell stout, thick; whorls six; nuclear whorls about two, worn;
nine longitudinal folds which form nodes on the whorls of the
spire and obscure ones on the shoulder of the body whorl; two
coarse spiral ribs on the whorls of the spire on the lower half and




40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

over the body whorl; microscopic spirals are present between the
ribs and the suture and lines of nodes; there is a tendency for a
third spiral rib to appear above the suture. It appears in two of
18 specimens. Typically the concave area just below the suture
is smooth. One individual has four microscopic revolving striae
in that area; retral sinus deep, wide and margin thickened; labrum
thick; labial callus well-developed bearing three plications.
This species differs from P. heilprini (Aldrich) and subspecies
(Aldrich, 1885, p. 146, pl. 3, fig. 15; 1886, p. 29, pl. 1, fig. 15; Harris
1937, p. 81, pl. 13, figs. 32a, b; 1947, p. 434, pl. 60, figs. 6, 7) of the
Moodys Branch formation of the Mississippi embayment area by
having two stout revolving ribs on the whorls of the spire. P.
heilprini has at least seven finer spiral ribs on the penultimate
whorls and following whorls of the spire accordingly. The longitudi-
nal folds on P. floridana are more pronounced than on P. heilprini.
The species is abundant at the type locality.
Types.- Holotype, No. 1-7632; paratype, No. 1-7633 (unfig-
ured), Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.

Family Conidae
Genus Conus Linnaeus, 1758
Conus, spp. A and B
Two specimens of Conus, each representing a different species
were found at L-93. One, species A, is a broad (21 mm.), low-
spired (7 mm.) shell with sharp angulation of the shoulder of the
whorls; the surface was apparently smooth. The specimen is a
fragment, 25 mm. high.
The shell of species B, Plate 2, figure 14, is small, about seven
whorls, narrow with a high spire, equal to half the height of the
body whorl; dimensions, 23 mm., height and 12 mm., greatest di-
ameter. The specimen is figured herein (1-7634, Fla. Geol. Surv.).
Neither of the above shells is adequate to describe the species of
Con us.

Family Scaphandridae
Genus Scaphander Montfort, 1810
Scaphander richardsi Palmer, n.sp.
Plate 6, figures 1-4, 12
Shell large, elongate, sides nearly parallel, body whorl width
nearly equidistant except at the tapered posterior end and con-
stricted posterior; surface entirely covered with conspicuous spiral





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


flat ribs with linear interspaces; microscopic longitudinal lines are
present in the interspaces, these may be lost with erosion. The
spiral ribs are narrower in width anteriorly.
The species is abundant at the type locality. The largest speci-
men measures 40 mm. in height and 18 mm., greatest width.
S. richardsi differs from S. jacksonensis Palmer (in Harris and
Palmer, 1946-1947, p. 449, pl. 64, figs. 6, 7) in the narrower and
more elongate body whorl. The posterior area of the aperture is
narrower and the labrum is less oblique and more nearly parallel
with the sides of the shell in S. richardsi than in S. jacksonensis.
The revolving ribs tend to be wider in S. jacksonensis than in the
Florida species. Type material of both species has been compared.
S. cossmanni Oppenheim (Palaeontographica, 1906, pl. XXVI,
figs. 14, a, b; 1~a, 17b, 22, 23) from the Mokattam beds of Egypt
appears to be of the same group of Scaphander as S. richardsi.
Named in honor of Dr. Horace G. Richards.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7635; paratypes, 1-7636-39, Fla. Geol.
Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, Fla. Geol. Surv.






PART 3-PELECYPODA


by

HORACE G. RICHARDS

INTRODUCTION

Twenty-six species of pelecypods have been recognized in the
collections submitted from the Avon Park limestone and the Inglis
member of the Moodys Branch formation. Of these eleven are
described as new, four merely identified as to genus, and eleven
referred to previously described species. Omitting those merely
identified as to genus they are distributed as follows:
Avon Park limestone _----- 10
Inglis member _______________ 19
Restricted to Avon Park ________ 3
Restricted to Inglis -- 12
Both formations ------ 6
It is noted that there were fewer species of pelecypods than
gastropods, and that a higher percentage were identifiable only
as to genus. The state of preservation, while fairly good, was not
satisfactory for complete descriptions, since frequently only one
side of the shell could be seen. In some cases, descriptions are
based on plastocasts prepared by Robert O. Vernon of the Florida
Geological Survey. The collections of the Survey contain additional
pelecypod material not sufficiently well preserved for identification
at this time.
As in the case of the gastropods, the dimensions of the type
and figured specimens are given under the description of plates.
A discussion of the age and correlation of the pelecypod fauna
is given in Part 4 of this report.
LIST OF SPECIES
Avon Park Inglis
Barbatia palmerae Richards, n.sp. L-93
Barbatia ? inglisia Richards, n.sp. L-93
Glycymeris lisbonensis Harris L-93; L-139
Ostrea falco Dall L-135
Ostrea sp. L-93
Anomia cf. lisbonensis Aldrich L-76
Volsella sp. L-93
Crassatella inglisia Richards, n.sp L-92 L-93; L-135;
VL-187
Crassatella eutawacolens Harris L-93
Crassatella sp. C-11
Venericardia scabricostata Guppy L-73; L-118A L-93; L-139
Venericardia withlacoochensis
42






EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Richards, n.sp.
Pseudomiltha megameris Dall
Here cf. wacissana Dall
Here sp.
Divaricella robertsi Richards, n.sp.
Fimbria vernoni Richards, n.sp.
Fimbria olssoni Richards, n.sp.
Cardium (Dinocardium) levyi
Richards, n.sp.
Cardium (Trigoniocardium) pro-
toaliculum Richards, n.sp.
Cardium (Trachycardium) cf.
claibornense Aldrich
Cardium (Anthocardia) avonum
Richards, n.sp.
Gari jacksonense Harris
Macrocallista annexa Conrad
Blagraveia ? gunteri
Richards, n.sp.
Corbula densata Conrad
10


L-76

L-118A

L-118A


L-92

L-73

L-76

L-118

L-118


L-93
C-11
C-11

L-93
L-93; L-139

L-93

L-93

L-93

L-139
L-93

L-93; C-11?
L-93; L-135
VL-187


43





44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS

Family Arcidae
Genus Barbatia Gray, 1847
Barbatia palmerae Richards, n.sp.
Plate 9, figure 1.
Shell elliptical in lateral view as illustrated, with beak slightly
elevated and with a posterior alation. Sculpture of radiating ribs
which are wider than their interspaces and with each rib bearing
a series of nodes. On the beak the ribs are very faint and without
nodes (or with nodes worn off), the interspaces appearing as striae.
On both the anterior and posterior slopes the ribs and their inter-
spaces are broader and the nodes are more pronounced. The medial
ribs of the ventral margin are narrowest. There are a few (3 to 4)
irregularly spaced concentric growth lines.
B. palmerae is slightly larger, has coarser nodes and more ribs
than B. ludoviciana Harris to which it is closely related. B. ludo-
viciana occurs in formations of both the Claiborne and Jackson
stages of the Mississippi embayment (See Harris, 1919, p. 54, pl.
22, figs. 8-16; Harris, 1946, p. 46, pl. 11, figs. 6-8). It is also related
to the Claiborne B. rhomboidella Lea.
Named in honor of Dr. Katherine V. W. Palmer.
Type-Holotype No. 1-7551, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, Loc.
L-93.

Barbatia ? inglisia Richards, n.sp.
Plate 9, figure 2
Shell equilateral in lateral view as illustrated, with beaks
slightly elevated; no alation; sculpture of radiating ribs bearing
nodes formed by incised, concentric grooves which are deeper than
the rib interspaces. The sculpture has a shingled appearance. The
ribs and interspaces are of equal width, both widening on the an-
terior and posterior slopes. A few (3 or 4) concentric growth lines
present on the holotype.
Differs from B. palmerae by being equilateral, the lack of alation
and by having the grooves deeper than the rib interspaces.
Type.-Holotype: No. 1-7550, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation,
Loc. L-93.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Genus Glycymeris Da Costa, 1778
Glycymeris lisbonensis Harris
Glycymeris lisbonensis Harris, 1919, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol.
6, No. 31, p. 48, pl. 20, figs. 12-15
This species is especially common at locality L-93. The Florida
specimens are slightly smaller than the type of G. lisbonensis, but
agree with it in general appearance and sculpture. They can be
separated from G. idonea Conrad by their more rounded shape.
G. lisbonensis is known from the Claiborne (Lisbon and Cook
Mountain formations) Eocene of Alabama and Mississippi.
Specimens figured.-Nos. 1-7552, 1-7553, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, L-139.

Family Ostreidae
Genus Ostrea Linne, 1758
Ostrea falco Dall
Ostrea falco Dall, 1895, U.S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 18, p. 22; Dall,
1898, Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Phila., Trans. vol. 3, p. 682, p.
30, figs. 4-11; Harris, 1947, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 30,
No. 117, p. 20, pl. 3, figs. 1-9.
One shell is very similar to some of the specimens of this species
figured by Harris (1947) from Jackson deposits, was found in the
Inglis limestone at locality L-135. (Fla. Geol. Surv. 1-7586).

Ostrea spp.
Plate 9, figure 6.
Several unidentifiable specimens of Ostrea occur at various lo-
calities. One broken shell from locality L-93 is figured in this re-
port (1-7595).
Family Anomiidae
Genus Anomia Linne, 1758
Anomia cf. A. lisbonensis Aldrich
Plate 9, figure 5
Anomia ephippioides var. lisbonensis Aldrich, 1886, Geol. Surv.
Ala., p. 41, pl. 4, fig. 6.
Anomia lisbonensis Dall, 1889, Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Phila.,
Trans. vol. 3, p. 781; Harris, 1919, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol.
6, No. 31, p. 17, pl. 11, figs. 6-10.
One imperfect specimen is tentatively referred to this species
which is known from the Claiborne of Alabama and Texas. How-
ever, because the Florida shell is incomplete, it is impossible to
determine it completely as to species.





46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Specimen figured.-No. 1-7531, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone: L-76.

Family Mytilidae
Genus Volsella Scopoli, 1777 (=Modiolus Lamarck, 1799)
Volsella sp.
Plate 9, figure 8
One large, but incomplete, example of this genus was taken from
locality L-93. The concentric marks are well developed and on the
margin can be seen a series of radial markings. The broken speci-
men measures 50.7 mm. by 35.8 mm.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7560.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation: L-93.

Family Crassatellidae
Genus Crassatella Lamarck, 1801
Crassatella inglisia Richards n. sp.
Plate 9, figures 9, 10
Shell trapezoidal in lateral view as illustrated. Posterior ridge
obtusely keeled and slightly elevated. Nearly equidistant, pro-
nounced, concentric ridges with interspaces wider than the ridges.
Interspaces become narrower in passing from the margin to the
beak but this sculpture is still distinct on the beak.
This species is related to C. flexura Conrad (see Harris, 1946,
p. 81, pl. 18, figs. 22-29, 35038; Plate 19, figs. 1-4) which is known
from the Jackson deposits of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana,
and is differentiated from this species by having the beak more
centered and by being less elongate.
Types.-Holotype No. 1-7541, paratype No. 1-7542, Fla. Geol.
Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, Loc.
L-93, L-135, VL-187, Avon Park limestone: Loc. L-92.

Crassatella eutawacolens (Harris) 1919
Plate 10, figure 4.
Crassatellites entawacolens Harris in Van Winkle and Harris,
1919, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 8, No. 33, p. 14, pl. 2, fig. 4.
One internal cast from L-93 is very similar, although somewhat
larger than C. eutawcacolens which Harris described from Eutaw
Springs, South Carolina, which locality has been referred to the
Santee limestone, of probable Jackson age.1 Differs from the other
'In a recent paper Cooke and MacNeil (1952) regard the Cooper marl as
Oligocene.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


specimens of Crassatella in the Florida collection by its conspicu-
ous marginal crenulations, conspicuous muscle scars, and general
proportions as shown in the figure.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7548
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, Loc.
L-93.
Crassatella sp.
Plate 10, figure 3.
Various unidentifiable specimens of Crassatella have been
found in the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation. One
of these, from Locality C-1l, is figured.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7549
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation Loc.
C-11.
Family Carditidae
Genus Venericardia Lamarck, 1801
Venericardia scabricostata Guppy
Plate 10, figures 1, 2.
Venericardia scabricostata Guppy, 1866, Quat. Jour. Geol. Soc.
London, vol. 22, p. 292, pl. 18, fig. 10; Maury, 1919, Bull.
Amer. Paleont., vol. 5, No. 29, p. 362, pl. 33, fig. 1.
This species is common at several localities in the Inglis member.
It resembles V. diversidentata Meyer from the Jackson of the Miss-
issippi embayment but differs from it by having fewer ribs (about
18 instead of about 28 as in diversidentata) and by having the
nodes on the ribs less conspicuous.
V. scabricostata was first described from Jamaica and later re-
described and refigured by Maury (1919) from the Dominican Re-
public from the middle Miocene. The Florida shells are generally
smaller than those from Jamaica and the Dominican Republic, but
agree in other details.
Specimens figured.-Nos. 1-7533, 1-7534.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone.-L-73, L-118 A; Inglis mem-
ber, Moodys Branch formation, loc. L-93, L-139.

Venericardia withlacoochensis Richards, n.sp.
Plate 10, figure 5
Shell small, circular in lateral view as illustrated and with
beak obliquely elevated. No posterior ridge. Sculpture of a few
(about 12 to 15) prominent ribs separated by equally wide grooves
and bearing broad nodules. The rib nodules anastomose on the
beak and lose their identity.




48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Distinguished from V. scabricostata Guppy by its slightly more
prominent and smaller number of ribs. Differs from V. diversi-
dentata Meyer by its considerably smaller number of ribs and its
generally smaller size.
This species is apparently more closely related to V. scabri-
costata of Jamaica and the Dominican Republic than to the Florida
V. diversidentata. Known from three specimens.
Type.-Holotype, No. 1-7539 Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, Loc.
L-93.
Family Lucinidae
Genus Pseudomiltha Fischer, 1885
Pseudomiltha megameris Dall
Plate 10, figure 6
Lucina megameris Dall, 1901, Nautilus, vol. 15, p. 41; Dall,
1901, U.S. Nat. Mus., Proc., vol. 23, No. 1237, p. 806.
This largest of all lucinoids was described by Dall from the
Montpelier White limestone at Clairemont, St. Ann's Parish, Ja-
maica of "Upper Eocene or Oligocene age." The formation is now
thought to be of late Eocene age. The species was described from
internal casts which measured 235 by 230 mm. P. cf. megameris is
reported from the Eocene of Panama (Woodring and Thompson,
1949, p. 228).
The Florida specimens from the Avon Park limestone (Locality
L-76) and the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation
(Locality C-1l). The figured specimen is from the Inglis member
(Locality C-11) and measures 175 mm. by 100 mm. Larger, al-
though imperfect, specimens were obtained from the Avon Park
limestone (Locality L-76). The two largest measured 240 mm. by
215 mm. and 245 mm. by 220 mm. respectively (estimated).
The species is related to P. gigantea Deshayes from the Eocene
of the Paris Basin, but this attains a maximum length of only 98
mm. The occurrence of large lucinoids in the Eocene of Florida
is highly interesting. No representatives of Pseudomiltha have
been reported from the Eocene of the Mississippi embayment.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7562, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, Locality L-76; Inglis mem-
ber, Moodys Branch formation, Loc. C-11.

Genus Here Gabb, 1866
Here cf. H. wacissana Dall
Plate 10, figure 9
Phacoides (Here) wacissanus Dall, Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Phila.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Trans., vol. 3, p. 1365, pl. 50, fig. 15.
Here cf. wacissana Harris, 1951, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 33,
No. 138, pl. 10, fig. 6.
Shell somewhat longer than high with conspicuous concentric
growth lines. These are very similar to the shell from the Ocala
limestone near Albany, Georgia, figured by Harris. The species
was originally described from the Tampa limestone (lower Miocene)
of Florida. Both the specimen from the Ocala limestone and the
one figured in this report are somewhat larger than the type speci-
men figured by Dall.
Specimen figured.-I-7563, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
C-11.
Here sp.
Plate 10, figure 8
One plastocast resembles H. wacissana Dall but is more slender
and has considerably fainter concentric lines of growth.
Specimen figured.-I-7564, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, loc. L-118A.

Genus Divaricella von Martens, 1880
Divaricella robertsi Richards n.sp.
Plate 9, figure 7
Shell small, circular, equilateral in lateral view as illustrated;
beaks elevated. Sculpture of irregularly spaced concentric scarps
with uneven edges. A trace of radial grooves on the beak.
This species can be compared with D. prevaricata Guppy from
the middle Miocene of Jamaica and the Dominican Republic (see
Maury 1919, p. 207, pl. 35, fig. 10) but is more narrow and has
fainter concentric lines. It may also be compared with D. ermenovil-
lensis (d'Orbigny) from the upper Eocene of the Paris Basin. As
far as is known, there are no other representatives of Divaricella
from the Eocene of eastern North America.
Named in honor of Henry B. Roberts of the Wagner Free In-
stitute of Science who is reporting on the crab claws of the Inglis
member.
Type.-Holotype, No. 1-7567, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93.
"Lucinoids"
Plate 10, figure 7
Various other unidentifiable specimens of lucinoids have been





50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

found at various localities in the Inglis member. The figured speci-
men is from locality L-139. (No. 1-7587, Fla. Geol. Sur.)

Family Fimbriidae
(Corbidae)
Genus Fimbria Megerle von Miihlfelt, 1811
Fimbria vernoni Richards, n. sp.
Plate 11, figures 2-4
Shell broadly elliptical in lateral view with beaks elevated as
illustrated; ventricose; index of height over length is approxi-
mately 82 ~. Anterior slope abrupt. Inner margin with heavy
crenulations. Raised concentric ridges and radial ribs produce a
cancellate pattern of rectangles having their longer axes parallel
to the radial ribs. These rectangles are narrower and proportion-
ately more elongate on the beak. The concentric ridges of the beak
are more pronounced than the radial ribs, but this difference fades
on the slope and at the margin the radial ribs are more pronounced.
Several (8) impressed growth lines are present on the holotype.
Inner margin crenulate.
Differs from F. claibornensis (Dall) by having the concentric
ribs less prominent and closer together; also the radial ribs are
more conspicuous than in F. claibornensis and F. lamellosa. Fur-
thermore, F. vernoni is more rounded than the Claiborne form.
The Claiborne specimen of Fimbria (Corbis) was originally
referred to C. lamellosa Lamarck from the Eocene of the Paris
Basin, but the American form was later shown to be distinct.
(See Harris, 1919, p. 123, pl. 40, fig. 3, 4). F. claibornensis is ap-
parently rare and is known only from the type specimen in the
collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences (A.N.S.P. 19684)
from Claiborne, Alabama. F. vernoni is related to both the Ala-
bama and French forms, but is distinct from each, although a little
closer to the French form.
F. vernoni is also related to F. furoni Cox from the Eocene of
the Gold Coast of Africa (Cox, 1952, p. 43, pl. 4, fig. 16), but the
concentric ribs are more widely spaced.
Named in honor of Dr. Robert O. Vernon, of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey.
Nicol (1950) has pointed out the reasons for substituting the
generic name Fimbria for the more widely used name Corbis.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7556; paratype, 1-7557, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93, L-139.




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Fimbria olssoni Richards, n. sp.
Plate 11, figure 1
Shell elliptical in lateral view with beaks elevated as illustrated.
Index of height over length is approximately 70'/ Not ventricose
as in F. vernoni. Anterior slope less abrupt than in F. vernoni.
Inner margin not visible. Sculpture a cancellate pattern of elongate
rectangles similar to F. vernoni; radial ribs narrower and more
numerous than in that species and being the dominant sculptural
feature over the whole of the shell. The concentric ridges are nar-
rower, fewer, and more irregular than in F. vernoni.
F. olssoni is larger and more elongate than F. jamaicensis
Trechmann. It does not have the prominent concentric ridges of
F. claibornensis.
F. olssoni is klown only by two plastotypes. It is apparently
related to both the Florida F. vernoni Richards and the Jamaican
F. jamaicensis Trechmann (1923, p. 364, pl. 18, fig. 5), of late
Eocene age.
Named in honor of Axel Olsson.
Type.-Holotype, No. 1-7558, Fla. Geol. Surv. (plastotype).
Occurrence.--Avon Park limestone: loc. L-118A.

Family Cardiidae
Genus Cardium Linne, 1758
Cardium (Dinocardium) levyi Richards, n. sp.
Plate 11, figure 7
Shell nearly equilateral, in lateral view circular with tangential
slopes leading to the beak as illustrated. No posterior ridge. Sculp-
ture of broad, flat, radial ribs separated by narrow, impressed
grooves which are wider, deeper, and more pronounced on the
posterior slope. Seven ribs in about ten millimeters at the mid-ven-
tral margin. Approximately 31 ribs in the type specimen. Traces
of prominent spines on the ribs. Interior of shell not exposed.
Very closely resembles the shell which Harris (1951, p. 23, pi.
12, fig. 3, 4) figured from the Ocala limestone near Kendrick, Flor-
ida, which he referred to C. cf. cabezai Gardner, but clearly shows
the spines which Harris's specimen lacks. It differs from Gardner's
description of C. cabezai (1945, p. 102, pl. 4, figs. 7, 8, 10) by the
presence of the spines, as well as by having the anterior margin
less rounded.
Dinocardium cabezai Gardner is known from the Shoal River
formation (Miocene) of Walton County, Florida, as well as from
the Guajalote formation (lower Miocene) of northeastern Mexico.
Type.-Holotype, No. 1-7568, Fla. Geol. Surv.





52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93.

Cardium (Trigoniocardium) protoaliculum Richards, n. sp.
Plate 12, figures 1-3
Shell obliquely subtriangular in lateral view with truncate pos-
terior end as illustrated and being nearly half again as high as
long. A strongly keeled posterior ridge. Pronounced ribs, twelve
anterior and ten posterior to the posterior ridge. Two ribs on the
posterior ridge are twice as heavy as the others. The ribs bear
strongly elevated nodes which decrease in elevation from the mar-
gin toward the umbo becoming obsolete on the beak. Ribs and
interspaces crossed by fine, closely-spaced, concentric lines which
do not appear on the nodes.
The species is close to C. alicula Dall (1900, p. 1103, pl. 40, fig.
12, pl. 48, fig. 5) from the Chipola formation (Miocene) of Florida
and C. berberum Dall from the Tampa limestone (lower Miocene)
of Florida. (See Mansfield, 1937, p. 249, pl. 18, fig. 2, 3). Differs
by the presence of the slightly higher ribs at the keel and by its
more conspicuous nodes. Fairly common.
Types.-Holotype, No. 1-7572; paratypes, Nos. 1-7571, 1-7573,
Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93. Avon Park L-92.

Cardium (Trachycardium) cf. C. claibornense Aldrich
Plate 11, figures 5, 6
Cardium (Trachycardium) claibornensis Aldrich, 1911, Bull.
Amer. Paleont., vol. 5, No. 22, p. 3, pl. 1, fig. 4; Harris, 1919,
Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 6, No. 31, p. 132, pl. 41, figs. 8, 9.
Several incomplete specimens are close to C. claibornense and
are tentatively referred to that species. They have a greater length
and somewhat less conspicuous spines than C. levyi, but because of
the incompleteness of the specimens it is impossible to identify
them completely. They have been compared with the type of C.
claibornense which was loaned through the cooperation of the De-
partment of Geology of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,
Maryland.
Specimens figured.-Nos. 1-7569; 1-7570, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93. Avon Park limestone, loc. L-73.




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Cardium (Anthocardia?) avonum Richards, n. sp.
Plate 11, figure 9
Shell inequilateral; umbonal area moderately high. Anterior
and posterior slides sloping away from central area. Sculptured
most conspicuously on anterior slope where nodes are present.
There are approximately 5 ribs with conspicuous nodes. The central
region contains about 7 ribs which are less conspicuous than those
on the anterior slope. Posterior slope contains about 5 moderately
conspicuous ribs without presence of nodes. Concentric growth
lines are very faint.
This is an unusual species of Cardium and is only tentatively
assigned to the subgenus Anthocardia. It bears some resemblance
to Cardium (Anthocardium?) suwannense Mansfield (1937, p. 248,
pl. 18, figs. 4, 6, 8) from the Suwannee limestone (Oligocene) of
Florida. However, it dTffers in proportion, the presence of the an-
terior spines and in the number of ribs.
Known only from several plastocasts from locality L-76.
Type.-Holotype (plastocast), No. 1-7575, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone, loc. L-76.

Genus Gari Schumacher, 1817
Gari jacksonense Harris
Plate 12, figure 4
Gari jacksonense Harris, 1946, Bull. Amer. Paleont. vol. 30, No.
117, p. 97, pl. 21, figs. 12, 14.
One plastocast is very similar to the type of this species in the
Paleontological Research Institution in Ithaca. G. jacksonense is
known from the Jackson deposits in Alabama, Mississippi, and
Louisiana.
Specimen figured.-No. 1-7561, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc. L-
139.

Family Veneridae
Macrocallista Meek, 1876
Macrocallista annexa (Conrad)
Plate 12, figure 5
Dione annexa Conrad, 1865, Amer. Jour. Conch., vol. 1, p. 137,
pl. 10, fig. 5.
Callista annexa Palmer, 1929, Paleont. Amer. vol. 1, p. 283, pl.
45, figs. 17, 20; Harris, Bull. Amer. Paleont. vol. 30, No. 117,
p. 95, pl. 21, figs. 6-9.
This species is common at several localities. The shells are





54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

ovate, posteriorly cuneate and abruptly rounded at the extremity.
They have been compared with material in the Paleontological Re-
search Institution. It is known from Jackson deposits in Missis-
sippi and Louisiana.
Dimensions.-Length 21.1 mm.; width 28.0 mm. (figured).
Specimens figured.-No. 1-7578, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Avon Park limestone: loc. L-118. Inglis member,
Moodys Branch formation, loc. L-93.

Genus Blagraveia Cox, 1931
Blagraveia ? gunteri Richards, n. sp.
Plate 12, figures 6, 7 (?)
Shell subovate in lateral view with concave anterior slope and
elevated beak as illustrated. Pronounced concentric grooves with
interspaces nearly equidistant but decreasing toward the beak and
being closely spaced there. Interspaces between grooves flatly
convex.
It resembles B. corrugata Cox (1931, p. 184, pl. 21, figs. 5, 8, 9)
from the Lutetian of Baluchistan and British Somaliland but is
smoother and less circular in shape. Since the interior of the shell
is not exposed, it is impossible to determine for certain whether
this species belongs in Cox's genus. It differs from Macrocallista
annexa (Conrad), the only other venerid found in the Inglis mem-
ber, by being rounder and by the presence of the prominent con-
centric lines.
Known from the type lot and several others questionably re-
ferred to this species (1-7580).
Type.-Holotype, No. 1-7579, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member of Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-93; C-11. Avon Park limestone, loc. L-118.

Family Corbulidae
Genus Corbula Bruguiere, 1797
Corbula densata Conrad
Plate 12, figures 8, 9
Corbula densata Conrad, 1854, in Wailes, Rept. Geol. and Agric.
Miss., p. 289, pl. 14, fig. 9; Harris, 1946, Bull. Amer. Paleont.
vol. 30, No. 117, p. 115, pl. 24, figs. 11-15, 17-21.
This species is very common at locality L-135. It is sometimes
confused with C. alabamiensis Lea of Claiborne age, but in general
the Jackson C. densata Conrad is larger and has a more rounded
base than C. alabamiensis; also in many of the examples of the
Claiborne form the ribs are slightly more conspicuous.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


The Florida specimens have been compared with typical Jack-
son and Claiborne examples and appear to more closely resemble
shells of C. densata from the Jackson deposits of Alabama, Missis-
sippi, and Louisiana.
Specimens figured.-Nos. 1-7582; 1-7583, Fla. Geol. Surv.
Occurrence.-Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, loc.
L-135, VL-187, L-93.

OTHER SPECIMENS

The collections examined by the present authors included vari-
ous specimens of echinoids and corals and an unidentified species
of the scaphopod Dentalium. This latter is figured on Plate 11,
figure 8.
Miller (194'T, p. 83) records the nautiloid Aturia alabamensis
(Morton) from the Avon Park formation, one eighth of a mile
below the Florida Power Corporation plant on the Withlacoochee
River in Citrus County.





PART 4-DISCUSSION


by
KATHERINE V. W. PALMER

and

HORACE G. RICHARDS

Avon Park Fauna.-The molluscan fauna of the Avon Park
limestone is somewhat limited and includes specimens from locali-
ties L-73, L-76 and L-118. As pointed out earlier (p. _), all the
gastropods from this formation are new species and fall in such
genera as Tectariopsis, Bellatara, Hipponix, Pseudocrommium and
Conomitra. The gastropods suggest a correlation with the middle
Eocene (Lutetian), a dating previously assigned by Vernon (1951).
The genus Tectariopsis has hitherto been known only from the
Lutetian of France.
The pelecypod fauna from the Avon Park limestone is limited
to seven identified species. The affinity seems closest to the Clai-
borne deposits (middle Eocene). The European affinity shown by
the gastropods is less apparent in the case of the pelecypods.
Inglis Fauna.-The fauna of the Inglis member is by far the
richer and includes 30 species of gastropods and 18 species of
pelecypods plus others identified only as to genus. The best locali-
ties for fossils are L-93, L-135, L-139 and C-11.
A brief discussion of the gastropod fauna has already been
given (pp. 9-11). The most striking feature is the lack of close re-
lationship with material from the well-known Eocene deposits of
the Mississippi embayment, together with the rather surprising
relationship of the Inglis fauna with material from Eocene deposits
of the Paris Basin, northern Italy, the Moquattam beds of Egypt,
and other deposits in the Old World. The species best showing this
Old World affinity are:
Species Formation Notes
Astraea withlacoochensis n.sp I Species in same group in Eocene
of Colombia and Australia as well
as a Recent species from Australia.
Velates floridana Richards A(?)/I Genus widespread in Eocene of
Europe, Asia and Africa; only
other American records are from
California, Panama and the West
Indies.
Batillaria advena, n.sp. I Genus not hitherto known from
Eocene of North America.
Bellatara (3 spp.) I Genus characteristic of northern
Italy and the Balkans.
56





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


Pseudoaluca clarki, n.sp. I Genus known from Eocene of Co-
lombia, Paris Basin and Italy.
Laevella floridana, n.sp. I New genus; nearest relations are
European forms; unique.
Terebellum (Seraphs) belemnitum,
n.sp. I Subgenus; Eocene Oligocene.
Ampullinopsis citrinensis, n.sp. I Genus known from upper Eocene
of Java, Hungary and Oligocene of
North America, Europe, Asia,
South America, and West Indies.
Pscudocronm ium brucei, n.sp. I Genus of middle Eocene of France,
Pseudocrommium occiduum, n.sp. I England and Italy; some close rel-
atives in Eocene of North and
South America.
Eovasum vernoni, n.sp. I Genus known from Paleocene of
India, the Eocene of Egypt, Senegal
and Peru.
A = Avon Park limestone; I = Inglis member.
Other gastropod genera represented in the Inglis formation
which are more characteristic of the Eastern Hemisphere, al-
though knoyn from North America, include Diastoma, Callianax
(subgenus of Olivella), Athleta, Conomitra, Agaronia, Lyria and
Calyptraea.

Only three gastropods are identical with species known from
the Eocene of the Mississippi embayment. These are:

Name Distribution
Calyptraea aperta (Solander) Wilcox, Claiborne, and Jackson
Cypraedia fenestralis Conrad Jackson
Distorsio jacksonensis Meyer Jackson
Other members of the Inglis fauna related to species in the
Mississippi embayment are in the following genera: Papillina, Tur-
ritella, Xenophora, Conus and "Cerithium."
For further analysis of gastropod genera see the introduction
of Part 2.
The pelecypod fauna shows less Old World affinity than the
gastropods. However, several of the species herein recorded show
closer affinities to species of the Eocene of the Paris Basin, the
West Indies or elsewhere than to the Mississippi embayment. These
are:
Inglis species Related form
Divaricella robertsi, n. sp. D. ermenovillensis (Paris Basin)
Fimbria vernoni, n. sp. F. lamellosa (Paris Basin)
Fimbria olssoni, n. sp. F. jamaicensis Trechmann (Jamaica)
Pseudomiltha megameris Dall P. megameris Dall (Jamaica)
Blagraveia ? gunteri, n. sp. B. corrugata Cox (Somaliland)
Nine species are identical or closely related to species from the
Eocene of the Mississippi embayment.
Inglis species Related form
Barbatia palmerae, n. sp. B. ludoviciana Harris (Claiborne
and Jackson)
Ostrea falco Dall 0. falco (Jackson)


57





58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE


Crassatella inglisia, n.sp.
Crassatella eutawacolens (Harris)
Here cf. wacissana Dall
Cardium cf. claibornense Aldrich
Gari jacksonense Harris
Macrocallista annexa Conrad
Corbula densata Conrad


C. flexura Conrad (Jackson)
C. eutawacolens (Santee, South Carolina)
H. wacissana (Ocala of Florida;
also Miocene)
C. claibornense (Claiborne)
G. jacksonense (Jackson)
M. annexa (Jackson)
C. densata (Jackson)


Correlation with Oligocene and Miocene.-Another interesting
feature of some species of the Inglis and Avon Park formations is
the resemblance to Oligocene and Miocene forms in Florida, the
West Indies and elsewhere. The following show this affinity better


than to any Eocene species:
Inglis species
GASTROPODA
Ampullinopsis citrinensis, n. sp.
Agaronia inglisia, n. sp.
Lyria pycnopleura eocenia, n.
subsp.
PELECYPODA
Venericardia scabricostata Guppy
V. withlachoochensis, n. sp.
Divaricella robertsi, n. sp.


Cardium levyi, n. sp.
Here cf. wacissana Dall
Cardium protoaliculum, n. sp.
Cardium avonum, n. sp.


Related form


A. mississippiensis Conrad; (Oligo-
cene, Vicksburg)
A. mississippiensis Conrad; (Oligo-
cene, Vicksburg)
L. pycnopleura Gardner; (Miocene,
Florida)


V. scabricostata (Middle Miocene of
Jamaica and Dominican Rep.)
V. scabricostata
D. pervaricata Guppy (Middle Miocene
of Jamaica and Dominican Re-
public; also related to D. ermen-
ovillensis from Eocene of France)
C. cabezai Gardner (Miocene of Florida
and Mexico)
H. wacissana (Ocala and Miocene, Fla.)
C. alicula Dall (Middle Miocene, Fla.)
C. berberum Dall (lower Miocene, Fla.)
C. suwannense Mansfield (Oligocene,
Fla.)


Tethyan Fauna.-A distinctive molluscan assembledge, known
as the Tethyan Fauna is widely distributed throughout the Eocene
in various parts of the world. It stretches from Indonesia through
India to the Mediterranean region, especially Egypt, northern
Italy, parts of the Balkans, France (Paris Basin) and an extension
into England. It then extends across the Atlantic to the West In-
dies (especially Jamaica and St. Bartholemew), Colombia, Peru,
Mexico and southern California. This fauna probably did not
occupy this large area continuously during Eocene time, although
aspects of the Tethyan fauna are known from the various sub-
divisions of that epoch. The Tethyan Eocene fauna is regarded as
being ancestral to the modern Indo-Pacific fauna. (See Davies,
1934, p. 104, etc.; Cox, 1931, p. 177).
Cole (1942, p. 13) pointed out that the foraminiferal fauna of





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


the middle Eocene in certain Florida wells was more related to the
West Indies and Mexico than to the Gulf Coast of the United States.
The discovery of the unusual Avon Park and Inglis faunas in Florida
strongly suggest an extension of the Tethyan fauna from the West
Indies to Florida.
No satisfactory explanation has ever been given to explain this
widespread distribution of the Tethyan fauna during Eocene time,
especially to explain the trans-Atlantic migration of this relatively
shallow water fauna. Possibly this migration took place during
one or more low sea levels of Eocene time.
An even greater problem is presented to explain the absence
of the Tethyan fauna from the Eocene of the Mississippi embay-
ment, separated by such a short distance from the outcrops of the
Inglis and Avon Park formations in Florida.
Some barrier must have existed to prevent the spread of this
Tethyan fauna northward from Florida. It is possible that the
Peninsular arch (Applin. 1951) was high as late as Eocene
time and may have produced such a barrier in northern Florida.
However, further information on the geological history of Florida
will be required before a satisfactory answer to this question can
be given.

Age of the Avon Park and Inglis Faunas.

1. The study of the gastropods and pelecypods from the Avon
Park limestone supports the view that this formation is of middle
Eocene (Lutetian) age.
2. The fauna from the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch
formation shows a strong affinity with the middle Eocene (Lutetian
=Claiborne), as well as with the upper Eocene (Jackson). It is
probable that the age of the Inglis is lower Jackson, as sug-
gested by Vernon (1951, p. 112).






BIBLIOGRAPHY

For American Eocene and generic references see bibliography in Palmer,
1937, and Harris and Palmer, 1947; for foreign references see Cox, 1930.
ADANSON, MICHEL. 1757 Histoire naturelle du Senegal. Coquillages.
Avec la Relation abregee d'un Voyage fait en ce pays, pendant les annees
1749, 50, 51, 52, and 53. Paris, 275 pp., 19 pls.
ALDRICH, TRUMAN HEMINWAY. 1885 Notes on the Tertiary of Alabama
and Mississippi, with descriptions of new species. Cincinnati Soc. Nat.
Hist., vol. VIII, No. 2. pp. 145-153, pl. 2, 3.
ALDRICH, TRUMAN HEMINWAY. 1886 Preliminary report on the Ter-
tiary fossils of Alabama and Mississippi. Geol. Sur. Alabama, Bull. No.
1, pt. 1, 60 pp. 6 pls.
APPLIN, PAUL 1951. Preliminary Report on Buried Pre-Mesozoic Rocks
in Florida and Adjacent States. U. S. Geol. Surv., Circular 91.
APPLIN, PAUL and APPLIN, ESTHER R. 1944 Regional Subsurface Strati-
graphy and Structure of Florida and Southern Georgia. Bull. A.A.P.G.
Vol. 28, pp. 1673-1753.
APPLIN, ESTHER and JORDAN, LOUISE 1945 Diagnostic Foraminifera
from subsurface formations in Florida. Jour. Paleont., Vol. 19,
pp. 129-148.
BEQUAERT, JOSEPH C. 1942. Cerithidae and Batillaria in the western
Atlantic. Johnsonia, vol. 1 No. 5, 11 pp., 5 pls.
BOWLES, EDGAR 0. 1939. Eocene and Paleocene Turritellidae of the Atlan-
tic and Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. Jour. Paleont., vol. 13,
No. 3, pp. 267-336, pls. 31-34.
BRANDER, GUSTAVO. See SOLANDER, D. C. 1766. Fossilia Hantoniensia
collect, et in Musaeo Britannico deposit. London. 43 pp., 9 pls.
BRONGNIART, ALEXANDRE 1823. Memoire sur les terrains de sediment
superieurs calcareo-trappiens du Vicentin, et sur quelques terrains
d'Italie, de France, d'Allemagne, etc., qui peuvent se rapporter a la
meme epoque. Paris, pp. IV, 86, 6 pls.
CANTOR, THEODORE 1842. General features of Chusan, with remarks on
the flora and fauna of that Island. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. IX, pp.
265-278; 361-370; 480-493. (W. H. Benson described the Mollusca)
CLARK, BRUCE L. 1946. In Clark and Durham, J. W. Eocene faunas from
the Department of Bolivar, Colombia. Geol. Soc. America, Mem. 16,
126 pp., 27 pls., map.
CLENCH, WM. J. and AGUAYO, C. G. 1943. The genera Xenophora and
Turgurium in the western Atlantic. Johnsonia, vol. I, No. 8, 8 pp., 1 pl.
COLE, W. STORRS 1944 Stratigraphic and paleontologic Studies of Wells
in Florida. Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull. 26, 168 pp.
COOKE, C. WYTHE 1915 The Age of the Ocala limestone. U.S. Geol. Surv.
Prof. Paper 95, pp. 107-117.
COOKE, C. WYTHE 1945 Geology of Florida. Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull. 29, 339
pp.
COOKE, C. WYTHE and MAC NEIL, F. STEARNS 1952 Tertiary Strati-
graphy of South Carolina. U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 243-B.
COSSMANN, MAURICE 1887-1913. Catalogue illustre des coquilles fossiles
de l'Eocene des environs de Paris. Ann. Soc. Roy. Malac. Belgique.
Scaphopodes et gast. XXIII, 4th ser., t. III, pp. 3-324 pls. I-XII, 1888;
t. XXIV, 4th ser. t. IV, p. 3-381, pls. I-XII, 1889. For complete reference,
see Harris and Palmer, 1946.
COSSMANN, MAURICE 1895-1925. Essais de Paleoconchologie Comparee.
13 liv.; 7 liv., 1906; 11 liv., 13 liv., 1925.
COSSMANN, M. and PISSARRO, GEORGES 1909. The Mollusca of the
Ranikot series. Pt. 1. Cephalopoda and Gastropoda. Palaeont. Indica,
n.s., vol. III, mem. No. 1, 83 pp., VIII pls.
60




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


COX, LESLIE R. 1930. The fossil fauna of the Samana Range and some
neighboring areas; Pt. VIII. The Mollusca of the Hangu shales.
Palaeont. Indica, n.s., vol. XV, pp. 129-222, pls. XVII-XXII.
COX, LESLIE R. 1931. A contribution to the molluscan fauna of the Laki and
basal Khirthar groups of the Indian Eocene. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh,
Trans., vol. LVII, pp. 25-92, 14 pls.
COX, LESLIE R. 1931. New lamellibranch genera from the Tethyan Eocene.
Proc. Malac. Soc. London Vol. 19, pp. 177-187, 2 pls.
COX, LESLIE R. 1952 Cretaceous and Eocene Fossils from the Gold Coast.
Gold Coast Geol. Surv. Bull. 17.
CROSSE, H. 1871. Distribution geographique et catalogue des especes
actuelles du genre Voluta. Jour. de Conchyliol., v. XIX, pp. 263-309,
pls. IV, V, XII, fig. 7.
DALL, WM. H. 1890-1902. Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida
... Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Philadelphia, Trans., vol. 3, pts. 1-7. For com-
plete reference, See Harris and Palmer, 1946.
DALL, WM. H. 1901 A gigantic fossil Lucina. Nautilus Vol. 15, pp. 40-42.
DAVIES, A. MORLEY 1934 Tertiary faunas. Thomas Murby and Co.,
London. 406 pp., 565 figs.
DESHAYES, GERARD PAUL 1824-37. Descriptions des coquilles fossiles des
environs de Paris. 2 vols. Text and atlas; vol. 2, Gasteropodes. Paris.
Pp. 1-814, pls. 66-101. For complete reference see Palmer, 1937 or
Harris and Palmer, 1946.
DURHAM, J. WYATT. See Clark, B. and Durham, J. W.
ERICSON, DAVID B. 1945 Gulf Hammock formation in Florida. Science,
N.S. Vol. 102, No. 2644, p. 234.
FAVRE, JULES et al 1918. Catalogue illustre de la collection Lamarck.
Mus. Hist. nat. Geneve. 117 pls.
FISCHER, ALFRED G. 1951 The echinoid fauna of the Inglis member,
Moodys Branch formation. Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull. 34, pp. 45-101.
FISCHER, PAUL 1880-1887. Manuel de conchyliologie . Paris. 1369 pp.
See data according to page, record before title page.
FISCHER, PAUL 1885. Bayle MS. names in Man. Conchyliol.
FISCHER-PIETTE, E. and FISCHER, P. H. 1940. Identification du "Cerite"
d'Adanson. Bull. Mus. nat. d'Hist. nat., 2d ser. t. XII, No. 3, pp. 11-118.
GABB, WILLIAM MORE 1860. Descriptions of new species of American
Tertiary and Cretaceous fossils. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Jour. 2d.
ser., vol. IV, pp. 375-406, pls. LXVII-LXIX.
GARDNER, JULIA ANNA 1937. The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff
group of Florida. Pt. VI. Pteropoda, Opisthobranchia, and Cteno-
branchia. U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 142 F., pp. 251-435, pls. XXXVII-
XLVIII.
GARDNER, JULIA ANNA 1939. Notes on fossils from the Eocene of the
Gulf province. II. The gastropod families Cassididae, Ficidae, and
Buccinidae. U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 193-B, pp. 18-44, pls. 6-8.
Sullivan and Gardner in.
GARDNER, JULIA ANNA 1945. Mollusca of the Tertiary formations of
northeastern Mexico. Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 11, 332 pp., 27 pls., map.
GREGORIO, ANTOINE DE 1894. Monographie des Fossiles eoceniques (etage
Parisien) de Mont Postale. Ann. Geol. et Paleont., 14 liv., pp. 55, 9 pls.
GREGORIO, ANTOINE DE 1896. Monographie de la Fauna eocenique de
Ronca. Ann. Geol. et Paleont., 21 liv., 164 pp., 27 pls.
27 pls.
GREGORIO, ANTOINE DE 1890. Monographie de la Faune Eocenique de
l'Alabama. Ann. Geol. et Paleont. 7, 8 liv., 316 pp., 46 pls.
HARRIS, GEORGE F. 1897. Catalogue of Tertiary Mollusca in the Depart-
ment of Geology, British Museum (Natural History). Pt. 1. The Aus-
tralasian Tertiary Mollusca. 407 pp., 8 pls.


61





62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

HARRIS, GILBERT D. 1890. The genus Terebellum in American Tertiaries.
Amer. Geol., vol. 5, p. 315.
HARRIS, G. D. 1919 Pelecypoda of the St. Maurice and Claiborne stages.
Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 6 (No. 31) pp. 1-268, 59 pls.
HARRIS, GILBERT D. 1937. Turrid illustrations, mostly Claibornian.
Palaeont. Amer., vol. II, no. 7, pp. 23-144, pls. 2-15.
HARRIS, G. D. with VAN WINKLE, KATHERINE 1919, which see.
HARRIS, GILBERT and PALMER, KATHERINE V.W. 1946-47. The Mol-
lusca of the Jackson Eocene of the Mississippi Embayment (Sabine
River to Alabama River). Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 30, No. 117, Pt. I,
Bivalves. Harris, 1946.
HARRIS, G. D. 1951 Preliminary note on Ocala bivalves. Bull. Amer. Paleont.
Vol. 33 (No. 138) pp. 1-54, 13 pls.
HEILPRIN, ANGELO 1887. Explorations on the west coast of Florida.
Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Philadelphia, Trans. 1, 134 pp. pls.
HOWE, HENRY V. 1951 New Tertiary ostracode fauna from Levy County,
Florida. Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull. 34, pp., 1-43.
KENNEDY, WILLIAM 1895. The Eocene Tertiary of Texas east of the
Brazos River. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Proc., pp. 89-160.
MANSFIELD, WENDELL CLAY 1930. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of
the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida. Florida Geol. Surv., Bull.
No. 3, 142 pp. 21 pls.
MANSFIELD, WENDELL CLAY 1937. Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwan-
nee limestone of Florida. Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 15, 334 pp., 21
pls.
MAURY, CARLOTTA 1917. Santo Domingo type sections and fossils Bull.
Amer. Paleont. Vol. 5 (no. 29, 30 pp. 1-478, 39 pls.)
MARTIN, KARL 1914-15. Die Fauna des Obereociins von Nanggulan auf
Java. Samml. des Geol. Reichs-Mus. Leiden, N. F., Bd. II, Heft IV,
pp. 107-222, 8 pls.
MEEK, FIELDING BRADFORD. A report on the invertebrate Cretaceous
and Tertiary fossils of the upper Missouri country. U.S. Geol. Surv.,
Terr., vol. IX, 629 pp., 45 pls.
MILLER, A. K. 1947. Tertiary Nautiloids of the Americas. Geol. Soc. Amer.,
Memoir 23.
NICOL, DAVID 1950. Recent species of the lucinoid pelecypod Fimbria. Jour.
Wash. Acad. Sci., Vol. 40, pp. 82-87.
OLSSON, AXEL A. 1930-1931. Contribution to the Tertiary paleontology of
northern Peru. Pt. III. Eocene Mollusca. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XVII
No. 62, 1930, 96 pp., 12 pls. Pt. IV. The Peruvian Oligocene. Ibid, No.
63, 1931. 164 pp., 21 pls.
OPPENHEIM, PAUL 1900-1901. Die Priabonaschicten und ihre Fauna, im
Zusammerahange mit Gleichalterigen und analogen Ablagerungen ver-
gleichend betrachtet. Palaeont., Bd. XLVII, pp. 1-136, pls. I-XII, 1900;
pp. 137-348 pls. XIII-XXI, 1901.
OPPENHEIM, PAUL 1903-1906. Zur Kenntnis alttertiaren Faunen in Agyp-
ten. Palaeont., Bd. XXX, Abt. 3, Leif. 1, pp. 1-164, pls. I-XVII, 1903;
Leif. 2, pp. 165-348, pls. XVIII-XXVII, 1906.
PALMER, KATHERINE VAN WINKLE 1937. The Claibornian Scapho-
poda, Gastropoda and dibranchiate Cephalopoda of the southern United
States. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. VII, No. 32, pt. I, text, 548 pp., pt.
II, plates, pp. 549-730, 90 pls.
PALMER, KATHERINE VAN WINKLE 1944. Notes on Eocene gastropods,
chiefly Claibornian. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XXVIII, No. 112, pp. 305-
330, pls. 25, 26.
PALMER, KATHERINE VAN WINKLE 1946-47. With Harris, G.D., which
see.
PALMER, KATHERINE V. W. and RICHARDS, HORACE G. 1952. Old
World affinities of some Eocene mollusks from Florida. 19th Inter-





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


national Geological Congress, Algiers. (abstract published in 1952, full
paper in press).
RENICK, BRINK COLEMAN and STENZEL, H. B. 1931. The lower Clai-
borne on the Brazos River, Texas. Univ. Texas Pub., No. 3101, pp. 73-108,
pls. VI-VII.
RICHARDS, HORACE G. 1946 A gastropod of the Genus Velates from the
Florida Eocene. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Notula Naturae No. 177. pp. 1-6.
STENZEL, HENRYK B. 1931. See under Renick, B. C. and Stenzel, H. B.
STENZEL, HENRYK B. 1938. The geology of Leon County, Texas. Univ.
Texas Pub., No. 3818, 295 pp., text figs.
STENZEL, H. B. and Turner, FRANCIS EARL 1940. The gastropod genera
Cryptochorda and Lapparia in the Eocene of the Gulf Coastal Plain
and Turritellidae from the Paleocene and Eocene of the Gulf Coast.
Univ. Texas Pub. No. 3945, pp. 795-846, pls. 43-47.
STENZEL, H. B. and TURNER, FRANCIS EARL 1942. Type invertebrate
fossils of North America. Eocene. Gastropoda. Bur. Ec. Geol. Austin.
92 cards, text and figs.
STEWART, RALPH BENTLY 1927. Gabb's California fossil type gastro-
pods. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Proc. for 1926, vol. LXXVIII, pp.
289-447, pls. XX-XXXII.
THOMPSON, T. F. See under Woodring, W. P. and Thompson, T. F.
TRECHMANN, C. T. 1923. The Yellow Limestone of Jamaica and its Mol-
lusca. Geol Magazine, Vol. 8, pp. 337-367.
STRAND, EMBRICK 1926. Miscellanea nomenclatorica zoologica et paleonto-
logica. Arch. Naturgesch, 92, abt. Heft 8, pp. 30-75.
VAN WINKLE, KATHERINE and HARRIS, G. D., 1919. New or Otherwise
interesting molluscan species from the East Coast of America. Bull.
Amer. Paleont., vol VIII, No. 33, pp. 1-32, 3 pls.
VERNON, ROBERT 0. 1947. Tertiary formations cropping out in Citrus
and Levy counties, Southeastern Geological Society, Tallahassee, Fla.,
71 pp.
VERNON, ROBERT 0. 1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida.
Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull. 33, pp. 1-256.
VOKES, HAROLD ERNEST 1939. Molluscan faunas of the Domengine and
California. Univ. California Pub., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 26, No. 12,
pp. 381-390, pls. 25, 26.
VOKES, HAROLD ERNEST 1939. Molluscan faunas of the Domengine and
Arroyo Hondo formations of the California Eocene. New York Acad.
Sci., Ann., vol. XXXVIII, 246 pp., 22 pls.
WEAVER, CHARLES EDWARD 1943. Paleontology of the marine Tertiary
formations of Oregon and Washington. Univ. Washington Pub. in Geol.,
vol. 5, Pt. II, Mollusca; Gastropoda; Cephalopoda; Arthropoda. Pp.
275-562; Pt. III, ... 104 pls. For complete reference Harris and Palmer,
1946.
WENZ, W. 1938-1944. Handbuch der Paliozoologie. Bd. 6. Gastropoda. Teil
1, Allgemeiner Teil und Prosobranchia. Pp. I-VIII, 1-240, 471 figs; Teil
2; Prosobranchia. Pp. 241-480, figs. 472-1235, 1938; Teil 3; Prosobranchia
Pp. 481-720, figs. 1236-2083, 1939; Teil 4, Prosobranchia. Pp. 721-960,
figs. 2084-2787, 1940; Teil 5, Prosobranchia. Pp. 961-1200, figs. 2788-
3416, 1941; Teil 6, Prosobranchia. Pp. 1201-1506, figs. 3417-4211, 1943;
Teil 7, Allgemeiner Teil und Prosobranchia. Pp. I-XII, 1507-1639, 1944.
WHITFIELD, ROBERT PARR 1865. Descriptions of new species of Eocene
fossils. Amer. Jour. Conch., vol. I, pp. 259-268, pl. 27.
WINCKWORTH, R. 1929. The validity of Martyn. Malacal. Soc. London,
Proc., vol. XVIII, Pt. V, pp. 228-229.
WOODRING, WENDELL P. and THOMPSON, T. F. 1949. Tertiary forma-
tions of Panama Canal and adjoining parts of Panama. Bull. Amer.
Assoc. Petr. Geol. vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 223-247, 2 figs.
WRIGLEY, ARTHUR 1949. English Eocene and Oligocene Naticidae. Mala-
cal. Soc. London, Proc., vol. XXVIII, pt. 1, pp. 10-30, figs. 1-47.


63






APPENDIX


A NEW SPECIES OF DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN FROM THE INGLIS
MEMBER

by
Henry B. Roberts
Wagner Free Institute of Science
Philadelphia, Pa.

Among the specimens collected from the Inglis member of the
Moodys Branch formation by the Florida Geological Survey were
eighteen claws of a decapod crustacean which were turned over to
the writer for study.

Family Callianassidae
Genus Callianassa Leach 1814
Callianassa inglisestris Roberts, n.sp.
Plate 13, figures 1-12
Diagnosis.-Hinge area* strongly produced, meeting the ad-
jacent portion of the hand in a step-like ridge, and with a broad
flattened tubercle at the lower distal angle of the outer face. A
tubercle obliquely above and behind the articular node on both inner
and outer surfaces. Interdigital sinus gaping; an acute tooth and
a broad prominence just below the dactylar orifice. Fixed finger
slightly deflected; slender; not more than one-quarter as high as
the distal height of the hand.

Distribution.-Upper (Jackson stage) Eocene: Moodys Branch
formation, Inglis member; near Inglis, Levy county, Florida. Flor-
ida Geological Survey Locality L-93.

Types.-Holotype is Florida Geological Survey No. 1-7590. Para-
types a, c, d, and e are Florida Geological Survey Nos. 1-7591 to
7594, respectively. Paratype b is Wagner Free Institute of Science
No. 17231.

Material.-Eighteen hands of the first pair were studied (11

*This term is proposed for the lateral surfaces of the manus anterior to
a line drawn between the articular node and the proximal edge of the inter-
digital sinus.





EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


right, 7 left), of which two retain a portion of the fixed finger.
As interpreted here, these specimens represent: major hands of
males,-3 right; major hands of females,-6 right, 6 left; and
minor hands,-2 right, 1 left.

Description of holotype.-A left major manus of the female.
Hand slightly longer than high.** Upper and lower margins con-
verge distally; the upper sinuous in profile, bluntly angled trans-
versely, except on the distal third, where it is broadly rounded; the
lower shallowly excavated behind the fixed finger, acute in cross-
section. Anterior margin produced; curved toward and downward
below the articular node. Above the node the margin is broken.
The distance from the lower angle of the hinge area to the proximal
limit of thl interdigital sinus is slightly greater than the basal
height of the fixed finger. Posterior margin concave, the lower
angle rounded, cristate, extended beyond the upper angle. Outer
surface more concave than the inner, which is concave along the
lower third. Five indistinct sockets within, and parallel to, the
upper margin; nine minute sockets on the inner side of the worn
lower margin.
A broad sulcus ascends both outer and inner hinge areas and
meets the adjacent portion of the hand in low, step-like ridge. On
the outer hinge there is a flattened shelf-like tubercle near the lower
angle. On both inner and outer surfaces, about half way between
the upper margin and the articuler node, and slightly behind the
latter, there is a worn tubercle. On the inner face, vertically above
this tubercle, a granule near the upper margin.
Fixed finger slightly deflexed, slender, its basal height little
greater than the gape of the interdigital sinus. Roof of interdigital
sinus with a low prominence and a blunt tooth beneath the dactylar
orifice; the tooth inserted slightly anterior to the shelf-like tubercle
on the hinge; dactylar orifice large.
Distal arch of upper margin with a patch of elongated rugae;
hinge area unornamented; except where worn, inner and outer
surfaces of palm marked with small polygonal areas enclosed by
raised lines.

Description of paratypes.-Paratypes a, b, and c are hands of
females and are larger than the holotype. Paratype a retains a por-
tion of the fixed finger, which is slightly deflexed, triangular in sec-

**As defined here, the length of the hand is the distance from the proximal
limit of the interdigital sinus to the posterior margin, measured along an
imaginary median line on the outer surface. Height is the greatest height,--
thickness, the greatest thickness-unless stated otherwise.





66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE

tion with the exterior leg the longest. In the depression behind the
interdigital sinus, there is a patch of worn granules. The upper
margin of a and c are gently arched, that of b slightly concave. On
the outer surface of b, just above and parallel to the lower margin,
there is a row of 4 granules of which the submedian pair are widely
spaced. This specimen shows a small tubercle near the lower angle
of the inner hinge. A raised crenulated line, which is deflected
inward, follows the crest of the lower margins of b and c. This
line is not preserved in the holotype.
Paratype d,-the right hand of the male-, is one and a half
times longer than high. Upper and lower margins are parallel; the
upper straight in profile, narrow and bluntly rounded transversely,
bowed outward as seen from above. Within the upper margin there
is a longitudinal row of minute granules; parallel to this row, and
below it, a shallow sulcus. Posterior margin is concave.
Paratype e is a right, minor hand of the first pair, with the
lower margin broken. Upper margin with a strong distal slope;
horizontal at the anterior corner, behind which it curves abruptly
upward to a broad arch above the body of the hand.

Measurements. L. H. T.
Holotype (left, female) 6.6 6.5 2.7mm.
Paratype a (left, female) 8.8 8.6 3.8
Paratype b (left, female) 8.2 7.8 3.4
Paratype c (right, female) 7.6 (est.) 7.7 3.2
Paratype d (right, male) 11.5 (est.) 7.7 3.7
Paratype e (right, minor) 4.8 5.0 (est.) 1.6

Relations.-The female hand of this species is closely related
to Callianassa beta Stenzel,' from the Claiborne Eocene Winona
formation of Mississippi. In the latter, there is no tubercle at the
angle of the hinge, nor obliquely above the articular node, and the
interdigital sinus is narrower. Callianassa gamma Stenzel,2 from
the Winona formation of Mississippi, differs from the male hand of
our species in lacking tubercles on the distal inner and outer sur-
faces, and in having the groove leading to the interdigital sinus
strongly tuberculated. Both Callianassa americana Woods,- from

(1) STENZEL, H. B., 1935. Middle Eocene and Oligocene Decapod Crusta-
ceous from Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi: Amer. Midi. Naturalist, vol. 16,
pp. 389, 392, pl. 15, figs. 3, 4.
(2) STENZEL, H. B., 1935. Op. cit., pp. 389, 393, pl. 15, figs. 5, 6; pl. 16,
fig. 5.
(3) WOODS, H. in T. O. BOSWORTH, 1922. Geology of the Tertiary and
Quaternary Periods in the Northwest Port of Peru: p. 115, pl. XVII, figs.
5a-b, 6a-b.




EOCENE MOLLUSKS FROM CITRUS AND LEVY COUNTIES


the Eocene Negritos formation of Peru, and Callianassa subplana
Withers,, from the Lutetian Eocene of Jamaica, are larger than
the species described here. C. americana differs mainly in the sharp
upper edge of the hand, and the straight, oblique distal margin of
the hinge. C. subplana has a row of three or more prominent pits
near the middle of the inner surface, and on the outer, a row of
three small tubercles descend from the hinge tubercle.

Remarks.-This is the first Eocene Callianassa to be described
from Florida. Apparently it is the species referred to by Vernon,"
as follows:
"Some portions of the Inglis member are characterized by abun-
dant fragments of a mud shrimp, Callianassa n.sp., claws of which
are so common and prominent that this particular facies was called
'the shrimp claw limestone' in the process of mapping."

(4)WITHERS, T., 1924. Some Cretaceous and Tertiary Decapod Crusta-
ceous from Jamaica: Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 9, vol. XIII, p. 85, pl. II,
figs. 9-12.
(6) VERNON, ROBERT O., 1951. Geology of Citrus and Levy counties,
Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 33, p. 117.


























PLATES 1-13
























PLATE 1
Figures
1-5. Turritella fischeri Palmer, n. sp. 1, paratype, No. 1-7400, 23 mm. height,
7 mm., greatest diameter. 2, paratype, No. 1-7401, 32 mm., height, 8
mm., greatest diameter. 3, paratype, No. 1-7402, 60 mm., height,
10 mm., greatest diameter. 4, holotype, No. 1-7399, 40 mm., height,
12 mm., greatest diameter. 5, paratype, No. 1-7403, 38 mm., height, 16
mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
6-9. Velates fioridanus Richards. 6, 7, No. 1-7396, 52 mm., height, 67 mm.,
width, 90 mm.- length. 8, No. 1-7398, 17 mm:, height, 24 mm., width,
33 mm., length. 9, No. 1-7397 (plastotype), 9 mm., height, 20 mm.,
width, 27 mm., length. Loc. L-135.
10, 11. Tectariopsis? avonensis Palmer, n. sp. 10, 11. Same specimen, holo-
typc (plastotype), No. 1-7391, 18 mm., height, 19 mm., greatest diameter.
Loc. L-73.
12. Astraea withlacoochensis Palmer, n. sp. Holotype (plastotype), No.
1-73%5, 25 mm., height, 39 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-135.


70





BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE, PLATE 1


71


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY













PLATE 2
Figures
1, 2. Calyptraea aperta (Solander). 1, No. 1-7422, 5 mm., height, 12 mm.,
greatest diameter. Loc. L-93. 2, No. 1-7423, 15 mm., height, 15 mm.,
greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
3, 9, 12. Bellatara americana Palmer, n. sp. 3, paratype, No. 1-7408, 32 mm.,
height, 26 mm., greatest diameter, Loc. L-93. 9, holotype, No. 1-7407,
90 mm., height, 37 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93. 12, paratype
(plastotype), No. 1-7410, 28 mm., height; 16 mm., greatest diamd'er.
Loc. L-135.
4, 5. Batillaria advena Palmer, n. sp. 4, paratype, No. 1-7406, 15 mm.,
height, 6 mm., greatest diameter. 5, holotype, No. 1-7405, 15 mm.,
height, 6 mm., greatest diameter.
6. Xenophora sp. Plastotype, No. 1-7426, 10 mm., height, 20 mm., greatest
diameter. Loc. L-135.
7. Tugurium grayi Palmer, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7428, 25 mm., height,
31 mm., greatest diameter. Lpc. C-1l.
8. Bellatara citrana Palmer, n. sp. Holotype (plastotype), No. 1-7412, 44
mm., height, 38 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. C-1l.
10, 11, 13. Bellatara floridana Palmer, n. sp. 10, paratype (plastotype), No.
1-7415, 26 mm., height, 15 mm., greatest diameter. 11, holotype (plasto-
type), No. 1-7414, 70 mm., height, 30 mm., greatest diameter. 13, para-
type, No. 1-7416, 60+ mm., height, 24 mm., greatest diameter. Loc.
L-135.
14. Conus sp. B. No. 1-7634, 23 mm., height, 12 mm., greatest diameter.
L-93.


72




BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE, PLATE 2


-..- ,."
.... ,'.l 4
k ":.;


T


73


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY















PLATE 3
Figures
1-5. Lacvella floridana Palmer, n. sp. 1, 5, paratype, No. 1-7437, 23 mm.,
height, 12 mm., greatest diameter. 2, 3, paratype, No. 1-7438, 32 mm.,
height, 19 mm., greatest diameter. 4, holotype, No. 1-7436, 30 mm.,
height, 20 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
6-8. Hipponix floridanus Palmer, n. sp. 6, paratype, No. 1-7419, 10 mm.,
height, 26 mm., greatest diameter. 7, holotype, No. 1-7418, 17 mm.,
height, 27 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93. 8, paratype (plastotype),
10 mm., height, 18 mm.+, greatest diameter. Loc. L-73.
9, 12. Terebellum (Seraphs) belemnitum Palmer, n. sp. 9, holotype, No.
I-7642, 49 mm., height, 15 mm., greatest diameter. 12, paratype, No.
1-7643, 27 mm., height, 10 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
10, 11. Ampullinopsis citrinensis Palmer, n. sp. 10, paratype (plastotype),
No. 1-7435, 42 mm., height, 35 mm., greatest diameter. 11, holotype
(plastotype), No. 1-7434, 47 mm., height, 47 mm., greatest diameter.
Loc. C-1l.


74






BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE 3


F


75


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


~8~






/ .'' I/
d.
6~~: ~g~ r'




















PLATE 4
Figures
1. Psevdcocrommium occiduumn Palmer, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7433, 80
mm., height of fragment, 63 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-76.
2-8. Pseudocrommium brucei Palmer, n. sp. 2, 3, holotype, No. 1-7429, 50
mm., height, 35 mm., greatest diameter. 4, paratype, No. 1-7430, 65
mm., height, 45 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93. 5, paratype (plasto-
type), No. 1-7640, 70 mm., height, 42 mm., greatest diameter. Loc.
L-93. 6, 7, paratype (young), No. 1-7431, 18 mm., height, 13 mm.,
greatest diameter. Loc. L-135. 8, paratype, No. 1-7432, 15 mm.,
height, 16 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.


76






BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE 4


I'-


77


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'

















PLATE 5
Figures
1, 14. Lyrza pycnopleura eocenia Palmer, n. sp. 1, holotype, No. 1-7630, 21+
mm., height, 11 mm., greatest diameter. 14, paratype, No. 1-7631, 22
mm., height, 10 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
2, 3. Cypraedia fenestralis Conrad. 2, No. 1-7439, 19 mm., height, 18 mm.,
greatest diameter. 3, No. 1-7440, 37 mm., height, 22 mm., greatest
diameter. Loc. L-93.
4-8. Voluticella levensis Palmer, n. sp. 4, paratype, No. 1-7626, 27 mm.,
height, 20 mm., greatest diameter. 5, holotype, No. 1-7625, 35 mm.,
height, 21 mm., greatest diameter. 6, 8, paratype, No. 1-7621, 19 mm.,
height, 11 mm., greatest diameter. 7, paratype, No. 1-7628, 35 mm.,
height, 26 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
9-13. Caricella obsoleta Palmer, n. sp. 9, 11, holotype, No. 1-7622, 37 mm.,
height, 19 mm., greatest diameter. 10, 12, paratype (young), No. I-
7623, 19 mm., 10 mm., greatest diameter. 13, paratype, No. 1-7624, 35
mm., height, 21 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.


78






BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE, PLATE 5


79


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY













PLATE 6
Figures
1-4, 12. Scaphander richardsi Palmer, n. sp. 1, holotype, No. 1-7635, 40 mm.,
height, 17 mm., greatest diameter. 2, paratype, No. 1-7636, 17 mm.,
height, 18 mm., greatest diameter. 3, paratype, No. 1-7637, 20 mm.,
height, 9 mm., greatest diameter. 4, paratype, No. 1-7638, 25 mm.,
height, 15 mm., greatest diameter. 12, No. 1-7639, 21 mm., height, 10
mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
5, 8, 13. Agaronia inglisia Palmer, n. sp. 5, paratype, No. 1-7605, 13 mm.,
height, 5 mm., greatest diameter. 8, 13, holotype, No. 1-7604, 30 mm.,
height, 11 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
6, 11. Pseudotoma floridana Palmer, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7632, 19 mm.,
height, 10 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
9, 14. Concmitra sp. 9, No. 1-7610, 14 mm., height, 6 mm., greatest diameter.
Loc. L-93. 14, No. 1-7609, (plastotype), 15 mm., height, 5 mm.,
greatest diameter. Loc. L-73.
7, 10. Olivella (Callianax) poinciana Palmer, n. sp. 7, holotype, No. 1-7609,
15 mm., height, 8 mm., greatest diameter. 10, paratype, No. 1-7608,
11 mm., height, 6 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.


80





BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE 6


81


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
















PLATE 7
Figures
1-3, 9. Sycospira eocenica Palmer, n. sp. 1, 2, holotype, No. 1-7620, 115 mm.,
height, 67 mm., greatest diameter. 3, 9, paratype, No. 1-7621, 27 mm.,
height, 17 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
4-7. Eovasum vernoni Palmer, n. sp. 4, paratype, No. 1-7615, 52 mm.,
height, 30 mm., greatest diameter. 5, 6, paratype, No. 1-7616, 50 mm.,
height, 35 mm., greatest diameter. 7, holotype, No. 1-7614, 70 mm.,
height, 40+ mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
8. Diastoma sp. No. 1-7404, 25 mm., height, 6 mm., greatest diameter.
Loc. L-139.
10, 11. Distorsio (Personella) jacksonensis (Meyer). No. 1-7644, 13 mm.,
height, 8 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.


82






BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE r


83


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


- %
S 1 '.




















PLATE 8
Figures
1-4. Papillina gunteri Palmer, n. sp. 1, holotype, No. 1-7645, 180 mm.,
height, 75 mm., greatest diameter. 2, paratype (plastotype), No.
1-7646, 33 mm., height, 35 mm., greatest diameter. 3, paratype (im-
mature), No. 1-7647, 27 mm., height (fragment), 16 mm., greatest
diameter. 4, paratype (young), No. 1-7648, 7 mm., height, 8 mm.,
greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
5, 12. Pseudoaluca clarki Palmer, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7641, 33 mm., height,
12 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
6, 8. Athleta arangia Palmer, n. sp. 6, paratype (plastotype), No. 1-7618,
36 mm., height, 15 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. C-11. 8, holotype,
No. 1-7617, 29 mm., height, 13 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
7. Lyria citrusensis Palmer, n. sp. Holotype (plastotype), No. 1-7629, 22
mm., height, 13+ mm., greatest diameter. Loc. C-11.
9-11. Lapparia conradi Palmer, n. sp. 9, paratype (young), No. 1-7612,
15 mm., height, 7 mm., greatest diameter. 10, 11, holotype, No. 1-7611,
35 mm., height, 14 mm., greatest diameter. Loc. L-93.
i


84







BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE 8


85


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


, :~2"~
..f
. .-,I
i.'
x ,~: ~.k:~t;:-
i~~e~ ,
$f :~"-.
r, CBh






















PLATE 9
Figures
1. Barbatia palmerae Richards, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7551, 14.0 mm.,
height, 21.2 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
2. Barbatia? inglisia Richards, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7550, 16.9 mm.,
height, 29.0 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
3, 4. Glycymeris lisbonensis Harris. 3, No. 1-7553, 19.2 mm., height, 20.5 mm.,
length. 4, No. 1-7552, 19.2 mm., height, 20.2 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
5. Anomia cf. A lisbonensis Aldrich. No. 1-7531, 26.5 mm., length. Loc.
L-76.
6. Ostrea sp. No. 1-5338, 26.4 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
7. Divaricella robertsi Richards, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7567, 14.4 mm.,
length, 16.0 mm., height. Loc. L-93.
8. Volsella sp. No. 1-7560, 50.7 mm., height, 35.8 mm., length (incomplete).
Loc. L-93.
9, 10. Crassatella inglisia Richards, n. sp. 9, holotype, No. 1-7541, 21.4 mm.,
height, 26.9 mm., length. 10, paratype, No. 1-7542, 20.3 mm., height,
24.1 mm., height. Loc. L-92.


86





BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE, PLATE 9


87


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


















PLATE 10
Figures
1, 2. Venericardia scabricostata Guppy. 1, No. 1-7533, 12.5 mm., height,
12.5 mm., length. 2. No. 1-7534, 9.4 mm., height, 9.3 mm., length. Loc.
L-93.
3. Crassatella sp. No. 1-7549, 45.9 mm., height, 59.3 mm., length. Loc.
C-11.
4. Crassatella entawacolens Harris. No. 1-7548, 35.3 mm., height, 45.5
mm., length. Loc. L-93.
5. Veneric(ardi(t wiith lacoocheisis Richards, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7539,
19.5 mm., height, 17.5 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
6. Pseudomiltha megameris Dall. No. 1-7562, 175.0 mm., height, 100.0
mm., length. Loc. C-11.
7. "Lucinoid." No. 1-7587, 38.0 mm., height, 37.5 mm., length. Loc. L-139.
8. Here sp. No. 1-7564, 14.4 mm., height, 11.3 mm., length. Loc. L-118.
9. Her, cf. H. wacissana Dall. No. 1-7563, 22.9 mm., height, 22.9 mm.,
length. Loc. C-11.


88





BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE 10


89


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY














PLATE 11
Figures
1. Fimbria olssoni Richards, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7558, 30.5 mm., height,
43.9 mm., length. Loc. L-118.
2-4. Fimbria vernoni Richards, n. sp. 2, No. 1-7557, 24.0 mm., height. Loc.
L-139. 3, 4, holotype, No. 1-7556, 30.5 mm., height, 29.5 mm.,
length. Loc. L-93.
5, 6. Cardium (Trachycardium) cf. C. claibornense Aldrich. 5, No. 1-7570,
30.0 mm., height, 33.0 mm., length. 6, No. 1-7569 (plastocast), 29.0
mm., height, 30.0 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
7. Cardium (Dinocardium) levyi Richards, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7568,
39.0 mm., height, 35.7 mm., length. Loc. L-76 .
8. Dentalium sp. No. 1-7588, 28.5 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
9. Cardium (Anthocardia?) avonum Richards, n. sp. Holotype, No. 1-7575
(plastocast), 29.0 mm., height, 27.0 mm., length. Loc. L-76.


90






BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE, PLATE 11


91


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

























PLATE 12
Figures
1-3. Cardium (Trigoniocardium) protoaliculum Richards, n. sp. 1, holotype,
No. 1-7572, 26.0 mm., height, 18.0 mm., length. 2, paratype, No. 1-7573,
17.5 mm., height, 15.0 mm., length. 3, paratype, No. 1-7571, 41.5
mm., height, 30.0 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
4. Gari jacksonense Harris. No. 1-7661, 13.2 mm., height, 13.2 mm.,
length. Loc. L-179.
5. Callista annexa Conrad. No. 1-7578, 21.1 mm., height, 28.0 mm.,
length Loc. L-118.
6. Blagraveia? gunteri Richards, n. sp. No. 1-7579, 16.5 mm., height,
19.0 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
7. Blagraveia? gunteri Richards, n. sp. (?). No. 1-7580, 21.2 mm., height,
18.7 mm., length. Loc. L-93.
8, 9. Corbula densata Conrad. 8, No. 1-7582, 11.6 mm., height, 16.2 mm.,
length. 9, No. 1-7583, 11.8 mm., height, 17.5 mm., length. Loc. L-93.


92





BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE 12


93


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

















PLATE 13
Callianassa inglisestris Roberts, n. sp.
Figures
1-4. Holotype. Fla. Geol. Surv. No. 1-7590. Left hand of female; outer,
inner, lower, and front views. Specimens 8.5 x 6.5 x 2.7 mm.
5-6. Paratype 3. Fla. Geol. Surv. No. 1-7592. Right hand of female; outer
and inner views. Specimen 9.4 x 7.7 mm.
7-8. Paratype 2. Fla. Geol. Surv. No. 1-7593. Right hand of male; outer
and upper views; specimen 13.1 x 7.7 x 3.7 mm.
9. Paratype 4. W.F.I.S. No. 17231. Left hand of female; front view
tilted upward to show prominence and tooth on interdigital sinus.
Specimen 10.3 x 3.3 mm.
10, 11. Paratype 5. Fla. Geol. Surv. No. 1-7594. Right minor hand of the
first pair; outer and inner views; specimen 5.7 x 4.8 mm.
12. Paratype 1. Fla. Geol. Surv. No. 1-7591. Left hand of female with
stump for fixed finger; outer view; specimen 11.8 x 8.6. mm.





All specimens are from the Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation near
Inglis, Levy County, Florida, Fla. Geol. Surv. Locality L-93.


94





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


95


BULLETIN THIRTY-FIVE. PLATE 13