Geology of Dixie and Gilchrist Counties, Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 49)

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Material Information

Title:
Geology of Dixie and Gilchrist Counties, Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 49)
Series Title:
Geological bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 49
Physical Description:
ix, 155 p. : illus., maps (3 fold. col. in pocket) ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Puri, Harbans Singh
Yon, J. William ( joint author )
Oglesby, Woodson R. ( joint author )
Donor:
unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Manufacturer:
Rose Print. Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1967

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Florida -- Dixie County   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Florida -- Gilchrist County   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 141-146.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Harbans S. Puri, J. William Yon, Jr., and Woodson R. Oglesby.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1690
notis - ABY3040
alephbibnum - 000345604
oclc - 00052657
lccn - 75629550
System ID:
UF00000250:00001


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Full Text



STATE
STATE BOARD


OF
OF


FLORIDA
CONSERVATION


DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 49


GEOLOGY


OF


DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


COUNTIES,


FLORIDA


By


Harbans S. Puri, J. William Yon, Jr. and Woodson R. Oglesby





Published for
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


TALLAHASSEE
1967





C/Cf
V?
.43
Mo. /.1


FLORIDA STATE BOARD
OF
CONSERVATION



CLAUDE R. KIRK
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State


BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer


FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Superintendent of Public Instruction


EARL FAIRCLOTH
A torney General


FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller


DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGF S
Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITT AI








division of / geolog r

ai ahad6ee
L .'.

August 16, 1966
Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Kirk:
The Division of Geology is publishing as Bulletin No. 49, a fairly
comprehensive report on the "Minerals and Water Resources, and
the Geology and Stratigraphy of Dixie and Gilchrist counties,
Florida." The report was prepared over a period of years by Har-
bans S. Puri, William J. Yon, and Woodson R. Oglesby, Geologists
with this division.
This area has large reserves of limestone that are suitable for
use in many manufacturing processes. Clay and sand are available
nearby and together with the development of Cross-Florida Barge
Canal, it is anticipated that some additional industrial development
will follow.
Large resources in potable water are available in both of the
counties, and the recreational potentials of these waters have
never been fully utilized.
The data presented herein will be helpful in further exploitation
of Florida's mineral wealth to the benefit of the State.

Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist
























































Completed manuscript received
August 16, 1966

Published for the Division of Geology
By Rose Printing Company
Tallahassee, Florida

iv










TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction ------ --------- --... ..............................- ----..... ..... ....... 1
Location and description of area -......--.......-- ..--- -... 3
M aps ........- ..._-......-.-....-.. .. .... .. -.. _........._. -- -- .... ._ ._. ._____ 3
Dixie County ..---....... .......-----------.. ... ..-_-_ .. .................. 6
Gilchrist County ----... --..............._-____ ................ ... .-----. ...... .................. 7
Transportation _........-......... .-.. ... ... ....... ......... ...--......--.. ........- 8
I highways ... ___---.. ..... ............... ............... .._ _.............. ...... ___... 8
Railways .... ....-....--....-- -. ....... .. -..... .. ____ ___ ..__ gs
A irw ays .......- -----.................... ...... ------__- 9
W aterways _---- ... ...._. ....._-_ .. ............... --.- .
Climate and vegetation --- --... .......... __..... -._-...................-- .. ........-- 9
C culture -......... ... ............. ............. .......... ... ..... ..................... 11
Drainage .......---- -.. ..---------...... -------- ----.-... .......--.... ...... ........................ 15
Suwannee River drainage basin .. .....-.. .. .. ..........................---------------. 15
Piezometric surface .--.......-- ........ .. .......---.. ............-- ..- -.... ..... .- .. ...- 17
Suwannee River discharge ..........................- .........--..... 17
Santa Fe River discharge -.. -.....--....... -.... ...--...- --..........-----... ---20
Steinhatchee River discharge --........ -- ..-------- 22
Springs -..--------- ..-- ------------ -----... -.. ........- .................. 22
Solution features --...........- ..___-----_.__-.- -.--___--.-..-.. 29
Sum m ary .------------......... .... ____ ._.... ..._............. ..... -. ....... 29
Common sinks and sink-hole lakes -.--..----.....- ... ....... .. 29
Funnel sinks and natural wells ...-...-.. ------------_ -. _.-. ------------- 32
Solution pipes .----..-.. --...-. ... -.. .. .-. ..... ....______ ._ 34
Underground rivers .. --------------....- -.. .. -...... ............................... 34
Springs ........... .... ....._._____... ..... ........ __ --------.. ............. 36
Well and outcrop numbering system .. .............----- .........---- .. 36
Physiography ... ........... ........ __ ..........__ __ ___.... 36
Introduction -.......-----. ... .. ... ............ --. .. ....... ------................. .. 36
Gulf coastal lowlands .-.-_ _...- ....- .__-...-...- .. .......... -----------... ... 37
Modern coast and submarine plain ------...---... -.._.-- ............... 37
Coastal Swamps -----__ __-_-----._---- -----_.--------_---- -----.---------- 38
Silver Bluff Terrace and Shoreline ...-....- ................ ..- ............ 39
Pamlico Terrace and Shoreline .--......... .......................................... 39
Wicomico Terrace and Shoreline ...----...-.---... ....----...... ----.. ..-... 41
W acasassa Flats ...........-... ...... ....-...---........... .............----......... 43
Bell Ridge -- ---.. .......----...-..... ................ ..... -... ...-.......---..--........ ... .. 48
Chiefland Limestone Plain .-- -.-----------.--- .....--. ---49
Brooksville Ridge ....-----... ----------............ ..-. ...-.........-.....- ..... 49
High Spring Gap -----_..... -......---..... ------ ......... -- .____ _______--------- -.. -... 49
Fracturing -...---..-... --------- ------..._.... --.-......-.-.-... -. .......... ... 50
Structure and geologic setting ....---....... ............. .... ... ....................... 53
Stratigraphy _- ..........._-__... .._ .. ...._ ..........--............. ........... ... ..... -. 55
Previous work __.-._ ____-._....... ..--_ ... ... .....-... --........ ._. ....... _..... 55








Gilchrist County .............. ........ ...-. --... ......... .----. ---...------.... 55
Dixieri County -...-.-..-_. ----- --- ----.- .-------- --- 58
Paleozoic Era --...--- ..-.............----- ........--------...... 58
Lower Ordovician -.... .......------........--.. -. -------........ ---.-- ------------------- 58
Mesozoic Era -----....... ----------- -----... ------------- 59
Cretaceous System ... ....--...-......---------------------------------------- 59
Gulf Series -...---- ___ --- ---..... ............ .........-...-- ------59
Atkinson Formation -. ......--..--------- ------------- 59
Beds of Austin Age --..-------.......-. -------- -- 61
Beds of Taylor Age ....- ........---....--------- --- 61
Beds of Navarro Age ...-.....-.. -- ...--...-...-......--...--------------- 61
Lawson Limestone .......--.............-.......- ---------- ------- 61
Cenozoic Era -.... ... .....----------- --- -- -- ------ -- 62
Tertiary System ....---- -------------------- --.------------- 62
Paleocene Series ... .........-.......-------.............. ---------------- -- 62
Cedar Keys Formation .-.....---.-.. .- ....- -------- ----- -------------.---.. 62
Oldsmar Limestone .....-......-.. -------------- ------- ------------ 62
Claiborne Stage .......----- ------------------- ---------- 63
Lake City Limestone .------ ..----------------- ------------------- 63
Avon Park Limestone -..----.....-- --.------------------------- ---- .. 63
Ocala Group .......---------------- --- ---------- 3
Inglis Formation ....- -- -......... --.------------- ---------- 63
Williston Formation ..--...--.....-- ....-.......... .........--------..--------- 64
Distribution ... ......---- -.---------. 66
Crystal River Formation ---- ..... -- .....--..---------------------- ---. 76
Outcrop pattern .....-.----. ------- --- ----- --------- 77
Steinhatchee Dolomite Member .. ... ......-....------------------ 95
Oligocene Series .........-- ... ..... .--...-.....--.-... .. --------- ----- 97
Suwannee Limestone -..........--.------... -- ----------------- 97
Miocene Series -...... .......- ..........-----..-----...- -- -- -------------- 98
Alachua Formation ....--...---..--......----...- --------------- 98
Outcrop pattern ___. ..... ... ..... .... -....-..........-...--------- ---- 100
Quaternary System -........-----.............--.-------. ....---.--..----- -------------.. 126
Pleistocene Series .-........- ... .... .........--- ......--------- ------------ 126
M arine terrace deposits -...... --.... .... ... ..------....--- ---- ..... 126
Recent Series ------... .... .....- .......----.-- --.......-- ------ ----------- 127
Fresh water marl ---- -----------------.- ---------------------- 127
Economic geology .----._...--.-.-.-.-.-_......... ........-- ----------......-.. ------- 127
Gilchrist County ...- ..-......--------. -------------------------------- 127
Lim estone .....--...- ------------ ....-------------- ------ ------ ------------- .127
Phosphate ..-- -- ----- ---------------------------------------- 127
Dixie County ............. .- --- ------ --------- ------------------- 134
Limestone ..............-- .....-.. --- --------------- ..-- ---.... ..--- 134
Dolomite and dolomitic limestone--...-- -- -.- ------. 136
Bibliography .. ..... ......... ------- -----.. ...--..... .- 141
Appendix .-----....... ............ .-.---.-- -......---------.- .-- 147
1. Dixie and Gilchrist location of outcrops ------. .....-------------. 141
Index .. .....---------. ----..... --.......... ....- -- --....----- --------- -- 153










ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Location of Gilchrist and Dixie counties, Florida -. 2
2 Index to Topographic Mapping, in Gilehrist and Dixie counties,
Florida -.. ... ......................... ...----..--- -----. ------.................... _... 4
3 Topographic map, Gilchrist County, Florida _............. .... -- ......__ 5
4 Topographic map, Dixie County, Florida .. .............--- --... 6
5 Total rainfall at Bell, Gilchrist County and Cross City Airport,
Dixie County ........----------.............---------...... ------- --.-............... 10
6 Map of Florida showing portion of the Suwannee River drainage
basin with piezometric contours of the Floridan aquifer (after
Healy, 1962) ---___-- --....___--......._.... -... .... ........ 16
7 Map of the Florida portion of the Suwannee River drainage basin
with piezometric contour of the Floridan aquifer superimposed on
the outcropping formation ..................... ...... ................. .... -18
8 Suwannee River at Rock Bluff, Florida showing the gaging station 20
9 Monthly mean flow of Suwannee River at Branford, Florida. Nor-
mal (median) for 30-year period 1931-1960 (data from U.S. Geo-
logical Survey) .-_----______ ___--------_________ 22
10 Rock Bluff Springs, Gilcbrist County, Florida .. --- 25
11 Hart Springs, Gilchrist County, Florida .-... .......- __._ .....-..........- 26
12 Old Town Springs, Dixie County, Florida ---.....-- ------........................... 27
13 Blue Springs, Gilchrist County, Florida --------------.. 27
14 Trail Springs, Locality 136, Gilchrist County Florida ------- 28
15 Development of a sink at Locality 9, Sheppard's Farm, Gilchrist
County, Florida, A-Incipient sink in the Crystal River Forma-
tion; B-View down natural well; C-Natural well, surface of
ground water table 26 feet below surface ------..... ---........---.....--..... -- 33
16 Physiographic map of Gulf Coastal Lowlands ..... -----_-__....._. Pocket
17 Partially submerged dunes off the coastline at Horseshoe Point ... 38
18 Pamlico Dune near Eugene on U.S. Highway 27 ...__--------------- 40
19 Closeup of Pamlico Dune near Eugene on U.S. Highway 27 ......... 41
20 Topographic map of Gilchrist County. Contour interval, 10 feet 42
21 Aerial mosaic of Gilchrist County showing Wacasassa Flats out-
lines. Width of map is approximately 19 miles --..._. ..---------- 44
22 Swamps in the Wacasassa Flats on State Highway 40 facing east 45
23 Contours showing approximate altitude of top of Williston For-
mation (Upper Eocene), Gilchrist County ...... ...............---.-------- 46
24 West-East profiles showing land forms in Gilchrist County ------. 47
25 Escarpment on State Highway 47, facing north ...... .... ...... 48
26 Fracture pattern of Dixie County, Florida .-.. ... ...... ........ 50
27 Falls on the Santa Fe River, Gilchrist County, Florida .. 52
28 Structure contour map of Dixie and Gilchrist counties, showing
altitude at the top of the Williston Formation --.__-_---.-. ---- .54
29 Geological cross section, Gilchrist County ...........--------..... ... 56
80 Isometric diagram, Gilchrist County _____...------.. ------.... ... 57
31 Geological cross section, Dixie County ........................... ..... .64
32 Stratigraphic nomenclature chart of the Cenozoic (after Puri and
Vernon, 1964) -__--.......------ .. ._ _-- ...... ....-----.--.-- .-- ...------......-- ....... 65








33 Sediments of the Williston Formation as exposed just below con-
fluence of the Santa Fe and Suwannee rivers -..--. ------....-..-----...... 66
34 Panorama of an abandoned quarry on Carl Robert's farm (LGr
10S 14E 9 ba) showing exposures of the Williston Formation 68
35 Limestone of the Crystal River Formation as exposed in a quarry
on State Highway 49 near Santa Fe River, Gilchrist County .---..- 82
36 Exposures of the Crystal River Formation in the Philpot Quarry,
1.9 miles south of bridge on Santa Fe River on State Highway 49,
Gilchrist County __._ _____. ---..-------....--............... 83
37 Exposures of the Steinhatchee Dolomite Member near Cow Creek,
Dixie County Florida ...-. .. ................................. --.......... 96
38 Exposures of a thin veneer of the Crystal River Formation show-
ing honeycomb weathering (beneath hat) which overlies the dolo-
mitic limestone (Steinhatchee Member) near Cow Creek, Dixie
County, Florida .... -- -------._......-...- .- -...... ....-.-......- ..-...-...- ....-.... 97
39 Panorama at Locality 90, an abandoned quarry, Gilchrist County _. 103
40 Panorama at Locality 93, showing pinnacles of the Williston For-
mation and mined-out areas of the Alachua Formation ..... 106
41 Panorama at Locality 278, showing the karrenfeld topography of
the Crystal River Formation on which sediments of the Alachua
Formation were deposited ........- ----.--- -..... .......-.-.... .... .Il
42 Topographic map of the Thomas Farm, Gilchrist County, Florida,
showing location of auger holes (AS-288-AS-310), discovery well
and the various types of sediments exposed in the "dig" (after
Purl and Vernon, 1964) -....------------------. ......... ----........-....... ..--. ..... 116
43 Thomas Farm Quarry, Gilchrist County (April, 1956) .. 117
44 Structure map on the top of the dominantly clayey material,
Thomas Farm, Gilchrist County (after Puri and Vernon, 1964) 118
45 Structure map on the top of the Crystal River Formation, Thomas
Farm, Gilchrist County (after Puri and Vernon, 1964) .......... 119
46 Thomas Farm, north side of the quarry showing clays of the
Alachua Formation overlying the limestone of the Crystal River
Formation _- --......--. -- .........-- -- _.----....~~...--. .. ......-.......... 120
47 Cross-bedded coarse sands and upper boulder bar, Thomas Farm,
Gilehrist County .....-, .... .....- .. .. ..... .. .... 121
48 Mining operations at Philpot Quarry, Gilchrist County 2.... .. 128
49 Distribution of the phosphate, limestones and clays, in Gilchrist
County --- -.... .. 129
50 Mona Plant of the Loncala Phosphate Company -----------.. ........ 132
51 Flow sheet of the Loncala Phosphate Company -...-. ------. -..- 133
52 Distribution of dolomitic limestone, limestone and phosphatic lime-
stone in Dixie County ... ......---- ...... --- 135
53 Typical exposure of the dolomite rock near Cow Creek, Dixie
County, Florida .-................. .......... ........ .. .... ........ 136
54 Location of samples of dolomite and dolomitic limestone in Dixie
County, Florida -----.....- --------.........-.... --.......---... .. ... .137
55 Route of Florida's interstate highway system, waterways, and
natural gas pipeline (after Reves, 1961) --.-..-------... .------------.--- 140

PLATES

1 Geologic Map of Tertiary Formations in Gilchrist County .... Pocket
2 Geologic Map of Tertiary Formations in Dixie County --......_._. Pocket


viii









TABLES


1 Economy of Dixie County .....-.. ...............-.__. -.... ._.... ..._..........._.... 12
2 Economy of Gilchrist County ............ ....... --.......................... .. 12
3 Farm characteristics of Dixie and Gilchrist counties, 1950, 1954,
1959, and 1964 -.. ............-....-------------------------- .. 13
4 Farm Population of Dixie and Gilchrist counties, 1950 and 1955 .__ 14
5 Value of Agricultural Commodities, Dixie and Gilchrist counties,
1949-1964 ..............-- .----------- ...- -... -- -.... ... ....... .._..._. 14
6 Personal Income and Percent from Major Industrial Sources for
1954 and 1960 __ _.- .. ...-----...._......--..---.... .. --... -........ 16
7 Dollar Volume of Retail Sales of Dixie and Gilchrist counties,
(selected years) ........--- ...-..... ....-..........--------.......-...- ._...._.._._.._. 15
8 Monthly and yearly mean discharge (Rock Bluff Ferry) ....... 19
9 Monthly and yearly mean discharge (in cubic feet per second), of
the Suwannee River near Wilcox, Florida -----...--------- 21
10 Monthly and yearly mean discharge of the Santa Fe River near
Fort White, Florida .-----------......--------------------......------......... --.... --- 23
11 Monthly and yearly mean discharge in cubic feet per second of the
Steinhatchee River near Cross City, Florida ----...------------- ..-----24
12 Estimated rate of flow of selected springs in Gilchrist County (by
W R. Oglesby) ...--....... ._-...... ..-- ---. ..-. ---......------... ...... .-- ......... 26
13 Water analysis of Hart Springs, Gilchrist County, Florida --------- 29
14 Water analysis of Rock Bluff Springs, Florida ...-----.-...--- 30
15 Data on wells penetrating Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in Gilchrist
and Dixie counties ----..... ......---. ..........-------.----....... 58
16 Analysis of dry limestone samples from Dixie County, Florida _... 134
17 Analysis of dry samples of dolomitic limestone from Dixie County,
Florida __ ___.-. ----- ...--- ---_. ............... 138
18 Analysis of sandy dolomitic limestone samples from Dixie County,
Florida .........- ...... --.--..----- --- -- ---..-...--..-- 138













GEOLOGY OF
DIXIE AND GILCHRIST COUNTIES, FLORIDA

By
Harbans S. Purl, J. William Yon, Jr. and Woodson R. Oglesby

INTRODUCTION

Dixie and Gilchrist counties adjoin Levy County, the geology
of which was published in Bulletin 33 of the Florida Geological
Survey under the title "Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties,
Florida," by Robert O. Vernon (1951).
A detailed study of these counties that lie to the north of the
area studied by Vernon supplements and extends the work already
accomplished. Field work was done by Woodson R. Oglesby in the
summers of 1950 and 1951, under the auspices of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey. Harbans S. Puri and James William Yon, Jr. spent
the springs and summers of 1956 and 1957 measuring the key sec-
tions in these two counties and checking the outcrop pattern of
the rocks.
Field work in Dixie County was done by Woodson R. Oglesby
in the summer of 1951, when heavy rains made the swamps of
southeastern Dixie County inaccessible, and the outcrops with less
than 5 feet surface elevations were under water. However, the
summer of 1956 was relatively dry and numerous exposures were
found in coastal areas, which previously had escaped attention.
Several new quarries and borrow pits have been opened up since
1951, requiring supplemental field work.
C. W. Hendry, Jr. and E. W. Bishop mapped the Thomas
Farm dig topographically and drilled and examined the samples
from several auger holes in that area. Their manuscript report,
"Geology of the Thomas Farm Area," on file at the offices of the
Division of Geology, has been freely consulted. Simmie L.
Murphy also assisted in the field in 1956 and drilled 40 auger holes
in the two counties. Hal Chittum, Robert E. Dickson, William
Gardner and Tom Ellis assisted in the field during the summers of
1950 and 1951.
Gratitude is expressed to Jon Beasley, photogrammetric engi-
neer, State Road Department, for preparation of the topographic
map of Gilchrist County. R. 0. Vernon visited in the field on










BuL:[llTIV No. 49


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Figure 1. Location of Cilkhrist and Dixie counties, Florida.








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


several occasions and the writers had the benefit of his views on
various geologic problems.
This work would not have been possible without the help and
cooperation of the citizens of these two counties, who freely gave
their time in showing exposures on their respective properties.

LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF AREA
Dixie and Gilchrist counties are located in the embayed north-
west portion of the Florida Peninsula, as shown in figure 1.
Dixie County is bounded on the southwest by the Gulf of Mex-
ico. The Suwannee River forms the eastern boundary and the
Steinhatchee River the western boundary of the county. No natu-
ral boundary exists to the north between Dixie and Lafayette
counties.
Gilchrist County is separated from adjoining counties on the
north by the Sante Fe River and on the west by the Suwannee
River. Political boundaries between Alachua and Levy counties
exist to the east and south of Gilchrist County.
The combined distance across Dixie and Gilchrist counties av-
erages about 50 miles in an east-west direction and 21 miles in a
north-south direction. Elevations increase gradually along a tra-
verse starting at Deadman Bay on the western coast of Dixie
County, eastward to Cross City, and continues eastward along
U. S. Highway 19 to the Suwannee River, then along State High-
way 26 to a point about 4 miles beyond Trenton where the eleva-
tion is 70 feet. The relief is more pronounced from this point east-
ward, where ridges and sand dunes mark the forefront of the
Brooksville Ridge. The highest elevation recorded in either of the
two counties, 119 feet, occurs in Gilchrist County in the stretch of
sand hills 3 miles west of the Alachua County line.

MAPS
Thus far, 17 quadrangle maps of Dixie County have been issued
by the U. S. Geological Survey. These are shown in figure 2. The
base map of Dixie County was made from these quadrangles.
These maps cover all of the county except the area adjacent to the
upper reaches of the Suwannee River. The entire area is shown on
the timber type map of Dixie County issued by the Florida Forest
Park Service, and the general highway transportation map of
Dixie County, issued by the Florida State Road Department.
No quadrangle maps showing the topography of Gilchrist








BULLETIN No. 49


Figure 2, Index to Topographic Mapping, in Gilchrist and Dixie counties. Florida,


County have been prepared, although the U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers has issued regional maps (scale 1 : 250,000), on which
the generalized topography of these counties is shown. Figure 3
was prepared from portions of this topographic map series. The
base map of Gilchrist County was made from a photo-mosaic in-
dex compiled by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and the
general highway and transportation map of Gilchrist County, pre-
pared by the Florida State Road Department. Since the photo in-
dices are not corrected mosaics, considerable juggling was neces-
sary to correlate them with other available maps. Strict accuracy
of the location of features, as related to section lines, has been
sacrificed in order to maintain correct relationships between such
features as streams, lakes, islands, etc. The State Road Depart-
ment has issued a new highway map of Gilchrist County prepared
from contact prints of aerial photographs, with control points that
have been checked in the field. This should prove to be an excellent
planimetric map, even though the many trails indicated on the
geologic map accompanying this report are excluded (fig. 3).
Nautical charts and planimetric maps by the U. S. Coast and
Geodetic Survey were used in the coastal areas. An advance copy
of a map of the Suwannee River by the U. S. Army Engineers was











GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


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Figure 3. Topographic map, Gilchrist County, Florida.



used to locate points along the Suwannee and Santa Fe rivers.
This map depicts contours for several miles on each side of the
two rivers, and the control points from this map were added to the
seventeen published quadrangles to prepare a topographic map of
Dixie County, as shown in figure 4. Road profiles by the State Road
Department were useful in establishing elevations in the absence


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6 B;LTLETIN No. 49



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Figure. 4. Topographic mp, Dixie Countzy, Florida.
Florida. 1936. Revised Ja.n. 1951. Scale 1 inch = 2 miles
i '. .



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..4. T g, Dixe t








obec m A l is giv







below.

DIXIE COUNTY

1. General Highway and Transportation Map of Dixie County,
Florida. 1936. Revised Jan. 1951. Scale 1 inch = 2 miles








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


(printed). (Also available on a scale 1 inch per mile in blue-
print). Prepared by State Road Department in cooperation
with U. S. Department of Commerce.
2. Timber-type map of Dixie County. Scale 1 inch = 1 mile. Pre-
pared by Florida Forest Park Service.
3. Nautical charts by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Scale
1: 80,000. Coast chart 1259 Crystal River to Horseshoe Point.
Coast chart 1260, Horseshoe Point to Rock Islands. 1943.
4. Topographic map "T" series of the greater part of Dixie County
prepared by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Scale 1:
20,000. 1940.
5. Aerial photo-mosaic index. U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Production and Marketing Administration. 1944. Scale ap-
proximately 1 inch = 1 mile.
6. Topographic maps of Florida (incomplete) issued by the U. S.
Geological Survey. The following 7.5 Minute Series (Topo-
graphic) quadrangles (scale 1 inch = 2,000 feet) cover most
of Dixie County:
Clara sheet (1954)
Mallory Swamp SW sheet (1954)
Mallory Swamp SE sheet (1954)
Steinhatchee sheet (1954)
Jena sheet (1954)
Cross City W sheet (1954)
Shired Island sheet (1955)
Manatee Springs sheet (1954)
Cross City E sheet (1954)
Steinhatchee SW sheet (1954)
Steinhatchee SE sheet (1954)
Cross City SW sheet (1954)
Eugene sheet (1954)
Horseshoe Beach sheet (1954)
Vista sheet (1954)
Suwannee sheet (1954)
Extra Pass sheet (1954)


GILCHRIST COUNTY
1. General Highway and Transportation Map of Gilchrist County,
Florida. 1936. Revised Jan. 1951. Scale 1 inch = 2 miles (scale,
1 inch = 1 mile in blueprint). Prepared by State Road Depart-
ment.








BULLETIN No. 49


2. Aerial photo-mosaic index, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Production and Marketing Administration. Completed 1949,
Scales 1 inch = 1 mile and 8 inch 1 mile.

TRANSPORTATION
HIGHWAYS
U. S. Highway 19 crosses Dixie County in a southeastwardly
direction from near the northwest corner of the county through
Cross City to the Suwannee River near the junction of Dixie, Gil-
christ, and Levy counties. The towns of Steward, Horseshoe, Su-
wannee, and Hines, in Dixie County, are all served by paved state
roads. Bowlegs Road, which is not paved, connects the town of
Jena with Horseshoe Road. It was named for the Seminole chief
who is said to have retreated along this route following a clash
with U. S. troops during the Seminole wars. State Highway 349
follows the Suwannee River from its junction with U. S. Highway
19 at Oldtown to the town of Suwannee near the Gulf of Mexico.
U. S. Highway 319 traverses Dixie County in an almost north-
south line from its junction with U. S. Highway 19, at Oldtown, to
its intersection with U. S. Highway 27, near Branford, Suwannee
County.
In periods of heavy rainfall, most of the trails in Dixie County
south of U. S. Highway 19 are impassable to conventional automo-
biles, and some of the secondary roads in this section of the county
are also unsuitable for ordinary travel during such times. In Gil-
christ County, because of the higher elevations, the state and
county roads, as well as many of the trails, are open to year-round
passenger-car travel.
The principal highway of Gilchrist County is State Highway
26, which connects interior Florida with U. S. Highway 19 near
the Suwannee River at Fanning Springs. It is an east-west road
that passes through Trenton, eastward to Alachua County. State
Highway 47 starts at Trenton and extends northward across the
Suwannee River to Fort White, in Columbia County. State High-
way 49 traverses Gilchrist County almost in a north-south line
and passes through the towns of Trenton and Bell and finally joins
U. S. Highway 27 in Suwannee County.

RAILWAYS
The Atlantic Coast Line serves Cross City and Trenton and
roughly parallels U. S. Highway 19 and State Highway 26. The







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


Seaboard Air Line maintains a branch from Curtis eastward
through Bell, Williford, and Neals to towns in Alachua County.

AIRWAYS
No commercial air service is available in either Dixie or Gil-
christ counties; however, Dixie County does have a municipal air-
port at Cross City.

WATERWAYS
The controlling navigable depth of the Suwannee River
through the dredged channel of East Pass, Levy County, is 6 feet;
from there to Branford, 5 feet; and to within 21/ miles to Ella-
ville, 31 feet (Report of U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers, District
Office, Jacksonville, 1940).
No survey of the Suwannee River channel has been released
for publication, but it is known that the limestone of the river
bottom is fractured and eroded in a highly irregular fashion. For
example, immediately north of Rock Bluff, the river bottom
deepens to 30 feet below sea level. During normal stages, the
river surface is about 15 feet above sea level at this point, and it
appears that the average depth is thus considerably greater than
the controlling depth.
The Steinhatchee River is not navigable upstream from the
town of Steward. A channel 6 feet deep has been dredged from
Deadman Bay to the harbor at Steward. Docks in this harbor will
accommodate boats up to 100 feet in length.
Because of the shallow water prevalent along the coast, only
small craft can enter the inlets lying between the mouth of the
Suwannee River and Deadman Bay.


CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
In Dixie and Gilchrist counties the average annual temperature
is 79.6, and the mean temperature ranges from 81.4 in August
to 56.6 in January. The counties lie within the frost belt with the
result that tropical fruits and vegetation do not flourish. Aside
from the profusion of grasses and palmettos in the near coastal
areas, the most evident vegetation is cabbage palm, scrub oak, and
turkey oak, together with the hardwoods in the hammocks that
include cypress and magnolia. These trees are in addition to the
commercial pine forests of Dixie County.













BULLET'I No. 49


51rL
LL.LL LL A~ 1. .


3 HJNI
, .. ,


.n


Ln

5a 1 I] HN I


i &r
S

i 0




S 4-
- *C
r
a


s Iz
V



o -,




-
o --
ii
o


a
- U
4-







0
a ^
2 -*-'

i.~

L "


1I

'l I



<'"






/i ^I


S'"" '" .' ,-




A maximum rainfall for the region usually occurs in June and

July (maximum recorded at Cross City Airport was 20 inches)

in July 1964, with minimum rainfall from October to December;








OGOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCIIRIST


however, there are no predictable dry or rainy seasons for the
region. The average annual rainfall for Dixie County is 54.6 inches
and for Gilchrist County it is 51.6 inches. Total monthly rainfall
at Cross City Airport (1942-1964) and Bell (September 1955-
1964) is shown on figure 5. During the summer months rain clouds
form offshore from Dixie County and move inland to precipitate
showers 15 or 20 miles from the coast. In the summer of 1951,
this phenomenon was noticed over a 2-week period when there was
no rain along the coast, but daily showers occurred a few miles
inland.
The mean tidal range from the mouth of the Suwannee River
to Deadman Bay is 2.4 feet and the spring tidal range, which is
controlled by lunar phases is 3.1 feet.


CULTURE
Dixie County was created in 1921 from the southern part of
Lafayette County, and Gilchrist County was formed in 1925 from
part of Alachua County. The area of Dixie County is 710 square
miles; its population was 4,600 in the 1960 census. Gilchrist
County has an area of 351 square miles and had a population high
of 3,499 in 1950, dropping to 2,700 in the next 10 years (1960
census).
The rural population of Gilchrist County depends largely upon
farming for a livelihood. Commercial (salt water) fishing and
forest products are the principal sources of income in Dixie
County. Fishing is enjoyed by sportsmen in the streams and lakes
of both counties, and some excellent hunting preserves are located
in the wooded tracts of Dixie County.
There are approximately 400,000 acres of commercial forest
lands in Dixie County that contain about 21/ million cords of
second growth pine. The virgin forests are gone, but reforestation
programs have been instituted by the owners of large land tracts
and millions of pine seedlings are planted annually. The economy
of Dixie County is shown on table 1.
The majority of the rural population of Gilchrist County is
engaged in truck farming. The economy of Gilchrist County ap-
pears on table 2. Farm characteristics of Dixie and Gilchrist
counties are summarized on table 3; farm population during 1950-
55 appears on table 4. Values in dollars of crops, poultry and dairy
products are shown on table 5. Personal income and percent from











BULLETIN No. 49


TABLE 1. ECONOMY OF DIXIE COUNTY
Population, 1950-3,92S
Populttton. 1956--3,5iX'
PopLulation. 19Gi0-4,600{i


Item


Production


Land area-440,320 acres
Land aren-Tn fariils
In woodland
Value of farrL products sold
Field crop, other than
vegets bles, nuts and fruits
Livestock and livcsto..k
pro iIt.i scid
Foreat products sold
Catt c and elves
Whole milk sold
Houn and pigs
f:Chikens
Corn harvested for grain
Peanuts harvested
LL.jI]inP jeed harvested
Irish potatoes harvested
Sweet potatoes harvested
Tubaco harvested
St.tgareane or arghum syrup
Vegetables harvested iOr mle
Pccans harvested
Watertmelon harvested


1949i


217,873
146 ,1521
$270,354

5 55 ,263
$202 ,103


$ 8,4900
4.793 head
36 ,W74 Ail,
4 ,67 hean]
4,3441
4 ,375 hbi.
15 ,500 Ib,
80w lb.
3r bu.
711 bu.
132,095 Ib.
1 ,2M6 rld.
73 aB.re
215 lb.
:1 ecre'


1954


$]68,850
17 ,390
5421 ,180
$121 ,806
$251,481
$ i ,310
,o093 head
6.237 head
6 ,562
8,06R hu.
14.050 lb.
21,790 1b.
199 h,n

335 bu.
208,344 Lb.
1 ,4210 pj.
532 acres
300 Ib.
513 acres


19591

$168,944
145,911
$433,297


139 ,797
8275,668
$ 7,897
41,430

4,181
7 ,728
10 ,571
16,011


head
head
bu.
Ib.


-
55 bu.
255 bu.
145,607 lb.
t ,438 gal.
133 acres
500 Ib.
130 acres


1964s


8204 ,976
191,903
$373,004
$217 ,213
8149,113
$ 6,359
6 ,337 ihead
S,397 brad
2 ,246
7 ,50 bu.
36 ,144 lb.
1 (hundred
weigh t)
212 bu.
204,32N ]b.
140 gal.
78 acres
30 Ib.
78 acres


SFlorida State Clarrber of Cominjler,, statstical albstiact of Florida counties, Supplement. 1956.
S19 Ce..ns Lkfs of Fopuilation Series PC-8, no. 9.
C. S. Bureau of Census, 2959, Cenlus of Agrilcultuire, Counties and State. economic Ar as. FIlrida.
Washidnwton. U S. Government Printing Office, 1961.
4 U. B, BuLrefll of C Fn.LLS, 1954, Censua of Agriculture, Counties and State Eeonomic Area&, Florida.
Washington, U. S. Government Printing Oioe, 1956,
ULT. & Buretu of C arus, 1964. C'enstft of Agriculture, Counties and State Ecuuorric Ar.eas, Floridla,
Wa&hington, U.. S. Government Printing Office, ]966.

TABLE 2. ECONOMY OF GILCHRIST COUNTY


Population,
Population,
Population,


195f-3 ,4991
19i56-2 ,80t0
1960-2 ,7004


I lem


Land arca-*121 ,960 acres
Land erea-In farms
In woodland
Value of farm prc[-i'ete sold
Field crops, other than vege-
tables, nuta and fru.tea
Livestock and Livestock
products ~sold
Foreft prodiuict sold
Cattle and wolves
W]]lc rrnilk sold
HoR and piga
Chickens
Corn Imrvested for grain
Peanuta harvested
Itupinr ased harvt!stld
IrirlI poitatof JaUlsrtet.d

Swe(t potatoes hrvestcd
Tohae c halirvestte
Sugarcane or aorfhum sy3rt'
Vectable harvested for .ale
Pecans harvested
Watcrmclo;es harvested


19492


173,912
57.055
t889,285
1506,60
350,864
17,432
3,322 head
34,352 gal.
12,365 .w a
10,422
47,820 bu.
165,230 lb,
64,200 lb.
133 bu.
I,279 bu.
331,291 1b.
4,676 gal.
6,135 acres
2,006 lh.
292 acres


1954.


I1080,58
42,714
31,080,312
342,664
453,731
3,985
7,118
19.250
14,580
12,193
88,93
141,827
232,3-8
303


head
Igal.
I ea
bu.
1 h.
Ib.
1l31.


o59 bu.
507,014 bii,
5, 82 ga].
6,648 acres
24,718 lb,
251 acres


1959

. 91.339
2ft,83't
-1,523,114
402,324
612,851
8.942
6.157 head
11,250 head
5,468
116,282 bu.
164 ,48 1b,
247,300 lb.
305 bu.
2,364 bu.
816,393 lb.
4,145 gal.
4,478 acrs
72,810 Ib,
4.117 acrec


79.826
18.512
$t ,951,803
740,219
819,540
9,6811
10,317 head
2 rl.
6,937 head
27,604
376,486 bu,
208,291 bu.

31 (hindied
weight)
345 bu.
356,25 lb.
700 gal.
3,466 a1rce
69,059 lb.
3,315 acres


S19y50 Census of Pop>ulation 'ries PC-B, no. 9.
SU.. H. Bureau of Census. 1954, Cecsus of Agrieulture, Counties and State ELonotnmi Areas, Florida.
Wnahingtun, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1956,
r Ftlrira State Chamber of Commer., statistical abstract of floridA erwmunties, S1.1plleinent 195Is.
L U. Bureau of CensusI, 195.9. CenRLiL& of Agriciulture., Counties and State. t economic A-reas, Florida.
Wr-]lington, U. 86. government Printing Office, 1961.
SI U. S. Bureau of CeBnss, 1964. Cclm~is of Agri clture, Counties and State, L'conomic Areas, Florida.
Washington, U. S. Government Printing Offie, 1966.


Production






















TABLE 3. FARM CHARACTERISTICS OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST COUNTIES, 1950, 1954, 1959 AND 1964.1
o
Dixie County iilchrist County
1960 1954 1959 164 1950 19 1959 96 ]94

ToLal Aeres 440 .320 Same Same Stie 216 ,960 Ste Rttwme Same
Fsrn (Tih loansl of Acres) 218 1ig 169 206 114 10g 91 O8
Percent of Total Lanrd n Farms 49.6 38,3 38,4 46.6 62.5 49, 42.1 38,8
Number of Farme 17 214 142 179 426 9 334 296 >
Average Sise of Farms 1,259,4 789.0 J 189.7 1,145.1 267.4 292.8 273.5 269,7

SData from U. S. Bureau ti f C-rnFws, Crnus u{f Agriculture. 0










14 BULLETIN No. 49

TABLE 4. FARM POPULATION OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST
COUNTIES, 1950, 1955 AND 1964.?

1950 %of 1955 %of 164
Farm 1950 FarT ]155 Fn
Area op. op Pop, Pop % Changc Pop.
Dixie County 670 1.2 000 15.0 -11.2 549
Gilolrist County 2,083 59.5 1,90(0 6-.2 8.8 918

I Dats from U. S. Bureau of Cenmus. Censon. of Agricultuur


TABLE 5. VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, DIXIE AND
GILCHRIST COUNTIES, 1949-1964.

1949 1 54 ] ,95 1956 1959 19!3
DLJ.IX COUNTYr
Value of Field Crops 5 ,X0 122 ,000 13 .797 207,213
Cotton Prodcrion n Acrcs 5 5 5 33
P LnuLL Produiction in Acres 5 20 21 22
Tombcco Prvduction in Acres 164) 16 130 101 101
Valuc of Livestock Sold 162 ,000 101 ,f0f 231,240 1 42 886
Value of Truck Crops Sold 1 ,CNX 35 ,,[NX 9,640 7 275
Acre Planted 300 700 ]33 78
Value of Poultry and Poultry Pruducts
Sold 20.000 60,000 44,428 6,247
VlU c tf Dairy Products Sold 21.000 -
VaLuc of Fruit and Nuts Sold 295 2,54 4
GILCHRIST COUNTY:
Value of Field Crope 157 ,000 343,00 402.324 740,219
Cotton PodCti in m Acres 4 5 -
Pcanut Production in Acres 270 400 41(K 2 J 174
Tolbcco Production in Acret 545 540 440 275 247
Value of Livestork Rold 302,000 412 572.279 067,928
Value of Trut-k Crops Sold 364,000 283,000 473,350 334,i95
Acrma Planted 8 750 5,8& 0 1 ,476 3,466
Val.ie uf Puultry und Poultry Product*
&Sld 28 ,010 21 ,)00 4 )00 -
Value of Dairy Produ1icl Si id 21 ,00 20.000 3,000 -
Value of Frui, oind Nuts Sold 5,000 25.647 17,463

1 Data from I-. S BLLreau of Ccn'us, Census of Agriculture.

major industrial sources for 1954 and 1960 are summarized on
table 6, and dollar volume of retail sales during 1952, 1955, 1957,
and 1960 are summarized on table 7. Cross City in Dixie County
and Trenton in Gilchrist County are principal towns and county
seats. They serve as centers for county government, communication
and transportation.
Steward, Horseshoe Beach, and Suwannee are small fishing
villages located along the Dixie County coast, while Shamrock,
Oldtown and Hines are interior communities that are centered
about lumber mills. The population of the latter settlements has
declined with the decrease in mill activity. Oldtown, near the
Suwannee River, is of some historical interest and Cash (1938)
stated that "One of the largest Indian towns in Florida during
latter Spanish days was what was known as Suwannee Oldtown,
which occupied nearly or exactly the site of the present village of
Oldtown." The same author wrote that Narvaez and his men









GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


TABLE 6. PERSONAL INCOME AND PERCENT FROM MAJOR
INDUSTRIAL SOUCES FOR 1954 AND 1960'

Dixie CoGu[ty


Ind] istry


lfanufactu ring
Agritilt.u re
AMining and Fisheriea
Cinat riur ion
Transportation, Communication and
Utilities
Financ, R-al FAstte and Tnsuranee
Rett ] anil Wholtfeale Trade
Service Trades and ProfeasiLns
Guvcrnlu'c" rt
Unc~1asfied by Indsimtry


1954
Income Percent


5 333,0f00
200 ,000
44,000
14 ,000
74 ,r00
51 ,000
3,50 ,0..
180,000
1 .073 ,(K)0
215,000


13,1
82
1.7
0.0
2.9
2,0
13,8
7.1
42,1
8.5


1060


Income


St41


Percent


(.050 ,00( 28.7
316,000 8.s
97,000 2.7
214 ,00 5.9
142 ,(W0 3.9
11 6,00 3,2
528,00 14.4
21,i,000 60.8
21,0M 0.6


Gilchriet County

Maniifacetl ring 116 ,0W1 4.8 82 ,(00 3.3
AMricultLLre 776,0M) 32.3 966 ,000 37.9
Mining and Fillerie -
Crimst.ruction 32.OL) 13 157,IO 6.1
Transportation, Commnuni'tiion and
Utili tt[ 70,000 2.9 86,OWJ 3.4
Finance, Real Estute and InTurance 51 ,000 2, 42 ,(00 1.6
Retail and Wholesale Trade 28. ,000 11.8 397,000 15.6
Screide T races and Professions 135,000 i5. 6 10 6,000 6,5
(Gvernments 7951,000 33. 1 629,0f0 24.7
Unclaasified by Industry 147 ,In) 6, 23,000 0.9

I PerFonal income antd other statistic for Flcrida countic Burer of Economic and BuisineR Research
University of Floride.
TABLE 7. DOLLAR VOLUME OF RETAIL SALES OF DIXIE
AND GILCHRIST COUNTIES, (SELECTED YEARS)'


1952 1955 1957 1960 1952-57

State af Florida $3,157,4~ 3 4 ,577 023 4 ,892 ,159 $8 ,50 ,000 86, 6
Tliic Cotlntyv 2,128 3,594 3,687 3,717 73.3
Gilchrist County 2.122 2,8S2 2,757 3 .255 29.9

] Ptcrsol income and other ae tistie-9 for Florida countiLe, Bureu of Economia and Buwiness Research,
lUniverity of Florida,

marched through this region in 1528 along a route approximating
the location of U. S. Highway 19.
The town of Bell is the only community in Gilchrist County in
addition to the county seat. Bell is a small farm center served by a
branch of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company. Formerly
Williford, Tyler, and Neals were communities populated by mill
workers; but with the decline of lumbering their inhabitants
moved on to other areas.


DRAINAGE

SUWANNEE RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN

The Suwannee River drainage basin covers an area of 10,000
square miles which is about equally divided between Florida and


I


"~








BULLETIN No. 49


G E OR G I A


Limit oi Suwannee 10 0 I 20 30 40Miles
.. *r. .r rr .. I I "
River drainage area
Datum is mean sea level
CONTOUR INTERVAL 10 FEET
Figure 6, Mip of Ilori a showing portion of tie Suiwannee River drainage basin
with piezomitictrir contours of the Floridan aquifer (after Iealy, 1962).
Georgia. The Florida part of this large drainage basin is shown
in figure 6, which depicts piezometric contours drawn upon the
top of the artesian water of the Floridan aquifer, as well as
streams. The Suwannee River has its source in the western half
of the Okefenokee Swamp, which it partially drains. The principal
tributaries to the Suwannee are the Withlacoochee and Alapaha
rivers, arising in Georgia, and the Santa Fe River, which has its
source in the lake region of central peninsular Florida.







GFLoY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


About one-third of Dixie County and three-quarters of Gil-
christ County lie within the Suwannee River drainage basin. The
southeastern quarter of Gilchrist County is partially drained by
the Wacasassa River. The western two-thirds of Dixie County is
drained by the Steinhatchee River, and by numerous smaller
streams, of which Shired Creek is the most important.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The effect of surface drainage of the Suwannee and Santa Fe
rivers on the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is shown
in figure 6. The piezometric contours represent the approximate
height, in feet, above mean sea level of static water levels in
tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer.
The configurations of the contours are controlled by perme-
ability as well as the recharge and discharge areas. In areas where
the rivers flow over impermeable deposits, such as clays and silts,
that overlie the limestones of the aquifer, the characteristic up-
stream bending of the piezometric contours is absent. However,
where piezometric contours do parallel the rivers by bending up-
stream, the limestone of the aquifer are close to the surface.
The bending upstream of the contours indicates leakage of ground
water into the rivers. In these areas the rivers act as drains and
the flow of the rivers is sustained by ground-water flow from the
aquifer to the rivers.
The contours parallel the Suwannee River as far upstream as
Hamilton County, and the Sante Fe River as far upstream as
southeastern Columbia County. A comparison of contour con-
figurations along the rivers with the geology of the basin, shown
on figure 7, reveals their close correspondence with the exposures
of the limestones of the aquifer.

SUWANNEE RIVER DISCHARGE
Records of stream discharge of the Suwannee River for the
15-year period immediately preceding 1950, taken at Rock Bluff,
show that on the average April is the month of maximum dis-
charge, as shown on table 8.
Figure 8 is a photograph of the U. S. Geological Survey gag-
ing station at Rock Bluff taken August 7, 1950, when the gage
read 5.6 feet at water level. The maximum observed discharge
at Rock Bluff occurred on April 13, 1948, when the stream stage
was 27.43 feet above mean sea level. On this date stream discharge







BULLETIN No. 49


G E 0 R G I A


EXPLANAT I ON 10 0 1i 20 30 d4Miles
]OCALA GROUP Doium .smenan seo level
E- OTHER FORMATIONS
^^- CONTOUR INTERVAL 10 FEET
Fi. rn-' 7, M;p <.i.f 1le FIlrridai portion of the Suwannee Hiver dr1i'nage basin with
ji1' ninFlt 'i[ rn' tourii of tbh Floriinan L qtuifEr supcrinmposd on
the outcropping formation (after Iealy, 1962).

was at the rate of 82,300 cubic feet per second, compared to the
average discharge rate of 14,112 cubic feet per second for the
month of April.
Approximately 90 percent of the stream flow at Rock Bluff
is derived from the Georgia-North Florida portion of the drainage
basin, including the Okefenokee Swamp. The other 10 percent is
contributed by the Santa Fe River drainage area, which covers


18


















TABLE 8. MONTHLY AND YEARLY MEAN DISCHARGE (IN CUBIC FEET PER
SECOND), OF THE SUWANNEE RIVER AT ROCK BLUFF, FLORIDA1


C)


Monthly AverCwe Discharge, 15-ycnr period 1935-2150,
Jan Feb March April May


Mean
Max.
Min.


8,400
26,750
3,530


f, 545
21,170
3,730


12 ,62
33,390
4.360


Montlly end Yearly Mcsn Dischrge
19850
1951 ,285 A,162 5,.
1952 ]I1 ,tIr .I ,19 15 ,
1953 4,081 6,435 8,
1954 16,920 10,400 8.
1955 ,2 1J 3,881) 3,
1950 2.S48 3,831 5,


14 ,]17
59,430
4 ,982


S,8]4
12,400
10,52(1
6 ,585
3,882
4 ,0-4 t


508
300
306
010
544
210


9,1-57
20 .050
3,632


6,4R3
7 ,u0
8,823

3 .437
0 .89-5


June

6,0191
10 ,740
3,179


4,382
6 ,669
5 ,fil6
,5,616
.14,485
3,106
-14 310


J.ily


7,060
10,400
3,9-29


3 .920
4 ,839
4,398
2,937
4,547


Aug.


9 ,395
22,260o
4.668


4 ,075
41,399
8,148
4,018
2,870
4 023


Sept.


10,011
19,980
4,188


5,117
4,460
12,680
3,7-17
a3,978
3,348


Oct,


18 550
3 ,i17


7,605
6 ,455
4,650
18,05D
3,5.5
3,720
4 ,370


Nov.


8,106
34,280
3,190

8,227
9,052
4,118
S9,580
3,231
2 ,950
4,026


DTe,


7,383
32 ,-10
3,079

5,a92

3,785
10.960
3.121
2,687
3,277


c-'
Annual

9,223 0
19 ,770 b
4.904


0,390
B ,o310
6 .213
7 ,479
9,](A
8,130
3 ,343
4 ,223


I Data corrpile d by U, S. Groligicel Survey, Divijion of Wntcr Reaources. Location: Ser, 10, TSS, RI4E, at Rock Bluff Ferry, 10 mies rdownitreami from Santa Fe-
BSwannee River junction. Avemns discharge. Disrharti in cubic feet rr rccnd. NMontldy and yearly mean dimhclarge {in Lhlli! fIe t per 2eeo id at Rock Bluff frumi
1951 tuj D"'v!mber 19.6,. No records are available -fter 1950 Ba te KAIagiEYi station has been abandoned.


I







BULLETIN No. 49


Figure 8. Suwannee River at Rock Bluff, Florida showing the gagiing station.

950 square miles, and includes the relatively high central portion
of Florida in Union and Bradford counties.
Table 9 gives the mean monthly and annual discharge at a
recorder located in Sec. 29, T10S, R14E, on the left bank about
400 feet downstream from Fort Fanning Bridge at U. S. 19 over
the Suwannee. Figure 9 shows the mean flow of the Suwannee
River at Branford for a 30-year period (1931-1960).

SANTA FE RIVER DISCHARGE
Stream discharge records of the Santa Fe River for a 20-
month period preceding 1950, taken near Fort White, show that
March is the month of maximum discharge and June is the month
of minimum discharge. Table 10 gives the mean monthly and
annual discharge at a recorder in Sec. 28, T7S, R16E, 5 miles south
of Fort White.

STEINHATCHEE RIVER DISCHARGE
Stream discharge records of the Steinhatchee River, seven
tenths of a mile south of Clara, Dixie County, from October 1950
and September 1965, are given in table 11. The maximum dis-
charge, 4,320 cubic feet per second, was recorded on October 4,
1957.


20














TABLE 9. MONTHLY AND YEARLY MEAN DISCHARGE (IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND), OF THE SUWANNEE
RIVER NEAR WILCOX, FLORIDA.'


Year


Feb


Mar


Apr


lMay


Jutn


July


Aug


Sept


Oct


(Nov


Dec


Annual


11,300 12,000 11 ,300 10 ,91o

21,470


8,830 7 160 6,270 6,740
No record from Oct. 1931 through Mar. 1942


1 ,780 16,980


14,730
21 ,7,10
16,040
6,040
11,410
7 ,204
11,680
4,541
4,382
3,602
10,920
10,340
11 ,350
10,360
5,698
10,550
17,850
20,000


16,220
32 ,210 57,260
14 ,710 14 ,580


6,045
i;: ,0ao
9,212
2,282
4 ,887
5,582
3 796
15.250
24 ,910
19 ,470
S.087
14 1900
5 ,800
30,300


10 ,430
13,1900
10,600
7,464
4 ,742
-14,631
6.116
19,560
31,220
24 040
13,650
14.730
10,090
17 ,790
20 ,590


22,380

7,142
8,356
9,475
5,955
4,422
7.371
5,691
y ,,41
19.510
16,340
15 800
16,240
9,387
a ,345
23,470
15,740


5.073
7,210
6,132
5,204
4 ,174
4,924
11 ,180
12 ,640
21 ,6)9
9,747
9,132
6,174
5 ,35
13,310
11,550


4 728
5,331
6,401
5 ,0,51
4.104
4 ,924
10,00
16 380
15,480
11 ,210
8.180
5,637
7.304
11 ,630
15 ,320


14.880
20,000
17,380
14,9330

5a 313
s ,88


4 .546
3,9s58
8,690
11.610
13,820
13 ,670
7 ,850
5 ,37
6.739
20 ,00
14,400


5,810


14.220
20 ,30
16,030

17 ,20
5,678
5,023
12 ,80
4 ,.UO
4 644
4,122

7,7954
10,820
] 1 ,MO,50
11,130
6.049
a ,263
27 ,10
11 ,470


8,160





13.540
17 ,790
13 ,870
8,226
5.239
17 r,80
4 ,263
4,244
4,788
12,710
6,074
9.906
1,410

5 ,36m
4 ,85
25,810


7 ,30


8, 320


33.030 32 ,630


9,367
9,905
4,865
11.030
4,128
3,718
4.399
8,266
5,597
10,440
9,524
7 ,458
4 589
4,178
17,350


6,568
10,070
4 155*1
11.790
4,078
3 ,575
3,880
12.270
5,273
8 ,548
7,427
&,RSO
4 ,49
4,153
20 ,970


' Dat from U. Ceological Survey. Divmiai' of Water Resourcea


1930
]131

19142
1943
]1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1051
1980


1954

1056
1957

1961
1962
1963
1964
1965


14,300
27,320
15.970
5 ,900
5 ,'goo
32,190
4,662
17,120
4 ,088
3,610
3.799
11 ,220
6,381
9 ,505
1,773
5 ,f519
S,774
21 ,470


7 ,223
6,940
8,154
9.688
6,911
4 .213
4,788
7,904
11,830
14,990
13.120
9.546
6,800
7,054
19 ,320


-- --







BULLETIN No. 49


1961


1960


Figure 9. Monthly mean flow of Suwannee River at. ranford, Florida. Normal
(nimlinn) for 30-year period 1931-1960 (data from U.S. Geological Survey).



SPRINGS

Eleven named springs occur in Gilchrist County, four of which
empty into the Sante Fe River and seven into the Suwannee River.
All of these springs are located within a few hundred feet of
the banks of these rivers. Turbulent boils occur in a number of
places in the beds of the two rivers which are attributed to sub-
channel spring flow. The springs and boils issue from fissures in
the limestone and attest the presence of subsurface streams.
Rock Bluff Spring, shown in figure 10, typifies the springs of
Gilchrist County. Its water is translucent and reflects the cypress
growing along the banks. Schools of mullet swim up from the
Gulf to feed along its sandy bottom. The deepest part of the
spring is about 25 feet, where water issues from a channel in the
Crystal River Formation. The flow of this spring on June 4, 1952,
was calculated at 25 cubic feet per second.
The rates of flow of several other springs in Gilchrist County
are estimated in table 12. Figures 11, 12, 13 and 14 show vari-
ous springs in the area.


D J F M A M J J A S 0 N 0
48 33 48 48 54 59 5-6454 47 47147


44:" *,J rS
: ;: : :: : ;! ; .; : f : : :I :::
.i .. .... .
e '':-"i ::- .. f1:: ; : : :










...57 5555 32 55 55 55- 5443
rr S !


---- I 4 -- 4





"7 "---I ---







56 57 55 55 2 55 55 55 54 54 43 43









TABLE 10. MONTHLY AND YEARLY MEAN DISCHARGE OF THE SANTA FE
RIVER NEAR FORT WHITE, FLORIDA."

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JLLn July Aug Rept Oet Nov Dec Annual

19Q27 ~I 13 1 ,00)0 70
1928 963 O[ti 995 1 ,900 2.980 1,550 2 ,310 3 ,50 3, ,9610 4 2,260 1 ,61 I 2.264
1929 2,0rJ0 1,840 2,270 2,030 1,400 1,390 1 ,70 2,490 2,680 3,05 I ,970 1 ,580 ,098
1930 1,650
No record fr:m Feb. through May, 1932
1932 800 785 972 1 ,380 1 .080 940 926 t
Iu 846 6'0 1 ,I0o 2,200 1,350 1 ,03J I ,041 1 ,230 1,92 1.220 ,020 939 1,237 0
1934 883 358 877 848 922 3,820 2,270 2,270 1,76f) 1 ,327 1121 997 ,497 g
1935 943 872 785 773 762 731 811 1 .333 4,421 2 ,418 1,580 1,371 ,399 C
R19 1 ,250 1,7~i2 1 ,T7M 1,604 1 ,169 1 ,094 1,112 1,179 1 ,004 1,358 1,185 1,080 1 .313 19W7 1,075 2 ,010 1 ,933 2,39 1 ,637 1,275 1 217 1 ,486 2,178 ,920 1 558 1 ,410 1,776
1938 I 634 I .677 ] .275 1.097 1 ,007 1,000 I ,106 1 ,674 1,298 1 ,610 2 ,415 ,32-1 1 ,398 0
1939 1.172 1,O*C I ,098 038 f21 .174 1 ,809 2.110 1 .61 1,320 1,T53 1,4180. 1 ,293
1940 1,075 1 ,F5R 1 ,338 ,292 1 ,051 98 1 26 1,687 1 ,356 1 ,026 918 914 1,188
1941 1,118 I ,22 1,293 1,170 1,019 1,05 2.029 1.903 1,436 2 ,58 3.298 2,767 1,748
1942 3,415 2,625 4,369 2,758 1 ,885 1,701 1 794 1.834 1 ,792 ,2 1 ,52 1 ,238 2,191
1943 1,147 1,074 1,075 988 99 9 47 9i62 1 ,354 1 ,151 948 860 827 25
1944 836 828 990 2, 37 1, 339 93 1,182 2,727 2,057 3,17 2,283 1,438 1,682 L
1945 1,892 1 ,506 1,255 1,092 1,010 943 1,097 2,178 2.014 1,320 1,095 I ,202 I,3 89
1946 1 ,984 1,451 1,187 1,110 1 ,778 2,020 2,433 3 ,116 2 ,603 2,405 1 ,713 1 ,37(1 1 ,J51 t
1947 1,210 1,4(0 2 ,226 1,,028 1 ,338 1,367 1 ,192 1 ,88 2 ,047 3,906 3,840 2,680 2 ,034
1948 2,452 2,832 $ ,345 4,66. 2, 582 1 .892 ,705 3,087 2,347 3,282 2,030 1,917 2 ,347
1949 1 ,773 2,481 1,390 1,777 1680 1 ,486 1 ,603 1 ,746 3,438 2 ,052 1,924 1 ,74 1 ,37
1950 1 431 I ,284 1,226 1 1, ,I 102 ] ,w3 1,143 ] ,288 3,3 7 3 ,385 2 ,637 1,722 ,7359
1951 1,492 1,346 1I ,2%0 1,287 1,152 1.088 I,066 1 ,17 1, 133 1 ,145 1,266 1,216 1,217 t
1962 1,139 I ,.30 I ,603 1,233 ] .42 996 928 927 1,019 ,109 963 914 I ,104
1053 1.023 992 989 1 ,859 1,321 1 .10i 1,087 1 ,636 3094 3 ,089 1 ,861 2,65r1 ,73I
1954 3, 046 1,835 1 526 1,3C 1 ,2.1f 1,1211 1 ,<] ] ,057 T ,.F0 1,080 925 892 1,354
1955 885 1 ,95 70 909 974 836 882 816 756 730 712 079 844 '
1956 G67 601 673 671 738 679 8,98 811 780 1 ,212 1.115 813 808
191f7 728 703 670 684 tr3G 2,090 1 ,370 I ,6.97 ,256 1 ,632 1 ,1.10 I ,454, ] ,1-11
1958 1 ,051 1,127 2,075 2,1633 1673 1 ,257 I ,68 1 .538 1 28 I ,104 1,110 1,158 1 ,43
1959 1 ,833 1 ,7R8 4.238 3,515 3 ,1409 4.063 2,625 2,031 2 ,211 2 .593 2,031 1 ._53 2 670
196i 1,511 1,658 -3 ,.40 2,822 1.963 1 ,640 2,259 2 .895 2,764 3,095 2,033 1, 68i 2,315
1961 1 ,,126 1,772 1 ,823 1 ,666 1 398 1 ,304 1 ,60 2,290 2 58 1 ,51i5 1 ,308 1,183 1 ,65
1962 1 ,09 1 ,033 1 ,015 983 90,1 881 013 1 ,053 1 ,118 1 ,025 932 904 189
1963 933 1,562 1,739 1,124 932 798 1,181 1,455 1 ,iHi1 1,354 957 839 1.195
1964 1 ,fi2i 2,319 2,464 1,550 2,031 1,308 1,229 2,163 6,344
1965

1 Data from IT. & Geological Sur-ve.y, Surfaace Watefr Bri nchi.




















TABLE 11. MONTHLY AND YEARLY MEAN DISCHARGE OF THE STEINIIATCHEE RIVER NEAR CROSS CITY,
FLORIDA1

'Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov De. Annual

1950 227 132 87.4
1951 72.1 SA,5 227 250 23.0 18.6 32.6 437 175 129 1 ,291 400 261
1952 212 808 413 184 26. 2 48.9 31.4 146 402 317 35,5 23.7 221
1958 128 121 53.5 695 96.0 208 476 A50 1 .53 1 ,021 209 q98 506
1954 560 159 103 153 122 16.1 634 105 97.6 66.3 13.0 31.3 173
1955 51.5 329 59.9 30.3 10.5 9.50 22.0 42.0 174 16.0 11,2 7.53 62.3 Z
1955 14.2 56.9 35.3 15.9 89.6 14.4 82. 5W0,8 29.5 262 51.4 22.4 60.8
1957 15.5 13.0 53.9 87.4 137 925 503 478 725 1 ,436 98.5 405 4f Z
1958 396 390 875 677 99.4 174 717 216 P 6,0 97,5 108 07.8 323 C
1959 484 239 1,889 490 611 621 780 58. R8 973 358 259 r4 "
1980 220 630 1.356 525 72.3 55,3 r147 780 437 1 .310 83 45 509
1961 233 476 214 305 47.3 23.9 51.1 78.7 253 18-9 16.9 33.3 143 t
1062 62.2 58.6 76.5 45.0 9.09 22.6 221 220 47[ 90 36,9 111 102
1963 169 716 568 47.8 16.6 35.6 483 217 82,9 205 35 74.3 221
1964 819 972 89s 253 582 37.3 1,305 ,830 3,820,0 423 40.2 530 962
1965 247 275 654 145 94.4 106 321 551 249

I Data from U. S. Geological Survey.






GE:OI.(u) OF D)IXIE AND (ILCIIRIST


Figure 10. Ruck Bluff Springs, Gilrbrist. County, Florida.


The following discharge measurements of some springs in
Gilchrist County are reported in Florida Geological Survey Bul-
letin 31, and in the Water Survey and Research Paper No. 12.


Spring
Blue Springs
Hart Spring


Lumber Camp Spring
Otter Spring

Rock Bluff Spring


Flow in Cubic
Feelt per Second


461
62.1
40
58.6
2.96
5,00
5,43
42.1


Datei


Oct. 9, 1930
_May 12.1932
May 14, 1932
,July 24, 1946
May 12 1932
March 14, 1932
May 12, 1932
Dec. 8. 1942


25









B ( L 1.Er No. 49


During low
charge of Rock


flow investigation of April and May 1956, dis-
Bluff Spring was 23.8 on April 28, and 25.0 on


TABLE 12. ESTIMATED RATE OF FLOW OF SELECTED SPRINGS IN
GILCHRIST COUNTY (BY W. R. OGLESBY)

Flo-v int "1II1hic
Sji'rii n Fret. [wr -irinJd Date- (19;i2)
TJanir- Sprinet; 7-9 [Mav 4
T.il[ Rprjrln. 3:\1) ,lrn lI 31)
(ttLIr Sliuin la 211 Alay 4
Ilfck Bluff T pringnu 23 i .ILn 4
Aiken -priti i) 1 .Imane 4
LiIujlnr Ca(mip Sp]rinl.s 81; Lirw -1


Figure 11. Hart Springs, Gilchrist Couiny, Florida.


26








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCIIRIST 27


Figure 12. Old Town Springs, Dixie County, Florida.


Figure 13. Blue Springs, Gilchrist. County, Florida.







BiLLErTIr No. 49


Figure 14. Trailj Sprinp, Loctlli.y 136, Gilbhlrist County, Florida.



April 19 and discharge of flow at Hart Spring was 58.6 on April
27, (Pride and Crooks, 1962, p. 52).
On the west bank of the Suwannee River, in Dixie County,
there are small springs occurring at the bank of the river, but as
they had no appreciable channels of their own, their flow was not
measured.
Several of the springs in Dixie and Gilchrist counties were
described in Bulletin No. 31 of the Florida Geological Survey,
1947. The descriptions include a photograph of Rock Bluff Spring
and a water analysis of Hart Spring, reproduced as tables 13 and
14.


28









GEOLOGY OF DIXIe AND GiLCHlILST


TABLE 13. WATER ANALYSIS OF HART SPRINGS,
GILCHRIST COUNTY, FLORIDA

April 27, 1f 5)**
Date ,fC collection July 24. ]946* (low flow)
Parif Per Million
,illem (.i0 s) ........................... 5 .20 .3
Iriun (Fe.) .............................. .. 5 0.0
Calcium (C ) -.....-- ..- .....-..... ..--. 67.00 8 .10
Magneaitt~i (Mg) ....................... 4.80 6.4
Sodinun (Na) .................. .... ... 2.0 2.4
PoLat (K) ..... .. ..... ... 0.60 0.1
BieLrbvuate (11CO,).................... 208.00 206 .10
Sulfate (SOi.) ........................... 12.00 101.0
Chloridr' ((1). .. .. .... .. 3, W 5.0
Fluoride (F) ........................... (..L 0,2
Nitrate (NO,).......................... 2- 30 I0.0
Disol ved Solids ........................ 200.00 1991.0
Total Hardant-sn fl (C' COt, ............ 18 C00 196
Carlon Dioxide (CO2)..................... 17
Color ................................... 5.00U 10.0
pl .................., .. ,.... ... .... 7-.30 7.9
]ireciric Conductance (K X 105 sa 25" C.) 3., 350 363.0
Sparing of Florida; Fkvridt GCeo. rurTey Bull a3, p. f ,
Pride and Crooks, 1962, p. 63.


SOLUTION FEATURES

SUMMARY

The solution of carbonate rock is controlled by water-table
fluctuations, topography, rock solubility, relative permeability of
the sediments, rainfall, plant decay and bacterial action (which
furnishes CO, to the ground-air) plus CO2 of the atmosphere, and
finally, temperature and pressure which control the amount of
CO that meteoric waters can absorb.
Factors which influence the form that solution features may
assume include non-homogeneity of rocks, joints, bedding planes,
dipping beds, faults and unconformities. The availability of abra-
sive agents, such as quartz sand, may modify the final form of
solution features.
Solution features are initiated at or near the water table, in
the vadose zone. They are usually modified by normal seasonal
fluctuations of the water table.
Solution features of Florida include 1) common sinks or
sink holes, 2) funnel sinks and natural wells, 3) solution pipes,
4) sink-hole lakes, 5) underground rivers, 6) springs, 7) caves,
and 8) karrenfelds.


COMMON SINKS AND SINK-HOLE LAKES

The prerequisites to the formation of sink holes include car-
bonate rock, which extends above the water table, and rainfall





























TABLE 14. WATER ANALYSIS OF ROCK BLUFF SPRINGS, FLORIDA.'
I -..


Rock Bltuff Slring


April 27, 1958


.3


-9


Q


"-


S

3
2:
[lU


5.3 .00 46 2.7 2.0


SPride and Crooks, 192,. p. 63.


,2


o


0
1a




1-13


W



7.0 4-0
i :
G *2
rja


s
*I





Ia~
a-





128]


*-9

*I'
4I

c



.1


z

a
in
-3



.3I


10
z
10


*g

1
1
':3




137


C:d
s^-


CE



r j

250


CI

r



Q3 I


7IJ5


' Pride and C ooks, It G2. 63,







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GIICHRIST


charged with C02, or some other natural acids.
The limestones of Dixie and Gilchrist counties are permeable
and porous, bioclastic, Upper Eocene rocks of the Inglis Forma-
tion, Williston Formation and Crystal River Formation (the Ocala
Group), and older sediments.
Elevations in Gilchrist County range from approximately 10
feet on the west, near the Suwannee River, to more than 100 feet
above sea level on the east, near the Alachua-Gilchrist County
line. The piezometric contours range from less than 10 feet at the
Suwannee River to slightly above 40 feet at the eastern margin
of Gilchrist County. The Chiefland Limestone Plain, the Suwannee
River Valley Lowlands and a portion of the Brooksville Ridge
and High Springs Gap lack impermeable cover above the limestone
interval of the Ocala Group. In the Wacasassa Flats area, lime-
stones of the Ocala Group are overlain by clay, silt, sandy clays,
and phosphorite of the Alachua Formation. A number of shallow
lakes are located in the Wacasassa Flats, of Gilchrist County.
These lakes are perched above the regional piezometric surface of
the county. The limestone aquifer crops out, or is overlain by a
thin veneer of Pleistocene sands and erratic clay lentils, on three
sides of the Wacasassa Flats.
In Dixie County, the same soluble limestones are present at
the surface or are overlain by an even thinner cover of loose
Pleistocene sands. There is also an appreciable amount of dolo-
mitic limestone, of Upper Eocene Age, along the coastal and
western margins of Dixie County. Clay or other impervious man-
tle is practically nonexistent above the Ocala bed-rock of Dixie
County.
Topographic quadrangles of the U. S. Geological Survey,
covering most of Dixie County, disclose that lake surfaces shown
on the Cross City East and Mallory Swamp S. E. quadrangles co-
incide with the regional water table, which ranges up to 58 feet
above sea level, near the Lafayette County line. Elevations of the
surrounding sand hillocks are only a few feet higher, ranging be-
tween 60 and 65 feet. This near coincidence of the land surface
and the water table is confirmed by the water levels standing in
borrow pits along State Highway 357, from Hines northward to
Lafayette County. Elevations along this stretch of road range
between 39 and 42 feet, whereas the water level of the borrow
pits ranges between 37 and 39 feet, as shown on the topographic
sheet designated Mallory Swamp S. W.
Extensive field work in Dixie County revealed only seven
rather shallow dry sink holes in the county. All of these were







IBurLTIIN No. 49


located within a 11/ mile radius, centering along the common line
between Sections 9 and 16, T9S, R13E, approximately 5 miles
west of the Suwannee River, and 8 miles south of the Dixie-
Lafayette County line. This area is included on the topographic
quadrangle designated Cross City East, where the elevations
range between 45 and 50 feet, and the water table, as shown at
Cow Ponds in Sec. 9, T9S, R13E, stands at slightly below 40 feet.
The Crystal River Formation crops out in the area and stood ap-
proximately 8 or 10 feet above the water table at the time of
mapping. The majority of lakes and ponds of this portion of Dixie
County were probably formed by an increase in the height of
water table, which occurred after solution had progressed to an
early stage of karst development.

FUNNEL SINKS AND NATURAL WELLS
Figure 15-A, B, and C illustrate the development of a funnel
sink, in this case a "natural well," because its funnel penetrates
the water table. The ground elevation at the sink, by aneroid
barometer reading, is 401% feet above sea level. The top of the
Crystal River Formation lies 51/ feet below a layer of sand (Pam-
lico Terrace). The water level stood at 26 feet below ground level,
or 141/ feet above mean sea level when the photographs (shown
in figure 15-A, B and C were taken).
Figure 15-A is a photograph of the incipient sink taken July 7,
1950, after a 12-hour rain. Steady rains occurred again on the
evening of July 7 and during the following day. Figures 15-B and
15-C were photographs taken on July 9, after the bridge of loose
sand had collapsed.
The smooth circular base of the natural well shown in figure
15-B extended beneath the water table as of July 9, 1950. If this
feature had formed by solution alone, it would be difficult to ex-
plain its circular regularity, which cuts across fossil shells pro-
truding from the wall, as evenly as it does across the including
matrix of limestone. The sink is located on the Sheppard Farm in
the NE/4 of Section 21, T10S, R14E, on the Chiefland Limestone
Plain. It is one of approximately 70 sinks in this physiographic
province from which samples were collected. The overlying
Pleistocene sand very probably furnished the cutting edge to the
rainwater which percolated down to the underlying limestone.
When a joint or crack in the limestone became enlarged by solu-
tion, percolation increased to free flow downward to the water
table, carrying sand in the eddying swirl imparted to it in ac-








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


FigurLf 15. Development of a sink at Locality 9, ShYt! Iurlds Fann, Gilclhrist. County.
Florida. A-TInvipient sink in the Crystal River Formation; B-View clown natural
well; C-Natural well. surface of ground water table 26 feet below surflrmt..

cordance with Coriolis' law. That corrasion, rather than solution,
is the dominating agent in the formation of funnel sinks is dem-
onstrated by the shells which have been dissected in the soft
limestone walls of the sink. Differential solution either would
leave the shells protruding from the enclosing limestone matrix
or more probably would have dissolved these shells within the
matrix, leaving external molds.
The fact that the bore of this funnel sink extends below the
water table argues for a previously lower stand of the water level,
as effective corrasion would cease once the downward velocity of
the sand-laden water was halted, on reaching standing water.







BULLETIN No. 49


The diameter of funnel sinks in Gilchrist County ranges from
less than 1 foot to about 10 feet. No funnel sinks were found in
Dixie County.

SOLUTION PIPES
Vernon (1951, p. 44) described vertical tubes only a few inches
in diameter, in some cases, that extended 100 feet downward in the
limestone as solution pipes or "natural wells." He attributed their
formation to swirling water, moving upward under artesian pres-
sure, which caused their solution. Bisected shells also occur in the
smooth tubes in Silver Springs (Vernon, 1967, personal communi-
cation). No solution pipes were found in Dixie or Gilchrist counties.


UNDERGROUND RIVERS
The Steinhatchee River, the boundary of Dixie County with
Taylor County, crosses U. S. Highway 19 where its course is
underground, as shown on U. S. Geological Survey topographic
map of the Clara Quadrangle. The underground course of the
stream extends for about 1 mile in Sections 15, 21, and 22, TSS,
R10E, near Tennille. As the map symbols indicate, the stream is
perennial except for the one-mile stretch where an intermittent
surface stream carries drainage during the rainy season only. The
entrance to the underground channel was examined during the
rainy season when it was not possible to explore inside the tunnel.
At a stream gaging station, maintained by the U. S. Geological
Survey, about 1 mile upstream in Section 16, TSS, R10E, recorded
minimum water height was 10.28 feet above sea level in June, 1950,
and June, 1955. The maximum flood stage recorded was 26.74 feet
on September 13, 1964. The average stream flow at this station
was 328 c.f.s. for the period of 1950-1964. The elevation of the
entrance of the underground portion of the stream is between the
10 and 15-foot contours, and where it emerges downstream the
elevation is between the 5 and 10-foot contours. The water level
in a pond 1/ mile to the east of the downstream end of the under-
ground portion stood at 9 feet, when data was taken to prepare the
topographic sheet.
The Steinhatchee appears to be a consequent stream which de-
veloped no earlier than the Late Wisconsin glacial stage, immedi-
ately preceding the present interglacial stage. This is indicated
by the Pamlico Terrace, formed during the Peorian interglacial
stage, which stood at approximately 25 to 30 feet above sea level.







GEOLOc.Y or D)IXIE AND GIICHRIST' 35

The Steinhatchee River banks do not rise above the 20-foot contour
level. The dissected Pamlico Terrace scarp approximates the 25-
foot contour, as shown on topographic sheets entitled Clara, Jena,
and Steinhatchee. Also on these sheets is the outline of the Stein-
hatchee River valley from its source in Lafayette County, almost
to its point of discharge, in the Gulf of Mexico. The Pamlico
Terrace must have been present before the stream drainage dis-
sected it, for if the terrace dissection had occurred prior to the
Sangamon interglacial stage, when the Wicomico Terrace was
formed at about 100 feet above sea level, the dissected Pamlico Ter-
race, which outlines the Steinhatchee River valley, would have
been destroyed by the invading sea.
The subsurface drainage which occurs for almost a mile along
the course of the Steinhatchee River, near Tennille, in Section 21,
TSS, R10E, probably developed subsequent to the development of
the present stream channel. It appears to parallel the course of the
intermittent stream channel. The fact that this section of subsur-
face drainage exists, indicates a lower stand of the water table
than that recorded in modern times. The water level in the river
above and below its underground portion ranges between 9 and 15
feet, which represents the contemporaneous water table. Where a
stream flows at the level of a water table in porous limestone it
may not form a submerged cavern, because the interstices in the
rock underlying its bed are already filled with water; however, it
may cause solution by the exchange of the stream water, which is
charged with C02 and the interstitial water.
If the present interglacial stage continues to melt the polar ice
caps, the attendant rise in sea level, will lead to an increased
height of the water table in Florida. The intermittent stream above
the underground drainage of the Steinhatchee River may become
a permanent surface stream.
Solution plus erosion would eventually breach the cavern roof
of the submerged portion of the stream, thus resulting in a deep-
ened stretch of the stream bed. Subsequently, if sea level rose until
this portion of the Steinhatchee River valley was flooded, the rec-
ord of the once existing subsurface stream could be traced by a
sediment-filled channel, which had been initiated as a solution
feature in the surrounding limestone. On the other hand if the
present trend of rising sea level should be reversed, the attendant
drop in the water table would result in corrasion and solution of
the floor of the submerged section of the stream, leaving a cavern
with a stream flowing through it. A change in course of the river
bed would leave a dry cave.








BULLrETN No. 49


SPRINGS
The physical characteristics of the springs of Dixie and Gil-
christ counties are described in a preceding section, and in Bulletin
No. 31, 1947, of the Florida Geological Survey.


WELL AND OUTCROP NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well and outcrop numbering system used in this report is
based on the location of the well or outcrop and uses the rectangu-
lar system of section, township and range for identification. The
well or outcrop number consists of six parts: W for well or L for
outcrop, county abbreviations, the quarter/quarter location within
the section, the section, township and range.
The basic rectangle is the township which is 6 miles square.
It is consecutively numbered by tiers both north and south of the
Florida base line and is also consecutively numbered east and west
of the principal meridian. In the present numbering system the
T will be left off the township number and the R off the range
number. Each township is divided equally into 36 squares with the
quarters being labeled "a" through "d" as shown on figure 1. In
turn, each of these quarters are divided into quarters with these
quarter/quarter squares labeled "a" through "d."
When there is more than one well or outcrop in a quarter/
quarter section they are identified by a sixth number at the end of
the fifth unit. The abbreviation used for counties in this report are
Dx for Dixie, and Gr for Gilchrist.
Since this report was already in manuscript stage when the
above mentioned numbering system was adopted by the Florida
Geological Survey, the new numbering system appears in paren-
thesis after each location.


PHYSIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION
The sediments in the area of this study compose a part of the
Coastal Plain Province (Fenneman, 1938, p. 65-68). The physiog-
raphy in Dixie and Gilchrist counties can be subdivided into two
categories of the four subdivisions erected by Vernon (1951, p.
16), namely the Terraced Coastal Lowlands and River Valley Low-
lands, shown on figure 16. Puri and Vernon (1964, p. 12) changed
the term Terraced Coastal Lowlands to Gulf Coastal Lowlands,
which usage is followed in this report.







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


GULF COASTAL LOWLANDS
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands of the counties under study begin
at the present coastline in Dixie County and extend eastward to
the eastern extremity of Gilchrist County. However, within these
boundaries are found the River Valley Lowlands. The Gulf Coastal
Lowlands in Dixie and Gilchrist counties consist of three Pleisto-
cene surfaces and shorelines and the coast and submarine plain
off the modern coast of Dixie County. The marine surfaces, begin-
ning with the oldest, are called Wicomico, Pamlico, and Silver
Bluff.


MODERN COAST AND SUBMARINE PLAIN
The coastline of Dixie County is a part of a low energy coast
formed on a partly drowned limestone plateau peninsula (Price,
1956). It is marshy and quite irregular with many islets lying just
off shore. Many creeks, of various lengths, originate at the inner
boundary of the marshland and flow in meandering channels
southwestward toward the Gulf. During the course of the field
work, the writers attempted to travel these streams by boat. How-
ever, the water at the mouths of the creeks was very shallow and
travel on many of the creeks was confined to periods of high tide.
It should also be noted that the creeks and the Steinhatchee and
Suwannee rivers carry very little sediment to be deposited in the
coastal waters.
The coastal waters off Dixie County are shallow. The 1-fathom
contour shown on nautical charts 1259 and 1260 lies 1 to 5 miles
offshore; the 5-fathom contour is about 25 miles from shore, in-
dicating a slope slightly in excess of 1 foot per mile. Within a mile
offshore, at low tide, it is not unusual to encounter waters too
shallow to float an ordinary skiff.
Price (1956) remarked that waves moving across such a gently
sloping bottom become deformed and lose most of their energy be-
fore reaching the shore. Consequently, as the waves reach the
shore they are too weak to form a line of breakers, which in turn
would form wave-cut beaches. The lack of wave action near shore
also prevents a longshore current from forming. Consequently
this factor along with the lack of available sediments is the reason
the original or presently forming shoreline irregularities are not
obscured.
Lying just off the coast at Horseshoe Point are several irregu-
larly shaped islands which White, Vernon and Puri (in prepara-


37









BULLETINf No. 49


Figirr, 17. Parliallv subimergedi dunes off tim coastline at Horseshoe Poinr,

tion) believe are partially drowned U-shaped dunes, shown in
figure 17.
Shallow mud-covered banks occur near the river mouths, not
only at the Suwannee and Steinhatchee, but also near the mouths
of numerous small streams discharging into the Gulf of Mexico
between these rivers. In stretches between river mouths, bare rock
and rock with a thin sand cover crop out. Sandbars and oyster
shoals are scattered along the coastal region. However, the oyster
bars tend to accumulate across or near the mouths of rivers and
creeks.


COASTAL SWAMPS

The Coastal Swamps of Dixie County are from 1 to 3 miles
wide; they consist of muds and silts which support a growth of
marsh grasses. However, occasionally there are barren stretches
where rock is exposed. Reentrants of the coastal marshes extend
up the mouths of streams and merge with the alluvial flats, that
border the stream channels. These coastal marshes are very easily
discernible on aerial photographs of the region.


,~,,

:;nv;~:3~.; :..:..;
: : : : ~ .~. .:I:.
:
'
'' -''
''
':







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GIICHRIST


SILVER BLUFF TERRACE AND SHORELINE
The Silver Bluff Shoreline was named for a wave-cut notch at
Silver Bluff near Biscayne Bay at Miami, Florida (Cooke, 1945,
p. 248). The notch occurs at an elevation of 5 feet.
MacNeil (1950, p. 104) extended the Silver Bluff Shoreline to
other parts of Florida and to north Georgia. He considered that
an elevation of 10 feet marked the approximate toe of the Silver
Bluff scarp. Across the Steinhatchee River, in Taylor County, the
Silver Bluff strand line may be represented by a 15- to 25-foot
escarpment whose toe occurs at the 10-foot contour line. Although
the escarpment is not as conspicuous in Dixie County, it is dis-
cernible, and the 10-foot contour line will be used to mark the
strand line of the Silver Bluff sea.
The gentle slope of the Silver Bluff sea bottom and the poorly
developed escarpment leads to the conclusion that the Silver Bluff
sea bottom and coast may have been subjected to the same marine
environment as the modern, drowned, karst region and low energy
coast. The features, shown on figure 16, facing the coast near the
mouth of the Steinhatchee River may represent dune development.
The width of the Silver Bluff marine plain is 3 to 6 miles, ex-
cept in the embayed areas of the Steinhatchee and Suwannee
rivers where it is wider. An extensive dolomite shelf, which forms
a part of the Silver Bluff surface, crops out at an elevation near
sea level and gradually slopes upward to the Billy Bowlegs Road
to an elevation of 6 feet. On the Steinhatchee River, the dolomite
bench crops out at 10 feet and makes a small fall. South of the
Billy Bowlegs Road, a thin veneer of sand occurs on top of the
shelf in some places.
Inland from the coastal marshes are generally flat sand areas
that support palmettos, cabbage palms, and pine trees.

PAMLICO TERRACE AND SHORELINE
The Pamlico seas formed a poorly developed escarpment in
Dixie County, shown in figure 18, but in Citrus and Levy counties
to the southeast and in other parts of Florida a definite Pamlico
shoreline, at the elevation of 25 feet, has been recognized (Vernon,
1951, pp. 22, 23).
The absence of a well defined wave-cut escarpment in Dixie
County and the gentle slope of the Pamlico sea bottom (fig. 18)
toward the Silver Bluff strand line, indicates that the Pamlico
coast was probably subjected to the same marine conditions that
were prevalent during the Silver Bluff encroachment and also on







BULLETIN No. 49


FigurE: 18. PainlirnO Dutne near Eugene on U.S. Ilighway 27.


the present day coast. The sand hills that occur near the mouth of
the reentrant area of the Suwannee River may represent bars
formed during Pamlico time. A belt of sand hills beginning just
east of the town of Eugene, shown in figure 19, and continuing
northward for approximately 15 miles have the appearance of U-
shaped dunes.
The Pamlico marine plain includes all that area lying between
the 10- and 25-foot contour lines. The surface gently slopes toward
the present coastline and is approximately 6 miles wide. Locally,
limestone shelves are present with little or no sand cover, but
generally the Pamlico surface is composed of sand.
The composition of the Pamlico deposits, as previously men-
tioned, is, for the most part, sand. The plain is, in part, poorly


40








GXLO(;Y OF DixiT AND GIIA-iHRIST


-. *. :. ... .


Figure 19. Closenp of Pamlico Dune near Eugene on ITS. Highway 27,


drained and supports a lush vegetation such as palmettos, cabbage
palms and grasses. However, much of the surface is a hammock
area and, because of better drainage, supports a good stand of
hardwood timber.


WICOMICO TERRACE AND SHORELINE
The Wicomico surface has been reported to occur fairly widely
over Florida by Vernon, Cooke, and MacNeil, and it is agreed by
these workers that this shoreline stood at 100 to 105 feet.
Approximately half of Dixie County lies within the boundary
of the Wicomico marine plain. This extensive area in Dixie County
slopes southwestward and eastward toward the Pamlico shoreline
(fig. 16).
The surface is not connected to its counterpart in Gilchrist
County because of the position of the Suwannee River and its
valley along the eastern side of Dixie County and the western side
of Gilchrist County. Much of the plain in Dixie County is swamp-
lahd. The surface along the eastern side of Dixie County has







BULLETIN No. 49


Figunr 20. Topographic map of Cilehrist County. Contour interval, 10 feet,

shallow, sand-bottom lakes associated with randomly spaced sand
hills that probably represent dune development during the
Pamlico.
The base of the Wicomico escarpment, shown in figure 20, is
readily recognizable. The escarpment forms the northern exten-
sion of the Brooksville Ridge as described by White (1958, pp. 9-
10). The base of the escarpment in Gilchrist County occurs at an


42








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


elevation of 70 to 75 feet above sea level and was mapped pre-
viously by Cooke (1945, p. 289) as the Penholoway shoreline (70
feet).
The concept of solution was used by White (1958, pp. 9-44) to
explain the discrepancies in elevations of apparently related ma-
rine features and he remarked that along the Ocala Uplift the low-
ering of the land surface has been extensive. As an example he
cited the remnants of the highlands in the area between Gainesville
and Lake Tsala Apopka. He (White, 1958, p. 37) stated:

". .. these highlands are most implausible in plan if they
must be explained by any shoreline process. They are quite
obviously the result of a denudational process and in an
area where erosion by surface water is weak, if not nil, the
most plausible conclusion is that they are high spots of a
surface which has been differentially reduced by solution.

This conclusion poses a serious threat to the validity of ter-
race mapping in this area of voluminous solution when it is
undertaken on a basis of elevation alone .

The preceding statement may explain similar discrepancies in
elevations of the base of the Brooksville Ridge in Gilchrist County.
The base of the Brooksville Ridge occurs at 70 feet along part of
the ridge. The topographic map (fig. 20) shows that in the central-
eastern part of Gilchrist County the contour lines fan out and the
escarpment loses its identity. This obliteration may be a result of
collapse due to solution of the underlying limestones, as only a thin
veneer of Pleistocene sands overlie Eocene limestones in this area.
The altitude of the base of the escarpment decreases to the south
and is 50 feet at Bronson in Levy County.
Yon and Puri (1962, pp. 674-689) believe this escarpment is a
result of marine erosion. The variation in elevation of the bottom
of the escarpment between 50 and 70 feet above sea level suggests
that it has been lowered by solution of the underlying limestone.
Therefore, it is possible that the base of this escarpment could
have been at a higher elevation than its present altitude and is
believed to represent the Wicomico shoreline.

WACASASSA FLATS
An integral part of the Wicomico surface in Gilchrist County
is a swampy area 5 miles wide and 25 miles long trending south-
ward from the Santa Fe River to the vicinity of Trenton, then








BULLETIN No. 49


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2PVCEt V.s.-PL. oFAGRJTU*CIrh


Figure 21.


Aerial mosaic of Gilchrist County showing Wa'asqaaa Flats outlines.
Width of map is approximately 19 miles.


southeastward, terminating in Levy County, as shown in figure 21.
Vernon (1951, pp. 33-36) suggested the term "Waccasassa Flats"
for this area, as shown in figure 22, and presented two possible ex-
planations for their origin. One explanation was that the "Flats"







G(oEDIOoY OF DIXIE AND C ILCHRIST


Figure 22, Swamps in the VWarasn3sa Flats on State Highway 40 facing east,

might result from the modification of a marine Pleistocene terrace
and an adjoining escarpment and the other was that they may
have been once occupied by a large stream and subsequently be-
headed by stream capture. The stream capture occurred near its
confluence with the Santa Fe River and Vernon considered Cow
Creek, which drains the northern part of the "Flats," to be the
reversed remnant of this ancient stream, and the Wacasassa
River, which drains the southern extension of the "Flats" in Levy
County, to be the beheaded remnant.
Since Vernon's work in 1951 a topographic map (fig. 20) of
the Wacasassa Flats area has been prepared which reveals cer-
tain features that would be very difficult or impossible to recognize
from road profiles, aerial photographs (fig. 21) or by field exami-
nation. Evidence obtained from the topographic map and field
studies indicates a marine origin for the Wacasassa Flats.
Vernon (1951, pp. 33-36) believed the valley extending from
the Santa Fe River into Levy County was too broad to have been
formed by Cow Creek, which occupies its northern extremity. The
appearance of the Wacasassa Flats on the aerial photographs is
misleading because the swampy condition and the presence of the
misfit stream, Cow Creek, give the impression of a broad stream
valley. Underlying the "Flats" is a graben, shown in figure 23,
filled with Miocene and Pleistocene plastics that retard the down-
ward percolation of water and contributes to the swampy condi-









46


RB:LLKTIN No. 49


]. k I 1


II' IMI
A ahlnm
* W IIM 1MHLE
PD MIT
:LT ILTTITK IIREI, PIrTIfllI E
mmTlii iEFTW N ME SEL LEnL
24, LI.II FEIf.MUl EII
U IEE LEIEL
UlI I I L 1IFIT F4


COUNTY


C tAL 4LILE k


Figure 23. Contours showing approximate altitude of top of Williston
Formnation (UTpiwr Eoctelne), Gilehrist. County,



tions, however, the graben was not the dominant factor in forming
the present topography. The fact that the graben and the overly-
ing Pleistocene land forms occur together is perhaps a coincidence.
The topographic map shows the presence of north-south trend-
ing hills of moderate relief and a ridge trending northeast-south-
west. The map also shows that Cow Creek occupies a shallow valley
within the 50-foot contour and together with land surface profiles


1.:. :1. : .-l -- "- L'- Y I I'








GEO]A(X'Y OF DIXiE AND (ILCIIRIsT


SLLlF.I' L',J G _--. :*J lI .: ':fl r-',"F r"-





8,



4
II







._ __L.


'-LET- -- \

FAL. E A iPP





4

1 '
-"-. _



Figure 24. We*st-East profiles showing land forms in Gilebrist County.


(1 through 4, shown in figure 24), indicate that the elevation be-
comes higher to the south and the valley appears to terminate.
Vernon (1951, pp. 33-36) suggested that during early Recent
time a tributary to the Suwannee River cut headward and cap-
tured the ancestral stream flowing from the valley of Cow Creek
through the Wacasassa Flats. If so, the flood plain of the Santa
Fe River probably would be narrower below the point of capture
than above because of its younger age, but it is the same width.
It would also be reasonable to expect the upper portion of the
Santa Fe River Valley and the present Cow Creek Valley to be ap-
proximately the same width; however, Cow Creek Valley is much
wider.
Based upon an interpretation of the land features described






BULLETIN N0. 49


below the writers believe the Wacasassa Flats were formed by
marine processes.
BELL RIDGE
The two irregularly shaped ridges called Bell Ridge by White,
Vernon and Puri (Puri and Vernon, 1964, p. 14) represent a relict
barrier island that extends along the western side of the "Flats"
for a distance of approximately 20 miles northward from Trenton,
with the crests ranging between 80 and 100 feet. In the vicinity of
Bell, several sand hills occur along the west side of the barrier
island and originally may have formed a part of the barrier island.
These sand hills are underlain by solution-riddled limestones and
because of collapse the sand hills differentially sagged and became
disassociated from the barrier island. A salient feature occurring
adjacent to the south-central part of the barrier island might rep-
resent a submerged bar formed in the lagoon separating the bar-
rier from the coastline. Figure 25 shows State Highway 47, near
Fort White, on the crest of this feature.
The sandhills along the western and southern parts of the area


"'Lb


Figure 25. Escarpment on State Highway 47, facing north.


48


Lk.


If:







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


form a drainage divide. Drainage to the north and east is into the
topographic lows in the Wacasassa Flats. There is a gentle
northerly slope to the "Flats" that causes some surface drainage
to Cow Creek, a tributary of the Santa Fe River.
Ponds, lakes, and depressions occur through the Wacasassa
"Flats," and lakes are more plentiful along the western and east-
ern edges of the area.

CHIEFLAND LIMESTONE PLAIN
This term was first used by Vernon (1951, p. 25) to describe
a limestone shelf associated with the Wicomico terrace. It is a flat
rolling plastic surface lying upon eroded Eocene limestones in
Levy County, and extends into Gilchrist County.
The plain is well marked on the western edge of Gilchrist and
northeastern edge of Dixie counties by a fairly flat, well drained,
sandy soil which is extensively farmed.

BROOKSVILLE RIDGE
The sand ridge on the eastern edge of Gilchrist County is the
north part of the Brooksville Ridge. The ridge is bound on the
west by a well-defined Wicomico escarpment whose base is 70 to
75 feet above sea level. The features along the western edge of the
ridge may represent dune development. From the western edge of
the ridge toward Alachua County, the surface becomes a rolling
plain with sinkhole development. The topographic map (fig. 20)
shows the surface elevations as high as 110 feet on the crest of
the ridge. Lithologically the ridge is composed of Pleistocene
sands, and Miocene Alachua sediments that overlie a very irregu-
lar Eocene limestone surface. Solution of these underlying lime-
stones has been fairly extensive and sinkholes occur along the
ridge.

HIGH SPRINGS GAP
White, Vernon and Puri (Puri and Vernon, 1964), in their
work on the physiographic features of central peninsular Florida,
mentioned a large elongate lowland that they called the Western
Valley. At the northern end of the Western Valley a gap is present
which White named the High Springs Gap. A portion of this gap
falls in the northeastern part of Gilchrist County and is delimited
on the west by the Wacasassa Flats and the northern edge of the
Brooksville Ridge.







BULLETIN NO. 49


FRACTURING
The intricate fracture pattern of northern peninsular Florida
was first depicted by Vernon (1951, fig. 11). The fracture pattern
of Dixie County is shown in detail in figure 26. These fractures
which appear as lineations on aerial photographs were traced from
photo-mosaic indices of the two counties, published by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. Such fractures are more easily ob-
served on the uncorrected mosaics than on large scale single con-
tact prints, where profusion of detail tends to obscure the faint
but persistent tone changes which may extend for many miles
along a single trend. The fractures are visible to the unaided eye


L A F A Y ET T E COUNTY


FRACTUREPATTERN
DIXIE C (D^^^


Figure 26. Fracture pattern of Dixie County, Florida.







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND CILCHRIST


on photographs that are properly oriented. However, by the use
of a fluorescent lamp having a built-in magnifying lens it is pos-
sible to detect many more fractures than can be found by the
naked eye.
The linears mapped as figure 26 are almost indiscernible in the
field. A fracture was exposed in the Crystal River Formation upon
the removal of topsoil for a limestone quarry (NW/4, Sec. 12,
TSS, R14E, Gilchrist County). The fracture was filled with red
clay, its strike is almost due east curving to the northwest where it
is buried under topsoil.
Fractures can be seen in exposures of the Williston Formation
near the west line of Sec. 12, T11S, R10E [locality 528 (LDx-11S-
10E-12)], immediately south of Bowlegs Road, in Dixie County.
The intersecting fractures at this locality strike N. 70W. and N.
45E., and they conform to the predominating strike of the frac-
tures in the area, shown on figure 26.
Stream meanders on the Suwannee and Santa Fe rivers show
at least partial control by fracturing. Figure 27 is a photograph
of a two to three-foot waterfall on the Santa Fe River. This fall is
located just upstream from the bridge connecting the road from
Gilchrist County to Fort White, in Columbia County (Sec. 36,
T6S, R15E, Gilchrist County). The strike of the falls is approxi-
mately N. 600E. This conforms to the fracture shown on figure 26,
which crosses the river at this point.
Vernon (1951, fig. 15) showed the traces of the Bronson
Graben and the Long Pond Fault extending from Levy County
into Gilchrist and Dixie counties, respectively. Fractures which
are apparently linear continuations of these faults occur in Dixie
and Gilchrist counties. Faulting is postulated to explain the oc-
currence of the Crystal River Formation in juxtaposition with
the Williston Formation in the southwest corner of Gilchrist
County, shown on plate 1. One of the fractures shown on figure
26 corresponds to the Lottieville Fault which strikes northwest-
southeast in T10S, R14E, Gilchrist County. The traces of this
fault extend into Dixie County to the west and Levy County to
the south. However, the portion along which offsetting noticeably
affected the surface formations is confined to the southwest corner
of Gilchrist County. Such offsetting must have been slight, because
only the lowermost portion of the Crystal River Formation, and
the uppermost few feet of the Williston Formation are exposed in
sinks or pits along the strike of this fault. There is no direct field
evidence in support of the indirect evidence presented to show
faulting in this area.
















































Figuire 27. Falis on the Stnl a F(- Ri%-(,r, iI0ibri.i Cotunry. Florida.








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


The persistence of the general northwest-southeast and
northeast-southwest fracture pattern throughout the Gulf Coastal
plain has long been recognized by Gulf Coast geologists such as
R. J. Russell and the late H. N. Fisk. In localized areas, where
tectonic features such as salt domes control faulting, the general
fracture pattern is modified, but in the main, it is remarkably con-
sistent. It is even more remarkable that these fractures can be de-
tected on aerial photographs, even though the terrain in which
they occur is generally overlain by loose Pleistocene sediments or
Quaternary alluvium.
Two inferences can be drawn from the fracture patterns noted
above: 1
1. There has been movement along the planes of hAese frac-
tures sufficient to effect tone changes in the soil overburden. This
movement may be due to earth tides, which are, of course, world-
wide.
2. Unconsolidated sediments deposited to depths exceeding 50
feet over a previously fractured or slightly faulted area would not
reflect the underlying pattern unless there was continued post-
depositionary movement along the same trends.*
3. Shrinking earth (see Russell, 1954).*

STRUCTURE AND GEOLOGIC SETTING
Gilchrist and Dixie counties are a part of the Gulf of Mexico
Sedimentary Basin consisting of southern Alabama, southern
Georgia, Florida, Cuba and the Bahamas. This sedimentary basin
is divided by Pressler (1947, p. 1851) into two sedimentary prov-
inces (North Gulf Sedimentary Province and Florida Peninsular
Sedimentary Province), separated from one another by the Su-
wannee Straits. The North Florida Sedimentary Province con-
sists mainly of plastic sediments, and the South Florida Peninsu-

R. J. Russell (oral communication) stated that this same fracture pattern
had been observed in the Amazon River Valley of Brazil. At the same time he
expressed the opinion that virtually all the fractures observable on aerial
photographs of the Gulf Coastal Plain were actually faults along which some
degree of offsetting had occurred. Similarity of fracture patterns, on a global
scale, implies crustal adjustments to world-wide stress. Perhaps the same
gravitational forces which produce tides could affect the huge bulk of relatively
weak sediments of the Gulf Coast. The recurrent rise and fall of earth tides
might provide sufficient stress to exceed the elastic limit of the weaker portions
of the earth's crust. Or lastly, it is possible that the earth's rotational
momentum, decreasing under forces of external gravity, may, by consequent
reduction of stress along the polar axis, form a compensating infinite series of
axes of stress along the equatorial plane. Dr. Russell mentioned an un-
published hypothesis of crustal stresses connected with tidal movement.








BITLLITTIN NO. 49


lar Province is characterized by nonclastic sediments, predomi-
nantly carbonates and anhydrites. The South Florida Embayment
is a sedimentary basin in southern Florida with its center of de-
position passing through Sunniland field, in Collier County.
The dominant surface structure in Florida is the Peninsular
Arch which trends south-southeast and extends from southeastern
Georgia into central Florida. The crest of the Peninsular Arch is
in the center of northern peninsular Florida (around Union and
Bradford counties) and this arch forms the axis of peninsular
Florida (Applin, 1951, p. 3). This structure was topographically
high during Cretaceous times, during which sediments of the
Early Cretaceous were deposited around it but did not completely
cover it. Beds of Austin Age (Upper Cretaceous) were deposited
over the crest of these beds and they overlie Early Ordovician
sandstone.
The structural contour map, shown on figure 28, drawn on the
top of the Williston Formation depicts the salient structures in


5UWANNEE
COUNTY


A FAYETTE


WELL OR AUGiR OL1
A OUTCROP
r Q4JUlrY
t FAULT
15 ALTITUDE,IN FEET,ITOPOF WILLiSTON
FOmMATION REFEREDTOMSL
A.90COMTOUR,IN FEET. ERIIMDTO MIL


Figure 28. Structure contour map of Dixie and Gil1hrist. VounLtic., slowing
altitude at the top of the Williston Formiiation.


54







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GuImCRlST


Dixie and Gilchrist counties. The Bronson Graben is the most ap-
parent structure in Gilchrist County. There is a low in the north-
west part of Gilchrist County that may also represent a graben
trending east-west.
The Lottieville Fault in Gilchrist County, shown on plate 1,
figures 29 and 30 is well developed at Lottieville where Williston
is exposed on the upthrown side of the fault. Its throw, however,
is less than ten feet and consequently it is not shown on figure 28
which is contoured at 10-foot intervals. It apparently is absorbed
within the Crystal River Formation on the Gilchrist County side
of the Suwannee River and can not be identified across the Su-
wannee River in Dixie County.
The configuration of the contours in Dixie County as shown on
figure 29 indicates the Williston sediments may be faulted. In fact,
if faulting is present, it could be an extension of the Long Pond
Fault (Vernon, 1951, fig. 5) from Levy County, northwestward
to Dixie County. However, sufficient data are not available to
substantiate this.

STRATIGRAPHY
PREVIOUS WORK
Our knowledge of the geology of Gilchrist and Dixie counties
has mostly been pioneered by Cooke (1929, 1945), who made some
observations on the geology of these two counties while preparing
his "Geology of Florida." A generalized account of scattered out-
crops of the various formations exposed in these counties is given
by him, together with a geologic map of the two counties.

GILCHRIST COUNTY
Cooke (1945, p. 65) mentioned the occurrence of the Ocala
"limestone," "not far below the surface everywhere in Gilchrist
County except in the eastern part, where it is overlain by the
phosphate-bearing Alachua Formation." Numerous articles by
vertebrate paleontologists (Barbour, 1944, White, 1942), on the
Thomas Farm vertebrate beds, have been published. These papers
are summarized by Olsen (1962) and an up-to-date faunal list was
prepared by him. Puri and Vernon (1964) published a hypothesis
for the development of Thomas Farm dig in a paper summarized
on p. 5.
Applin (1951) noted the occurrence of Paleozoic sedimentary
rocks in two oil wells. Puri (1957, pp. 60-65) gives five detailed













BULLETIN No. 49



SECTION -I


- mISl I 4-wl _


SECTION 1-r ElI
I'
.. w w. a l
i l l .11 .



MIAH 1p Awl


riH
.4V1MRH MmIn


mmP
N


SECTION b-I"
IM
r ... L. 11 .


S IECVION E-E: AiST
" .. -." .- L.-


: + -. -.-.

gn. M '!'!i 0
30


lEClllON -F'
F

U A. CI


--*. -L.,r ,_ .r <-
-H


Rl

f'1
jII i

,,


EXPLANATION


g PLEISTOCENE


F... ALACHUA FORMATION

<.a CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION

WILLISTON FORMATION
I.5 I 2 3 4 l$i

FAULT


Geological cro~t section, Gilchrist County.


mn
A


lE T
I


En.


fnl
.EN I.
..U"


SECTION C-Cr


I

"'
r


Q
,,


t &


mm -.1m.


rr
Y
L
L
X


Figure 2I9.










CO ITY


Is',,~
-t-


I I
-', 'I.
.I".









-..
'....' L "
'< -"- "'"
I~ w "

-
n.. ..''"
,me '. ...


"n g


Figure 30.


.- ....., F-* t4l
.IIE




ml .l 1111. ILE


Isometric diagram, Gilrhrikt County.


.. "

A.S -





EXPLANATION
i PLEISfTCEIIE
SALACHIA FIRMATIIH
CRYSTAL RIVEM FOIMITIAN
WILLISTMI FORMATION
---- FAIL EL
- EAN SEA LEVEL


0

5







*I1
/ ^


cbiv
.F!








BULLETIN NO. 49


sections of the outcrops of the Crystal River Formation and the
Williston Formation in Gilchrist County.


DIXIE COUNTY
Cooke (1945, p. 64) observed a large borrow pit in the Ocala
at the Steinhatchee River and reported seven species of echinoids
from this locality.
Applin and Applin (1944) gave a detailed geologic log of the
Florida Oil and Development Company Putnam Lumber Company
No. 1 well 636, (Sec. 7, T11S, R12E), and reported the occurrence
of the Tuscaloosa Formation, beds of Austin Age, beds of Taylor
Age, the Lawson Limestone, the Cedar Keys Limestone, the Olds-
mar Limestone and the Lake City Limestone. Applin (1951) re-
ported the occurrence of Paleozoic sedimentary rock in three wells.
Puri (1957) examined four wells from Dixie County in connec-
tion with donation of the Ocala Group.


PALEOZOIC ERA

LOWER ORDOVICIAN
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been encountered in two
wells in Gilchrist County and three wells in Dixie County. These
sediments are parts of an extensive Paleozoic stratum that oc-
cupies the northern and central part of the Florida Peninsula and
southeastern Georgia. Table 15 summarizes the occurrence of
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in Dixie and Gilchrist counties (data
from Applin, 1951).
Howell and Richards (1949) described a species of brachiopod
(Lingulepsis floridanus) from fine-grained micaceous sandstone
taken at 3,668 to 3,671 feet in Dixie County, W-1405 (WDx 8S
14E 8). They assigned a Late Cambrian or Early Ordovician age
to this species. Berdan and Bridges (1951, p. 70) studied the 232

TABLE 15. DATA ON WELLS PENETRATING PALEOZOIC
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN GILCHRIST AND DIXIE COUNTIES

Div, Geo.
Asmuacio Top of Total Total Nature of
County Well No. Paleoazic Thickneas Depth Sedimtntj
Gilchrist W-1(03 3588 165 3753 quarttitie
Eandzto& & shale
Gilchrist W-1819 3348 18 336 same
Dixie W-1114 5228 2282 7510 quartitic sandstone
Dixie W-1863 5010 88 5104 sandaton & hale
Dixia W-1405 3645 20 3671 quartriic sandatone
and shale







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRTST


feet of Paleozoic sediments cored from the Humble No. 1 Robinson
well in central Levy County. These sediments consist of gray,
quartzitic sandstone and black, micaceous, sandy shale. Linguloid
brachiopods were found in the upper (between 4390 to 4424 feet)
part of the section. Berdan and Bridges correlated these beds with
the Union Producing Company's Kirkland No. 1 well, Houston
County, Alabama, just north of the Florida-Alabama line. The
same type of lithology and types of linguloid brachiopods were
found in the Kirkland well, which also carries a rich graptolite
fauna. On the basis of this graptolite fauna, Berdan (op. cit.)
assigned an Early Ordovician Age to these rocks.
No Paleozoic metamorphic or igneous rocks have been encoun-
tered in either Gilchrist County or Dixie County.


MESOZOIC ERA
CRETACEOUS SYSTEM
GULF SERIES
The Gulf Series in Gilchrist and Dixie counties consists of four
distinct units. These in descending order are: beds of Navarro
Age (Lawson Limestone), beds of Taylor Age, beds of Austin Age,
and beds of Eagleford Age and Woodbine Age consisting of the
Tuscaloosa Formation and its equivalent, the Atkinson Formation.
This section is based on studies by Applin and Applin (1944,
1947), Southeastern Geological Society Mesozoic Committee
(1949), and Vernon (1951). These workers have correlated the
Florida Cretaceous System with that of the standard section of
Texas. Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944, 1945), however, has corre-
lated the Florida section with that of Alabama and has extended
the Alabama nomenclature to Florida.

ATKINSON FORMATION
Applin and Applin (1944) identified the Tuscaloosa Formation
in one well in Dixie County, and correlated it in part with the
Eagleford Shale, and in part with the Woodbine Formation of
Texas. The "Tuscaloosa Formation" in Dixie County (W-636) is
115 feet thick (3626 to 3741 feet). Subsequently, Applin and
Applin (1947) referred Tuscaloosa Age beds to the Atkinson
Formation in peninsular Florida.
The Atkinson Formation was proposed by Applin and Applin
(1947, chart) with a threefold division (upper, middle, and lower)








BULLETIN No. 49


for marine micaceous sales and micaceous sands with thin shaley
limestone beds of pre-Austin Age that overlie the Comanche Series
in southern Alabama, Georgia, and northern Florida.
The Atkinson Formation has been divided by the Southeastern
Geological Society Mesozoic Committee into two faunizones,
faunizone "A" containing an Eagleford fauna, and faunizone "B"
containing a Woodbine fauna.
Faunizone "A" commonly contains, in marine shale beds, a
fauna characteristic of the Eagleford Shale of Texas and includes
Planulina eaglefordensis, Valvulineria infrequens, Gumbelina
moremani, G. reussi, Trochammina wickendeni, Globigerina cre-
tacea and abundant ostracodes.
Faunizone "B" contains, in micaceous, calcareous sands and
sandy limestones, a microfauna characteristic of the Woodbine
Sand of Texas, including Ammobacidites braunsteini, A. compri-
matus, A. advenus, Ammobaculoides plummerae, and Trocham-
mina rainwater.
In general, the upper member of the Atkinson Formation
carries a microfauna of Eagleford Age and is equivalent to
faunizone "A." The middle and lower members of the Atkinson
contain a Woodbine fauna and both of these members are included
in faunizone "B." Applin (1955) has redefined the Atkinson For-
mation to consist of two members, an upper member of Eagleford
Age and a lower member of Woodbine Age consisting of the
former lower and middle members.
Applin (1955) has described the foraminiferal fauna of the
Woodbine biofacies of the Atkinson Formation. The following as-
semblage occurs in one well in Dixie County (Sun Oil Co. Crapps
"A" well 1, depth 3548 to 3556 feet).

Reophax decker Tappan
Haplophragmoides langsdalensis Applin
Haplophragmoides advenus (Cushman and Applin)
Ammobaculites agrestis Cushman and Applin
Ammobaculites junceus Cushman and Applin
Ammobaculoides plummerae Loeblich
Gaudryina barlowensis Applin
Quinqueloculina moremani barlowensis Applin
Trochammina rainwater Cushman and Applin
Acruliammina long (Tappan)
Placopsilina landsdalensis Applin
Robulus munsteri (Roemer)
Lenticulina cyprina (Vieaux)








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


Nodosaris affinis Reuss var.
Citharina recta (Reuss)
Frondicularia barlowensis Applin
PateUina subcretaeea Cushman and Alexander
Discorbis minima Vieaux
Valvulineria infrequens Morrow var.
Globorotalia cushmani Morrow
Globigerina cf. G. cretacea d'Orbigny
Anomalina obesa Cushman and Applin
Anomalina petita Carsey

The predominance of arenaceous microfauna in this as-
semblage and the lithologic character of the sediments indicate an
environment of deposition ranging from very shallow marine to
estuarine and brackish water to weakly saline and poorly aerated
waters (Applin, 1955).

BEDS OF AUSTIN AGE
The following facies are recognized by Applin and Applin
(1964, p. 1715-1716) in the beds of Austin Age: predominantly
shale and sand faces (western and northern Florida), sales and
marly limestone faces (central Florida) and limestone faces
(southern Florida).
The marl faces of the beds of Austin Age consist of gray to
greenish gray marl with thin streaks of limestone. Beds of Austin
Age are identified in the Sun-Crapps well at a depth of 3,365? to
3,626 feet by Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1718).

BEDS OF TAYLOR AGE
Sediments of Taylor Age are hard, white to cream colored,
chalky limestone with thin, irregular streaks of shale and gray
marl occasionally present. Applin and Applin (1944) give the
thickness of beds of Taylor Age in Dixie County to be about 678
feet (Florida Oil and Development Company's Putnam Lumber
No. 1 well, depth 2,683-3,365?),

BEDS OF NAVARRO AGE
Lawson Limestone
The Lawson Limestone (from J. S. Cosden-Lawson No. 1 well,
Marion County) was named and described by Applin and Ap-








BULLETIN No, 49


plin (1944, p. 1708-1711) for a limestone facies of the Upper
Cretaceous beds. A lower and an upper member, each with a dis-
tinctive microfauna, have been recognized. The upper member is
a white to cream colored, gypsum impregnated crystalline calcitic
limestone, which carries a recrystallized microfauna. The upper
member of the Lawson Limestone in Dixie County (Florida Oil
and Development Company's Putnam No. 1) is approximately 300
feet (depth 1,894 to 2,197).
The lower member is white to cream colored, hard, chalky
limestone. Applin and Applin (1944) assigned 476 feet of sedi-
ment in the Putnam No. 1 well (depth 2,197 to 2,683) to the
lower member.

CENOZOIC ERA
TERTIARY SYSTEM
PALEOCENE SERIES
CEDAR KEYS FORMATION
The Cedar Keys Formation was proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27,
28) for a predominantly tan limestone that overlies the Cretaceous
carbonate sand and contains Borelis gunteri Cole and Borelis flori-
danus Cole in its upper portion. So defined, this "formation" is
rather a stage and is synonymous with Midway Stage of the
western Gulf States. The Cedar Keys is used here as conceived by
Cole, though later investigation may indicate it contains more than
one lithologic unit.
The sediments of the Cedar Keys in Dixie County are slightly
over 300 feet thick and were recognized by Applin and Applin
(1944) at a depth of 1561 to 1894 feet in the Florida Oil and Gas
Development Company's Putnam Lumber No. 1 well.

OLDSMAR LIMESTONE
The Middle Eocene sediments consisting of a series of fauni-
zones between the Cedar Keys Formation and the overlying Lake
City Limestone were named the Oldsmar Limestone by Applin and
Applin (1944). Generally the formation shows abundant speci-
mens of Helicostegina gyralis Barker and Grimsdale, and in Dixie
County it is represented by a limestone facies which is prevalent
in northern Florida. Sediments belonging to the Oldsmar in Dixie
County are almost 500 feet thick in the Florida Oil and Develop-
ment Company's Putnam No. 1 well (Applin and Applin).








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


CLAIBORNE STAGE
LAKE CITY LIMESTONE
The name Lake City Limestone was used by Applin and Applin
(1944) for a chalky limestone which underlies the Avon Park Lime-
stone in peninsular Florida. The formation consists of a series of
lithologies described by Vernon (1951). In Dixie and Gilchrist
counties, the Lake City is over 500 feet thick and is represented
by gray fossiliferous limestone, dolomite and gypsiferous dolomite.
This limestone is encountered in four wells in Dixie County,
figure 31.

AVON PARK LIMESTONE
The Avon Park Limestone was proposed by Applin and Applin
(1944, p. 1680, 1686) for the Upper Middle Eocene in Florida.
The type is in a well at Avon Park Bombing Range in Polk
County. This formation in its type area is a cream-colored lime-
stone that contains a very distinct Middle Eocene microfauna. The
surface exposures of this formation have only been found in Citrus
and Levy counties (see Vernon, 1951, p. 95).
This formation underlies Dixie and Gilchrist counties, shown
on figure 32, as revealed by samples from over 20 wells. Generally
the formation is about 300-350 feet thick and consists of very
finely crystalline dolomite, calcitic dolomite, and limestone.


OCALA GROUP
The term Ocala Group was proposed by Puri (1953, p. 130)
to include all calcareous sediments of Jackson Age that occur east
of the Tombigbee River. So defined, the group includes the Crystal
River Formation, Williston Formation, and the Inglis Formation.


INGLIS FORMATION
The name "Inglis member" of the Moodys Branch Formation
was introduced by Vernon (1951, p. 115-116) to include the basal
50 feet of the Ocala Limestone as exposed in the vicinity of Inglis,
Levy County. Puri (1953, p. 130) raised it to formational rank.
The detailed lithology, fauna, and geologic history of the formation
is adequately covered by Vernon (1951, p. 115-140) and Puri
(1957, p. 24-30).
Lithologically, the formation consists of a bioclastic calcarenite









64 BULLETIN No. 49





: y r ... :..:mmmim m. W m I.I

SECTION 1-j'
I1L 1
-k -- uniE H ll




SSUeighL-r
rn- ---- r -
S mm um L




S--
I M' -. .... .. .m o. MN I







WICTITN C O
Nil



Theu omation tk" t.s in fo own of Wii
--2



::i- -tJ-ri 1 1

t e I Ti- .1i itd- y ern




Figure 31, Ge1ologic, croft s section, Dixie County,


with occasional dolomite. In Dixie and Gilchrist counties it is 22
to 52 feet thick.

WILLISTON FORMATION

The formation takes its name from the town of Williston, Levy
County, where about 10 feet of foraminiferal limestone occurs at
the type locality. This name was originally introduced by Vernon
(1951, p. 141) as a member of the Moodys Branch Formation and
it was later raised to formational rank (Puri, 1953, p. 130; 1957,
p. 28). The detailed lithologic character and fauna of the forma-
tion at the type locality and in other areas in the state are given
by Vernon (1951) and Puri (1957).
The Williston Formation is predominantly a white to cream,















GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


SI PANHANDLE PENINSULA
lu> 1"
(fa 1 n


? PLIO-
PLEr STOCK EN












S4-



4v-


Unnamehdt SOnd, Polg, *nd Cloy


Ltke Fllrl Marl

Silver BlrFF Fop iallan
CantimpeianoasL
Ramlca Fbrmotoen COrbongru
end
Wicomlica Formath*n $and Dbpositr
Calsahhaltehea Formiaion
OhdD Ik *, FhFmrall. n

Caharid FOrmarian


High Igrwl &ll vvi0 1 d Dildic i DplM I'

Uppr Mio-Cino Cpq C$blwici w.n l


fCMrlfdvw Zanm
Teur maml
F- al an 5lath Area
1ldrI Zian* di WOd p in Soul%
Lupi Zone Em'dpo n norift Embaymitb
Sh-l* i Zan-* mlu e

l \ Shol AnI \ llhua
S .r r P romoo IDn iH
Eacab1 F6bPalrh l Caers e ChipalM HoDWtharn
CsiI 90iO 1 r FormBri-n fvm lim n I on

Langw CUP( ORA EmWO Va11 al




1 SI. 5 r. Mprks J11OoppsieW SM(f(f4rf Z1nt
rFurmg lig n


91. Suo rS D Lnai i sraist,
/^-^.j^'^.^'-. ^^L. ^rj'^j^~._^ -^L _-- -- -- -- -- ---j
Fasmali s




Bymm fdIrm.U.m I a

BrSwlA* Lm*ralon Si LwDotBm


--io O -t /unran Cymth km4 ?

kfriarnjo LinEsIaos


i
*tj.ahl*A m ie r ta. r Egrm lig n |
Will lg r Formalie i

Ingl is formotien


Li ben


Tellhgilla


Ocela Group


Avon Parkl Lmrrstome




Lake City LmieDston




Oldiamrr Umiollne




CIegr 9Kyi Limatlbfl


Un4irfprrontiplid Wiltax




UV dflort*nliir*d Midway


Figure 32, Stratigraphic nomenclature chart of the Cenosoic

(after Puri and Vernon, 1964).


1`4
0
N


U







BULLETIN NO. 49


chalky to finely crystalline, soft, porous, finely granular, coquinoid
limestone composed primarily of foraminifers and mollusks. It
crops out around the Wacasassa Flats and also occurs at various
depths in the subsurface. The formation is underlain by the Inglis
Formation and is overlain by the Crystal River Formation. Sedi-
ments as exposed along the Santa Fe and Suwannee rivers are
shown in figure 33.
The Williston has an average thickness of approximately 40
feet in Gilchrist County. The Crystal River Formation is missing
in the central and southern parts of the Wacasassa Flats, and the
top of the Williston has been eroded and is less than 40 feet in
thickness. The top of the Williston in the subsurface of the
Wacasassa Flats area is lower than the top in exposures, quarries,
wells, and auger holes to the west and to the east. In order to depict
this variation graphically, six cross sections, an isometric dia-
gram and a structural map were drawn and are shown as figures
23, 28, 29 and 30.
DISTRIBUTION
Exposures of the Williston are confined to the structurally and
topographically higher areas west and east of the Bronson graben.


Figure 33. Sediments of the Williston Formation as exposed just below
confluence of the Santa Fec and Suwannec rivesr.


66


i~8~







GEO.IoGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST


The following section, west of the Bronson graben, illustrates the
typical characteristics of the formation.

Locality 12: (LGr 10S 14E 9 dd) Abandoned quarry on C. L.
McPherson's farm, SE/4, SE/4, Sec. 9, T10S, R14E, Gilchrist
County. Section measured on West Wall of Quarry.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation Elevation 34 feet
2 Limestone, pale yellow orange, recrystallized, honey-
comb weathering, in places a coquina of small forami-
nifera, several large specimens of Lepidocyclina oca-
lana ---_______-- ----_---------- ----------- 0.75
Covered __________---------______----_______---------_--_ 2.0
1 Limestone, very pale orange, massive, almost a co-
quina of Operculinoides moodybranchensis in places,
abundant holothurian-like tubes, casts of mollusks,
Zenophora sp., Operculinoides wilcoxi, Lepidocyclina
ocalana, and var., Operculinoides moodybranchensis,
Amphistegina pinarensis, and Operculinoides ocalana 11.0
Total thickness ..--. --------___ 13.75

Locality 24: (LGr 10S 14E 9 ba) Abandoned quarry on Carl
Robert's farm, shown in figure 34, NW/4, NE/4, Sec. 9, T10S,
R14E, Gilchrist County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation Elevation 36 feet
2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with infre-
quent foraminifers, Operculinoides moodybranchen-
sis; upper part of bed slightly chalky, with "holothur-
ians" ---_----- --- ------ -- -- 13.0
1 Limestone, very pale orange, coquinoid, almost en-
tirely an Operculinoides moodybranchensis coquina
with common specimens, of Nummulites wilcoxi 3.0
Total thickness __---- _...... ....... .----- --- ----------- 16.0


































Figure 31. Pinorama of an abandoned quirry on Carl Robertis farm
(LGr 108 14E 9 ba) showing expolsures of t.h Williston Formation.







GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRTST


Locality 244: (LGr 9S 14E 9 bc) Willie Bryant Farm, SW/4,
NE/4, Sec. 9, T9S, R14E, Gilchrist County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series Elevation 54 feet
2 Sand, light brown, medium grained, quartz -----_____ 3.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, (weather-
ing honeycomb, case hardened toward top, crystallized
in places), with "holothurians," Glycymeris sp. and a
few Lepidocyclint ocalana .. _----_ -------- 3.0
Total thickness .--_ _---------_ -------- 6.0

In Dixie County, the Williston Formation crops out in a belt
one to eight miles wide along the coast, from the Big Rocky Creek
in the north to the mouth of the Suwannee River in the south.
The formation is mapped upstream along the Suwannee River
to 1/2 mile north of Sunnyvale. In most places the Williston For-
mation occurs as bare rock or is covered by a thin veneer of sand.
Lithologically, the formation consists of pale yellow orange, granu-
lar, slightly chalky limestones studded with molds of mollusks,
larger foraminifers, encrusting bryozoans, and echinoids. In this
outcrop area, the exposures show a thickness of up to 5 feet. The
following sections in the vicinity of Horseshoe Beach and near
Rock Well Camp are characteristic of the formation:

Locality 826. (LDx 12S 10E 14 ac) Horseshoe Point. Limestone
exposed at low tide along the Horseshoe Beach.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, almost a co-
quina of large foraminifers, Lepidocyclina ocalana,
Pecten sp ..--........- ---- ----....-. ...-- --..-.. -. ... .. 0.5
Total thickness ----- ...- --................... ........ 0.5








BULLETIN No. 49


Locality 829. (LDx 11S 12E 24 ca) Hudson Pulp and Paper Com-
pany quarry 4.6 miles south of Cross City towards Horseshoe
Beach on State Road S-351. Take left turn on graded road and
continue for 5.8 miles to quarry. (Private timber road) Six
shallow pits as of July 29, 1956. Dredging down to 10 feet
below water level.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, dark reddish brown, argillaceous, quartz ------ 2.0

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, slightly
chalky, with molds and casts of mollusks and very few
large foraminifers (up to water level) -----.-------- 5.0
Total thickness ---. ....-------------. -- -------------- 7.0

Locality 830. (LDx 11S 11E 16 ab) Section exposed in a ditch,
four tenths mile toward Rock Well Camp from State Highway
S-351, on the property of the Rock Well Camp, NE/4, NW/4,
Sec. 16, T11S, R11E, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, dark gray, medium-grained, quartz ---------------- 2.0

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation

1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, in places a co-
quina of large foraminifers, Lepidocyclina ocalana
and vars., and Operculinoides moodybranchensis com-
mon -- ---- --------------------- ------------- 2.0
Total thickness -------- ---------------------------------- 4.0

Locality 604. (LDx 11S 11E 26 ca) Abandoned quarry, NW/4,
SW/4, Sec. 26, T11S, R11E, Dixie County.







GEOLOGY OF DIXE AND GiLCHRIST


Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
3 Sandy loam and soil zone ----------------------___ 1.0
2 Sand, very pale orange, medium-grained, quartz 1.0 O

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with very few
Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., and some striated
Pecten sp.; Spondylus sp. ------ -------------- 1.0
Total thickness --_.. ..........................----------------- .--- ..... 3.0

Locality 526. (LDx 11S i1E 17 ad) Abandoned limestone pit.
SE/4, SE/4, Sec. 17, TIXS, RlE, Dixie County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
3 Sandy loam and soil zone ---------------- 1.0
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, very light gray, white and brown, medium-
grained, quartz ----- _.........-.. .... __________.__ __--__ 4,0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, pale yellowish orange, hard, weathering
conchoidal in places a coquina of Operculinoides;
specimens of Turritella common --________. ------------- 3.0
Total thickness -----__ ----________----......-. -_ ______________ ____-- 8.0
The Williston Formation occurs as two patches in the northern
part of Dixie County, one around the Shamrock-Cross City area
and the other in the vicinity of Holly Hill Tower. The following
sections are representative of the Shamrock-Cross City area:
Locality 828. (LDx 10S 12E 5 ad) Two-tenths mile south of At-
lantic Coast Line and U. S. Highway 19 intersection in Sham-
rock on the north side of the road near the Hudson Pulp and
Paper Company office, Shamrock, Dixie County.







BULLETIN NO, 49


Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
3 Sandy loam and soil zone -.-_------------------ .50
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, light brown, medium-grained, quartz _------__ .25
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, coquina of
large foraminifers, Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.,
and Amusium sp. common .. 3.00
Total thickness ____________ -________________ 3.75

Locality 820. (LDx 10S 12E 8 ba) Outcrop around a pond of the
Suwannee Lumber Manufacturing Company. The company
pumps water out of the pond and there are several canals that
feed the pond. Williston is exposed around the pond and the
canals that feed it, four-tenths mile south from U. S. Highway
19, The same limestone is exposed in canals around Shamrock.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
3 Soil zone ---------_.. -------- ..--- 0.5
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, dark gray, argillaceous, quartz ..-----------_----_ 1.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, soft in places,
coquina of Nummulites moodybranchensis, Amu-
sium sp. and Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars. 3.0
Total thickness ----........ _------------------__ 4.5

Locality 823. (LDx 10S 12E 5 da) Drainage canal behind Shell
Station on U. S. Highway 19, 1.7 miles from Atlantic Coast


72








GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRTST


Line Railroad Crossing (Shamrock). This is the best exposure
in the area.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
3 Sandy loam and soil zone _. 2.0
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, gray, medium-grained quartz ------.....---.. 2.0

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, coquina of
large foraminifers, Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.,
Pecten sp. and Turritella sp. common -.... 3.0
Total thickness ---..--------.-_----- ------------------ 7.0

Locality 818. (LDx 10S 12E 4 bb) Borrow pit, 0.9 mile north of
Cross City limits on State Highway S-351, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, in places a
coquina of large foraminifers-Amusium sp., Lepido-
cyclina ocalana and vars. common ---.--------- 4.0
Total thickness .-.- ..- -.-------------------. 4.0

Locality 684. (LDx 10S 12E 10 da) Exposure near a culvert at
Cross City airport, 0.1 mile north of airport building, NW/4,
SE/4, Sec. 10, T10S, R12E, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation







BULLETIN No. 49


1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with abun-
dant Operculinoides moodybranchens-is and Pecten
sp. ___.------------------ -------------------. -- 0.5
Total thickness .. ____ 0.5

Locality 685. (LDx 10S 12E 15 aa) Exposures in a canal, NW/4,
NW/4, Sec. 15, T10S, R12E, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series

3 Sandy loam and soil zone ...-------------- .50
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, very light gray, medium-grained quartz .25

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Williston Formation

1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with casts of
mollusks, and Lepidocyclina oealana and var. --------- 2.00
Total thickness .... .. .............................______ 2.75

The contact of the Williston with the Crystal River is con-
formable and can be seen at the following localities:

Locality 586. (LDx 9S 13E 15 ba) Abandoned quarry, NW/4,
NE/4, Sec. 15, T9S, R13E, Dixie County.

Pleistocene Series
3 Sand, white, medium-grained, quartz .------..-__-_-- 1.0

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, slightly
chalky, predominantly a coquina of large foramini-
fers with abundant casts of mollusks, and large speci-
mens of Lepidocyclina ocalana, striated Peeten sp. __ 3.0


Williston Formation








(.KOLOGY OF l)DIXIE AND ([IA']HRIST


1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, hard, calcitic,
in places a coquina of large foraminifers, some stri-
ated Pecten sp., Nucula sp. 8.0
Total thickness .... .......... .... ............ .... ... ... .... 12.0

Locality 827. (LDx 8S 13E 28 da) Abandoned pit on Carl San-
der's farm, NW/4, SE/4, See. 28, T8S, R13E, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
5 Sandy loam and soil zone ...... 1.0
Pleistocene Series
4 Sand, very light gray, fine-grained, quartz 1.3
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

3 Limestone, very pale orange, slightly chalky, soft, in
places a coquina of large foraminifers, with abundant
striated Pecten sp. .... 3.5
2 Limestone, very pale orange, molluscan, Amusium
sp. and Turritella sp. abundant 7.0
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, almost a
coquina of large foraminifers, Heterostegina ocalana,
Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., molds of mollusks.
This bed has characteristic honeycombed weathering 4.0
Total thickness ..16.8
There are abundant solution holes in this pit, some of them more
than 3 feet in diameter and up to 8 feet deep. One-tenth mile south
of locality 827 is a sink hole where the upper part of the above
section is repeated.

Locality 816, (LDx 9S 13E 16 bd) Quarry SE/4, NE/4, Sec. 16,
T9S, R13E, Dixie County. Three-tenths mile east from junc-
tion of paved State Highway S-351 with dirt road which goes
to Fayetteville. One-tenth mile east of paved road.








lSu.LETI No. 49


Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
4 Sandy loam and soil zone .5
Pleistocene Series
3 Sand, light brown, fine-grained quartz ....- 1.5
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, hard, a co-
quina of large foraminifers, mostly Lepidocyclina
ocalaina and vars., "holothurians." and some echi-
noids, and a few striated and smooth Pertens 9.0
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, hard. in
places a large foraminiferal coquina, dwarfed indi-
viduals of Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars. and "holo-
thurian" tubes, filled mostly with small foraminifers 2.5
Total thickness 13.5

CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION
The name Crystal River Formation was proposed by Purl
(1953, p. 130) for the 108 feet of limestone exposed in the Crystal
River Rock Company quarry in Citrus County, and includes all
calcareous sediments of Late Eocene Age, lying stratigraphically
between the Williston Formation and the Oligocene limestone.
The formation is synonymous with Ocala Limestone (restricted)
of Vernon (1951) and The Upper Ocala Limestone of Applin and
Applin (1944, p. 1683-85). Detailed information on the lithologic
character and fauna of the formation is given in Florida Geologi-
cal Survey Bulletin Nos. 33 and 38.
Purl (1957, p. 48) recognized the following faunizones in
peninsular Florida:
Asterocyclini,-Spirolaea vreroni faunizone
Numm lites vandeprstoki-Hem icythere faunizone
Lepidocyclina-Pae idoph rag m ina faunizone
Spiroloculina ntewberryensis faunizone








GD1( fi .X'-Y OF DIX IE AND G ILCHRiiIST


In Dixie and Gilchrist counties, the Crystal River Formation
consists of cream colored, soft to hard, porous, generally friable,
chalky to crystalline limestone composed mostly of foraminifers,
mollusks, and echinoids.
In most of the wells in the area that penetrated the Crystal
River the thickness of the formation was approximately 20 feet.
However, in well W-2502, located in Trenton, it is only 10 feet
thick. The top of the Crystal River is eroded and highly irregular,
accounting for the absence of the top two or three faunizones as
described by Puri (1953). In the graben, shown in the geologic
map (pl. 1) the Crystal River is missing. However, on the north,
west, and east sides of the graben the formation is present.
The Crystal River Formation lies conformably upon the Willis-
ton Formation and is unconformably overlain by the Alachua
Formation. In the northern and west-central part of Gilchrist
County, Pleistocene sediments unconformably overlie the Crystal
River Formation.

OUTCROP PATTERN
The Crystal River Formation in Gilchrist County crops out in
three areas (see pl. 1): 1) west and north of the Bronson Graben,
2) on the downthrown side of the Lottieville fault, and 3) in a
belt which generally parallels the course of the Santa Fe and Su-
wannee rivers.
West and north of the graben area, the following sections are
typical of the Crystal River Formation.

Locality 198. (LGr 8S 14E 24 ac) Abandoned quarry, about 1
mile north of Bell, SW/4, NW/4, Sec. 24, T8S, R14E, Gilchrist
County, Florida. Section measured on east wall of quarry. (Sec-
tion from Puri, 1957, p. 60).

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Stage
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

6 Limestone, cream to white, granular, with abundant
Lepidocyclinas. Limestone is filled with pockets of
gray and pink to brown sand; solution funnels com-
m on ... ..... ...... 7.7







]BrrTIN No. 49


5 Limestone, hard, granular, with molds of Spondylus
sp., and other mollusks ....-..-- 1.0
4 Limestone, cream to white, granular, almost fora-
miniferal coquina ... 3.0
3 Limestone, hard, white, chalky, with abundant fora-
minifers and mollusks; some of the foraminifers and
mollusks are of brownish color and are embedded in
white, chalky, matrix 2.0
2 Limestone, white, chalky, granular, with some Lepi-
docyclna sp .... .5
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, white to cream colored, chalky, with
abundant foraminifers and mollusks; almost a fora-
miniferal coquina in places; abundant Pecten sp.,
Solen sp., in lower 3 feet .-----.... ---.. 7.0
Total thickness 27.2

Locality 316. (LGr 8S 14E 13 bc) Abandoned quarry just east of
State Highway 49, SW/4, NE/4, Sec. 13, T8S, R14E, about
2.5 miles north of Bell, Gilchrist County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent and Pleistocene Series
Elevation 85 feet
2 Sand and soil zone .... .. .........-.......... .... ----..------ 1.0

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

1 Limestone, very pale orange to white, chalky, mostly
a coquina of large foraminifers, mainly Lepidocyclina
ocalana and vars., poorly preserved molds of mollusks,
some holothuriann" tubes common 11.5
Total thickness .. .......-...... 12.5

Locality 159. (LGr 9S 15E 31 ac) Abandoned quarry, SW/4,
NW/4, Sec. 31, T10S, R15E, Gilchrist County. Quarry just off
east side of road. Section measured on south wall of quarry.








U(E-OiWiY OF DIXIE AND LACi-likisT


Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent and Pleistocene Series
Elevation 50 feet
3 Sand and soil zone ..1.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Limestone, white, moderately hard, recrystallized in
places, lower portion a coquina of large foraminifers,
mainly Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., striated
Pecten sp., and crab claws __- .- 1.50
1 Limestone, very pale orange to white, chalky, with oc-
casional casts of mollusks, in places a coquina of fora-
minifers, with Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., Het-
erostegina ocalana ...... .... .......... 5.50
Total thickness .... ...9.00
There are pea- to gravel-size pieces of limonite scattered on the
floor of the quarry.

Locality 193. (LGr 7S 13E 36 bc) The following section is ex-
posed in a large sink hole near edge of the road, SW/4, NE/4,
Sec. 36, T7S, R14E, Gilchrist County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series Elevation 50 feet
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Limestone, very pale orange, fossiliferous, almost a
coquina of large foraminifers, mostly Lepidocyclina
ocalana, "holothurians," Dentalimn sp. and Pecten
Sp..... 5.0
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, moderately
soft, with few large foraminifers, Lepidocyclina oca.
lana pseudomarginata, Heterostegina ocalana, Gyp-
gina globular common ... .... ... 1.5
Total thickness --..... -- --- -... _._... .. ._ 6.5
Solution funnels are a common feature in this sink hole.


79








l0Bi LrTs Noi. 49


Locality 177. (LGr 9S 14E 10 bd) Two large sink holes at Mr.
Bryant's field, SE 4, NE 4, Sec. 10, T9S, R14E, Gilchrist
County.


Bed


Description


Thickness
(feet)


Eocene Series Elevation 49 feet
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation


1 Limestone, very pale orange, coquinoid, almost a large
foraminiferal coquina, mostly Lepidoeyclina ocalana
and vars.


Total thickness


3.0
3.0


The outcrops of the Crystal River Formation on the down-
thrown side of the Lottieville Fault occur in the southwestern
corner of the county. The following sections are representative of
the area.
Locality 65. (LGr 10S 14E 16 cd) Abandoned quarry in a field
near the community of Wilcox, SE/4, SW/4, Sec. 16, T10S,
R14E, Gilchrist County.


Description


Thickness
(feet)


Recent Series


3 Sandy loam and soil zone
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, very pale orange to white, medium-grained,
quartz ---
Eocene Stage
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with casts of
mollusks, Turritella sp., Mitra sp., and Glycymeris sp.
This bed becomes more chalky toward the top. Lepido-
cyclina ocalana and vars., Rotalia cushmani, Gypsina
globula, Fibularia vaughani, Heterostegina ocalane
and Agassizia cf. A. floridana are common


Total thickness


1.0



1.0


8.5
10.5


There are several solution funnels in this quarry which are
filled with Alachua sediments.


Bed


80


... .







( EOI-.GY OF DI)XIE AN'D GILCHRisT


Locality 179. (LGr 9S 14E 3 dc) Abandoned quarry in Roy
Robert's field, SW. 4, SE 4, Sec. 3, T9S, R14E, Gilchrist County.
Section measured on the east side of the quarry.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series Elevation 54 feet
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, almost a co-
quina of large foraminifers, particularly Lepidocy-
clina ocalana, Lepidocyclina ocalana attennata, Disco-
cyclina sp., Ostrea sp., Pecten ap., Gypsiina globula,
Heterostegina ocalana 9.0

1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, massive,
sparse foraminifers, Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.,
abundant "holothurians" 4.50
Total thickness 13.50

Boulders of Suwannee Limestone occur on top of Bed 2; some
have striated Marianna-type Pecten. None of the boulders are in
situ. Abundant solution funnels occur in the Crystal River Forma-
tion. The top of the Crystal River Formation is denuded and no
Pleistocene sand occurs at this locality.
The exposures of the Crystal River along the Santa Fe River
occur as steep bluffs. Along the Suwannee River, this formation
crops out south of Rock Bluff almost continuously for about four
miles (north of Wannee) where it is replaced by the Williston
Formation on the upthrown block of the Lottieville Fault. The
following sections are typical of this area.
Limestones of the Crystal River Formation as exposed in the
following locality are shown in figures 35 and 36.

Locality 320. (LGr 7S 14E 13 bb) Gordon Philpot's quarry, 1.9
miles south of bridge on Santa Fe River on State Highway 49,
on section line, between Secs. 12 and 13, T7S, R14E, Gilchrist
County, Florida. Section measured on north wall of quarry.







it'Li.i.rix N il. 49


FI"i riur 3. l LiM f.I Isi h 1' iif il C(iry% i I HI itV r F ioi1tI Li 1'.;l|.I"Ni inl :i q{thilrr
[I SI r Icl y 4Sl y 1 .iri tir S nt F I t F -ir .r. (;il r1'lrii ('fPI ryi

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Limestone, white, hard, foraminiferal coquina;
weathers yellowish-brown, Pecten ap.; solution fun-
nels common, filled with gray and brown, waxy clay
and sand 7.10
1 Limestone, white, granular, foraminiferal, soft and
friable; lower portion at the base of quarry with large
Ostrea sp. 6.0
Total thickness .. .. 13.10
Locality 72. (LDx 10S 13E 13 bc) Old Town Springs, Dixie
County. Owners: Harrell, Scruggs, Johnson, Burns, etc. Old


82































ma














S- r -rn








.*







i .m









Ilb nl:Ir i1i. 1 ."rii St ( ai 1il V.







4B-uLEKTIN No. 49


Town Springs is a composite spring made up of six springs.
The section was measured near the main spring, about 200
yards from the Suwannee River.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Pleistocene Series
3 Sand, very pale orange to white, medium-grained,
quartz; and soil zone 2.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, a microcoquins
of foraminifers, with Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.
and occasional casts of mollusks 5.5
Williston Formation
1 Limestone, yellow to light gray, granular microco-
quinoid, with Lepidocyclina ocalana and Operculi-
noides moodybranchensis ...... (below spring level) 4.0
Total thickness 11.5

Locality 328. (LDx 8S 10E 22 ac) Buckeye Cellulose Company
quarry near the Steinhatchee River, SW/4, NW/4, Sec. 22,
TSS, RIOE, Dixie County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
3 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, pasty, devoid
of large foraminifers, occasional molds of poorly pre-
served mollusks 4.0+
2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, in places a
nummulitid coquina with a few specimens of Lepido-
cyclina. ocalana 3.5
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular; microcoquina
of nummulitids, studded with Pectenl and large Lepi-
docyclina ocalana and vars. (base of the quarry) 0.5
Total thickness 8.00+


84








:EOLM.c( Y OF DIXIE ANLD IlI'HRIST


Solution pits are common in this quarry and they are filled with
4 probably Hawthorn dark brown to steel gray, waxy clays.

Locality 345. (LDx 9S 13E 23 bb) Abandoned quarry, NE/4,
NE/4, Sec. 23, T9S, R13E, Dixie County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series Elevation 26 feet
3 Sandy loam and soil zone ............ .......... 1.0
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, very light gray to white, fine grained, quartz 2.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, a large fora-
miniferal nummulitid coquina, several large Lepido-
cyclina ocalana and vars., with a striated Pecten, and
some "holothurians" -.. ... --- 4... 4.5
Total thickness .......-.......- ....----- 7.5

Locality 349, (LDx 8S 13E 24 aa) Active limestone pit, NW/4,
NW/4, Sec. 24, T8S, R3IE, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series Elevation 42 feet
4 Sandy loam and soil zone .. 1.0
Pleistocene Series
3 Sand, light brown, fine grained, quartz 4.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, moderately
hard, in places a coquina of large foraminifers, some
large Lepidocyclina ... 10.0
1 Limestone, very pale orange, molluscan, in places a







6MBULLETIN No. 49


coquina of large foraminifers, Crassatillites, Pinna,
Spondylus and Cardium?, Velates, Lepidocyclina oca-
lana and var., Heterostegina ocalana
down to water level 4.0
Total thickness .... .... _- __. 19.0
Active quarry. Abundant solution pits.

Locality 841. (LDx 8S 13E 13 aa) Abandoned quarry on Mr.
Dempsey's farm, formerly used commercially to make chimney
blocks. NW/4, NW/4, Sec. 13, TSS, RISE, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
4 Soil zone and sandy clay .5
Pleistocene Series
3 Sand, light gray, medium-grained quartz ---------_ 2.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
2a Limestone, very pale orange, very granular, micro-
coquina; very few mollusks, with a few specimens of
large Lepidocyclina ocalana 15.5
b Slightly chalky towards top (15.5.18 feet)
1 Limestone, very pale orange, coquinoid, mostly large
foraminifers, casts of mollusks common 5.0
Total thickness~ 23.0
A sink hole 300 feet northeast repeats the section exposed at the
abandoned quarry.

Locality 352. (LDx 8S 13E 1 de) Active quarry located on U. S.
Highway 129, 0.8 mile south of Dixie-Lafayette County Line.
SW/4, SE/4, Sec. 1, TSS, R13E, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series Elevation 46 feet


3 Sandy loam and soil zone


86


1.0








(loiM)F OF ]IXIz AN ( LIAi'HIRST


Pleistocene Series


2 Sand, brownish-gray, medium-grained, quartz


2.0


Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation


1 Limestone, very pale yellow, granular, in places a
nummulitic coquina with abundant small specimens of
Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.; top portion softer
and contains striated Pecten


Total thickness .-- .... .


Locality 383. (LDx 9S 10E 29 ad) Shallow quarry, SE/4,
Sec. 29, T9S, R10E, Dixie County.


Bed


Description


Recent Series
3 Sandy loam and soil zone
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation


2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, soft, with a
few large foraminifers, contains striated Pecten
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, soft, almost a
coquina of Operculinoides moodfybranchensis. Con-
tains echinoids and striated Pecten
Total thickness


8.0
1 .0


NW/4,


Thickness
(feet)


1,0


2.0



1.0
4.0


Locality 683. (LDx 10S 13E 17 dc) The following section was
measured in an abandoned quarry. SW/4, SE/4, See. 17, T10S,
R13E, Dixie County.


Bed


Description


Thickness
(feet)


Recent Series


5 Sandy loam and soil zone... ----....-..--...-.........-...


1.0


Pleistocene Series


4 Sand, light brown, medium-grained, quartz ....-.-.-.


2.0







8Bi'LLrTIN No. 49


Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

3 Limestone, very light yellow, granular, with some
mollusks, almost devoid of large foraminifers 2.5

2 Limestone, white, hard, somewhat chalky; coquina of
large foraminifers in places 1.0

1 Limestone, very light orange, granular, Lepidocl-
clina; very few large foraminifera .s 1.5
Total thickness .. .. ....... .. .... ... .........8.0

Locality 348. (LDx 9S 13E 2 db) Abandoned quarry, a source of
limestone for building blocks, abundant solution joints. NE/4,
SE/4, Sec. 2, T9S, R13E, Dixie County.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series Elevation 40 feet

6 Sandy loam and soil zone ... 1.0

Pleistocene Series

5 Sand, brownish-gray, medium-grained, quartz 2.0

Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation

4 Limestone, very light yellow, granular, hard, with
Turritella sp., and several species of echinoids common 5.5

3 Limestone, white, slightly chalky, a coquina of large
foraminifers in places ........ 2.5
2 Limestone, very light orange to white, granular, mili-
olid, very few large foraminifers noticed ........... 3.9
1 Limestone, very light orange, granular, hard, in places
a coquina of large foraminifers; nodular weathering
with large specimens of Lepidocyclina ocalana and
vars., and Ostrea sp. 2.0
Total thickness ----------------------- 16.9


88







(:IEOL;M.; OF D)IXIE: AX) (hL.t'llli'


Locality 790. (LDx 9S 14E 1 ca) Two adjoining pits; section
measured in larger of the two pits. NW/4, SW/4, Sec. 1, T9S,
R14E, Dixie County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
4 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, a coquina of
large foraminifers, abundant molluscan casts, and
large specimens of Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars. 8.5
3 Limestone, very pale orange to white, slightly chalky,
almost devoid of large foraminifers, a few specimens
of large Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars. noticed 6.5
2 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, a coquina of
large foraminifers .2.0
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with sparse
foraminifers, Lepidocyclina ocalana present .3.5
Total thickness 20.5
The Crystal River Formation occurs very close to the ground
surface. It is difficult to estimate the thickness of Pleistocene sands
because of spoil banks around quarry resting directly on top of the
limestone.

Locality 798. (LDx 8S l1E 26 aa) Exposure in an abandoned
quarry, NW/4, NW/4, Sec. 26, T8S, RIUE, Dixie County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
3 Sandy loam and soil zone .5
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, light brown, medium grained, quartz 2.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
1 Limestone, very light orange, granular, slightly
chalky, coquina of large foraminifers, mostly Lepido-







0iu'LLETIn, No. 49


cycling ._. ... .. .. 2.0
Total thickness 4.5

Locality 799. (LDx 8S 12E 19 bd) Abandoned quarry, SE/4,
NE/4, Sec. 19, T8S, R12E, Dixie County.
Bed Description Th sickness
(feet)
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with some
Lepidocyclina, slightly chalky to water level 1.0
Total thickness .. 1.0
There is a thin cover of Pleistocene sand on the top of the
Crystal River Formation. The exact thickness of the Pleistocene
is difficult to measure because of spoil banks around the quarry.

Locality 832. (LDx 8S 12E 19 be) Exposures in an abandoned
quarry, SE/4, NE/4, Sec. 19, TSS, R12E, Dixie County.
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Recent Series
3 Muck and soil zone 1.0
Pleistocene Series
2 Sand, gray, medium-grained, quartz ......- 1.0
Eocene Series
Ocala Group
Crystal River Formation
1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, in places a co-
quina of large foraminifers, mostly Lepidocyclina oca-
lana and vars. The limestone is case-hardened toward
the top ..- ------------------- 3.0
Total thickness 5.0

Locality 817. (LDx 9S 13E 16 bc) Limestone pit, SW/4, NE/4,
Sec. 16, T9S, R13E, 0.2 mile south of Locality 816 and about
0.1 mile west of paved State Highway S-351.


90




Full Text

PAGE 1

ST TE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CO ""SERVATION DI'' ISIO N OF GEOLOGY Robert 0. Vernon, Directo r GEOLOGI AL B LLETI 0. 49 GEOLOGY OF DI IE A D GILCHRIST COUNTIE FLORIDA By Harbans S Puri, J. William Y on, Jr. and '\Voodson R. Ogle sby Published for DIVISIO OF GEOLOGY TALLAHASSEE 1967

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FLORID 1 BO RD OF 0 r r CLA D E R. KIRK Governor TOI\1 ADAMS EARL Sccr.etary of State A t.torney Genera l BROW Rll lVILLI.Al\t S F R E D 0 DIC Kl.L 0 r .lit. Treasurer Comptroller F LOYD T. C HJU TIAi DOYLE CONNER Superintendent of Public UANDOLPR F.S Director

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LE TT ER OF ;})ivi:Jion o/ August 16, Hono1able Claude R. !{irk, Clzairn1an Florida State Board of Conservation Tallahas ee, Flo1 ida Dear Governor Khk: . . \ \" "' ,. f l . . _.rhe Divi sion of Geo logy is pubHshing as Bulletin 49, a fairly comprehensive report on t h e "Minerals and Water Resou1ces, and the Geology and Stratigraphy of and Gilchrist counties, F]orida." The report \v-as ptepared oveJ' a periorl of years by Harbans S. Puri, ''' i1liam J Yon, and "\/Voodson R. Oglesby, Geologists with this division. This has ]arge l"eserves of limestone that are suitable for use in many proce Clay and sand arc available nearby and toge "\vith the development of Barge it is anticipated that some additional industrial development \Viii follo\v Lar ge in potab]c "rater availab]c i n bo t h of the and the I' ecrea.t ional potentials of these vvaters have never been f ully utiHzed* The data presented herein \vill be helpful in further exploitation of Florida's minera 1 \vealth to the benefit of the State. Respectfu11y yours, 0. Vernon Director and State Geologist Hi

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Completed manuscript received August 16, 1966 Published for the of Geology By Rose Printing Con1pany Tallahassee, Florida iv

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TABLE OF CO TE TS InLroducti o n ------------------------...___ --L ocation and description of area ------------------------------1\iaps ----------------------------Dixie County __ -----------------------------------------------G ilch r i s t Co u ;n ty ----------------------------Transportation --------------_ -----------------------------------Uigh\va.JlS -------------------------------------------------Railways ------------__ --------------------.A1' rnravco,. .... & .,., .I .:1 -----------------...... -Waterways ----------------------_ .. _______ C lilnate and vegetation --------------_ Culture -----_ -------------. ---------------------------------------1 3 3 6 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 11 Dtai11age ___ __ __ -----------------------------. -----------------1f5 Suwannee R ivPr c.hainage ba::5in __ --.. ______ 1 5 Piezometr ic s ulface ___ ------------------------------. 1 7 Stwvannee River disrharge -------------------------------17 Santa Fe River discharge ----------------------20 Steiuhatcht!e Uiver discharge ------. 22 Springs ----------------------------. ------------22 So]ution fcatul'CS -----------------------------------. __ Sum1nary ___ .. ____ ___ .... --------------. ... 29 Common sinks and sink-hole lakes -------------..... ..... 29 Funnel sinks and natmal wens ------------------------32 Solution pipes ____ __ .. ------------.... 34 Undergroul1d rivers ---------------------------;14 Springs --------_____ --------------------------------S6 '\Veil and outcrop numbering syste-m ---------------36 PhysiogTaphy ----------------------------------. 38 Introduction --------------.. -----------36 Gulf coal:ita l lowlands ___________ -------------------------37 1\.J oden1 coas t and submarine plain --------------------3 7 Coastal Swarnps _____ -------------------------------3R Silver Bluff Terrace and ShorC'lille ___ -----------. 39 "Pamlieo Terrace and Shorelinf' -___ ----------------------39 '\Vicomico Terrace and Shoreline ------------------------. ____ 41 \V acasassa Fla. t:3 ----------------------------------------------. ---------------43 Be 11 Ridge --------------------------------------------------... . 4 8 Chiefland Limestone P lain __ --------------49 Brooksville Ridge ----------49 High Spring Gap -------------.... --------------119 Fracturing _______ -------------------------------------. r;o Structute and geologic setting ------- . ---------------St1,a t igraphy -----------------------------------------------------55 PTcvious work 55 v

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Gile h ri'St County ---------Dixie County -------Pa1C'ozoic Era --------------55 58 58 Lower Ordov idMn ---------------58 Mesozoic Era ______ -------59 C1eta ,ceous System ... ----------59 Gulf Series 59 AtJdnson __ Beds of Austin Age --50 Beds of Taylm' Age -----------61 61 BPds of Nava11.ro Age -------------------------61 Lawson Limestone ___ -----------.. ------61 Cenozoic Era ___,__ _________ Te1tiary System --------Paleocene Series .. ---. ------Cedar Keys Fon1u1 tion -----------------------. Oldsmar Limestone _______ __ ---------ClaibmnC' Stage _____ ... --------62 62 62 62 6:3 Lake City Limestone -----Avon Park -------------------G3 Ocala Gl'ou:p ----------------------6:3 Inglis 14 orroatjon ------------... GiJ \VilHsh>n Formation --------------------6 t l Disbibution ------...._ -.. -------66 C1ystal River Formation ----------------------Outcrop pattern .... -----------Steinhatchee Do lomite r-.fember __ ----------------------Oligoc ne Series ___ _ ----------. -7G 77 95 917 Suwannee --------------Series ____ __ ----------------__ 97 --------98 Alachua Formation ____ 0\JJtcrop pattetn ---------. ------Quaternary Systcnt -------Pleistocene Series .. --------------------larine terrace rleposits Recent Series ---------_ --------Economi c Gilchrist County --------_ -----Limestone -------Phosphate ------------------------------------------D i x i e Count3r ------------------------------------L imestone __ __ __ ------------------------Dolomite and dolornitie limestone ___ _ .. _____ Bibliography --------A ppcndix ___ __ ----------------------------1. Db"ie and Gilchrist loC'ation of outcrops ___ __ .... ---------Index ---------------------_ .... -.. --------------__ vi 98 100 12() 126 126 127 127 127 127 127 127 VJ 1 136 141 147 lt11 15!1

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ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 Location of Gilchri s t and D ixie counties, Florida 2 2 Index to Topog1aphic }lapping, in Gilchdst and Di.da counties, F l orida -4 3 Topographic map, Gilchrist County, Florida ------------------------5 -Topogrraphic 1nap, Dixj e County, FJo:rida __ --------------6 5 Total rainfall at Belli Gilchrist County and Cross City Airport, Dixie Connty __ -------------------------------------_ _____ 10 6 Map ol Florida. showing portion of the Suwannee River drainage basin with pi e?.ometrie con toun:; of the F1 oridan aquifer (after Healy 1 1 962) --------------------------------------.. _____ 16 7 }lap of the Florida po:rtion o! the Suwannee River dr. ainage basin with p iezometri c contour of the Floridan aquifer superimposed on the outcropping formation ___ .. ___ -18 8 Suwannee Rhrer a t Roelle Bluff1 Florida showing the gaging s-tation 20 9 :mean t1ow of Stn\.,.annec :River at Branfordt Florida. Nor-mal (median) for 30-year per iod 1931-1960 (data irom U.S. Geo-]ogie.a l Survey) -------------------------------------22 10 Rock Bluff Springs, Gikhrist County, F]orida __ ----_ ______ 25 11 Hart Springs, Gilchrist County, Florida ---------------------26 12 Old Town Sp-rings, Dixie County, Florida 27 13 Blue S.prings, Gilchrist County, Florida __ ----------------------27 14 Trail Springs, Locality 136, County Florida _______ ------28 15 Development of a s in k at Loca]ity 9, Sheppard's Farm, Gilchrist County, Florida. A-Incipi:ent sink in the Crystal RivQr tio n; B-View down natural well; C Natural well., surface Of ground water 26 feot b elow Sl.Hface __ __. --___ ----------SS. 16 Physiographic map o Gulf Coastal L-o,,iland s -----------------Pocket 17 Partially sub1ne.rgcd dun-as off the coas t line a t Horseshoe Point __ 38 18 Pan1]ico Dune near Eugene on U.S. Highway 27 --------. ----------40 19 Closeup of Pamlieo Dune near Eugene on U.S. Highway 27 --41 20 Topographic map o:f Gilchrist County. Contour interval, 10 feet 42 2 1 Acria 1 mosaic of Gilchrist Coun t y sho wing \i\lacasassa F lats ottt-lines. Width of map is approximat:ely mHes __ -------------------------44 22 in t h e Wacasassa Flats on State Highway 40 facing east 45 28 Oontours slhowin.st approximate altitude of top of Williston For-mation (Uppel' Gilch-rist County __ 24 p :rofiles showing land :forms in Gilchri s t County ---------4'7 25 on State Highway 4 7, facitl g no rth ------. __ --48 26 F racture pattern of Dixie Countlr, Florida --.. 50 27 Falls on tl'le Santa Fe Itiver, Gi1cbrist County Florida 52 28 St:tucture contour map of Dixio and GHchrist countjcs, showing a.Hitude at the top of the Wil1jston Formation ----------------------54 29 Geo1ogieal sec t ion, Gilch:rh;t County -------------____ 56 30 I s o:metric d iagram, Gilchrist County -------------------------------. n? 31 Geological cross section, Dixi e Coullty _____ -------_ __ 32 Stratigraphie nomenclature chart of the Cenozoic (after Puri and Vernon, 1964) -----------------------------------------------... v : u

PAGE 8

33 S<'uimeuts of the rilfuton Formation as exposed just below confluence o:f the Santa Fe and Suwannee rives ---------Patlorama of a.n abandoned quarry on arl Robert's fartn (LGr lOS 14E 9 ba) showing of the \ViJliston Fon11ation Limestone o:f the Crystal River Formation as e>:posed in a quarTY on State Highway near Santa Fe River, Gilchrist County 35 of tbe Crystal River Formation in the Philpot Quarry, 1.9 miles south o:f bridg-e on Santa Fe River on State Highway Gilchrist. County _ ___ 37 Exposures of tho Steinhatchee Dolomite : Member neal' Co w CtC'ek, Dixie County Florida _____ 38 Exposures of a thin venee1 of the Crystal River showing honeycomb weathering (beneath hat) which overlies the dolomitic Jitnestone (Steinhatchee iember) ncar Cow Creek, Dixie . ) ) 6 2 83 9G County, F1orida ------------__ ____ 97 39 Panorama at Locality 90, an abandoned quarry, Gilchrist County 103 40 Panorama at Locality 93, showing pinnacles of the 'Yilliston mation and mined-out areas of the Alachua Fonnatim1 41 Panorama at Locality 278, howing the karrenfeld topography of the Crystal River Formation on which diments of the Alachua Formation were deposited 42 Topographic map of the Thomas Farm, GiJchrist County, F1orida, showing location of auger holes (AS-288-AS-310), discovery well 43 44 and the various type of sec.lhnents ex])O!:;ed in the "dig" (after Ptn] and 1964) -------------------Thomas Farm Quarry, GiJchrist County (Apti1, 1956) Stnmcture map on the top of the dominantly clayey matcnia], 'rhomas Farm, Gi1christ County .Pu d and 1904) Sttuctur e o:n the top of Ute Clystal Rivf'r Formation, Thomas Farm, Gilchrist County (aite1 Ptlri and Vet-non, 1DG4) 6 1'homas .F'arm, north side of the quarry showing clays of the Alachua Formation over]ying the lime . tone of the Crystal River .fi"ormation 47 Ctoss-bedded coar:se sands and upper boulder bar, Thon1ns Farm, Gilchrist County 4 .lining operations at Philpot Quarry, Gilchrist Count:r 49 Distribution of the phosphate, lime._ tones and clays, in Gilc1lri s t 106 111 116 117 118 119 120 121 12 County 129 60 !rtlona P1ant of the Loncala Phosphate Company ---------51 Flow sheet of the Loncala Phosphate Company 133 62 Distribllltion of dolon1itic Hmcstol'IP., limestone and phosphatic litne-stone in Dixie County 135 53 Typical exposure of the dolomite rock ncar Cow Creek, Dixie Coun ty, Florida _____ __ _ 13G 54 Location or sa.mplet:J o.f clolomHc and do1omitic limestone it1 D ixie County, Florida ----------137 5fi Ro\lte of Florida's interstate highway system, waterways, and natural gas pipeline (after Reves, 19G1) -------140 P L TE 1 Ceologic Map of Tertiary For1nation. in County Pockpt 2 Geo1ogic 1\Iap of Tertiary Formations in Dixie County ______ Pocket viii

PAGE 9

TABLES 1 & onomy of Dixie Count:f -----------------------------------12 2 Economy ctl Gilchrist County _____ ___ -----_ -12 3 Farm e haracteristics of and Gilchrist eountjos1 1950 1954, 1959, and 19 r64. ---------------------1 3 4. Farm Population o:f Dixie and r Gilcbrist 1'950 and 1955 __ 1 4 5 Value of Ag:ricnltural Commodities, Dixie and Gilchrist 1949-1964 ---------------------------14 Petsonal Income and Percent :fro m }fajor Industrial Sources for 1954 .and 1960 -------------------------------15 7 Dolhu-o.f Retail Sales of Dhde and Gilchrist c otrnties, ( years) -----------------15 8 J.\.lontb]y aJ:td yearly mean discha,..ge (Rock Bluff F' el'l'Y) 19 9 Monthl)r and yearly discharge (in cubic feet per second), of the Su,wannee River neal' WBcox, Florida -------------------------21 10 l\1onthly and year]y mean d isch arge o.f the Santa River 11ear Fort White, Florida ----------------------------------------------28 11 Monthly and yearly mean discharge in cubic :feet per second of the St!inbatchee River near Cross City, Florida ----------------------24 J 2 Estimated rate o.f flow of selected springs ifl Gilchrist County (by W. R. Oglesby) __ ---.... ---_ ...... ----__ 26 13 Water analysis of Hart SpringS. Gilchrist County1 Florida -----29 14 Water analysis of Rock Bluff Springs, F lorida ----------------80 15 Data on wells pene'trating Pa]eozoic sedimentary rocks in Gilchrist and Dixie counties ---------. -----------------------------------58 16 Analysis of dry l:lmestone san1pl e s fii."Om Dixie County, F lot-ida _____ 134 17 Ann]ysis of dry do lomiti c from Dixie County, Florida ---------____ 13 8 18 Analysis of ,sandlr dolomitic Jitnestong samples fi'Iom Dixie County, Flor]da ----138 ix

PAGE 11

TEr Q rLQG OF Dl I E D GlLCJ]HJ ,1., Cr I IJE ., FLORIDr By S. Pun, J. '\\TiHitnn and Woodson R. Oglesby TRODUC'fiO Dixie and Gilchrist counties adjoin Lc\ry County, 'the geology of \Vhich wa.1 published in BuJletin 33 of the Florida Geologica] Sur vey under the tit]e "Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Flo1dda," by 0. ''ernon (1'951). A det.aBed .tudy of these counties that lie to the north of the anea ."tudied by Vernon supplement. and extendR the 'ork accomplished. Fie]d work \vas done by \Voodson R. Oglesby in the sumn1ers of 1950 and 1951 under the of the Florida Geo logical Sutvey. llurba.ns S. Puri and James 'ViHiam Yon, Jr* spent the spl--ings and of and 1 957 the key RCC tions in these t\vo counties and checking the outcrop pattern of the rocks. Fie]d \Vorl{ in Dixie done '\'oodson R. Oglesby in the of 1951, \Vhen heavy rains made the s\\l'amp!i of southea .. tef'n Dixie Cou11ty and the \vith Jess than 5 feet surface \Vere under \Vater. flO\VCver, the sumn1er of 1956 \Vas dry and numerous exposures \Vere foun in coa. tal areas. 'vhich had escaped attention. Several ne\\T and borrow pits have been opened up since 1'951, requirt'i ng-: upplementa.l fie]d "ork. C l\r Hendry, Jr., and E. '" Bishop n1apped the Tl1oma. Fa1'm dig topographicaHy and drHled and examined the from auger ho] ,es in that Their l"eport, uceology of the 'I'homas Farm AI"e-a,'' on file at the o!Iic es of the Division of Geology, haR beer1 freely consulted. Sin1n1ie L. Mut--phy also as"' isted in the field in 1956 and drilled 40 auger holes in the t\vo Ha 1 Chittum, Robert E. DiekSlon, 'Villi am Gardnct and Tom EUis assisted in the field during the snn1mers of 1950 and 1951. Gratitud is expe. sed to Jon Beasley, photogrammetric engiState Road Department, for pleparation of the topographic map of Gilchrist ounty. R. 0. Vernon visited in the field on 1

PAGE 12

2 + ... .. -+ ...... \ .. l-1-\ () .... R 12 E ..... 6 5 4 3 .... + R 1 0 7 9 10 0 p "' 1 6 5 14 + R n E. + R 1 2 E --r21 2 2 23 24 29 28 2 7 33 3 4 FigurrL Loealion of and Dixie F lorirlfL.

PAGE 13

o r Axo GILCHRrT 3 occasio : ns and the \\rriters had the benefit of his on various geologic problems. This ",.ork \Vould not have been po ible \Vithout the help and cooperation of the citizens of these t\YO countie \Vho freely ga,e theii time in sho\ving exposures on their respective properties. LOCATION AND DESCRIPTII ON OF AREA Dixie and Gilchrist counties are located in the em bayed 11orth ,vest portion of the Florida Pen in. ula, a sho\vn in figure 1. Dbde County is bounded on the south\vest by the Gulf of Mex ico. The Suwannee River forms t h e eastern boundary and the teinhatcltee River \Vestern boundary of the county. No natural boundary exists to the north between and counties Gilchrist County i eparaied from adjoining countie on the north by the Sante Fe RiYer and on the \Vest by the Su,vannee River. Political boundaries bet"7een Alachua and Levy countie exist to the and south of Gilchrist County. The combined distance across and G ilchrist counties averages about 50 miles in an east-west directj on and 21 mil es in a north-south direction. Elevations increase gradually along a traverse starting at Deadman Bay on the we. tern coast of Dixie ounty, east\vard to Cro s ity, and continues eastward along U. S. Highway 19 to the Su\vannee River, t hen along State Highway 26 to a point about 4 miles beyond 'vhere the eleva tion is 70 feet. The relief is more pronounced from this point east \Vard, 'vhere ridge and and dunes mark the of the Brook ville Ridge. The highest elevation recorded in either of he two countie 119 feet, occurs in Gilchrist County in the stretch of sand hills 3 west of the Alachua County line. MAPS Thus far, 17 quadrangl e map of Dixie County have been issued by the U. S. Geological Survey. These are shovvn in figure 2. The base map of Dixie County \Va made from these quadrangle .. These maps cover all of the county the area adjacent to the upper reaches of the Su,vannee River. The enth e area i shown on the timber type map of Dixie County issued by the Florida Fo1est Park Service, and the high"Tay tran portation map of Dixie County, issued by the Florida tate Road Department. No quadrangle maps sho,ving the topography of Gilchri t

PAGE 14

4 BULLETIN 0 49 .;! .... .... r ::: -(PHOTOGRAMMfTIUC I I .... D t YI$10N c<-, IDA 0 ...... STATE 110AD .;a c.. ., (J4t; (f ... ...,,.. .7 .. 4,"r I {j.., .... l OCA T1 0to1 1oAAP b"' .. County have been prepared, a lthough the U. Army Corps of Engineers has issued regional maps (scale 1 : 250,000), on \vhich the generalized topography of theHe counties is sho\vn. Figure 3 \vas prepared from portions of this topographic map 'fhe bas, e map of Gilchrist County was made fro m a p boto-mosaic index compiled by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, .and the general high\vay and transportation map of Gilchrist County, prepared by the Florida State Road Depa1-tment. Since the photo indices are not cor1ected cons i derab1e juggling was neces sat'Y to them \Vith other avai lable maps., Strict accuracy or the location of featuves, as related to section lines, has been sacrificed in order to maintain correct relationships bet,veen such features as stJ--eams, lakes islands, etc. The State Road Department has issued a new highway map of Gilchrist County prepared from contact print. of aeri a l photographs, with control points that have been cnecked in the fiel d. This should prove to be an exce1lent pian imetric map, even though the many trN i1s indica ted on the geologic map accompanying r ,eport al,e excluded {fig. 3). autical chart. and planimetric maps by the S. t and Geodetic urvey wete used in the coastal areas. An advance copy of a map of the Stnvannee River by the U. S. Army Engineer.R \vas

PAGE 15

II::= CCft;, Of F>NGiNEEAS --= DlV \ GEOLOGY OF DIXm AND GILCHRIST I ... r"' J \> / "'/ I ::.... 1-z J 0 u I J. ----, lfVY '------'---LES COUNTY I :..__ _____ _ __; CONi tJI.I l ltrtl'dll Fig-mc 3. '1'opogmphic map, CilcLri.s1 County, Flor.ltia. 5 used to l ocate points along t h e Su\vannee and Sa nta Fe rivers. This map depicts contours for several miles on each side of the t"vo rivers,. and the control points from this map 'vere added to the seventeen published to prepare a topographic m.a p of Dixie Count}r, as shovvn i n figure 4. Road profiles by t h e State Road Department were useful i n establishing elevations in the absence

PAGE 16

6 BuJ.T.ETl:\ No 49 ... + ... .. 'I ' ... C I I l !' ... ... .. ruJAD;.IiCIW) "' "'Gtoc.o;:;r .. . DIXJE COUN1-Y -h._ IN'I'SOOII tl G(()l.(),1 of bene h marks A list of maps covering the two counties IS given DIXIE OU .. T 1. General High\vay and Transportati on Map of Dixie County Florida. 1936 Revi sed Jan. 1951. Scale 1 inch == 2 miles

PAGE 17

GEoLOGY OF AKD GILCH!UST 7 !(printed). (Also available on a seale 1 inch per mHe in blueprint). P .repared by State Road in cooperation 1
PAGE 18

8 No. 49 2. Aerial photo-mosaic index, U S. Department of Agricu]ture. Production and Marketing Administration. Completed 1949. Scales 1 inch -= 1 mi1e and :v.1 inch == 1 mile. TRANSPORTATION HI Gil'\' A YS U S. Iiighway 19 crosses Dixie County in a southeast,vard]y direction from near the north\vest co1ner of the county through Cross City to the Stnvannee River near the junction of Dixie, Gilchrist, and Levy counties. The of Ste\vard, Horseshoe, Su\Vannee, and }lines, in Dixie County, are all sexved by paved state roads. Bov..r legs Road, w hi(:h is not paved, connects the town o f J ena with IIo1seshoe Road. It \vas named fo1 the Seminole rhic:f who is said to have retl'eated along this route following a clash with U. S. troops during t he Seminole \vars. State High\vay 349 follows the Su\vanne e River from its junction \vith U. S. Iligh\vay 19 at Oldto-vvn to the to,vn of SuvJatlnee near the Gu1f of Mexico. U. S. Highvvay 319 ti'avet-ses Dixie County in an a lmost northsouth line from its junction 'vith U. S. High:way 19, at Oldtown, to jts intersection with U. S. lligh\vay 27, near Branford, Suwannee County. In periods of heavy rainfall, most of the trails in Dixie County south of U S. Highway 19 are impassable to conventional automobiles, a.nd some of the secondary 1oads in this sect i on of t h e county are a1so unsuitab]e for ordinary travel during such times. In Gilchrist County, because of the higher the state and county roads, as 'veil as many of the trails, are open to passenger-car travel. The principal high,vay of Gilchrist County is State IIigh\vay 26, rhich connects interior Florida \Vith U. S. High\vay 19 near the Stnvannee River at Fanning Springs. Tt is an eas t rest road that passes through Trenton, eastward to Alachua County. State Highvvay 47 starts at Trenton and extends northward across tbe Su,vannee Ri to Fort vVbite in Columbia County. State Highway 49 Gilchrist County almost in a north-south Jine and passes through the towns of Trenton and Be U and finally joins U. S. Hig'hlvay 27 in Suvnu1 n ee County. RAIL YS The Atlantic Coast Line serves Cross City and Trenton and roughly parallels U. S. Highway 19 and State Iligh,vay 26. Th e

PAGE 19

GroLOGY oF DLxiE AND GILCHRIST 9 Seaboard Air Line maintains a branch from Curtis east"'rard through Bell Williford, and Neals to towns in Alachua. County. AIRlVAYS No commercial air service is avai]a.ble in either Dixie or Gilehrist counties; County does have a municipal air port at Cross City. W.A.1'ERWAYS The controlling navigable depth of the Su\vannee River through the dredged channel of East Pass, Levy County, is 6 :f'eet; from there to Branford, 5 feet; and to vvithin 21/2 miles to Ella vine,. 3lh feet (Report of U S Army, Corps of Engineers, District J acksonvine, 1'940) No survey of the Su-vvannee channel bas b een fo1' publication, but it is kno,vn that the limestone the river bottom i s fractured and eroded in a highly itregular fashion For example, immediatel y north of Rock Bluff, the river bottom d eepe11s to 30 feet below sea leve l. Du:ring norma] stages, the river surface is about 15 feet above sea leve l at this point, and it appears that the average depth is thus considexab1y greater than the cont1olling depth. The Rive1 is not navigable upstream f1on1 the to'--vn of Ste\:vard. A channel 6 feet deep has been dredged from Deadman Bay to the harbor at Steward. Docks in this ha1bo19 wiU accommodate boats up to 100 feet in lenb>ih Because of the shallo\v vvater prevalent along the coast, only small craft can enter the inlets lying between the mouth of the Su,vannee River and Deadman Bay. CLIMATE AND \ TEGETATION In Dixie and GUchtist counties the annual temperature is 7 9 .6 and the mean temperature ranges from 81.4 o in August to 56.16 in January. The counties li e within the frost belt with the r ,e.su lt that tropical fruits and vegetation do not flourish. Aside from the profusion of ,grasses and palmettos in the near coastal areas, the most eviden t vegetation is cabbage palm, scrub oak, and turkey oak, together with the hard,voods in the ha1nmocks that include cypTess and magnolia. These trees are in addition to the commercial pine fo1,ests of Dixie County

PAGE 20

10 49 "' "' 0 t I I I I I ,.. :,....-. ... !!! c -2! !: :: :o::t = ... "" ... ;! -:f:<: !: ...... .... ..... tl: k l I I 14-1 I I I IJ.' I I 1!. e .. ... !!!' .. :! ... ; ... .... ... ...... -:::1 G -rr. rr. E u ';J J ...... ... ..... ........ A maximum rainfall for the region u.sua11y occurs in June and July (maximum -recorded at Cross City Airport wag 20 inches) in July 1964, with minimum rainfall from October to December;

PAGE 21

OF DLxn: AND G tLCIIRIST 11 ho-vvever, there a1e no dry or rainy seasons for the region. The average annua1 rainiaH for Dixie County is 54.6 i.nehcs and fo1 Gilchtist County it is inches Total monthly rainfall at Cross City and Bell (Septembe r 1964) is sho,,r n on figure 5. During the summer months rain clouds form offshot e from Dixie County and move in]and to precipitate 15 or 20 miles from the coast. In the summer of 1'951, this phenomenon was noticed over a 2 \veek period when there was no rain along the but daily showers occu1red a :few miles inland. The mean tida] range from the mouth of the Su,vannee River to Deadman Bay is 2.4 feet and the spring tidal range, is controlled by 1unar phases is 3 . 1 feet. CULTURE Dbde County was in 1 from the southern part of Lafayette County, and Gi1christ County \Vas formed in 1925 f rom part of Alachua County. The area of Dixie County is 710 square miles; its population was 4,600 in the 1960 census. Gi lchrist County has an area of 351 square mHes and had a population high of 3,4'9H in 1950, dropping to 2,700 in the next 10 (1960 oensus). The rural population of Gilchrist County depends largely upon farming f 'or a livelihood. Commercial (sal t fishing and forest products the principal sources of income in Dixie County. Fishing is enjoyed by sportsmen in the and lakes of both and some excellent hunting preserves are located in the \Vooded t1acts of Dixie County. There are approximate]y 400, 000 ac:res of ( Omme:rcia] fo :rest 1ands in Dixie County that contain about 21/2 million cords of second bFI.o\vth pine. The vhgin forests ar(! gone, bu t reforestation p1o.grams have been instituted by the O\vners of large Jand tracts and millions of pine seedlings are p]anted a.nnuany. The economy of Dixie eounty is shown on table 1. The majority of the rura.1 population of GUehrist County ]s engaged in truck farming. The eeonon1y of Gilchrist County appears on table 2. Farm character i stics of Dixie and Gilchrist counties are summarized on table 3; fa.rm population during 195055 appears on table 4. Values in doUal"S of crops,. pou1try and dairy products are shown on table 5. Persona] income and percent from

PAGE 22

12 BuLLETIN No. 49 TABLE 1 ECO N O:t\II Y O F DIXI E COUNTY Port La.tion, J Populu t iou, 1 U5ti-3,91Jil1 Popu la.tion. L !'160--4 .cmns Item I.4LntJ area.---440 ,320 l.f. ;tld {li.riii:S in woodilln d V ruue oE 1u.rru .l'ielrl cr"Ott' other than ..,egetH les., n u WI and fruits T.ivct>luck a n d lh("Stt)cl< tlto.r J llAt. !'t.'St{:d Rt,.,gaJ'('SDf! or acrghn m eyrup /(.)r Pcr'-1\rifs ll f u est.etl \\la.tetmplona harvested 217 l'll6 ,!)21 S270,3M $202,603 8 ,4.90 4 7Q3 head 36 ,.)7 ... KU-1. 4 .6<67 head 4,3i9 4 ,il7 !i hu. Hi .BOO lb. 800 lb. s.; hu. 711 bu. 132 ,09.115 l h 1,26o6 73 21.') lb. I .tterl Production 19543 1 (,S ,{144 140,911 $.3 1 29'7 l2m ,&m $251.481 S275,6G8 $ H:t,:no s 7 807 head 1 ,130 lae4ld -6,237 head 4,181 hcnd 6,:i<62 7,728 8,068 bu. H I 571 bu. 14,050 1 6 .011 lb . 2 1 ,700 ]b. 1 99 bll' 55 bu. 335 bu. bu. 20S ,344 Lb. 14J) ,60 7 lb. 1 1 '20 l ,438 gal. !J32 acreR 133 acres 300 lb. 500 tb. 5 1 3 1\CJ"e:s J 30 acres S20 ,976 191,903 S3'73 ,01}1 207 ,2 1 3 149,113 6,359 6 337 l1em.d -6 bead 2 ,24G 7 ,2'50 bu. 36 ,t H lh. -1 (hundr od wdght) 212 bu. 204 lh. 140 gal. 78 UCl-a! 30 lb. 7.8 I Florlda Cwunbcr oi rstatist il!:al ab.:st r-act of F lorida counties, Supplement 1Q56. 19f'O of Po-pu l n.t ion Series PC-S. no. 9. K Bureau of Ceus01s, ot Agl"cmaltute, Counties and Economic Area.a Fluridt\. u. S. Co .. etmucnt Printing Office, 1961 ... C'. R 'aull"f!a.n of CenRU'I, 1954, Census of Al.!:riculLurc, l)nd Stn.te Econom)o A reaa, F l orida.. Wash]o,g_ton U S. Government Priut1ug 1950>. r. U. S. C)( Ocfll>US, 19EH. Cen.l$-IR of Counties a n d Stute Ecou0n1 ic :\r{.fl.:s, Florir1A.. W U H. C overnment 0 oe, 1 966. TABLE 2 ECO NOl\I Y G I LCHRIST C O U TY l'op u L a.tion. 1 g;jQ--3 ,4U!J1 Popula.tion, HJ5tl2 Poi.,uln tJ.oo, 190fl-2 ,7004 Tl.cm T 0 ,96 0 ;)COres Land erea-l n farms lu woodll.\nd Vl'l.lU e or Iann hro(l uotf! r.;old Field ctops, ot er than and frui t lii Liveatoc and livestock Jli'0011 r l'l t'!ol d C-attle and Whdc rnil k '!old Hof{JS ant3 Chickens Coni lulrV"(".lited fol' grl\in harvested T .npinc 51.l>(..-d lrl11h hAJ\ffited Swi."Ct hl!l.T'Vetitl.:d 1'oharw.o hB.r\'>P",.-!t-ed or aor,!!!bum syrup V foJ !a.d ? .260 z l'!lll J 1,589 u(.-ad 1 1 heM! v,9=-l7 hen.d 12, 5,4f.S 27,604 88,933 b u 116,282 bu. ::l-76, I 86 b t' l 11,S27 1h. l64,R4S lb. I 1 bu. lb. 247,300 lb. 303 bu. 30:i bu. al ( hll nche< l weip;ht) 6.59 bu. 2,3&4 bu. !3J5 bu. 507' .014 bn, 3 16,303lb. R!)IJ, 2 aR lh. ;., S!)2 4,145 ga-L 700 II!;B.l. 6.648 &.cl'eS 4,476u.crcs 8,466 24,11 8 lh. 72.810 lb. G9,Qfig lb. 251 &Cl'OS 4.117 .. ercs 3,316 acres 1 J 950 Ccr1.11us Qf Pn 1 u 1lat,lo n PC-8, no. 9. 2 U S Bu reau of CeDBUB, 1954, Cewsu" of AKrieuHure, CQunties Bond Sta.te F..-onomiC! Area."!, Flori da.. l,nshin.,..rrton, U. & Ciovenrnncli't. Ptint.iog O ffice, 1956. r Florlria Sta.te Chamber o f Commerce, stutisticru a lJstrfic t Q( li'lorldfL Sllll}Jlemf'nt 11;1.')0. U S. Bureau ()( 19!}9. CPnRll!'l. of &n r l Sklte. Jiiconomic J\l'eas, Horida. v. S. Gol'eromen t Prin tlnp; Office., 1 961 :; U S Bureau of Ceru;ms. 196-1. Ccm:.u:s of CQu nties n.nd uonomic Are!ls, 1'1orida.. U. S. Go,rcr.nmer't Pdntin g ()ffioe, 1900

PAGE 23

195 S 0 i D I I '"'aruf: lth .. 21 7' .. 0 wl ll)f: 169 3 .1 I 2 J )1 9 7 ... I aU"' 2 J5 -16.6 1 79 n. .r .s 1 g 6 ,fiArll 11 52.5 420 207. 4 St-.. me 91 4.2. 1 334 27'3.!1 196 ...,;;a, me 0 36,8 21.)6 I 7

PAGE 24

14 BuLLETIN No. 4 9 TARLE 4., FARI'tl POPULATION OF DIXIE A .ND GILCHRIST COUN'TIES,. 1.950, l9G6 A 1D 1 964 } 1950 %of ]95.fi '* of Hl6 4 l"tmn 1950 Farm l i 'nnu Aroo. Pop. Pop. Pop. Pop, % Cbtln.u;c rop. DJ.x. i) CouuL y 6i6 17,2 6100 15.0 -11.2 ,'j4ft C ilolui.st Cc.u nty :2.083 69.5 l.QOO G4.2 B.S 918 TABLE VALUE OF AGlUC L'IURAL CO!l
PAGE 25

GEOLOGY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIST TARLE 6 PER ONAL INCOil'IE AI\.ND PERCENT FRO l :\IAJOR lND STRIAL SOUCES FOR 1954 AND l960J. Di:rie l r rf<.ale Trade 3.50.000 13.8 .52ti,00() 14.4 Rel"vice 'l'rad<'s and l'rofa.!!siuns 180.000 7.1 2;..n ,000 6 8 GQYcrnmcrrt'.! l .073,000 t 2.') 2 hy lnduflhy 8.5 :n ,ooo 0.6 Gilcbmt C ounty M t\nu raC'tmL 116 ,000 4 8 3.3 Al!l'iculturo n6 ,ooo 32.3 966 000 a1.u n o d Currs1 rrr (')tion 32.000 1 3 167 ,000 6.1 'l' ramJ?.l!rb tiorr, CounTrunim ti ,on and 70,000 .2.9 ss ,ooo 3.4 Utihl .il':! F1n.a nc>e, .Res.J 1>\ud 51 ,000 2 1 1.6 Ret&il and 'l'rB.f Jf> 28.5,000 11.8 1.5. 6 f2cnioo Tr.a.des and Prof e&.irms 1 35.000 5.6 HlG ,000 6.!) OoveJ nn ents 19.i ,000 33.1 620.000 24.7 l"' nclaasificd h.) 1 ndlliltry 14 7 .000 6. l 23,000 u u I Perl'Onal income and o l .hcr ror ll<'lcrida c.ountic-.s, or 1-:C'ODOILllC 'RuKinf'f,.<\ H:osea.rcb U niveraity
PAGE 26

16 G 0 R G I J I \ j L i mit of S uwo n nee 1 M lies Ti"' 'T'!T'l" "1":T:' T1T'f TTTf D d = r..tver ramage area Do um : s meon seo level CONTOUR INTERVAL 10 fEET Figure (). 1\llnp or FtoridJt ;;;h owing portion of the Sm\unm"e Hin.'r with viezuHwtrir con 1 ours of the L"loriJan tlfluifer (aftcL llenJ:'-, 1962) Georgia. The Florida part of this large drainage basi n is sho\ovn in figure 6, vvhich depicts p]ezomett'ic contours dra-wn upon the top of the artesian water of the F loridan aquifer, as vvell as $treams. The Stnvannee River has its source in the 've.stel'n half of the O k efenokee Swan1p, which it partially drains. The principal tributaries to the Suvvannee are the With]aeoochee and Alapaha rivers, ai'ising in Georgia, a.nd the Santa Fe River, has its source in the lake region of eentraJ peninsular F lorida.

PAGE 27

GJ:O LU(;Y 0' DIXIE AXD 17 About one-t hird of Dixie County and three-quarters of Gil chl ist County He \Yithin the Stnvannec River drainage basin. '"I he southeastern quarter of GilchrL t County is partially drained by the \V c casa. a River. The "Testen t\vo-thild. of Dixie County i. drained by the Steinhatchee River, and by numerous smaller streams, of \Vhich hired Creek is the most in1portant. PIEZO lETRIC URF CE The effect of surface drainage of the Suv..rannee and Santa Fe on the piezometric surface of the Floridar1 aquif r is in figure 6. The piezometric contours represent the approxin1ate height, in feet, above mean sea leYel of tatic \Vater level s in tightly cased \Yells that penetrate the aquifer. The configurations of the contour. are controlled by petmeabiHty as \Yell as the recharge and discharge atea .. I n areas 'vhere the rivers flO\V over impermeable deposits, such as clays and silt, that ov rlie the lime .. tones of the aquifer, the up str,eam bending of the piezometric contours L absent. Ho\vevet, 'vhe1c piezometri c contour s d o parallel the rivers by b en ding up stream, the Hmestones o:L the aqniofer arc close to the surfaee. The bending upstream of t h e contours indicates leakage of g r ound \vater into the rivers. In t h ese a reas t h e river. act as drains and t h e flo"T of the rivers is sustained by ground-\vater flo\v from the aquifer to the The contour. paraHe1 the Su wannee River as far u pstrean1 a llamiJton County, and the Sanle Fe River as far upstream as southeastern Colun1bia County. A compat""ison of contoul' configurations a.long the with the geology of the ba in, ho\\ T n on figure 7, re\'caL their cJose corre pondcnce \\ 'ith the exposure of t h e limestones of the aquifer U'V RJ\ 'ER DISCllARGE R ecords of stream discha1'gc of the Su,vannee River for the 15-year period imtncdiately preceding 195 0 taken at Rock Bluff', how that on the a ve rage April is the month of maximum di s charge, as sho \vn on table 8. Figure 8 is a photograph of the U. S. Geo l ogica l Sur vey gaging station at Rock B]u IT taken August 7, 1950, \vhen the gage read 5 .6 feet at \Yater leYel. The n1aximum observ, ed disclutrge at Rock Bluff occurre d on Ap1il 13, 1948. \vhen the stream stage \Va. 27 .43 feet above mean sea level. On t hi s date stream discharge

PAGE 28

18 Bt:LT.aET T N -0. 49 of J.Jiexico I \ ... I \NASSAU i EXPLANATIO N 10 0 10 20 30 40Miles Ei-:r IOCA LA GROUp O J H IER FORMATIONS CONT,OUR I NTER.VAL 10 FEET Da1um 1$; mean sea le_.el F.igu 1,.., 'i. p or Hte Floticltt portion of 1 he Rn\'\'nnnf!t' H i''f't dr:linnf.!:C' bm:in with ('tmmur of Llw Flcwidlm i t cluif(lon the outcropping fontilation ( afte1 IIealy, ]9..,2) \Vas at the rate of 82,300 cubic feet per second, compared to the average discharge l"ate of 14.,112 cubic feet per second for the month of l\ pril. Approximate]y 90 percent of the st1eam <"Lt Roc k Bluff ]s derived from the Florida port. ion of the diaina ge basin, including the Okefenoke e s,vamp The othel" 1 0 percent is contdbuted by the S(lrnta Fe River area, -vvhich covers

PAGE 29

1 1-\" I .. ,lu 1 -

PAGE 30

20 B 49 l'igurc 8 . uwanne Ri at Rot:k B l u ff, F luri11.la til w wi ng f h P 950 square miles, and i n c ludes the relatively high central portion of Florida in Union a.nd counties. 1,able 9 gives the mean month]y and annual discharge at a recorder located in Sec 29, TlOS, R14E, on the left bank about 400 feet downstream ft'om Fot't Fanning Bridge at U. S. 191 ovel" the Su-vvannee. Figure 9 sho\N"s the mean flo\ of the Suwannee River at Branford for a 30-year pet"iod SANTA FE RIVER DISCHARGE Stream discharge records of the Santa Fe Rive1 .. fol'' a 20month period preoeeding 1950, t aken near Fort White, shov v that March is the month of maxim u1n and June i s the n1onth of minimum discharge. Table 10 gives the mean 1nonthly a n d annual discharge at a recorder in Sec. 28, T781 R16E, 5 1nHes south of Fort vVhite. STEINHATCIIEE RIV E R DISCH A RGE discharge 1ecords of t h e Steinhatc h e e River, s even tenths of a. mHe south of Clara, Dixie County, from Octobet" 1950 and Septembel" 19 6 5, a t e given in table 11. The maximl l m d i s charge, 4,320 cubic feet per second, \Vas recorded on October 4,. 195 7.

PAGE 31

9 E r !! b lar r ] JIJl 1 1 l 13l 11 3 0 12 !01. ll ,30 g ,1.61] ,:J I) . -;f ( rCun 21 ,4-o 19 0 :33.eao 32 1 fn.n i

PAGE 32

22 B LLETlN No. 49 196 0 1 961 0 J F M A M J J ASON 0 l igure 9 1\Jon l hI) lfHa n How of :--:.n w:mnop. H'iYf!l' af Bmnfmcl, Flm icla X m m a l ( ml"rliml) r .... pr. ri orl ( d a i a f t O lll u.,:-;, G ololli f'.ill ) PRINGS Eleven named spring occur in Gilchrist County, of empty into the Sante Fe River and St!ven into the su,vannee Rivel. A 11 of these spings are Jocated within a fe\v hund1ed feet of the banks of these riYers. Turbulent boiiR occur h1 a number of in th beds of the t,,.o ri\ers \vhich a r e attributed to subchanne1 flovv. The spl'ings and boih" iRsue from 1n the and the pteHence of st1eams. Rock Bluff Spring, sho\vn in figure 1 0, typifieg the spring. of l'Hchrist County. Its 'atet is translucent and reflects the eypre gro\Ying along the banks. Schools of mulJet svvim up fron1 the Gulf to feed along its sandy bottom. The deepest part of the spring is about 25 feet, \vhere \ Vater i. sue from a channel i n the Crystal Rivet Fo1mation. The fio\v of this pring on June 4, 1952, cal cula t ed at 25 cubic feci per second. The rates of flovv of several other in Gilchrist County a1e estimated in table 12. Figures 11, 12, 13 and 14 sho\v Yari ou: i-\prings in the area.

PAGE 33

Jan. ( 1.63 ,tlr'tdO 1 6u0 6 888 943 1 1 07.) ] 1634: l 1 7 2 .. l. ,Ct:t 1 ,1 1 a.4a5 l 1147 1 1 92 liQ 1 12H'J I' ... I iJ.O ] t-7a l.,43.1l I !12 1,1:30 1 ,02 3 885 67 72R lo.1 ] ,833 1 .. d L I 1 .. )l'.l ... n 1 93:3 ]j ,(. I lABILE 10. J'eb !'.far 1 QOO 2 2 itt 0 773 j aJiiYi 2,359 1 097 g3s 1 11, 1 7 0 2 75 9. l a 7 3 1,{1 2 1 I 10 1 11"'2 ,{i6S 1 .111 111;){J 1 ,2 1 I ob i.JiO I .)9 1 1 3 I.R !40 971 1]84 2 1163 3 1 ] 5 1 ,.13613 gg 1 .,124 1 I 2.,080 L .. \RLY 0 Ju .. l ,f-60 1 3QJ N fn m I ob .. 1 .,350 922 76.2 1 I 11.( 1 ..,. ......... 1 i rn l J I ; 1 1 I 85 l I l.!tJ:i I J 1,01{1 1 77 1 2 ,fi8'';i I 11 j f1102 1 I J ,042 1 1 2 li 7 3 S fi3fi 1 .,6 ]:-i r"J l .1 v.J 1 rl&a 1,.3 0 Ht 1 !13 2 2 8 l 1 fJ;f41 :i 131 I ,OH4 1 2T5 1 .. r 1 0 J ,J 74. USA 1 .,(}11..15 1,101 Q-ta 21.20 1 7 1 i) It 1 1 4 (j 1 1 !i 'QQ 1 ,.10 i 1 1 :RU 3Q 67g 21()Hf.i 1 4,0JJ3 I I it.iO ] .,3ft! l 708 1,308 N 7 1 1 , 1 0 ,:171) -nl l 1,1 2 1 I ,106 1., 09 1 J2A:i 2 029 1 11794 '!;lti2 1 ) 1 2 1 ,097 2 ] JH2 I ,70.0 I 1,illR 1 ,tlfj6 92 I ,tl 1 tuo 82 &la 1 3741 r 1 ,n :J n ,,_. ... 2 ,2.1') l C i O 'tj1.i: l .1 1 I C ..t\ltGE FLORID. Oat FE Nov 1 .000 2, 60 I ,1;)70 D 0 1 ,{1:2(1 1 121 I 1 8(1 I ,1 ) 1 ,5!j8 1, .53 91 3 29.S ] ... !i 136 2'. 283 1 ,09,.,. ] ,71 s 3 840 2' ,J)li'5 1 .9'" 2 .. 1126.6 963 1 '1! ,. 5 712 l .1 1 5 1 ,1'9 1 J Hl 2 .. 03ll 2 1 gs .. .. Dec 970 1 .. 6 1 u 1 J nnu.o.l

PAGE 34

.. L 11 0 y D RG F T E 0 C I Y FLOR D

PAGE 35

OF DIXIE AND GrLcrrnrsT 25 10. Ruek Bluff ( CounryJ ll'lorion T h e follow ing discharge rneasu ren1ents of some springs in GHch1ist County are r eported in F]orida Geo1ogical Survey Bul letin 31, a11 d i n the \ Vater Survey and Resea1 ch Puper No. 1 2 Blu( Iiart pl'in g Lun1her Can1 p Otte Spring F ln\Y in Cubic F'PPt, per 4tH 62.1 40 58.6 2.96 5.00 5.43 42.1 J)ute 9, 1 1 ) l uy 12'.1'932 )day 14, 1 932 .July 241 1946 J\lny 12. 1932 ) f arch ] LjJ )\fay 12, 1 932 l)'(' 8, 1942'

PAGE 36

26 B {' LL .. N 49 During l ow :tlo'Y of AprB and 1\'Iay 1 9S6, discharge of Rock Bluff 'vas 23 8 on April 28, and 25 . 0 on TARLE 12. ES'l'I l\1ATED RA'fE OF OF SELEC'l'ED lN GTLCRRIS'l, NTY (B' Y Y R. Of;.LF.SRY) BJno T ily 1 n 0 I ttr R1u i nrtto. J{rl('k liluJT ::::prim!R Aiku L u JJ1l1cr f'f u 11 p D!o!'( l'lvw i n f'11h1c Ff't ,:w., IJIIC l 73 ,);'i 3 0 21i 2.'j :\ hw -1 .\larch 311 7\brcl :lU 1 .Jun'e 4 .han .. 4 .T,!flc a Figure 11. Hart Springs, G.ikhri::;t Cou.uty1 Florilla.

PAGE 37

( w L )JXJE A:.;D C1ILCHll1:8T 27 F igure 12. Oid Town Springs, Dixie Floridn. Fignre 13. J.H"lngs, Cmmi.y, Ji'lorid a

PAGE 38

28 Kl L.LETJ;..: Xo. FiA. n ll. r rail rnng", 136 C'm mry. F1orida. Aprll 19 and of flo'v at Hart Spl'ing 58.6 011 Apl"il 27, (Pride and rooks, 1962. p. 52). On the 'vest bank of the U\vannee River jn Dixie County. there arc small springs occulTing at the bank of the river, but they had no appreciable of thei r O\Yn. theiJ fJO\V was not measured. Several of the in Dixie and counti es desc1ibed in Bulletin No. 31 of the Florida Su1vey, 1947. The desciptions include a photograph of Rock Bluff Spring and a \Vater analysis of Hart pring, reproduced as tables 13 and 14.

PAGE 39

GwLOC Y O F D1xJB AND (1ILCHHL::iT TABLE 13 '\VATER ANALYSI OF HART SPRINGS GILCHRIST COU TY, FLORID J > a to .. r collection 1 11 1, 1 a a e 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 J n1n (1-'ej ........ ........... .... . . a lf'iu u 1 (Ca.) ... ....... ...... .... ... .. lttm (Mg) ............... .... ... t:Sotluun (X O.J; . . .... , .,, ( [\) . . . . .:;,:.w 67.00 4:.80 2.00 u. fi() JHc Lrbuwt ( U COs) .............. ..... 208.00 flulfa t e (SO. ) . .............. ...... llalonr ... (('I) ... ...... , , lluoride (.li) ....... ............... Nitrnte (::\0,) ......................... 12.00 SCJ O tXJ 2.3() DLi!!ol \'t!d olul!< ....... ............... 200.00 Total llB rtlm'l!-"1 IS.'J . ............ . CiLrhon Dioxid e (C{h) ................. Color ...... .... ............. .... ... pli . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... (K X lOS at 25 .. C ) u( t lurid!\; noridf\ GeoL Suncy BulL :j.! r. Htt ** P r i d e J n d (' rook.t, 1002, p 63 I A H.OO 1 7 410 u.OO 7.30 3fi,50 SOLUTION FEATURF.S I ARY A 1 il 27. 11J:iG** (low ClO\\) fi.3 t J 0 6.4 2.-1 0.1 :.!l)l 1 CJ 10.0 !LO 0.2 U,H 190.0 190 1 0 0 7.9 3.J3.0 29 solution of carbonate rock is controlled by fluctuations, topography, rock solubility, l"elative permeabiJity of the sediments, rainfall, plant decay and bacterial action (which furnishes CO:! to the ground-air) plus C02 of the atmosphere, and finally, temperature and pressure \vhich control the an1ount of C02 that meteoric V\7ater s can absorb. Factors vvhich influence the .form that 1o1ution features may assume include non-homogeneity of rocks, joints bedding planes, dipping beds, faults and The availability of abra s ive agents, s uch as quartz sand, may modify the final form of solution features. Solution features are initiated at or nea1 the vvater table, in the vadose zone. They ate usually modifted by normal seasonal fluctuations o f the \vater So1ution features of Florida in dude 1) common sinks or sink hol es, 2) funnel sinks and natural "\ells, 3) solution 4) sjnk-hol e J akes, 5 ) underground rivers, 6) springs, 7) cave s and 8) karrenfelds. COlf[M:O SI.llKS AND SINK-HOLE LAKES The pterequis ites to the {ormati on of sink holes include carbonate rock, which extends above the \Yater table, and rainfall

PAGE 41

GEOLOOY OF L1IXI. GIJ.CHRISl' 31 Cha.rged \ V ith Or SOme Other natu1al acids. The limestones of Dixie and Gilchri t counties are pe1meahle and porous, bioclastic, Upper Eocene rocks of the Inglis Formation, 'Yilliston Formation and rystal River Formation (the Oca]a Group), and older ediments. E levations i n Gi1chl'ist County range from approximately 10 feet on the vvest, near the SLnvannee River', to mo1e than 100 feet u bove sea level on the near the AJachua-Gilchrist County line. The piezometric contours range from less than 10 :feet at the tnvannee River to slightly above 0 feet at the eastel'D margin of Gilchrist County. The Chiefland Limestone Plain, the Suwannee River -valley Lo,vlands and a portion of the Brooksville Ridg and High Spring Gap lack cover above the 1ime to11e interval of the Ocala In the Y.Vaca5'1assa Flats area, ]ime stoncs of the Ocala Group are by c]ay silt, sandy and phosphorite of the A1achua Formation ..... >'\. number oi shallo\v lakes are located in the vYaca. Flat of Gilchrist ounty. These lakes arc perched above the l'egional piezometric surface of the county. The limestone aquifer crops out, or is overlain by a thin of Pleistocene and erratic chLy on tht'ee sides of the vVaca.sassa Flats. ln Dixie County, the same solubl e limestones arc present at tho surface or are overlain by an even thinner cover of loose Plei tocene sand There is a 1 o an appreciab]e amount of dolomitic limestone, of Upper Eocene .l\ge, along the coastal and \Veste1n margins of Dixie County. Clay or other impervious man tle is nonexistent above the bed-tock of Dixie Counly Topographic quadrangles of the U. S. Geological Survey, covering mo'"'t of Dixie County, eli close hat Jake surfaces sho,vn on the Cros ity Ea t and \\'amp E. quadrangles o incide \\Tith the regional \Vater table, \Vhich ranges up to 58 feet above 1eve1,. near the Lafayette County line. E levation. of the sand hiHocks are onJy a few :feet higher, ranging bc t"veen 60 and 65 feet. This near coincidence of the land surface and the water table is confirmed by the '\Vater levels standing in borro'v pit along State High,vay 357, from north\vard to La fayette County. Elevation along this stretch of road range 39 and 42 feet, tho \Vater level of the borro'\v pits ranges bet"\\Teen 37 and 39 feet, as sho"'rn on the topographic gheet de .. ignated l\ia11ory s,vamp '\V. .. ivc field \York in Dixie ounty revealed only even rather shallo\v dry sink holes in the county. All of these 'vere

PAGE 42

32 Bur.LmTX No. 49 located 'vithin a 1lh mi1e l"adi us, c ,entel'ing along the comrnon line between Sections 9 and 16, T9S, Rl 3E, approximately 5 miles \Vest of the Suwannee River, and 8 miles south of the DixieLafayette County line. This area is included on the topographic quadrangle Cross City East, \v here the elevations range benveen 45 and 50 feet, and the "Yvater table, as shown at Cow Ponds in Sec.. 9, T9S, R13E, stands at slighUy be low 40 feet. The Crystal }{ iver Formation crops Qut in the area and stood appl oxilllll.tely 8 ot 10 feet above the water table at the time of mapping. The 1najority of lakes and ponds of this portion of Dixie County 'vere probably formed by an increase in the height of \Vater table, which occurred after solution had progressed to an early stage of karst development. FUNNEL SINKS AND NATURAL \VELLS Figure 15-A B, and C illustrate the development of a funnel sink, in this case a unatural well because its funnel penetrates the wate1 table. The ground elevation at the sink, by aneroid barometer reading, is 40lh f ,eet above sea level. The top of the Crystal Rive1ro Fcnwation Hes 5lj2 feet be low a layer of sand (Pam lice Terrace). The "'rater level stood at 26 feet belo"v ground level, or 14lh feet above mean sea l eve l when the ( sho\vn i n figure 15-A, B and C -vvere taken) Figure 1 5-A is a photograph of the incipient sink taken July 7, 1950, aftet a 12-hour rain. Steady rains occurred again on the evening of JuJy 7 and during the follovving day. Figures 15-B and 15C photographs taken on July 9, after the bridge of sand had collapsed. The smooth ci1cular base of the natural sho\:vn in ftgure 15-B extended beneath the water table as of July 9, 1950. lf this feature had hy so1ution alone, it \Voulrl be difficult to ex plain its c ircu]ar regularity, which cuts ac1oss fossil shells pro truding from the \Ivan, as evenly as it does across the i.neluding matrix of limestone. The sink is located on the Sheppard Farm in the NE/ 4 of Section 21, TlOS, R14E, on the Chiefland Limestone Plain. It is one of approximately 70 sinks in this physiographic province from Vv'"hich sampl es were collected. The P leistocene sand very probably furnished the cutting edge to the xa i n wate r which do"vn to the underlying When a joint or c rack in the limestone became e n larged by solution, percolation increased to .free flo\ down,vard to the \ Vater table, carrying sand i n the eddying swirl imparted to it in ac-

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G t; OL Oli Y O l '\n GTLCHRisr 33 IIi. Dcv clopmt m ll r !1. t"ihk at 9 I lwppa nl 11" Fal'JII I ..... L Coun r l'lo r icl:t .-\-lrH'tfla t nr i n t hr l r,nrnl Hi\ e r F o rmation ; H--\ 'if w dow11 ll:t L1Ha 1 w t ll ; I u ra l "t-11. mr fae! n f w:ltr 1:LI)lc :..16 fe-et. bPI ow l-
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34 BuLLETIN No. 49 The diameter of funne 1 sinks in Gilchrist County ranges from [ess than 1 foot to about 10 feet. No funnel sinks \Verc fount\ in Dixie County. SOLUTION PIP'ES \Ter11011 (19151, p. 44) described tubes only a fewT inches in diameter,. in some eases, that extended 100 feet do'\v-nwatd in the limestone as solution pipes ot wens. fie attributed their to s\virling ''r atel', moving up"'r a.rd under artesian pres \1\rhich caused their so]ution. Bisected shells also occul' in smooth tubes in Springs (Vernon, 1967, personal cation). o so]ution pipes found in Dixie or Gilehi'ist counties. UNDERGROUND IDVERS 1.,he Steinhatchee River, the boundary of Dixie County \Vith !Taylor County, U. S. Ri'gh\vay 1'9 where its course is underground, as sho\vn on U. S. Geological Survey topographic map of the Clara Quadrangle. ,.1 he course of the stream extends for about 1 mHe in Sections 15, 21, and 22, TSS, RlOE, near Tennille. As the map sytnbols indieate, the stt'eam is except fo1_, the one-mHe stl'etch V1hetc an int{3rmittent surface stream carries drainage during the rainy season The entrance to the undergTound channel \vas examined during the rainy season \Vhen it was not possible to inside the tunnel. At a gaging station, mai ntaiued by the U. S+ Geologica] Survey, about 2 mile upstrean1 in Section 16, TSS, RlOE, m i nin1um vvater height was 10.28 feet above sea level in June, 1'950,. and June, 1'955. The n1aximum flood stage recorded was 26.7 4 feet on September 13, 1964. 1.,he a stream flo\v at this station \Vas 328 e.f.s. the period of 195 0-1964. The elevation O'f the entrance of the underground portion of the stream is bet,veen the 10 and 15-foot contours, and where it e1nerges downstream the elevation is betvveen the 5 and 10-foot contouts. 'l he '\Vater level in a pond 1;4 mile to the east of the downstrean1 end of the under ground portion stood at H feet, '\V hen data was taken to the topographic sheet. The Steinhat chee appears to be a. consequent stl'eam \Vhich de veloped no earlier than the Late "\Visconsin glacial stage, immediately preceding the present interglacial stage. This is indicated by the Pamlico forn1ed during the Peorian interglacial stage, which stood at 25 to 80 feet above sea leveL

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.,. 35 The Steinhatchee River banks do not rise above the 20-foot eontour level. The dis-sected Pamlico Terraoe scarp approximates t h e 25foot co n tou r, as sho\o\'n on topographic sheets entitled Clara, Jena, and Steinhatchee. Also on thes, e sheets is the outline of the Steinhatchee I-tivc.r valley from its source in Lafayette County, almost to its point of discharge, in the Gulf of The Pamlico Terrace must have been present before the st1 .. eam drainage dis sected it, for if the terrace dissection had occurred prior to the Sangamon interglacial stage, \vhen the 'iVieomi co 'Terrace was forn1ed at abou t 100 feet above the dissected Pamlico Ter race,. which outlines the Steinhatchee River valley, would have been destroyed by the invading sea. The subsurface d1 .. ainagc 'vhich occurs for almost a mile along tbe course of the River" near Ten11iHe, in Section 21, TSS, R lOE, hly subsequent to the development of the present stream channel. It to the course a:f the intel .. mittent stream channel. The fact that this section of subsur face drainage exists, ]ndica.t es a ]o,ver stand of the "\Vater table than that recorded in modern The Vilate1 .. 1evel in the river above and belo\v its undeTground poxtion ranges betvv ,een 9 and 15 feet7 \.Vhich represents t h e conten1poraneous water table. vVhere a jl stream flo\vs at the ]eve l of a water table in po1ous lirnest one it may not form a submerged cavern, the interstices in the rock underlying its bed are already fiHed -vvith \Vater; h o,vever, it may soJ ut i on by the of the stream \vater, which js charged with CQ:! and the interstitia} VvateT. If the present interglacial stage continues to melt the polar ice caps. the attendant rise in sea leve l, -vvill lead to an increased height O f the vtate1 table in Florida. The intermittent stream above the underground drainage of the Steinhatchee River may become a permanent surface stl"'ean1. Solution plus erosion c wou l d eventually breach the cavern roof of the submerged pottion of the stream, thus resulting in a deep ened stretch of the stream bed. Subsequently, if sea rose until this portion of the Steinhatchee Rive1 valley "\-Vas flooded, the rec ord o the once existing subsurface stream could be traced by a sediment-filled channel \vhich had been initiated as a solution feature in the su rtounding limestone. On the other hand if the present trend of rising sea level should be reversed, the attendant dl ... op in the \Vater table Vlou l d xesult in corrasion and so]ution of the floor of the submerged section of the stream, leaving a cavern with a stream flowing through it. A change i n course of the river bed \vould leave a d:ry cave.

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36 BuLLETIN No. 49 SPRlNGS 'The pltysica] chaTacteristics of the springs of Dixie and Gilchrist counties are descl"ibed in a preceding section, and in Bulletin No. 31, 1947, of the Flol"ida Geological Survey. \VELL AND OU 'l,CROP N i l\fBERlNG Tne well and outcrop numbering system used in this report is based on the location of the well or outcrop and uses the rectangular system of section, township and :range for identification. The \v e il or OLttcrop number consists of six parts : W for o1 L for outcrop, county abbreviations, the quarterj q uart)er location 1rvithin the section, the section, township and range. The basic rectangle is the township \Vhich is 6 miles squat"e. It is consecutive1y numbered by both north and south of the F1orida base line and is also numbered east and '\Vest of the principal meridian. In the present numbel"ing system the T 1-viH be left off the township number and the R off the range numbe1. Each township is divided equaUy into 36 squaxes 'vith the quarters being labeled 'a" through ud" as shown on figure 1. In tur11, each of these qu.a:rters are divided into quarters 'vith these labe]ed Ha" thtough ud.'' 'Vhen there is more than one or outcrop in a q ua1ter/ quarter section they are identified by a sixth number at the end of the fifth unit. The abbreviation used for counties in this report are Dx for Dixie, and Gr for Gilchrist. Since. this report was already in manuscript stage 'vhen the above mentioned numb@ring system 'vas adopted by the Florida Survey, the new numbe14ing system appears in paven thesis after each l ocation. PHYSIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION The sediments in the area of this study compose a pat't of the Coastal Plain Pl'"ovince (Fenneman, 1'938, p. 65-68) The physiog raph y in and G ilchrist counties can be subdivided into two categories of the four subdivisions erected by Vel'no n p. namely the Terraced Coasta] Lovv-lands and Riv,er Valley L "o"\v lands, sho-vvn on figure 16. Puri and 1 ,f,ernon (1964, p . 12) changed the tel"m Terraced Coastal Lowlands to Gu l f Coasta l Lowlands, vvbich usage :is followed in this 1eporl.

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.. OGY O F DIXI E AND GILCHRIST GULF LO"\VLANDS The Gulf Coastal Lo'\vlands of the counties unde1 study begin at the coastline in Dixie County and extend eastward to the eastern extremity of Gilchrist County. However,. within these boundaries al"'e found the River ,raney rrhe Gulf Coastal Lo\vlands in Dixie and Gi1christ counties consist of three Pleisto cene surfaces and shorelines and the coast and su hn1arine p]ajn off tl1e modern coast of Dixie County. The math1e surfaces, begin ning with the oldest, are caUed 'iVicomico, Pamlico,. and Bluff. MODERN COAST AND SUBMARINE PLAIN The coast]ine of Dixie County is a part of a lo'v energy coast foxmed on a partly drowned lin1estone plateau peninsula (Price, 1956). It is marshy and quite irregular \vith many islets lying jus t off shore. 1\[any creeks, of various lengths, O l r:iginate at the inner boundary of the marshland and fiovv in meandering channels to1..vard the Gulf. the of the field work, the writers atternpted to travel these streams by boat. How ever1 the .at the mouths of the creeks 'vas very sha1lo\v and trave l on many of the creeks vva.s confined to periods of high tide. It s ho uJd also be noted that the ereeks and the Steinhatchee and Strt,vannee rivers carry very little sediment to be deposited in the coastal The coastal waters off Dixie County a r e shallO\. The 1 -f'athon1 contour sho,vn on nautical charts 125 9 and 1 260 Jies 1 to 5 offshore; the contour is about 25 miles from shore, in dicating a slope slightly in of 1 foot pe1 mile. Within a mile offshore, at lo\v tide, it is not unusual to encounte1 "\Vaters t j oo shallow to f loat an ordinary skiff. Price (1956) remarked that \aves m ,oving across such a gently s]oping bottom be come and lose mos t of their energy before reaching the Consequently, as the V\" aves reach the shore they are too 'veak to form a line of bteakers, whieh in turn wou]d f orm wave-eut beaches. The lack of \:Vave action near shore also a longshore current from forming. Consequently this factor along with the lack of available sediments is the reason the original or present]y forming sho1eline irregularities are not obscured. Lying just off the coast a.t Horseshoe Point are sevetal irregu ... larly shaped is lands Which 'Vhite, re1non and Puti (in prepara-

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38 BuLLCTlX No. 49 F i .!.W rr 17. Partiall y cl11n1 otT I ''P ro "I ar P oiur. tion) believe are partially dYo\vned U-shaped dunest sho\Vll in figure 17. ShaHow mud-covered banks occur near the river n1ouths, not onJy at the Su\v .annee and Stei:nhatchee, Lut also near the mouths of numerous small strc.ams into the Gulf of Mexico bet\veen these rivers. In stretches between river mouths, bare rock and rock ,v -ith a thin sand cover crop out. Sandbars and oyster Rhoals are cattered along the coastal region. Ho\vever, the bars tend to accumulate across or near the n1ouths of :rivers and COASTAL The oa tal S"\vamp of Dixie County are from 1 to 3 mile they consist of muds and silts '\:vhich suppo1t a gro,vth of marsh grasses. lfovlevcr, occasionally there are barren stretches whc1e rock i:; exposed. Reentrants of the consta] marshes extend up the mouths of streams and mergo \Vitl tbe alluvial flats, that border the strcan1 channels. These m:ushes are very easily discernible on aerial photographs of the region.

PAGE 49

GEOT..QGY OF DlXl AXD G ILCHRlb'f 39 SJI,JVER RLUFF TER tACE AND SHORELINE The Silver Blutr Shoreline was named for a v.rave-cut notch at Silver Bluff nea--Biscayne Bay at Miami, Florida (Cooke, 1945, p. 248). The notch occurs at an elevation oi 5 feet. 1\{acNeil (1950, p. 04) extended t h e Silver B luff Shoreline to other parts of Flotida and to north Georgia.. H e considered that an e1,evati on of 10 feet marked the toe of the Silver Bluff scarp. Across the Steinhatchee River, in T 'ay1or County, the Silver Bluff strand line may be represented by a 15-to 25-foot escarpment whose toe occurs a t the 10-foot contour line. Although the escarpmen t is not as conspicuous in D ixie County, it is d is cerni ble, and the 10-foot contour line wj11 be used to matk the strand line of the Silver Blu rr sea. The gentl e slope O f the Silver Bluff sea bottom and the poorly developed escarpment leads to the conclusion that the Silver Bluff sea bottom and coast may have been subjected to the same marine environment as the modern, dro\vncd. karst region and l ow energy coast. Ffhe features, shown on :figure 16, facing the coast near the mouth of the Steinhatchee R i v er may dune development. T h e width of the Bluff p1ain is 3 to 6 miles, excep t in the em bayed areas of the Steinhatchee and Suwannee 1ivers 'vhere it is vtjder. An extensive dolomite s h elf, 'vhich forms a part of the Silver Bluff surface, crops out at an e levation near sea level and gradually slopes up\vard to t h e Billy Bo\vlegs Road to an elevation of 6 feet. On t h e Steinhatchee River, the doJomite bench c1ops out at 10 feet and makes a small fan. South of the Billy Bov;rlegs Road, a thin veneer of sand occurs on top of the shelf in some places. Inland from the coastal marshes are generall y flat sand areas t hat suppor t palmettos, cabbage palms, and pine trees. PAMLICO TERRACE AND SIIOHELJNE The Pamlico seas formed a poorl y developed escarpment in Dixie County, sho,vn in figure 18t but in Citrus and Levy counties to the southeast and in other parts of Florida a definite Pam 1 i co shorelin e, at the e levation of 25 feet, has been recognized (Vernon, 1951,. pp. 22; 23). The absence of a \Veil defined 'vave-cut escarpment in Dixie County and the gentle slo p e of the Pan1lico sea botto1n (fig. 18) to,vard the Silver Bluff strand line, indicates that the Pamlico coast was probably subjected to t h e same marine conditions that 'verc prevalent during the Silver B l uff encroachment and also on

PAGE 50

40 B ULLETL\ f.J. 49 t h e p resent day coast. The sand hills that occ:ur near the n1outh of lhc reentrant luea of the Su\:vannee River may bars formed during Pamli co time. A b elt of sand hill s beginning just east of the town of sho\vn in figure 19, and continuing north\vard for approximately 15 mi1es nave the appearance of U dunes. The Pamlico marine plain inc l udes all t h at. area lying bct\veen the 10-and 25-foot contour Hncs. The surface gently slopes t ov.r ard t h e pr es ent coastlhte and is approx imately 6 miles wide. Loca11y, limestone shel ves a r e p1esent \Vith littl e o r no sand but generall y t h e Pamlico surface is composed of sand. The composition of t h e Pamlico deposits, a. previously mentioned, is, for the most p a rt, sand. The plain is, i n par t, poorl y

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GEOLOCY OJ<' AXD G tLCURI .... T 41 Figur e 19. of D mw UPar E ugr>UP un 27. drained and support s a l us h vegetation such as palmettos, cabbage palms and grasses. Ho\vever, n1uch of the surface a hamn1oc k area and, because of better drah1age supports a good stand of hard\vood tim b e t \VI<' OMI C O TRRR E D HOI{ELINE The Wicomico surfa ce has b een to occur fairl y vidcly over F lorid a by Vernon, Cooke, and MacNeil, and it agree d by \\rockers that thi s shorel ine stood at 100 to 1 05 feet. Approximatel y half of Dixie County 1 ies \vithin the boundary of the "\Vicomico marine pl a in. ThiR extensive area in Dixie County s lopes south\vest" vard a nd eastv vard toward the Pamlico (fig. 16). The surface is not connected to its counterpaTt in Gilchrist County because of t h e position of t h e Su,vannee River and its val ley along the eastern side of Dixie County and the 'vest ern s id e of G ilchrist County. 1\iuch of the plain in Dixie County i s swampland. The surface a l on g the ea. tern s i de of Dixie County

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42 Of rttQTOGJAr.wtr;IC 01\' _L_ ---, LEVY L.___ COUNTY --.,__1 I _______ __J sballo\ v, sand-bottom lakes associated \vith randomly spaced sand hill that probably represent dune development during t h e Pamlico The base of the 'Vicomico escarpment, in figure 20 i readily recognizable. The e carpment forms the northern extenion of the Brooksville Ridge as dcsc1ibed by \Vhite (1958, pp. 91 0). The ba e of the escarpment in G il christ County occurs at an

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CIWLOG Y OF DIXIE A N D GILCHRIS T 43 elevation 70 to 75 feet above sea level and "vas mapped previously by Cooke p 28'9) as the Penholoway shoreline (70 feet). The concept of solution was used by White (1958, pp. 944) to explain the discrepancies in elevations of apparently related marine features and he remarked that along the Oca]a Uplift the low ering o:f the land surface has been extensive. As a.n example he cited the r e 1nnants of the highlands in the area bet\v een Gainesville and Lake Tsa]a Apopka. He (White, 1958, p. 37} stated: H. thes e high]ands a Jre most in1plausibl e in plan if they must be explained by any shoreline process. They quite obvio u sly the resu]t of a denudational process and in an area v;rhere el'Osion by surface water is weak, if not nH, the most p lausibl e conclusion is that they are high spots of a surface which has been by solutio n This conclusion poses a tht'eat to the validity of terrace mapping in this area of voluminou s solution when it is undertaken on a basis of elevation alone . .'' The preceding statement may explain similar dis-crepancies i n elevations of the base of t h e Broo1
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56 .. .. .. .. .. .. I:) '"' m c '""' C!'UI .. Jt> ') .... : 4;p .. ,.. 0 w . . .. CHi l l lUll BLLLE"rtN 1' 0 49 SECTION A.-A' SHTION B-B' I '":It SEtTIOM C -C' ,........., .............. .... n-m I.! lJ. I I [ L SECTI 0 N o -o' U H I' ""-.f>'"'!rb = : -:G -.. .,. ;r' .. u .,.,_J,.. """---- -. -..... .... : ._ P'!R smrr .. ,.. .. .. w .... --"-0 II(DlH f ... SECTION E [' ). .......... SECTIOM f r' EXPLANI ATION n PLEISTOCENE FORMATION R t V E R FORMATION WILLISTO N FORMATION I S 0 \\ FAULT L wm F l'al ._ .. ... fl 2H. G c ologic:.d t.iou. C i l chrisl County. SDJl H I 4

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,, / / .... r1L, 0 11 --,.-I IP'IDI.lliT. SC Ll .... _,. t:1 ..... ...... [:: > z 0 n ... l:!j ........ .,... 1-m

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58 BuLLETIN No. 49 sections of the outcrops of the Crystal River Fotwm.ation and the Williston Format ion in County. DIXIE COUNTY Cooke (1945, p 64) observed a large borro\v pit in the at the Steinhatchee River and reported seven oif echinoids feom this locality. App.Hn and Applin (1944 ) gave a detailed geologic log of the Florida Oil and Develop1nent Company Putnam Lumber Company No.1 well 1636, (Sec. 7, 1118, R12E), and reported the of the Tuscaloosa Formationj beds of A us tin Age, beds of Taylor Age, the Lawson the Cedar l{eys Limestone the Olds mar L imestone and the Lake City Limestone. Applin (1951) reported tbe of Paleozoic sedi mentatwy l"'Ock in three \veils. Puri (1957) examined four wells from Dixie County in tion \vith zonation of the Group. P ERA LOWER ORD OVICIAN Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been encountetwed in two in Gilchrist County and three wells in Dixie County. These sediments are parts of an extensive Paleozoic sttatum that oc cupies the northe1wn and part of the Florida Peninsula and southeastern Georgia. Table 15 summarizes the occurrence of Paleozoic 1ocks in D ixie and Gilchrist counties (data from Applin 1951) Howell and Richards 1(1949) described a spec ies of florida:ttus) from fine-grained micaceous sandstone taken at 3,668 to 3,671 feet in Dixie County, 'V -1405 ('VDx 88 14E 8). They assigned a Late Cambrian or Early age to this species. Berdan and Bridges (1951,. p. 70) studied the 232 TABLE 15. DATA ON PE PALEOZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCI S IN GILCHRIST AND DIXI E COUNTIES Dav. Oeol. Top of Total NatUJ'9 of County Well No. rnlcozoic D4'pth &!dimentK Gilchrlst W-IOOJ 3.';1:18 16n 37S3 & Glldu-iKt W-1819 3348 IS 3:360 &arnO nwo W-llH .i22A 2282 7,jl0 quarlt"j tic sandstone Dixie W-1803 .?OHJ 88 510-i PIUill.toDf! & .:ih.a] e Di:rit! W-1405 3645 .26 3671 Qutlrtz"itll"! &nd

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44 flORIDA GEOLOGICAl SURVEY I SOURCf; U.S.DEP1. Of AGiiCU(TURE Fi:Ull'f" 2L of GilC"hr1:o;t County showing :01a outlin<'s. nirlt h of mu.p i' a p p roximatelY 19 llliles. southeastward, terminating in Levy County, as shown in figure 21. Vernon ( 1 95 ,1, pp. 33-36) suggested the term "Waccasassa Fhtts" for this area,. as sho,vn in figure 22, and presented t'vo possible ex planations for their origin. One expl anHtion \vas that the "Flats17

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(;ROJ. U(.;y OF DIXIE A X D 45 }1'i guru 22. wrnnp:-: i n I h P \Yacn :1..;;;:--,n on l a l.e Highwny 40 crt.: might result from the modification of a marine Pleistocene terrace and an adjoining escarpment and the other was that they may have been once occupied by a large stream a.nd subsequently beheaded by stream capture. The stream capture occurred near ]ts confluence 'vith the Santa Fe River and Vernon considered Cow Creek, vvhich drain the northe1n part of the uFlat ," to be the reversed remnant of this ancient stream, and the '\Vacasassa River, drains the southern e:Artension of the uFlats,' in Levy County, to be the beheaded remnant. Since Vernon's ''Tork in 1951 a topographic map (fig. 20) of the ''r acasassa Flats area has been prepared vvhich reveal certain features that 'vould be very diflicult or impossible to recognize from road aerial photographs (fig. 21) or by field exami nation. Evidence obtained from the topographic map and field studies indicates a marine origin for the vVacasasRa Flats. Vernon (1951, pp. 33 -36) believed the valley extending from the Santa Fe River into Levy County 'vas too broad to have been formed by Co'v Creek, 'vhich occupies jts northern extremity. 1"he appearance of the 'Yacasassa F lats on the aerial photographs is mis1eading because the swampy condition and the presence of the misfit st:ream, Cow Creek, give the impression of a broad stteam valley. Underlying the "Flats" is a graben, sho,vn in figure 23, filled with Miocene and Pleistocene clastics that retard the do,vn percolation of water and contributes to the S'\ampy condi-

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46 K No. 49 ]. I I Ll d / IWU .A. DUmP IJ[lltf mrt !IILF D P lnT t I LnriCf !'lEI, !FTIIHF WllUSIDI! fOIIIItllU I IEHim:J 11 111.1 SEa LUEL -24-U tt.lll fEET. ttJUIEI I llrAI Sl l[I[L 'IIITlUI II ml COUNTY Figu re ZJ Coutours showintl" n:pproximatc ahitutle of l op of "\Yi llistun L onn:tl inn (rp pe r EocPnc), Gi le h r i::;.t Cmmty. tions, 7 the graben \Vas not the dominant factor in forming the topography. The fact that the g1 .. aben and the overlying ]and forms occur together is perhaps a coincidence. The topographic map sho,vs the presence of north-south trend h iHs of moderate 1,elief and a ridge trending northeast-south'vest. The map also sho,vs that Cow Creek occupies a shallow valley within the 50-foot contour and together -vvitb land surface !Jl"Ofiles

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OF DIXIE AN D GrLCIIL{J81' ._.._ ___ ' ',, \ \ \ ', r \ ', L_ ______ _::, __, ' \ \ FigUlY' 24. lnn c l m Counly. 47 ( 1 thl"ough 4, sho\vn in 24) 1 indicate that t h e elevation comes higher to the south and the valley appears t o terminate. Vernon ( 1951, pp. 33-36 ) suggested that during early Recent time a tributary to the Suvvannee River cut headvvard and captured the ancestral stream tlovving from the valley of Co\v thl'OUg'h the acaRassa F t ats. I f so, the flood pJaj n of the Santa Fe River probably would be narro,ve1 belo\\ the point of capture than above be cause of its younger age, but it is the same width. It \vould also be reasonab]e to expect the upper pottion of the Santa Fe R iver \ TaHey and the present Cow Creek VaUey to be approximately the same vvidth; howe vel', Cow Creek V a.Uey is much lvider. Based upon an interpretation of the land features described

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48 be lovv the 'v1 iters beli e ve the \Vacasa ssa Flf\ts \vere formed by mal "lne processeR. BELL RIDGE The two shaped ridges caHed Bell Ridge by White, Vernon and Puri (Puri and Vernon, 1964, p. 14) represent a barrier island that extends along the western side of the ''Flats" for a distance of approximately 20 miles northward from Trenton, vvit h the ranging b et,vcen 80 and 100 feet. In the vici nity of Re11, sand hiUs oceU1'* along the vvest side of t h e barTiet island and may have formed a part of the barrier island. These sand hiUs are underlain by solution-riddled limes t ones and because of colllapse the sand hill s sagged and becatne dh;associated i'ron1 the barrier lsJand. A salient feature cldj acent to the part of the is]and might t"ep a submerged bar formed i n the lagoon separating the bal"riel" from the coastline. Figure 25 s h o'i\ ':j State High,vay 47, near Fort on the ct'est of this feature. The sandhills along the western and southern parts of the area Figure 2S. E .:it::t1 J Jmeu t on 'tal e Hig hw ay 47 facing uorl.h.

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G1LOGY OJ:' DrxTE AND GILCHRIST 49 form a drainage divide+ to the north and east is the topographic lows in the V\T acasassa F lats. Ther e is a gentle northerly slope to the "Flats" that causes some surface drainage to Covv Creek, a tl"ibutary of the Santa Fe River. Ponds,. lakes, and dep1 essi ons occur through the Wacasassa uFlats," and lakes a 1 e more ple ntiful along the 'vestern and eastern edges of tbe alsea. CHIEFLAND L I MES TONE PLAIN Thi s term 'vas first used by Ve1non (1'951, p 25) to describe a limestone shelf associated wit h t h e '\icomico te1race. It is a flat rolli n g clastic surface lying upon eroded Eocene limestones in Levy County, and extend s into Gilchrist County The p,Jain is marked on the western edge of Gil christ and northeastern of Dixie by a fairl y flat, weH drained, sandy soil which is, extensive l y farmed. BROOKSVILLE RIDGE The sand ridge on t h e eastern edge of Gilchrist County is the north p.att of the B r ooksville R idge. The I"id ge is bound on the west by a -vveHdeftned Wicomi co whose base is 70 to 75 feet above sea level. The features .a1ong the western edge of the r j dge may represent dune deve]opment From t h e 'vestern edge of the I"idge to\vard Alachua County, the surface becomes a rolling plai n with sinkhole developme n t T h e topographic map (fig. 20) shows the surface elevation s as high as 110 feet on the of the LithologicaHy tbe ridge is compos e d of Pleistocene sands, and Miocene Alachua sediments that overlie a very ilTeguJar Eocene limestone surface. So lution of these underlying limestones has been fairly extensive and sinkholes occur along the r idge. IDGH SPRINGS GAP White,, Vernon and Puri ( Puri and 1 964 ) I in their wor k on the physiographic features of central peninsular Flori{la, mentioned a large ]o\v land t hat they caUed the \Vestern Valley At the northern end of the Western Valley a gap is present which named the High Springs Gap' A portion of this gap faHs in the northeastern part of Gi l c hrist County and is delimited o n the v.rest by the W acasassa F iats and the northern edge of the : B r ooksville

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50 ilULLETIX r\0. 49 FRACTURING The intricate fractutc pattern of :no1thern pcni nsu lar Florida \Vfl.i-i fitst depicted by \'ernon (1951, fig. 11). The fracture pattern of Dixie County is i n detail in figure These f ractures \ Vhich appear as lineations on aerial photographs \vere trac,ed from photo-mosaic indices of the t \\' O counties, published by the U. S Departn1e.nt of Agriculture. Such fractures a1e easily observed on t.hc uncorrected mosaics than on large sca le single contact prints, where profusion of detaiJ tends to obscure the faint but tone changes \Vhich may extend for many miles along a sing]e t1end. The fracttnes are visibJe to the unaided eye LAFAYETTE tl:-0 FRACTURE PATl'ERN I DIXIE CO. I .5 0 I J ) .. MILES I (. Figure 26. F!L"i\clul'e pn t.tern of Dixie Cuuuty, FloridL.L. ..... U) "" .:r u ...... 0

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GEO L OGY 01' DIXIE GILCHRIST 51 on photographs that are properly oriented. Ho\vever, by the use of a fluorescent lamp having a buHt-in mag11.if;}' .. ing lens it is possible to detect many more fractul'es than can be found by the naked eye. T h e linears mapped as figure 26 al--e almost indiscernible in the. A f1acture \as exposed in t h e Crystal Formation upon the remova. l of topsoil for a limestone qua.rry (N\ V /4, Sec. 121 T8S, R14E, Gilchrist County). The fracture vva.s filled \Vith 1"ed c l ay, its strike is aJmost due east curving to the northwest \.Vher, e it is buried under topsoil. Fractures can be seen in exposu --es of the 'Villiston Formation, near the 'vest line of Sec. 127 TllS, RlOE [locality 528 (LDx-1 lSlOE-12)] immediately south of Bo,v]egs Road, in Dixie intersecting frarctures at this locality sttike N 70Vv. and N. 45 E., and they confotm to Lhe predon1inating strike of the frac tures in the area, shown on 2;6. StTeam n1eanders on the Suwannee a11d Santa Fe rivers show at ]east partial control b fractuting . Figute 27 is a photograph of a tvvo to thr,ee-foot waterfall on the Santa Fe River. This fall is located just upstream from the bridge cont1ccth1.g t h e road from GBchrist County to Fort 1hite, in Columbia County (Sec.. 36, T6S, Gilehrist County). The strike of the fa1ls is approxi n1ate l y N. 60 E. This conforms to the fracture shO\vn on figure 26, 'vhich crosses the river at this point. Vernon ( 19,51, 1!g. 15) sho\ved the traces of the B ,ronson GTaben and the Long Pond Fault extendir1g .Lrorn Levy County into Gilchrist .and DIxie counties, l"espectivel y Fractures \\Thich are apparently lineat continuations of these faults in Dixie and Gilchrist e:ounties Faulting is po.tulat e d to explah1 the oc currence o f the Crystal Forn1ation in juxi.aposition \vith the vVilliston Formation in the southv, rest corne : r of Gilchris t County, shown on plate 1 One of the fractures shown on figure 26 corresponds to the Lottie vine Fau It vvhi ch strike s north,vest southeast i n TlOS, Rl4E, Gilchrist County. The t1aces of this :fault extend into County to the \vest and Levy County to the south. However, the portion along 'vhich offs ,etting noticeably aff, ected the surface foxmations is confined to the southwest cor-ne1 of Gi lchrist County. Such offsetting must ha 've been slight, because o nly the lo,vermost po r t ion of the Crystal Rive1 Forination, and the uppe 1most few feet of the V{i lliston Formation a r e exposed in sinks or pits along the strike of this fanlt. There is no direct fteJd evidence in support of the indireet evidence Pl", esented to sho'v faulting i n this area.

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' l'V

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53 'I he persistence of the general northvvest-southcast and nottheast-south\.vest pattern throughout the Gulf Coastal plain has long been by Gulf Coast geologists such as R J Russell and the late H N. Fisk. In localized areas, 1rvhere tectonic features s u c h as salt domes control faulting, the general fracture pattern i s modified, but in the main, it is remarkably consistent. I t is even more remarkable that these fractures can be detected on aerial even though the terrain in 'vhicb they occur is generally overlain by loose Pleistocene sediments or alluvium. T\vO inferences can be ftom the fracture patterns noted above: 1. There has been movement along the planes of these ftac tures sufficient to effect tone changes h" the soil ovc 1 bu1den. This movement may be due to eaJ,th tides, \Vh ich arc, of course, \VOr ld wide. 2. Unconsolidated sediments deposited to depths exceeding 50 feet over a previously or sHghtly faulted area would not renect the underlying pattern unless there continued post moveme11t along the sa1ne trends.* 3. Shrinkin g earth (see Russell, 1'954). $ STRUCTURE AND GEOLOGIC SETriNG and Dixie counties ai"e a pa1rt of the ,Gu11 of Mexico Sedimentary Basin consisting of southern Alabama, southern Georgi a Florida, Cuba and the Bahamas. This sedimentary basin is divided by Pressler (1947, p. 1851) into t''' o seclimenta1 y prov i noes ( orth GuJf Sedin1enb1ry Province and Florida Peninsular S,edimentary Province), separated one another by the Su\\1annee Straits. T h e N Flodda Sedimentary Provjncc con sists mainly of clastic sediments, and the South Florida Peninsu*' R. J. Ru::ssell (oral eommunica.tion) stated that this same :bacture pattern had been observed in the Amazon River Valley of Brazil. At the san1e time he expr,essed the opinion that v1l'tuany an the fra. c:turcs observable on aerial of the Gulf Coastal Plain were actually faults along which d ,egre, e of offsetting had occurred. Similarity of f"tacture patterns, on a global scale, implies crustal adjustments to worldwide stTess. Perhaps the same gntvi'tational forces which produce tides coul d affect the huge bulk of relatively weak sediments of the Gulf Coast. The rise and fall of eaTth tides might provide sufficient stress to exceed the clastic limit of the weaker 'J)Ortions of the earth,.s crust. Or lastly, it is possible that the earth's rotational llUOinentum, decreasing under forces of external gravity may, by consequent reduction of stress along the po]ar axis, form a compensating infinite series of axes of stress al,ong the equatorial plane. Dr. RusseU n1entioned an un published hypothesis of crustal stresses connected ,.vith tidal movement.

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54 la1 is by nonclastie sed i ments, predominantl y carbonates and a11hydrites. The South Florida E1nb.ayment is a .sedimentary basin in so uthetn Florida "vith its centcJ of deposition passing through Sunniland field, in CoUier County. The dominant surface structure in Florida is the Peninsular Arch which trends south-southeast and from sou lheaster n into centra 1 Flot ida. The crest of the p,eninsular A1ch is i n t h e center of northern peninsular Florida (around Union and and this forms the axis of peninsu1ar F lo1ida {Applin, 1'951, p. 3). This st1ucture topograph]caHy high during Cretaceous times, during \Vhich sedim.ents of the Cretaceous 'vere deposited around it but did not co1npletely cover it. Beds of Age (Upper 'vere deposited t h e crest of these beds and they lie Earl y Ordovician sandstone. The sttuctu r.al contoul' map,. sho1
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GEoi.OGY OF DrxiFJ A 1 0 G1 L CHRIS'L 55 Dixie and Gilchrist counties. The Bronson Graben is the most ap pal.ent structure in Gilchrist County. There is a lo'v in the north ... 'vest part of Gilchrist County that may a l so represent a graben trending east-\.vest. The LottievilJe Fault in Gilchrist County, shown on plate 1, fi:R'ures 29 and 30 is well developed at LottieviJle 'vhere \Villiston is exposed on the upthro,-..rn side of t h e fault. Its throw, b o,vever, is less than ten feet and consequentl y it is not sho,vn on figtne 28 \vhich is contoured at 10-foot intervals. lt apparently is absorbed \vithin the Crystal River Forn1ation on the Gilchrist County side of the Suvvannee River and can not be identified across the Suvvannee River in Dtxie County. ,.rh e configuration of the contou1,s in Dixie County as shown on figure 29 indicates the 'Villiston e climents may be faulted. In fact, if faulting is present, it could be an extension of the Long Pond Fault (Vernon, 1951, fig. 5) from Levy County, norlh\vestward to D ixie County. Ho\vever, sutlicient data arc not available to substantiate this. STRATIGRAPHY PREVIOUS "\VORK Out kno,vledge of the geo1ogy of ilchrist and Dixie counties has mostly been pioneered by Cooke (1929, 1945), , vho made some observations on the geology of these t\\r o counties 'vhile prepa1ing his "Geology of A generalized account of scatte1ed out crops of the various formations exposed in these counties is given by him, together with a geo logic map of the t\vo counties. GILCHRIST COUNTY Cooke (1945, p. 65) mentioned the occu1-rence of the Oeala ""limestone," ''not far below the su1face every\vhe1e in Gilchl'ist County except in the part, \vhere it is overlain by the phosphate-bearing Alachua Formation." Numerous articles by ve1tebrate paleontologists (Barbour, 194.4., 1942), on the Thomas Farm vertebrate beds, have been published. These papel''S are summarized by Olsen (1962) and an up-to-date faunal list 'vas prepared by him. Puri and Vernon (1964) published a hypothesis for the development of Thomas Farm dig in a paper summarized on p. 5. Applin (1951) noted the occurience of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in two oil wells. Puri (1957, pp. 60-65) gives five detailed

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59 feet of Pa1eozoic sediments cored from the Humble No. 1 I-tobinson well in central Levy County. These sediments consist of gray, qua.rtzitic sandstone and black, micaceous sandy shale . Linguloid brachiopods were found in the upper (bet\veen 4390 to 4424 feet) part of the section. Berdan and correlated these beds \Vith the Union Producing Company's KirkJand No. 1 well Houston County, Alabama, .iust north of the Florida-Alabama line. 'The same type of ]i thology and types of Unguloid were found in the Kirkland 'veU, \vhich also carries a rich graptolite fatma. On the basis of this graptoHte fauna, Berdan (o: p. cit.) assign e d an Early Ordovircian Age to these : rocks. No Paleozoic or igneous rocks have been enc.oun tered in either Gilchrist County Ol'" Dixie County. 1\IESOZOIC CRETACEOUS SYS 'IEM GULF SERIES The Gulf Series in Gilchrist and Dixje counties consists of fou. r distinct units. These i11 descending order are: beds of Navarro Age {La"rson Limestone), beds of Taylor Age, beds of Austin Age, and beds of Eagleford Age and 'oodbine Age consisting of the Tuscaloosa Formation and its equivalent, tbe Atkinson Formation. This section is based on studies by Aprplin and Applin (1944, 1947), Southeastern Geo l ogical Society Mesozoic Committee {19149); and v,.ernon (19,51). These workeJs have correlated the Florida Cretaceous System with that o.f the standard section of Texas. Col e (1938, 1941, 11}42, 19r 44, l '945), however, has corre lated the Florida section with that of Alabama and has extended the Alabama non1enclature to Florida. ATKINSON FOR],IATION Applin and Applin (19r44) identified the Tuscaloosa Formation in one well in Dixie County, and correlated it in part '\vith the Eagleford Shale, and in part -,vith the Woodbil1e of Texas. The uTusca.loosa Formation" in Dixie County ('\V-636} is 115 feet thick (36 26 to 3741 Subsequently, Applin and Applin (1947) refeTred Age beds to the Atkinson Formation in Florida. The Atkinson was proposed by Applin and App1in (1947, chart) Yvith a thleef, old division (upper, middle, and lower)

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60 B ULLETIN 49 for ma1'"ine shales and micaceous sands with thin s h a ley limestone beds of pre-Austin that overlie the Comanche Series in southern Alabama, Georgia, and northern Florida. The Atki1lson Formation has been divided by the Southeastern Geological Soc iety Mesozoic Committee into tvlo faunizones, faunizone "A, containing an Eagleford fauna, and faunizone '4B" containing a \\' oodbine fauna. Faunizone 'A'1 commonly conta ins, in marine shale beds, a fauna chai'"acteiistic of the EaglefOl'"d Shale of Texas and includes Planuli11 a eaglefordensts, Valvulineria inf'req1.tens, Gumbelina more1na ni, G. reu.ssi, T rochammina wickendeni, Glob igerina taeea and abundant ostracodes. Faun izone "B" contai ns, in micaceous, calcareous sands and sandy lim estones, a microfauna of the Woodbine Sand of Texas,. including Amtnobaeulites braunsteini, A . comprimatus, A. adve?:U, Amtnobacu.loides 1JlU11ttmer ae, and Trocham ?nina Taintvateri [n genera], the upper member of the Atkinson FoTmation carries a microfauna of Age and is equivalent to faunizone "A/' The middle and lower members of the Atkinson contain a "\Voodbine f.aun.a and both. of these members a.re incl uded in faunizone ''B."' Applin ( 195S) has 1 edefined the Atkinson Formation to consist of two n1embe1s, an member of Eagleford Age and a lower member of Woodbine Age consisting of the former l o\ver and middle members. Applin ( 1955 ) has described the :foraminiferal fauna of the '\Voodbine biofacies of the Atkinson Formation. 1"\he rfollo,ving assenlblage occu1s in one well in Dixie County (Sun OH Co. CrappR "A' well 1, depth 3548 to 3556 feet). Reo7Jkax deckeri Tappan Haplaphragmoides langsdalensis Applin H aploph rag n?..oides ad venus (Cushman and Applin) ag1eBtis Cushman and Applin A 1n-ntobaculites junceus Cushman and ... 1 i n A mmoba. culoides plttrnmerae Loeblich Gaudr1.Jina ... L\pplin QuinquelocuZina tnoremani Applin Trochammina 1 ain1.vcttet'i Cushman and Applin Acruliammina (Tappan) Placopsilina land:;:dalensis Applin Robulu,s munste1'i (Roemer) Lenticuli?Ul cyprina (VieatLX)

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GWLOGY OF DlXlli AXD GILCITRIST Z..l odosa?"*i.s afjinis Reuss var. Citha1ina recta (Reuss) F 'rondicutaria barwwen.sis Applin Patellina subcretacea Cushman and AleL'llnder Disco-rbis min ima Vieaux Val11ulineria injreq uens J.1or : ro"' vat". Globo rutalia cushnw.ni Morrovv Globige-rina cf. G. c retacea d'Orbigny obesa Cushman and App]in A 1'l:O'Inalin.a petita Carsey 61 The of arenaceous microfauna in this asand the lithologic cbaracter of the sediments indicate an environment oi deposition ranging fron1 very shaHow marine to estuarine and b:rackish water to weakly saline and poorly aerated wat-ers 1955). BEDS AUSTIN AGE The follo,ving facies are recognized by Applin and AppHn ( 1964, p. 1715-1716) in the beds of Austin Age: shale and sand facies (western and 11orthern shales and marl y limestone facies (centra] F l o:tida) and limestone facies Florida). The marl :fa, cies of the beds of Austin Age consist of gray to gray ma.td 'with thin streaks of limestone. Beds of Austin Age are identified in the well at a depth of 3,365? to 3 6216 feet by Applin and A .pplin (J944, p. 17 18,). BEDS OF TAYLOR AGE Sediments of Taylor Age are hard, '\vhite to cream reolored, chalky nmestor1e ,;vith thin, irregular streaks of shal e and gray marl occasionally Applin and Applin {1944) give the thickness of beds o:f Tay1or Age in Dixie County to be about 678 feet {Florida Oil and D eveJopmen t Company's Putnam Lumber No. 1 \Veil, depth 2, 683-3,365 ? ) BEDS OF NAVARRO AGE Lawson Limestone The Lawson Limestone (from S. Cosden -Lawson o. 1 \Vell, Marion County) Vlas named and dc&cribed by Applin and Ap-

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B-cLLETIN No. 49 plin ( 1944, p. 1708-1711) for a limestone facies of the Upper Cretaceous A lo\ver and an upper mem her, each 1vith a dis tinctive mierofauna, have been The upper member is a vvhite to cream colo1ed, gypsum impregnatecl crystalline calcitic limestone, \Vhich carties a tecrystallized microfauna. The upper member of the La,vson Limestone in Dixie County (FJorida Oil and D eveJopment Company's Putnam No. 1) is approximate]y 300 feet (depth 1, 8 94 to 2, 1'97) The lower n1ember is vvhite to cream co lo red, hard, chalk y limestone. Applin and Applin (1944) assigned 476 feet of sedi ment in the Putnam o. 1 "\Ve 11 1 { depth 2,197 to 2,683) to the lo\ver member. E OZOIC ERA TERTIARY SY8TE PALEO ENE SERIES CEDAR KEYS FOR}IATION The Cedar Keys Formation \Vas proposed by Cole (1' 944,. p. 27, 28) for a predominantly tan limestone that the Cretaceous carbonate sand and contains O U 'nteri Cole and Bo1elis danus Co l e in its upper portion. So this uformaUon" is rather a stage and is synonymous 'vith Midway Stage of the \vestet"TT Gulf States. The Ceda1-Keys is used here as conceived by Co l e, though late1"" investigation may indicate it contains mol--e than one lithologic unit. The sediments of the Cedar Keys in Dixie County are slig'htly ovel' 300 feet thick and "ere recognized by AppJin and Applin { 1944) at a depth of 1561 to 1894 feet in the Florida Oil and Gas Putnam Lumber o 1 well. OLDS1.IAR LI1\t1ESTONE The Eocene consisting of a s eries of zones between t h e Cedar Keys Formation and the overlying Lake C ity LimestoJle \'\rere named the Oldsmar Limestone b y Applin and AppJin (1944). Generally the formation shows abundant speci mens of Helicostegina 911ralis Barker and Gtimsdale and in Dixie County it is represented by a limestone facies \Vhich i s prevalent in northern Sediments be l onging to the O l d smar in Dixie Co unty are 500 feet thick in the Florida Oil and Develop ment Company's Putnam o 1 'veil (Applin and Applin).

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GEoLOuY DLXLE AND On. "IIRIST CLAIBOR E TJ\ ,GE LAKE CITY L1 IESTONE 63 The name City Limestone as used by Applin and Applin (1944) fo:r a limestone which underlies the Avon Park Lime-tone in pen in u lar Florida. The formation consists of a series of lithologies by Vernon (1951). In a11d Gilchrist the Lake Cicy is over feet and is by gray fossUiferous limestone, dolomite and gypsiferous dolomite. This limestone is encountered in four \ve Hs in Dixie figure 81. AVO :r PARK LI lESTO E The Avon Park Lime tone \Vas propo ed by Applin and Applin ( 1944, p. 1680, 1 6 6) for the Upper Eocene in Florida. The type is in a \veil at Avon Park Bombing Range in Polk County. T his fonnation in its type area is a c ream-col ored lime stone that contains a distinct l\fid
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64 . .... . SJtl j I ...... .. ... .. -: ......... oUT .. ; .. . 511118 t .. uu uu .., l IV1.1 mnoH a-s I :--t B u LLEl l N 4\J S:.CIJDJ A .. -= .. .. 1 I C-4!' ........... rPl-fOH .,. 4' tbtWiilil11 --F igure 31. c r oss sertion J )i x i e C u mr1y. \Vith occasional dolomite. Jn Dixie and Gilcht"ist countie s it fs 22 to 52 ieet thick. VliLLlrSTON FORMATION The formation takes its name from the bnvn of 'Yilliston, Levy County abou t 10 feet of fot"aminiferal li n l estone occurs at the type locality. Thh; nan1 e \Vas introduced by \ Ternon (1951, p. 141) as a of the 1\ioodys Branch Formation and i t later to formational rank (Puri, 1953, p. 130 ; 1957, p. 28). 'The detailed Jithologic chHracter and fauna of the foYma tion at the type locality and in other at' "eas in the state are given by Vet"non (1951) ,and Puri (1957). The 'i\ T illiston Formation is pred
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0 N 0 z w u w 1-(/) >-V) >-IE o;: Ill .:l 0 V) taJ a:: w en LoJ z w u 0 1-Cll "' _, CL I&J 2 I&J 0 0 :::f Ill u 0 Ill (/) w (.? c/) "' w X c.> ... q % u 0 % ... u ..... .. ... ..... ... 8 ::) .. ..J ... Ill It ... CL ::;) ..JI .. PAN HAND LE Unnamed Sa ad, P, al, and C l&r Slht f Bhlf fDIIIIOtlan Poa llca R>rma on 'A'ttO"'iCO Forma; o n Ollt1 cnOk .. For..,OitOn UpJ I c. .. trrt'lt-1-1 [ ICO,b I .. ........ C ellohoochee I' a' f n o 1' O 65 PENINSULA Con It mpor o n ou (or b o n 11 D d Son d Depo'l t s C aleeaehoHhte Formation AI formulon HD!flho,n IQ nomenclature rhtnt of th e C enozoic (afte r P uri a ud Y e u 10nt 1961).

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Bl x "':\To. chalk y to fine]y soft, porous, finely granular, coquinoid li mestone co n 1poscd primar ily of foraminifers and mollusk s It Cl"ops around the 'Vacasassa Flats and also occurs at vaTious dep t h s i n the subsurface. T h e formation is by the Inglis Formation and is overlain b y the Crystal R iver Forn1ation. Sediments as exposed afong t h e Santa Fe a .nd Su,vannee river s a r e shown in figure 33. r rhe \ VUliston has a11 average thickness of approxin 1at.e l y 40 feet in Gi1christ Cou nty. The Crystal Rivet Formation is missing in the c entral a n d southern parts of the \ Vaeasassa Flats, and the top oJ t h e Willist o n has been and is less than 40 feet in thickness . The top of the WiUiston in the subsurface of the '\ Vacasassa F l ats area is lower t han the t op in exposures, W"ens, and ho l es to the and to the east. In order to depict this variation grap h icall y, six cross sections, a n isometric diagranl and a structural map drawn and are sho,vn as figures 23, 28, 29 a n d .30. DISTRIBUTION Exposures of the are confin ed to the str ucturally and topographica11y h i g h e r a reas and east of t h e Bronson grab en. Figure Sl'climcnt.s of I h e \,\ 'iUi..:;lon Fmn1alion as expo.sct l c..:ollfiueuco of t h..; Snnt!\ F'c and uwanncr rivrrs,

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OF DIXIE AND G ILCHRIS T 67 The foHo\ving section, west of the Bronson graben, illustrates the typical charactei"'istics of the formation. Locality 12: lOS 14E 9 dd) Abandoned quarl""Y on C L. l\1:cPherson's farm, SE/ 4, SE/ 4, Sec. 9 TlOS, R14E, Gilchrist County. Section n1easur,ed on ,V,est Wall of Quar:ry. Bed Description Thickness (feet) Eocene Series Group '\Villiston Fot"mation Elevatio11 34 f ,eet 2 pale yello'v orange, :recrystallized, com b l\7eathering, in places a coQuina of small forami nifera, large specimens of Lepidocycl'ina oca-la1Ut ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 Lim,estone, vel""Y pale massive, almost a co -quina of Qp, e'lculinoicles 111 oodyb 'ra/ itch ensit> in places, abundant holothurian-like tubes, casts of mollusks, 0.75 2.0 Z s p., Ope1c-ulinoid e s wilco:ri, L e pidocycUna ocalana and var., mood ybratJchens is, pi11. a rensis, and O percnlinoide s ocalan(L 11.0 Total thickness -----------------------------13.75 Locality 24: (LGr lOS 14E 9 ba) .Abandoned quarry on Carl Robert's farm, shown in figul"e 34, N\V / 4 NE/ 4, Sec. 9, 'TlOS, R14E Gilchrist County .Bed Thickness Eocene Series Ocala Group Formation Elevation 36 feet 2 Limestone, very pale orange, gl"anular, \vith infre quent fo1aminifers, Ope rculinoid .e,r.; 1noodybranch eusis; tlpper patt of hed sHght l y ehalky, \vith "holothur-ians'' 1 Limestone, very pale orange, cot)uinoid, almos t entirely an Ope rculinoide s ?n.oodyb'J, anch ensis coquina (f,eet) 13.0 'vith common specimens. of !\7u1nnz.ul ite s tvilco x i -----Total thickness ------------16.0

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Q

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69 Locality 244; (LGr 9S 14E be) '\Villi e Bryant Farm, S\\T NE/ 4, Sec 9, T9S, R14E, Gilchrist County. Bed Description Thickness (feet) P1eistocene Series Elevati on 54 feet 2 Sand, 1ight brov,.rn, medium grained, quartz Eocene Scrief'; Ocala Group V\Tilliston Formation 1 Limestone, very pale orange, !:,'Tanu lar, (weathering honeycomb case hardened to,vard top, crystallized in p laces), with ''holothurians," (;lycy1neris sp. and a 3.0 few Lepidocycz.ina ocalana ---------------3 0 Tota1 thickness _ -------------------------6.0 In Dixie County, the V\Ti1liston Formation out in a belt one to e ight miJes vlidc along the coast, from the B i g Rocky Creek in the north to the 1nouth ,of the R iver in the south. The :fornuttion is mapped upstream along the S tnl\tannee River to miJc 11orth of Sunnyvale. In most the V\TiiJiston Formation occurs a:; bat"e rock or is cove 1 ed by a thin veneer of sand. Lithologically, the formation consists of pal e yello w orange, granu lai\ fllightly chalky limestones studded with molds of n1oll nsks, larger foraminifers, encrusting und echinoi dg In outcrop area, the exposures sho\v a thickneRs of up to 5 feet. The following sections in the vicil1ity of Horse. hoe Reac h and near Ro('k Cam p are chaiacteristic of the forma lion : Loculity 826. (LDx 12S lOE 14 ac) l]or cshoc Point. Limestone exposed at lo\v tide a long tbe Reach. Bed Eocene Series Ocala Group \>\fill Fol'mation Desc1iption (feet) 1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, almost a co-quina of ]arge foraminifers, L epidoC?JClina ocala.na, Pecten sp. _ 0.5 Total thiekness --____ -----------. -----.. 0.5

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70 Xo. 49 Loca1ity 829. (LDx llS 12E 24 ca) Hudson Pulp and Paper Company quarry 4.6 miles south of Cross City to,vards Horseshoe Beach on State Road S-351. 1 ake 1eft turn on graded road and continue for 5 8 miles to quarry. (Private timber road) Six shallo\v pits as of Ju]y 29 19 ,56. Dr,edging down to 10 feet below \Vater 1eveL Bed Descl .. iption (feet) Pleistocene Series 2 and, dark reddish brown, argillaceous, quartz ____ 2.0 Eocene Series Ocala Group \Villiston Formation 1 LimeRtone, very pale orange, granu1ar, slightly thaJky, \Vith n1olds and casts of mollusks and very few 1arge foraminifers {up to \Vater level) -------5.0 Tota1 thickness -------------------------------7.0 Locality 830. 118 llE 16 ab) Section exposed in a ditch, four tenths mile to,vard Rock V.f ell Camp from State High'\.vay S-351, on the property of the Rock ell Camp, NE/ 4, '\V /4, Sec. 16, TllS, R 11 E Dixie County. Bed Description Pleistocene Series 2 Sund, dark gre:Ly, medium-g.rained, quat""tz Ocala Group \\' illiston For1nation 1 Lin1estone, very pale granular, i n places a co quina of Jargc foraminifers, Lepi.docyclina ocalana and vars., and Ope rc-ulinohl e H com-mon -----------------Total thickness Thickness (feet) 2 0 2.0 4.0 Lotality 604. (LDx llS llE 26 ca) Abandoned quarry, 1:\"\V/ 4, S'V / 4, Se<-. 26, TllS, RllE, D,ixie County.

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OF DIXlE AN u GILCHRIS T 71 Bed Description Thickness (feet) Recent Series 3 Sandy loam and soil zone ________ _____ 2 Sand, very pale orange, medium-grained, quartz Eocene Series Ocala Group, Formation 1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, with very few Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., and some st1 iated 1.0 1.0 Pecten sp. ; Spond11lus sp. .. --------------------------1.0 Total thickness_ 3.0 Locality 526. (LDx llS llE 17 ad) Abandoned Jimestone pit. SE/4, SE/4, Sec. 17, Tl lS, RilE, Dixie County. Bed Description Recent Series 3 Sandy loam and soil zone ---Pleistocene Series 2 Sand, light gray, \vh ite and brown, medium -grained, quartz Eocene Series Ocala Group Wi1liston Formation 1 Limestone, pale yello"dsh orange, hard, ,,eathering conchoidal in places a coquina of OpercZJlinoides; specimens of T u rritella common -----------------Total thiekness ----------------. Thicknes (feet) 1.0 4.0 3.0 8.0 'I'he ''-'illiston F ormation occurs a.s t 'v o in the northern part of Dixie County, one around the Shamrock-Cros. City area and the other in the vicinity of Holly Hill To,ver. The following sections are representative of the City area; Locality 828. (LDx 1 OS 12E 5 ad) T\vo-tenth s mile south of Atlantic Coast L ine and U. S. High\vay 19 intersection in Sham rock o n t h e north side of the road 11ea1 the Hudson Pul p and Paper Company office, Shamrock, Dixie County.

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72 Recent Series R UtLLF.'rlX 0. 49 Descriptio11. Thickness (fe,et) 3 Sandy l oan1 and soil zone --------------------------. 50 Series 2 Sand, light bt o\vn, medium-grained, c]uartz ___________ .2 5 Eocene Series Ocala Group WiHiston Formation l L[mestone, very pale orange, granu]ar, coquina of large foraminifers, Lepidocuclina ocalana and 1 ars., and A 1nusiunt sp. common ____ __ Total thickness ---------------------------------------3. 7 5 Locality 820. (LDx lOS 12E 8 b a ) Outcrop around a pond of t h e Suwannee Lumbet Manufacturing Company. The company pumps water out of the pond and there are several canal s that feed the po n d. '\VUliston i s exposed around the pond and the cana l s that feed it, fou r-tenths mile south from U S .. Ilighvvay 19. The same limestone is exposed in canals around Bed Recent Series 3 Soil zone ----------------_ Series Thickness (feet) 0 5 2 Sand, dark gt"ay, at"gillaceous, quartz -----------------1 .0 E o cene Series Ocala Group Williston Formation 1 Limestone, ve r y pu l e oran ge, granular, soft in coquina of Nutnmulites 1noodyb1 "anchensis, .. sp. and ocalana and vars. _ 3 .0 Total thick nef;s 4 . 5 Locality 823. (LDx lOS 12E 5 da) Drainage cana] behind Shell Station on U. S. High\vay t 9 1 .7 miles from Atlantic Coast

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73 T_Jine Railroad (Shamrock) This is the best exposu r e in the area. Bed Description Recent Serie 3 Sandy loan1 and soi l zone Plei. tocene Se ries 2 Sand, grayt n1cdiun1-grained quartz Eocene O 1, Dixie County. Red Seri Ocala Croup V Villiston Formation De. cription Thickness (feet) 1 Limestone, very pale orange, granular, in places a coquina of foramin rnusiu m sp . cyclina ocalana and var.5. common ____ ____ 4.0 Total 4.0 Locality 684. (LDx lOS 12E I 0 du) Expostne near a culvert at Cross City ai tport. 0.1 mite north of airport building, N V / 4, E / 4, Sec. 10, Tl OS, R12E, D ixie County. Red Series Ocala Gtoup 'Villiston Fornlation DeHcription Thickness (feet)

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74 1 B CLLliTl2\ 49 Limestone. very pale orange, granular, vvith abundant 0 pe!'culin oide.'S ulood ub ra nell Ul is and Pect e n sp. ------------------------------------Total thickness __________ 0.5 0.5 I Jocality 685. (LDx lOS 12E 15 a a) Exposures in a canal, N' I 4, N\V / 4, Sec. 15, TlOS, Dixi e Red / Description Thickness (feet) Recent Series 3 andy Joan1 and soil zone __ Pleistocene ... eries 2 Sand, very light gray, n 1edium-grained quartz Eocene Series Ocala Group \'\7 i11 is ton Fo.rmatio' n 1 Limestone, very pale orange, 'vith casts of .50 .25 mollusks,. and L e p idoe ytllna ocalana and var. _______ 2.00 Total thickness __ 2.75 The ('ontact of the \Villiston \Vith the Crystal River is con oformable and can be seen at the follo\ving localities: Locality 586. (IJDx 9S 13E 15 ba) Abandoned N\\r / 4, NE/ 4 ec. 15, T9S, R13E, Dixi e County. Pleistocene Series 3 Sand, white, medium-gn, tined quartz _____ Eocene Series Ocala Group River Formation 2 Limestone, very pale granular, chalky_. predominantly a coquina of large foramini fers with abundant casts of moHu ks, and large speci1.0 mens of L epidocyclina ocala?ia, ted Pect e n sp. __ 3.0 \\' illiston ] ormation

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1 Lime verl,. pale orange, granulat, hard, calcitic, in place a coquina of large fof'amit1ifer ,. son1e striated Pecten p . p. .0 Total thickne s 12.0 75 LocaUty 827. 8 d r's fat 'In, '' I 13E 2 da) Abandoned pit on ... url an/4, ec. 28, 8 R13,E, Dine Bed Recent 5 Sundv loam and oil zone "' PJei tocene erie 4 .. and, light gray, fine-gtt"ai ned, oce:ne er 1e Oea[a 1Group .. l"J,. tal River F ormation Thickness (feet) 1.0 1 .3 8 rery pale orange, soft, in p[ace et coquin.a large n itl1 abundant tri.ated Pecte n sp. 3.5 2 \"er}l" pale orange, moJJuscan, ... p. and T u rrite lla sp. abundant 7.0 \\"iUiston Formation 1 Limestone, 'rery pa]e orange, almost .a coquina of targe H te1ustefllJHl oca.lan a. L epidocycliaa ocala1la and rars., molds of moHusks. This bed act ri. tic honeycon1 bed '''eathering 4.0 Total thickness 16.8 Tlhfnte are abundant in thiR pit, orne of them n1o1e than 3 feet in diameter and up to 8 :feet de p. One-tenth mile south of Jo ality 827 i. a sink ho1e \Yhere the upper part of the nbo\"'e ection is repen ed. 816. (LDx 9S 13E 16 bd)1 Qua1-r-y E /4, -. ec. Tn , RiSE, Dixie County. 1 nree-tenths mHe east from j Lltlc tion of pa 'Ted State High,vay vdth dirt l"Oad which goes to Fc.\yette ville. mile east of payed itoad.

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76 ed Thickn .. ( e t) J:e n r1 :-;, l andy loarn and oil Zl n F(nnation 2 very pal c hard .. a ('Oquina f 1 rg foran1i if Jll( tly L pldot.l li,1a o ula 1a and val:-;.. ""huh tthuria n .. '' ancl !" n1 chi.5 1.5 and a f \V riat d and .. n1t th p, t 'il. 9.0 \\ Formu.tiun 1, JJal ontng granular" in pla4. s a huge foran1 in ifl'ral oqu ina. d w ,a rfcd i nd i \'idunl: of L 'J>id(IGJJC'linu ocnln1la und nnd "holo-thnrian" tube . fill n1o. th,. \\' i t h fora111inif 2.5 Tt t:ll 13.5 H Y. T L IU \ R f ( H I Tl U. trh nun1e .-y. tal ltiv .. F orrnation \\a: propo:w; d by Puri 19:>:1 p. 1:JO) f r th 10 fe i ,f linl tone x ose d in h Hh :it He k 'ompu.ny in "nuntr. and include.' aU calcar ou: : din1ent. of Lat Eoc n g lying b 1t\\'( \\ HI i. ton F'orn1atiun u IHI the OH -rn n .. T h forrna ion i, \\' i 1th ()(u lu ( r \ of \ ( [ 9!i 1 ) 1 and 1 "11 l ppcm ala ne or AppHn aud Applin (I I p 5). D tailed on he lithnlogie ha1a Llr tttHJ fauna of he forn1:tt ion given ill Flol'idu .t oJugical I lll"\' y Bulletin o .. aa and :, 1 uri (19:"7 p ..J ) r ugniz d h:. follo\\ 'ing fauniz1 n in 1 ni n. ular Florid : \.t J'ocyli11u.-. ]Jin,lu u 1 unz faunizon unllu ul"te. a ufc toki-H('JI2 icutll t faun izon L'' 1Jid,cycli ucloph1'ClfJtil. ltl ..... ,,i,-oluealiua Ht' l l)er:,.l/l) faunizon

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77 [n Dixie and Gilchrist the 1 RiYer Fornuttion i ts of crean1 colored. oft to porou l chalky to cry .. talline lin1eston mo:;Uy of fot .. aminifet itnd echinoid .. In most of the reH in the that per1etrated the River the thickne of the formation 'va .. approxim,Lt ]y 20 feet. H
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7 B 1 LLl.TIX o 9 5 hard., grn nu lar, \\'ith mold. of ']J01ldylus p., and oth r n1ollugks 1.0 4 Lim tone, crcan1 to '"hit granular. almo ... t foranliniferal COtJuina 3.0 3 Limestone. hatd, \Vhite, chalky, \Yith abundant foraminjfcrs and n1ollu. ks; son1e of th foran1inifers and mo11u .. k are of bro\'Vni, h colo1 and are dded in \vhit chalky, matrL, 2.0 2 Lim glt"clnular, \vith some Lepi-doc y c lina sp 6.5 \\'illL ton 1 ,,hite to cream colored, cha]ky, \Vith abundant foraminifer .. and mollu ... k. ; alrno. t a fora miniferal I oquin.a in places; abundant P c t n p .. nl il sp., in lo\v r 3 feet ----7.0 Total thickn s. 27.2 Lorality 316. (L r 8 14E 13 bt) Abandoned quarry ju .. tea t of tate High\\'HY 49 '' / 4, E 4. 13, T R14E. about 2.5 miles north of R 11,1 Gilchri t ountlra Bed De .. cription Thickn (feet) R ent and PlcL tocene ries Elevation 85 feet ) -and and oil Eocene Ocula Group ,.r!' tal Formation 1 Lin1 ston v ry pale orange to wllite, chalky, mo tly a eoquinu of ltug f oraminifers, n1ainly L cpidocyclina oeo la nn and poor]y p _re er\'ed mold of moUuRks, 1.0 :om "holothurinn" tub 5; omn1on 11.5 Total 12 5 L cality 159. (LGr 9 15 31 ac} Abandoned quany, \Y/4, N\V/ 4, ec. : : n TlO Rl5E, ounty. Quurty ju:t otr east :side of road. etion n1easured on "outh ''?all of quatry

PAGE 89

Bed scription s (feet) er1c E ,l'l'ntion 50 f t 3 and and on zone Eocene r m s Ocu]a Group Ui ve r 2 Lime8tone. ''r }l[te, n1otlcrat hard. l'etrJ':-;tallized in lo\vet portion a coquina of l:_arg furaminifer ._, majnb" LtpidtJCJJcli no. oco:lruta and vur. .. strhat d 1.0 Pecl.f n p crab c]:n\r s 1.50 1 \erl'" pale to \Vhit cludky \\'ith Ol' of n1ollu. k. in place. a coquina of minif 'vith Le11icln uC'li11 ar tJcaltnur and \ 'ar H ct-ro.t fJiHa ocnla 1a 5.50 Total th 9.00 There are peato pie of cutt 1 -d 011 the floot of the Locality 193. (LGr 7 l3E 36, be) The follo\\'ing "'cction posed in a lnrg hol n "'ar edg of the road, \\I ec:. 36, T7 .. R14E, 1 Jountl' Bed De. trdption Thicknet (fe I) EJ, Vittinn 50 ,. _.l!t Ocala ;toup ... 1)1', btl Piver Fornuttion 2 Lin1e. ton pale orange, :almost a c0<1uina of lt-ug fo1an1inifel:;, n1n tlr Lepirlucuvli7lct ocalcozn l uhnlothurians/ D1lJdoJi1t11z ,1nd Pect t 'p. 1 Lime:;tone. very pale orang" modera ely soft, ndth fe,v foraminifer ... L JiidoclJclinu oc.alo uro. 1JN ,1ulon1a rui1ur.ta, H t. tJi1ltt ocul1t1la Gup-con1n1on 1. 5 rota] thickn s 6.5 olution funnel are n common feature in this ink hole.

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Bt 1.1 .. 4H Locality 177. ( LGI" 9 .. T\\'O lurg) ink hole: a llr. Bryant's fl ld. ... E 4. oun y. 1 0. H 1 IE, c. i I h r i. t ; d El "' ion l9 f t iroup ry :ta I Rivet J i l urn1a ti on l .. v ry pale oqu inoid. u larg foraminif ral l'Oquina, n1 stly Lt7Jirlncycli lCl OfalcJtlO and var Totnl thirkn Hoc Thiekn (f t) 'rh outcrops ot lh ry. tal River Forn1ation on th do\\'ll'"n id of the Lotticvill c u in th .-outh\\' .... t 11"11 eorn r f th ,unty. Th follo\\ing .. tion. ar r pr nta iv f th area. nlit}" (1;). 1(L.t ... IG d) Aban
PAGE 91

1 Locality 179., (LGr 9 liE 3 d ) Abandon d 1qtu rr1 in ftuy Rob field. 1\\ 4 . E 3. T9 If H14E. Hhri. t I ,nunt}. tion mea. on U1 sid ot th (JU;ll'!"l' Bed l)c. cript ion Eocene erie El 5 J feet Oca lu Group Cry. ta] Ph a Formutiln (feet) 2 Lin1 verr pal orange, granular, ulmo .. 't a nf larg fonnlinifers, p:uti ularly L e }ddocuclioa L ]>itloclJ li' na ocrrla 'UU af.f 11 mta. n .cf)'11 li1w p .. 0. f n a .. I n f; tJiofntla. Helfno.f.e !Ji'lta oculwuu 9.0 1 Lin1 ). J)HI grt nulur n1as ", .. 'pHl\ e ,.oran1inif r:-:,, L }Jitln r:liurt oealn Hfl and . ubundant 4.50 Total thhkn Bou]d uf su \\f a JUl Li nl .. ()(! u l' on top n r B d 2: .'0111 ha\""' triat d p,, ct lJ. ()'fll f h bould r. nr tl bundan .. olulion funnel..!! ot"l"Ul" in the "ry tul nhffl}" F H'nla-.. tion. ) Oll of the Cry. ta1 Hi\er Forn1atinn i. denud -.d and no Pleistocene :and oc ut thi. I Th osur !"' of tll ( tal r along h a ta R i\, o cur a p bluffs* Along h .. U\\' &UUJ Ui\' r. thi.: f
PAGE 92

l'1g111"L :t.;. Lim1 oi da 1l '& B h 1 1 F'm mutiou u... XJ ... d in n c !UllllY on llidl\\.n,r H awrn :--u1'tu F' l'i,, ( iil,,lt, c Bd De. crip ion Thicknes: (fe t) EoL"en} 'l"l 'H 'ry. tal Phcr Formation .:.! I im lostone, '\Vhite. hnrd, forun1iniferul C( ( lllina; , at bet".. ycHo\\L h-bro\ n. P f""' 11 p. k o]u lion un n l:-1 comn1on, fill d \Vith ,.ray and bro' "'n clay and sand 1 Lime tune. foraminifera]_. of and friable; ltnve portion :at th Lak' of quarry 'vith lat re 7.10 a p. 6.0 Tot a I t hi L 1cality 72 (LDx 1 13E 13 be ) Old To"'"n Q\\ n l larr 11 .. rrugg. John. n 1a.to Dixi 1U1n,:., t 01d

PAGE 93

II I II 1 .. 1 .. ..

PAGE 94

8 Tu\\rn ,,.pring. is a ite .. pring mad up of i." Pl*ing". The s ction '''a. n the main about 200 yurd" frun1 th U\\ 'ann e Uiv r .. Bd De. cription Thickne. (f t) I'l i. ne 3 v l"Y' p:ale \Vhite, medium-grained, quuttz : "fld soil zon 2.0 Eo nc Heri s Ocaht Gt:oup r)' tal l'ivet" Formation 2 Lin1eston very pale, orange, a n1icto oquins of forunlini1ieJ:-;, \\ith Le.7Jiclocycli 'ua ocnlrnut and \ ar .. and ucc-a?ional cu.'t. of n1o1lusks 5.5 \\ U Ihston ormation 1 Lin1 un y llo"'" to light granular microc:oquinoid. '''i th L J1itlotuclinf1 octllo na and 1 }J rc Hli-?loitl UIJodybranclu (belo\v spring level) .0 tl1ickm1 : tUty ,32 (LOx 1 OE 22 a ,) Ruckes 'eHulo. e t "on1pat1y quarry n ill" the 'teinha chee Rh er. .,,, Ill. T OE, Dixie ounty Dcst"l"i ption Thi kn .. (feet) i ocen ll cabt Cry. tal Hi ver Forn1ation 3 2 1 Lin1 \ ,ry pal pa .. d void of hug occasional n1n[d. of p (uly pr sC\'Cd Lim tone, very pale in phtc u roquina \vith u f w in1 n of /.., utliaN ocola1ltl l,imcstun very pal orang , granular; mi o ot(uinn of nunlniulitid., .tudded \\rith Pidofytli 10 u nd vnrs. (bu e of he Total thickness 9 ,..

PAGE 95

. a :oa o tF I )JXIC .su 11Lc HIU olution pits con1n1on in this quarry and they Called \Vith 1 probably Ilu"'thorn bto\\ n to t I gnly \\'axy TA> :t li ty 34-. ( LD.x 9 13E bb) Abandon d quarry. TE/ 1, .XE / l Dixie County. Bed Thi kness :.t) H. c nt .. eric .. E I vation 26 feet 3 ._"andy loHn1 and zone 1.0 Plci:to ene .. ri 2 .''and, \ ry-light gT&Iy to ite. fin grain d, qu:u z 2 0 E ne r1 Oc:tla (,roup tal Ri Cl" Fornlation 1 Linl L tone, \ pa] otango H larg f l"anlinifeJal nun1nntlitid cnquinu, e;e\ 'raJ larg 1A'pidnC1Jcli na (w,,fwnn and \ at"s., with :1 JJecf e11, u nd :;orne uhu1othurians" 4.5 Total th it.--kn s 7.'1 L talily 319. (LDx 13E 24 aa) Active lin1 stone \\ /4, ? J, T R 1 aE, Dixi 'ounly. D s ti pti on s ( f 1 t) H c n El vati< n 2 e I ... andy loam and soil z n Plei!-ltuccne ... 3 .,and, 1i "ht bro\\ n. fine gt'uined, c.Juartz Eo n er1 R Ocak Ri\er Forntati n .2 :-ton ' ry pale orang-. n1od rntely hard, i h plac n oquinn 1 f hu"g 1.0 4.0 lnrg :l L JJicloculi 1a 10. 0 I Lin1 v ry pal. nrangt., mollu Tan, in plat a

PAGE 96

6 B .. ro. 9 coquina of lal"g,e fo1'an1inifers, P'i, tua, and Ca 'tclilfln ?, l'l'lnteH, L t)il/o uclina o altnur and vn r ., H t I "OXif!JJinu o altnla dn\vn to 'at l"" J I Total thickne.s ... tiv tllHU"l"l" nt .. u[ution pit. L ruli )' l. (LDx 13E 13 aa) Abandoned .. un lr. Dempsey s fa.rn1, forn1erly us d <.:'OUlm ,e r iallr to nutk chimney bJock. '\' 4. 1'\ 1 'r R 1 Dixi 1 'our1ty. B d I) seripHon n ._ [ zone c nd sandy e lay ef'Ies Thi kn (feet) 3 light gray, Dl diunrruin d ------90 ...;. Eo n .. 1ic. Oculu .roup tal IH\ Forn1ati ,n 2a I im stun very pal uran r l., \"e:r .. granulnr, n1i o 1uina; ry few mollu. k .. \\"it h a f w im n.. of r lA Jlldtcycli11lP t..JC::lllU'IlU 15.5 b I igh h" to""'lt rd:; top 1 im .. b n \ery pal orun r CO(illi noid. n1ostlr 1:. I 'Jr fotan1inif ts, ca. of n1onu. k. con1 n1on 5.0 Total thi kn 2:3.0 1\ 1 hol 300 f et nnrth nst r p bs th .sc tion I xpo. ed a th ndon d quu y. Lott lit) r 3o2. 1(LDx l!iE 1 de) l:thc rquarry lott t d n Ilk.. Iligh\\'UY 129, 0. n1H' south of Dixic-Lafur --ttc ... 'E/ t c 1, T f I Dixie I ou11ty. Hed Re nt I .. andy loan1 i: nd :oil zon Line Thickne. s (f et)

PAGE 97

111eistocene ene:-i 2 ... and, bro\\"nL medium-gruined. quartz Eoc ne erie: Ocala Group Gtvstal River Formation 1 ' e t-..y pole in place. a nummu1itic coquin:l \'lith aiJundant sn1all pecin1ens of Lr pidocyclina ocalana and var .. ; top portion 2.0 nnd contains striated Pect n .0 Total thickn 11.0 7 3 3. {LDx 9 lOE 2!) ,ad)' h1dl o,,. quuary E / 4, \\". 4, ec. 29, T9 Rl Dixie County. Red C!it: ri ption et nt r1es !'! .. andy loan1 .and zone __ ___ Eot ne et-..ie.s Ocala Group 'rr:-. al r F rn1ation Thitktl (fe ) 1.0 2 Lin1 ... ton v ry pale orang', granulat". :oft. \Vith a f \\" I at re fo ru n1 ini ontai ns striat d P',fctt)1l 2.0 1 Lin1estone. \rery puJ e orang a coquina o t' 0 J>el'culinoicle.'" 'J1lOOl/lJbra nell osi. 'ontain. e and triat d Pe tt'11 l. Total Lotalitr 683. (LDx LO 13E 17 de) follo\vin'-! :; ction l\'HH in an abandoned \V t 4, .. E1 -.1. ec. 17, "rJO R'l3E, Dixie 10unty. B d D .. cription U 'C -"Ot rie 5 , .. andy loam ,and 1 zone PI i:do ene erie. and. ligh medium-gt .. ained, quurtz Thic:kn :s ( et) 1.0 2.0

PAGE 98

'et'ies Ocala 1 RiY r Fotn1ation 3 v l"Y light ith '"Onle , d \'oid of foruminifers --------2 ''' hite, ome\Yhat chalky ("Oquina of large fom aminiferR in 1 Lin1estone, 'ery light orange, lar, L e clina: \" I'Y fe'\;v foraminifers Total thicknes. )-... 1.0 1.5 .0 Loca1ity 348. 9 taE 2 db) a oture of for building abundant XE/4, SE 4 2 t T9 Rl3E,, Dixie Bed Thicknc (fe t ) E[ 10 fe t 6 andy loam and soil zone Pleistocene 5 and btO\\' nish-gTay, n1edium-grained, Eoc ,ene ettes Orala l'OUp tal Rive Foamalion L in1eston very light ha_ rd, \vith 1.0 2.0 Tutritellcl \ "end pecics of common 5.5 3 toneJ slightly chalky. a c oquina of ]arg, forumillifer ]n p]ace wwwwmw2.5 2 Lime tone, very Hght ot'ange to granuhu 1 miHulid, very fe\\ for.an1.inifers 3.9 1 Lin'lle,b;lotleM vety light ot"iUlJ!e, hard, in coquina of hng-e foranlinif,er ; nodubu"' weathering \ Vith Ia rge spe ,c:i n1 ns of pitlocJJt:li ua iJCal, o ua and and 0:-;tr(:,tl sp. 2.0 I r 6.9

PAGE 99

Lot:t lity 79 1 ( L X 9 1 1!E 1 en) T\\T n adjoining tion m a: ured in hug r of the t'\' O ... ,,, I 4 '' I ec. 1. R14E, Dixie County. d I) !i on Thitkn (feet) Eu en Lo ri Ocah Group Ri \'er Fot'nlation 4 very p,al o1ang grunular, a oquina of kug nbundant mol1us can I Hful lar 'c sp of Ltpidt tjcalcnut ut1d par. : 3 Lilnestun ) very pale otange to \\ 'hitc ... :HuhtJy aln1ost devoid of larg 1oraminii a f ''' sp imen.1 o f large Lt>pido '1/( li11a o uftnur and \' ar:i. 2 Lin 1 tone, very J)Ulc t u coquina of foran1i11i fer: 1 v orHnge, granuhL rlt \Yith ,... ().5 2.0 forantin[fers, Lt pldo 11 Una ocftltt'il present :3.5 T o al fhi 2 1.5 The tal Forn1uUo11 ctur. 'cry c to th grounfl tur a 1 L difficult to the thickne oi P]ei tocene .. b of. poil cnound re. Un dh c lr on t p of the Hm -..tone. Lo 79 (L 1'1.)', Bed Ret nt eries llE 26
PAGE 100

90 Bt "'' IU u ti,,o ..... Total thi kn Lt tH lily 799. ( LDx , 1"'/ . 1 t.). ,., .. . .. 12E 19 bd) Abundune d Til2E. T ixi County Eoc ne ()l'al a oup ty.:;ta I Pi' r I) s dption ( fp t ) 1 1 Lin1 ."'ton Y ry pale orang granular, \vith L pi do u li Ul. :lightly thalky to \\'at r lcYel 1 1. Total t h i kn 'Th u thin cover of PI i. to( n sand on the top o t th ,ry. t:d Hiv r F otmation. The xact. of the n i. dink lit to nl ;,:;lU' a of .poil bank: around the quarry. L ocuHty 32. CLDx 8 12F"' ]9 be) ur ln an 'E 4 NEt 4, l't. 19 Rl2E, Dixie 'ounty. B d :1 PI iu k an l zon ) Thi kn s. (f t) l.O 2 .,,and, gray. n1edium -grain d. (tu:u tz 1.0 Eoc ,n eri Oc.:tla Group Clystal Hiv r l L itne:'ton . very pale ot ang in a co c,uina of larg-e IJ JJidHcycliJta ocala u and lars. The a: -hardened th top Total thkkn Lo ( lity 17. (LI x 9 1:3E 16 ht.) Lin1 ton l pit .... 16, T9H. 2 n1il ( uth of L alitr 0.1 nl i I \Y .st of pa v d tat I I iglnvar .. -:3:-1. .. l, 16 and abou

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91 The of PI i:; ftcene L ditli ult tu :-1timat mn this quarry because of 11uH bankR "hkh lie direc-tly on lop of tne Riv r. Bed {)c .. criptinn Thi kn :;. (f t) Eoten .. 1 ri :-1 Ocala G1oup ryshll HiYer Formution 3 pnl orange. gntnular, in phu.:es a ottuinu of lurg R abundant lurg L( '7)ic1o ucli,u o e:tnd var.s .. and f,f mollusks 2 Lime. pale y mull n and u co l!Uhut of lurger foran1inif r:-;. tl 11u. i1,m h rl 1 Lin1e. t )ne. \'ery (Jal orunge, nanuhu. nurhtlar, \\' ath ring, nun1n1uHtid in place."". se\ r )ral large Lepidru ... JJCli tlO and Y:n:. Total bundant solution .. .a 6.0 17.0 Lncality :3 101 23 aa)' Altiv on il .. and t. \V t .. '"\Y 1. e. T 11 OE, Ilixi ountr. Bed Thiekn s. (f et) Hetent 6 oil :tnd and:r Ju:an1 1.0 5 'and. Hght bro\vn, n1 diun1-gr.aincd, quartz 3.5 t l every li rht g-ray tu Hn -grained, quartz 3.0 3 and, hnJ\vn,. q na rt:zp rgilla cuu:s 2.0 Eo n ri 0 ala Hiv r Formation 2 Lin1e .. tone. \'ery pale mollu:-; an. in plac n 'Oqujnu of h rge ;abundant .4 nusiu1n .. p and f n1o1lusk.

PAGE 102

92 B l .. l. i T I;\ "o. 19 1 \1ery orange,. grantdar, ,-,,ith on1e rer foruntinifet rs. nto.Rt1y smuU L pido 'lJClitlU oca llnla and \ a 2.0 ]5.0 locnlity, started. had scvct--al ltrge s in] < holes. Localit),. (L x 13E 22' ba) Large ho] e on re H .. atul r by rorn N\\ I l, N E /4, e . 22, T f' R Dixie Bed D scri 11tion nil zon and :-1undy clay PI i. hJt: ne .. t[es \\'}lite, quartz eric. Oc:ala G tystal hiver Thickness ( f ) r,; .a a.o I Limcstun v ry p;.d in ce a of htrge I".'; "dth 1-lm ,,_ 'l u:tn sp. thickne .. 37. (LD 9 12E 11 b ) it in r /4. 1 R12E Dixi 1 ounty. Bed 2 bro\\'n, quartz and muck Eocene Ocala Gloup Cry. t al r 2 .5 6.0 cc. 1 1 Tbicknc. (f t) 2.0 1 Lim tone. very pal granular, in places a co-

PAGE 103

quina uf large ifems; abundant 'l>iclocyclhuz o afana Total thickne : 1.0 8.0 93 351. 8 13E 1:3 ad) Abandoned pit , . 13. fl.. Rl3E o t ... 1x1 oun y. Bed De8cripUon Elevatlon 46 f 1 et :1 .._'nndy luam und .!'\Oil ---Piei. toccne ri s ) -Eocene eri 0 ala Gtoup Riv a Forn1atiun (fe t) 0.5 1 \'Cl'Y pale orang nular a coquina of l;uge 1110 ti}.r ;qiJ c:i of Lepi(locy lhlfl octrlauo and Ytll'... anUI of .0 Totu 1 thi kne. 9.0 Locality ( hb)1 Expo in a pit, 4 . nor h of nn tate 'ounty. I ity (;function King and trect:) N E I 4, E 4, T!J R 1 E D i x i 1 Bed 3 .. andy loan1 zune Pl i8tocene eries 2 and, I i rht ibl"O\\'n to bro\\'Jl, mediurn-J,rrained, tt uartz Eoeene ri Oruln Gl"oup ry .. ted Forn'lation Thi kn ( fe "" .n 2.0 1 I4in1 stone. pale granulnr. bed

PAGE 104

94 Xu .J9 \vith abundant sp irnen:-i of An1u.o.:hoJ1 :;p. (to \Vater level) 2.0 Total 4.5 LocaHtl' 19. (LDx 13E 26 be) Quarry, a.a n1ile s north of Cross "'ity 1in1its on ea:t of Iligh\\ray -351. Bed ption (f t) nt r1 s 3 ;ndy loan1 and goi I zone 0.5 Plei:torene er1 .-:; ) .... and, light br(n\' n fin -gra inc d. quartz LO ne ri :)s 0 Group Ri\er Forn1ation .. Lime. ton very pul e orang granular, in plate. coquina of fnraminif r., Ll; IJitlocyc-lioo o cala1lO: 4.0 To :.1 thi kn 5.5 Lotali y 3 '' / 4, 1:3E 21 c ) Abandon d quarry, .. 'Y/ 4, ec. 24, T9., Rl:lE. Dixie ounty. B d ) scri ltion Th j <1U11S8 (f t) Hecent er1e: El vation f t .. andy loan1 and soil zone PI .. ri and. bro\vn, tine-J.nait1 d, quartz Eocene eri Oca Ia roup ,r:vstal Riv r Fotmation 3 Lin1e tone, \\'hit granu]ar, chu lky .. \Vith era] L e}Jirloc!Jcli tlo fu o ftnut and var.:-l., contuin "holothuriuns, n in a coquina of large 1.0 2.0 fer. 6.0 2 Limes one, \\'hite. granular soft, in a coquina

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( o:v 1 )JX:If: .\XD Cn. nnisT of large '''ith a fe'\\lf large L ocala Jl(t and va rs. and orne nlo]d and cast.. of mol lu._k '' iHi Formation 1 r:>a J e g:runulur, coquina of v ery fe\\ y Rll of [ .;epicloc]J-3.6 c:liua, ocalcuza and ... ar. 3 .0 Total 15.5 Quarry has. funn I TE1N1{AT "HEE DOLOl\HTE .MEliBEU 95 Abou l 0 feet of tan, in1pure do1nnlite (up 35t;f igCO: ,) and dolom 1itic Hn1 e ate expo ed in outheasteln Dixie County bet\\'een Horse hoe Beach and the to\Vl1 of hatrhee and nlongthe l r as not:th (\s the fH1L (Lo aHty 29) north of Rocky "'t eek T h i. occLus gtaphi,raUy i n the basal po. ition of the ry. ttd River Fotmation and is as a conti11uou outcrop for mile nlon r the coe:u..;t of the Gu If of [exico around o \ v .reek, a.. sho\,r n in figure 37. lt a bench. (lbout 1 to 4 mile. bet\veen l[ors Bea h and the to'''n or tei ,nhat hec It oc turs a"' a Uve1 Blun "h elf at ele\tations l s. tht,\11 10 feet. The out crop pattern of thi!i do[omite i!i di. c rnab1c fron1 aerial phntograph being bare of It u]so forrns a fall line at the tein River (see fig. 37) The contact of th dolornit j e men1be1 und th Cry. al Formation ily seen through out the out top D rea, as sho\\'n in figure 3 . An exceUent \Nj/il ob et\red at the fall on the leinbatchee River (Locality 429) \\'here 4 I et of chalky. co Hn1.e. tone of the Crystal Ri'''er Formation 2 to 3 feet of g-ranular dolomite in f Ol'l"nully ,a .. d to t h e teinhatchee dolomite n1embet'. The dolo nlite extends into Taylor ounty to the but addiHonal drHHn g \14lill be needed to h the re]ationship of this rock ''7ith othert' stratigraphic ntil furtbet ubsurface stud]e .. on ate n1ade in the "e and coa ta1 hi unwt is herein used u. an wnfot mal rock uniL Lo ality 429. l OE 3 2 ba) Falls on the teinhatchce \ \ .. 4 NE/ 4. T RlOE D i xie County.

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I h LLI'. L I:'\ N u. 4 '!J r1i!!lll [' a i Ex I,.._, .. ,,, !'i (If the hntdu e D(J)Oftlit l\I ml uc. r ( w c k I ( otmty, Flr) t icl Bed Pl :-\ vely fJUle to light bron n, m diumThickn Hs ( fe t) gtained, ttjuartz 5.0 I.._,o ene ed 0 ala Group Cry;tal River Forn1atiot1 2 \ very ur.ang e 4.0

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PAGE 108

98 bet\veen EUaviUe and '' hite The Lin1eL tone dues not occur in re]th l. ot Dixie countie j,J situ but ha been noticed a bou]del".. in northet'n ounty. Do1llbtle boulder"' \\'ere one in plac and ov, rlying the rrsta 1 Ri\r,er Formation, hut \Vet later eroded and lo\\rered to their prr e ent position. 110 E ALAr Ht: A FO Rl\1A Tl ON The hi tory of the lachua is adequately de cribed ]n Bulletin 29 and 33 of the Geologica[ tu,ey and i: nut .,., epeated llere. 'yentnul litholoJ,.'},.: The Alachua is tet"mr. trial, in part, lacu trine and fhniutile, and ist of interb dded:t irregular orf clay. and, tlnd andy clay of the n1o t diver e cllar,acterL There L at firs o1 .. ion of but i d lly. gro. litholog[ c be om nt. The baser of nlmo. t s ction in the hardto.:k phorn erratic boulder. of lime .. tone, sHicified lime q.tone and flint., ciay am:ul of pho phate rocl< pho phalic colloidal pho phute, and an occasiona) concentration of gray have n vdde di.ttibution and 'veathe1 pink o1 a ]though occa"' ionally yt:l1ovr and bro\vn colors predominate.

PAGE 109

the rubb]n not occur, thi sand generully I"cplnres it, and in the pits th ote bed is lvork d into a barr n of th]. sand. rrhe da)r len:.ies nr n1ontmOI'illonite, in light P 'U. tel of b]u and grt! n and have a '\Vaxy-]ik constituency. occacontain son1e of and ilicHi d clay, aU. hough the n content in th. matrLx i only a minor The day i::-; :ntd i: generally irrcgu ... lar in occutr nee, .althou -rh quite con1monly a b d sepnratek th pho. phat matrix from the utulerlying 1 Lnl In th ction 12 min of th raterpri:se, south of DunncUon, a [op d of p at und parat d th fron1 the ,phut b d on th id or th quarry. ilicitied Hrnc$ton and flint boulder: o cur in n1any f the tf:tbandon d ... phut pits of itrus and L countie and occtu in all de "'I" e of tiou ftom u \ "ery pot'"oU."' and friub] sUlcitied of fnran1inif to dense. crys.btUine .. complet l l y Hcified, flint boulder f'rhc Umc 3tone is to brcnvn and the Hint mny u }.'eHo\\\ white, und even blue. They :1r very irr,egular in and are of n1nny k .. hapek ; some t:U'e o\, nl, uthe1s flat, ,and they vary ff'nm pebbles:. to boulde1T$1 ing many ton i lici fi or of fos-1sH. ar c:omrnon in und th d of 'r\1ation L g-ood in sunu.:. An bonldet' of I i m ."tone i. r ro\'er d ft'Dn1 the and thes pr' unl:lbly r dislod r:.od ftom the b )drock r the pho. phat o r in n1ining op rution .. The pho:phat rot:k occUI'ring in the .. hua Fnrmatinn i .. a minor of the deposit. although it. conomic \ C"due made the Aluchuu ,,,.,ell kno\l'D. The pho:o\phat as pebbJcs, laminated-phosphate (platel' Jek L J:eplac mcnts of and ranging in grni n fr,onl to uUoidul duy. In the plate---c:u:k d po.: fot'tmerly mined near tandurd,, parr ond l uHette in 1\'larion ther iH e,iden e of an sbutificution ( llurcl.. 1910, ]). 2 ) Thi .. tra ,ificatjun been altered b.,' into irr laritie,ri nf the Ume tone and by fructure of the plnte-rock. large amount of fine phosphate ,and \'BI"Y f \v bould rcur in th e pit: in retut ion to the d --putit. in other pit and Hint and d lim stone re,lddues ure lik to ab:ent. In il ounty. th forntation the River

PAGE 110

100 and \\ forn1atinns, th flf nre a very irr gular surfu e, hu. be n cuUedl u J{ul"ren fe[d. 1 t L nut uncommon to find in some quarri pinnru.es of 1l"' tal JUver and '' ilUston that vary in height up to 25 feet. The H nd phosphati of the hua ()\'er1ie sueh an irregular \\'ith rc 'Uit \ 'ariou. l 1 ed. in a g-iv 11 ction l"ttry gTeat1y in o,,.e,. hort di ... tn nc It appears mo.:t logical th3t clay:; and pho phntic andR of forr,.nation \Vele d po it d in a \\re1J develop d. .'inkhole ca vcrnous-type eoded rfu and th:Jt the, lO\\'el" portion of the et .. tion \\ 'hich cnrt"ie. n ... iduum of older Hm s on dev as coUu'\iurn in sink 0 'f\ ROP PA Th Furrnation ct op.' out in hucturalb; r high ea. t and t of the Brun on J.,trab n ( pL 1) The area ea t of U1e grabe n exhibit a thi keJ' und tnor \ 'ar] d J.! section. llost uf t hi.: area i.. locat () in 9. and 10..,. I nnd mined The foUowing ""ection"' rcpre. of th[s r gmn: LotaiUy 9 -l. 9 16E 1 1 dd) .. SE '4, '" ec. 1 l, T9 n lGF., Gil(hrist County. Bed Thickn (fe t) Rec El \ "ation 5 feet 6 loum tocene eries 5 and, bro\Vn,. argHla eouSi, quartz erte Ahtl(! hun Foamution 4 1 lay nnd si1tstone?, Ycry pa]e orange, pho phntic, 2 .0 6.0 con1po:dte gectionp indurated in p)(llce 2.0 Eo ene e[ies Ocn ]:l G rou p 'ry tal Rh;'er Formation 3 \ "ery mnde to ,, ... indu-r:ted, 'rith l' fc\v ]argc foranlinifet"S

PAGE 111

2 white, ii'l place. a of large foJIam]nifer Z nupltora p . UlliCl/UHH is sp. and other 101 monu.qean shells con1 .m0n .1 1 Lime tone, very pale orange tn lvhite, granular. a co quina of foraminif,er. in Le}Jiclo,cycUua. ncalana and var ., (;ypsi11a glolnda, Het 'rostegitJa ocolaHo Op 11nidcs ocala n con1mon 8 0 Total t .hickness 3,2.,0 Section n1easu 1 ed nt the h i:g'he:::t Pin nc1cle of the rysta[ River p to 18 fee t of Alachua eclin1entR oecut--bet\,f een the Jo,vest
PAGE 112

102 B T"LLE'll.:\ X l !) Lo 91 (L r 9 16E 3."" del) Abandon d qJUnrry, hol\n in figure :\9. j ast of tate a 7 fi E / 4 I c. T9 IU Gil tl ver, large pit and about one-fifth of n mile into the 'vnod. from the road. i:q. a gat fi ft of u ntilc nutth of th intcrseetiun of tute Irigh\\ray 337. nnd an cutt-'\v st ditt that run. on th :') 10\\' r LJ of e tion 35. The follu\ving is a < : Onlpo8ite : R d Th (fe t) EleYation 74 feet i) 0 4 hitc and Lrown, pnrtial1y con. olidut d quartz 10.0 1\Tioccne erie:; AlachtJa Forn1tion very orange to light gray. purple l'ing. 'vith H pocket uf pho phat ; and t"Y tine in .25 Eoc n '" .. rie .. O cala ; aoup Fotmation 2 Lin1l. tone, pale orange,. S(ranu lar mic:rotoquina of rR. l,.l IJido u altHUl and .. Ret.-rH:nlth 'la. Op r H/i iUJiclex ocaln 11"11. 14.50 1 I"Y pale ot"ange to ct cOttuinu of 1ntcooge JJfJutlyllrs > 'it sp.1 and chinoids ll0.50 Totul The top of th rystal Rh'er orn1ation in this is v ry The Uhet' crops out as pinnacles CJ[ variou thicknesses L eo\"ered by t!he Alnchu-l F l orn1.ation, \vbich tne The Alachua at th exp oi the cy t:.d

PAGE 113

. I

PAGE 114

104 L caUty I 02. ( 9 ab11 ndoned pit, E / 22 db) ompany E / 22 T9 RlGE, Gil hri t County. Bed De. rrip ion Thickrnes Ret:ent 5 en s J evation 85 fe t Ele,ati, on 5 91 feet l and. ligh brolVt1 to brown+ fine-g1awned, arg[Haceous. 1.0 quartz 6.0 3 orange, fine-gt+ained, urgHJac ous, fer, 10.0 {iutene, Serie A btchua 2 and, quarlz, mottled orange and bro\vn on 'veathe:red expo." u ;. fet--ruginous, eros bedded. \''ith pbo phatic nodu] ,es 17.0 Eoce ne et--ieR 0 u Ia (:roup rystal Rivet Formation 1 Lhne.qtone, very pale ornnge, Lcpi-rlocucliJUJ ocala?la and vars., and sp. 1.0 Total thickne s 35 0 Lo aHty 93 (LGr 9 16E 24 ae) Abandoned 'V ''1 / 4. ec. 24. T9 f116E, Gilchrist County. The foUo\\ring section \Va" n1ea ured on the ide of quarry: Bed 4 1 andy loam P[ e isto en eade. Des dption Thickn (feet) 3 light bto,vn to bro\\'tl. fine, ligh ly 10.0

PAGE 115

105 M.iocen erie. Alachua Formntiun 2 "'1ay,, very pale or, fnlge pho phatic, \vith pebbJ es of phosph:otte, \VeQthered surface i purple and in teps Section shifted to the south end of quaw:ry along road Eocene eries Ocala Group \YU1iston 1 Limestone, very pule or, ungc, g-1anu huo, in phu:es a coquina of large foraminif,ers \Vith ''holothuriann tube and ec::hinoids. The upper portion of the bed i. considetably (than the ]o\ver) Le]Jidneyclina ocalana and var ., Het ocalana., GiJpxiJia glubulct am'ld Opt. ) J'CUliliUides Jnoodyln a11eheu.i .. con1n1.only OCCIJf' in thi bed 1:1.0 thicknes The A]achua thi, ek ,enR in other of the qu4:ury at the expen!-le of the ,,, illi ton Fornution. A panorama at this showing pinnacle. of the 'YUliston and mined out of the Alachua Formatiot'l, tan be seen figure tJO. Loca]it)r 96. (LGr 9 16E, 23 ab) Abandoned E /4, ec:. 23, T9S, R16E, GiJ,hd.t I ounty. Bed Recent er:tes Thickness 5 1.0 4 and light bro\rvn to bro\\'n, quartz Miocene "eri ,es AJuehue: Formation 3 and,, very pa1e orange, pho phatic. 7.5 quartz --w13.0

PAGE 116

Ill

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Eocene e1ies Ocah1 Group tal RiYer Formation 2 Limestone. very orange, granu1ar, oft, studded \vith A :nnf.o,;{um sp., L e}Jidocucliua and var.s. \\TH Iiston Formation 1 Limestone, vety orange, g ranular. in places a coquina of buge foran1inifers; H ocala ,ia, L pidt)l:JJC' li'ila and vars., and Op rcuU-107 8.0 uoid !i moodybra nclu nsis common 5.0 Total thicknes .. 34.0 There i."' a pinnac1e of Cry. tal River Fornudion in the n1iddle of the quarry. On the emd side of the an equival,ent section of phoRphate and (Alachua) is The toJJ of the HI Rh,, r and Alachua is 0 r t. In an {)lUU't'Y nbout 200 ie t south of 96, the fono,Ying i exposed: DeRcription Th ickl'l (feet) Recent ene8 6 andy and oi] zone 2.0 Plei .. tocene er1es 5 and, Jight gray, tJUalltz, d 011 \Veath red n1ottled to orange and \\'ith occasional r1ebbles of phosphate 3.0 Miocene Alachua Formation 4 light gt'een, blo lqr phosphati 2 .5 3 and, very pale orange, cH"gillaceou quartz 2.0 2 Clay, pule to pale yellO\\\ pho .. \\'ith pi es of platy phosphate 14.0

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10 Eol! n 0 ala (.d'OU ""l"l":dal Hiv r Formuti 1 J pale o1unge, granular, a large fornn1inif r roqu]na, piclo 11cli tlfl ocalltna and and A1uwsium abundunt 6.0 Total thickneR. 29.6 Locality :110. (LGr ad) Q 1ld pit, : E / N\V I t c. T l R IGE, Hchri. ounty. Red Thi (fl t) E[ -vution I f t 5 oil znne, :andy ioarn Plei. to ene 4 light bronn, and, Ught bt--o\vn to ar -,ilbtc __ ___ I\1io n s A[uchuu Formation ) and, \\ hit quartz Eu j n 1ie. Ocala ,rystal llher Forn1ation 1 L1nt tone, p;de yell on t"hcllk)'. totJU]noid, ,with commun l.J ']>itlocuclina ocalaaa tHld H tcroxr t yillfl () ul(l na' 0CC1 ltrn ". \tnd (; !IJl1.0 .0 ] .5 !llohu lo l.O rrota] thickne. 20 .. 0 Lnccdity 295. (L r 9 16E 2 c ) Abandoned phu. phute (JUnrty, \V /4, .. ,, /4. 24, T91 R16E, ... ttion nt a ured at u pinnade of \Vi lli.ton Formation at the south end of the

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"t : l.o y UP I t.:lf.. riJ. Jllti T 109 B d [) "i .. t:ription Thickn (f t) r c n fl Elevation 9 f -t l.tJ PJ i .. n eri :.q !J 1ety llilh.; Ul'a Bg'e to Ul'U ll IC j U lcnver pnrt,, llac ou. q uurtz 16.0 tioc n Ia hua -'lay. v I")" pa I ( ra 11g tr \\'hit 1 n. of hard r k ph phat Eoc 'll 1i cala roup \\ illi. t n F' rmation Eed 2 o\r rlap. bed 1 pho. 1 hati v ry hard l Lint v pule ornng-. granulur, in r>l:ae a hug' fnt amin if -r coquina, \"ety Uholothurian" tulJ ne:u th I ba, e. H t ,ro f. ,ni ut. rJ a lana. L ]Jidot]Jcli ut o ala Ul and "' t Op u/i,ioid .' Jl!HJ(l1Jb,-a,zh z.i., nJ. i11a gl,Jb tla cornmonly o ur throughout tht t "i 29.0 T tal thi kn band n d quarry. L ality 27 (LGr 9 16E 3:db) figur ") J 1, .. l. .. E n 1 ()F.;. I iJ h r i t u n y. d 4 .... andy loan1 and oil zon Pl L to n Thickn (feet) LO .. "an 1, y 1JO\V l fin rrain d, atrriJJac n olidat d, qunrtz 6.0 1\1 io n ic. Ala hua 11.\)tmat ion ? 'lay v ry pal orang phosJJhutic 16.5

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110 n ties 0<:a1a 1 :rruup 'ry:tal Hh "ll" li orn1ation 1 Lim :5ton v ry pal, orung granular. l"Oquina of larg foranlinif L )]Jiclocuc li1ul oeulouo and var . Ofnlona. l)o laliu nxll. mUtll l'OOlnHHl Total thi "'kn 20.5 11.0 277. (I .9 l:iE 26 bd) .._;\bandoned quarry ... l, XB/ t cc. 26, T91 R hri. t \)unty. Tl1itkn .. ( f t) r1 : El lVa t ion 92 et ;) andr :and soi1 zon .l light brcnvn. fin -gtain d. ar rillaceou:. quartz. .5 4.0 \Vith :nlall p of phosphat in pia s 1.0 2 and. bufry colored. fin -gT:tin d, ugnry, conso1i-UJJfOSSllif rOUS, qu:utz. } ,;) 1 li en ri :-i AlaL"hua Forn1ati< n l lay, Y ry pal orang to li rht 'tay, pho. phatic, tu pebbl siz pho. phate nudule: dissiminat d throughout Tot:d thickn 7.5 34.5 On the botton1 of the quarry at the bas of Bed 1, bould r. of 'ty. tal Ri'' r fnrn1ation. partially r p1a d by phosphate, "' found. Lolality 297. (LGr 9 16E 12 d) Abandon d JlUlrry. E / 4, / 4. 12. T9 R l GE, rilchris ounty. The follo\ving L a on1posit .. ection :

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I I ...

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112 Bed I) Rcrliption Thickness ( e t) R c nt El, vation 0 feet 6 loam Ser[e .. 5 Sand, light tine-grah1ed, argiUaceous, ne s Yariable up to .5.0 . 1ncene er1es A ]achua Formation 4 peppery of phosphat l.5 3 Pho phat pale to \Vhite. hard rock, \Vith platy IlhOSI)hal p bbl phosphat Eocene Ocaht Group 4ly. ta 1 Formation 2 pc.t le orang-e, gtta nuhu chalky, a quina of large fnranlinifet'S in n1uinty L pidoc]fc/lna O((rlf'OIO anrl abundant uho]O 'hurian' ' and echinoid.. present 19.0 9.0 Total thickne .. s 43.5 29 (LGr 9 16E 13 ba) :r\r I E / 4, ec. 13, T9 GTh1cht'ist ounty. Bed 4 andy loam .. a and,, light bro,vn. fine-grtbmined, Thruckn@ss (feet) 0.5 quartz 15.0 Series Formation 2 'and, Yery pale ura11ge to light g1ay, pho phatic . quartz .0

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Eoc ne ries roup 1 tal Fu1n1ation Lin1 re. lone. ,,. r. r pal placeg :l n1icto oquinu z ('U,O/JIJ 01'(1 SfP. "'I utal thicknc,. g"ranuhu-. chnlk;r, in of n1osUy L piclocycli rut, 113 'I he top ot' the Hiv r Fot n1ation in hL irrcguhu. Lo\\r c. t pinnade of th rystal Riv r i., abO\ ':. th bntton1 of th pit. Th section \Vas n1 ur fl th pinnaele (2:3' ) of t h"' Rhr r Forn1ation m. expo.ell. Lnctdity 207. r(L(.r l.""E 15 cd) ,Abandon d ttLHH"I"S' 1n fi ld about mile o1I high,,ay,, .._ E / '' JtJ 1-, Tl 0 R 15E, H ounty. Bed s tiption Thickn s" (f Recent reries 5 Lo"lm E l ev a t i on 62 feet 4 and! light bro\\' n. mediun1-grained. quartz 1\fi o e ties Alachua Formation 3 1 yeUo\vL h brO\\n, sandy, \vith p Lb] s nf Hm nnd flat ohbie .. of phosphc:lt Em .. ene Ocala Gtou p 2 very 11ale orange ightly }utlky, mahdy u cOtJUinu of large 1110. t1y L ottlia1UI, var::-;., H et ocula na Jp i ''oiclc.r..; 0.5 2.0 3-1.0 ucalcnnlN 1 5.5 1 Lime:tone, ve 1ry pale orang granular, n1iliolid,, 'ra.- --et llites and uhol thurian!'" 25-26.0 ulution pip up to tht f et iu diameter ur, e con1n1on in the r qUal'Fy.

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111 Locality 9 (LAa 9 17g 31 Abandon :.d '' 1 41, '' / 4, .. 1('. :n, R 17E. Ahtehua 'ounty. The foHo\\ 'ing 1s a nn11 osit section. J,ed l) stri ption Thi kn (feet) I' c nt :and PI t'i 6 .. oil zon n .. ri s )taln iroup fe l R iv a Forn1ation I Lin1 .'ton -' very pal g1unule,u, u ct quina nf huge fonuninifet s, as -hnd ned neur lOll of b d :{ v pale orang gTanular, \\"it h ;abundnnt btrge a oquina of larg foran1inif rR in pl:1c . r e a b d 2 Lin1eston very pale o1an ., n1oderat ly \Vitl: nbunllan A musil# 1 U p., a coquina of large fotaminifers in 1 Lin1eslonc, Vt.!l }'' pal ot'ang to y llo,v. re-'d in a oquina of lar.,' fotaminif n1ostly Lt pidocucli11a ocala na and var.. in plar .. De,ltalil'Ju rhinoid._ Tota] th -------------1.0 4.5 ....... 16.0 34.5 L rality 2F>a. (L 7 15E 20 db) Farn1, E / 4, .. E / f ec. 20. T7 . Rl. E. 'ounty. <.;tion measur d on no1th :id of ca. t-\vest clit h dug to drain the "Digu by fu.:eunl of "omparutive Zo logy, HnrYard niv l':dty. r. d D seription 1\Iio n .. rie.: Alachua Forn1ation El v:.tion 60 feet 4 "lay, dark bro\\'ll and ontng \\ 'axy (f t) 1.5

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Eocen t"'ala Group .. y. tal River Forn1ation :1 Lin1 '" rr pal orang !"Oft, ;._ )U ha.:--h f large ; \Vith n1old. of sp. and triat d Pl'clf' U SJl. ; .5 2 Lin1eston whit talcitic. hard, a tOt]uinn of 'arg foran1inif abundant specin1 n: uf ... lolu.ilnn sp.: variabl thi up to about 6 in h \Vith gray \\'axy ditY in fnu:tur in top of B ld 2 O.:i 1 Lin1 :tone ,. ry pule orang'. granular, rnod -.tat ly hant \Vith ttiuted J)ect '' p.; l)l:lc a co
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I 1 5 51 ..., ..

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-

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-._ --.,..,...... ,.... ---..... / ,....... ,. / ,j!iF ... / 1$--II / / 2 ] I h

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/ ( SIE J _.,.,. /' ,;;.tt 0 CIH =--3D ... /

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120 B l.l.f.. I. Nr 4H \I dna. Fonnuli n the ba.'e 0 r UH Ia hua and ro -b dd d, lin1 t 1n and quartz :"Und hav yi ld d v rt brat fauna hat ran r : frnn1 to arly fidd1 li en f, )th in in1 n: and of th n1o. proliti li en I ealiti s in th Thoma. Fnrtn L o\vned by th niv o 1., loddu. \Vith cxca\'ntion privil g s 1'* : ]d to th Floridu "icul Ul'v y clll(-!tmissi Hl ntu:t b ob tained fron1 th) partm nt o Bi 1]0s.,'J niv 1sity of Florida, ,a in t ) vi:i the I cal i ty. A l"Ofll pl t bi. blio rraphy r pap on v :)rt brate fo. L .. port d fron1 Thun1a. Farn1 i. g-h n lJ) Pay 1 ( 19-7) and L no r lp ated h n ( 1962, p. l t l 1 5) r 1C"( ad d th f olknvjnj.! , rt brt fauna fron1 lhi. locality: Al\IPIIIBI : and "'ah n1a1ul rs Anura: Fro "crtiJiu'oJ)n. f. hfJ[,,oold, .'pc.ld foot r l oad Fl'og or uncertain fan1iliad utHnity Ro fH pro l Toad Hyla !JOioi. Tr Toad .Jla, lnd Toad Ranrr. p. I nd t., Fro r

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( l::t.tl.-t,Y (II l>IXII: C;ll.l IIHI,I' h m li I oulcl r l M r "'Ia : 'heu lu' .l 'J'nu. 8ir n 1 u1tl .s, .. nak !';, .. and CrncodHiuns P .. , adt 1ill/X, lndet.. T 'l"l"api n (; u tecll hitei. Land 'rortoi. P jioridanu.. Gla:: Lizard ,o[."e1li. Buid 'nak O!J?Ho]Jil i. Boid .. nak lli!JU to!' of. 11 i, Alligator 12 c:< n. id .-ab1 h e l'}letofauna (notably ) pr .]ent but is n. yet u ndc. rib d.

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122 A \YE ; PluJ.iocrocoJ 'll. sub ,ultnl.s, lornlotant Pro H ilio }irnic/a 111'li. Kite P rcnn ilio f '}Jil('U'ti'l! Kite Pro1nilio Kite Buteorla/i. Ia ':-;slci. UIU 'Ylll ca loba t 1N, hore B i rd Colunll,irlrre, Dov 2 und :tribed o1a iif(o"'ul? J 2 ed one a Barb t und one enti ng-a n \\" ft1n1ily Gen. .. p. Indet .. 'Yood \Varbl r t;Veta[ unde .. crib d :dne (perching) are present. lALlA : u?'icidfl , htc\V, undcs dbcd l , e.:-ipe til ion id But. illiJHlH l J on nNiH. Large advanced IIorse G n. et. lHnr La1ge Rhinoc,ero Die( ratllerir.tm ( sp. nov., .. nutU Rhinoc f>, ,'t,"inla th /IUS ol.5 n i, P ccary Flo,iclatrnaofu. ( .)1 flolirla,,us, 'an1el Sun f. II etoc:e>n ( Proxyn f.lu ,tfJc ra,"f) a o. tTaliM. Artioda tyl belonging to extinct fan1iiJ,

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Rla:-;tom ''?J. (Pntabla.tonl ,.1J. ) flo,.ida n1all Der:.r Jfn lull, ,n1ll I 'JJ. !}il lni.t>u,"is, Sn1all D ") a Th natur of th"' and th c-ontain ld \ert brat fauna indicate the \Ver ,cl in a t } nvironnl nt. rrhis terrestrial faunn, }10\\'(1\' of at l thr 1 diff,er lnt typ the fre. h-\\';lt r af,uati v :;. a. turtlcl"t; fre, roamingt hur. c., ls. deer, et ., and uvc-lovi ng bat:-;. The nquati , rt brnte .... ar n1ainly found in blue-gray tlay. ; the terrestrial r .. nu1in: of hot:es, can1 dogs and ricer :tbundant in th crn;-.: b dd ... d lin1 and quartz sands; th bould lr bnr on th :id ... of the quarry yi ld d ( f th bats. The o xi:tenre of thr n1ajor of vert brates in thrc difrer nt envitonn1 nt. ha \ l d author:\ to at ith r a eaVt!. a < ng1n fot 1 posit.. It i. true that a oulcl hav turtl nd living in it. It is r to b ]li n aYe had tn b l there for the to :-\urviv'-'. If th \, c hypntheses are h"u ', no int U ig re:asnn b n gi \' n for the OCl'U rt nc of t err ia I f:a u ua con.!-iisti ng of hor:: eanl dog. and deer in the crus:-h ... dd d The.H aninnll. \\ r ould ne \d an open ar 'a by ''' h th r thrh cl. \Yhat b UtP nattu of th ir odgin: it intlig nou. or is it cxogrcnou. L f th :.ir r \\'ere transpot1ed. ho\v di(l t h y g th 1 'l'h n:atur of th and th v r br:at fauna contain d in then1 c rtainly points t<.nvard a fluvial origin. Th b dro k. th l'J"stal Hiv r Forn1ation of a fin very por 1in1 n1atrix that or marin. Eo(' n inv rtebrat Duringth arly paat uf th 'l fiddle tioc n tinl this pat of Florida \\'as a p ninsula. ut a ri of island.". \VUR undergoin,. 'Xtensive aerial rosion. V tnon ( 1951) ha: cit d of geolo -,ic hi.:;tory, and it i \ id nt in J)hosphut uf Gilhri:t nud Alachua counties. inc]uding th Furn1 \\'here of the ,y. tal Hiv Fotnlation nuty vary frunl 1 tn 10 f t in h ight. Th be(]rock \\'a xt n ively eroded and th land detl:.t d by olution. "at I p rco1ating throu .,.h i to d :ubterran an of thi. x t 11l. ivr"lly and d ply rorl cl b dro k. '-'QU ntly. th : d po. it: :1( \\ork "ld th h \vay dO\Vn\\rard tluou ,.h inkhol ... pip hoi (av and :--ubt rranean chann 'L. \\ h ., :.r th top of th b dro k \\'a: \V ak, t h ov \Vl ight of th e c1in1 nts r nd r c1

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124 it in on111 )t )nt; cons "lqn ntly, th nth d po. it ,,.a. dt ppcd on the kar. t topograph;r of tnL young nlatur '1'h cour:5 s ( f tlovdng over the urfa \V(Hlld b in ruptcd trav the L rfac in s and on1 ted br nud, rgTnund imHar .J:-eunl.c' in Florida todu'' and th L'tcilflhat h River in Dixie 1 Flnridu one of th n1any :;u h that travet'"S thi." typ of phy. It i:i< :.;ugge. t d that th dintents at Tbomus Fa1n1 \'\ere probnbiy depo.'itcd br su ... h ;an int d urn thnving O\' un x ly und d eply rod d b dro <. t the str ant r o d c l a11el (u t it: bank and th 'vatet" , \'&Js t1 uite deep, gn clars w r d po:dt d along \Yith the of
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CJ:OLOG Y O F T)txn: (;ILC IIRI:-T Paralzippus l eonensis 2) Bou lder Bar 1 P.c;, eudemy.s sp. indet. G e och elone tedu h i tei P eltosaurus fio-ridanus (-! u rod ic tl.'i ,r;;t anol8eni O;q?n. oph is ]Jau..perrirnus Alligator ol.s e ni orieidae, undescribed iom yo li.r.; jtorid(Inus cveral undescribed s pecie s of bats are pesent. 3) Boulde1 Bar II and c ross-bedded and .. caphiopu .c; cf. S h o lbrook i ?Leptodactylidae, frog of uncertain familial affinity Bufo pra e vius Hula, goini lv!icrohyla, s p indet Ra u(l, s p. i ndet. Urode la: aJamandcrs S iren hester na Phala crocora:r snbvola?: l s Prornilio floridanus epileus Promilio lnodko, 7)i .. 7'-l o 1cortalis laesslei Rlz e gnzinoruis cal uba t es Columbidae, d o v es, 2 undc cribed spec ies 19-_,) Corac: i ifoJ'JtH:'X, 2 undescr)bed pe('ieR, one a Barbet and one representing a new famih.r Compsoth1ypidae, Gen et il1det., \IVood ''VarbleT everal undes,cribed (petching) bird .' are present. Sorici dae, shre w, undescribed spec ies 8na.ptenos zolz-ite i .. JJOtis fl0'1' f dn 'll UR Several u nd e .. c i bed spec ies of bats are ptesent. j)f esUJJaulu::;, sp. indet., rodent, undescl'ibed species ciurida e g rou n d squirrel, undescribed pecies Proheteronz]Js Prolt e t ero m ys ftoridanus Cricetidae, ne'v vvor ld mouse, undescribed .. pec1es C?JUOd esnlNB ianzon e nsi.s 'Pornarctu s

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B t."LLETI::N )T 0. 49 Enhydrocyon BPiBt;idens A lon,(Jiramus A b.sonodaphoenus bath?Jgenus j ohnhe n 'ry i Oligo bun is ftoridanu8 ? Miomustela, sp. indet. Lepta'rct us ancipidens A nchithe1'iurn cla rencei Paraltipp'Us blackbergi Parahippus leonensis Rhinoeerotid ae, gen. et. sp, nov. Dice rathe rium ( Menoceras) sp. nov. olseni Flo11idart1Ytgulus dolichanthereus N othokemas florida nus Synthetoce' ra8 ,australis Blastornet "YX (ParablastonteTyx) M achae ro'tnery x gilc h ristensis QUATERNARY SYSTEM PLEIS'I'OCENE SERlE MARINE TERRACE DEPOSITS Dixie and Gi]christ counties are covered with quartz sands whic h contain seams of clay. Belts this sand extend around D i xi e and counties, parallel to the present T h e s e belts occur in step-like terraces rising inland from the coast, the oldest sediment being t h e highest in elevation. Each coast\vise belt extends up the major streams as deltas and flood plain alluvium. The terrac,es present in Dix i e and GUchrist counties and con t emporaneous deposits are presented be]o,v '''ith tentative age assignments: Tentative Age Late '''isconsin, Interglacial Late vVisconsin, Peoria. n, Interglacial Early Wisconsin, G lacial Sa.ngamon,. Interglacial Terrace and Shore Line Silver Bluff, 8 feet Erosion Pamlico,. 30 f eet Erosion Wicomico, 100 feet

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Gl!A)LOCY OF DIXIE AND GILCHRIS T ltECru;T SERIES FRESH 17\T ATER MARL 127 Fresh water marls occur commonly in the valleys of the Su wannee and Santa Fe rivers. These marls are 3 to 4 feet thick and abundant H e lisoma scalare (Jay) are also deposited on the bottom of Jakes and banks. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY GILCHRIST C OUNTY LIJ.lESTONE High purity limestones (peTcentage CaC03 ca]culated up to 95) of the Ocala Group abundantly in Gilchiist County and .are being at the Phi1rJot Quarry, sllown in figure 48, 1\iar vin S t ancel'.s Pit, BiU Rush's Pit, and several unnamed pits throughout the county Sufficient quantities of limestone avail able to sustain large quarry operation s The distribution of the limestone, together vvith ex-posure of bedrock, quar1ies and is sho,vn 011 figure 49 The G ilchrist County Road De -partment mines and uses the lime s t ones as a : road base course and as I'oad metaL The method of mining is open pit by use of a drag1ine and a front end mounted on a tractor. The pays royalties o f 25 cents per yard of limerock quarried by their road department, with the exception of the small o perations mentioned abov e, there are no lar ge mining com panies operating in the area. P110SPBATE Phosphatic sands, days, and limestone have bee n commer. ciaHy mined as hard rock phosphate in Gilchrist County s ince the early 1900,s. JY.Iost of the area \Vhich has been mined com mercially occurs in the eastern part of tho county in Range 16 East along the County boundary. The hard rock phosphate deposit is c jomposed of a mixture ot caleium phosphate and m,inera.ls, the predominant minexal being Fluor-apatite a]so occurs abundantly in the residual deposits from the of limestones+ In Gilchrist. County this nlineral is found in the sediments of the Alachua Formation which ove1 .. lies a very h'-regular topography developed on the top of a high1y pure lin1estone (Crysta] River

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F i gt11'e 4 =--. O I J 1 n s a 1 Oll

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++-t+.,. 0 RU E T GEoLOGY o .. AND GILCHRIST R 14 E R 15 E R 16 E ..!... SUWAN EE COU N T Y 1 1 1 1 j r COLUMIBIA + ..a I 'I J I 0 bJ C 0 U T Y I -1+ + .,. 0 I -) LOCATION ) 3 1 5 \ I \_J . "' STATE of FLORIDA 129 PHOSPHATE 1-r-'-r-''-r-f ll ME S T 0 N E STATE BOARD of CONSERVATION and PITS GILCHRIST COUNTY prepared by DIVISION of GEOLOGY

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130 BULLETI 0 49 Fo1mation). ln most pits, the succession of the rocks of the Alachua Formation thickens at the expense of the Crystal River Formation, and the highest development of the Alachua phosphatic clays (thickness -+-25), sands (thickness .approximat.ely 20 feet) and limestone occurs in areas of ]ow relief \V here the lime stone has undergone most erosion. 'rhe phosphate occurs in the clays as col1oida 1 phosphate and also as phosphorite, which in cases the size of pebbles. l\1ansfield (1942, p. 65) lists the fol1o\ving public phosphate lands in Gilchrist County: T7S, R14E, Sec. 24, SEI 4 Sec. 25, E 1 4, NEI 4, SW 14, NE/ 4 T8S, R14E, Sec. 9, NE/ 4, SE/ 4 ec. 12, NEI4, NE; 4 Sec. 13, E / 4, SEI 4 T9S, R14E, Sec. 20, NJ h SW 1 4 TlOS, R14E, Sec. 7, N 7f lot 3 R15E, Sec. 34,. NW I 4, NE/ 4, SW I 4, SE/ 4 r7S, R15E,. Se c 2, NE/ 4, S'i\r I 4, SE/ 4 Sec. 3, SE/ 4 Sec. 4, SEI 4, "r I 4, N 1h, S'V I 4 Sec. 10, NE/4, SW / 4, NE/4, SE/ 4 Sec. 11, NE14, .t: E l 4, S\o\' 14, SW /4, SE / 4 Sec. 14, 'V / 4 Sec. 15, NE/ 4, NE/4, Sec. 17, SW 14, SE/ 4 Sec. 19, SE/ 4, SE/ 4 Sec. 22, N'i\' / 4, N\V / 4, S\V 1 4 Sec. 28, S\V 1 4, S\V 1 4 Sec . 29, SE/4, SW /4, SE/ 4 Sec. 30, \V / 4, NE/4, N'.V / 4, NW / 4, S'V 14,, / 4 Sec. 31, N\V I 4, SE/ 4 Sec. 32, NE/ 4, S\V I 4, NEI 4 Sec. 33, SW /4, NE14., NW /4, SE/4 T8S, R 15E, Sec. 4, SW I 4, NEI 4 Sec. 5, NE/ 4, NW 1 4 Sec. 6, SW/4, NW/ 4 Sec .. 7, S\V 14, SW 1 4 Sec. 8, W1;,2, NE/ 4, NEI 4, NW I 4

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T9S, R15E, T7S, R16E, T8S,. R16E, T 9S, R16E, TlOS, R16E, G:Ror.ooy OF DIXIE AND Gn.cHRIST Sec. 20, N\V I 4, SE / 4 Sec. 29, NE/ 4, NE/ 4 Sec. 8, S\V /4, NW / 4 Sec. 28, NE/ 4, NW / 4 Sec. 19, NJh, lot 3 Sec. 5, SE/4, NW / 4 Sec. 6, NE/ 4, NE/ 4 Sec.. 8, SE/ 4, N'V / 4, S, SE/ 4 Sec. 10, NE/ 4 Sec. 2 l1, N % N"\V /4, SW /4, N'V / 4 Sec. 26, NE/ 4, SE/ 4, NW /4, E%, SW / 4 Sec. 4, N%, NE/ 4 Sec. 6, NE/ 4, NE/ 4 Sec. 34, vV?1:, N'V / 4 Sec. 8, NE/ 4, NW/4 131 Soft phosphate,. "\Vith colloidal and phosphorite, :is being mjned by the Loncala Phosphate Company in several (Sec. 12, Sec. 13 and 1\iona Mine) and is processed .at their Mona Plant, shown in figure 50t in Gilchrist County. The following is the c hemical analysis of a soft phosphate rock sample ,vhich is prnces r sed at the Mona Plant (ana.lysis courtesy o f the Lonca1a Phvsphate Company) : ro Moistur, e, Free Water 4.00 Loss on Ignition (Cotnbined Water and Organic Mattet) 7.95 N i nogen {N) 0.04 Phosphoric Acid (P:!On) 22.50 Phosphorus ( P) 9.82 Potassiu:rn Oxide (1{ 20) 0.82 Calc ium (CaO) 27.08 Calcium (Ca) 19 . 34 Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Sodium (Na20) 0.43 Aluminum Oxide ( ... l\.J20a) 11.81 Iron (Fe2 0 s ) 2.38 Silica Dioxide ( Si02) 19.95 Carbon Dioxide (C02 ) 1.55 Sulfa.te 0.09 Fluorine (F) 1 . 38

PAGE 142

0 i m :ure 50. ion a P lan l ( ) f L onua liDJ rhociph t e I

PAGE 143

GEOLOGY OF DlXill AXD GILCHRLS' r Chlorine (Cl) Iodine (I) Vanadium O xide (V:!O:l) lVlanganese Oxid e (MnO) Copper Oxide (CuO ) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Boron (B) Molybdenum (Mo) Cobalt (Co) 0.01 0.005 0.055 0.012 0.0008 0.0048 0.008 0.019 0.0089 99 . 9619 The f1ow sheet of the operations of the !-iona Plant of the Loncala Phosphate Company appears in 51. The :fo11o,ving are the production figures (in long tons) of the !Vlona Plant: ITDJlllm MM./I I a IMiiiiJI!Ii tW l,..bT [IIOT .MOWit) IIWIII. MACIIII!Iil IIIQ
PAGE 144

134 B .... 0 1950 -----------------1 220 1951 2575 1953 -----------------------------338 1!>54 -------------2301 1955 --------------------------1634 1956 -------------------5997 1946-1955 ----------9 DIXIE COUNTY l.I I E TO E Sec. 18 412 2619 282 3313 ec. 25 Mona (1947) 57,117.30 L"lr g e resel"ves of very high quality limestone occur throughout Dixie County. Ch ern ically this limestone consists of 77.2 to 97.27 percent o f CaC03 (see table 16 for chen1 ical analys i s). Limerock has been qua.rded commercially in Dixie County on the Dempsey s Farm {Locality 841) to make chimney b l oc k s In an a b andoned qua rry (Locality 848, LDx 9S 13E db) located in NE/4, SE/4, Sec. 2 T9S R13E, limestone \Vas quarried and used for building blocks. These quarTies 'vere c l osed and their operations discontinued befo1c World 'Var I I as the u s e of brick became more popular. There are numerous abandoned small quarri e s and borro'\.v pits in the county, and l imestone from these quarries has been ex tensive l y u s ed in the building of roads. The State Road Depa1tment mined limestone along U. S. Highway 19 from the Steinhatchee Rivet in t h e east to the Su\vannee River on the w est. Localiza t i on of thes e small pits jg shown in figu11e 52 together with the areal of the Hmes tone. TABLE 16. A AL SE OF DRY Lll\fE TON E A fPLES FROI\'l DLTE C O UNTY, FLORIDA Sample o 1 2 3 -1 .J 6 % o u T u;nitio n 35.1% 42. 3 % 41,3% 43 .05% <12 .82% 6? Acid lnso)ublc.a 14.8 2 9 3 3 1.4 0 .30 0 .40 ;.o Oa 3 7 nil nil nil 0,110 0 ,8(1 % Ca a!l 43.2 5-."l.U .'io:{ ij 5UH il.47 % l1g l'f l.(i 2 5 1.27 L.09 -T o t a l 98.4-100 8 8 liJC). 7 99.76 119.5 8 % C11 Cwcula ted as CaCOs 77. 2 % 9 1.2% 9+.7% 90. 0'1> 9 7 tli hy J S. Mcinnis and E. W. Carri:1 l o r tl e H udson P ulp nnd l"npor Cor p made 1n-ailab l e t tnc courtcay o f L\I r Paul M Wllitc.

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..., ...... "' .... + .,.. .... + ,.... -+ ..., :: .... iF.OT .OGY OF l)IXIE .A.t'\'D GILCHRIST 135 110 ( Ill t llE r f t I ' f .. ""r; r:-r:;;r -v .. ( : rr 1 r o r Jfc.rit:o LIMESTONf .!.:. .,. ::,__ "'::. -LIMESTONE QUARRIES and PITS T JIH COUNTY .fT:.'L.,.. I 'l .... y I :L I lit, .. 'X'"'III ..l-;;;;, ;--.. ti-ro;,,. -L< \ i/! ::. 0 I l.:l OE.OTOWN l:::tS_, Jilt I .... I I L I. STAlE of FLORIDA STATE BOAROofCONSEiVATION D IXIE by DIV I I SION of GEOLOGY 52. D istriL ulwn ot 1 l olomit.ic lim e-stone and limesloue in D ixie Count.y.

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136 No. 49 Limerock is being mined in Dixie County commercially by Buckeye Cenu 1ose Con1pany in the vicinity of the U . S. High,vay 1'9 bridge on the Steinhatchee Rivet" (see Locality 328 for a de tailed section)'., and the is used mainly as a road base course and n1etal. Httdson Paper and P ulp also mines }j met"ock in several quarries in the southern pal"t of the High purit}r linle-Stone is 1--eadily available in Dixie County in enough reser\res to sustain large quarry operations to support a chemical or a cement plant. DOLOrtiiTE A D DOLO!tiiTIC LI lE TONE Dolomite and dolomitic limestone of Upper E o c ene Age occur in Dixie County, shown in figure 53, in a be l t paralleling the coastline ranging in elevation from sea level to 10 f eet. The dolomite and dolon1itic limestone ]n thickness tvllO to ten feet in mo s t of the area. A bare eroded by the high tide is cuntinuously neat Co\v Creek (fig. 53 )1 Chemically, the dolomite t"ock consists of a varying quantity of magnesium carbonate (l\[gC' O s). In some samples, location of \Yhich is s ho\vn in figUl"e 54, the MgC03 is higher than 35 percent. but n1ost of the rocks have a lowel 1\fgCO a content. C hen1ical analysis, published by IIopkins ( 1942, p. 40) and unpu bli shed 11'igurc 5.'3. Typ ical expo. tuc of the dol m r 1itc roPk Cow 1TP-e k Dixie C m m ty, F lorida.

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I ..... .. .... --1 ... "" .... + .... ..... .... 137 ; R 1 0 l Ill ; RIH cou Cuff :r j co EXPLANATION I 0 I l J 4 loUi n l ........ . LIMESTONE LD ...... LIMESTONE DOLOMITIC D ........ DOlOMITE D 4 (From Hudson Paper and Pulp Corp ) LD-1, 0-1, D-2 and 0 3 (after Hopkin1s 1942) fi4. Lor.alion of of dolomite ancl dolomitic ]lmest.one in Dixi e County1 Florid a

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138 B .Jo. 49 data furnished by Hudson Paper and Pulp Company, show that Silica. (Si02 ) and iron (Fe20s) occur as chief impuTities (table 17 and 18). Ho"ever, much of the Silica in the Hopkins .analysL represent caving into the hole \vhen the samples \ver e taken. Al though the extent of dolomite and dolomitic limestone is extensive (see figure 52), the thickness of the rock in most places is less than ten feet. Consequently, there at e not enough reserves to s u stain l arg-e quarry ope1 ations fo1 use as crushed stnne. TABLE 17 A AL I OF DRY IPLE OF DOLO llTIC Lll\IE TO E FROM DI IE CO TY, FLORIDA Sample No. Lo on IJtllition Add fn .... ulubl e 1\ln.tter Iron 4\:. Aluminum Oxides Cnlcium Calea uul O:xitle t\1 IL5 0Jtid Total Combit141iontt ( 'aLr-ium as. Cilicium Carhun lh ; \ cid l11soh1hlr M&Uer [ron & .Aluminum ?t.hKncadtaa n 8.'} MBgne,.ium Cal'bonato Tulal 7 4.j.90 0.60 0 ,70 35. 6 17.02 90.90 03.71 IU\U 0.70 :i5 7 1 100 7 5 lvi'li,. hy K w. Gl.lrrislor the Paper Corp., lJitLdo nvlillublo throll.l(h u y o[ Mr. Pai L .M. W hi le. TABLE 1 I OF DY DOLOM1 T I LI IE TO E IPJ .. E FRO I DIXIE 0 T FLORID m r llc No DDl 1Jl>2 DD3 Lo o n lgni tioo 37.8 1 3 ... 4 F 10, l. 7 0.20 0.26 :\gO 13.46 7 61 b COa 2 1 ).!; 97 '-0 2U. 9' l 12 .02 33.20 53. 21.1 5 .o, 14.002 so.s.;t lo.:n' t I J) Jl) I lll' 12, [), 10. Probably Cln.\ing lfrrom s:Lnd at the suraoo rmru)'I!IC8 should he rccaalculat.ed. Howeve1, dolomite, dolomitic limestone, and the under1ying high purity limestones, could economicaUy be quarried and used as crushed rock. In Dixie hard rock phosphate occurs in small quantities in several patches around Hines. In borro"r pits (Locality 372) and an abandoned quarry (Locality 362), three to four feet of hard rock pho phate ,,. a noticed overlying the Crystal River Formation.

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GBOLOG Y O F I>nor} A KID GILCHRIST 139 Mansfield ( 1942 p. 65) lists the following public phosphate land s in Dixie County: T9S, R12E, Sec. 32, N'VV/4, SE/ 4 8ec. 34,. SW / 4, NE/ 4 Sec. 36, NE/ 4, SW /4, NE /4,. SE/ 4 T8S, R13E, 14, N lh SE/ 4 Sec. 26, NE/4, SW / 4 T9S, R13E, 3, NvV/ 4, NW/ 4 Sec 9, SE/ 4 Sec 10, S%, NE/ 4, SE/ 4t NW / 4, Sec. 13, l ots 3, 4, and 7 Sec. 15, all Sec 17,. NE/ 4, EY2, NvV/ 4, SE/ 4 SW/ 4, SE / 4 Sec. 18, SE/4, NE/ 4 Sec. 19, N % NE/ 4 Sec. N\V / 4, NE/4,. NE/ 4, NvV/ 4 Sec. 22,. NE/ 4 Sec. 23, NE/ 4 Sec. 24, lots 3., 4, 5,. 6, 7, and 8 Sec. 31, SE/4,. NW/ 4, SE/ 4, SE/ 4 1TlOS,. Rl3E, Sec 18, NW/ 4, NE/ 4 Sec . 28, N\V /4, NE/ 4, S\V / 4 Sec. 29, NW/ 4, SW/ 4, NE/ 4 SE/ 4 Sec 31, SE/4,. S'V /4, / 4, SE / 4 Sec. 32, EY2, SE/ 4 Sec .33, NE/4, SE / 4 Sec 35,. E N' I 4 Sec 36, S % lot 10 TllS, Rl3Et Sec 1, Jot 4 Sec .3, N\V / 4, NE/ 4, SE /4, NE/ 4, NE/4, SE/ 4 Sec. 4, N % NE/ 4, S'\ / 4, NE/ 4, SW /4, N'V/ 41 N % SW/ 4 Sec. 161 lot 6 Sec. 7, lot 1 Sec. 8, NE/ 47 SE/ 4, N'\V /4,. SE/4, SE/ 4 Sec. '9, NW /4, SE/ 4 Sec . 15, NE/ 4, SE / 4 Sec. 17, NE/ 4, SE/ 4 SBc. 22, NW/ 4, N'\V /4, SE/4,. SW/4, SW/ 4, SE/ 4

PAGE 150

140 BULLETIN _[ 0. 49 T8S, R14E, Sec. 1 9 NE/ 4, SvV / 4 Sec 29, lot 2 Sec. 19, lot 3 The .re is not enough pho s pha t e rock in Dixie County to sustain a ]arge comm,ercial operation and to date there have been no ]arge operations in County Both Dixie and GHchli s t counties have excellent roads and (see p. 8 under transportation) and Interstate High vva y No. 75 runs east of Gilchrist County, as sho,vn h1 figure 55. or EXL'LAMATION --------Sdlltlle H;gh.ocrp(UncMr OQI'!II"!OOio-1 01 Propaad) ----Hcll11D1Go! PiP
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GEOLOGY 01;' I)IXIE AND GILCHRIST 141 BffiLIOGRAPHY Adams, C. S. l!l<3'1 (and Swinnerton, A. C.) of Li1nestonc: Trans. Aro. Geophys. Union, pi. 2, p. 504-508. Altschule't, Z. S 1 960 (and Young. E. J.) Rtsidua l origi)1 of the .. Plcistoc lW" sand mantle in coz.tral Flariria upl(lltd8 tufl its bead 11g 61t nzarinc lcrrrrcelj a1ul C uozoi c upl "jf: U. S. Geo]. Survey Prol. UIH! f p. 202-207. Applin, R (see Applin, Paut L. J. A.) 19 5 (and Jordan, Louise) DilJ gno.o;tic Po ram i"nifcrH /1om lnt. bsurfrrcc formation in fi"folida: Jour. Pal ontology VoL 19, p. 129-148, pl. lS-21. 1955 A biofacies of TVoodbi11c A o in Gull coastal region: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 2641 p. 187-191, p. 48, 49. Applin, Paul L. 1944 (and Applin,, Esther R.) Regio11al. rfubsurfacc stratigraphy and l-itruciur' of Florida tnuJ .wut ILcrn Am. Assoc Petro leum Geolog-hit s Bull., Vol. 2 no. 12, p. 1673-1753. 1947 (and .t\pplj n, Esthc1 R.) R egional suusu1/acc 8lratigraphy, Rtruoturr 1 and co' rrc7ation of m iddfr crcfacc,azu:J rorlcs in. Alabama; Cl?l d nmth Flrnida: u.s. rGcol. Sul"Voy Oi l and Gas rn Vcst i gntmons Pr limi nary Chart 26 (in 3 sheets}. 1951 Pr, li1niwaru .n:port on bztritJd J lre-Ar l'ROZI'Iic i1l Florida and adjacent U. S Geol. Survey Ci-rc. 91, 2 p. Bassler, R. S. (sec Canu, Ferdinand) Barbour, T homas 1944 That vanishing Eden; a 1zaturaliRI's Florida. 102p. Berdan, Jean (see also Brid "e, Josiah) 1951 (and Bridge. Josiah) Th fJ ology of Citrus tutd Let y counties: Fla. Geo l. Survey Bull. 33, p. 6871. Bretz, J. Harlan 1942 1 1 adol-ie and ph'reutic featu:'l e.s of 1-im r s to ur J OliH'. Geology V ol. 50, no. 6, pt. 2, p. 675-811. Bridge. Josiah (see alt-to Berdan, Jean) 1952 (nnd Berdan. Jean) f'rcliminarlJ corr, latiDn of tlw Pa7co:!oic rocklj Fnnn test ; wellH in FloJida t1.1ul adjacent }JO rts Georgia and Alabama: Fla. Geo1. Survey, Guidebook Am. St.a e Geologists, p. 29-38, 1 fig. Canu, Ferdinand 1920 (and Bassler, R. S. A1tl dcoJl early T c1tia-ry Bryozoa: l S. at. fus. Bun. 879p . 1791 figs., 162 p]s. Cush, W. T. 1 988 Th.e stoTy of F'lorida: Am. Hist. Soc., Vo]. II, 1012p.

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142 BULLEI!'IN No. 49 ClapJJ, F. G. (see : Matson, G. G.) Cole, W. 1 930 1931 1938 1941 ]942 1944 Storrs (and Ponton, G M.) Tke F ,oraminijera of the .lJtJa'M:anna lime8tone of Florida: Fla. Geo t Survey Bull. 5, p. ]9-69. The Pliocl$ne and PleistQC6Jl-fJ Foramtinijera. of Florida: Fla. GcoL SuTvey BulL 6, 58p., :pl. ]-7, text. fig. 1 3. St-ratigr(J.phy and mir.rop aleont(,logy of two deep wells in Florida : Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 16, 77p. Stratig?aphic and paleontologic st u ,clies of well-s in Fl(n-ida: Fla. Geol. Survey BuU. 19, 89p., 1 8 pls. St' ra tig-rapkic and paleortt()logic studies of wells in Florida-No. 2: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 20, 89p., 16 pls. St'tatigraphic and paleotttologic studies of wells in, FloridaNo. 8 : F la. Geol. Survey Bull. 26,. 1 6Sp ., 29 pis. a .nd paleontologic stu.d ies of wells in Flo-ridfN--No. 4 : Fla. Geol. Survey Bul L 28, 129p., 8 fig-s. 22 p ls., 17 tables . Cooke, C. Wythe {$co abo Parker, G G.) 1915 The a ge of tkG Ocala limestone: U S. Geot Survey Prof. Paper 95 p. 1071 1 7. 1929 (and l\t1ossom, Stuart) Geology of Floridct..: Fla. GeoL Survey 20th Ann. p. 29-227. 19,36 (and :l.iansfie ld, ,V. C ) Suw,annee limestone of Florida (abs.): Geol. Soc. Amer. Proc., ]935,. p 71-72. 1939a BoutMiary between Oligocene and lVliocene t An1. Assoc. Geologists Bull. VoL 23, n o 10, p 1 560-1561. 19,39' b Scenery of Florida interp1etecl by a geologist: Geol. Survey Bull. 17, 1 1 8p., 5a figs. 1945 Geology of Florida: F]a. Geol. Survey Bul L 29, 339p. Crooks, J W (see Pride, R. '\V. } Cushman, Joseph A 1'9'47 (and Applin, E. R.) 11WO new speC'ies of lower C1etaceo1ts bom Florida : Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., V ol. 23, pt. 2, n o 291, p. 29-30, pl. 10, figs 4-10 Dall, William H. 1887 Notes o n the g eology of Am . Jour. Sci., 3 d Vol. 34, p. 1161-1 '10. 18901 903 Co-ntri b utio-ns to tke T e 'rtia.ry fa u .na of Florida 1vith srpecial refe,, en ce to the beds of Tampa and tlte Pliocene of the River: Wagner Free lnst. Sci Trans., Vol. 3, pts. 1-6, p. ] -1G54, 60 pls. Pt. 1, 1890;. Pt. 2, 1892; Pt. 3, 1 895; Pt. 4., 1 8'98; Pt. 5, 1900; Pt. 6 1903 ]892 (and HEu T i s1 G D.) Cm'1'elatwn pape?-J:o leocene: U. S. Geol. Bull. 84, 34 9p 1894 (and StanleyB rown, .J. ) C enozoic geology along the Apalachicola River: Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.,. Vol. 5, p. 147-170. Davis, vV. M. 193 0 Origin of Caver-ns : Geo l. Soc. of A m Bull., V oL 41,. p 475--628.

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Fenncmnn, 1938 ;EOLOGY oF Drxm A .. "'D :1rTLCHRT"'T . 1\I. PhysiQgtuphy ol tlw castcrtt United Slat, s: Co., ew York, p. 46-47. Ferguson, G. E. 143 IcG1aw-IIiU Book 1947 (and others .. of Flo1icla: Fla. Gcol. .._ urvcy Bull. 31, 37 figs., 4 tnblcs. John 1823 Gcolo,Jictd l'ssuy on the Tertian/ fon'l'zation in A mcrica: A.m. Jour. ci., Vol. 7, p. 31-43. Foster, D. 1942 Ch 1Hisf.,y of Ground lJ"ot r.r, 111 0. E., Hydrology, p. 646-G55. Gooden, H. G. 1960 (and Yon, J. W .. Jr.) TIL rcgio11al lit1rost.ratig1"01Jhy of Ot, post Eocen rock o.f Florida: outheastern GeoL Soc., 9th Field Trip. p. 75-113, 3 pl., 7 figs. Gravell, D. W. 1928 (and II anna, r..t. A.) SubRurfacr Tertiary zmlcs of correlation through A fa ba' nto, and Arn. Assoc. Pe troleum Geologists Bull., Vol. 22, p. 984 .. 10 1 3. Hanna. }i. A. (s' Gruvcll, D. W.) Harris, G. D. (see also Dall, H.) 1951 Preliminary notes tm Ocala bit,alves: BuH. An1. Paleontology, Vol. no. 13 55p., 13 pls. Healy, II. G .. 1962 Wat r l eve ls in ian and nona des ian a(Juifms of FloJ'ida in 1900: Fla. Gcol. urvey Inf. Circ. no. 33, 1lp. Howell, B. F 1949 (and Richards, H. G.) 1Ycw Paleozoic linguloid braclliopocl !ro1n Floridtr. \Vugner Free Inst. Sci. Bull., Vol. 24, no. 4, p. 35-37. IIopki ns, R. H. 1942 The dolomitic limcJ.;toncs of FloTida: Fla. Geot Su,.vcy Rept. Inv., no. a p. :t-104. Johnson, Lawrcnc 1 The st1ucture of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., Vol. 36, p. 230-236. Jordan, Louise (sec Applin, Esther R.) Kohout, F. 965 A hypoth BiM co1rccrning cyc1ic flow of salt tvat r related to geotlt rmal h a t.ing in th Florida1t aquij r: ew York Acad. Sci. Trans., er. 2, Vol. 2 no. 2, p. 249-271.

PAGE 154

144 BuLLLTIN To. 49 Levin, Rai"old L. 1957 lllicropttleoutolouu of the Oldsmar (Eoceno): paleontology, Vol. 3, no. 2. p. 137-154, pis. 1-4, text figs. 1-2, chart 1. facNeil, F. Stearns 1944 Oligocene strutiu raphy of southeastern United Sto tr.s: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., Vol. 28, p. 1313-1354, 1 .fig. 1'950 Pleistocene in Florida and G(o ruin: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pupcr 221-F, p. 951 07. Wendell C. (see Cooke, C. Wythe) 1942 Plrosphet tc resources of Florida: S. Gcol. Survey Bull. 934. Iatson. G. G. 1909 (and Clapp, F. G.) prclintinury r port on tit geolooJJ of Flor-ida 11 itlt special rcjr:r nco to the stra tig l'a']Jily: Fla. Gcol. ur vey, 2d nn. Rcpt.. 1!108-1909, p. 25-173. Mossom, Stuart (sc Cooke, C. "1ythe) 1\lurray, G. E. 1952 Gcolou11 of Beauregard uncl Allen pcuishcs: Louisiana Dept Conser. Geol. Bull. 27 (sttnti rraphy, pl. 13). Olsen, S. J. 1958 1962 Tltc CN1Jf': A-nw tcH? palconto7ogists investigat'lJ an undcntcrtr.r site tu FloriclCL: Natural History, p. 396-40il. Thr, Thornas Fann quarry: Quart .. Tour. Fla. Acnd. Sci., Vol. 25, p. 142-14G. Paln1erJ K. V. "r (see Richards, Horn G.) Porker, Garald G. 1!)44 (and Cooke, C. \V. TJclte Ctnlozoic geology of soutlzent Florida, wit.lr lc cliseU8 inn of t1. ground water: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 27 1 Hlp .. 4 figs., 16 pls. 1955 (and others) Wnter r sou1ccs of soutlwastcrn Floridtt with spc:cial rcfercnclJ to tltc g ology and ground water of tit tiwmi ar a: U. S Geol. Su1v y "rater-Supply Paper 1255, 9631 Ponton, G. M. (see Cole, Vl. Storrs) Pressler, E. D. 1947 Gculouu and occurrence ol oil in F'loridu: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., Vol. 31, p. 1851-18()2. Price, W. A. 1956 The low energy coa t a1tcl its new slzorvlinc typcts on tiro Gulf of lllc:.dco: Inter. Quart. Cong . 4th, Rome-Pisu, 19153,. Actc (v. 1), p. 159-166. Pride, R. W. 1962 ( ancl Crooks, .T. r) The clrougltt of 1951,-1956, its cff ct on Htt1/uce-wutc1 rcsourceR: Fla. Geol. Survey Rcpt. Inv., no. 26, 65 p.

PAGE 155

OF DLXlE AND G]LCHRIST 145 Pu:ri, Harbans S. (see also Vernon, R. 0 .; Yon, J. W., Jr.) 1958 Zona,tion of the Ocala g1ou.p in peninsula' r Fl(}rida, (abs.): Jour. Sed. Petrology, Vol. 23, p 1 30. 1954 Cont't'ibu 'tion to the stud11 of the Miocene of the Florida Pan handle: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull 36, 345 p. 1957 Stratigraphy and zmw.tion of the Ocala group: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 38, 248 p. 1959 (and Vernon, R. Summa'1'"Y of the geology of Florida and a guidebooll: to the cla .ssic ectpoS"ures : Fla. Gcol. Survey Spec. Pub. 5, 255p. 1964 (and Ve1non, R. 0.) Summa?"Y of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Fla. Geo l. Spec. Pub. 5 (Revised), Ray, Clayton E. 1957 A list, bibliogra. ph.y1 a'l'td of the verteb-rates of Florida: Fla. Geol. Spec. Pub.. 3, 175p. Richards, Horace G. (see also Howell, B. F.) 1953 (and Palmer, K. V. W.) Eo(;,ene 'i"nollu.sks f?otn CitnlB and Levy counties, Fl
PAGE 156

o. 49 (in preparation) (and Vernon, R. 0. and Puri, H. S.) Florida land/01'7ft.S. Victor C. 1954 Pollard Fiel!l, Escambia Cowuty14 Alabarna: Gulf Coast Assoc. Soc. Trans., VoL 4, p. Jl21-142, 15 figs. Yon, J. Willian1, J1 . (see also Goodell, H. G.) 1962 (and Puri, S.) GeolQgy of Wacasassa Flats, Gilchrist County, Florida. : Atn. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., Vol. 46, p. 674-(184, 6 figs., 1 table. Young, E. J. (see Altschuler, Z. S.).

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Gl!;OLOGY OF AN o f:ILCIIRIST 147 APPE DIXIE COUNTY Location WeB No. 1 / 4 1 / 4 ec. Twr. Range E1evattun TotaJ Depth A HW" 17 12E 35 .61' 34' w ,E 7 liS 1 21' 19' 2 E 10 ]1 l2E 15 57' 9' -vv 15 10 l2E 35 92' 4H' 4 E SF. 35 lilS J2E 18 .54' 2H' A' 5 \V l' \ V 11 }2;. 12E 1 5 1 31 24' Al. -G E \ V Zl 12 12E 15. 54' 24' A 7 E \V 35 12F. 10.4i' 34' A. 9 E N\V 2:2 lOS 20. HJ' 44' AS-91 E N\V 19 13 12E 2.27' 39' A.' 92 N\V X \Y 15 13 ., l2E .38' 4G' A .. 93 w 2 13 12E 10.61' 34' A-. 94 E 17 I2S 13E 15.14' 19' Z7 liS l;lE 17 75' 39' 10 u . 13E 25 72' 3 (l/ M-97 1 1 aE 5 4-' I 4H' A ... -9 .E 22 9, 12E 49. 66' 24' A -99 2 !JH 12E 55. I I ) A, -100 .. 'R 3 us lO E 3 1 7W 14' A -10 1 N\V 11 8S lOE 3l. 7 I 14' A 102 NE J_E 24 10E 31. 77' I I 34 12S 11:8 10. I 20' 14 I'>. ..... 10E 4 .37' 55' 25 U8 liE LO. 71' (i5' HL25' 50 ' -315 32 10.' 12E 2 1.26' 45' A -316 26 OS 4 49' 13. 5' A, -317 26 u: 4.54' 5' AS-318 2 S u: UE 50' 19 13 1 12E 6.49' HO' AS-320 10 45' 50' A -321 15 63' 60' AS-3J.? I -10 111 llE 24.20' 54' AS-323 1 9 13 12E 3 .60' 90' \ V-504 NE 29 us lOE 7' 95' W-593 vv 31 9d l1E 42. 5 Gr. 118' W -59 0 10, 12E 11.93 Gr. 100' W-63G 7 11 12E 1 Gr. 47 0' \V-071 1 0 lOS 12E 42 .00' 215' W-10 l4E 1 4 &' 45 W-10 9 17 liE 37. 2' il. -1114 N \Y N\\1' 5 11 11E 2:{' Or 7510' W-1246 12 13 21' W-1247 22 11E a' 14 I W-124 11 OJ 0 1 14 .5' W-1240 23 OE 3' 9 .1'

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148 BULLgTlX No. 49 DIXIE o u TY-C o ntinu e d Locat i on \\,Tell Nn. 1/-1 1 / 4 '('. Twp. llanJ,!;e Elevation Totnl Depth W-lJ05 '\V 1 E :!5 Gr. ;1 )fl' W-15()5 ) 13E + jH' 1 ()!)()' W-156 HE IH I lE +40' 651' \V-1 fi()U W-lfi70 \Ylfi7l B NE 17 12E +5W 15 1 3 W-1572 .E 1H liE 39' 1572' \ Y-1 G3 "N\V :iO IOE 41.2'DF 5104 'Y-3151 l-4-292 0' '-42n9 w 3fi J 140' 131' W-f\flfiD R"r ' V 12S liE 7fj'

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Core Tiolc No. 1 7 8 0 10 li c 1:.! 13 14 15 16 17 1 b HJ a 20 22 23 2 25 2(i 27 2H ao 31 b 32 a:; 34 a 3H ._,J I GEOLOGY OF DIXffi Ar. 1) \ STANOLIND CORE HOLES DIXIE COUNTY, FLORIDA Lo cution 200' N of E eorner 500' ... of W cor ne r NW rorncr 000' S & 300' \V of XE corner 500' N & 500' E of \ rorner 20' of 1\ corner 600' \Y of E corner E 1650' E of S \Y rnrner 250' \V .. 250' N of ,E corner AtJt>rox. -140' ... of tenter 2000' ._ & 61l0' E of N\V corner 1 GOO' of NE corner tOO' of E corner 00' E 100' of comer 1900' N c'" 000' \V of, E ,orner 2250' W ot N E co t ner 1000' E & 1600' H of .KW corner 450' & 400' E of '\\1 corner 50' & 200' \V or l 'E corner 350' .. 100' \Y of NE corner 1200' X e 1000' E of '\\' corner .500' .. 350' E of 8 \Y corner 4{)0' E uf \V corncr GOO' E J' 600' N of R\V corner 2400' & 200' E of ""W corner 500' E of N\V conH'r 1300' \\T .. :;oo' of. 'E corne r 1 GOO' E 3 0' of \V forner 2100' E & X of '\Y corner 600' E & or 1\"'VV corner 1700' E & 2 100' \V eorner 2000' \ & 1600' of ... E corner 2500' W & 1 300' of E corner 650' ... & 1200' \V of E cor11er 400' \Y & 200' )f or .. IE ('Orner ,:ec. 36 22 6 20 32 l 15 2.3 lc ti 15 4 14 at 17 21 :w 4 16 ] t.) )..> 36 20 3a 15 36 lH l 1'-l 17 25 10 'I'wp. Range 11 E 9cl J 1 E llE 10;.., l l E JOH liB llE liE roE llE 10E 10-E lOE lOE 128 liE g lOE 12S llE 12 I lOE 13E 10, 10 13B 1 h, 12E 12S 12E 12 I 12E 12S 121G 128 12E 13E 13E JaE 10.. 13E lL. 1 2S 12E 1 2S 12E 1 I.' llE 12., 1 1 E llR 12'8 Elevation 41.0' 30.0' 32.0' ::)0. 0' 22 5' 20.0' 0' 7 7' 1 2 .0' 1 1 0' 17. 14.5' (j. 0' 27. n' 5 .8' :)5.6' .4' 1!). I 1). I _3' 0 .4' 11.0' .1' 27.0' ')'} 0' .......... 17 .0' 18. 2' 4 .0' G.O' HL I 2 5' 1() 0' 149 Totnl depth 14 ,, 143' 45 I :{H6' 3iG' 41 I 2 '0' 45 I )'lt .. ..... > InW I .5' 150' 71' 16G' 121' 106' l 6S' 105' 110' 150' 12G' 5 ,, 126' 14 12h' 15(i' Mi' 12 I lUH' lJJ' ... 1X3' 107' 1-i (

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150 BULIJF.TTN 0. 49 GILCHRIST COUNTY Location \VcllKo. l /l 1 / 4 e<. 'fv.rp. Eleva1 ion Total Depth '-(H r -.E 1 10;' 14E 24:. 27' 19' Af 6'} J N\Y '\Y 1-! 10. 14E 40 2' 39' AH-f51 'E NE 1 10. 15E 50. 7' 69' A.'-6S Sf!; NE 14 lOS l5E 61 14' 59' A.' 6G E 1\7 16E 83 .12' 49' AS-67 vv NW 10 16E 112.20' 59' AS-68 sw N \IV 6 17E 44' A. :..uu I \ t V 14E 39. 25' 24' NE NB 14-E 35 05' 24' N"'\\7 1\, 1 5 14E 49 .34' 19' 27 14E 52.66' 29' AB-7;1 15 14..1& 39.'17' 34' '-7-t .. E 24 1-!E 8L:H' 77' E 15E 79 28' 71' 1\"v V I V i 14 15E 71. 77' 7 1'\' V NvV 20 16E 5. f>W 29' '\Y 15 16E 6f ___ ) D I 3-l' KE 24 79. 41' 29' .Fanni ng S J ,rin gs 28.27' 0' NW 15 s 14.E ao.o 1 5 1 I 'E 20 ,. l!iE G4.0' 54' A .,_2 H 7:::; l5E 64.6' AS-200 20 7' 15E 63. '9' 44' AS-291 20 7.15E 65 2' 59' A,' 292 20 I 15E 05. 2' 4U' 'E 20 7 j 15'E 64.9' 23' 'E 2 0 """ 65 .2' 5-t' l. h 'E 20 ,.... ,.... 15E 61. 30' I I -2tHl 20 15E 64:.6' 40' 20 -, I . 15E 64.3' 34' 20 15E 64.0' 59' A.: -299 20 15E 5,_ _, I I 24' A. '-:.iOO 20 7S 15E 53.4' 24' ryy .'Iii 20 7 15R 62. I 24' M-302 :KvV l.1F. 15E 63.9' 19' A._t:)-303 KW -. ,. 15E 6:1. 1 2' A, '-304 7 20 -. ,, 15E 5'
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a :J:JoLoGY oF DIXm AND 1lLCHRIST 151 GILCifRIST COUNTY Locati on Wen No. 1/ti 1 / 4 ec. Twp. Hango Elcvnt ion Totul Depth A,._q_327 -\V SE 3 10'"" lSE 57 .42' 35 AS-32 SE \V 15E 40' AS-32ft ;w 2G 9 ... l5E 66.27' 45' .., -aao S \ 1 "" 24 ns 1 fi 6. Iff AS-331 KE SE 13 OS 8') >7' .... ..., 5' AS-.132 H\V 7 9. llJE 1 ., .. _, 25' AS-333 E ,'1.!,; 31 HiE t; 0' AS-33 IG HiE 64. 62' 25' A&-3aS E }-.! l fiE 75.1"' A. a33G :NE l \V 13 88 64 8H' 74' SE H'V 12 l I E 1. 17' 55' .o\S-33 SE 3(} 14 4fi .. ..,, l J-aw M 3:iu 2l ii.i l I E 63.07' 70' N\ 30 us 1.5E 40. a' 1 5' ,.1\B-341 NR .. E L HS ]4E 74. 10' ; -W' A' a42 E NE 30 15E .JO. li' 40' AS-343 I \V 24 7 I fig 61. 97' 10' A1 3 1 1 S\Y tn TS lUE 3 !. 20' HJ' AB-:-34.=> I E NE 15E 70' 1-\..8""34.0 E NE 15 HiE 7fJ. 20' 70 A8-3, l7 .w NE n I fiE GG. n:l' 40' AS-34 .E 1 \\' c. 7S HiE 59 l _, :J -o' A a 1u w N 15E 35 .55' \\' -31 111 6 l.)E 64' 23 I W-1003 .w H\V 15 . W-18 1 0 N ,\f 12 l51B 70' 3366' W-1 HO \V 1() 10 55. 525' \-2502 SE 10 10 ... 15E 5-S.2S' W-3009 8E 10 10 H'tE fio. o:J' 100' W-46G6 100'

PAGE 163

A advcntls, 61 A. comprimatus, 61 A floridano, 8 1 Aga sizia, 1 Airways, 9 Alachua Formation, 99, 100, 101 112 A uunob(tcuNtcs b ,.auustcini, 61 A11unoba cul o id ('S plum m t ra c > 61 AnLphistcgino pina1 cnfJis G AmusiHm sp., 73, 74, 76, 92, 93, 95, 105, 108, 109, 115, 116 Applin, E. R., 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 77 Applin, P. L., 55, 56, 59, GO, 61, 62, 63, 6, 77 Atkinson Formation, 60, 61, 62 Austin Age, beds of, 62 A von Park Limestone, 64 Barbour, T., 66 Bell Ridge, 49, 50 Berdan, J., 59 Rlue Spl'i11gs, 27 Borelis 63 Bo relis uuntc-ri, G3 Bridges, J ., 59 Bronson Graben, 54, 56, 78,101 Brooksville Ridge, 43, 44, 50 Cardiubl, 7 Cash, W T., 14 Cassitlu.lus gouldi, 98 Cedar Keys Formation, G3 Cenozoic Era, 63, 61, 65, 6(j, 67 Chienand Lim 15;lonc Plain, 50 Claiborne Stage, 61 Climate, 9, 10 Coastal Swamps, 39 Co] ... '\\ S., GO, 63 Cooke, C. ,V .. 40, 4.tl, 56, 59, 98 Cow 46, 4 7, 4 8, 137 Crc,ssafillitc,R, 7, 114, 116 Cretaceous yHtenl, 60, 61, 62 Grooks, .J. W., 28 C1ystal River Formation, 77, 7 83, 84, 112, 120 Cul tu1e, 11, 14, 15 De utalium, sp., 80, 116 Discocllclina sp., 82 E Dixie County Location, 2, 3 Topographic map, 6 l\lapR :l, 6, 7 Rconomy, 11, 12, 14, 15 Springs, 27 Phys]ogaaphy, 36-50 Geologic C toss Sections, 65 St-ratigraphy, 59 Logs 150, 151 Economic geology, 135 141 Dolomite, 1 37, 138 139 Drainage, 15 16, 17 Economic Geology, 128 141 Dixie County, 135-141 Gilchrist County, 128-135 Economy, 11 Dbde Couni)r, 12 Gilch1ist ounty, 12 E scarpment-; 43, 4U Farm Chnrncteristics, 11, 1 3 Population, 14 Value of agricultural con1moditics 14 Fenneman, N. 1\I., 36 Fibu.[aria vcntg}wni, 81 Floridan Aquifer, 1 i, 18 Fracturing-, 51, 52, 54 _I.'unne] .. inks, :32, 33 G. Gl Geologic Cros"\ Sections, 57 Gilchrist ounty Locution, 2, 3 Topographic map, 6, 43 laps, 3, 7, 8 Econon1y, 11, 12, 13 14, 15 Springs, 22, 25, 2() Physiography, 36-50 Geologic 'ross Sections, 57 Stratig-raphy, 5G, 59 Logs, 118, 149 Econornic g ology, l 2 135 G lobiy c rhw cr tacca, H1 Glycymc 1 i; sp., 70 1 102 Gulf Coastal Lowlands 37, 3H Gulf Sel'ies, 60 153

PAGE 164

154 B ULLE1'IN No. 491 Gumbelin, a Gypsina globula, SO, 8 1 82, 102, 106, 1091 110, 111 HaTt Springs, 26 \Vater analysis, 29 H eli.eostegina gyralis, 63 II ()Ca.lana. 76 80, 8 1 82, 87, 102, 103, 106 1 08, 1091 110, 111, 114 High Sp1,ings Gap, 50 Highways, 8, 14..1 Hopkin s, R. }I., 137 Bowell, B. F., 59 Incipient S ink, 32, 33 Industries, 11 Personal income, 15 Volume of sales, 15 Ing-lis Formation, 64, 65 1, 3 I sometric Diagran1, 58 Lake City Lhnestone, 64 Lawson Limestone, 62, 63 L e p idoC1Jclina ocalana, 68, 70, 71, 72 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 102, 103, 105, 10H, 108, 109, 110 111, 113, 114, 115, 116 L e pidocyclina oca la :'!UJ. a,tten:uata, 82 L e p idocy clitta oca lana p s et tdomarginata, 80 Limestone, 128, 130, 135, 136, 137, 1 38 139 Lingulepsis floriclanusJ 59 Location of A 1ea1 2 3 Logs, 148-152 Lottieville Fault, 54, 56, 78 Lower Ordovician, 59, ,60 MacNeH, F. S 40 1\tlansfield1 \V. C., 98, 131, 140 Maps, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 Dixie County, 6, 7 Gilchl'ist County, 5, 77 8 l\farine Deposits, 127 lVJesozoic Era, 60, 61, 62, 63 }lining, 129-l\IIioccne Series, 99, l 00, 101 sp., 81 Moody's Branch Formationr 64 Natural We Us, 32, 33, 34 Navarro Age, beds of, 62 t 63 North F]orida Sedimentary Province, 54 N u t :ula;, sp., 76 Numbering System, 36 1 Vurnm :ulites moo<1y b ranchensis, 73 Ntunmulites 68 Ocal a Group, 64 Old Town Springs, 27, 85 Oldsmar L imestone, 63 0 [igocene Series, 9 8 9 9 S. J 56, 121 Ope-r(!'Ulinoides, 72 Op e :rimlinoide s nwo ely bra nchen.sis, G8, 71, 75, 85, 88,106,108,110 Ope'tcu.l inoides ocalanus, 102, 103, 10 9, 114 Operculin-Dides 'l.vilcoxi, 68 OstTea s p., 82, 83, 89, 115 Paleocene SHries, 63 PaJ, eozoic Era, 59', 60 Parnlico Ter1,ace, 4.0, 4 1 42 Dunes, 41; 42 Pecten sp., 70, 72, 74, 75, 716, 77, 79, 116 Phosphate, 128, 130, 1 31 132, 133, 134,140,141 Physiog taphic 37 36-50 Piezometric Surface, 16, 17, 18 Pin:na; 8 7 Planuli?Hk eaglejordensis, 6 1 Pleistocene Series, 127 Population, 11 E. D., 54 Pri, ce, W A. 38 Pl"ide, R 28 Puri, H S., 38, 44 49, 50, 56, 119,120 Quarternary System, 127, 128 Railways, 8, 9 Rainfall, 10, 1 1 Ray, C. E 121

PAGE 165

INDEX 155 Recent Series, 128 Richards, I-I. G.t 59 Rock Bluft, 1'9, 20 Rock B luff Springs, 25 Water analysis, 30 Rotalia cushmani, 81, 1 02, 111 Ru!SseU, R J ., 54 Santa Fe niver, 20, 53 Dischal.'ge, 20, 22 IYionth 1y flow 23 Silver Bluff Terrac.e1 40 Sinks, 29, 32, 83, 34 S olution Features, 29 Solution Pipes, 34 South Florida Province, 54, 55 Southeastern Geologica ] Society Mesozoic Comm jttee, 60 Spondylus sp., 72, 79, 87, 103 Springs, 22 St-einhatche:e Dolom.ite l\1:ember, 96, 97J 98 Steinhatchee River, 22, 34, 35 Discharg e, 22, 24 Stratigraphic Nomenclature C hart, Stratigraphy, 56, 59 Structu rc, 54, 55 , 56. Contou1 .. map, 55 1vtaps. l 19, 120 Submar. i n c Plain. 28, 39 Suwannee Lilnestone, 98, 99 Suwannee River, 15, 16 Discharge, 17, 1 8, 19 20 :Monthl y flow, 19., 21 22 Suwannee River Drainage Basin, 1 5, lt;, 1 7 1 8 Taylor Age, beds of 62 System, 63, 164, 65, 66, 67 Thomas Farm 116, 118, 1 1 9 1 20, 121, l22, 1 2 5 Topographi c Maps, 4_, 5, 6, 7 Trail Springs 28 Transportation, 8 Highways, 8, 1 4 1 Railways, 8., 9 A ir;vays, 9 'Vatenval',.S, 9, 1 41 Trochamont: ina ra.inwateri, 6 1 Trochamn tina 6 1 Turrite lla sp., 72 74, 76, 81, 89 Tusca]oosa Formation, 60 Valvu.fine?"'ia infreqtte1ls, 6 1 Vegetati o n 91 V 87 Vernon, R. 0., 1, 32, R4, 3 6, 38, 40, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 56, 60, 64, 65, 66, 77, 117_, 1 1 9 120, 124 '\\1acasassa Flats, 44, 4.5, 4 7, 48, JJO s"Tarnps, 46 Waterways, 141 White, W. A., 38, 43, 44, 56 Wicon1ieo Terrace, 42_, 43, 44 Escarpment, 43 Williston For1nation, 47, 55, 65 , 67, 69, 70, 72 Yon, J. W., J r. 44 Z enophora sp., 102,, 114