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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Structure
 Descriptive stratigraphy
 Summary of oil potential of the...
 Bibliography
 Appendices
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


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The Dollar Bay Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Fredericksburg) age in south Florida;
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 Material Information
Title: The Dollar Bay Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Fredericksburg) age in south Florida; its stratigraphy and petroleum possibilities
Physical Description: vii, 99 p. : maps (part col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Winston, George O.
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, State of Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1971
Copyright Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology, Stratigraphic -- Cretaceous   ( lcsh )
Petroleum -- Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by George O. Wintson.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
General Note: Florida Bureau of Geology Special publication, no. 15
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2331
notis - AED1248
alephbibnum - 000835573
oclc - 00380407
lccn - 72610779
lccn - 72610779 //r832
System ID: UF00000248:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Structure
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Descriptive stratigraphy
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Summary of oil potential of the Dollar Bay Formation
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Bibliography
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Appendices
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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        Page 88
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        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Back Matter
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Back Cover
        Page 103
        Page 104
Full Text









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director



DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
J. V. Sollohub, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Chief



Special Publication No. 15





THE DOLLAR BAY FORMATION OF
LOWER CRETACEOUS (FREDERICKSBURG) AGE IN
SOUTH FLORIDA

ITS STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES



By
George O. Winston



Published for
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1971






























































Completed manuscript received
February 20, 1970
Published by the Bureau of Geology
Division of Interior Resources
Department of Natural Resources

ii














September 27, 1971


The Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew
Governor of The State of Florida
The Capitol
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Dear Governor Askew:

The Bureau of Geology, in accordance with Florida Statute No. 373, Paragraph
3, is publishing as Special Publication No. 15, "The Dollar Bay Formation Of
Lower Cretaceous (Fredericksburg) Age In South Florida Its Stratigraphy And
Petroleum Possibilities" as prepared by Mr. George O. Winston.

This evaluation of this particular group of sediments provides a quick and
valuable review of a difficult geological section as to its potential for the
production of hydrocarbons. We are pleased indeed to have this report made
available to us at this particular time when the exploration for oil is so
concentrated in Florida.

Sincerely yours,



R.O.Vernon, Chief
Bureau of Geology
Oil and Gas Administrator

ROV:aok












HUMBLE OIL and REFINING Co.
WELL No.I-STATE LEASE 1004
D.F.31 Feet T.D.12.A10 Feet
SEC.2-T41S-R35E
PALM BEACH COUNTY


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Electric Log of a section of Lower Cretaceous sediments.












CONTENTS

Page
Acknowledgements .............................................. vii
Introduction .................................................. 1
Study area ................................................ 1
Purpose .................................................. 1
Method .................................................. 1
Scope ..................................... .... .......... 4
Structure ...................................................... 4
Informal description of major structural features ....................... 6
Geologic history ............................................. 8
Descriptive Stratigraphy ............................................ 8
Previous work in Florida ....................................... 8
Regional correlations ......................................... 9
Discussion of Lower Cretaceous rock types ........................... 11
Type well for the Dollar Bay Formation ............................. 17
Regional stratigraphy of the Dollar Bay Formation ...................... 18
Unit D .............................................. 30
Unit C .................................. .. ........... 32
Unit B ............................................... 41
Unit A ................................................ 47
Discussion of cross-sections ................. ................... 51
Summary of oil potential of the Dollar Bay Formation ....................... 58
Bibliography .................................................. 61
Appendices ...................................................
Appendix 1. Glossary ......................................... 65
Appendix 2. Explanation of map construction ......................... 69
Appendix 3. Oil shows observed by the writer ......................... 73
Appendix 4. Summary of Mexican producing fields of Fredericksburg Age ...... 77
Appendix 5. Table of wells shown on maps ........................... 81
Appendix 6. Table of lithologic control wells and quality of data ............ 85
Appendix 7. Table of wells useless for a study of Dollar Bay lithology ......... 89
Appendix 8. A brief summary of Florida petroleum exploration and geophysical
problems in exploration-by Clarence Babcock ..................... 93

ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Location of study area ........................................ 2
2 Geography of south Florida ...................................... 3
3 Structure map on base of Dollar Bay Formation ........................ 5
4 Structural trends in south Florida .................. .............. 7
5 Correlation chart of the Big Cypress Group ........................... 10
6 Typical sedimentary cycle in lower Cretaceous ......................... 14
7 Generalized electric-lithologic log of Dollar Bay Formation ................ 19
8 Index map showing location of cross-sections ......................... 53















9 Stratigraphic cross-section A-A of Big Cypress Group .................... 54
10 Stratigraphic cross-section B-B' of Big Cypress Group .................... 55
11 Stratigraphic cross-section C-C' of Big Cypress Group .................... 56
12 Stratigraphic cross-section D-D of Big Cypress Group .................... 57
13 Magnetic anomoly map of south Florida ............................. 96
14 Gravity anomoly map of south Florida .............................. 98

FACIES MAPS

Map No. Page
1 Isopachous and color map of Dollar Bay Formation ..................... 27
2 Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of Dollar Bay Formation 28
3 Thickness of potential porosity and equivalent good porosity in the Dollar Bay
Formation........... ............................ 29
4 Composite favorable area map of units in the Dollar Bay Formation . . 31
5 Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of Unit D . . . . .... 33
6 Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of unit D ... 34
7 Thickness of potential reservoir and equivalent good porosity in unit D . 35
8 Favorable area map of unit D .................................... 36
9 Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of unit C .................... 37
10 Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of unit C ........... 39
11 Thicknesses of potential reservoir and equivalent good porosity of unit C ....... 40
12 Favorable area map for unit C .................................... 42
13 Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of unit B .................... 43
14 Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of unit B ........... 44
15 Thicknesses of potential reservoir and equivalent good porosity in unit B ....... 45
16 Favorable area map of unit B .................................... 46
17 Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of unit A .................... 48
18 Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of unit A .......... 49
19 Thicknesses of potential reservoir and equivalent good porosity in unit A ....... 50
20 Favorable area map of unit A .................................... 52



























ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer is indebted to the Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior
Resources, Florida Department of Natural Resources, for making available
samples and electric logs used in this study.
Members of the Bureau of Geology to whom the writer wishes to express his
appreciation are: Dr. R.O. Vernon, Chief, for his encouragement and aid; C. V.
Babcock for assembling data and materials and for editing the text of the report;
and W. R. Oglesby, whose unpublished cross-sections and correlations expedited
the investigation.
Appreciation is extended to J. E. Banks of the Coastal Petroleum Company,
Tallahassee, Florida, who made available to the writer samples and data on
various wells.
Appreciation is here expressed to E. K. King, P. L. Lyon, and D. I. Gough for
permission to reproduce portions of their published geophysical maps.













THE DOLLAR BAY FORMATION
OF LOWER CRETACEOUS (FREDERICKSBURG) AGE
IN SOUTH FLORIDA

ITS STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROLEUM POSSIBILITIES


By
George O. Winston

INTRODUCTION
STUDY AREA

The area of the report consists of the onshore portion of the South Florida
Basin, figure 1. Approximately 70 oil tests have been drilled there, 17 of which
provided reliable cores and samples which were utilized in the preparation of this
report. Geographical localities in south Florida are shown on figure 2.

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study is to describe, subdivide, and map the rocks of the
Dollar Bay Formation of Fredericksburg Age in south Florida and to outline
areas favorable for oil accumulation.

METHOD

Drill cuttings and core chunks were examined by the writer using a 10-power
stereoscopic microscope. Wells which had extensive coring or very good quality
samples were used where possible. All rock samples were examined wet and by
incandescent light.
Electric log tops were picked to the nearest 5 feet; all correlations were made
by the writer. Isopachous maps were constructed using electric log intervals;
facies data are from sample descriptions made by the writer. Grain and crystal
sizes were determined according to the Wentworth scale as modified for
carbonates by Leighton and Pendexter (1962, P. 52).
The detailed discussions of textural types, porosity types, cyclic
reconstruction and other features requiring accurate detail are based on the wells
which had plentiful cores. Drill cuttings were used to trace lateral lithologic
changes where core information was not available. Knowing the cyclic sequence
from core study, 10-foot sample intervals were adequate even to describe thin
cycles. Wells with 20-foot samples were used only where a control point was








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


LOCATION of STUDY AREA


Figure 1. Location of study area.












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15 3






0E I D Sebring ~' -----
o MANATEE HARDEE ,
---HIGHLANDS KEECHOBEEt.Perc
Sarasota ----- ST.LUCIE




CHA E A LADES Okeechobee
CHARLOTTE

-. 0 Palm Beach
HENRY
Ft.Myers FE LD PALM BEACH
LEE --(Trinity)
%-J I -I
_._ SUNNILAND --- .
o FIELD
(Trinity) Ft.Lauderdale
I I BROWARD
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AzDADE

SMONROE Homestead
EVERGLADES
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straits
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Figure 2. Geography of south Florida.











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


badly needed. Wells with 30-foot samples were never used, as detailed lithologic
determination is impossible with such a gross interval. Unfortunately, most of
the wells in south Florida fall in the last group.
Appendix 5 tabulates all wells used on the maps. Appendix 6 is a table of
lithologic control wells used in this study. Appendix 7 shows wells which were
found to be useless for lithologic control in the Dollar Bay interval.

SCOPE

This report comprises one-third of a completed study of rocks of
Fredericksburg Age in south Florida. The other two-thirds of the study will be
published at a later date.
This portion of the study describes and maps the texture and facies
distribution of the carbonates in the Dollar Bay Formation. The percent of
anhydrite in the section was mapped because it is a common constituent of the
formation, but a textural study of this lithology was not undertaken; such a
study would be a project in itself. Clastic sediments were not mapped because
they are very rare.
Copies of the sample descriptions and data tabulations are on file at the
Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Department of
Natural Resources, Box 631, Tallahassee, Florida 32302.

STRUCTURE

The area covered in this report is part of the extensive Florida-Bahama
Platform, most of which is submarine. This feature encompasses the area
between the Florida escarpment to the west, the Blake-Bahama escarpment to
the east, and the north coast of Cuba to the south. During Cretaceous time the
platform was without known major structural anomolies, such as deep oceanic
straits or channels.
The South Florida Basin has been mapped by Oglesby (1965) on top of the
Sunniland Limestone. This slowly subsiding low-dip basin of carbonate and
anhydrite accumulation which is centered in the vicinity of Florida Bay,
continued as a prominent feature of the platform during deposition of the Dollar
Bay Formation; however, the onshore configuration of the feature was
somewhat altered with time. Figure 3 outlines the onshore portion of the South
Florida Basin at the level of Dollar Bay sediments; the dip of the basin, which is
about 50 feet per mile, is so low that its boundaries cannot be defined precisely.
Nevertheless, the central part of the feature is shown on all of the facies, isopach
and structure maps of the report. It is suggested on geophysical maps, most of
which are based on limited data in this area.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


--*---1


I ( / i
EXPLANATION
Oil recovery on DST
Oil cut mudonOST
0 Good show in rock
o Poor show in rock
e No show reported -
) Lithologic Control Wells-
04o -

o0 042
'o, V


10 0 10 0 30 MILES
APMPOX.$CALE


Contour Interval 200 Feet


Figure 3. Structure map on base of Dollar Bay Formation.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


For the purpose of this study, the northern boundary of the South Florida
Basin is considered to occur along an east trending line across the north side of
Lake Okeechobee. To the east and south the basin terminates at the 600-foot
bathymetric contour at the edge of the Florida Straits. The western boundary is
not determinable from this study, but it may occur at the weakly developed
Lee-Collier swell which extends southwestward from Lee County, figure 4.
Alternatively, as shown by Oglesby (1965) for several horizons in the vicinity of
the Sunniland Limestone, it may extend as far west as the Florida escarpment; in
at least part of the escarpment seismic profiles and a dredged sample indicate
that a possible Cretaceous reef may occur at a present depth of about 4,800 feet
(Antoine et al, 1967, fig. 3, p. 259).

INFORMAL DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR STRUCTURAL FEATURES

Within the South Florida Basin, or bounding it, are several broad local
structural features (fig. 4) which were present during the deposition of the
Dollar Bay Formation. Some of the stronger features may be of basement origin
as they also appear on published regional magnetic and gravity maps (see
Appendix 8).
The Martin high is a strongly-developed southward-plunging feature which
terminates at the Broward trough and is present on most facies maps. This high
is either the south end of the Peninsular arch, which is the dominant feature of
central Florida, or an offshoot from it. The Broward trough (which is not to be
confused with the Broward syncline of the Applins) is a strong feature and
appears to originate in the Northwest Providence Channel in the Bahamas
(Winston, 1970). It also is very persistent on facies maps. This trough is shown
joining the central part of the South Florida Basin to the west on most maps,
although on some maps the Forty Mile Bend high intervenes between these two
negative features. The Forty Mile Bend high is a weak feature on most facies
maps, but shows up well on isopachous maps. The Pine Key arch, a westerly
offshoot of the Largo high, is a weak feature which is most prominent on
isopachous and structure maps; it is usually subdued on facies maps. The south
boundary of this feature is unknown. The Lee-Collier swell is a weak feature
near the western limit of well control. Though it is only vaguely indicated by the
data points, the concept of this feature frequently presents the most logical
solution to contouring problems. The regional magnetic map provides additional
support for the inferred presence of the Lee-Collier swell. As it is possible that
this feature forms the western boundary of the South Florida Basin, it is
unfortunate that its existence is subject to so much doubt.
The Charlotte high shows up well on the structure map (figs. 3 and 4), on
some isopachous maps, and on the regional magnetic map. The abnormally high
structural position of igneous rock in the Mobil No. 1 State 224B, offshore












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15 7


M A A TEE H ARD E E
\_ OKE HOBEE! ST.
j----- -- HIGHLANDS


DE SOTo .4 r
--\


0.


10 0 10 20 30 MILES
APPROX SCALE


Figure 4. Structural trends in south Florida.












BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Charlotte County (well 14), indicates that this high reflects a basement feature.
Samples on this well were not available for examination.
There are no known major faults in the study area, but offshore faults have
been inferred from geophysical and bathymetric data in the Florida Straits to
the south.
Only two localities have had sufficient drilling to define a local subsurface
structure. At the Sunoco-Felda field in Hendry County (fig. 2) the structure of
the Sunniland Limestone, which is the producing horizon, is a southward
plunging nose; the perforated interval in productive wells varies from about 10
to 14 feet in thickness. As shown by Puri and Banks (1959, fig. 18, p. 130) for
the Sunniland field of Collier County, the proven anticlinal closure of the
productive Sunniland Limestone was 36 feet, and at the approximate level of the
Dollar Bay Formation the closure was 8 feet.

GEOLOGICAL HISTORY

The study area is part of the Florida-Bahama Platform, which was slowly
subsiding during Fredericksburg time. The center of greatest subsidence was
under the present Florida Bay, (Winston, 1970).
This negative area should contain most of the source beds for petroleum. The
occurrence of offshore Lower Cretaceous bioherms is suggested by published
marine seismic sections (Antoine et al, 1967, fig. 3, p. 259) along the Florida
escarpment to the west. Lower Cretaceous algal limestone has been dredged
from this same escarpment (Antoine et al, 1967, fig. 3, p. 259) and a photograph
along the escarpment strongly suggests a reef. The entire Florida-Bahama
platform was probably an immense back-reef shallow-water area throughout
most of the Lower Cretaceous. Supporting this statement are the omnipresent
Miliolidae, a~thydrite beds and the multiplicity of sedimentary cycles.

DESCRIIVE STRATIGRAPHY
PREVIOUS&WORK IN FLORIDA

Relatively little literature,.ha een directed toward the petroleum prospects
of Fredericksburg Age rocks in Florida. Previous publications have concentrated
on the oil-producing Sunniland Limestone of Trinity Age.
The Big Cypress Group, as formally described below, has long been known in
Florida by the term "Fredericksburg." This usage was pioneered by the Applins,
(1965, p. 56-60) who selected persistent electric log kicks near diagnostic fossil
zones to define the top and base of their unit. Their points were at the base of
two persistent anhydrite beds. In the present study, the tops of these anhydrite
beds (rather than the bases) are used, therefore the two sections are essentially
synonymous.












SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


The 1959 paper by Puri and Banks (p. 128, fig. 16) on the Sunniland field
shows a structure map on a Fredericksburg marker some 1900 feet above the
productive Sunniland interval.
Fredericksburg beds extend well beyond the limits of the study area.
Northward they pinch out against Paleozoic and igneous rocks on the crest of
the Peninsular arch (P. Applin, 1965, fig. 35, p. 57); they occur on the flanks
of this feature and finally pinch out in the subsurface of south Georgia and
Alabama. Only in northern Cuba do Lower Cretaceous beds appear at the
surface (Furrazola-Burmudez, 1964, p. 54).

REGIONAL CORRELATION

The rock name Big Cypress Group is herein proposed for the interval referred
to by authors and the petroleum industry by "Fredericksburg." The name was
taken from the Big Cypress Swamp near the type well. The interval of these
rocks extends from 9,850 to 11,208 feet, core depths (9,851 to 11,213 feet
electric log depths) in the Humble No. 1 Collier Corporation well, Sec.
27-T50S-R26E, Collier County, Florida. The Big Cypress Group includes the
Dollar Bay Formation, as defined below, as ~ell as an underlying sequence of
unnamed rocks. The entire group is composed of a cyclic series of limestone,
dolomite and anhydrite.
The relationship of the Big Cypress Group to stratigraphically equivalent units
occurring in other parts of the Gulf coast is presented in figure 5, a correlation
chart. In Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama an undifferentiated plastic section is
equivalent to the Big Cypress Group of south Florida. In Texas, the Edwards,
Comanche Peak, Walnut, Goodland and Kiamichi formations are together
equivalent to the Big Cypress Group. According to a correlation chart by
Forgotson (1963, p. 72), the Paluxy Formation of Arkansas, Louisiana,
Mississippi and Alabama is of oldest Fredericksburg Age; thus it would be the
stratigraphic equivalent of the lowest part of the Big Cypress Group. Other
authors (Roy and Glockzin, 1941; Stephenson, et al, 1942; and Frascogna,
1957), however, consider the Paluxy to be of Trinity Age.
With the exception of ubiquitous Miliolidae, fossils in the Big Cypress Group
are scarce. The few diagnostic fossils which the Applins found and identified
indicate a Fredericksburg Age for these rocks.
These diagnostic fossils are:
Lituola subgoodlandensis (Vanderpool)
Coskinolinoides texanus Keijzer
Dicyclina schlumbergeri
Cyclammina
Calcisphaerula innominata Bonet
Chondrodonta munsoni (Hill)









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


DISCUSSION OF LOWER CRETACEOUS ROCK TYPES

A review of the lithologic description of the Dollar Bay Formation in the type
well reveals that the formation consists of limestone, dolomite and anhydrite
deposited in a cyclic series. This cyclic sequence is typical of a large segment of
the Lower Cretaceous Section.
GENERAL LITHOLOGIC TYPES
LIMESTONE
There are two types of limestone present.
Calcilutite (appendix 1) is the more common of the two types. It is finely
microcrystalline in texture and is cream, tan brown, dark gray or dark brown in
color. Occasionally it displays a conchoidal fracture, a rubbly fracture, or a
lithographic texture. Chalky microcrystalline porosity is common, but it is
non-effective as an oil reservoir. Some of the calcilutite was formed from
calcarenite, as shown by instances of gradational destruction of texture by
recrystallization. Various types of carbonate grains occur in varying percentages
within the calcilutite.
Calcarenite comprises between 5 and 15 percent of the carbonate section in
south Florida. Voids in the calcarenite are filled to varying degrees with calcite
cement or with calcilutite. The types of calcarenite grains observed are:
1. Skeletal grains which range in size from micro-grain, well-rounded fossil
debris to very large irregular shell fragments or whole microfossils showing little
abrasion. The occasional occurrence of concentrations of rudistid fragments
indicates the possible presence of a nearby large local accumulation which might
form a porous shell bank similar to the producing horizons of the Sunniland
field.
2. Coated grains (including oolites) are occasionally present and vary in
size from very fine to medium grain. Generally there is only one coat over a
nucleus which is usually a skeletal grain or a miliolid foraminifera. Dolomite
crystals are sometimes found in the centers of oolite grains; this is most likely a
secondary growth, as advanced stages are observed in which the dolomite
crystals have penetrated the surrounding coatings.
3. Pellet grains are common and are frequently associated with skeletal
grains and algal masses. Pellets are oolite-like grains without internal structure
and vary in size from very fine to fine grain. They are of uniform size in any
given occurrence. These grains have been referred to as pseudo-oolites by some
workers.
4. Foraminiferal grains (almost exclusively Miliolidae) are common
throughout the Dollar Bay Formation. They usually are scattered among other
grains, but sometimes occur alone in a matrix of calcilutite. On rare occasions
this grain type becomes the major constituent of the rock. The Miliolidae vary in
size from fine to medium grain and are invariably white in color.











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


5. Detrital grains (derived from pre-existing rocks) and lumps (aggregates
of grains) were not observed.
6. Algal masses were occasionally seen in core chunks; in cuttings this rock
type is almost impossible to identify with a 10-power microscope.

DOLOMITE

Dolomite is of two types. One type is evaporite-associated, and is invariably
microcrystalline or very fine crystalline; the crystal structure is usually euhedral
(appendix 1). This type may be brown, tan, cream, or light gray in color; when it
is occasionally argillaceous, the color is gray. Argillaceous dolomite sometimes
occurs as a matrix within bedded nodular anhydrite (described below). It usually
occurs immediately above or below the cycle-bounding anhydrife beds.
Presumably in some areas the evaporite-associated facies is the stratigraphic
equivalent of a down-dip anhydrite but this was not demonstrated in available
control. Though effective porosity is not characteristic of evaporite-associated
dolomite, when it occurs it is intercrystalline.
The second dolomite type is usually secondary in origin, as shown by
preserved limestone grain structures. The crystal structure of dolomites of this
type is usually euhedral. Crystal size varies from micro to fine crystalline. Much
of the finely microcrystalline euhedral dolomite in the Dollar Bay contains
chalky intercrystalline porosity which is non-effective for oil production. Coarse
microcrystalline euhedral dolomite, as well as very fine and fine crystalline
euhedral dolomite, often contain pinpoint porosity, intercrystalline porosity, or
very fine to coarse size vugs which frequently are fossil molds.
Anhedral dolomite (appendix 1) is not common. It is characteristically
non-porous, but on occasion may contain a small vug or two.

ANHYDRITE

Anhydrite occurs in five distinct forms; two as beds and three as
inclusions-in-carbonate.
Of the two bedded types, the most common has the appearance of an
amorphous translucent mass. It can be dark brown, dark gray, brown, tan, gray,
or white; on one occasion a blue color was observed. In the other bedded type,
nodules comprise about 95 percent of the rock. This type of anhydrite usually
has a matrix of brown microcrystalline dolomite between the nodules, and
apparently it is near the terminal stage of the replacement of carbonate by
anhydrite.
The three inclusion-in-carbonate types of anhydrite are vastly different from
one another. In the firs, or isolated nodular type, the nodules vary from 1/16 to
1% inches in diameter and are more often found in calcilutitic limestone than in










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


calcarenitic limestone. This type is usually white and amorphous, but
occasionally may be clear and crystalline. It was observed to grade into the
bedded nodular type of anhydrite described above.
A second type of anhydrite inclusion occurs as either a mass of brown,
tabular, resinous, translucent, rectangular crystals, or as individual crystals.
These crystals average about 1/16 inch in diameter and inch in length, and are
imbedded in light-colored limestones, or microcrystalline dolomites. If sliced at
the proper angle, the individual crystal form closely resembles a dolomite
rhomb.
Lastly, a rare form of anhydrite inclusion occurs as clear 1/32-inch spheroids
scattered uniformly throughout either dolomite or calcilutitic limestone. These
spheroids, when dissolved (sometimes by drilling processes), leave a distinctive
non-connected pinpoint porosity.
CLASTICS

Shale is rare. It usually occurs as a contaminant, in the form of dark partings,
varves, or disseminated argillaceous material within limestone or dolomite.
Sandstone was not observed.

TYPICAL DEPOSITIONAL CYCLE IN THE LOWER CRETACEOUS SECTION

A study of the cores of the Big Cypress Group reveals the same cyclic
sequence of rock types repeated many times. A complete cycle was nowhere
observed, and occasionally only one bed of the cycle was present. Cycle thicknesses
varies from 10 to 400 feet, with the typical cycle being about 50 feet thick.
Porosity usually is found in the middle of the cycle, but on occasion it occurs
in other portions.
Figure 6 is a graphic presentation of the typical depositional cycle as pieced
together from many wells; below is a description of the cycle, with diagnostic
characteristics of the lithology underlined. Although the sequence is presented in
the order in which it would be drilled, the beds are numbered in the order of
deposition.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

The cyclic occurrence of carbonate and anhydrite rocks in the Dollar Bay
Formation indicates deposition in a relatively shallow water environment,
probably behind a barrier reef along the West Florida Escarpment. As sea level
fluctuated, different shallow water environments moved back and forth across
the broad Florida-Bahama Platform. A small rise or fall of sea level would cause
a given environment to move a long distance in a short interval of time. Five
major environments were identified in the Dollar Bay Formation. Their
characteristic lithologies are:










14 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY









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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15













Typical Sedimentary Cycle

10 Anhydrite any color

9 dolomite brown, microcrystalline, with
brown anhydrite crystal inclusions
or white anhydrite nodules

8 dolomite gray-brown, microcrystalline,
argillaceous.

7 limestone cream, soft; calcilutitic; micro-
crystalline with miliolidae and
chalky porosity.

6 limestone tan; calcarenitic with skeletal,
oolitic, pellet or Foraminiferal
(miliolidae) grains; contains
intergranular porosity, frequently
cemented with clear calcite.

5 limestone tan; calcarenitic as above, with
brown anhydrite crystals;
porosity as above.

4 limestone tan; calcarenitic; porosity as
above.

3 limestone cream, soft; calcilutitic,
microcrystalline with miliolidae &
chalky porosity.

2 limestone gray; calcilutitic; argillaceous.

1 dolomite brown, microcrystalline with
brown anhydrite crystals or white
anhydrite nodules.


Occasionally
the lithology
may be:

limestone

limestone


limestone





euhedral dolomite
with
crystalline
porosity

anhydrite


euhedral dolomite
as above




dolomite

limestone












BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The shallow shelf environment produced a light-colored calcilutite containing
many miliolids and much chalky porosity. Microcrystalline secondary dolomite
with good porosity also is present. Anhydrite is rare to absent.
The deeper shelf environment resulted in the deposition of a light-colored
calcilutite containing skeletal, oolitic, pellet grains and Miliolidae; this rock
usually has chalky porosity. In addition, microcrystalline secondary dolomite
formed in this environment. The dolomite crystals are generally slightly coarser
than are those on the high shelf, and porosity is usually good. Dolomite also
occurs as patches in limestone, or as scattered dolomite crystals.
The shelf-basin transition environment produced a calcarenite containing
oolitic or skeletal grains. This rock has little calcilutitic void filler; therefore
porosity is usually good. Miliolidae are less common than on the shelf and
frequently occur as oolite centers. Dolomitization of calcarenites in this zone
results in a coarser structure than is characteristic of the shelf dolomites. This
coarse structure frequently results in good intercrystalline or vuggy porosity.
Colors are typically light to medium dark.
The shallow basin environment produced dark calcilutite with subordinate
oolitic or skeletal grains. This limestone occasionally contains brown anhydrite
crystals or white anhydrite nodules. Anhedral or euhedral microcrystalline
dolomite occurs occasionally and is usually non-porous.
The deeper basin environment resulted in the deposition of thick beds of
anhydrite, dark calcilutitic limestone and dark anhedral microcrystalline
dolomite. Lack of porosity is characteristic of carbonates in this environment.

PRODUCTIVE CHARACTER

POROSITY

Each unit of the Dollar Bay Formation contains porosity. This is mapped as
equivalent good porosity (appendix 1).
The five types of porosity which occur in the Dollar Bay Formation, arranged
in the order of quantitative occurrence, are:
1. Chalky porosity Unfortunately, chalky porosity is of no economic use as
an effective oil reservoir rock, since its extremely fine size causes it to be
impermeable to oil. It is usually intercrystalline in nature. On electric logs it is
characterized by a high spontaneous potential and a very low resistivity. This
porosity is characteristically so fine that it is frequently invisible using a
10-power microscope. Though it is always impermeable to oil, it is not
impermeable to water. In the Sunoco-Felda field, for example, water-bearing
chalky porosity forms the upgradient terminus for the productive Roberts zone
of the Sunniland Limestone. Chalky porosity is found in either calcilutite or in
finely microcrystalline dolomite and mainly in the shallow or deeper shelf
environments.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


As chalky porosity is non-effective, it is not included in the porosity thickness
figures of the equivalent good porosity maps in this report.
2. Intercrystalline porosity This type is found in euhedral dolomites. Crystal
sizes and pore spaces range from the upper end of the microcrystalline size to
the fine crystalline size. Intercrystalline porosity values can be high.
3. Pinpoint porosity. This is actually a type of vuggy porosity in which pores
are of a micro to very fine size. When found in sufficient quantity (10 percent or
more bulk volume), they are connected and can form an effective petroleum
reservoir. Pinpoint porosity is usually found in secondary dolomites or
calcarenitic limestone.
4. Vuggy porosity (including fossil molds). This type of porosity is not
common in the Dollar Bay Formation, although it occasionally occurs in some
dolomites. 'Vuggy porosity mainly has served to improve the permeability of
other porosity types.
5. Intergramilar porosity. This porosity occurs mostly in oolitic or miliolid
calcarenites. In calcarenites of pellet or skeletal grains, the primary intergranular
porosity was usually destroyed by secondary comentation.

SOURCE ROCK

Since there is little shale in the Dollar Bay Formation, the dark carbonates
must have served as source beds for petroleum.
The occurrence of many thin anhydrite beds throughout the section blocking
vertical migration, and the lack of laterally widespread beds of porosity,
indicates that a given cycle to be favorable for the production of oil, must have
source beds and porosity beds in close proximity.

TYPE WELL FOR THE DOLLAR BAY FORMATION

The type well for the Dollar Bay Formation is here designated as the Humble
Oil and Refining Company, No. 1 Collier Corporation well which is a dry hole
located in Sec. 27-T50S-R26E, Collier County (well 32). The interval designated
as the Dollar Bay Formation was cored with a diamond bit, and extends from
9,850 to 10,360 feet, core depths (9,851 to 10,358 feet, electric log depths).
The name, suggested by W: R. Oglesby of the Bureau of Geology, was taken
from Dollar Bay,located in Sec. 27-T50S-R25E just south of the town of Naples,
and some 6 miles from the .type well. Data on this well, including the cores, are
indexed as accession No. W-2420 in the files of the Bureau of Geology.












BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TYPE WELL LITHOLOGY

The type well description is presented in tabular form in order to facilitate
reference. Although it is arranged in the order of penetration, discussion of the
stratigraphy is in the order of deposition.
Figure 7 is a previously unpublished generalized electric-lithologic log of the
Dollar Bay Formation in the type well as prepared by W. R. Oglesby.

REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHY OF THE DOLLAR BAY FORMATION

The combinations of facies maps presented in this report summarize the
lithologic information needed for reconnaissance petroleum exploration. As
some of the maps presented are not in common usage, explanations of the use
and basis of construction are presented in appendix 2.

LITHOLOGY

The Dollar Bay Formation consists of limestone, dolomite and anhydrite and
is subdivided into four units: A, B, C and D. Units A, C and D occur as single
sedimentary cycles. Unit B is multicycled. The gross lithology of this formation
differs from that of the other parts of the Big Cypress Group in being
represented mostly by the chalky carbonate of unit C.
Dark rocks are concentrated in the lows and light rocks on the highs; the color
map (Map 1) strongly suggests that anaerobic lagoonal conditions may-have
existed in the- area ofrHendryy ad dCoier counties. Dolomite, although
concentrated on the Martin-Largo axis, (Map present throughout the study
area. Limestone is concentrated in the lows. Anhydrite tends to concentrate in
the lows and thin over highs, but on the Largo high there is an anomalously large
concentration of anhydrite. Porosity (Map 3) is concentrated on the highs,
especially along the Martin-Largo-Pine Key trend.

THICKNESS

The Dollar Bay Formation is 505 feet thick in the type well. In other parts of
the study area it ranges from 380 feet to 620 feet in thickness. The average
thickness is about 450 feet.

CONTACTS

The top of the Dollar Bay Formation is placed at the top of a persistent
anhydrite bed about 30 feet thick; this is also the top of unit A. Conformably
overlying this marker are unnamed carbonates of probable Washita Age. The
Dollar Bay Formation rests conformably on an unnamed thick anhydrite of
probable Trinity Age.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


TYPE LOG
DOLLAR BAY FORMATION
OF LOWER CRETACEOUS
FREDERICKSBURG AGE
HUMBLE OIL and REFINING Co.
No.1-COLLIER CORP.
D.F.Elev.25Ft. T.D.12.516Ft.
SEC.27-TSOS-R26E. COLLIER COt


DOLLAR


BAY


FORMATION





EXPLANATION
LIMESTONE CALCILUTITE
Porous Porous

Dense Dense

Shaly Shaly
1 Oolitic


DOLOMITE

Porous ~ SHALE

SDense or ANHYDRITE
Gypsiferoul"


Figure 7. Generalized electric-lithologic log of Dollar Bay Formation.













BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


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* Oil recovery on DST
Oil cut mud on DST
* Good show in rock
o Poor show in rock
o No show reported


600


Contour Interval 25 Feet


in Carbonate
0%
0-25%o
25-50%
50-755o


10 0 10 20 30 MILES
APPROX.SCALE


Map 1. Isopachous and color map of Dollar Bay Formation.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Anhydrite Contour Interval 10%

10 0 10 20 30MILES
APPROX SCALE


% Dolomite in Carbonate
i 0-25%
25-50%
50-75%

IIm I75-s88%


Map 2. Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of
Dollar Bay Formation.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


@ Lithologic Control Wells


Equivalent Good Porosity
Contour Interval 25 Feet

10 o10 20 30 MILES
APPROX SCALE


Potential Reservoir Thickness
L_ 0 Feet
0-100 Feet
S 100-200 Feet
200 Feet


Map 3. Thickness of potential porosity and equivalent good porosity in
the Dollar Bay Formation.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


PRODUCTIVE CHARACTER

The Dollar Bay Formation is second only to the Sunniland Limestone of
TrinityAge as a prospective horizon for oil. Appendix 3 lists shows observed by
the writer in his lithologic studies of 17 wells; the many additional shows
included on the maps were obtained from numerous sources.
Twenty-six shows are presented on the maps of the units of the Dollar Bay
Formation. Of these, one consisted of 15 feet of oil recovered on a 20-hour drill
stem test, two consisted of oil-cut mud recovery on drill stem test, two were
good oil shows in cores or cuttings, and 21 were poor shows reported in cores or
cuttings. Most of these 26 shows are in unit C.
The percentage of source-type dark limestone in the section varies from 10 to
75 percent; source-type rocks are especially well developed in unit C.
Equivalent good porosity in the Dollar Bay Formation ranges from 10 to 120
feet in thickness.
The favorable area map for the Dollar Bay Formation was made by combining
the favorable area maps of its four units. The greatest number of favorable areas
are found in an area around the northeastern end of Lake Okeechobee (Map 4).

UNIT D

LITHOLOGY

The distinguishing characteristic of this unit is the unusually large percentage
of porous calcarenite it contains; frequently, dark porous dolomite has partly or
entirely replaced the calcarenite.
Unit D occurs as a single sedimentary cycle in which carbonates predominate.
The limestone is generally calcarenitic with skeletal, oolitic and pellet grains;
occasionally Miliolidae and rudistid fragments are present. Calcarenitic material
also occurs in a matrix of calcilutite; a few black structureless grains are present
in the' calcilutite of the northern portion of the study area. In color the
limestone ranges from black through light gray and cream.
Dolomite is usually brown, gray or tan in color. In general it is
microcrystalline, though occasionally it is very fine or fine crystalline. Euhedral
crystal structure is the most common form, but the anhedral form frequently
occurs. Completely dolomitized porous calcarenite is common, as is dolomitic
limestone.
Anhydrite occurs as the bedded variety; in color it is dark gray, brown, tan
and white. Rarely white nodules or brown crystals of anhydrite occur in the
carbonates.
Argillaceous material is rare.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


i Ca E Tr


I ,I
1 ,

















EXPLANATION
e Oil recovery on DST
SOil cut mudon DST
o Good show in rock
o Poor show in rock
o No show reported
@ Lithologic Control Wells
o40
S%41
o42


10 0 0 20 30 MILES
APPROX .SCALE


General Area of
s Favorability

[ I Favorable Area

~: 2 Favorable Areas

3 Favorable Areas


Map 4. Composite favorable area map of units in the Dollar Bay
Formation.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The basal portion of unit D consists of a bed of dense calcilutite 30 feet in
thickness. As this lithologic unit is similar in appearance on electric logs to an
underlying anhydrite, care must be taken in picking the anhydrite top on electric
logs. Dark carbonates (Map 5) are concentrated in the lows, and light carbonates
are concentrated on the highs. Limestone (Map 6) is present everywhere, but is
concentrated in the lows. Anhydrite is widespread, thinning over highs and
thickening in lows. Porosity (Map 7) is widespread, and good porosity is
common in limestone.

THICKNESS

In the type well unit D is 56 feet thick. In other parts of the study area it
ranges from 40 feet to 80 feet. The average thickness is about 55 feet.

PRODUCTIVE CHARACTER

Although five oil shows were reported from unit D, all are poor in quality.
Effective intergranular and pinpoint porosity are widespread and are found in
calcarenite. Chalky non-effective porosity also occurs. Dolomite in unit D
frequently contains very good intercrystalline, pinpoint, or vuggy porosity.
Source beds are widespread. The area of favorable juxtaposition of source and
reservoir beds occurs northeast of Lake Okeechobee (Map 8).


UNIT C

LITHOLOGY

The distinguishing characteristic of this unit is its great thickness of chalky
carbonate, both light-colored calcilutite and microcrystalline dolomite.
This unit was deposited in a single sedimentary cycle. The limestone is a
calcilutite, usually chalky, and is accompanied by occasional streaks of
calcarenite. Limestone grains are skeletal, pellet or oolitic; Miliolidae are
common. Colors range from dark brown through cream. In the vicinity of
Hendry County thick beds of dark, dense calcilutite occupy most of the unit
(Map 9). This rock is frequently petroliferous. In one instance it yielded a small
quantity of oil, thus strongly indicating that this rock type is the source of the
numerous oil shows observed in unit C.
Dolomite colors range from dark brown through cream. Texture is
microcrystalline, very fine crystalline, or fine crystalline. Crystal structure is
usually euhedral, but may occasionally be anhedral. Completely dolomitized
calcarenite is common.













SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


ili:::: :: ::: ..::::. ::!:iijiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii :N 7::
.. . ..: .: :::: .:.:-. .. ....- .. .- .-.- :. :-.:.. :. .. .. ..
JI':::::::::::::':'!::: . . . . . .::
. . . . . . . . .ll
iiii~iiiiiiii ~ .................... .I::
iiiiiiiiiii~t ~ ....................1 1

... .. . .. ... ... .....


@ Lithologic Control Wells


Contour Interval 20 Feet



10 0 t0 20 30MILES
APPROX. SCALE


%Dark in Carbonate

0-50%'

50-100%

100%


Map 5. Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of Unit D.











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


@ Lithologic Control wells


Anhydrite Contour Interval 20%


10 0 10 20 30 MILES
APPPOX.SCALE


% Dolomite in Carbonate
0-25%

S25-50%
IIII 50%


Map 6. Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of
unit D.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


@ Lithologic Control Wells


Equivalent Good Porosity
Contour Interval 10 Feet


10 0 10 20 30 MILES
APPROX. SCALE


Potential Reservoir Thickness

0-20 Feet

20-40 Feet
40-54 Feet


Map 7. Thicknesses of potential reservoir and equivalent good porosity
in unit D.











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SOi I recovery on DST
QOil cut mud on DST
3 Good show in rock
OPoor show in rock
0 No show reported

@ Lithologic Control Wells
o040
0 41
0 2


10 0 t0 20 30 MILES
APPROX SCALE


Map 8. Favorable area map of unit D.


o*


So
C9 0 39a









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


@Lithologic Control Wells


o400.o "iii1 KDark li in Carbonate

000-251
Contour Interval 20 Feet OJ: 25-50%
S50-75 %

10 0 10 20 30MILES E S
APPROX. SCALE


Map 9. Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of unit C.











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Bedded anhydrite is the dominant type and is dark brown, brown, dark gray,
grayish tan and white. White nodules and brown crystals of anhydrite occur
occasionally in the carbonates.
Argillaceous material is rare in this unit.
Light rocks are present throughout the study area, although they are more
prevalent over the highs. Dark rocks occur in all parts of the area, but are most
commonly found in the lows. Very large thicknesses of dark carbonates are
present in the area of Collier and Hendry counties. Perhaps a local anaerobic
lagoon developed in the Collier-Hendry area during the long stable period in
which unit C cycle was deposited. Anhydrite (Map 10) is widely distributed,
tending to thin over highs and thicken in lows. Dolomite (Map 10) is more
common over highs, and limestone predominates in the lows. Porosity (Map 11)
is widely distributed, but it is best developed over the highs.

THICKNESS

In the type well unit C is 341 feet thick. In other parts of the study area, it
ranges from 260 feet to 420 feet. The average thickness is about 325 feet.
Within the upper Lower Cretaceous section down through the Punta Groda
Formation (Frontispiece), there are only two cycles of sedimentation more than
200 feet thick. The oil productive Sunniland Limestone is one of these and unit
C is the other. From this limited evidence it would appear that thick cycles are
much more favorable for oil accumulation than are thin cycles.

PRODUCTIVE CHARACTER

Sixteen shows of oil have been reported in this unit: one consisted of 15 feet
of oil recovered on a 20-hour drill stem test, two consisted of oil-cut mud
recoveries on drill stem test, two were good shows in cores and cuttings, and 11
were poor shows in cores and cuttings. The 15 feet of oil was recovered from
dense, dark, source-type rock with little effective porosity. Unit C is the only
unit in the entire Big Cypress Group to yield free oil on drill stem test.
Much chalky, non-effective porosity commonly occurs in the calcilutites and
microcrystalline dolomites of unit C. The occasional calcarenites usually have
good intercrystalline, pinpoint or vuggy porosity.
In the Humble, No. 1 State 1004 (well 25), a core of unit C contained
numerous beds of oil-saturated, microcrystalline, chalky dolomite without
effective porosity separated by beds with effective porosity. These porous beds
did not contain oil shows. This condition suggests that oil has migrated through
the area, and may be trapped in an updip reservoir.
This unit has the most extensive favorable area in the Dollar Bay Formation.
The best area, that in which source rock and porosity are coincident, occurs







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


\0' % Dolomite in Carbonate
Anhydrite ContourInterval 10%
0-50%
50-100%
10 0 10 20 30 MILES
+m |o100%o
APPROX. SCALE

Map 10. Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map of
unit C.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


@Lithologic Control Wells


Contour Interval 25 Feet

I 0 20 30MILES
APPROX. SCALE


ntial Reservoir Thickness
0-50 Feet

50-100 Feet
100 Feet


Map 11. Thicknesses of potential reservoir and equivalent good
porosity of unit C.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


around Lake Okeechobee (Map 12); this area is near the main concentration of
source rock in Hendry County. Another less attractive favorable area lies to the
south on the flanks of the Largo high.

UNIT B

LITHOLOGY

The distinguishing characteristic of this unit is the presence of many
incomplete cycles, perhaps as many as six.
Carbonate is the main constituent of the unit, but anhydrite is common.
The limestone is generally calcilutitic, and occasionally contains skeletal,
pellet or oolitic grains. Miliolidae are common. Colors range from dark brown to
light gray and cream (Map 13).
Dolomite colors include brown, tan, dark gray, gray, light gray and cream.
Textures are microcrystalline and very fine crystalline. Both euhedral and
anhedral crystal forms occur. Completely dolomitized calcarenites are common.
Bedded anhydrite, the common variety present, is brown, dark gray, and
white. White nodules and brown crystals of anhydrite occur occasionally in the
carbonates.
Argillaceous material is common as a contaminant in the carbonate rock. The
color map shows a concentration of dark beds in the area of Hendry and Collier
counties similar to the concentration of dark carbonates in unit C. In other parts
of the study area, dark rocks of unit B mainly occur in lows, and light rocks are
concentrated on highs. Limestone (Map 14) is concentrated in the lows, and
dolomite on the highs. Anhydrite is restricted to the area in and bordering the
Broward trough; it thins over the Forty Mile Bend high. Porosity (Map 15) is
confined to the high areas, and is best developed on the Martin high.

THICKNESS

In the type well, unit B is 53 feet thick. In other parts of the study area, it
ranges from 40 to 75 feet. The average thickness is about 55 feet.

PRODUCTIVE CHARACTER

Three shows of oil have been reported from unit B, one good and two poor.
Effective porosity is restricted entirely to dolomite, and is pinpoint or
intercrystalline in nature. Chalky non-effective porosity is found occasionally in
calcilutites and microcrystalline dolomites. Possible source beds in the form of
dark carbonates are distributed fairly widely (Map 16).










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


MAN ATEEI HARD E
SE" ST. LUCIE


SARASOTA DE 4


Favorable Area


040

042


Map 12. Favorable area map for unit C.


P 2 3.0 MILES
APPROX SCALE











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


EXPLANATION
Oil recovery on DST
SOil cut mud on DST
o Good show in rock
D Poor show in rock
0 No show reported
SLithologic Control Wells
040
0421
042


% Dark in Carbonate
0-50%

S50-100%

o.o.. 100%


10 0 10 20 30MILES
SPPRO I SCALE
A PPROX. SCALE


Map 13. Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of unit B.










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


@ Lithoogii Control Wells


o042' .20 'II l lll"' Dolomite in Carbonate
20 0-50%
Anhydrite Contour Interval 20% o 50-100%0

100%
10 0 10 20 30 MILES
APPROX.SCALE

Map 14. Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite
map of unit B.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


@Lithologic Control Wells


o42 .. Potential Reservoir Thickness
S0-20 Feet
Equivalent Good Porosity 0 0
Contour Interval 20 Feet 20-40 Feet
S40-45 Feet
t0 0 10 20 30 MILES
APPROX.SCALE

Map 15. Thicknesses of potential reservoir and equivalent good
porosity in unit B.












BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Favorable


* 99A


040
041
042


10 0 o0 20 30MILES
APPROX.SCALE


Map 16. Favorable area map of unit B.










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


Unit B can be considered only a fair horizon for oil occurrence, since the areas
of favorable juxtaposition of porosity and source-type beds is small. The small
size and sinuous shape of these areas suggests that their location is doubtful since
a minor shift in the bounding contours could eliminate them.


UNIT A

LITHOLOGY

The distinguishing characteristic of this unit is its widespread content of
porous dolomite or calcarenite.
Unit A consists of one sedimentary cycle composed of carbonate and
anhydrite in approximately equal amounts. Occasionally Miliolidae are an
important constituent. Calcilutite is subordinate, frequently containing scattered
grains of the types described. The colors are black, brown, tan and cream.
Dolomite has a wider variety of colors, ranging from dark brown and dark
gray to light gray and cream. Texture is microcrystalline or very fine crystalline;
the crystal form is usually euhedral, but occasionally may be anhedral.
Completely dolomitized calcarenites are common.
Bedded anhydrite is the most common type and is brown, gray, tan and
white. White nodules and brown crystals of anhydrite are sometimes present in
the carbonates (Map 17).
Argillaceous material is rare.
Light rocks tend to be concentrated in the highs and dark rocks in the lows.
The concentration of dark carbonates in the Hendry County area indicates that
this area may have been an anaerobic lagoon, similar to that postulated during
the deposition of units B and C. Dolomite (Map 18) is concentrated on the
highs, and limestone in the lows. Anhydrite is widely distributed, thinning over
highs and thickening in lows. In unit A the area of rocks with good porosity
(Map 19) is extensive.

THICKNESS

In the type well unit A is 60 feet thick. In other parts of the study area, it
ranges from 30 to 60 feet. The average thickness is about 45 feet.

PRODUCTIVE CHARACTER

Only two poor shows of oil have been reported from unit A. Good effective
porosity occurs in dolomite, and also in calcarenitic limestone. Porosity is
intercrystalline and pinpoint in dolomites, and intergranular and pinpoint in
calcarenites. Chalky, non-effective porosity occurs occasionally in calcilutite and
microcrystalline dolomite. Source beds are widespread and of fair quality.










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


.*.*













EXPLANATION
SilE recoveryon ST.ST













0ilcutmudonDST .:::.:.- ..
0 Good show in rock
Poor show in rock
o No show reported
SLithologic Control Wells :::: ::
: I:::::: ::::::.7 :












60 0 a39
4 Iiii






















%o Dark in Carbonate
Contour Interval 20 Feet Oro

50-100%
1Ioo %
ri:












0 0 0 2rec0 0erILES 10
.. . :r2o~i Iti1::iii iiiij ioL '100%
ijIii~ill,=iiiili I;::L / Iir
APPROX.SCALEjj;:~iiii


Map 17. Isopachous and percent dark carbonate map of unit A.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


EXPLANATION 'IH
e0il recovery on DST
Oil cut mud on OST I
GGood show n rock
oPoor sho nioc
ONoshowreported
@Lithologic Conlrol Wellis 0 0
41
042

Anhydrite Contour Interval 20 % Dolomite in Carbonate
0-50%
l 50-1005%
[ o 0 O10 20 30MI LES l O
APPROX. SCALE 100


Map 18. Percent dolomite in carbonate and percent anhydrite map
of unit A.









50 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


eOil recovery on DST
0Oil cut mudon DST
(Good show in rock
OPoor show in rock
0 No show reported
@Lithologic Control Wells


Equivalent Good Porosity
Contour Interval 25 Feet


0t 0 10 20 30MILES
APPROX.SCALE


Potential Reservoir Thickness
S0-25 Feet
25-50 Feet
E > 50 Feet


Map 19. Thicknesses of potential reservoir and equivalent good
porosity in unit A.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


The occurrence of good porosity and fair quality source beds indicates that
unit A is a good prospective horizon for the occurrence of oil.
The favorable area for unit A (Map 20) is long and sinuous. This shape
indicates some unreliability of boundaries, since a minor shift in contours might
eliminate the favorable area.

DISCUSSION OF CROSS-SECTIONS

The four stratigraphic cross-sections of the report as shown in the index map,
figure 8, were designed to show lateral changes in lithology and thickness across
the more prominent structural features of the study area.
Section A-A', figure 9, is an east-west section crossing the north flank of the
South Florida Basin. The upper and lower contacts of the Dollar Bay Formation
are on top of persistent anhydrite beds which exhibit high resistivity kicks on
the electric log. Dolomite percentage increases in an easterly direction onto the
Martin high. The porous beds do not appear to have regional continuity; this
could result in the development of stratigraphic traps. The thick interval in wells
1 and 6 suggests that subsidence was taking place in the area of these wells.
Section B-B', figure 10, is also an east-west section extending from the South
Florida Basin center eastward to well 25, which contained numerous good oil
shows. Well 27, located in the area of the postulated Hendry County lagoon,
contains source-type limestone between 9700 and 9900 feet. To the west, this
rock type becomes a chalky white limestone, while to the east it becomes a light
colored, chalky limestone and dolomite.
Section C-C', figure 11, is a north-south section extending from the Martin
high (well 6) to the Marquesas Keys (well 41). From the upper end of the Martin
high (well 6) the Dollar Bay Formation thickens in a southerly direction to well
7, also on this feature. Southward wells 25 and 33 show no change in thickness
from the Martin high to the Forty Mile Bend high (well 33). Southwest from this
feature, the formation thickens steadily to the vicinity of the northern flank of
the Pine Key arch (wells 39 and 41). Here the section attains the greatest
thickness so far observed in this formation. Although dolomite is common in all
the wells of this cross-section, there is more of it on the Martin high at the north
end (wells 6 and 7) than anywhere else. Porosity, in discontinuous beds,
decreases sharply away from the Martin high; wells 33 and 39 contain little
effective porosity.
Section D-D', figure 12, is a northwest-southeast section which starts on the
shelf (well 3), crosses the lagoonal source-facies area (wells 10, 20 and 27),
continues across the Forty Mile Bend high (well 33), and terminates on the
Largo high (well 37). In well 37, the Dollar Bay interval is noticeably thinner
than in other wells in this area. Porosity, in discontinuous beds, is greatest on the
shelf to the northwest (well 3), and on the Largo high to the southeast (well 37).











BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


M A NATEE H A RD E E

---------- HIGHLANDS
S L._._j I .


Favorable Area


C9


o 40

04241


10 0 10 20 30MILES
APPROXSCALE


Map 20. Favorable area map of unit A.


: o 9~
; o CO
0.^ c=:













SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


10 0 10 20 30MILES
APPROX.SCALE


Figure 8. Index map showing location of cross-sections.


C 042
















BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


In the intermediate wells porosity is scarce. The carbonate on the Largo high
(well 37) is composed almost totally of dolomite; in the other wells limestone
predominates. In well 37, anhydrite is much thicker in the Dollar Bay Formation
than in any other well on the four cross-sections. The oil shows in the wells of
cross-section D-D' are all in the tight dark carbonates considered to be source
beds, except for the top-most show in well 10 which occurs in porous dolomite.
While all of the wells in the center of the cross-section are of nearly uniform
thickness (wells 10, 20 and 33), well 27 is anomolously thin in the Dollar
Bay Formation.

SUMMARY OF THE OIL POTENTIAL OF THE
DOLLAR BAY FORMATION

The Dollar Bay Formation has the greatest potential for oil production within
the Big Cypress Group. This is due to the presence of unit C.
It is believed that stratigraphy, as much as local structure, will control
commercial oil occurrence in the Dollar Bay Formation. Stratigraphic change in
association with local nosing accounts for the trapping of Sunniland Limestone
oil in the Sunoco-Felda field of Hendry and Collier counties (fig. 2).
Since closed structure has proven difficult to find in south Florida, and in fact
may be rare, regional nosing will be important in localizing oil accumulations.
Small displacement faults may also contribute to the entrapment of oil.
A barrier reef may be coincident with much of the Florida escarpment, 120
miles to the west. The escarpment extends from DeSoto Canyon at the north,
southward into the Florida Straits. Recent seismic profiles and a dredged sample
(Antoine et al, 1967, fig. 3, p. 259) suggest that a local anticlinal structure
superimposed on the escarpment is of Cretaceous age, and may be a reef. The
rocks of the onshore portion of the South Florida Basin appear to be a back reef
facies of this possible barrier reef. Since there was no large actively sinking
hingeline in the onshore portion of this basin, it is unlikely that vertical reef
development has occurred here. If onshore reefs exist, they should be low in
relief, and probably will be as much biostromal as biohermal. Thus they are not
expected to form a trapping structure, but should contribute greatly to the
quality of the reservoir.
Offshore, greater possibilities exist for the development of a major reef trap in
the barrier reef of the Florida escarpment. An atoll may have developed around
two possible basement highs indicated on the marine gravity map of Dehlinger
and Jones (1965, P. 104).
A graben is interpreted about midway between the southwest Florida coast
and the escarpment (Antoine and Ewing 1963, p. 1977) on the basis of seismic
refraction work. To produce such a feature, major structural movement would
be required.

























SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15 59

Most of the oil tests in south Florida have been drilled to test the Sunniland
Limestone. The area favorable for Sunniland production nowhere coincides with
the area favorable for Dollar Bay production; therefore very few tests have been
drilled in the favorable area of the Dollar Bay Formation.
The bands of favorable area in the Dollar Bay Formation are located updip
from a similar band of favorable area in the older Sunniland Limestone. This
updip migration indicates a broadening of the basin during the continuous
transgression of the Lower Cretaceous sea.
Geophysical exploration in the Dollar Bay favorable area may indicate the
presence of a structural feature which would help localize a stratigraphically
controlled trap. Appendix 8 gives a brief summary of past exploratory activity
and geophysical problems in south Florida exploration.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Applin, E. R. (see Applin, P.)

Applin, P.
1965 (and Applin, E. R.) Comanche Series and associated rocks in the subsurface in
central and south Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 447, p. 83.
Antoine, J.
1963 (and Ewing, J.) Seismic refraction measurements on the margins of the Gulf of
Mexico: Jour. Geoph. Resch. VoL 68, p. 1975-96.
1965 (and Harding, J. L.) Structure beneath continental shelf, northeastern Gulf of
Mexico: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 49, p. 157-71.
1967 (and Bryant, W. and Jones, B.) Structural features of continental shelf, slope
and scarp, northeastern Gulf of Mexico: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists, Vol. 51, p. 257-62.

Babcock, C.V.
1966 Florida petroleum exploration, production and prospects 1964: Fla. Geol.
Survey Inf. Cir. No. 49, 117 p.

Banks, J. E. (see Puri)

Bryant, W. (see Antoine)

Dehlinger, P. (and Jones, B. R.)
1965 Free-air gravity anomoly map of the Gulf of Mexico and its implications, 1963
edition: Geophysics, Vol. 30, p. 102-108.

Drake, C. L.
1963 (and Heirtzler, J. and Hirshman, J.) Magnetic anomolies of eastern North
America: Jour. Geoph. Resch., Vol. 68, p. 5259-75.
1966 (see Sheridan)

Emery, K. O. (see Uchupi)

Ewing, J. (see Antoine)

Forgotson, James M., Jr.
1963 Depositional history and paleotectonic framework on Comanche Cretaceous
Trinity Stage, Gulf Coast area: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 47,
p. 69-103.

Frascogna, X. M. (ed.)
1957 Mesozoic-Paleozoic producing areas of Mississippi and Alabama: Mississippi
Geol. Soc., 139 p.

Furrazola-Bermudez, G.
1964 (and Judoley, C. M.; Mijailovskaya, M.S.; Miroliubov, J.S.; Novajatsky, I.P.;
Nunez-Jimenez, A.; and Solsona, J.B.) Geologia de Cuba: Vol. I, 239 p. Vol. II,
map-folio.












BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Glockzin, Albert R. (and Roy, Chalmer)
1941 Tentative correlation chart of Gulf Coast: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists, V. 25, p. 742-746.

Gough, D. I.
1967 Magnetic anomolies and crustal structure in eastern Gulf of Mexico: Bull. Am.
Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 51, p. 200-11.

Harding, J. L. (see Antoine)

Hatten, C. W. (see Meyerhoff)

Heirtzler, J. (see Antoine)

Hennion, J. (see Sheridan)

Hirshman, J. (see Antoine)

Jones, B. (see Antoine)

Jones, B. R. (see Dehlinger, P.)

Jordan, G. F.
1961 (and Stewart, H. B. Jr.) Submarine topography of the western Straits of
Florida: Bull. Geol. Soc. of Am., Vol. 72, p. 1051-58.
1964 (and Malloy, R. J.; and Kofoed, J.W.) Bathymetry and geology of the Pourtales
terrace, Florida: Marine Geology, Vol. I, p. 259-87.

Judoley, C.M. (see Furrazola-Bermudez)

King, E.R.
1959 Regional magnetic map of Florida: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Vol.
43, p. 2844-54.

Kofoed, J.W. (see Jordan)

Leighton, M.W.
1962 (and Pendexter, C.) Carbonate rock types: in Classification of Carbonate Rock
Types edited by William E. Ham, Memoir 1, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists,
Tulsa, Okla.

Maher, J.C.
1965 Correlations of subsurface Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks along the Atlantic
coast: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, 3 cross-sections (18 p.)

Malloy, RJ. (see Jordan)

Meyerhoff, A.A.
1968 (and Hatten, C.W.) Diapiric structures in central Cuba: in Diapiars and
Diapirism, Memoir 8, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Okla.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


Mijailovshaya, M.S. (see Furrazola-Bermudez)

Miroliubov, Y.S. (see Furrazola-Bermudez)

Mississippi Geological Society
1957 in Frascogna, X.M. (ed.) Mesozoic-Paleozoic producing areas of Mississippi and
Alabama: Mississippi GeoL Soc., 139 p.

Murray, G.E.
1961 Geology of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal province of North America:Harper
and Brothers, New York.

Nafe, J.E. (see Sheridan)

Novajatsky, I.P. (see Furrazola-Bermudez)

Nunez-Jimenez, A. (see Furrazola-Bermudez)

Oglesby, W.R.
1965 Folio of south Florida Basin-a preliminary study: Fla. Geol. Survey Map Ser.
No. 19, 3 p., 8 maps, 3 cross sections.
1966 Unpublished cross-sections of the Lower Cretaceous of South Florida.
1967 A gravity profile of the south Florida shelf: Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol.
Soc., p. 278-86.

Pendexter, C. (see Leighton, M.W.)

Puri, H.S.
1959 (and Banks, J.E.) Structural features of the Sunniland oil field, Collier county,
Florida: Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc., Vol. 9, p. 121-30.

Raasch, A.C., Jr.
1954 The Sunniland Oil field of Collier county, Florida: unpublished Master's thesis,
Florida State Univ., 33 p. (Fla. State Univ. Strozier Library file No. 553-28 R
1s.)

Roy, Chalmer J.
1941 (and Glockzin, Albert R.) Tentative correlation chart of Gulf Coast: Bull.
Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists, voL 25, p. 742-746.

Sheridan, R.E.
1966 (and Drake, C.L.; Nafe, J.E. and Hennion, J.) Seismic refraction study of
continental margin east of Florida: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Vol.
50, p. 1972-91.

Solsona, J.B. (see Furrazola-Bermudez)


Southeast Geological Society
1949 Regional cross-section A-A .





















64 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




Stephenson, L.W.
1942 (and King, P.B.; Monroe, W.H. and Imlay, R.W.) Correlations of the
outcropping Cretaceous rocks of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain and
Trans-Pecos region: Geol. Soc. America Bull, V. 53, p. 435-448.

Stewart, J.B. (see Jordan)

Spencer, M.
1967 Bahamas deep test: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 51, p. 263-68.

Winston, G.O.
1970 Geologic atlas of the Florida-Bahama Platform: in press, Fla. Bur. of Geol.

















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


APPENDIX 1



















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


GLOSSARY

1. Calcarenite. A limestone with over 50 percent sand-sized grains.
2. Calcilutite. Micro-structured limestone with less than 50 percent sand-sized grains;
usually a consolidated lime mud. Occasionally this rock may be a completely
recrystallized calcarenitic limestone in which all original texture was destroyed, only
"ghosts" or color differences remaining to indicate original fossil fragments.
3. EuhedraL Refers to dolomite crystal structure in which individual crystals are separate
and can be seen quite plainly. Sucrosic dolomites are always euhedral, but euhedral
dolomites are not always sucrosic.
4. AnhedraL Refers to dolomite crystal structure in which individual crystals are
interlocked; this obscures the crystal boundaries almost to oblivion.
5. Equivalent good porosity. Since thick sections of poor porosity do not have the oil
productive quality of thinner sections of good porosity, a map of un-weighted porosity
thickness is completely misleading. To bring porosities of similar thicknesses but
varying quality into some sort of equivalency for mapping purposes, the following
formula was used:
Footage of poor porosity (0-5%) divide by 4
Footage of fair porosity (6-10%) divide by 2
Footage of good porosity (11-15%) divide by 1
Footage of excellent porosity (15-30%) divide by 1
Equivalent good porosity is the sum of the respective weighted equivalencies as derived
above. This formula provides porosity figures for exploratory mapping which are
realistically comparable.
6. Potential porosity. Although rock capable of developing porosity may not be porous at
the immediate locality of the well, it is still important to know the thickness of rock
which is capable of developing porosity. A cemented oolite is an example of a rock
type having potential porosity. As mapped, potential porosity also includes rock which
is actually porous.
Thus the potential porosity maps in this report show by pattern the thickness of rock
that has a potential of developing porosity. This map is overlaid with the equivalent
good porosity map, which shows by contours the weighted thickness of porosity at
points of controL


















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


APPENDIX 2










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


EXPLANATION OF MAP CONSTRUCTION-

The faces maps of this report have been combined in combinations to
facilitate their use, and to reduce the number of illustrations. The isopachous
and percent dark carbonate maps were combined, as both tend to show general
basin form such as shelf and basin center. The percent dolomite in carbonate and
the percent anhydrite maps were combined since they both deal with the
lithologic composition of the mapped unit. The potential porosity and
equivalent good porosity maps were combined because they both deal with
reservoir conditions. The favorable area map stands alone.

ISOPACHOUS MAP

Contours are used to show thickening, thinning and extent of the mapped
unit. In local areas this may indicate the presence of features such as anticlines
or reefs.

PERCENT DARK CARBONATE MAP

This map, known as a color map, shows the percentages of dark carbonate by
a series of patterns. In rock sections exclusively of carbonate, the source for oil
must be within the carbonate rock itself. The colors most closely associated with
organically rich beds are black, dark gray or dark brown; therefore, a map
showing the percentage of these colors can be interpreted as showing the
potential source capability of the unit.

PERCENT DOLOMITE IN CARBONATE MAP

This is merely a dolomite-limestone ratio map expressed as percentage for ease
in understanding. It shows by patterns the progressive change from dolomite to
limestone. As porosity in the Dollar Bay Formation most frequently occurs in
dolomite, it is useful to know the location of high concentrations of dolomite.

PERCENT ANHYDRITE MAP

Contours are used to show the percentage of anhydrite in the mapped unit.
Anhydrite is the third major lithologic constituent in the Dollar Bay Formation.

POTENTIAL POROSITY MAP

A progression of patterns is used to show the thickness of rock that
potentially could develop porosity (see appendix 1).


















BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


EQUIVALENT GOOD POROSITY MAP

The thickness of weighted equivalences of good porosity, derived from the
formula explained in appendix 1, is shown by contour on this map.

FAVORABLE AREA MAP

A favorable area is usually sought by first studying the rocks where oil is
produced, and then looking for areas where similar facies exist. In the case of the
Dollar Bay Formation, this method cannot be used since there is no oil
production from which to start.
The favorable area maps are constructed by outlining the coincidence of
favorable porosity thickness, as shown on the equivalent good porosity maps,
and a reasonable amount of source rock, shown on the map of percent dark
carbonate.
Considering the depths at which beds of the Dollar Bay Formation occur, ten
feet of oil column was considered the minimum thickness desirable for
commercial oil production. For this reason, a minimum of ten feet of equivalent
good porosity was used as the lower porosity limit in constructing the favorable
area maps. In addition, it was decided by the writer that 25 to 50 percent dark
carbonate was adequate to serve as effective source rock. A higher percentage of
dark carbonates usually is associated with conditions which are not conducive to
the formation of porosity. On the other hand, the percentage used must be
sufficient to compensate for the fact that not all dark carbonates are source
beds.






















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


APPENDIX 3

















Well
No. Unit

21 C






25 C


SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


OIL SHOWS OBSERVED BY THE WRITER


Depth
Feet

9715-21

9721-22
9722-24

9724-27

9678-79

9679-80
9680-84

9684-85
9685-91

9697-98

9700-03
9703-05

9705-11
9711-14

9724-25


9742-43

9743-45

9747-56

9760-61

9765-68

9777-80


9780-82 core


10323-24 core

10333-34 core


9450-70 sam


9510-45

9580-
9620

9635-36

9839-40



9578-86

9884-86

9900-03


Core or
Sample

core

core
core


core

core

core
core

core
core

core

core
core

core
core

core


core

core

core

core

core

core


Qual
show Rock description

poor limestone, calcilutitic, cream;

good as above; trace pinpoint porosity.
good limestone, calcilutitic, cream, 30%
large rudistidid fragments; chalky
porosity; trace pinpoint porosity.
poor as above, 10% rudistid fragments.

poor dolomite, microcrystalline, brown;
no porosity
good as above, saturated.
poor dolomite, microcrystalline, tan;
no porosity
good as above, saturated.
good dolomite, microcrystalline,
saturated; no porosity
good dolomite, microcrystalline; no
porosity.
good as above.
poor dolomite, microcrystalline, light
gray; spots of saturation; no porosity.
good as above.
poor dolomite, microcrystalline, light
gray; no porosity.
poor limestone, calcarenitic, 50% large
rudistid fragments, 50% micro-
crystalline dolomite; no porosity.
poor dolomite, microcrystalline, tan; no
porosity
poor dolomite, microcrystalline, tan,
chalky and 5% pinpoint porosity.
poor dolomite, tan, microcrystalline;
chalky porosity.
good dolomite, microcrystalline, tan,
saturated; no porosity.
good dolomite, microcrystalline, brown;
trace pinpoint porosity.
good dolomite, microcrystalline, brown,
30% calcareous rudistid fragments;
10% pinpoint and vuggy porosity.
poor limestone, calcilutitic, 40% rudistid
fragment 50% dolomite, very fine
crystalline, brown; 5% pinpoint porosity.

poor dolomite, brown, fine crystalline,
anhedral; 15% intercrystalline and
vuggy porosity; fossil molds.
good dolomite, tan, fine crystalline,
euhedral; 5% vuggy porosity.

poor dolomite, dark brown, micro-
crystalline; 5% intercrystalline
porosity.
poor limestone, calcilutite, black;
no porosity.
poor limestone, calcilutite, brown and
black; no porosity.

good dolomite, brown, microcrystalline;
no porosity; spotty saturation.
good limestone, calcilutite, brown,
large rudistid fragments; oily
matrix; no porosity.

poor dolomite, cream microcrystal-
line; 10% pinpoint porosity.
poor dolomite, tan,-very fine crystalline,
euhedral; 15% intercrystalline porosity.
poor dolomite, brown, very fine crystalline,
euhedral; 5% intercrystalline
porosity.


32 D


10 A


B

C


26 C




20 B

D






















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


APPENDIX 4













SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


SUMMARY OF MEXICAN PRODUCING FIELDS
OF FREDERICKSBURG AGE

The Poza Rica field, and the Golden Lane trend of fields are prolific
Fredericksburg Age producing areas of the Tampico embayment in Mexico.

POZA RICA

This field is a stratigraphic trap situated on the northeast flank of a southeast
plunging nose. The dip on the northeast flank of this structure is steep while on
the southwest flank it is gentle. The productive area covers some 20 square
miles. Poza Rica was discovered at a depth of 6700 feet in 1930 by drilling on a.
large gravity feature.
The productive horizon is the Tamabra Limestone, a transitional facies
between the non-porous Tamaulipas Formation to the west and the porous El
Abra Formation to the east. At Poza Rica, the Tamabra Limestone is some 650
feet thick. It is composed mainly of calcarenite containing skeletal grains of sand
and silt size. Compact non-porous zones of this type of limestone also occur
sporadically within the section. In addition, occasional beds of non-porous
calcilutite are present. Secondary dolomitization is widespread within the
section. Rudistid debris forms numerous shoals which are present horizontally as
well as vertically in varying number; the greatest cumulative thickness of these
occurs along the axis of the productive area, which is not the axis of the present
structure. Both updip and downdip, the highly porous rudistid shoals disappear.
Porosity varies from 8 to 20 percent and averages 14 percent. Permeability varies
from 5 millidarcies to 1000 millidarcies.
Current production from the Poza Rica field is 70,000 barrels of oil per day.
The cumulative production is 960 million barrels of oil. The calculated reserves
of the field equal 1,100 million barrels of oil.

GOLDEN LANE

The Golden Lane trend of fields is now known to form a giant atoll some 75
miles long by 35 miles wide. Production is from a series of biohermal crests on
this atoll. The productive trend is delineated by the vertical accumulation of
many rudistid shoals and bioherms in the El Abra Formation, which is as much
as 8000 feet thick. In the lagoonal area the El Abra is composed mainly of
miliolid limestone with some anhydrite; this description could also fit the Dollar
Bay Formation in south Florida. Detrital and bioclastic debrisfringe the atoll.Off
the west flank of the atoll dips are 30 degrees, while into the lagoon dips average
2 degrees. Depths to the productive horizon range from 1500 to 2500 feet.























80 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Current production from the Golden Lane trend varies from 35 to 40,000
barrels of oil per day. As of June, 1969, the cumulative production was 1,393
million barrels of oil; the remaining reserves of the field are estimated to be 239
million barrels of oil.



REFERENCES

Barnetche, A. and Illing, L V.
1956 The Tamabra Limestone of the Poza Rica oil field: 20th International Geological
Congress, Mexico, 38 p.
Rojas, A. C.
1949 Mexican oil fields: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, VoL 33, p.
1336-1350.
Salas, G. P.
1949 Geology and development of Poza Rica oil field, Veracruz, Mexico: Bull. Am.
Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, VoL 33, p. 1385-1409.

























SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15 81


APPENDIX 5














SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


TABLE OF WELLS SHOWN ON MAPS


No. Oper.

1 Mobil
2 Humble
3 Continental
4 Humble
5 Amerada
6 Amerada
7 Amerada
8 Coastal
9 Amerada
10 Mobil
11 Gulf
12 Humble
13 Gulf
14 Mobil
15 California
16 So. Triangle
17 Amerada
18 Humble
19 Sun
20 Commonwealth
21 Gulf
22 Humble
23 Humble
24 McCulloch
25 Humble
26 Humble
27 Humble
28 Humble
29 Gulf American
30 Humble
31 Humble
32 Humble
33 Commonwealth
34 Humble
35 Coastal
36 Robinson
37 Sinclair
38 Gulf
39 Gulf
40 Gulf
41 California
42 Gulf-Calif.
43 McCord
44 Gulf


Lease

Schroeder
Keene
Carlton
Carlton
Swenson
No. 2 Cowles Magazine
Southern States
Tiedtka
Lykes
Babcock Ranch
Stevens
Loundes-Treadwell
Vanderbilt
State 224-B
No. 2 State 224-B
No. 2 Lawless
Conn. Sugar
Tuscan
No. 1-A Alico
No. 3 Red Cattle
No. 1 CNS
Kirchoff
CNS
Collier Dev.
State 1004
No. B-1 Collier Corp.
Curry
E-1 GCRC
1 East Gate
No. 2 GCRC
No. 1 Miles Collier
No. 1 Collier Corp.
State 1005
IIF
State 340-A
State
Williams
State 826 G
State 373
State 826 Y
No. 3 State 1011
OCS (Blk 28)
Damoco
No. 1 State 340


County Sec Twps Rge

Manatee 11 35 19
Hardee 23 35 23
Highlands 20 38 28
Highlands 34 38 29
Okeechobee 5 36 34
St. Lucie 19 36 40
Palm Beach 34 41 39
Glades 25 42 33
Glades 1 41 30
Charlotte 9 42 27
Charlotte 24 42 24
Charlotte 17 42 23
Charlotte 35 41 21


Charlotte
Lee
Hendry
Palm Beach
Palm Beach
Hendry
Hendry
Lee
Lee
Lee
Collier
Palm Beach
Hendry
Collier
Collier
Collier
Collier
Collier
Collier
Dade
Dade
Dade
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Monroe
Dade
Dade


offshore
offshore
34
35
35
27
25
27
23
16
20
2
14
8
19
16
30
18
27
11
30
25
29
29
offshore
2
offshore
offshore
offshore
3
19


53 35
54 36


















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15


APPENDIX 6
















SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 15








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