Osteology and paleontology of the passerine birds of the Reddick, Florida, Pleistocene ( FGS: Bulletin 44 )

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Material Information

Title:
Osteology and paleontology of the passerine birds of the Reddick, Florida, Pleistocene ( FGS: Bulletin 44 )
Series Title:
(FGS: Bulletin 44 )
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Hamon, J. Hill 1931-
Publisher:
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Florida Geological Survey
Birds, Fossil
Paleontology -- Florida -- Reddick
Passeriformes
Genre:
Spatial Coverage:

Notes

Summary:
The order Passeriformes (perching birds) includes over half of the 8,650 species of birds known in the world today, little is known about their fossil record. Only 32 extinct passerine species have been described, as compared with 801 extinct non-passerine forms.
Scope and Content:
Contents: Descriptive osteology -- Photograph of humerus of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Photograph of distal end of humerus of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Photograph of ulna of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Photograph of carpometacarpus of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Photograph of coracoid of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Photograph of femur of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Photograph of tibiotarsus of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Photograph of tarsometatarsus of Corvus brachyrhynchos -- Family Tyrannidae -- Family Hirundinidae -- Family Corvidae -- Family Sittidae -- Family Troglodytidae. Family Mimidae -- Family Turdidae -- Family Laniidae -- Family Parulidae -- Family Icteridae -- Family Thraupidae -- Family Fringillidae --The Reddick fossil locality -- Aerial photograph of the Reddick, Florida, area --Map of the Reddick fossil locality --Stratigraphic section at Reddick, Florida -- Map of the main fossil-bearing quarry -- Systematic paleontology -- Photograph of elements of Pandanaris floridana -- Measurement of elements of Pandanaris floridana -- Discussion --Map of present distribution of northern and southern elements of the Reddick Fauna -- Extinction ratios of Pleistocene sites.
General Note:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin
General Note:
Issued also as thesis, University of Florida.
General Note:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 207-210).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1647
ltuf - AKM4736
alephbibnum - 002036976
System ID:
UF00000244:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
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UNIVERSITY

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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director






GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 44






OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF
THE PASSERINE BIRDS OF THE
REDDICK, FLORIDA, PLEISTOCENE

By
J. Hill Hamon
Indiana State College











Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Tallahassee
1964













FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION





FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer




THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


JAMES W. KYNES
Attorney General




RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director









LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


iorida geological Survey

'Cailakassee


March 30, 1964

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:
The Florida Geological Survey is publishing, as Geological Bul-
letin No. 44, a very comprehensive report on fossil birds discovered
in the Pleistocene plastic fills of solution pipes that had been formed
in the limestone of the Ocala group of formations, principally in
Z the Reddick area. This is part of a cooperative program between
this department and Dr. Pierce Brodkorb and his students. The
Q report was prepared as part of the requirements for a graduate
degree at the University of Florida, granted to Mr. J. Hill Hamon,
who is now a professor at Indiana State College.
S We are pleased to make this record of this important group of
5 birds available, and we hope that it will encourage other studies
in the area.

Respectfully yours,
Robert 0. Vernon
Director and State Geologist



























































Completed manuscript received
December 4, 1963
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By E. O. Painter Printing Co.
DeLand, Florida
1964

iv











CONTENTS

Page

Introduction -------- ----- 1
Descriptive osteology ------- --------- 2
Family Tyrannidae -----. ------- --- -- 11
Family Hirundinidae 19
Family Corvidae -- -------- 30
Family Sittidae -------------- -----51
Family Troglodytidae ----- 60
Family Mimidae -- -------- -----71
Family Turdidae ----- -84
Family Laniidae ---___ --95
Family Parulidae 104
Family Icteridae ---- ---- ---_---- 113
Family Thraupidae ----- -------149
Family Fringillidae -- -------------- 157
The Reddick fossil locality ----- ---- 181
Systematic paleontology --------- 191
Discussion --------------200
Summary ----------------206
Literature cited -----------------207



ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page

1 Photograph of humerus of Corvus brachyrhynchos _______- 3
2 Photograph of distal end of humerus of Corvus brachyrhynchos --- 4
3 Photograph of ulna of Corvus brachyrhynchos .__---- -_ 5
4 Photograph of carpometacarpus of Corvus brachyrhynchos --..... 6
5 Photograph of coracoid of Corvus brachyrhynchos 7
6 Photograph of femur of Corvus brachyrhynchos 8
7 Photograph of tibiotarsus of Corvus brachyrhynchos 9
8 Photograph of tarsometatarsus of Corvus brachyrhynchos 10
9 Aerial photograph of the Reddick, Florida, area 182
10 Map of the Reddick fossil locality 183
'11 Map of the main fossil-bearing quarry _--- ____------- 187
12 Photograph of elements of Pandanaris floridana ........ 198
13 Map of present distribution of northern and southern elements
of the Reddick fauna ------------.-------.-..... ..2. 204

Table

1 Stratigraphic section at Reddick, Florida _-_--------.-- __184
2 Measurements of elements of Pandanaris floridana .- ....199
3 Extinction ratios of Pleistocene sites ---..--.......--_-- .. ..._ 205











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I am indebted to Dr. Pierce Brodkorb who directed this study.
His constant aid, inspiration, stimulation, and genuine concern was
invaluable. I also wish to thank Doctors Lewis Berner, E. C. Bovee,
H. K. Brooks, and J. R. Redmond who critically read the manuscript
as submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida,
as partial fulfillment for the Ph.D. degree.
Dr. Ted T. Allen helped in the preparation of the drawings.
The aid of Dr. Robert 0. Vernon and the Florida Geological
Survey who provided financial assistance is greatly appreciated.









THE PASSERINE BIRDS OF THE
OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF
REDDICK, FLORIDA, PLEISTOCENE


INTRODUCTION

Although the order Passeriformes (perching birds) includes
over half of the 8,650 species of birds known in the world today,
little is known about their fossil record. Only 32 extinct passerine
species have been described, as compared with 801 extinct non-
passerine forms. In North American Pleistocene deposits 286
species of birds have been listed, and of this number only 63 are
passerine. Most of these passerines represent species still living
today, with 10 of them being extinct.
The reason for the scarcity of passerine remains is that most of
these birds are small, and have very fragile bones that do not
preserve well as fossils. They are apparently plentiful as fossils,
but paleontologists have often discarded matrix rich with minute
bones of small birds and other small animals while searching for
larger and more spectacular vertebrate fossils.
The Pleistocene fossil beds of Reddick, Florida, bear a tre-
mendous vertebrate fauna, probably representing the richest bed
of its age in eastern North America. The enormous concentration
of well-preserved small vertebrate bones makes this locality unique.
Passerine remains are particularly abundant.
By far the most rewarding method of collecting small vertebrate
fossils is by the washing technique (Hibbard, 1949). Matrix is
washed in a fine screen and the concentrate thoroughly dried.
After drying, the remaining clayey matrix breaks down much more
readily upon rewashing. In sandy matrix two washings usually
suffice, but a clay matrix may require repeated washings and dry-
ings. Bones are then picked out of the concentrate with forceps
under a low-power binocular microscope.
Identification of fossils was hampered by lack of knowledge of
osteology of passerines. In order to identify the fossils, it was
necessary first to define osteological characters for the majority
of families of passeriform birds found in eastern North America
and to differentiate osteologically those genera occurring in Pleisto-
cene deposits east of the Mississippi.







2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

DESCRIPTIVE OSTEOLOGY

An original description of the anatomical characters of seven
skeletal elements is presented below for each family in the order
Passeriformes found in eastern North American Pleistocene
deposits. These elements are the humerus, carpometacarpus, ulna,
coracoid, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus. For easy
reference the characters of each element have been numbered
consecutively. The reader should understand that the osteological
characters of the families are based only on those genera and
species known as fossils in Pleistocene deposits east of the
Mississippi.
At the generic level the distinguishing characters are described,
and the character numbers are those used in the family descrip-
tions. The osteological terminology follows that of Howard (1929),
and the names of muscles follow those of Fisher (1946).
Illustrations are presented to illustrate these elements and some
of the osteological characters that are used in the characterization
of the various taxa (fig. 1-8).



Hypotarsal Formulas

In order to describe the arrangement of calcaneal canals and
grooves in the typotarsus of the tarsometatarsus, the following
code is used.
Hypotarsal canals and grooves occur in two general anteriorly
to posteriorly arranged lines. Beginning with the most anterior
internal canal, designated "D" for M. flexor digitorum longus,
each next posteriorly arranged canal is designated "E," "F," and
"G," respectively. In the external line the most anterior canal is
designated "H," for M. flexor hallucis longus, and its next
posteriorly arranged canal is designated "I."
Capital code designations indicate closed canals. Lower case
letters indicate canals that are confluent. Lower case primed letters
indicate that the calcaneal canal is open to a margin, i.e., it is a
groove. Letters separated by a slant indicate that the two canals
are located on the same, or almost the same, level.
The formula is begun with D, the anterior internal canal; and
reads posteriorly, E; F; and G, if present; continuing with H, the
anterior external canal: and its next posterior canal, I. As an
example, a hypotarsal formula for Corvus is De/FGHi'.









OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS


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OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 11

Family TYRANNIDAE

Humerus
In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1) head
thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuberosity distinct,
with scar for insertion of M. supracoideus slightly excavated, oval;
(3) internal tuberosity prominent, with rounded border, with
attachment of M. subscapularis an indistinct, slightly convex,
oval scar, the scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly
excavated, elliptical, its distal external surface with the scar for
insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior distinct, moderately ex-
cavated, elliptical; (4) capital groove straight, deeply excavated,
perforated along its length by a row of tiny foramina without a
small foramen near its external margin; (5) scar for insertion of
M. proscapulo-humeralis brevis indistinct, shallow, elongate; (6)
capital-shaft ridge short, straight, slightly elevated, not extending
to head, (7) deltoid crest slightly curved, thin, with proximal end
above level of distal end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid surface
slightly concave; (9) latissimus ridge obscure; (10) deltoid notch
sharply angular; (11) median bar short, curved, forming an
angle of about 67 degrees with the internal tuberosity, its palmar
end extending to internal medial surface of shaft; (12) pneumatic
fossa single, incomplete, deep, its opening oval in shape, with scar
for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis on a shelf, a slightly
excavated, oval depression, not undercutting the shaft; (13)
pneumatic fenestra small, with complex strutting; (14) bicipital
crest angular, with edge thick, bearing the scar for insertion of
M. biceps large, distinct, moderately elevated oval; (15) shaft
robust, with external border slightly convex in middle, internal
border gently concave throughout its length; (16) line of M. latis-
simus dorsi anterioris obsolete.
In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17)
ectepicondylar process prominent, slightly produced externally,
pointed, without accessory process on its surface, without exca-
vation between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18) scar for
origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialia (anconal branch) small,
distinct, slightly excavated, elliptical; (19) external condyle
prominent, with distal border rounded; (20) external tricipital
groove moderately excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa shallow,
not undercutting the internal condyle, oval; (22) internal condyle
slightly rounded, extending only slightly below level of external
condyle; (23) internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepi-







12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

condyle prominent, angular, its distal end truncated bearing scar
for the origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch)
moderately excavated, oval, and extending below level of both
internal and external condyles.

In palmar view, humerus with proximal end with (25) liga-
mental furrow wide, curved, moderately excavated; (26) bicipital
furrow moderately excavated, curved, without foramina, bounded
externally by the large, moderately elevated, concave, wide elliptical
scar for insertion of M. deltoideus minor; (27) bicipital crest
rounded; (28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external boundary
of M. deltoideus major obsolete.

In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) depression
for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, moderately excavated,
oval, its internal margin without a bordering ridge; (31)
prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr
branch) moderately produced, convex, elliptical; (32) shaft without
ridge on external surface, with distal end with a number of small
foramina without depression adjacent to shelf for attachment of
anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M.
pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical,
located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the palmar surface;
(34) entepicondyle prominent, irregular in outline, with scar for
origin of M. pronator longus moderately excavated, elliptical, the
oval scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris palmarr branch)
slightly excavated; (35) shelf for attachment of anterior articular
ligament large, slightly convex oval; (36) internal condyle rounded,
its distal border nearly straight, moderately concave at tricipital
groove; (37) interconylar furrow slightly rounded, slightly exca-
vated, without a pit medial to external condyle, perforated medially
to external condyle by a number of small, distinct foramina; (38)
external condyle prominent, rounded, its external margin bearing
a few tiny foramina without depression medial to ectepicondyle;
(39) ectepicondyle moderately developed, pointed, not excavated on
palmar surface, its proximal end bearing scar for insertion of M.
tensor patagii brevis small, convex, oval; (40) ectepicondylar
prominence with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum com-
munis moderately excavated, oval, the scar for origin of M. flexor
metacarpi radialis moderately excavated, elliptical, the scar for
the origin of M. supinator brevis small, moderately elevated,
slightly concave, oval, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus dis-
tinct, large, moderately excavated, oval.







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 13

Carpometacarpus
In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea prominent, irregularly rounded, with a small distinct
foramen in a moderately excavated depression proximal to the
internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for radiale large,
distinct to indistinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external carpal
trochlea prominent, somewhat pointed, its anterior corner slightly
undercut by the scar for insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis
distinct, moderately excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental de-
pression large, distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately
produced internally, its anterior border somewhat pointed, its
anterior surface bearing scar for ligamental attachment moderately
convex, oval, its proximal surface in anterior view square, its
distal surface slightly concave, without a foramen; (6) metacarpal
I prominent, angular, its proximal end projecting anteriorly at
about a 35 degree angle with metacarpal II, its distal surface above
pollical facet slightly to moderately concave; (7) scar for insertion
of M. extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved, elliptical; (8)
pollical facet prominent, large, slightly convex, triangular; (9)
metacarpal II robust, straight, with groove for tendon of M. flexor
digitorum profundus slightly excavated, slightly undercutting
pisiform process along its anterior border, with scar for origin of
M. adductor pollicus obsolete, not in a depression, with scar for
origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very long, slightly exca-
vated, with distal end expanded, truncated, with facet for digit II
slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal III thin and curved,
the scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare deeply excavated, oval,
the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti III slightly excavated,
wide, long, running from the level of the distal end of internal
carpal trochlea down the entire length of the metacarpal, the scar
for origin of M. interosseus palmaris slightly excavated, wide,
very long; (11) intermetacarpal space long, elliptical; (12) distal
metacarpal symphysis prominent, slightly to moderately excavated,
extending beyond level of metacarpal II, its distal end truncated,
with facet for digit III distinct, slightly convex, oval.
In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external carpal
trochlea somewhat pointed; (14) surface for external ligamental
attachment small, distinct, slightly concave, elliptical; (15) meta-
carpal I prominent, angular, with scar for insertion of M. extensor
pollicus longus obsolete, without a depression; (16) depression for
ulnare deeply excavated, oval; (17) metacarpal II robust, wide,
straight, with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus







14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

moderately excavated, straight on its proximal end, becoming
deeply excavated and moderately curved on its distal end, open
throughout its entire length, with scar for origin of M. interosseus
dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (18) metacarpal III thin, curved,
with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly excavated,
long; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity large, triangular, extending
slightly beyond the posterior surface of and ankylosing with meta-
carpal III, with scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis small, distinct,
slightly convex, elliptical, located on proximal edge at tip at level
of external face of intermetacarpal tuberosity and at level of
external surface of metacarpal III; (20) distal metacarpal sym-
physis prominent, its surface gently convex.


Ulna
In internal view ulna with (1) olecranon large, long, moderately
exflected, bluntly rounded; (2) internal cotyla large, moderately
excavated, oval; (3) external cotyla slightly concave, elliptical,
without a foramen on it or near it on shaft; (4) shaft moderately
robust, with scar for insertion of anterior articular ligament on
a shelf at level of internal condyle small, flat, oval, the depression
for insertion of M. brachialis large, moderately excavated, without
foramina near proximal border, the scar for insertion of M. biceps
unexcavated, slightly convex, wide, oval; (5) intermuscular line
distinct, with a slightly elevated, sharp ridge; (6) carpal tubero-
sity prominent, large, moderately to strong inflected, bluntly
rounded, in ventral view with scar for ligamental attachment very
deeply excavated, oval, with irregular surface; (7) internal con-
dyle with internal border very short, slightly convex, its distal
border smoothly rounded; (8) distal radial depression moderately
excavated, oval with small foramina; (9) external condyle with
external border nearly straight, its distal border sharply rounded,
with tendinal groove deeply excavated, wide, not partly roofed over.
In external view ulna with (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression short, slightly to moderately excavated, elliptical, per-
forated ventrally and distally by a large, distinct foramen, with
scar for common tendon of internal and external heads of M. triceps
indistinct, slightly to moderately convex; (11) the scar for long
head of M. triceps large, moderately excavated, oval; (12) shaft
with cubital tubercles distinct, moderately elevated; (13) external
condyle in external view prominent, smoothly rounded, with surface
of shaft just proximal to it slightly to moderately excavated.







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 15

Coracoid
In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, somewhat
pointed; (2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M. cora-
cobrachialis anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct, slightly
excavated, elongate, oval, the medial scar very small, slightly
excavated, oval; (3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps large,
distinct, slightly excavated, oval; (4) brachial tuberosity small,
narrow, slightly excavated and hooked, with a few tiny foramina
adjacent to the scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (5)
edge of glenoid facet expanded, forming a short, distinct, slightly
elevated ridge along the lateral edge of the bone; (6) shaft robust,
gently curved; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis large,
distinct, slightly excavated, lying along lateral border of bone, its
medial border marked by a sharp, slightly elevated ridge; (8) scar
for origin of M. supracoracoideus large, indistinct, triangular, its
surface somewhat irregular; (9) internal distal angle pointed,
without a projection on shaft dorsal to it; (10) sternal facet small,
distinct, slightly convex, elliptical, without a shelf; (11) sterno-
coracoidal process thin, gently rounded, with pointed corner.
In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small, somewhat
pointed, bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-furculare in-
distinct, elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for common
attachment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ventral L.
coraco-capsulare flat, oval, without a depression ventral to scar;
(14) furcular facet small, with its surface slightly irregular,
bearing large, deep, elliptical fossa, with complex strutting; (15)
glenoid fact large, distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly irregular;
(16) area of triosseal canal shallow, slightly concave throughout;
(17) scapular facet large, distinct, crescentoid, its surface greatly
convex, its distal edge forming a slightly to moderately elevated
ridge bearing the scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare
inferius; (18) procoracoid large, thin, sharply pointed, its surface
bearing scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius;
(19) shaft with dorsal surface just ventral to scapular facet
bearing a number of small, distinct foramina, its medial surface
bearing the indistinct, very long, slightly elevated line for attach-
ment of Membrana sternocoraco-clavicularis, slightly to moderately
excavated along its ventral end; (20) scar for origin of M. subcora-
coideus obsolete; (21) sternocoracoidal depression for insertion of
M. sternocoracoideus large, distinct, slightly excavated, triangular,
its dorsal end forming a sharp, moderately elevated projection, its
lateral border straight down to a level slightly above sternal facet,







16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

then curving gently to corner of bone; (22) scar for attachment of
L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal facet with
surface for attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum large, distinct,
moderately to deeply excavated, elliptical, in ventral view the shelf
extending about one-third the width of the bone, elliptical in shape,
expanded near the middle so that the medial portion is slightly
wider than the lateral.

Femur
In anterior view femur with (1) head large, smoothly rounded,
slightly deflected, with attachment of round ligament slightly
excavated, oval; (2) trochanter moderately convex, pointed, thick;
(3) trochanteric ridge moderately elevated, gently curved, in
lateral view with edge smoothly rounded; (4) shaft robust, slightly
curved, deeply undercutting head; (5) proximal end of shaft in
lateral view straight, with scar for insertion of M. gluteus pro-
fundus moderately excavated, elliptical, the common scar for
insertion of M. obturator and M. obturator externus slightly
excavated, elliptical, without foramen just proximal to it, the scar
for insertion of M. iliacus obsolete, the scar for insertion of M.
flexor ischio femoralis moderately excavated, elongate, elliptical;
(6) distal end of shaft in lateral view with scar for origin of M.
flexor digitorum longus slightly elevated, slightly excavated,
elliptical, without highly elevated lateral border, without a foramen
distal to it, the scar for L. laterale genu inferium slightly exca-
vated, oval, the scar for L. cruiciatum genu posticum obsolete,
without small foramina; (7) external condyle prominent, extending
slightly below level of internal condyle, its proximal end in lateral
view sharply rounded, with scar for origin of M. tibialis anterior
large, moderately excavated, elliptical; (8) rotular groove deeply
excavated, without small foramina near its middle; (9) internal
condyle prominent, sharply rounded, in medial view with scar for
ligamental attachment moderately excavated, elliptical.
In posterior view femur with (10) neck moderately to deeply
concave; (11) iliac facet wide, slightly convex; (12) shaft with
proximal end moderately undercutting iliac facet and neck, with
small foramina below and lateral to area of neck, its distal end
with popliteal area moderately excavated, bearing a number of
small, distinct foramina; (13) internal condyle with scar for
insertion of M. adductor profundus just proximal to it, slightly
excavated, elliptical, the scar for origin of internal head of M.
gastrocnemius indistinct; (14) intercondylar fossa moderately





OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 17

excavated, elliptical, the scar for origin of M. flexor hallucis longus
small, slightly excavated, elliptical; (15) fibular groove deeply
excavated, wide, the scar for origin of external head of M.
gastrocnemius slightly excavated, oval.

Tibiotarsus
In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest small,
straight, slightly hooked, originating well above level of origin of
inner cnemial crest, slightly convex, its proximal margin with
scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis long, curved, slightly
convex, its lateral border with scar for origin of M. extensor digi-
torum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest large, straight,
sharply rounded, with scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum
longus moderately excavated, with scar for insertion of M.
vastus lateralis curved, convex, with scar for origin of M.
gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar for insertion of
M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior slightly excavated, elliptical; (3)
fibular crest small, thick, wider at distal end than at proximal,
with proximal margin slightly concave, its distal margin very
strongly concave, its lateral border straight, without groove at
anterior distal margin; (4) shaft moderately robust, straight, with
intermuscular line distinct, the scar for origin of M. peroneus
brevis obsolete; (5) tendinal groove slightly to moderately exca-
vated, wide; (6) distal scar for oblique ligament located on lateral
proximal corner of supratendinal bridge, highly elevated, rounded;
(7) supratendinal bridge with its surface gently convex, its proxi-
mal border moderately concave, its distal border slightly concave;
(8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by
moderately elevated, parallel ridges, with the lateral ridge partly
proximal to the medial ridge; (9) external condyle wide, with
border straight, in lateral view smoothly rounded, moderately
excavated, without protuberance forming a groove for tendon of
M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior intercondylar fossa deeply
excavated, elliptical, without small foramina, its distal border
slightly convex in the middle, its medial and lateral borders slightly
undercutting the condyles; (11) internal condyle wide, straight, in
medial view smoothly rounded, slightly excavated, without a
protuberance.
In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests moder-
ately elevated; (13) internal articular surface small, slightly con-
vex, elliptical, extending slightly posteriorly beyond edge of ex-
ternal articular surface; (14) external articular surface small,








18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

moderately convex, oval; (15) interarticular area with a very
slightly elevated protuberance; (16) area between the internal
articular surface and inner cnemial crest bearing the scar for
insertion of M. femoritibialis internus moderately excavated, oval;
(17) area between the external articular surface and outer cnemial
crest bearing distinct, deeply excavated fossa, without strutting;
(18) shaft with scar for origin of M. plantaris large, elliptical, the
scar for attachment of L. cruiciatum genu posticum long, slightly
curved, slightly elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum
longus, indistinct, very long, wide, with irregular surface; (19)
border of external condyle slightly exflected; (20) border of in-
ternal condyle slightly inflected; (21) posterior intercondylar sulcus
wide, nearly straight.

Tarsometatarsus
In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar pro-
minence large, highly elevated, rounded, its external border
moderately sloping, its proximal border moderately sloping, the
scar for attachment of external ligament slightly excavated, ellip-
tical; (2) external cotyla small, moderately concave; (3) internal
cotyla small, deeply concave, elliptical, its anterior border extending
slightly anteriorly beyond edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for
tendon of M. extensor digitorum longus absent; (5) proximal
foramina distinct, with outer foramen about same size as inner,
with inner foramen slightly proximal to outer; (6) proximal end
of shaft moderately robust, straight, without a foramen distal to
intercotylar prominence, with scar for insertion of M. tibialis
anticus distinct, moderately elevated, flat, the external margin
above level of scar of M. tibialis anticus moderately expanded,
slightly concave to rim of external cotyla, the internal margin
above scar moderately expanded, slightly concave to rim of internal
cotyla, the scar for origin of M. extensor hallucis longus indistinct,
long, slightly excavated, smooth, the scar for origin of M. extensor
brevis digiti IV indistinct, long, slightly excavated, smooth; (7)
distal end of shaft with internal margin of facet of metatarsal I
moderately excavated, with outer extensor groove slightly exca-
vated, the distal foramen small; (8) trochlea for digit II
moderately inflected, moderately expanded, forming an angle of
about 20 degrees with the shaft, its distal margin straight,
extending below level of external trochlea, its internal anterior
surface without an excavation; (9) trochlea for digit III small,
slightly expanded distally, slightly excavated medially, moderately







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 19

excavated laterally, its distal margin moderately concave in the
middle, extending slightly below level of internal trochlea; (10)
trochlea for digit IV slightly inflected laterally, moderately excq-
vated medially and slightly excavated laterally, its distal margin
straight; (11) internal intertrochlear notch very wide, with
proximal end rounded, originating at about same level as proximal
end of external intertrochlear notch; (12) external intertrochlear
notch very wide, with proximal end rounded.
In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotarsus small,
with formula Defg'HI, the scar for insertion of M. peroneus brevis
small, saddle-shaped, elliptical, the posterior face flat and square
for insertion of M. gastrocnemius; (14) proximal end of shaft with
outer proximal foramen larger, distal to the smaller inner proximal
foramen, with scars for origin of M. abductor digiti IV and M.
flexor hallucis brevis slightly excavated, with external ridge
highly elevated, very long, without roof over metatarsal groove,
with scars for M. gastrocnemius slightly convex; (15) distal end of
shaft with facet for metatarsal I deeply excavated, elliptical,
slightly above level of proximal end of the distal foramen, the distal
foramen small, the area proximal to trochlea for digit III unexca-
vated; (16) internal intertrochlear notch with proximal end
rounded, below level of proximal end of external intertrochlear
notch; (17) external intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal
end rounded.

Family HIRUNDINIDAE
Humerus
In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1) head
thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuberosity very
distinct, with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus slightly to
moderately excavated, elliptical; (3) internal tuberosity very
prominent, with sharply rounded border, with attachment of M.
subscapularis indistinct to distinct, convex, oval to elliptical, the
scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly to moderately
excavated, elliptical, scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis
posterior distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical to oval; (4)
capital groove straight, deeply excavated, perforated along its
length by a row of tiny foramina without a small foramen near
its external margin; (5) scar for insertion of M. proscapulo-
humeralis brevis a shallow, oval basin; (6) capital-shaft ridge
short, slightly curved, slightly elevated, not extending to head;
(7) deltoid crest greatly expanded, nearly straight to curved,







20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

thick, with proximal end at level of proximal end of internal
tuberosity; (8) deltoid surface moderately concave; (9) latissimus
ridge short, indistinct, irregular, slightly elevated, located on
external surface of shaft distal to the deltoid notch; (10)
deltoid notch angular; (11) median bar short, curved, forming
angles between about 70 and 88 degrees with the internal tuberosity,
its palmar end extending into internal medial surface of shaft;
(12) pneumatic fossa single, incomplete, wide, deep, its opening
oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis
obsolete; (13) pneumatic fenestra consisting of a small, single
foramen or a few small foramina; (14) bicipital crest rounded,
with edge thick, bearing scar for insertion of M. biceps small,
indistinct, slightly excavated, cresentoid; (15) shaft strongly
robust, with external border slightly convex in middle, internal
border gently concave throughout its length; (16) line of M.
latissimus dorsi anterioris obsolete.
In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17) ectepi-
condylar process prominent, strongly produced externally, pointed,
with a small to very small, distinct to indistinct, pointed to rounded
accessory process on its internal anconal surface, without
excavation between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18) scar
for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch)
small, distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical; (19) external
condyle prominent, with distal border angular; (20) external
tricipital groove moderately excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa
very deep, not undercutting the internal condyle, oval; (22)
internal condyle rounded, extending below level of external condyle;
(23) internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle
prominent, angular, its distal end truncated bearing scar for the
origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) shallow, slightly
convex, elliptical scar with short groove and extending below the
level of both internal and external condyles.
In palmar view, humerus with proximal end with (25) liga-
mental furrow wide, curved, slightly excavated; (26)
bicipital furrow shallow, curved, without foramina, bounded ex-
ternally by scar for insertion of M. deltoideus minor large, mod-
erately elevated, concave, very wide, oval; (27) bicipital crest
rounded; (28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external boundary
of M. deltoideus major obsolete.
In palmar view, distal end of humerus with (30) depression
for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, slightly to moderately
excavated, elliptical, its internal border with a weakly elevated







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 21

ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi
radialis palmarr branch) slightly produced, convex, elliptical;
(32) shaft without ridge on external surface, its distal end with
small foramina without depression adjacent to shelf for attach-
ment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M.
pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical,
located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the palmar surface;
(34) entepicondyle prominent, irregular in outline, with scar for
origin of M. pronator longus moderately excavated, elliptical, with
scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris palmarr branch)
slightly convex, elliptical; (35) shelf for attachment of anterior
articular ligament large, slightly concave, oval; (36) internal
condyle rounded, its distal border nearly straight to moderately
concave; (37) intercondylar furrow rounded, moderately excavated,
wide, without a pit medial to external condyle, perforated medially
to the external condyle by a few tiny foramina; (38) external
condyle prominent, sharply rounded, its external margin
perforated by a few small foramina, without depression medial
to ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well developed, pointed, not
excavated on palmar surface, its proximal end bearing the scar
for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis small, slightly convex,
oval; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for the origin of
M. extensor digitorum communis slightly excavated, oval, the scar
for origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis moderately excavated,
elliptical, with scar for the origin of M. supinator brevis small,
slightly elevated, slightly concave, oval, the scar for the origin of
M. anconeus indistinct, small, shallow, oval.
Progne.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar for
insertion of M. supracoracoideus moderately excavated; (3) in-
ternal tuberosity with attachment of M. subscapularis indistinct,
oval, the scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus slightly excavated,
the scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior elliptical;
(7) deltoid crest curved; (11) median bar forming an angle of
about 88 degrees with the internal tuberosity; (13) pneumatic
fenestra consisting of a small, single foramen; (17) ectepicon-
dylar process with a very small, indistinct, pointed accessory
process on its internal anconal surface; (30) depression for
insertion of M. brachialis anticus slightly excavated; (36) internal
condyle with distal border moderately concave.
Tachycineta.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar
for insertion of M. supracoracoideus slightly to moderately exca-
vated; (3) internal tuberosity with attachment of M. subscapularis
distinct, oval to elliptical, with scar for insertion of M.







22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

subcoracoideus moderately excavated, the scar for insertion of M.
coracobrachialis posterior, oval; (7) deltoid crest nearly straight;
(11) median bar forming an angle of about 70 degrees with the
internal tuberosity; (13) pneumatic fenestra consisting of a few
small foramina; (17) ectepicondylar process with small, distinct,
rounded accessory process on its internal anconal surface; (30)
depression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus slightly to
moderately excavated; (36) internal condyle with distal border
nearly straight.
Carpometacarpus
In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea prominent, rounded, with a few small foramina in a
moderately excavated depression proximal to the internal liga-
mental depression; (2) depression for radiale large, distinct,
elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external carpal trochlea prominent,
rounded or somewhat pointed, its anterior corner slightly undercut
by the scar for insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct,
slightly excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large,
distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately produced
internally, its anterior border straight, its anterior surface bearing
scar for ligamental attachment slightly convex, elliptical, its
proximal surface in anterior view moderately concave, its distal
surface slightly concave, perforated by a distinct, elliptical foramen;
(6) metacarpal I very prominent, pointed, its proximal end
projecting anteriorly between angles of about 65 and 75 degrees
with metacarpal II, its distal surface above pollical facet
moderately concave; (7) scar for insertion of M. extensor meta-
carpi radialis distinct, grooved, elliptical; (8) pollical facet
prominent, large, slightly convex, rectangular; (9) metacarpal II
robust, straight, with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum
profundus moderately to deeply excavated, deeply undercutting
pisiform process along its anterior border, with scar for origin of
M. adductor pollicus obscure, not in a depression, with scar for
origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very long, slightly exca-
vated, with distal end expanded, truncated, with facet for digit II
slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal III thin and curved, the
scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare deeply excavated, oval, the
scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti III obsolete on its proximal
surface, but moderately excavated, wide and long near its middle,
running the remainder of the length of the metacarpal, the scar for
origin of M. interosseus palmaris slightly excavated, wide, very
long; (11) intermetacarpal space long, elliptical; (12) distal meta-







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 23

carpal symphysis prominent, moderately excavated, expanded,
extending beyond level of metacarpal II, its distal end truncated,
with facet for digit III distinct, slightly convex, oval.
In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external carpal
trochlea somewhat pointed or rounded; (14) surface for external
ligamental attachment large, distinct, moderately concave, elliptical;
(15) metacarpal I prominent, pointed, with scar for insertion of
M. extensor pollicus longus obsolete, without a depression; (16)
depression for ulnare deeply excavated, oval; (17) metacarpal II
robust, wide, straight, with groove for tendon of M. extensor
indicus longus moderately excavated, straight throughout its
length, covered by a small bony bridge on its distal end and open
throughout the rest of its length or open throughout its entire
length, with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly ex-
cavated, long; (18) metacarpal III thin, curved, with scar for
origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (19)
intermetacarpal tuberosity large, triangular, extending to and
ankylosing with metacarpal III, with scar of M. flexor metacarpi
radialis small, distinct, slightly concave to convex, elliptical, located
on proximal edge at tip at level of external surface of metacarpal
III; (20) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface
gently convex.
Progne.-Carpometacarpus with (3) external carpal trochlea
somewhat pointed; (6) metacarpal I with its proximal end
projecting anteriorly at about a 75 degree angle with metacarpal
II; (13) external carpal trochlea somewhat pointed; (17) meta-
carpal II with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus
covered by a small bony bridge on its distal end and open through-
out the rest of its length; (19) intermetarcarpal tuberosity with
scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis slightly concave.
Tachycineta.-Carpometacarpus with (3) external carpal
trochlea rounded; (6) metacarpal I with its proximal end
projecting anteriorly at about a 65 degree angle with metacarpal
II; (13) external carpal trochlea rounded; (17) metacarpal II
with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus open
throughout its entire length; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity with
scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis slightly convex.

Ulna
In internal view ulna with (1) olecranon small, short or long,
moderately exflected, pointed; (2) internal cotyla large, deeply
excavated, oval; (3) external cotyla moderately concave, oval, with







24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

a small distinct foramen on internal surface of shaft slightly distal
to it; (4) shaft moderately robust, with scar for insertion of anter-
ior articular ligament on side of shaft large, flat or saddle-shaped,
oval, the depression for insertion of M. brachialis unexcavated, or
slightly excavated, without foramina near proximal border, the
scar for insertion of M. biceps moderately excavated, wide,
elliptical; (5) intermuscular line distinct, with a slightly elevated,
sharp ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity prominent, large, moderately
inflected, bluntly or sharply rounded, in ventral view with scar for
ligamental attachment moderately excavated, elliptical, with
irregular surface; (7) internal condyle with internal border short,
square, its distal border smoothly rounded; (8) distal radial de-
pression moderately or deeply excavated, oval, with small
foramina; (9) external condyle with external border slightly
convex, its distal border sharply rounded, with tendonal groove
deeply excavated, wide, partly roofed over.
In external view ulna with (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression short, very deeply excavated, elliptical, perforated
ventrally and distally by a large, distinct foramen or not, with scar
for common tendon of internal and external heads of M. triceps
indistinct, slightly convex; (11) the scar for long head of M.
triceps slightly excavated, oval; (12) shaft with cubital tubercles
obsolete, or indistinct, slightly elevated; (13) external condyle
in external view prominent, smoothly rounded, with surface of
shaft just proximal to it unexcavated.
Progne.-(1) olecranon long; (4) shaft with scar for insertion
of anterior articular ligament saddle-shaped, with depression for
insertion of M. brachialis unexcavated; (6) carpal tuberosity
bluntly rounded; (8) distal radial depression moderately excavated;
(10) olecranon with foramen ventral and distal to humero-ulnar
depression; (12) shaft with cubital tubercles obsolete.
Tachycineta.-(1) olecranon short; (4) shaft with scar for
insertion of anterior articular ligament flat, the depression for
insertion of M. brachialis slightly excavated; (6) carpal tuberosity
sharply rounded; (8) distal radial depression deeply excavated;
(10) olecranon without foramen ventral and distal to humero-ulnar
depression; (12) shaft with cubital tubercles indistinct, slightly
elevated.
Coracoid
In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, somewhat
pointed; (2) neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M.
coracobrachialis anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct, moder-







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 25

ately excavated, elongate, oval, the medial scar very small, slightly
excavated, oval; (3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps
large, indistinct to distinct, slightly excavated, oval; (4) brachial
tuberosity very small to small, narrow, slightly excavated and
hooked, without tiny foramina adjacent to the scar for origin of
long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of glenoid facet expanded,
forming a short, distinct, greatly elevated ridge along the lateral
edge of the bone; (6) shaft weak to robust, straight to gently
curved; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis large, distinct,
slightly excavated, lying along lateral border of bone, its medial
border marked by a sharp, slightly elevated ridge; (8) scar for
origin of M. supracoracoideus large, indistinct, triangular, its
surface somewhat irregular; (9) internal distal angle bluntly
rounded, without a small projection on shaft dorsal to it or with
small medially-projecting process on shaft at level of internal
sternal facet; (10) sternal facet large, distinct, slightly convex,
oval, with or without a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process thin,
straight or very irregular, with pointed corner.
In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small, somewhat
pointed, bearing scar for attachment of L. coracofurculare in-
distinct, elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for common
attachment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ventral L.
coraco-capsulare slightly elevated, oval, without a depression
ventral to scar; (14) furcular facet small, with its surface slightly
irregular, bearing large, very shallow, elliptical fossa, without
strutting; (15) glenoid facet large, distinct, elliptical, its surface
slightly concave; (16) area of triosseal canal shallow, flat or
slightly concave throughout; (17) scapular facet large, distinct,
crescentoid, its surface convex, its distal edge forming a highly
elevated ridge bearing the scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-
scapulare inferius; (19) shaft with dorsal surface just ventral to
scapular facet without small foramina, its medial surface bearing
the indistinct to distinct, long, slightly excavated scar for attach-
ment of Membrana sterno-coraco-clavicularis, moderately
excavated along its ventral end; (20) scar for origin of M.
subcoracoideus obsolete; (21) sternocoracoidal depression for
insertion of M. sternocoracoideus large, distinct, moderately
excavated, triangular, its dorsal end forming a sharp, moderately
elevated projection, its lateral border straight; (22) scar for
attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal
facet with surface for attachment of L. sternocoracoideum large,
distinct, deeply excavated, elliptical, in ventral view without a
shelf, or with a shelf extending about one-third the width of the







26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

bone, elliptical in shape, expanded near its middle so that the medial
portion is slightly larger than the lateral.
Progne.-Coracoid with (3) scar for M. biceps indistinct to
distinct; (4) brachial tuberosity very small; (6) shaft robust,
straight; (9) internal distal angle without a small projection on
shaft; (10) sternal facet without a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal
process straight; (14) furcular facet with very shallow fossa; (16)
area of triosseal canal slightly concave throughout; (23) sternal
facet in ventral view with a shelf.
Trachycineta.-Coracoid with (3) scar for M. biceps distinct;
(4) brachial tuberosity small; (6) shaft weak, gently curved; (9)
internal distal angle with small medially projecting process on
shaft at level of internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet with a
shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process very irregular; (14) furcular
facet with shallow fossa; (16) area of triosseal canal flat; (23)
sternal facet in ventral view, without a shelf.
Femur
In anterior view femur with (1) head small, smoothly rounded
straight, with attachment of round ligament obsolete or slightly
excavated; (2) trochanter moderately convex, highly elevated,
thick; (3) trochanteric ridge moderately elevated, gently curved,
in lateral view with edge smoothly rounded; (4) shaft robust,
slightly curved, not undercutting or slightly undercutting head; (5)
proximal end of shaft in lateral view gently curved, with scar for
insertion of M. gluteus profundus deeply excavated, crescentoid,
the common scar for insertion of M. obturator internus and M.
obturator externus slightly to moderately excavated, oval, without
a foramen just proximal to it, the scar for insertion of M. iliacus
obsolete, the scar for insertion of M. flexor ischio femoralis slightly
excavated, wide, elliptical, not roofed over; (6) distal end of shaft
in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus
slightly elevated or unelevated, slightly excavated, without a highly
elevated lateral border, without a foramen distal to it, the scar
for L. laterale genu inferium moderately excavated, oval, the scar
for L. cruiciatum genu posticum slightly excavated, elliptical,
without small foramina; (7) external condyle prominent, extending
to about level of or slightly below level of internal condyle, its
proximal end in lateral view smoothly rounded, with scar for
origin of M. tibialis anterior large, moderately excavated, ellipti-
cal; (8) rotular groove deeply excavated, without small foramina
near its middle; (9) internal condyle prominent, rounded in medial
view, with scar for ligamental attachment slightly excavated, oval.







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 27

In posterior view femur with (10) neck moderately concave;
(11) iliac facet wide, slightly convex; (12) shaft with proximal
end slightly or deeply undercutting iliac facet and neck, with a
small, distinct foramen below and slightly lateral to area of neck,
its distal end with popliteal area slightly excavated, bearing a large,
distinct foramen; (13) internal condyle with scar for insertion
of M. adductor profundus indistinct, flat, elliptical, the scar for
origin of internal head of M. gastrocnemius short, flat, elliptical;
(14) intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, elliptical, the scar for
origin of M. flexor hallucis longus large, slightly excavated,
elliptical; (15) fibular groove moderately excavated, wide, the scar
for origin of external head of M. gastrocnemius slightly excavated,
elliptical.
Progne.-(4) shaft not undercutting head; (5) proximal end
of shaft in lateral view with common scar for insertion of M.
obturator internus and M. obturator externus slightly excavated;
(6) distal end of shaft in lateral view with scar for origin of M.
flexor digitorum longus unelevated; (7) external condyle extending
to about level of internal condyle; (12) shaft with proximal end
slightly undercutting iliac facet and neck.
Tachycineta.-(4) shaft slightly undercutting head; (5)
proximal end of shaft in lateral view with common scar for
insertion of M. obturator internus and M. obturator externus
moderately excavated; (6) distal end of shaft in lateral view with
scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus slightly elevated;
(7) external condyle extending slightly below level of internal
condyle; (12) shaft with proximal end deeply undercutting iliac
facet and neck.

Tibiotarsus
In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest
small, straight, weakly hooked or bluntly rounded, originating
slightly above or below level of origin of inner cnemial crest,
slightly convex, with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis long,
curved, slightly convex, the scar for origin of M. extensor digi-
torum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest large, straight,
sharply rounded, its lateral surface with scar for origin of M.
extensor digitorum longus moderately excavated, its proximal
margin with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis curved,
convex, with scar for origin of M. gastrocnemius long, curved,
flat to convex, and the scar for insertion of M. extensor iliotibialis
anterior slightly excavated, elliptical; (3) fibular crest small, thick,







28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

wider at distal end than at proximal, with proximal margin
moderately concave, its distal margin slightly concave, its lateral
border slightly irregular, nearly straight, without groove at an-
terior distal margin; (4) shaft weak or moderately robust, slightly
curved, with intermuscular line distinct, the scar for origin of M.
peroneus brevis obsolete; (5) tendinal groove slightly to
moderately excavated, very wide; (6) distal scar for oblique
ligament located on lateral proximal corner of supratendinal
bridge, slightly elevated, straight; (7) supratendinal bridge with
its surface gently convex, its proximal border moderately to
strongly concave, its distal border moderately concave; (8) groove
for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by slightly elevated,
parallel ridges, with the lateral ridge at about same level as medial
ridge, or by a moderately elevated medial, and a slightly elevated
lateral ridge, parallel, with the longer medial ridge partly proximal
to the lateral ridge; (9) external condyle wide, with border
straight, in lateral view smoothly rounded, slightly excavated,
without a protuberance forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus
brevis; (10) anterior intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, ellipti-
cal, without small foramina, its distal border straight, its medial
and lateral borders slightly undercutting the condyles; (11)
internal condyle wide, straight, in medial view smoothly rounded,
slightly excavated, without a protuberance.
In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests highly
elevated; (13) internal articular surface large, slightly convex,
elliptical, extending slightly posteriorly beyond edge of external
articular surface; (14) external articular surface small, moderately
convex, oval; (15) interarticular area with a slightly elevated
protuberance; (16) area between the internal articular surface and
inner cnemial crest bearing the scar for insertion of M. femori-
tibialis internus moderately excavated, oval; (17) area between
the external articular surface and outer cnemial crest bearing
distinct, slightly excavated depression, without fossa; (18) shaft
with scar for origin of M. plantaris small, elliptical, the scar for
attachment of L. cruiciatum genu posticum long, curved, moderately
elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus
indistinct, very long, wide, with irregular surface; (19) border of
external condyle straight or slightly exflected; (20) border of
internal condyle straight or slightly inflected; (21) posterior
intercondylar sulcus wide, concave in middle.
Progne.-Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest weakly
hooked, originating slightly above level of origin of inner cnemial
crest; (4) shaft moderately robust; (7) supratendinal bridge with







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 29

its proximal border moderately concave; (3) groove for tendon of
M. peroneus brevis bordered by a moderately elevated medial, and
a slightly elevated lateral ridge, parallel, with the longer medial
ridge partly proximal to the lateral ridge; (19) border of external
condyle straight; (20) border of internal condyle straight.
Tachycineta.-Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest bluntly
rounded, rounded or weakly hooked, originating slightly below
the level of origin of inner cnemial crest; (4) shaft weak; (7)
supratendinal bridge with its proximal border strongly concave;
(8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by slightly
elevated, parallel ridges, with the lateral ridge at about same level
as medial ridge; (19) border of external condyle slightly exflected;
(20) border of internal condyle slightly inflected.

Tarsometatarsus

In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar
prominence large, highly elevated, pointed, its external border
sharply sloping, its proximal border sharply sloping, the scar for
attachment of external ligament slightly to deeply excavated,
elliptical; (2) external cotyla small or large, moderately excavated
or saddle-shaped; (3) internal cotyla large, deeply concave,
elliptical, its anterior border extending slightly anteriorly beyond
edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor
digitorum longus small, moderately convex; (5) proximal foramina
distinct, both about the same size and at the same level; (6) proxi-
mal end of shaft moderately to strongly robust, straight, without a
foramen distal to intercotylar prominence, with scar for insertion
of M. tibialis anticus distinct, moderately to highly elevated, flat,
the external margin above level of scar of M. tibialis anticus
moderately expanded, slightly concave to rim of external cotyla,
the internal margin above scar moderately expanded, straight to
rim of internal cotyla, the scar for origin of M. extensor hallucis
longus indistinct, long, slightly excavated, smooth, the scar for
origin of M. extensor brevis digiti IV indistinct, long, slightly
excavated, smooth; (7) distal end of shaft with internal margin
of facet of metatarsal I moderately excavated, with outer extensor
groove slightly excavated, the distal foramen small or absent; (8)
trochlea for digit II moderately inflected, moderately expanded,
forming an angle of about 30 degrees with' the shaft, its distal
margin straight, extending below level of external trochlea, its
internal anterior surface moderately excavated; (9) trochlea for
digit III large, straight, slightly expanded distally, deeply excavated







30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

medially and laterally, its distal margin slightly to moderately
concave in the middle, extending slightly below level of internal
trochlea; (10) trochlea for digit IV straight, deeply excavated
medially and slightly excavated laterally, its distal margin straight;
(11) internal intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end
rounded, originating below level of proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch; (12) external intertrochlear notch wide, with
proximal end rounded.
In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotarsus
large, with formulas De'f'HI, or de/fGHi', the scar for insertion of
M. peroneus brevis small, slightly convex,elliptical, the posterior
face flat and square for insertion of M. gastrocnemius; (14)
proximal end of shaft with outer proximal foramen about the same
size as the inner, and at about the same level, with scars for origin
of M. abductor digiti IV and M. flexor hallucis brevis slightly exca-
vated, with external ridge moderately elevated, very long, without
roof over metatarsal groove, with scar for M. gastrocnemius slightly
convex; (15) distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I
deeply excavated, elliptical, located at a point about one-fifth up the
length of the shaft, the distal foramen small or absent, the area
proximal to trochlea for digit III unexcavated; (16) internal
intertrochlear notch with proximal end rounded, below level of
proximal end of external intertrochlear notch; (17) external
intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end rounded.
Progne.-Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar prominence
with the scar for attachment of external ligament slightly exca-
vated; (2) external cotyla large, saddle-shaped; (6) proximal end
of shaft strongly robust, with scar for insertion of M. tibialis
anticus moderately elevated; (7) distal foramen absent; (13)
hypotarsus with formula De'f'HI.
Tachycineta.-Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar promi-
nence with the scar for attachment of external ligament deeply
excavated; (2) external cotyla small, moderately excavated; (6)
proximal end of shaft moderately robust, with scar for insertion of
M. tibialis anticus highly elevated; (7) distal foramen small; (13)
hypotarsus with formula de/fGHi'.

Family CORVIDAE
Humerus
In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1) head
thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuberosity distinct,
scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus shallow, oval to elliptical;







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 31

(3) internal tuberosity prominent with rounded border, with
attachment for M. subscapularis distinct to indistinct, slightly
convex, triangular with short groove, or oval, the scar for insertion
of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly to moderately excavated,
circular or oval, the scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis
posterior distinct, slightly excavated to slightly convex, oval; (4)
capital groove straight, deep, perforated along its length by a row
of tiny foramina without a small foramen near its external margin;
(5) scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis brevis a shallow,
elongate basin; (6) capital-shaft ridge short, straight to angular,
slightly elevated, not extending to head; (7) deltoid crest slightly
curved, thick, with proximal end at or slightly above level of distal
end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid surface slightly concave;
(9) latissimus ridge short, distinct, curved, slightly to moderately
elevated, running longitudinally along deltoid surface as a line to
the deltoid notch; (10) deltoid notch angular to sharply rounded;
(11) median bar short, straight to curved, forming angles between
about 40 and 70 degrees with the internal tuberosity, its palmar
end inserted on internal anconal surface of shaft; (12) pneumatic
fossa single, incomplete, deep, its opening oval in shape, with scar
for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis on a shelf, a slightly
excavated, oval to circular depression not undercutting the shaft;
(13) pneumatic fenestra small to large, with complex strutting;
(14) bicipital crest rounded to angular, with edge thick, bearing
scar for insertion of M. biceps small to large, distinct, slightly to
moderately elevated, oval to elliptical; (15) shaft robust, with
external border slightly convex in middle, internal border gently
concave throughout its length; (16) line of M. latissimus dorsi
anterioris an indistinct, slightly elevated ridge, originating at distal
end of capital-shaft ridge and running diagonally over anconal
surface to a point on the external surface just above level of
brachial depression.
In anconal view, with distal end of humerus with (17) ectepi-
condylar process prominent, with a small, anteriorly projecting,
pointed process on its anconal medial surface, without excavation
between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18) scar for origin of
M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) small, distinct,
slightly to deeply excavated, oval to elliptical; (19) external condyle
prominent, with distal border rounded; (20) external tricipital
groove moderately excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa deep,
slightly undercutting the internal condyle, oval; (22) internal
condyle rounded, extending below level of external condyle; (23)
internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle prominent,







32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

rounded, its distal end truncated bearing scar for the origin of M.
flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) shallow, slightly convex,
oval to elliptical with groove and extending below level of both
internal and external condyles.
In palmar view, with proximal end of humerus with (25)
ligamental furrow wide, slightly curved, moderately excavated;
(26) bicipital furrow deep, curved, perforated near middle or distal
end by two short longitudinal rows of small foramina, bounded
externally by the scar for the insertion of M. deltoideus minor
large, moderately elevated, slightly concave, wide, elliptical; (27)
bicipital crest rounded to angular; (28) bicipital surface convex;
(29) external boundary of M. deltoideus major an indistinct ridge
extending from deltoid notch distally to unite with the distal end
of ridge of latissimus dorsi anterioris.
In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) depression
for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, slightly excavated,
oval to elliptical, with internal border forming an obsolete to
moderately elevated ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M.
extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) slightly to moderately
produced, convex, oval; (32) shaft without ridge on external
surface with distal end bearing one or more small foramina, with-
out depression adjacent to the shelf for attachment of anterior
articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis
small, distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical, located on the
entepicondylar prominence near the middle or near the palmar
surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent, rounded in outline, with
scar for origin of M. pronator longus moderately excavated, oval
to elliptical, scar for the origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris palmarr
branch) slightly excavated; (35) shelf for attachment of anterior
articular ligament large, slightly concave, oval; (36) internal
condyle rounded, its distal border irregular; (37) intercondylar
furrow rounded, deep, forming a pit medial to external condyle,
where perforated by a number of small foramina; (38) external
condyle prominent, rounded, its external margin perforated by
small, distinct foramina without depression medial to ectepicon-
dyle; (39) ectepicondyle well developed, angular, not excavated on
palmar surface, its proximal end bearing the scar for insertion of
M. tensor patagii brevis, slightly concave, flat to slightly convex,
oval; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for origin of M
extensor digitorum communis slightly to moderately excavated,
elliptical, the scar for the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis
slightly to moderately excavated, oval, scar for the origin of M.
supinator brevis large, slightly elevated, slightly concave, oval, the







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 33

scar for the origin of M. anconeus distinct to indistinct, large,
shallow to moderately excavated, oval.
Corvus.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar for
insertion of M. supracoracoideus oval; (3) internal tuberosity
with attachment for M. subscapularis distinct to indistinct, oval or
triangular scar with short groove, its distal external surface with
scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior slightly convex,
oval; (7) deltoid crest with proximal end at about level of distal
end of internal tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge slightly to moder-
ately elevated; (10) deltoid notch angular to sharply rounded;
(11) median bar forming an angle between 40 and 45 degrees
with the internal tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa with opening
oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis
circular to oval; (13) pneumatic fenestra small to large; (14)
bicipital crest rounded to sharply rounded, bearing scar for inser-
tion of M. biceps small to large, slightly excavated, oval; (18)
scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch)
slightly to moderately excavated, oval to elliptical; (24) entepi-
condyle with the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal
branch) shallow, oval, with groove; (26) bicipital furrow with
distinct to indistinct, moderately to deeply excavated elliptical
depression near its middle, perforated along its length by two short
longitudinal rows of small foramina; (27) bicipital crest rounded
to sharply rounded; (30) depression for insertion of M.
brachialis anticus oval, with internal bordering ridge obsolete to
slightly elevated; (31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor
metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) moderately produced, oval;
(32) shaft with distal end bearing one or two small distinct to
indistinct foramina adjacent to shelf for attachment of anterior
articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis
oval to elliptical, located nearest the palmar surface of the
entepicondylar prominence; (39) ectepicondyle angular, bearing
slightly convex scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis; (40)
ectepicondylar prominence with scar for the origin of M. digitorum
communis slightly excavated, the scar for the origin of M. flexor
metacarpi radialis distinct, slightly excavated, the scar for the
origin of M. anconeus distinct, moderately excavated oval.
Aphelocoma.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar
for insertion of M. supracoracoideus oval; (3) internal tuberosity
with attachment for M. subscapularis an indistinct, oval scar, its
distal external surface with scar for insertion of M. coracobra-
chialis posterior slightly excavated; (7) deltoid crest with proximal
end slightly above level of distal end of internal tuberosity; (9)







34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

latissimus ridge slightly elevated; (10) deltoid notch angular;
(11) median bar forming an angle of about 70 degrees with the
internal tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa with opening oval in
shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis oval; (13)
pneumatic fenestra large; (14) bicipital crest rounded, bearing
scar for insertion of M. biceps large slightly elevated, oval; (18)
scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch)
moderately excavated, elliptical; (24) entepicondyle with its distal
end bearing the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal
branch) slightly convex, elliptical with groove; (26) bicipital
furrow without depression near its middle, without rows of
foramina; (27) bicipital crest rounded; (30) depression for in-
sertion of M. brachialis anticus oval, with internal border forming
a slightly elevated ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M.
extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) moderately produced,
oval; (32) shaft with distal end bearing a small, distinct foramen
adjacent to the shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament;
(33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis elliptical, located
near the middle of the entepicondylar prominence; (39) ectepi-
condyle angular, bearing scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii
brevis slightly concave; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar
for the origin of M. extensor digitorum communis slightly
excavated, the scar for the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis
distinct, slightly excavated, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus
distinct, moderately excavated.
Cyanocitta.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar
for insertion of M. supracoracoideus oval; (3) internal tuberosity
with attachment for M. subscapularis an indistinct, oval scar, with
excavated oval; (7) deltoid crest with proximal end slightly above
level of distal end of internal tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge
moderately elevated; (10) deltoid notch angular; (11) median bar
forming an angle of about 60 degrees with the internal tuberosity;
(12) pneumatic fossa with opening oval in shape, with scar for
insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis circular; (13) pneumatic
fenestra small; (14) bicipital crest angular, bearing scar for
insertion of M. biceps small, slightly excavated, elliptical; (18)
scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch)
moderately excavated, elliptical; (24) entepicondyle with its distal
end bearing a scar with groove for the origin of M. flexor carpi
ulnaris (anconal branch) shallow, oval; (26) bicipital furrow
without depression near its middle, perforated near its distal end
by two short longitudinal rows of tiny foramina; (27) bicipital
crest angular; (30) depression for insertion of M. brachialis







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 35

anticus elliptical, with internal bordering ridge obsolete; (31)
prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr
branch) slightly produced, elliptical; (32) shaft with distal end
bearing a small, distinct foramen adjacent to the shelf for attach-
ment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M.
pronator brevis elliptical, located near the middle of the
entepicondylar prominence; (39) ectepicondyle angular, bearing
scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis, flat; (40)
ectepicondylar prominence with the scar for the origin of M.
extensor digitorum communis moderately excavated, the scar for
the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis indistinct, slightly
excavated.
Protocitta.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity with scar
for insertion of M. supracoracoideus elliptical; (3) internal
tuberosity with attachment for M. subscapularis indistinct, oval,
with scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior slightly
excavated; (7) deltoid crest broken in all specimens; (9)
latissimus ridge moderately elevated; (10) deltoid notch broken in
all specimens; (11) median bar forming an angle of about 50
degrees with the internal tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa with
opening rhomboidal in shape, with oval scar for insertion of M.
proscapulohumeralis; (13) pneumatic fenestra small; (14) bici-
pital crest angular, bearing scar for insertion of M. biceps small,
moderately elevated, oval; (18) scar for origin of M. extensor
metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) deeply excavated, oval; (24)
entepicondyle with the scar for the origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris
(anconal branch) shallow, oval with groove; (26) bicipital furrow
without depression near its middle, perforated near its middle by
two short longitudinal rows of small foramina; (27) bicipital crest
angular; (30) depression for insertion of M. brachialis anticus
oval, with internal border forming a slightly elevated ridge; (31)
prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr
branch) moderately produced, oval; (32) shaft with distal end
bearing a few small, distinct foramina adjacent to the shelf for
attachment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for origin
of M. pronator brevis elliptical, located near the middle of the
entepicondylar prominence; (39) ectepicondyle sharply angular,
bearing scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis slightly
convex; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for the origin
of M. extensor digitorum communis moderately excavated, the
scar for the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis distinct,
moderately excavated, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus
distinct, moderately excavated.







36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

Henocitta.-Humerus with proximal end missing; (18) scar
for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch)
moderately excavated, elliptical; (24) entepicondyle with the scar
for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) slightly
convex, oval scar with groove; (30) depression for insertion of M.
brachialis anticus oval, with internal border forming a slightly
elevated ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor
metacarpi radialis palmarr branch) slightly produced, elliptical;
(32) shaft with distal end bearing a small, distinct foramen
adjacent to the shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament;
(33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis elliptical, located
near the middle of the entepicondylar prominence; (39) entepi-
condyle angular, bearing scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii
brevis, moderately convex; (40) ectepicondylar prominence broken.

Carpometacarpus

In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea prominent, rounded to somewhat pointed, with or without
a small distinct foramen in a moderately to deeply excavated
depression proximal to the ligamental depression (2) depression
for radiale large, indistinct to distinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped;
(3) external carpal trochlea prominent, somewhat pointed, scar for
insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct, moderately
excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large, distinct,
wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately produced internally,
its anterior border rounded to somewhat pointed, its anterior
surface bearing scar for ligamental attachment moderately convex
to saddle-shaped, oval, its proximal surface in anterior view square
to moderately concave, its distal surface slightly to moderately
concave, without a foramen; (6) metacarpal I prominent, angular,
its proximal end projecting anteriorly between angles of about
50 and 65 degrees with metacarpal II, its distal surface above
pollical facet moderately concave; (7) scar for insertion of M.
extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved, elliptical; (8)
pollical facet prominent, large, slightly convex, triangular; (9)
metacarpal II very robust, straight, with groove for tendon of
M. flexor digitorum profundus obscure to deeply excavated, not
undercutting or moderately to deeply undercutting the pisiform
process along its anterior border, with scar for origin of M.
adductor pollicus longus indistinct, slightly excavated, in a slightly
to moderately excavated depression just distal to pollical facet
or not, the scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 37

long, slightly to moderately excavated, its distal end expanded,
truncated, with facet for digit II slightly curved, ellip-
tical; (10) metacarpal III thin and curved, and scar for
ligamental attachment of the ulnare deeply excavated, oval, the
scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti III moderately to deeply
excavated, wide, very long, running from the level of the middle
of the scar for ligamental attachment of the ulnare down the entire
length of the metacarpal, the scar for origin of M. interosseus
palmaris moderately excavated, wide, very long; (11) intermeta-
carpal space long, elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis
prominent, deeply excavated, expanded, extending beyond level of
metacarpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet for digit III
distinct, slightly convex, oval.
In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external carpal
trochlea somewhat pointed; (14) surface for external ligamental
attachment small, distinct, flat, elliptical; (15) metacarpal I
prominent, angular, with scar for insertion of M. extensor pollicus
small, moderately elevated, flat to slightly convex, oval, without
a depression; (16) depression for ulnare deeply excavated, oval;
(17) metacarpal II very robust, wide, straight, with groove for
tendon of M. extensor indicus longus moderately excavated, slightly
straight on its proximal end, becoming deeply excavated and curved
on its distal end, open throughout its entire length or with a small
bony bridge over proximal end, with scar for origin of M. interos-
seus dorsalis slightly to moderately excavated, long; (18)
metacarpal III thin, curved, with scar for origin of M. interosseus
dorsalis slightly to moderately excavated, long; (19) intermeta-
carpal tuberosity large, triangular, extending beyond posterior
surface of and ankylosing with metacarpal III, with scar of M.
flexor metacarpi radialis small, distinct, moderately convex,
elliptical, located on proximal edge at tip, at level of external face
of intermetacarpal tuberosity and at level of external face of
metacarpal III; (20) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, its
surface gently convex.
Corvus.-Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal trochlea
rounded, with a small, distinct foramen in a moderately excavated
depression proximal to internal ligamental depression; (2)
depression for radiale distinct to indistinct; (5) pisiform process
with anterior border rounded, its proximal surface in anterior
view square, its distal surface slightly concave; (6) metacarpal I
with proximal end projecting anteriorly between angles of about
60 and 65 degrees with metacarpal II; (9) metacarpal II with
groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus obsolete to







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deeply excavated, not undercutting, or moderately to deeply under-
cutting pisiform process along its anterior border, with scar for
M. adductor pollicus not in a depression, or in a moderately
excavated depression; (17) metacarpal II with groove for tendon
of M. extensor indicus longus open throughout its entire length.
Aphelocoma.-Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea somewhat pointed, with or without a small distinct
foramen in a moderate to deeply excavated depression proximal
to the internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for radiale
indistinct; (5) pisiform process with anterior border somewhat
pointed, its proximal surface in anterior view moderately concave,
its distal surface slightly concave; (6) metacarpal I with proximal
end projecting anteriorly at about a 50 degree angle with
metacarpal II; (7) metacarpal II with groove for tendon of M.
flexor digitorum profundus moderately excavated, moderately
undercutting pisiform process along its anterior border, with scar
for M. adductor pollicus longus in a slightly excavated depression;
(17) metacarpal II with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus
longus open throughout its entire length.
Cyanocitta.-Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea rounded, with small distinct foramen in a moderately to
deeply excavated depression proximal to internal ligamental
depression; (2) depression for radiale distinct to indistinct; (5)
pisiform process with anterior border somewhat pointed, its
proximal surface in anterior view square, its distal surface
moderately concave; (6) metacarpal I with proximal end projecting
anteriorly at about a 52 degree angle with metacarpal II; (9)
metacarpal II with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum
profundus moderately excavated, moderately undercutting pisiform
process along its anterior border, with scar for M. adductor pollicus
longus in a slightly excavated depression; (17) metacarpal II with
groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus open throughout
its entire length.
Protocitta.-Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal trochlea
rounded, without a foramen in a moderately excavated depression
proximal to internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for
radiale indistinct; (5) pisiform process broken; (6) metacarpal I
with proximal end projecting anteriorly at about a 50 degree angle
with metacarpal II; (9) metacarpal II with groove for tendon of
M. flexor digitorum profundus moderately excavated, moderately
undercutting pisiform process along its anterior border, with scar
for M. adductor pollicus longus in a slightly excavated depression;







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 39

(17) metacarpal II with small bony bridge over proximal end of
groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus.

Ulna
In internal view ulna with (1) olecranon large, long, straight,
angular or sharply rounded; (2) internal cotyla large, deeply
excavated, oval; (3) external cotyla large, moderately concave,
with a small distinct foramen on shaft just distal to it, oval; (4)
shaft very robust, with scar for insertion of anterior articular
ligament on side of shaft, large, irregular, oval, the depression for
insertion of M. brachialis large, slightly, moderately, to deeply
excavated, with or without small, distinct foramina near proximal
border, the scar for insertion of M. biceps moderately to'deeply
excavated, wide, elliptical; (5) intermuscular line distinct, with a
slightly or moderately elevated, sharp ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity
prominent, large, moderately inflected, smoothly rounded, sharply
rounded, or hooked, in ventral view with scar for ligamental
attachment moderately to deeply excavated, elliptical, with
irregular surface; (7) internal condyle with internal border long,
square, its distal border smoothly rounded; (8) distal radial de-
pression moderately excavated, oval with small foramina; (9)
external condyle with external border smoothly rounded, its distal
border sharply rounded, with tendinal groove moderately to deeply
excavated, wide, not roofed over.
In external view ulna with (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression short, deeply excavated, oval, perforated ventrally and
distally by a large, distinct foramen or not, with scar for common
tendon of internal and external heads of M. triceps indistinct,
slightly convex; (11) the scar for long head of M. triceps large,
deeply excavated, elliptical, oval, or square; (12) shaft with cubital
tubercles distinct, moderately elevated; (13) external condyle in
external view prominent, smoothly rounded, with surface of shaft
just proximal to it slightly or moderately excavated.
Corvus.-(1) olecranon angular; (4) shaft very robust, with
depression for insertion of M. brachialis moderately to deeply
excavated, with small, distinct foramina near proximal border, the
scar for insertion of M. biceps deeply excavated; (5) intermuscular
line with moderately elevated ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity smoothly
rounded, with scar for ligamental attachment deeply excavated;
(9) external condyle with tendinal groove deeply excavated; (10)
olecranon with a large, distinct foramen near humero-ulnar
depression; (11) the scar for long head of M. triceps square; (13)







40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

external condyle with surface just proximal to it slightly excavated.
Aphelocoma.-(1) olecranon sharply rounded; (4) shaft
moderately robust, with depression for insertion of M. brachialis
moderately to deeply excavated, without foramina, the scar for
insertion of M. biceps deeply excavated; (5) intermuscular line
with slightly elevated ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity smoothly
rounded, with scar for ligamental attachment moderately
excavated; (10) olecranon without foramina near humero-ulnar
depression; (11) the scar for long head of M. triceps oval; (13)
external condyle with surface just proximal to it slightly excavated.
Cyanocitta.-(1) olecranon sharply rounded; (4) shaft mode-
rately robust, with depression for insertion of M. brachialis
moderately excavated, without foramina, the scar for insertion of
M. biceps moderately to deeply excavated; (5) intermuscular line
with slightly elevated ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity hooked, with
scar for ligamental attachment moderately excavated; (9) external
condyle with tendinal groove moderately excavated; (10)
olecranon without foramina near humero-ulnar depression; (11)
the scar for long head of M. triceps square; (13) external condyle
with surface just proximal to it slightly to moderately excavated.
Protocitta.-(1) olecranon broken; (4) shaft very robust, with
depression for insertion of M. biceps deeply excavated; (5) inter-
muscular line with moderately elevated ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity
sharply rounded, with scar for ligamental attachment deeply
excavated; (9) external condyle broken; (10) olecranon with a
large, distinct foramen near humero-ulnar depression; (11) the
scar for long head of M. triceps elliptical; (13) external condyle
with surface just proximal to it moderately excavated.


Coracoid
In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head large, pointed; (2)
neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M. coracobrachialis
anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct, slightly to moderately
excavated, elongate, oval, the medial scar very small to large,
slightly excavated, oval to elliptical; (3) scar for origin of long
head of M. biceps large, distinct, moderately to deeply excavated,
elliptical or crescentoid; (4) brachial tuberosity large, wide, not
excavated and hooked, bearing three small distinct foramina, or a
number of small distinct foramina adjacent to the scar for origin
of a long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of glenoid facet expanded,
forming a short, distinct, greatly elevated ridge along the lateral







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 41

edge of bone; (6) shaft robust, gently curved; (7) scar for origin
of M. coracobrachialis very large, distinct, deeply excavated, lying
along lateral border of bone, its medial border marked by a sharp,
moderately to greatly elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin of M.
supracoracoideus very large, indistinct, triangular, its surface
somewhat irregular; (9) internal distal angle somewhat pointed to
pointed, with or without a small projection on shaft at level of
internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet large, distinct, slightly
concave, triangular, with or without a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal
process thin, rounded, with pointed corner.

In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head large, somewhat
pointed, bearing indistinct, elongate scar for attachment of L.
coraco-furculare; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for common attach-
ment of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ventral L. coraco-
capsulare slightly to moderately elevated, elongate, curved, without
a depression ventral to scar; (14) furcular facet large, with its
surface slightly irregular, bearing pneumatic foramen, large, very
deep, elliptical, with complex strutting; (15) glenoid facet very
large, distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly irregular; (16) area
of triosseal canal shallow, slightly concave throughout; (17)
scapular facet large, distinct, crescentoid, its surface saddle-
shaped, its distal edge forming a highly elevated ridge bearing the
scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (18)
procoracoid small, thick, bluntly rounded to pointed, its surface
bearing scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius;
(19) shaft with dorsal surface just ventral to scapular facet bear-
ing a small, distinct foramen, surface bearing the scar for
attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-clavicularis distinct, very
long, slightly excavated along its ventral end; (20) scar for origin
of M. subcoracoideus small, indistinct, slightly excavated, elliptical;
(21) sternocoracoidal depression for insertion of M. sterno-
coracoideus very large, distinct, deeply excavated, triangular, its
dorsal end forming a sharp, greatly elevated projection, its lateral
border nearly straight except for a moderately to greatly developed
convex area above level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment
of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale small, obsolete to moderately
elevated, convex, oval to elliptical, located at ventral medial corner
of sternocoracoidal depression; (23) sternal facet with surface for
attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum large to very large, distinct,
deeply excavated elliptical, in ventral view the shelf extending
from about half to two-thirds the width of the bone, elliptical in
shape, about the same width throughout, or constricted or expanded







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near its middle, or tapered along its lateral edge so that
the medial portion is larger than, or about the same width as the
lateral.
Corvus.-Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar for origin
of M. coracobrachialis anterior slightly to moderately excavated,
the medial scar small to large, oval to elliptical; (3) scar for origin
of long head of M. biceps elliptical or crescentoid; (4) brachial
tuberosity bearing three small, distinct foramina adjacent to the
scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (7) scar for origin of
M. corabrachialis with medial border marked by a greatly elevated
ridge; (9) internal distal angle somewhat pointed, without a small
projection shaft at level of internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet
without a shelf; (18) procoracoid bluntly rounded; (21)
sternocoracoidal depression with its lateral border with moderately
developed convex area above level of sternal facet; (22) scar for
attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale slightly to moderately
elevated; (23) sternal facet in ventral view with the shelf extending
about half or two-thirds the length of the bone, about the same
width throughout or constricted near its middle so that the medial
portion is wider than the lateral.
Aphelocoma.-Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar for
origin of M. coracobrachialis anterior slightly excavated, the medial
scar very small, oval; (3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps
elliptical; (4) brachial tuberosity bearing three small, distinct
foramina adjacent to the scar for origin of long head of M. biceps;
(7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis with medial border
marked by a moderately elevated ridge; (9) internal distal angle
pointed, without a small projection on shaft at level of internal
sternal facet; (10) sternal facet without a shelf; (18) procoracoid
pointed; (21) sternocoracoidal depression with its lateral border
with greatly developed convex area above level of sternal facet;
(22) scar for attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete;
(23) sternal facet in ventral view with the shelf extending about
half the width of the bone, expanded at its middle so that the medial
portion is about the same size as the lateral.
Cyanocitta.-Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar for
origin of M. coracobrachialis anterior slightly excavated, the medial
scar small, oval; (3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps
elliptical; (4) brachial tuberosity bearing a number of small,
distinct foramina adjacent to the scar for origin of long head of
M. biceps; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis with medial
border marked by a greatly elevated ridge; (9) internal distal
angle pointed, with a small projection lying on the medial surface







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 43

of the shaft at level of internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet
with a small shelf; (18) procoracoid pointed; (21) sternocoracoidal
depression with its lateral border with moderately developed convex
area above level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment of L.
sterno-coracoideum dorsale slightly elevated; (23) sternal facet
in ventral view with the shelf extending about two-thirds the width
of the bone, expanded near its middle so that the medial portion
is slightly wider than the lateral.
Protocitta.-Coracoid with (2) neck with lateral scar for origin
of M. coracobrachialis anterior large, the medial scar large,
elliptical; (3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps elliptical
or crescentoid; (4) brachial tuberosity bearing three small, distinct
foramina adjacent to the scar for origin of long head of M. biceps;
(7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis with medial border
marked by a moderately elevated ridge; (9) internal distal angle
pointed, without small projection on shaft at level of internal
sternal facet; (10) sternal facet without a shelf; (18) procoracoid
bluntly rounded; (21) lateral border of sternocoracoidal depression
broken in all specimens; (22) scar for attachment of L. sterno-
coracoideum dorsale moderately elevated; (23) sternal facet in
ventral view with the shelf extending about two-thirds the length
of the bone, gently tapered on its lateral edge so that the medial
portion is wider than the lateral.



Femur
In anterior view femur with (1) head large, rounded, slightly
deflected or straight, with attachment of round ligament slightly,
moderately, or deeply excavated, oval; (2) trochanter flat, thick;
(3) trochanteric ridge strongly elevated, gently curved, in lateral
view with edge rounded; (4) shaft strongly robust, nearly straight,
deeply undercutting head; (5) proximal end of shaft in lateral
view gently curved, with scar for insertion of M. gluteus profundus
deeply excavated, crescentoid, the common scar for insertion of
M. obturator internus and M. obturator externus slightly excavated
or flat, oval, without a foramen proximal to it, the scar for insertion
of M. iliacus slightly to moderately excavated, oval, the scar for
insertion of M. flexor ischio femoralis moderately excavated,
elongate, elliptical; (6) distal end of shaft in lateral view with
scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus highly elevated,
deeply excavated, oval or elliptical, the scar for L. laterale genu
inferium moderately to deeply excavated, elliptical, the scar for L.







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cruiciatum genu posticum slightly, moderately, or deeply excavated,
elliptical, or obsolete, with or without small foramina; (7) external
condyle prominent extending greatly below level of internal condyle,
its proximal end in lateral view rounded, with scar for origin of M.
tibialis anterior small, moderately excavated, oval; (8) rotular
groove deeply excavated, with or without small foramina near its
middle; (9) internal condyle prominent, rounded, in medial view
with scar for ligamental attachment moderately excavated,
crescentoid.
In posterior view femur with (10) neck slightly concave; (11)
iliac facet wide, slightly convex; (12) shaft with proximal end
moderately to deeply undercutting iliac facet and neck, perforated
by one large foramen below and slightly lateral to area of neck, with
small foramina, with or without a large foramen below and medial
to neck, its distal end with popliteal area deeply excavated bearing
a large distinct foramen; (13) internal condyle without a projection
with scar for insertion of M. adductor profundus slightly excavated
or flat, elongate, elliptical, with irregular surface, the scar for origin
of internal head of M. gastrocnemius elongate, oval, flat; (14)
intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, elliptical, the scar for origin
of M. flexor hallucis longus small, slightly or moderately excavated,
elliptical; (15) fibular groove very deeply excavated, wide, the scar
for origin of external head of M. gastrocnemius saddle-shaped, oval
or elliptical.
Corvus.-(1) head slightly deflected, with attachment of round
ligament moderately to deeply excavated; (5) proximal end of shaft
in lateral view with common scar for insertion of M. obturator
internus and M. obturator externus flat, the scar for insertion of
M. iliacus slightly to moderately excavated; (6) distal end of shaft
in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus
oval to elliptical, the scar for L. genu inferium deeply excavated,
the scar for L. cruiciatum genu posticum moderately to deeply
excavated, or obsolete, with or without small foramina; (8) rotular
groove with or without small foramina near its middle; (12) shaft
with proximal end moderately to deeply undercutting iliac facet
and neck, without large foramen below and medial to neck; (13)
internal condyle with scar for insertion of M. adductor profundus
slightly excavated; (14) the scar for origin of M. flexor hallucis
longus moderately excavated; (15) fibular groove with scar for
origin of external head of M. gastrocnemius oval to elliptical.
Aphelocoma.-(1) head straight, with attachment of round
ligament slightly excavated; (5) proximal end of shaft in lateral
view with common scar for insertion of M. obturator internus and







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 45

M. obturator externus slightly excavated, the scar for insertion of
M. iliacus moderately excavated; (6) distal end of shaft in lateral
view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus elliptical,
the scar for L. laterale genu inferium moderately excavated, the
scar for L. cruiciatum genu posticum slightly excavated, without
small foramina; (8) rotular groove without foramina near its
middle; (12) shaft with proximal end moderately to deeply under-
cutting iliac facet and neck, with scar for insertion of M. adductor
profundus flat; (14) the scar for origin of M. flexor hallucis longus
moderately excavated; (15) fibular groove with scar for origin of
external head of M. gastrocnemius oval.
Cyanocitta.-(1) head slightly deflected, with attachment of
round ligament slightly excavated; (5) proximal end of shaft in
lateral view with common scar for insertion of M. obturator in-
ternus and M. obturator externus slightly excavated, the scar for
insertion of M. iliacus slightly excavated; (6) distal end of shaft
in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus
oval, the scar for L. genu inferium deeply excavated, the scar for
L. cruiciatum genu posticum moderately to deeply excavated, with
small foramina; (8) rotular groove without foramina near its
middle; (12) shaft with proximal end moderately to deeply under-
cutting iliac facet and neck, without large foramen below and
medial to neck; (13) internal condyle with scar for insertion of
M. adductor profundus flat; (14) the scar for origin of M. flexor
hallucis longus slightly excavated; (15) fibular groove with scar for
origin of external head of M. gastrocnemius oval.
Protocitta.-(1) head slightly deflected, with attachment of
round ligament deeply excavated; (5) proximal end of shaft in
lateral view with common scar for insertion of M. obturator in-
ternus and M. obturator externus flat, the scar for insertion of
M. iliacus moderately excavated; (6) distal end broken; (12) shaft
with proximal end deeply undercutting iliac facet and neck, per-
forated by large foramen below and medial to neck.

Tibiotarsus
In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest large,
straight, pointed or moderately hooked, originating slightly above
level of origin of inner cnemial crest, moderately convex, with scar
for insertion of M. vastus lateralis long, curved, flat or convex, the
scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus, moderately exca-
vated, elliptical, or obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest large, straight,
rounded, sharply rounded, or hooked, with scar for origin of M.







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extensor digitorum longus moderately excavated, the scar for
insertion of M. vastus lateralis curved, the scar for origin of M.
gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar for insertion of
M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior moderately excavated, elliptical;
(3) fibular crest large, thick, wider at distal end than at proximal,
with proximal margin slightly to moderately concave, its distal
margin slightly to moderately concave, its lateral border, slightly
irregular, gently rounded; (4) shaft strongly robust, straight, with
intermuscular line distinct, the scar for origin of M. peroneus
brevis very long, narrow, slightly convex, indistinct, elliptical,
running slightly anteriorly down the lateral surface from a point
just distal to the fibular crest to a point about two-thirds down the
length of the shaft; (5) tendinal groove moderately to deeply
excavated, wide; (6) distal scar for oblique ligament located on
lateral proximal corner of supratendinal bridge, moderately
elevated, rounded; (7) supratendinal bridge with its surface gently
convex, its proximal border moderately concave, its distal border
slightly to moderately concave; (8) groove for tendon of M.
peroneus brevis bordered by moderately to highly elevated, slightly
converging or parallel ridges, both at the same level or with the
lateral ridge partly proximal to the medial ridge; (9) external
condyle wide, straight, in lateral view smoothly rounded, moderately
excavated, with or without small, moderately elevated protuberance
forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior
intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, elliptical, with or without
small, deep foramina, its distal border slightly convex in the middle,
its medial and lateral borders slightly undercutting the condyles;
(11) internal condyle wide, its proximal end slightly inflected, in
medial view smoothly rounded, moderately excavated, with or
without a slightly elevated protuberance.
Tibiotarsus in posterior view with (12) cnemial crests mod-
erately to highly elevated; (13) internal articular surface large,
moderately concave, elliptical, extending slightly posteriorly beyond
edge of external articular facet; (14) external articular surface
small, moderately to strongly convex, oval; (15) interarticular
area with a slightly to moderately elevated protuberance; (16)
area between the internal articular surface and inner cnemial crest
bearing the moderately excavated, oval scar for insertion of M.
femoritibialis internus; (17) area between the external articular
surface and outer cnemial crest bearing distinct, deeply excavated
fossa, with or without strutting; (18) shaft with scar for origin
of M. plantaris large, elongate, elliptical, the scar for attachment
of L. cruiciatum genu posticum long, curved, moderately elevated,







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 47

the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus, indistinct, very
long, wide, with irregular surface; (19) border of external condyle
straight; (20) border of internal condyle slightly inflected; (21)
posterior intercondylar sulcus wide, slightly convex in middle.
CorlVus.-Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest hooked, with
scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis convex, with scar for origin
of M. extensor digitorum longus distinct or obsolete; (2) inner
cnemial crest rounded, sharply rounded, or hooked; (3) fibular
crest with proximal margin slightly concave, its distal margin
slightly concave; (5) tendinal groove moderately to deeply exca-
vated; (6) distal scar for oblique ligament slightly to moderately
elevated; (7) supratendinal bridge with its distal border moderately
concave; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by
highly elevated parallel ridges, both at the same level or with the
lateral ridge partly proximal to the medial ridge; (9) external
condyle in lateral view with or without protuberance forming a
groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (19) anterior intercon-
dylar fossa with foramina; (11) internal condyle in medial view
without protuberance; (12) cnemial crests moderately to highly
elevated; (15) interarticular area with slightly to moderately
elevated protuberance; (17) area between external articular surface
and outer cnemial crest bearing fossa with strutting.
Aphelocoma.-Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest hooked,
with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis convex, the scar for
origin of M. extensor digitorum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial
crest rounded; (3) fibular crest with proximal margin moderately
concave, its distal margin moderately concave; (5) tendinal groove
moderately excavated; (6) distal scar for oblique ligament slightly
elevated; (7) supratendinal bridge with its distal border
moderately convex; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis
bordered by moderately elevated parallel ridges, both at the same
level; (8) external condyle in lateral view with protuberance
forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior
intercondylar fossa without foramina; (11) internal condyle in
medial view without protuberance; (12) cnemial crests highly
elevated; (15) interarticular area with a moderately elevated
protuberance; (17) area between external articular surface and
outer cnemial crest bearing fossa with strutting.
Cyanocitta.-Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest pointed,
with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis flat, the scar for origin
of M. extensor digitorum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest
rounded; (3) fibular crest with proximal margin slightly concave,
its distal margin slightly concave; (5) tendinal groove moderately







48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

excavated; (6) distal scar for oblique ligament moderately elevated;
(7) supratendinal bridge with its distal border slightly concave;
(8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by
moderately elevated, slightly converging ridges, with lateral ridge
partly proximal to the medial ridge; (9) external condyle in lateral
view without protuberance forming a groove for tendon of M.
peroneus brevis; (10) anterior intercondylar fossa without fora-
mina; (11) internal condyle in medial view with slightly elevated
protuberance; (12) cnemial crests moderately elevated; (15)
interarticular area with a slightly elevated protuberance; (17)
area between external articular surface and outer cnemial crest
bearing fossa without strutting.

Tarsometata rsus
In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar
prominence large, highly elevated, pointed, its external border
vertical or slightly sloping, its proximal border moderately to
sharply sloping, the scar for attachment of external ligament
slightly, moderately, or deeply excavated, elliptical; (2) external
cotyla large, slightly to moderately concave; (3) internal cotyla
large, deeply concave, oval, its anterior border extending slightly
anteriorly beyond edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon
of M. extensor digitorum longus small to large, complete to incom-
plete, moderately convex; (5) proximal foramina distinct, with
outer foramen larger than inner, with inner foramen slightly
proximal to outer; (6) proximal end of shaft strongly robust,
straight, with or without a small distinct foramen just distal the
intercotylar prominence, the scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus
distinct, slightly, moderately, or highly elevated, flat, slightly con-
cave, or slightly convex, the external margin above level of scar of
M. tibialis anticus moderately expanded, slightly concave to rim of
external cotyla, the internal margin above scar greatly expanded,
straight or slightly concave to a corner at level of tendinal bridge,
above tendinal bridge, or at level of anterior edge of internal cotyla,
then straight to rim of internal cotyla, forming angles between
about 30 and 50 degrees with the proximal internal margin, the
scar for origin of M. extensor hallucis longus indistinct, long,
slightly to moderately excavated, smooth, the scar for origin of M.
extensor brevis digiti IV indistinct, long, slightly to moderately
excavated, with slightly irregular surface; (7) distal end of shaft
with internal margin of metatarsal I slightly to moderately exca-
vated, with outer extensor groove slightly excavated, the distal







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 49

foramen small to large; (8) trochlea for digit II moderately in-
flected, moderately expanded, forming an angle of about 40 degrees
with the shaft, its distal margin angular, extending slightly below
level of external trochlea, its internal anterior surface slightly to
moderately excavated; (9) trochlea for digit III large, straight,
moderately expanded distally, deeply excavated medially and
laterally, its distal margin moderately to strongly concave in the
middle, extending below level of internal trochlea; (10) trochlea for
digit IV straight, moderately to deeply excavated medially and
deeply excavated laterally, its distal margin straight or slightly
convex; (11) internal intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal
end pointed, originating below level of proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch; (12) external intertrochlear notch wide with
proximal end rounded.
Tarsometatarsus in posterior view with (13) hypotarsus large,
with formulas De FGHi', De Fg'Hi, deFGHI, DE fGHI, DEFHI, or
DE/FGHi', the scar for insertion of M. peroneus brevis large,
slightly to moderately convex, elliptical, the posterior face flat and
square for insertion of M. gastrocnemius; (14) proximal end of
shaft with outer proximal foramen large, distal to the smaller
outer proximal foramen, with scars for origin of M. abductor digiti
IV and M. flexor hallucis brevis moderately excavated, with external
ridge highly elevated, very long, without roof over metatarsal
groove, with scar for insertion of M. gastrocnemius flat; (15)
distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I deeply excavated,
elliptical, at about the same level as the proximal end of the distal
foramen, the distal foramen large, the area proximal to trochlea
for digit III unexcavated; (16) internal intertrochlear notch with
proximal end rounded, slightly below level of, about same level as,
or slightly above level of proximal end of external intertrochlear
notch; (17) external intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end
rounded.
Corvus.-Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar prominence
with its external border vertical or sharply sloping, its proximal
border sharply sloping, the scar for attachment of external
ligament moderately excavated; (2) external cotyla moderately
concave; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor digitorum longus
large, complete or incomplete; (6) shaft with foramen distal to
intercotylar prominence, with scar for insertion of M. tibialis
anticus slightly to moderately elevated, flat, the internal margin
above scar for M. tibialis anticus straight to a corner at level of
tendinal bridge, forming an angle between about 30 and 35 degrees
with the proximal internal margin, the scars for origin of M.







50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

extensor hallucis longus and M. extensor brevis digiti IV slightly
excavated; (7) shaft moderately excavated on internal margin for
facet of metatarsal I, the distal foramen large; (8) trochlea for
digit II with internal anterior surface slightly to moderately
excavated; (10) trochlea for digit IV moderately excavated
medially, its distal margin straight; (13) hypotarsus with formulas
De FGHi', or deFGHI, the scar for insertion of M. peroneus brevis
moderately convex; (16) internal intertrochlear notch with
proximal end at about same level as proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch.
Aphelocoma.-Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar promin-
ence with its external border vertical, its proximal border
moderately sloping, the scar for attachment of external ligament
moderately to deeply excavated; (2) external cotyla slightly
concave; (4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor digitorum longus
small, complete to incomplete; (6) shaft without foramen distal
to intercotylar prominence, with scar for insertion of M. tibialis
anticus moderately to highly elevated, slightly convex, the internal
margin above scar for M. tibialis anticus slightly concave to a
corner above level of tendinal bridge, forming an angle of about
50 degrees with the proximal internal margin, the scars for origin
of M. extensor hallucis longus and M. extensor brevis digiti IV
moderately excavated; (7) shaft slightly excavated on internal
margin for facet of metatarsal I, the distal foramen large; (8)
trochlea for digit II with internal anterior surface slightly
excavated; (10) trochlea for digit IV moderately excavated medi-
ally, its distal margin slightly convex; (13) hypotarsus with
formula DEFHI, the scar for insertion of M. peroneus brevis
moderately convex; (16) internal intertrochlear notch with
proximal end slightly above level of proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch.
Cyanocitta.-Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar promi-
nence with its external border vertical, its proximal border mod-
erately sloping, the scar for attachment of external ligament
slightly excavated; (2) external cotyla moderately concave; (4)
bridge for tendon of M. extensor digitorum longus small, complete
to incomplete; (6) shaft without foramen distal to intercotylar
prominence, with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus slightly
elevated, flat, the internal margin above scar for M. tibialis anticus
slightly concave to a corner at level of anterior edge of internal
cotyla, forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the proximal
internal margin, the scars for origin of M. extensor hallucis longus
and M. extensor brevis digiti IV slightly elevated; (7) shaft







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 51

moderately excavated on internal margin for facet of metatarsal
I, the distal foramen small; (8) trochlea for digit II with internal
anterior surface moderately excavated; (10) trochlea for digit IV
moderately excavated medially, its distal margin straight; (13)
hypotarsus with formula DE FGHi', the scar for insertion of M.
peroneus brevis slightly convex; (16) internal intertrochlear notch
with proximal end at about same level as proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch.
Protocitta. Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar
prominence with its external border sharply sloping, its proximal
border moderately sloping, the scar for attachment of external
ligament deeply excavated; (2) external cotyla slightly concave;
(4) bridge for tendon of M. extensor digitorum longus large,
complete; (6) shaft with foramen distal to intercotylar prominence,
with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus moderately elevated,
slightly concave, the internal margin above scar for M. tibialis
anticus slightly concave to a corner at level of anterior edge of
internal cotyla, forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the
proximal internal margin, the scars for origin of M. extensor
hallucis longus and M. extensor brevis digiti IV slightly excavated;
(7) shaft moderately excavated on internal margin for facet of
metatarsal I, the distal foramen large; (8) trochlea for digit II
with internal anterior surface moderately excavated; (10)
trochlea for digit IV deeply excavated medially, its distal margin
straight; (13) hypotarsus with formula DE fGHI, the scar for
insertion of M. peroneus brevis moderately convex; (16) internal
intertrochlear notch with proximal end slightly below proximal
end of external intertrochlear notch.
Family SITTIDAE
Humerus
In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1) head
thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuberosity distinct,
with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus slightly excavated,
elliptical; (3) internal tuberosity prominent, with irregular,
rounded border, with attachment of M. subscapularis indistinct,
slightly convex, oval, the scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus
small, slightly excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. cora-
cobrachialis posterior distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical; (4)
capital groove straight, deeply excavated, perforated along its
length by a row of tiny foramina without a small foramen near its
external margin; (5) scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis
brevis absent; (6) capital-shaft ridge very short, gently curved,







52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

slightly elevated, not extending to head; (7) deltoid crest gently
curved, thin, with proximal end at about level of distal end of
internal tuberosity extending one-third the length of the shaft;
(8) deltoid surface irregular, both slightly concave and convex
locally; (9) latissimus ridge short, indistinct, irregular to slightly
elevated, running longitudinally along deltoid surface, extending
about half its length, ending at deltoid notch; (10) deltoid notch
angular; (11) median bar short, straight, forming an angle of
about 74 degrees with the internal tuberosity, its palmar end
extending into the floor of the pneumatic fossa; (12) pneumatic
fossa double, complete, with fossa I wide, slightly excavated, its
opening oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulo-
humeralis deeply excavated, forming a distinct, oval depression on
its distal margin within the pneumatic fossa undercutting the shaft,
with fossa II moderately developed, slightly excavated, wide, its
opening oval in shape, confluent with fossa I; (13) pneumatic
fenestra absent; (14) bicipital crest angular, with edge thick,
bearing the scar for insertion of M. biceps small, indistinct, slightly
excavated; (15) shaft moderately robust, with external border
slightly convex in middle, internal border gently concave through-
out its length; (16) line of M. latissimus dorsi anterioris obsolete.
In anconal view with distal end of humerus with (17) ectepi-
condylar process prominent, moderately produced externally, with
very small, pointed, accessory process on its internal anconal
surface without excavation between shaft and ectepicondylar
process; (18) scar for origin on M. extensor metacarpi radialis
(anconal branch) small, distinct, moderately excavated, oval; (19)
external condyle prominent, with distal border angular; (20)
external tricipital groove moderately excavated, wide; (21)
olecranal fossa deep, slightly undercutting the internal condyle,
oval; (22) internal condyle rounded, extending below level of
external condyle; (23) internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24)
entepicondyle prominent, rounded, its distal end truncated bearing
the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch)
shallow, slightly convex, elliptical with short groove and extending
below level of both internal and external condyles.
In palmar view with proximal end of humerus with (25)
ligamental furrow wide, curved, slightly excavated; (26) bicipital
furrow shallow, curved, without foramina, bounded externally by
the scar for insertion of M. deltoideus minor large, moderately ele-
vated, concave, wide, elliptical; (27) bicipital crest sharply
rounded; (28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external boundary of
M. deltoideus major obsolete.







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 53

In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) depression
for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, deeply excavated,
elliptical, with internal border forming a strongly elevated, sharp
ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi
radialis palmarr branch) moderately produced, convex, oval; (32)
shaft without ridge on external surface with distal end with a few
very small, indistinct foramina without depression, adjacent to
shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface
for origin of M. pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately exca-
vated, elliptical, located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the
palmar surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent, angular in outline,
its internal median corner with scar for origin of M. pronator
longus moderately excavated, elliptical, its distal internal corner
with scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris palmarr branch)
slightly excavated, elliptical; (35) shelf for attachment of anterior
articular ligament large, nearly flat, oval; (36) internal condyle
rounded, its distal border gently rounded; (37) intercondylar
furrow rounded, moderately excavated, narrow, without a pit
medial to external condyle, perforated medially to external condyle
by small foramina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded, its
external margin bearing small foramina without a depression
medial to ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well developed, hooked,
moderately excavated on its internal palmar surface, its proximal
end bearing the scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis small,
slightly convex, oval; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar
for the origin of M. extensor digitorum communis moderately
excavated, oval, the scar for origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis
slightly excavated, oval, the scar for the origin of M. supinator
brevis small, slightly elevated, slightly convex, oval, the scar for
the origin of M. anconeus indistinct, large, obscure.

Carpometacarpus
In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea prominent, irregularly rounded, with a few small foramina
in a moderately excavated depression proximal to the internal
ligamental depression; (2) depression for radiale large, indistinct,
elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external carpal trochlea prominent,
sharply rounded, its anterior corner moderately undercut by the
scar for insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct, mod-
erately excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large,
indistinct to distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately
produced internally, its anterior border elliptical, with scar for







54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

ligamental attachment moderately convex, oval, its proximal surface
in anterior view square, its distal surface moderately concave,
without a foramen; (6) metacarpal I prominent, rounded, its
proximal end projecting anteriorly at about a 50 degree angle with
metacarpal II, its distal surface above pollical facet slightly
concave; (7) scar for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis
distinct, grooved, elliptical; (8) pollical facet prominent, large,
slightly convex, rectangular; (9) metacarpal II robust, straight,
with groove for tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus deeply
excavated, deeply undercutting pisiform process along its anterior
border, with scar for origin of M. adductor pollicus obsolete, not in
a depression, with scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide,
very long slightly excavated, with distal end expanded, truncated,
with facet for digit II slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal
III thin and curved, the scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare
deeply excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti III
slightly to moderately excavated, wide, long, running from the level
of the tip of the pisiform process down the entire length of the
metacarpal, the scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris slightly
excavated, wide, very long; (11) intermetacarpal space long,
elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, moderately
to deeply excavated, expanded, extending beyond level of meta-
carpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet for digit III distinct,
slightly convex, oval.

In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external carpal
trochlea sharply rounded; (14) surface for external ligamental
attachment small, distinct, slightly concave, elliptical; (15) meta-
carpal I prominent, rounded, with scar for insertion of M. extensor
pollicus longus obsolete, without a depression; (16) depression for
ulnare deeply excavated, oval; (17) metacarpal II robust, wide,
straight, with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus
moderately excavated, straight on its proximal end, becoming
deeply excavated and moderately curved on its distal end, open
throughout its entire length, with scar for origin of M. interosseus
dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (18) metacarpal III thin, curved,
with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly excavated,
long; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity large, triangular, extending
to and ankylosing with metacarpal III, with scar of M. flexor
metacarpi radialis small, distinct, slightly concave, elliptical, located
on proximal edge at tip at level of external face of intermetacarpal
tuberosity and at level of external surface of metacarpal III; (20)
distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface gently convex.







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 55

Ulna
In internal view ulna with (1) olecranon small, short, slightly
exflected, pointed; (2) internal cotyla large, moderately to deeply
excavated, oval; (3) external cotyla moderately concave, oval, with
a small, distinct foramen on dorsal internal surface of shaft
slightly distal to it; (4) shaft moderately robust, with scar for
insertion of anterior articular ligament on side of shaft, large,
flat or slightly convex, the depression for insertion of M. brachialis
large, moderately to deeply excavated, without foramina near
proximal border, the scar for insertion of M. biceps very deeply
excavated, wide, elliptical; (5) intermuscular line distinct, with
a slightly elevated, sharp ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity prominent,
large, moderately to strongly inflected, smoothly rounded, in ventral
view with scar for ligamental attachment slightly to moderately
excavated, with irregular surface; (7) internal condyle with
internal border very short, square, its distal border smoothly
rounded; (8) distal radial depression moderately excavated, oval,
with small foramina; (9) external condyle with external border
slightly convex, its distal border very sharply rounded, with
tendinal groove deeply excavated, not partly roofed over.
In external view ulna with (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression short, slightly to moderately excavated, oval, perforated
ventrally and distally by a large, distinct foramen, with scar for
common tendon of internal and external heads of M. triceps
indestinct, moderately convex; (11) the scar for long head of M.
triceps small, moderately excavated, oval; (12) shaft with cubital
tubercles indistinct, slightly elevated; (13) external condyle in
external view prominent, smoothly rounded, with surface of shaft
just proximal to it slightly excavated.


Coracoid
In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, pointed; (2)
neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M. coracobrachialis
anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct, slightly excavated, elongate,
oval, the medial scar very small, slightly excavated, oval; (3) scar
for origin of long head of M. biceps large, distinct, slightly
excavated, elliptical; (4) brachial tuberosity small, narrow,
slightly excavated and hooked, with a few tiny foramina adjacent
to the scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of glenoid
facet expanded, forming a short, distinct, greatly elevated ridge
along the lateral edge of the bone; (6) shaft weak, straight; (7)







56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis large, distinct, slightly exca-
vated, lying along lateral border of bone, its medial border marked
by a sharp, slightly elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin of M.
supracoracoideus large, indistinct, triangular, its surface somewhat
irregular; (9) internal distal angle pointed, with a small square
projection on shaft slightly above level of internal sternal facet;
(10) sternal facet small, distinct, slightly convex, elliptical, with-
out a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process thin, sharply rounded,
with pointed corner.
Coracoid in posterior view with (12) head small, pointed,
bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-furculare indistinct,
elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for common attachment
of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ventral L. coraco-capsulare
slightly excavated, elongate, straight, without a depression ventral
to scar; (14) furcular facet small, with its surface slightly irregu-
lar, bearing large, shallow, elliptical fossa, without strutting; (15)
glenoid facet large, distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly concave;
(16) area of triosseal canal shallow, flat; (17) scapular facet large,
distinct, crescentoid, its surface convex, its distal edge forming
a moderately elevated ridge bearing the scar for attachment of L.
coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid small, thick,
bluntly rounded, its surface bearing scar for attachment of L.
coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (19) shaft with dorsal surface just
ventral to scapular facet bearing a number of small, indistinct
foramina, its medial surface bearing the indistinct, long, slightly
excavated scar for attachment of Membrana sternocoraco-
clavicularis, slightly excavated along its ventral end; (20) scar
for origin of M. subcoracoideus obsolete; (21) sternocoracoidal
depression for insertion of M. sternocoracoideus large, distinct,
moderately to deeply excavated, triangular, its dorsal end forming
a sharp, slightly elevated ridge, its lateral border running straight
to a point at level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment of L.
sterno-coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal facet with large,
moderately excavated, elliptical surface for attachment of L. sterno-
coracoideum, in ventral view the shelf extending about one-third
the width of the bone, elliptical in shape, expanded so that the
medial portion is slightly wider than the lateral.

Femur
In anterior view femur with (1) head large, rounded, mode-
rately deflected, with attachment of round ligament slightly
excavated, oval; (2) trochanter moderately convex, slightly







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 57

elevated, thick; (3) trochanteric ridge very strongly elevated,
gently curved, in lateral view with edge sharply rounded; (4)
shaft robust, straight, deeply undercutting head; (5) proximal end
of shaft in lateral view irregularly curved, with scar for insertion
of M. gluteus profundus deeply excavated, crescentoid, the common
scar for insertion of M. obturator internus and M. obturator
externus moderately excavated, oval, without a foramen just proxi-
mal to it, the scar for insertion of M. iliacus slightly excavated,
oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor ischio femoralis moderately
excavated, elongate, elliptical, not roofed over; (6) distal end of
shaft in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum
longus slightly elevated, slightly excavated, oval, without highly
elevated lateral border, without a foramen distal to it, the scar for
L. laterale genu inferium slightly excavated, oval, the scar for L.
cruiciatum genu posticum slightly excavated, elliptical, with small
foramina; (7) external condyle prominent, extending moderately
below level of internal condyle, its proximal end in lateral view
sharply rounded, with scar for origin of M. tibialis anterior very
small, very slightly excavated, oval; (8) rotular groove deeply
excavated, without small foramina near its middle; (9) internal
condyle prominent, rounded, in medial view with scar for
ligamental attachment deeply excavated, elliptical.
In posterior view femur with (10) neck deeply concave; (11)
iliac facet wide, slightly convex; (12) shaft with proximal end
very deeply undercutting iliac facet and neck, with small foramina
below and lateral to area of neck, its distal end with popliteal area
moderately excavated, bisected by a moderately elevated ridge.
with small, indistinct foramina; (13) internal condyle with scar
for insertion of M. adductor profundus flat, elliptical, the scar for
origin of internal head of M. gastrocnemius short, flat, elliptical;
(14) intercondylar fossa moderately excavated, elliptical, the scar
for origin of M. flexor hallucis longus small, moderately excavated,
elliptical; (15) fibular groove deeply excavated, wide, the scar for
origin of external head of M. gastrocnemius saddle-shaped, oval.

Tibiota rsus
In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest
large, curved, strongly hooked, originating slightly below level of
origin of inner cnemial crest, moderately convex, its proximal
margin with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis long, curved,
slightly convex, its lateral border with scar for origin of M.
extensor digitorum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest small.







58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

slightly curved, sharply rounded, with scar for origin of M.
extensor digitorum longus slightly to moderately excavated, the
scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis curved, convex, the scar
for origin of M. gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar
for insertion of M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior moderately ex-
cavated, elliptical; (3) fibular crest small, thick, wider at distal end
than at proximal, with proximal margin moderately concave, its
distal margin moderately concave, its lateral border slightly
concave, without groove at anterior distal margin; (4) shaft weak,
gently curved, with intermuscular line distinct, the scar for origin
of M. peroneus brevis very long, narrow, slightly convex, indistinct,
elliptical, running slightly anteriorly down the lateral surface from
a point just distal to the fibular crest, becoming obsolete near the
tendinal groove; (5) tendinal groove slightly to moderately ex-
cavated, wide; (6) distal scar for oblique ligament located on
lateral margin of shaft slightly below level of its proximal scar;
(7) supratendinal bridge with its surface moderately convex, its
proximal border moderately concave, its distal border strongly
concave; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by
moderately elevated, slightly converging ridges, with the lateral
ridge at the same level with the medial ridge; (9) external condyle
wide, with border straight, in lateral view smoothly rounded,
moderately excavated, without protuberance forming a groove for
tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior intercondylar fossa
deeply excavated, elliptical, without small foramina, its distal border
slightly convex in the middle, its medial and lateral borders
slightly undercutting the condyles; (11) internal condyle wide,
straight, in medial view smooth rounded, moderately excavated,
with a very small, very slightly elevated protuberance.
In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests very
highly elevated; (13) internal articular surface small, slightly
convex, elliptical, not extending posteriorly to edge of external
articular surface; (14) external articular surface small, moderately
convex, oval; (15) interarticular area with a slightly elevated
protuberance; (16) area between the internal articular surface and
inner cnemial crest bearing the moderately excavated, oval scar
for insertion of M. femori-tibialis internus; (17) area between
the external articular surface and outer cnemial crest bearing
indistinct, slightly excavated surface, without a fossa; (18) shaft
scar for origin of M. plantaris large, elliptical, the scar for attach-
ment of L. cruiciatum genu posticum long, straight, very highly
elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus, indis-
tinct, very long, wide, with irregular surface; (19) border of







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 59

external condyle slightly exflected; (20) border of internal condyle
slightly inflected; (21) posterior intercondylar sulcus wide,
slightly convex in middle.

Tarsometatarsus
In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar
prominence large, moderately elevated, pointed, its external border
moderately sloping, its proximal border moderately sloping, the
scar for attachment of external ligament moderately excavated,
elliptical; (2) external cotyla small, saddle-shaped; (3) internal
cotyla small, deeply concave, oval, its anterior border extending
slightly anteriorly beyond edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for
tendon of M. extensor digitorum longus small, moderately convex;
(5) proximal foramina distinct, with outer foramen larger than
inner, with inner foramen slightly proximal to outer; (6) proximal
end of shaft moderately robust, straight, without a foramen distal
to intercotylar prominence, with scar for insertion of M. tibialis
anticus distinct, slightly elevated, slightly convex, the external
margin above level of scar of M. tibialis anticus moderately ex-
panded, slightly concave to beneath rim of cotyla, the internal
margin above scar greatly expanded, slightly concave to a rounded
corner slightly below level of external cotyla, then straight to rim
of internal cotyla, forming an angle of about 35 degrees with the
proximal internal margin, the scar for origin of M. extensor
hallucis longus indistinct, long, slightly excavated, smooth, the scar
for origin of M. extensor brevis digiti IV indistinct, long, slightly
excavated, with smooth surface; (7) distal end of shaft with
internal margin of facet of metatarsal I slightly excavated, the
distal foramen small; (8) trochlea for digit II strongly inflected,
not expanded, forming an angle of about 25 degrees with the shaft,
its distal margin rounded, not extending below level of external
trochlea, its internal anterior surface slightly excavated; (9)
trochlea for digit III small, straight, not expanded distally,
moderately excavated medially and laterally, its distal margin
deeply concave in the middle, with lateral border slightly proximal
to medial border, extending slightly below level of external trochlea;
(10) trochlea for digit IV straight, deeply excavated medially and
slightly excavated laterally, its distal margin rounded; (11)
internal intertrochlear notch extremely wide, with proximal end
rounded, originating at about same level as proximal end of ex-
ternal intertrochlear notch; (12) external intertrochlear notch very
wide, with proximal end irregularly rounded.






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In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotarsus small,
with formula dEfGHi', the scar for insertion of M. peroneus
brevis small, moderately elevated, slightly convex, elliptical, the
posterior face irregularly open and square for insertion of M.
gastrocnemius; (14) proximal end of shaft with outer proximal
foramen small, distal to the smaller outer proximal foramen, with
scars for origin of M. abductor digiti IV and M. flexor hallucis
brevis slightly excavated, with external ridge very highly elevated,
without roof over metatarsal groove, with scar for M. gas-
trocnemius slightly convex; (15) distal end of shaft with facet for
metatarsal I deeply excavated, elliptical, its distal margin located
about one-fifth up the length of the shaft, the distal foramen small,
the area proximal to trochlea for digit III unexcavated; (16)
internal intertrochlear notch with proximal end rounded, at about
same level as proximal end of external intertrochlear notch; (17)
external intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end irregularly
rounded.

Family TROGLODYTIDAE

Humerus
In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1) head
thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuberosity indis-
tinct distinct, with elliptical scar for insertion of M. supracora-
coideus slightly to moderately excavated; (3) internal tuberosity
prominent, with sharply rounded border, its proximal end with
attachment of M. subscapularis indistinct, slightly convex, oval,
with scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus small, slightly
excavated, elliptical, the scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis
posterior slightly excavated, elliptical; (4) capital groove straight,
deeply excavated, perforated along its length by a row of tiny
foramina, without a small foramen near its external margin; (5)
scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis brevis absent; (6)
capital-shaft ridge short, straight, slightly elevated, extending
proximally into head, or beneath the distal border of the head
forming the proximal border of fossa II; (7) deltoid crest slightly
curved or slightly concave, thin, with proximal end at about level
of proximal end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid surface gently
concave; (9) latissimus ridge short, distinct, straight, running
diagonally across or longitudinally along the external edge of shaft
to deltoid notch; (10) deltoid notch angular; (11) median bar
short, curved, forming an angle of about 70 degrees with the







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 61

internal tuberosity, its palmar end extending into internal medial
surface of the shaft; (12) pneumatic fossa double, incomplete,
with fossa I wide, slightly to moderately excavated, its opening
oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis
on a shelf, a slightly excavated, oval depression not undercutting
the shaft, with fossa II slightly developed, slightly excavated, wide,
its opening oval in shape, partially confluent with fossa I; (13)
pneumatic fenestra absent or present as two tiny foramina in fossa
I; (14) bicipital crest rounded to sharply rounded, with edge thick,
bearing scar for insertion of M. biceps small, indistinct, slightly
elevated, oval; (15) shaft weak to moderately robust, with external
border slightly convex in middle, internal border gently concave
throughout its length; (16) line of M. latissimus dorsi anterioris
obsolete.
In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17) ectepi-
condylar process prominent, moderately produced externally,
slightly hooked or rounded, without accessory process on its surface,
without excavation between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18)
scar for origin of M. extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch)
small, indistinct to distinct, moderately excavated, oval to elliptical;
(19) external condyle prominent, with distal border rounded; (20)
external tricipital groove moderately excavated, wide; (21)
olecranal fossa deep, slightly undercutting the internal condyle,
oval; (22) internal condyle rounded, extending below level of
external condyle; (23) internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24)
entepicondyle prominent, rounded, its distal end truncated bearing
the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch)
shallow, slightly convex, oval with short groove, and extending
below level of both internal and external condyles.
In palmar view with proximal end of humerus with (25)
ligamental furrow wide, straight, slightly excavated; (26) bicipital
furrow slightly excavated, curved, without foramina, bounded
externally by the scar for insertion of M. deltoideus minor large,
moderately elevated, concave, wide, elliptical; (27) bicipital crest
rounded; (28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external boundary
of M. deltoideus major obsolete.
In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) depression
for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, moderately excavated,
elliptical to oval, with internal border forming a moderately
elevated ridge; (31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor
metacarpi radialis (palmer branch) moderately produced, convex,
oval; (32) shaft without ridge on external surface with distal end
with two small foramina without depression adjacent to shelf







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for attachment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for
origin of M. pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated,
elliptical, located on entepicondylar prominence nearest the palmar
surface; (34) entepicondylar prominent, rounded in outline, with
scar for origin of M. pronator longus slightly excavated, elliptical,
the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (palmer branch)
slightly excavated; (35) shelf for attachment of anterior articular
ligament small, slightly convex, oval; (36) internal condyle
rounded, its distal border slightly concave; (37) intercondylar
furrow rounded, moderately excavated, wide, without a pit medial
to external condyle, perforated medially to external condyle, by a
few tiny foramina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded,
without foramina, without depression medial to ectepicondyle; (39)
ectepicondyle well developed, angular to slightly hooked, not exca-
vated on palmar surface, its proximal end bearing the scar for
insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis small, slightly convex, oval;
(40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for origin of M. extensor
digitorum communis moderately excavated, the oval scar for origin
of M. flexor metacarpi radialis slightly excavated, the scar for
origin of M. supinator brevis small, slightly elevated, slightly con-
cave, oval, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus indistinct, large,
very shallow, oval.
Troglodytes.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity indistinct,
with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus slightly excavated;
(6) capital-shaft ridge extending proximally into head; (7) deltoid
crest slightly curved; (9) latissimus ridge extending diagonally
across external edge of shaft to deltoid notch; (11) median bar
forming an angle of about 70 degrees with the internal tuberosity;
(12) pneumatic fossa with fossa I moderately excavated; (13)
pneumatic fenestra present as two tiny foramina in fossa I; (14)
bicipital crest rounded; (15) shaft moderately robust; (17)
ectepicondylar process rounded; (18) scar for origin of M. extensor
metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) indistinct, oval; (27) bicipital
crest rounded; (30) depression for insertion of M. brachialis
anticus elliptical; (39) ectepicondyle angular.
Cistothorus.-Humerus with (2) external tuberosity distinct,
with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus moderately exca-
vated; (6) capital-shaft ridge extending proximally beneath the
distal border of the head forming the proximal border of fossa II;
(7) deltoid crest slightly concave; (9) latissimus ridge extending
longitudinally along external edge of shaft to a point distal the
deltoid notch; (11) median bar forming an angle of about 78
degrees with the internal tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa with







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 63

fossa I slightly excavated; (13) pneumatic fenestra absent; (14)
bicipital crest sharply rounded; (15) shaft weak; (17) ectepicon-
dylar process slightly hooked; (18) scar for origin of M. extensor
metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) distinct, elliptical; (27)
bicipital crest sharply rounded; (30) depression for insertion of
M. brachialis anticus oval; (39) ectepicondyle slightly hooked.
Carpomnetacarpus
In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea prominent, irregularly rounded, with a few small foramina
in a moderately excavated depression proximal to the internal
ligamental depression; (2) depression for radiale large, distinct,
elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external carpal trochlea prominent,
somewhat pointed, its anterior corner very slightly undercut by
the scar for insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct,
slightly excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large,
distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moderately produced
internally, its anterior border pointed or elliptical, its anterior
surface bearing scar for ligamental attachment moderately convex,
oval, its proximal surface in anterior view moderately to deeply
concave, its distal surface slightly to moderately concave without
a foramen; (6) metacarpal I prominent, angular, its proximal end
projecting anteriorly at about a 60 degree angle with metacarpus
II, its distal surface above pollical facet deeply concave; (7) scar
for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved,
elliptical; (8) pollical facet prominent, large, slightly convex,
rectangular; (9) metacarpal II robust, straight, with groove for
tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus slightly excavated, slightly
undercutting pisiform process along its anterior border, with scar
for origin of M. adductor pollicus obsolete, not in a depression, with
scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very long, slightly
excavated, with distal end expanded, truncated, with facet for digit
II slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal III thin and curved,
the scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare deeply excavated, oval,
the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti III deeply excavated, wide,
long, running from the level of pollical facet down the entire length
of the metacarpal, the scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris
slightly excavated, wide, very long; (11) intermetacarpal space
long, elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent,
moderately excavated, expanded, extending beyond level of meta-
carpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet for digit III distinct,
slightly convex, oval.
In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external carpal
trochlea somewhat pointed or pointed; (14) surface for external







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ligamental attachment small, indistinct or distinct, slightly concave,
elliptical; (15) metacarpal I prominent, angular, with scar for
insertion of M. extensor pollicus longus obsolete, without a
depression; (16) depression for ulnare moderately to deeply
excavated, elliptical; (17) metacarpal II robust, wide, straight,
with groove for tendon of M. extensor indicus longus moderately
excavated, straight on its proximal end, becoming deeply excavated
and moderately curved on its distal end, covered by a small bony
bridge on its proximal end but open throughout the rest of its
length, with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly
excavated, long; (18) metacarpal III thin, curved, with scar for
origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (19)
intermetacarpal tuberosity large, triangular, extending to and
ankylosing with metacarpal III, with scar for M. flexor metacarpi
radialis small, distinct, slightly concave, elliptical, located on
proximal edge at tip at level of external face of intermetacarpal
tuberosity and at level of external surface of metacarpal III; (20)
distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface gently convex.
Troglodytes.-Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process with
anterior border elliptical, its proximal surface in anterior view
moderately concave; (13) external carpal trochlea somewhat
pointed; (14) surface for external ligamental attachment distinct.
Cistothorus.-Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process with
anterior border pointed, its proximal surface in anterior view
deeply concave; (13) external carpal trochlea pointed; (14)
surface for external ligamental attachment indistinct.

Ulna

In internal view ulna with (1) olecranon very small, long,
straight, pointed; (2) internal cotyla small, deeply excavated, oval;
(3) external cotyla moderately concave, elliptical, without foramen
on its surface or on shaft near it; (4) shaft weak, with scar for
insertion of anterior articular ligament on side of shaft, small,
slightly concave, oval, the depression for insertion of M. brachialis
small, slightly excavated, without foramina near proximal border,
the scar for insertion of M. biceps deeply excavated, wide, elliptical;
(5) intermuscular line distinct or indistinct with a slightly
elevated, sharp ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity prominent, small,
moderately inflected, bluntly rounded, in ventral view with scar
for ligamental attachment moderately excavated, elliptical, with
irregular surface; (7) internal condyle with internal border short,
square, its distal border smoothly rounded; (8) distal radial







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 65

depression slightly or moderately excavated, oval, without small
foramina; (9) external condyle with external border nearly
straight, its distal border sharply rounded, with tendinal groove
moderately excavated, wide, partly roofed over.
In external view ulna with (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression, short, slightly or moderately excavated, oval, not
perforated ventrally and distally by a foramen, with scar for
common tendon of internal and external heads of M. triceps in-
distinct, slightly convex; (11) the scar for long head of M. triceps
small, slightly or moderately excavated, oval; (12) shaft with
cubital tubercles obsolete, or indistinct, slightly elevated; (13)
external condyle in external view prominent, smoothly rounded,
with surface of shaft just proximal to it slightly excavated.
Troglodytes.-(5) intermuscular line distinct, with a slightly
elevated sharp ridge; (8) distal radial depression moderately
excavated; (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar depression
moderately excavated; (11) the scar for long head of M. triceps
moderately excavated; (12) shaft with cubital tubercles indistinct,
slightly elevated.
Cistothorus.-(5) intermuscular line indistinct; (8) distal
radial depression slightly excavated; (10) olecranon with humero-
ulnar depression slightly excavated; (11) the scar for long head
of M. triceps slightly excavated; (12) shaft with cubital tubercles
obsolete.

Coracoid

In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, pointed; (2)
neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M. coracobrachialis
anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct, moderately excavated,
elongate, oval, the medial scar very small, slightly excavated, oval;
(3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps large, indistinct to
distinct, slightly excavated, oval; (4) brachial tuberosity very
small to small, narrow, slightly excavated and hooked, without tiny
foramina adjacent to scar for origin of long head of M. biceps;
(5) edge of glenoid facet expanded, forming a short, distinct,
moderately elevated ridge along the lateral side of the bone; (6)
shaft weak, straight; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis
small, distinct, slightly excavated, lying along lateral border of
bone, its medial border marked by a sharp, moderately elevated
ridge; (8) scar for origin of M. supracoracoideus very large,
indistinct to distinct, triangular, its surface somewhat irregular;
(9) internal distal angle pointed, with a small triangular projection







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on shaft at level of internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet small,
indistinct, slightly convex, elliptical, without a shelf; (11) sterno-
coracoidal process thin, straight, with rounded corner.
In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small, pointed,
bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-furculare indistinct,
elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for common attachment
of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ventral L. coraco-capsulare
slightly elevated, elongate, straight, without a depression ventral
to scar; (14) furcular facet small, with its surface slightly
irregular, bearing small, very shallow, elliptical fossa, without
strutting; (15) glenoid facet large, distinct, elliptical, flat; (16)
area of triosseal canal shallow, flat or slightly concave throughout;
(17) scapular facet large, distinct, crescentoid, its surface convex,
its distal edge forming a moderately elevated ridge bearing the
scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (18)
procoracoid small, bluntly rounded or pointed, its surface bearing
scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (19) shaft
with dorsal surface just ventral to scapular facet without small
foramina, its medial surface bearing the distinct, long, slightly
excavated scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-clavicu-
laris, slightly to moderately excavated along its ventral end; (20)
scar for origin of M. subcoracoideus obsolete; (21) sterno-
coracoidal depression for insertion of M. sternocoracoideus large,
distinct, deeply excavated, triangular, its dorsal end forming a
sharp, slightly to greatly elevated ridge, its lateral border nearly
straight except for a moderately developed convex area above
level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment of L. sterno-
coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal facet with surface for
attachment of L. sterno-coracoideum large, distinct, deeply exca-
vated, elliptical, in ventral view without a shelf, or with a shelf
extending about two-thirds the width of the bone, elliptical in
shape, expanded in the middle so that the medial portion is larger
than the lateral.
Troglodytes.-Coracoid with (3) scar for origin of long head
of M. biceps distinct; (4) brachial tuberosity small; (16) area of
triosseal canal slightly concave throughout; (18) procoracoid
pointed; (19) shaft with scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-
coraco-clavicularis moderately excavated along its ventral end;
(21) sterno-coracoidal depression with its dorsal end forming a
slightly elevated ridge; (23) sternal facet, in ventral view, with a
shelf.
Cistothorus.-Coracoid with (3) scar for origin of long head
of M. biceps indistinct; (4) brachial tuberosity very small; (16)







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 67

area of triosseal canal flat; (18) procoracoid bluntly rounded; (19)
shaft with scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-
clavicularis slightly elevated along its ventral end; (21) sterno-
coracoidal depression with its dorsal end forming a slightly to
greatly elevated ridge; (23) sternal facet, in ventral view, without
a shelf.
Femur
In anterior view femur with (1) head small, smoothly or
sharply rounded, slightly deflected or straight with attachment of
round ligament slightly excavated, oval; (2) trochanter slightly
convex, slightly elevated, thick; (3) trochanteric ridge strongly
elevated, gently curved, in lateral view with edge smoothly or
sharply rounded; (4) shaft weak, slightly curved, deeply under-
cutting head; (5) proximal end of shaft in lateral view gently
curved, with scar for insertion of M. gluteus profundus deeply
excavated, crescentoid, the common scar for insertion of M.
obturator internus and M. obturator externus moderately
excavated, oval without a foramen just proximal to it, the scar for
insertion of M. iliacus obsolete, the scar for insertion of M. flexor
ischio femoralis moderately excavated, elongate, elliptical, not
roofed over; (6) distal end of shaft in lateral view with scar for
origin of M. flexor digitorum longus slightly elevated, slightly
excavated, without a highly elevated lateral border, without a
foramen distal to it, the scar for L. laterale genu inferium slightly
excavated, elliptical, the scar for L. cruiciatum genu posticum
slightly excavated, elliptical, without small foramina; (7) external
condyle prominent, extending slightly below level of internal
condyle, its proximal end in lateral view hooked or smoothly
rounded, with scar for origin of M. tibialis anterior slightly
excavated, oval, or obsolete; (8) rotular groove deeply excavated,
without small foramina near its middle; (9) internal condyle
prominent, in medial view sharply rounded, with scar for
ligamental attachment slightly excavated, elliptical.
In posterior view femur with (10) neck slightly concave; (11)
iliac facet wide, slightly convex; (12) shaft with proximal end
slightly or moderately undercutting iliac facet and neck, with small
foramina below and slightly lateral to area of neck, its distal end
with popliteal area moderately excavated bearing a large, distinct
foramen; (13) internal condyle with scar for insertion of M.
adductor profundus deeply excavated or slightly convex, elliptical,
the scar for origin of internal head of M. gastrocnemius short,
flat, elliptical; (14) intercondylar fossa moderately excavated,







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elliptical, the scar for origin of M. flexor hallucis longus small,
slightly excavated, elliptical; (15) fibular groove deeply excavated,
wide, the scar for origin of external head of M. gastrocnemius flat,
oval.
Troglodytes.-(1) head sharply rounded, slightly deflected; (3)
trochanteric ridge in lateral view with edge smoothly rounded; (4)
shaft deeply undercutting head; (7) external condyle in lateral
view with its proximal end hooked, the scar for origin of M. tibialis
anterior obsolete; (12) shaft with proximal end slightly under-
cutting iliac facet and neck; (13) internal condyle with scar for
insertion of M. adductor profundus deeply excavated.
Cistotihors.-(1) head smoothly rounded, straight; (3)
trochanteric ridge in lateral view with edge sharply rounded; (4)
shaft slightly undercutting head; (7) external condyle in lateral
view with its proximal end smoothly rounded, the scar for origin
of M. tibialis anterior slightly excavated, oval; (12) shaft with
proximal end moderately undercutting iliac facet and neck; (13)
internal condyle with scar for insertion of M. adductor profundus
slightly convex.
Tibiotarsus
In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest small,
straight, moderately hooked, originating slightly below level of
origin of inner cnemial crest, moderately convex, its proximal
margin with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis long, curved,
slightly convex, its lateral border with scar for origin of M.
extensor digitorum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial crest small,
straight, sharply rounded, with scar for origin of M. extensor
digitorum longus slightly excavated, the scar for insertion of M.
vastus lateralis curved, convex, the scar for origin of M. gastro-
cnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar for insertion of M.
extensor ilio-tibialis anterior slightly elevated, moderately
excavated, elliptical; (3) fibular crest small, thick, wider at distal
end than at proximal, with proximal margin slightly to moderately
concave, its distal margin moderately concave, its lateral border
straight, without a groove at anterior distal margin; (4) shaft
weak, gently curved, with intermuscular line distinct, the scar for
origin of M. peroneus brevis obscure; (5) tendinal groove slightly
excavated, wide; (6) distal scar for oblique ligament located on
lateral proximal corner of supratendinal bridge with its surface
gently convex, its proximal border strongly concave, its distal
border moderately concave; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus
brevis bordered by moderately elevated, slightly converging ridges,







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 69

with the lateral ridge at about same level as the medial ridge; (9)
external condyle wide, with border straight, in lateral view
smoothly rounded, moderately excavated, without a protuberance
forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10) anterior
intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, elliptical, without small
foramina, its distal border slightly convex in the middle, its medial
and lateral borders slightly undercutting the condyles; (11)
internal condyle wide, straight, in medial view smoothly rounded,
slightly excavated, with a small, slightly elevated protuberance.
In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests highly
elevated; (13) internal articular surface large, slightly convex,
elliptical, not extending posteriorly to edge of external articular
surface; (14) external articular surface small, moderately convex,
oval; (15) interarticular area with a slightly elevated protu-
berance; (16) area between the internal articular surface and
inner cnemial crest bearing the scar for insertion of M. femori-
tibialis internus moderately excavated, oval; (17) area between
the external articular surface and outer cnemial crest bearing
distinct, deeply excavated fossa, without strutting; (18) shaft with
scar for origin of M. plantaris small, elliptical, the scar for
attachment of L. cruiciatum genu posticum long, curved, highly
elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus, in-
distinct, very long, wide, with slightly irregular surface; (19)
border of external condyle slightly exflected; (20) border of in-
ternal condyle slightly inflected; (21) posterior intercondylar
sulcus wide, slightly convex in middle.
Troglodytes.-Tibiotarsus with (3) fibular crest with proximal
margin moderately concave; (13) internal articular surface
extending posteriorly to the edge of external articular surface.
Cistothorrus.-Tibiotarsus with (3) fibular crest with proximal
margin slightly concave; (13) internal articular surface not
extending posteriorly to edge of external articular surface, or
extending posteriorly to the edge of external articular surface.
Tarsometatarsus
In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar
prominence small, highly elevated, pointed, its external border
sharply sloping, its proximal border moderately sloping, the scar
for attachment of external ligament slightly excavated, elliptical;
(2) external cotyla small, saddle-shaped; (3) internal cotyla large,
deeply concave, elliptical, its anterior border extending slightly
anteriorly beyond edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon
of M. extensor digitorum longus large, moderately convex; (5)






70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

proximal foramina distinct, with outer foramen larger than inner,
with inner foramen slightly proximal to outer; (6) proximal end of
shaft weak, straight, without a foramen distal to intercotylar
prominence, with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus indistinct
to distinct, very slightly elevated or slightly elevated, flat, the
external margin above level of scar for M. tibialis anticus
moderately expanded, slightly concave to rim of external cotyla, the
internal margin above scar greatly expanded, straight to a rounded
corner slightly below level of external cotyla, then straight to rim
of internal cotyla, forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the
proximal internal margin, the scar for origin of M. extensor
hallucis longus indistinct, long, slightly excavated, smooth, the
scar for origin of M. extensor brevis digiti IV indistinct, long,
slightly excavated, smooth; (7) distal end of shaft with internal
margin of facet of metatarsal I very slightly to moderately exca-
vated, with outer extensor groove slightly excavated, the distal
foramen small; (8) trochlea for digit II slightly or very slightly
inflected, not expanded, its distal margin rounded, extending to
about same level as external trochlea or not, its internal anterior
surface moderately excavated; (9) trochlea for digit III small,
straight, slightly expanded distally or not, deeply excavated
medially and laterally, its distal margin moderately concave in
the middle, extending slightly below level of internal and external
trochlea; (10) trochlea for digit IV straight, deeply excavated
medially and slightly or moderately excavated laterally, its distal
margin pointed or rounded; (11) internal intertrochlear notch
wide, with proximal end rounded, originating slightly above or
below level of proximal end of external intertrochlear notch; (12)
external intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end rounded.
In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotarsus small,
with formula de fGHi', the scar for insertion of M. peroneus brevis
small, slightly convex, elliptical, the posterior face flat and square
for insertion of M. gastrocnemius; (14) proximal end of shaft
with outer proximal foramen small, distal to the smaller outer
proximal foramen, with scars for origin of M. abductor digiti IV
and M. flexor hallucis brevis slightly excavated, with external
ridge very highly elevated, very long, slightly roofed over meta-
tarsal groove, with scar for M. gastrocnemius slightly convex;
(15) distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I deeply
excavated, elliptical, at about same level as the distal end of the
distal foramen, the distal foramen small, the area proximal to
trochlea for digit III unexcavated; (16) internal intertrochlear
notch with proximal end rounded, below level of proximal end of







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 71

external intertrochlear notch; (17) external intertrochlear notch
wide with proximal end rounded.
Troglodytes.-Tarsometatarsus with (6) proximal end of shaft
with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus distinct, slightly
elevated; (7) distal end of shaft with internal margin of facet of
metatarsal I slightly excavated; (8) trochlea for digit II slightly
inflected medially, extending to about same level as external
trochlea; (9) trochlea for digit III slightly expanded distally; (10)
trochlea for digit IV moderately excavated laterally, its distal
margin rounded; (11) internal intertrochlear notch with proximal
end originating slightly above level of proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch.
Cistothorus.-Tarsometatarsus with (6) proximal end of shaft
with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus indistinct, very
slightly elevated; (7) distal end of shaft with internal margin of
facet of metatarsal I moderately excavated; (8) trochlea for digit
II very slightly inflected medially, not extending to same level as
external trochlea; (9) trochlea for digit III not expanded distally;
(10) trochlea for digit IV slightly excavated laterally, its distal
margin pointed; (11) internal intertrochlear notch with proximal
end originating slightly below level of proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch.

Family MIMIDAE

Humerus
In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1) head
thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuberosity distinct,
with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus moderately exca-
vated, oval; (3) internal tuberosity prominent, with irregular,
angular to rounded border, with attachment of M. subscapularis
distinct, slightly convex, oval, the scar for insertion of M.
subcoracoideus small, slightly excavated, oval, the scar for insertion
of M. coracobrachialis posterior distinct, moderately excavated,
oval to elliptical; (4) capital groove straight, deeply excavated,
perforated along its length by a few foramina, with or without a
small, distinct foramen near its external margin; (5) scar for
insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis brevis absent; (6) capital-
shaft ridge short, straight, moderately elevated, extending proxi-
mally beneath the produced distal border of the head forming the
proximal border of fossa II or extending proximally into the head;
(7) deltoid crest straight to slightly curved, thin, with proximal







72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

end above level of distal end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid
surface irregular, moderately concave; (9) latissimus ridge short
to very short, distinct, curved, moderately elevated, extending along
deltoid surface and ending at or medial to the deltoid notch or
limited to the posteromedial border of the deltoid surface; (10)
deltoid notch angular; (11) median bar short, straight, forming
angles between 77 and 85 degrees with the internal tuberosity, its
palmar end extending to the internal medial surface of shaft; (12)
pneumatic fossa double, incomplete, with fossa I wide, deep, its
opening oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulo-
humeralis on a shelf, a slightly excavated, oval depression not
undercutting the shaft, with fossa II slightly to moderately
excavated, wide, its opening oval in shape, partially confluent with
fossa I; (13) pneumatic fenestra absent or present in the form
of two small foramina deep in fossa I; (14) bicipital crest angular
to rounded, with edge thick bearing scar for insertion of M. biceps
large, distinct, slightly elevated, oval; (15) shaft moderately robust,
with external border slightly convex in middle, internal border
gently concave through its length; (16) line of latissimus dorsi
anterioris obsolete.
In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17) ectepi-
condylar process prominent, moderately produced externally,
rounded, with a small accessory process on its internal anconal
surface, with or without moderately excavated depression between
shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18) scar for origin of M.
extensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) small, distinct,
moderately excavated, oval; (19) external condyle prominent, with
distal border rounded to sharply rounded; (20) external tricipital
groove moderately excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa deep,
slightly undercutting the internal condyle, oval; (22) internal
condyle rounded, extending below level of external condyle; (23)
internal tricipital groove obsolete; (24) entepicondyle prominent,
angular to rounded, its distal end truncated bearing the scar for
origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris (anconal branch) shallow, slightly
convex, elliptical, with short groove, and extending below level
of both internal and external condyles.
In palmar view, proximal end of humerus with (25) ligamental
furrow wide, gently curved, slightly to moderately excavated; (26)
bicipital furrow slightly excavated, curved, without foramina,
bounded externally by the scar for insertion of M. deltoideus minor
large, moderately elevated, concave, very wide, elliptical; (27)
bicipital crest angular; (28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external
boundary of M. deltoideus major obsolete.







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 73

In palmar view humerus with distal end with (30) depression
for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, moderately excavated,
elliptical, with internal border forming a slightly elevated ridge;
(31) prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis
palmarr branch) moderately produced, convex, elliptical; (32)
shaft without ridge on external surface, with distal end with small
foramen with or without a shallow depression adjacent to shelf
for attachment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface for
origin of M. pronator brevis small, distinct, moderately excavated,
oval to elliptical, located on entepicondylar prominence near the
middle or near the anconal surface; (34) entepicondyle prominent,
angular to rounded in outline, with scar for origin of M. pronator
longus moderately excavated, elliptical, the scar for origin of M.
flexor carpi ulnarus palmarr branch) moderately excavated, oval;
(35) shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament large,
slightly concave, oval; (36) internal condyle rounded, its distal
border nearly straight; (37) intercondylar furrow rounded,
moderately excavated, wide, without a pit medial to external
condyle, perforated medially to external condyle by a few tiny
foramina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded, its external
border bearing one or more small foramina, without depression
medial to ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well developed, rounded
to sharply rounded, not excavated on palmar surface, the scar for
insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis small, convex, oval to elliptical;
(40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for origin of M. extensor
digitorum communis moderately excavated, oval, the scar for origin
of M. flexor metacarpi radialis shallow to moderately excavated,
oval, the scar for the origin of M. supinator brevis small, mod-
erately elevated, slightly concave, oval, the scar for the origin of
M. anconeus distinct to indistinct, large, slightly concave to slightly
convex, elliptical.
Mimus.-Humerus with (3) internal tuberosity with angular
border, with scar for insertion of M. coracobrachialis posterior
elliptical; (4) capital groove without small foramen near external
margin; (6) capital-shaft ridge extending proximally beneath
distal border of the head forming the proximal border of fossa
II; (7) deltoid crest thin, with proximal end slightly above level
of distal end of internal tuberosity; (9) latissimus ridge very short,
limited to the posteromedial border of the deltoid surface; (11)
median bar forming an angle of about 77 degrees with the internal
tuberosity; (12) pneumatic fossa with fossa II moderately
developed, moderately excavated; (13) pneumatic fenestra present
in the form of two small foramina deep in fossa I; (14) bicipital







74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

crest rounded; (17) ectepicondyle without an excavation between
shaft and ectepicondylar process; (19) external condyle with distal
border rounded; (24) entepicondyle rounded; (32) shaft with
distal end with small foramen in a shallow depression adjacent to
shelf for attachment of anterior articular ligament; (33) surface
for origin of M. pronator brevis elliptical, located on entepicondylar
prominence near its mid-line; (39) ectepicondyle rounded, with
scar for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis oval; (40) ectepicon-
dylar prominence with scar for origin of M. flexor metacarpi
radialis slightly excavated, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus
distinct, slightly convex.
Toxostoma.-Humerus with (3) internal tuberosity with
irregular, rounded border, with scar for insertion of M. coraco-
brachialis posterior oval; (4) capital groove with or without small
foramen near external margin; (6) capital-shaft ridge extending
proximally into head; (7) deltoid crest moderately thick, with
proximal end above level of distal end of internal tuberosity; (9)
latissimus ridge short, extending along deltoid surface and ending
at or medial to the deltoid notch; (11) median bar forming an
angle of about 85 degrees with the internal tuberosity; (12)
pneumatic fossa with fossa II slightly to moderately developed,
slightly to moderately excavated; (13) pneumatic fenestra absent;
(14) bicipital crest angular; (17) ectepicondyle moderately exca-
vated between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (19) external
condyle with distal border sharply rounded; (24) entepicondyle
angular; (32) shaft with distal end with small foramen without
shallow depression adjacent to shelf for attachment of anterior
articular ligament; (33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis
oval, located on entepicondylar prominence nearest its anconal
surface; (39) ectepicondyle sharply rounded, with scar for inser-
tion of M. tensor patagii brevis elliptical; (40) ectepicondylar
prominence with scar for origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis
moderately excavated, the scar for the origin of M. anconeus in-
distinct, slightly concave.

Carpometacarpus
In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea prominent, angular, with a few small foramina in a
moderately excavated depression proximal to the internal ligamental
depression; (2) depression for radiale large, distinct to indistinct,
elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external carpal trochlea prominent,
somewhat pointed, its anterior corner moderately undercut by the







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 75

scar for insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis moderately exca-
vated, oval; (4) internal ligamental depression large, distinct, wide,
oval; (5) pisiform process moderately produced internally, its an-
terior border somewhat pointed to elliptical, its anterior surface
bearing scar for ligamental attachment moderately convex, oval, its
proximal surface in anterior view square, its distal surface slightly
to moderately concave without a foramen; (6) metacarpal I
prominent, angular, its proximal end projecting anteriorly at angles
between about 55 and 57 degrees with metacarpal II, its distal
surface above pollical facet moderately concave; (7) scar for in-
sertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved, ellipti-
cal; (8) pollical facet prominent, large, slightly convex,
rectangular; (9) metacarpal II robust, straight, with groove for
tendon of M. flexor digitorum profundus moderately excavated,
moderately undercutting pisiform process along its anterior border,
with scar for origin of M. adductor pollicus obsolete, not in a de-
pression, with scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide, very
long, slightly excavated, with distal end expanded, truncated, with
facet for digit II slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal III
thin and curved, the scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare
deeply excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti III
slightly excavated, wide, long, running from the level of the
proximal end of scar for origin of ligamental attachment of ulnare
down the entire length of the metacarpal, the scar for origin of
M. interosseus palmaris slightly excavated, wide, very long; (11)
intermetacarpal space long, elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal
symphysis prominent, moderately excavated, expanded, extending
beyond level of metacarpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet
for digit III distinct, slightly convex, oval.
In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external carpal
trochlea somewhat pointed; (14) surface for external ligamental
attachment small, distinct, slightly concave, elliptical; (15) meta-
carpal I prominent, angular, with scar for insertion of M. extensor
pollicus longus very small to small, moderately excavated, elliptical,
with or without a moderately excavated depression surrounding it;
(16) depression for ulnare deeply excavated, oval; (17) metacarpal
II robust, wide, straight, with groove for tendon of M. extensor
indicus longus moderately excavated, straight on its proximal end,
becoming deeply excavated and moderately curved on its distal
end, covered by a small bony ridge on its proximal end but open
throughout the rest of its length, with scar for origin of M.
interosseus dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (18) metacarpal III
thin, curved, with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly







76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

excavated, long; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity large, triangular,
extending to and ankylosing with metacarpal III, with scar of M.
flexor metacarpi radialis small, distinct, slightly to moderately
convex, elliptical, located on proximal edge at tip at level of external
face of intermetacarpal tuberosity and at level of external surface
of metacarpal III; (20) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent,
its surface gently convex.
Mitmus.-Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process with its
proximal surface in anterior view square to deeply concave, its
distal surface moderately concave; (6) metacarpal I with its proxi-
mal end projecting anteriorly at about a 55 degree angle with
metacarpal II; (15) metacarpal I with scar for insertion of M.
extensor pollicus longus very small, not in a depression.
Toxostonia.-Carpometacarpus with (5) pisiform process with
its proximal surface in anterior view moderately to deeply concave,
its distal surface slightly concave; (6) metacarpal I with its
proximal end projecting anteriorly at about a 57 degree angle with
metacarpal II; (15) metacarpal I with scar for insertion of M.
3xtensor pollicus longus small, in a moderately excavated depression.

Ulna
In internal view ulna with (1) olecranon large, long, straight,
pointed; (2) internal cotyla large, deeply excavated, oval; (3)
external cotyla moderately concave, oval, with a small, distinct
foramen at its base on the dorsal internal surface or slightly ventral
to it on the dorsal internal surface of shaft; (4) shaft moderately
robust, with scar for insertion of anterior articular ligament on
side of shaft, large, nearly flat, slightly concave and convex locally,
oval, the depression for insertion of M. brachialis large, deeply
excavated, without foramina near proximal border, the scar for
insertion of M. biceps very deeply excavated, very wide, elliptical;
(5) intermuscular line distinct, with a moderately elevated, sharp
ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity prominent, large, moderately inflected,
smoothly to bluntly rounded, in internal view with scar for liga-
mental attachment moderately excavated, elliptical, with irregular
surface; (7) internal condyle with internal border short, square, its
distal border smoothly rounded; (8) distal radial depression deeply
excavated, oval, with small foramina; (9) external condyle with
external border nearly straight, its distal border sharply rounded,
with tendinal groove deeply excavated, wide, not partly roofed over.
In external view ulna with (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression short, moderately excavated, elliptical, perforated







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 77

ventrally and distally by a small, distinct foramen, with scar for
common tendon of internal and external heads of M. triceps
indistinct, moderately convex; (11) the scar for long head of M.
triceps large, moderately excavated, oval; (12) shaft with cubital
tubercles indistinct or distinct, slightly to moderately elevated;
(13) external condyle in external view prominent, sharply rounded,
with surface of shaft just proximal to it moderately excavated.
Mimus.-(3) external cotyla with foramen at its base on the
dorsal internal surface; (12) shaft with cubital tubercles distinct,
slightly to moderately elevated.
Toxostoma.-(3) external cotyla with foramen slightly ventral
to it on the dorsal internal surface of shaft; (12) shaft with cubital
tubercles indistinct, slightly elevated.

Coracoid
In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, pointed; (2)
neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M. coracobrachialis
anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct, moderately excavated,
elongate, oval, the medial scar very small, slightly excavated, oval;
(3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps large, distinct,
slightly excavated, oval; (4) brachial tuberosity small, narrow,
slightly excavated and hooked, with a few tiny foramina adjacent
to the scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of
glenoid facet expanded, forming a short, distinct, greatly elevated
ridge along the lateral edge of the bone; (6) shaft robust, gently
curved; (7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis large, distinct,
slightly excavated, lying along lateral border of bone, its medial
border marked by a sharp, moderately elevated ridge; (8) scar for
origin of M. supracoracoideus large, indistinct, triangular, its sur-
face somewhat irregular; (9) internal distal angle pointed, with
or without a small projection on shaft dorsal to it at level of
internal sternal facet; (10) sternal facet small, distinct, slightly
convex, elliptical, without a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process
thin, smoothly or irregularly rounded, with pointed corner.
In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small, pointed,
bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-furculare indistinct,
elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for common attachment
of the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ventral L. coraco-capsulare
moderately elevated, elongate, gently curved, with or without a
small, slightly elevated scar ventral to the first scar; (14) furcular
facet very small, with its surface slightly irregular, bearing large,
shallow, elliptical fossa, without strutting; (15) glenoid facet large,







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distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly concave; (16) area of trios-
seal canal shallow, slightly convex throughout; (17) scapular
facet large, distinct, crescentoid, its surface convex, its distal edge
forming a moderately elevated ridge bearing the scar for attach-
ment of L. coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid small,
thick, pointed, its surface bearing scar for attachment of L.
coracoideo-scapulare inferius; (19) shaft with dorsal surface just
ventral to scapular facet bearing a number of small, distinct
foramina, its medial surface bearing the distinct to indistinct, long,
slightly excavated scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-
clavicularis, moderately excavated along its ventral end; (20) scar
for origin of M. subcoracoideus obsolete; (21) sternocoracoidal
depression for insertion of M. sternocoracoideus large, distinct,
deeply excavated, triangular, its dorsal end forming a sharp, greatly
elevated projection, its lateral border gently curved throughout or
nearly straight except for a greatly developed convex area above
level of sternal facet; (22) scar for attachment of L. sterno-
coracoideum dorsale obsolete; (23) sternal facet with small,
distinct, deeply excavated, elliptical surface for attachment of L.
sterno-coracoideum, in ventral view with or without a shelf extend-
ing about one-fourth the width of the bone, elliptical in shape,
expanded in the middle so that the medial portion is about the
same width as the lateral.
Mimus.-Coracoid with (9) internal distal angle without a
small projection on shaft at level of internal sternal facet; (11)
sternocoracoidal process irregularly rounded; (13) neck with a
scar ventral to scar for L coraco-furculare and L. coraco-capsulare;
(21) sternocoracoidal depression with its lateral border nearly
straight except for a greatly developed convex area above level of
sternal facet; (23) sternal facet in ventral view, with a shelf.
Toxostoma.-Coracoid with (9) internal distal angle with or
without a small projection on shaft at level of internal sternal facet;
(11) sternocoracoidal process smoothly rounded; (13) neck
without a scar ventral to scar for L. coraco-furculare and L. coraco-
capsulare; (21) sternocoracoidal depression with its lateral border
gently curved throughout; (23) sternal facet in ventral view, with-
out a shelf.

Femur
In anterior view femur with (1) head large, rounded, slightly
deflected, with attachment of round ligament moderately excavated,
oval; (2) trochanter slightly convex, slightly elevated, thick; (3)







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 79

trochanteric ridge moderately to strongly elevated, gently curved,
in lateral view with edge rounded or sharply rounded; (4) shaft
robust, slightly curved, deeply undercutting head; (5) proximal
end of shaft in lateral view gently curved, with scar for insertion
of M. gluteus profundus deeply excavated, crescentoid, the common
scar for insertion of M. obturator internus and M. obturator
externus deeply excavated, oval, without a foramen just proximal
to it, the scar for insertion of M. iliacus obsolete or slightly
excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor ischio femoralis
moderately excavated, elongate, elliptical, not roofed over; (6)
distal end of shaft in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor
digitorum longus slightly to moderately elevated, moderately
excavated oval, with or without a moderately elevated lateral
border, without a foramen distal to it, the scar for L. laterale genu
inferium deeply excavated, elliptical, the scar for L. cruiciatum
posticum obsolete, without small foramina or slightly excavated,
oval, with small foramina; (7) external condyle prominent, ex-
tending moderately below level of internal condyle, its proximal
end in lateral view sharply or smoothly rounded, with scar for
origin of M. tibialis anterior large, moderately excavated, elliptical;
(8) rotular groove deeply excavated, without small foramina near
its middle; (9) internal condyle prominent, sharply rounded in
medial view, with scar for ligamental attachment moderately
excavated, elliptical.
In posterior view femur with (10) neck slightly or moderately
concave; (11) iliac facet wide, slightly convex; (12) shaft with
proximal end deeply undercutting iliac facet and neck, with two
large foramina below and slightly lateral to area of neck, its
distal end with popliteal area deeply excavated, bearing a large
distinct foramen; (13) internal condyle with scar for insertion of
M. adductor profundus on a moderately elevated angular
projection or not, moderately flat or convex, elliptical, the scar for
origin of internal head of M. gastrocnemius flat or moderately
excavated, elliptical; (14) intercondylar fossa moderately exca-
vated, oval, the scar for origin of M. flexor hallucis longus small,
slightly excavated, elliptical; (15) fibular groove deeply excavated,
wide, the scar for origin of external head of M. gastrocnemius
slightly excavated or flat, oval or elliptical.
Mimus.-(3) trochanteric ridge strongly elevated, in lateral
view with edge rounded; (5) proximal end of shaft with scar for
insertion of M. iliacus slightly excavated, oval; (6) distal end of
shaft in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum
longus moderately elevated, with a moderately elevated lateral







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border, the scar for L. cruiciatum posticum obsolete, without small
foramina; (7) external condyle with proximal end in lateral view
sharply rounded; (10) neck slightly concave; (13) internal condyle
with scar for insertion of M. adductor profundus not on a
projection, moderately convex, the scar for origin of internal head
of M. gastrocnemius moderately excavated; (14) intercondylar
fossa moderately excavated; (15) the scar for origin of external
head of M. gastrocnemius flat, oval.
Toxostoma.-(3) trochanteric ridge moderately elevated, in
lateral view with edge sharply rounded; (5) proximal end of shaft
with scar for insertion of M. iliacus obsolete; (6) distal end of
shaft in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum
longus slightly elevated, without moderately elevated lateral border,
the scar for L. cruiciatum posticum slightly excavated, oval, with
small foramina; (7) external condyle with proximal end in lateral
view smoothly rounded; (10) neck moderately concave; (13)
internal condyle with scar for insertion of M. adductor profundus
on a moderately elevated angular projection, flat, the scar for
origin of internal head of M. gastrocnemius flat; (14) intercon-
dylar fossa deeply excavated; (15) the scar for origin of external
head of M. gastrocnemius slightly excavated, elliptical.


Tibiotarsus
In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest large,
straight, strongly hooked, originating slightly above level of origin
of inner cnemial crest, moderately convex, with scar for insertion
of M. vastus lateralis long, curved, slightly convex, the scar for
origin of M. extensor digitorum longus obsolete; (2) inner cnemial
crest very large, straight, weakly hooked, or sharply rounded, with
scar for origin of M. extensor digitorum longus slightly excavated,
the scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis curved, convex, the
scar for origin of M. gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the
scar for insertion of M. extensor illiotibialis anterior moderately
elevated, moderately excavated, elliptical; (3) fibular crest small,
thick, wider at distal end than at proximal, with proximal margin
slightly concave, its distal margin slightly concave, its lateral border
slightly concave, with slightly excavated, elliptical groove at
anterior distal margin; (4) shaft moderately robust, slightly
curved, with intermuscular line distinct, the scar for origin of M.
peroneus brevis very long, narrow, slightly convex, indistinct,
elliptical, running slightly anteriorly down the lateral surface from







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 81

a point just distal to the fibular crest, soon becoming obsolete; (5)
tendinal groove moderately excavated, very wide; (6) distal scar
for oblique ligament located on lateral proximal corner of supra-
tendinal bridge, moderately elevated, pointed; (7) supratendinal
bridge with its surface gently convex, its proximal border strongly
concave, its distal border moderately concave; (8) groove for
tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by moderately elevated,
parallel ridges, with the lateral ridge partly proximal to the medial
ridge; (9) external condyle wide, with border straight, in lateral
view smoothly rounded, moderately excavated, without a pro-
tuberance forming a groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis; (10)
anterior intercondylar fossa deeply excavated, elliptical, with small
foramina, its distal border slightly convex in the middle, its medial
and lateral borders slightly undercutting the condyles; (11)
internal condyle wide, straight, in medial view smoothly rounded,
slightly excavated, with a small, slightly elevated protuberance.
In posterior view, tibiotarsus with (12) cnemial crests highly
elevated; (13) internal articular surface large, slightly convex,
elliptical, extending slightly posteriorly beyond edge of external
articular surface; (14) external particular surface small, moderately
convex, oval; (15) interarticular area with a slightly elevated
protuberance; (16) area between the internal articular surface
and inner cnemial crest bearing the scar for insertion of M. femori-
tibialis internus deeply excavated, oval; (17) area between the
external articular surface and outer cnemial crest bearing distinct,
deeply excavated fossa, with strutting; (18) shaft with scar for
origin of M. plantaris large, elliptical, the scar for attachment of
L. cruiciatum genu posticum long, slightly curved, slightly to
moderately elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum
longus indistinct to distinct, very long, wide, with slightly or very
irregular surface; (19) border of external condyle slightly
exflected; (20) border of internal condyle slightly inflected; (21)
posterior intercondylar sulcus wide, slightly convex in middle.
Mimus.-Tibiotarsus with (2) inner cnemial crest sharply
rounded; (3) fibular crest with proximal margin slightly concave;
(18) shaft with scar for ligamental attachment moderately ele-
vated, the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus distinct,
with very irregular surface.
Toxostoma.-Tibiotarsus with (2) inner cnemial crest weakly
hooked; (3) fibular crest with proximal margin moderately
concave; (18) shaft with scar for ligamental attachment slightly
elevated, the scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus in-
distinct, with slightly irregular surface.







82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

Tarsometatarsus

In anterior view, tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar promin-
ence large, highly elevated, pointed, its external border sharply
sloping, its proximal border moderately sloping, the scar for
attachment of external ligament moderately excavated, elliptical;
(2) external cotyla large, saddle-shaped; (3) internal cotyla large,
deeply concave, elliptical, its anterior border extending slightly
anteriorly beyond edge of external cotyla; (4) bridge for tendon of
M. extensor digitorum longus small, complete to incomplete,
moderately convex; (5) proximal foramen distinct, with outer
foramen larger than inner, with inner foramen slightly proximal
to outer; (6) proximal end of shaft strongly robust, straight, with
a small foramen considerably distal to intercotylar prominence,
with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus distinct, slightly to
moderately elevated, flat, the external margin above level of scar of
M. tibialis anticus moderately expanded, straight to below rim of
cotyla, the internal margin above scar greatly expanded, straight
to a rounded corner at level of external cotyla, then straight to
rim of internal cotyla, forming an angle between about 30 and 40
degrees with the proximal internal margin, the scar for origin of
M. extensor hallucis longus indistinct, long, moderately excavated,
smooth, the scar for origin of M. extensor brevis digiti IV
indistinct, long, moderately excavated, with slightly irregular sur-
face; (7) distal end of shaft with internal margin of facet of
metatarsal I slightly excavated, with outer extensor groove slightly
excavated, the distal foramen small; (8) trochlea for digit II
moderately inflected, moderately expanded, forming an angle of
about 30 degrees with the shaft, its distal margin angular, extend-
ing below level of external trochlea, its internal anterior surface
slightly to moderately excavated; (9) trochlea for digit III large,
straight, not expanded distally, deeply excavated medially and
laterally, its distal margin moderately concave in the middle,
extending slightly below level of internal trochlea; (10) trochlea
for digit IV straight, slightly to moderately excavated medially and
slightly to deeply excavated laterally, its distal margin angular;
(11) internal intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end
rounded, originating at about same level as proximal end of external
intertrochlear notch; (12) external intertrochlear notch wide, with
proximal end rounded.
In posterior view, tarsometatarsus with (13) hypotarsus large,
with formulas De FGHI or dEFGHI, the scar for insertion of
M. peroneus brevis small, slightly convex, elliptical, the posterior







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 83

face slightly concave and square for insertion of M. gastrocnemius;
(14) proximal end of shaft with outer proximal foramen large,
distal to the large outer proximal foramen, with scars for origin of
M. abductor digiti IV and M. flexor hallucis brevis slightly exca-
vated, with external ridge very highly elevated, very long,
moderately roofed over metatarsal groove, with or without anky-
losis to hypotarsus, with scar for M. gastrocnemius slightly convex;
(15) distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I moderately to
deeply excavated, elliptical, its distal end at about the same level as
the proximal or distal end of the distal foramen, the distal foramen
small, the area proximal to trochlea for digit III unexcavated; (16)
internal intertrochlear notch with proximal end rounded, below
level of proximal end of external intertrochlear notch; (17) ex-
ternal intertrochlear notch wide, with proximal end rounded.
Mimus.-Tarsometatarsus with (4) bridge for tendon of
M. extensor digitorum longus complete; (6) proximal end of shaft
with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus moderately elevated,
the external border above scar forming an angle of about 30
degrees with the proximal internal margin; (8) trochlea for digit
II with its internal anterior surface slightly excavated; (10)
trochlea for digit IV moderately excavated medially and deeply
excavated laterally; (13) hypotarsus with formula De FGHI; (14)
proximal end of shaft with external ridge moderately roofed over
metatarsal groove, not ankylosed proximally with hypotarsus; (15)
distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I deeply excavated, its
distal end at about same level as proximal end of distal foramen.
Toxostoma.-Tarsometatarsus with (4) bridge for tendon of
M. extensor digitorum longus complete to incomplete; (6) proximal
end of shaft with scar for insertion of M. tibialis anticus slightly
elevated, the external border above scar forming an angle of about
40 degrees with the proximal internal margin; (8) trochlea for
digit II with its internal anterior surface moderately excavated;
(10) trochlea for digit IV slightly excavated medially and slightly
excavated laterally; (13) hypotarsus with formula dEFGHI; (14)
proximal end of shaft with external ridge strongly roofed over
metatarsal groove, ankylosed proximally with hypotarsus; (15)
distal end of shaft with facet for metatarsal I moderately exca-
vated, its distal end at about same level as distal end of the distal
foramen.







84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

Family TURDIDAE
Humerus
In anconal view, humerus with proximal end with (1) head
thick, rounded, broader than long; (2) external tuberosity distinct,
with scar for insertion of M. supracoracoideus slightly excavated,
oval; (3) internal tuberosity prominent, with sharply rounded
border, with attachment of M. subscapularis indistinct, slightly
convex, oval, the scar for insertion of M. subcoracoideus small,
moderately excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. coraco-
brachialis posterior distinct, moderately excavated; (4) capital
groove straight, deeply excavated, perforated along its length by
a few tiny foramina with a small foramen near its external margin;
(5) scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis brevis absent;
(6) capital-shaft ridge short, slightly curved, moderately elevated,
not extending to head, or extending to head; (7) deltoid crest
moderately concave, thin, with proximal end above level of distal
end of internal tuberosity; (8) deltoid crest moderately concave;
(9) latissimus ridge short, distinct, irregular, moderately elevated,
swinging as a short curved line along the deltoid surface to the
deltoid notch; (10) deltoid notch moderately concave or angular;
(11) median bar short, straight, forming an angle of about 80
degrees with the internal tuberosity, its palmar end extending into
the internal medial surface of the shaft; (12) pneumatic fossa
double, complete, with fossa I wide, deeply excavated, its opening
oval in shape, with scar for insertion of M. proscapulohumeralis
deeply excavated, forming a distinct, oval depression on its distal
margin within the pneumatic fossa undercutting the shaft, with
fossa II moderately developed, deeply excavated, wide, its opening
oval in shape, confluent with fossa I; (13) pneumatic fenestra
absent; (14) bicipital crest rounded, with edge very thick, bearing
scar for insertion of M. biceps small, distinct, slightly elevated,
oval; (15) shaft robust, with external border slightly convex in
middle, internal border gently concave throughout its length; (16)
line of M. latissimus dorsi anterioris obsolete.
In anconal view, humerus with distal end with (17) ectepi-
condylar process prominent, moderately produced externally,
rounded, with a small anteriorly projecting accessory process on
its internal anconal surface with or without excavation between
shaft and ectepicondylar process; (18) scar for origin of M. ex-
tensor metacarpi radialis (anconal branch) small, distinct,
moderately excavated, oval; (19) external condyle prominent, with
distal border angular; (20) external tricipital groove moderately







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 85

excavated, wide; (21) olecranal fossa deep, slightly undercutting
the internal condyle, oval; (22) internal condyle rounded, extend-
ing below level of external condyle; (23) internal tricipital groove
obsolete; (24) entepicondyle prominent, rounded, its distal end
truncated bearing the scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris
(anconal branch) shallow, slightly convex, oval, with short groove,
and extending below level of both internal and external condyles.
In palmar view, proximal end of humerus with (25)
ligamental furrow wide, gently curved, slightly excavated; (26)
bicipital furrow moderately excavated, curved, without foramina,
bounded externally by the scar for insertion of M. deltoideus minor
large, moderately elevated, concave, wide, elliptical; (27) bicipital
crest rounded; (28) bicipital surface convex; (29) external
boundary of M. deltoideus major obsolete.
In palmar view, humerus with distal end with (30) depression
for insertion of M. brachialis anticus large, moderately excavated,
oval, with internal border forming a slightly elevated ridge; (31)
prominence for insertion of M. extensor metacarpi radialis palmarr
branch) moderately produced, convex, elliptical; (32) shaft without
ridge on external surface with distal end with foramina absent and
without depression adjacent to shelf for anterior articular ligament;
(33) surface for origin of M. pronator brevis small, distinct,
moderately excavated, elliptical, located on entepicondylar
prominence nearest its palmar surface; (34) entepicondyle
prominent, irregular in outline, with scar for origin of M. pronator
longus moderately excavated, elliptical, the scar for origin of M.
flexor carpi ulnaris palmarr branch) slightly or moderately exca-
vated, oval; (35) shelf for attachment of anterior articular
ligament small, moderately concave, oval; (36) internal condyle
rounded, its distal border moderately concave; (37) intercondylar
furrow rounded, moderately excavated, wide, without a pit medial
to external condyle, perforated medially to external condyle by a
few small foramina; (38) external condyle prominent, rounded
without foramina, its external border without a depression medial
to the ectepicondyle; (39) ectepicondyle well developed, rounded,
not excavated on palmar surface, its proximal end bearing the scar
for insertion of M. tensor patagii brevis small, slightly convex,
oval; (40) ectepicondylar prominence with scar for the origin of
M. extensor digitorum communis moderately excavated, oval, the
scar for the origin of M. flexor metacarpi radialis slightly
excavated, oval, the scar for the origin of M. supinator brevis
small, weakly elevated, slightly concave, oval, the scar for the
origin of M. anconeus indistinct, large, shallow, oval.







86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

Hylocichla.-Humerus with (6) capital-shaft ridge straight,
extending to head; (10) deltoid notch moderately concave; (17)
ectepicondylar process with moderately excavated depression
between shaft and ectepicondylar process; (34) entepicondyle with
its distal internal corner with scar for origin of M. flexor carpi
ulnaris palmarr branch) moderately excavated.
Sialia.-Humerus with (6) capital-shaft ridge slightly curved,
not extending to head; (10) deltoid notch angular; (17) ectepi-
condylar process without depression between shaft and ectepicon-
dylar process; (34) entepicondyle with its distal internal corner
with scar for origin of M. flexor carpi ulnaris palmarr branch)
slightly excavated.

Ca rpo etaca rpus
In internal view, carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal
trochlea prominent, rounded, with or without a small distinct
foramen in a moderately excavated depression proximal to the
internal ligamental depression; (2) depression for radiale large,
distinct to indistinct, elliptical, saddle-shaped; (3) external carpal
trochlea prominent, rounded, its anterior corner slightly undercut
by the scar for insertion of M. flexor carpi ulnaris brevis distinct,
slightly to moderately excavated, oval; (4) internal ligamental
depression large, distinct, wide, oval; (5) pisiform process moder-
ately produced internally, its anterior border rounded, its anterior
surface bearing scar for ligamental attachment moderately convex,
oval, its proximal surface in anterior view square, its distal surface
moderately concave with or without a foramen; (6) metacarpal
I prominent, angular, its proximal end projecting anteriorly at
about a 45 degree angle with metacarpal II, its distal surface above
pollical facet moderately concave; (7) scar for insertion of M.
extensor metacarpi radialis distinct, grooved, elliptical; (8) pollical
facet prominent, large, slightly convex, rectangular; (9) meta-
carpal II robust, straight, with groove for tendon of M. flexor
digitorum profundus slightly excavated, slightly undercutting
pisiform process along its anterior border, with scar for origin of
M. adductor pollicus indistinct, slightly excavated, elliptical, not in
a depression, with scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris wide,
very long, slightly excavated, with distal end expanded, truncated,
with facet for digit II slightly curved, elliptical; (10) metacarpal
III thin and curved, the scar for ligamental attachment of ulnare
deeply excavated, oval, the scar for insertion of M. flexor digiti
III slightly to moderately excavated, wide, very long, running from







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 87

the level of the proximal end of, or the middle of the scar for
ligamental attachment of the ulnare down the entire length of the
metacarpal, the scar for origin of M. interosseus palmaris slightly
excavated, wide, very long; (11) intermetacarpal space long,
elliptical; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis prominent, deeply to
very deeply excavated, expanded, extending beyond level of meta-
carpal II, its distal end truncated, with facet for digit III distinct,
slightly convex, oval.
In external view, carpometacarpus with (13) external carpal
trochlea somewhat rounded; (14) surface for external ligamental
attachment small, distinct, slightly concave, elliptical; (15)
metacarpal I prominent, angular, with scar for insertion of M.
extensor pollicus longus obscure without a depression; (16)
depression for ulnare deeply excavated, oval; (17) metacarpal II
robust, wide, straight, with groove for tendon of M. extensor
indicus longus moderately excavated, straight on its proximal end,
becoming deeply excavated and slightly curved on its distal end
open throughout its entire length, with scar for origin of M.
interosseus dorsalis slightly excavated, long; (18) metacarpal III
thin, curved, with scar for origin of M. interosseus dorsalis slightly
excavated, long; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity large, triangular,
extending to posterior surface of and ankylosing with metacarpal
III, with scar of M. flexor metacarpi radialis small, distinct,
slightly convex or slightly concave, elliptical, located on proximal
edge at tip, at level of external face of intermetacarpal tuberosity,
and at level of external surface of metacarpal III; (20) distal
metacarpal symphysis prominent, its surface gently convex.
Hylocichla.-Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal trochlea
without foramen or depression proximal to internal ligamental
depression; (5) pisiform process with its distal surface in anterior
view with a foramen; (10) metacarpal III with the scar for in-
sertion of M. flexor digiti III running from the level of the proximal
end of scar for ligamental attachment of the ulnare, down the
metacarpal; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis very deeply
excavated; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity with scar for M. flexor
metacarpi radialis slightly convex.
Sialia.-Carpometacarpus with (1) internal carpal trochlea
with a foramen in a depression proximal to internal ligamental
depression; (5) pisiform process with its distal surface in anterior
view without a foramen; (10) metacarpal III with the scar for
insertion of M. flexor digiti III running from the level of the
middle of the scar for ligamental attachment of the ulnare
down the metacarpal; (12) distal metacarpal symphysis deeply







88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

excavated; (19) intermetacarpal tuberosity with scar for M. flexor
metacarpi radialis slightly concave.

Ulna
In internal view ulna with (1) olecranon small, long, straight,
rounded; (2) internal cotyla large, deeply excavated, oval; (3)
external cotyla deeply concave, oval, without a foramen on or near
it on the shaft or with a small, distinct foramen on dorsal external
surface of shaft slightly distal to it; (4) shaft moderately robust,
with scar for insertion of anterior articular ligament on side of
shaft, large, flat to slightly convex, oval, the depression for inser-
tion of M. brachialis large, slightly to moderately excavated,
without foramina near proximal border, the scar for insertion of
M. biceps deeply excavated, wide, elliptical; (5) intermuscular line
distinct, with a slightly or moderately elevated, sharp ridge; (6)
carpal tuberosity prominent, large, moderately inflected, sharply
or bluntly rounded, in ventral view with scar for ligamental
attachment moderately excavated, elliptical, with irregular surface;
(7) internal condyle with internal border short, square, its distal
border smoothly rounded; (8) distal radial depression moderately
excavated, oval, with small foramina; (9) external condyle with
external border slightly convex, its distal border sharply rounded,
with tendinal groove deeply excavated, wide, not partly roofed over.
In external view ulna with (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression short, moderately to deeply excavated, elliptical, per-
forated ventrally and distally by a small, distinct foramen or not,
with scar for common tendon of internal and external heads of
M. triceps indistinct, slightly convex; (11) the scar for long head
of M. triceps large, moderately excavated, oval; (12) shaft with
cubital tubercles distinct or indistinct, slightly elevated; (13) ex-
ternal condyle in external view prominent, sharply rounded, with
surface of shaft just proximal to it moderately excavated.
Hylocichla.-(3) external cotyla with a small, distinct foramen
on dorsal external surface of shaft slightly distal to it; (4) shaft
with depression for insertion of M. brachialis slightly excavated;
(5) intermuscular line with a slightly elevated ridge; (6) carpal
tuberosity bluntly rounded; (10) olecranon with humero-ulnar
depression moderately excavated, perforated ventrally and distally
by a small, distinct foramen; (12) shaft with cubital tubercles
distinct.
Sialia.-(3) external cotyla without a foramen on or near it
on the shaft; (4) shaft with depression for insertion of M.







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 89

brachialis moderately excavated; (5) intermuscular line with a
moderately elevated ridge; (6) carpal tuberosity sharply rounded;
(10) olecranon with humero-ulnar depression moderately to deeply
excavated, not perforated ventrally and distally by a foramen; (12)
shaft with cubital tubercles indistinct.

Coracoid
In anterior view, coracoid with (1) head small, pointed; (2)
neck thick, bearing two scars for origin of M. coracobrachialis
anterior, the lateral scar large, distinct, moderately excavated,
elongate, oval, the medial scar very small, slightly excavated,
elliptical; (3) scar for origin of long head of M. biceps large,
distinct, slightly excavated, elliptical; (4) brachial tuberosity
small, wide, slightly excavated and hooked, without tiny foramina
adjacent to scar for origin of long head of M. biceps; (5) edge of
glenoid facet expanded, forming a short, distinct, greatly elevated
ridge along the lateral edge of the bone; (6) shaft robust, straight;
(7) scar for origin of M. coracobrachialis large, distinct, slightly
excavated, lying along lateral border of bone, its medial border
marked by a sharp, slightly elevated ridge; (8) scar for origin
of M. supracoracoideus large, indistinct, triangular, its surface
somewhat irregular; (9) internal distal angle pointed, with a small
pointed projection on shaft slightly above level of internal sternal
facet; (10) sternal facet small, distinct, slightly convex, elliptical,
without a shelf; (11) sternocoracoidal process thin, both pointed
and rounded locally, with rounded or pointed corner.
In posterior view, coracoid with (12) head small, pointed,
bearing scar for attachment of L. coraco-furculare indistinct.
elongate; (13) neck thick, bearing scar for common attachment of
the dorsal L. coraco-furculare and the ventral L. coraco-furculare
flat, elongate, oval, without a depression ventral to scar; (14)
furcular facet small, with its surface slightly irregular, bearing
large, deep, oval fossa, without strutting; (15) glenoid facet large,
distinct, elliptical, its surface slightly convex; (16) area of trios-
)seal canal shallow, flat; (17) scapular facet large, distinct,
crescentoid, its surface convex, its distal edge forming a moderately
elevated ridge bearing the scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-
scapulare inferius; (18) procoracoid small, thin, bluntly rounded,
its surface bearing scar for attachment of L. coracoideo-scapulare
inferius; (19) shaft with dorsal surface just ventral to scapular
facet bearing a number of small, indistinct foramina, its medial
surface bearing the indistinct to distinct, very long, slightly







90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

excavated scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-coracoclavi-
cularis, moderately excavated or obsolete along its ventral end;
(20) scar for origin of M. subcoracoideus obsolete; (21)
sternocoracoidal depression for insertion of M. sternocoracoideus
large, distinct, moderately to deeply excavated, triangular, its
dorsal end forming a sharp, moderately elevated ridge, its lateral
border nearly straight except for a moderately developed pointed
projection about halfway down its length, beneath which is a
rounded portion that lies at about level of sternal facet; (22) scar
for attachment of L. sternocoracoideim dorsale obsolete; (23)
sternal facet with surface for attachment of L. sternocoracoideum
large, distinct, moderately excavated, elliptical, in ventral view the
shelf extending about one-half the width of the bone, elliptical in
shape, expanded in the middle so that the medial portion is about
the same width as or larger than the lateral.
Hylocichla.-Coracoid with (11) sternocoracoidal process with
rounded corner; (19) shaft with medial surface bearing indistinct
scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-clavicularis, obso-
lete along its ventral end; (21) sternocoracoidal depression with
its lateral border straight to a rounded corner that lies at about
level of sternal facet; (23) sternal facet in ventral view with shelf
expanded in the middle so that the medial portion is larger than
the lateral.
Sialia.-Coracoid with (1) sternocoracoidal process with
pointed corner; (19) shaft with medial surface bearing distinct
to indistinct scar for attachment of Membrana sterno-coraco-
clavicularis, moderately excavated along its ventral end; (21)
sternocoracoidal depression with its lateral border nearly straight
except for a moderately developed pointed projection about halfway
down its length, beneath which is a rounded portion that lies at
about level of sternal facet; (23) sternal facet in ventral view
with shelf expanded in the middle so that the medial portion is
about the same width as the lateral.

Femur
In anterior view femur with (1) head small, rounded, slightly
deflected or straight, with attachment of round ligament moderately
excavated, oval; (2) trochanter slightly convex, slightly elevated,
thick; (3) trochanteric ridge strongly elevated, gently curved, in
lateral view with edge sharply rounded; (4) shaft robust, almost
straight, moderately or deeply undercutting head; (5) proximal
end of shaft in lateral view gently curved, with scar for insertion







OSTEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE PASSERINE BIRDS 91

of M. gluteus profundus deeply excavated, crescentoid, the common
scar for insertion of M. obturator internus and M. obturator
externus moderately excavated, oval, without a foramen just
proximal to it, the scar for insertion of M. iliacus obsolete or
slightly excavated, elliptical, the scar for insertion of M. flexor
ischio femoralis moderately excavated, elongate, elliptical, not
roofed over; (6) distal end of shaft in lateral view with scar for
origin of M. flexor digitorum longus slightly elevated, slightly or
moderately excavated, oval, without highly elevated lateral border,
without a foramen distal to it, the scar for L. laterale genu
inferium moderately excavated, oval, the scar for L. cruiciatum
genu posticum obsolete or slightly excavated, oval, without small
foramina; (7) external condyle prominent, extending moderately
below level of internal condyle, its proximal end in lateral view
smoothly rounded, with scar for origin of M. tibialis anterior small,
slightly excavated, elliptical; (8) rotular groove deeply excavated,
without small foramina near its middle; (9) internal condyle
prominent, rounded in medial view, with scar for ligamental
attachment moderately excavated, elliptical.
In posterior view femur with (10) neck slightly concave; (11)
iliac facet wide, slightly convex; (12) shaft with proximal end
deeply to very deeply undercutting iliac facet and neck, with small
foramina below and slightly lateral to area of neck, its distal end
with popliteal area deeply excavated bearing a large distinct
foramen; (13) internal condyle with scar for insertion of M.
adductor profundus not on a ridge, or on a moderately elevated
ridge, flat, elongate, elliptical, the scar for origin of internal head
of M. gastrocnemius short, flat, elliptical, not on a ridge, or located
on tip of ridge; (14) intercondylar fossa very deeply excavated,
oval or elliptical, the scar for origin of M. flexor hallucis longus
small, slightly excavated, elliptical; (15) fibular groove deeply
excavated, wide, the scar for origin of external head of M.
gastrocnemius slightly excavated, elliptical.
Hylocichla.-(1) head straight; (4) shaft moderately under-
cutting head; (5) proximal end of shaft in lateral view with scar
for insertion of M. iliacus slightly excavated, elliptical; (6) distal
end of shaft in lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor
digitorum longus moderately excavated, the scar for L. cruiciatum
genu posticum slightly excavated, oval; (7) external condyle with
proximal end in lateral view sharply rounded; (12) shaft with
proximal end deeply undercutting iliac facet and neck; (13)
internal condyle with scar for insertion of M. adductor profundus







92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-FOUR

not on a ridge, the scar for origin of internal head of M. gastroc-
nemius not on ridge; (14) intercondylar fossa oval.
Sialia.-(1) head slightly deflected; (4) shaft deeply under-
cutting head; (5) proximal end of shaft in lateral view with scar
for insertion of M. iliacus obsolete; (6) distal end of shaft in
lateral view with scar for origin of M. flexor digitorum longus
slightly excavated, the scar for L. cruiciatum genu posticum
obsolete; (7) external condyle with proximal end in lateral view
smoothly rounded; (12) shaft with proximal end very deeply
undercutting iliac facet and neck; (13) internal condyle with scar
for insertion of M. adductor profundus on a moderately elevated
ridge, the scar for origin of internal head of M. gastrocnemius
located on tip of ridge; (14) intercondylar fossa elliptical.

Tibiotarsus

In anterior view, tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest
large, straight, or slightly inflected anteriorly, strongly hooked,
originating slightly above level of origin of inner cnemial crest,
moderately convex, with scar for insertion of M. vastus lateralis
long, curved, slightly convex, the scar for origin of M. extensor
digitorum longus slightly excavated, elliptical or obsolete; (2) inner
cnemial crest large, curved, sharply rounded, with scar for origin
of M. extensor digitorum longus moderately excavated, the scar for
insertion of M. vastus lateralis curved, convex, the scar for origin
of M. gastrocnemius long, curved, convex, and the scar for in-
sertion of M. extensor ilio-tibialis anterior moderately elevated,
moderately excavated, elliptical; (3) fibular crest small, thick,
about the same width throughout, or wider at distal end than at
proximal, with proximal margin moderately concave, its distal
margin moderately concave or very slightly concave, its lateral
border straight, without a groove at anterior distal margin; (4)
shaft moderately robust, slightly curved, with intermuscular line
distinct, the scar for origin of M. peroneus brevis obsolete; (5)
tendinal groove moderately excavated, wide; (6) distal scar for
oblique ligament located on lateral proximal corner of supra-
tendinal bridge, slightly or moderately elevated, rounded; (7)
supratendinal bridge with its surface gently convex, its proximal
border moderately or strongly concave, its distal border moderately
concave; (8) groove for tendon of M. peroneus brevis bordered by
moderately elevated, parallel ridges, with the lateral ridge at about
the same level as or slightly proximal to the medial ridge; (9)
external condyle wide, with border straight, in lateral view