The limestone resources of Washington, Holmes and Jackson Counties, Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 42)

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Material Information

Title:
The limestone resources of Washington, Holmes and Jackson Counties, Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 42)
Series Title:
Geological bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 42
Physical Description:
ix, 121 p. : maps, tables. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Reves, William D
Donor:
unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1961

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Limestone -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
"Selected references": p. 113-116.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1646
ltuf - AKM4759
alephbibnum - 002036999
oclc - 01722054
lccn - a 61009753
System ID:
UF00000243:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Acknowledgement
        Page ix
    Main
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Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 42




THE LIMESTONE RESOURCES OF
WASHINGTON, HOLMES AND
JACKSON COUNTIES,
FLORIDA

By
William D. Reves








Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE
1961






FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION




FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer




THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ROBERT O. VERNON
State Geologist and Administrator
Oil and Gas Division






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Jlorida /eoloqical Survey

eCallalassee

May 16, 1960

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida


Dear Governor Bryant:


I am pleased to present the results of a study on "The Limestone
Resources of Washington, Holmes and Jackson Counties, Florida,"
prepared by William D. Reves, economic geologist with this depart-
ment. This area is one of the few in Florida that has lost
population, and the presentation of these data will assist in
establishment of additional industry, greatly needed to stabilize the
economy of these counties.
We have worked closely with several land owners, the State
Road Department and potential producers in an attempt to start
the economic exploitation of these limestone resources. We have
also coupled this study with one on the clays of the area, and it
is anticipated that both clays and limestones can be utilized and
combined in some manufacturing process.
Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon, Director























































Completed manuscript received
December 1, 1960
Published for the Florida Geological Survey by
E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida

iv





TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Acknowledgments -...-. ... ----- ------------- ------ ix
Introduction -..--- ----- ---- -. ------- -. 1
Methods of investigation --...........- ----------- -- --- 2
General .-- ---- ------ ------ 2
Field sampling ...--------.........------ -- -------. 4
Laboratory methods ...... ..----- --..... -- --- --- 4
Stratigraphy ------------.. ..... 5
General ..........--------------........ ---.. --- 5
Eocene series 5--..... ---------- -- .. .......----- 5
Jackson stage ------- --.......- .... --- --- 5
Crystal River formation --......... ----- 5
Oligocene series --..----- ..... ------ 7
Vicksburg stage .-.......------.-- .. --- -------- 7
Marianna limestone --- -- ... -- 7
Byram formation ........... ---- ------ 8
Suwannee limestone ---.-----......... ------ 9
Miocene series .------------- --------- . . ---- -- ------...- 10
Tampa stage -----------------.......- ..-... ---- -- 10
St. Marks and Chattahoochee formations --. ... 10
Alum Bluff stage .....-- --.. .....-- -- -------- 12
Chipola formation, Shoal River formation, Hawthorn
formation and unnamed coarse plastics --....-~.. .-- ... 12
Choctawhatchee stage .....------------ ..... --------.---- 13
"Choctawhatchee formation" .. ----- .- ...... -- 13
Post-Miocene surficial sediments ... ---- ---- --- -- 15
Limestone areas of potential economic importance ..... 16
W ashington County ------------------....-...--- ..- .. ..... 16
General .. --------- ----------... -----. . ... ... .. 16
Areas ...... --------.-.......- -- .. ------ --------. 18
Other locations ..-- ..... ---------- -..- ....- 30
Holmes County .-------- -- ----- - 31
General -- -- -_ .---.... 31
Areas ..-....-....-.------------- ------- ----. 33
Other locations --...---- --..- ............----- -- 37
Jackson County -..--..........------ ...... ..---. 37
General .........------------ -- ----- 37
Areas ..-....----------.... ------- --- 46
Locality description ---- -- -----------.- 67
Washington County .- -... ..-------- .. ..-----.. 67
Holmes County ..... ..--------- ----- ---- ------ 76
Jackson County --.....- -------- ---------- ---.. -- -- 78
Limestone as an economic deposit --. ................... .....- 89
General definition ..... ----------- ... ------... ....... 89
Uses ......--... ..-- -------- -- ----- ------------ 91
General ..--------- -------- --- -- 91
Lime ...------------------ -- ---92




Portland Cement ....... .............-
Crushed and broken stone ..-......
Dimensional stone -...............-...
Agricultural limestone ..............
M ining -- .... .. .... .... ...... ---
Transportation ---.....-- ............--...--...
Highways ----------- ----
R ail .......... ......-- ... .....
W ater -........-----.......... .. ...
A ir .. .............-... ..... .-
Fuel and power ----. ---.. ...-... ..--.......
Selected references .--..... ......... -.....
Glossary ................- ...---- ---.
Index ------ ------ -- ... --------


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure


1 Map of Washington, Holmes and Jackson counties, Florida ......
2 Stratigraphic column for Washington, Holmes and Jackson counties,
Florida -------------..........-
3 Index to topographic quadrangles ..-................-....-- ....
4 Northern one-quarter of the Wausau quadrangle and southern one-
quarter of Chipley quadrangle showing potential limestone produc-
ing Areas I and II, Washington County .......................--
5 Northern one-half of Wausau quadrangle showing potential lime-
stone producing Areas III and IV, Washington County -----
6 West-central portion of Hinson crossroads quadrangle showing
potential limestone producing Area V, Washington County -......-
7 Southeastern portion of the Redbay quadrangle showing sample
location WHL-21, Washington County ...................... ......
8 Northeastern portion of the Bennett quadrangle showing sample
location WRL-22, Washington County ........................
9 Northeastern portion of the Prosperity quadrangle showing poten-
tial limestone producing Area I and sample location HRL-7, Holmes
County . ..............-----.........
10 North central portion of Bonifay quadrangle showing sample loca-
tion HRL-1 and north central portion of Ponce de Leon quadrangle
showing sample location HRL-4, Holmes County --.................-
11 Southeastern portion of Ponce de Leon quadrangle showing sample
location HRL-5, Walton County, and south-central portion of
Prosperity quadrangle showing sample location HRL-6, Holmes
County .......... ... ....- ......... ........--... --- .


----- 97
------ 99
..------........ 102
----..... --..... 105
......---......... 106
- .............- 108
. ....... ..... -. 108
.--- ..- 108
--.--..- ..---. 111
.............. ..- 113
- -.... .......- 113
.- ..- 113
-----. 116
-----119


Page





12 Southern one-half of Marianna Quadrangle showing potential lime-
stone producing Areas I and II, and sample location JRL-19,
Jackson County ---..........--......---------- ------------- 47
13 Northern one-half of Cottondale East Quadrangle showing poten-
tial limestone producing Areas III and IV, Jackson County ......... .. 51
14 West-central portion of Cottondale East Quadrangle showing
potential limestone producing Area V, Jackson County ----...-.- ...- 56
15 Southwestern portion of Sills Quadrangle showing potential lime-
stone producing Area VI, Jackson County -----------..-.......-------- 59
16 Southwestern portion of Sneads Quadrangle showing potential
limestone producing Area VII, Jackson County -...-..-.-----..--....-- 60
17 East-central and southeast portion of Sneads Quadrangle showing
sample locations JRL-30, 31, 32, 33, Jackson County --........-- --- 62
18 North-central portion of Altha East Quadrangle showing sample
location JRL-15, Jackson County ---......-.- - -------------- 63
19 South-central portion of Oakdale Quadrangle showing sample
location JRL-14, Jackson County -........... ------------.-........ 64
20 Southwest portion of Cottondale East Quadrangle showing potential
limestone producing Area VIII and sample location JRL-24,
Jackson County ---.................. ------------ ... 66
21 Functions and uses of limestone ...--.........-----..-..- ............. 93
22 Some minerals used in the cement industry _- .-..... - ----------- 98
23 Typical highway section showing sand-clay base and limerock base-
type roads _- ................... ---------- 103
24 Proposed route of Florida interstate highway system ...... ----- 109
25 Map showing highways of Panhandle Florida --.--..----..-- ..----- 110
26 Map showing rail shipping cost per ton for limerock and crushed
stone ..----_-.. ..... .............. .... ----- .. .. ----------- 112
27 Route of proposed natural gas pipeline through the Florida
Panhandle -.. .-.----- --------.--. ------- ........ 114

Table

1 Location data of Washington County samples ---............----- ----- 20
2 Chemical analysis of Washington County samples --.............--..------ 23
3 Location data of Holmes County samples ----------------- 35
4 Chemical analysis of Holmes County samples .._------------- 36
5 Location data of Jackson County samples ------------. 40
6 Chemical analysis of Jackson County samples --..--.--.--.---.---.- 43
7 Apparent consumption of lime -----...----...----------.-..........---- 96
8 Crushed limestone and shell production in Florida, 1956-1959 ----... 100
9 Soil test results of selected limestone samples from potential areas
in Washington, Holmes and Jackson counties,
Florida ....... _------ -------------- facing 102

vii










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Robert O.
Vernon, director of the Florida Geological Survey, through whose
knowledge of the area and whose effort as director of the Survey,
made possible this report. Appreciation is hereby acknowledged to
the staff of the Florida Geological Survey, whose aid in general
geological problems, map and manuscript preparation was of im-
measurable value. The aid given by the staff of the U. S. Geological
Survey, Ground Water Branch, proved quite helpful, as did the
helpful discussions on stratigraphic nomenclature which were
held with Professor H. K. Brooks of the Department of Geology
and Geography at the University of Florida.
The able field assistance of Mr. Wesley Shoemaker during the
summer of 1958 is very much appreciated along with the many
courtesies showvn by the people of Chipley and Washington County.
The field guidance of Mr. J. R. Kirkland of Marianna and the
conversations with many residents of Jackson and Holmes counties
helped immeasurably.
The chemical analyses of the limestone samples were determined
by Mr. R. C. Crooks, director, and Mr. E. C. Petrie, assistant
director, of the Fertilizer Laboratory of the Chemical Division,
Florida Department of Agriculture. Some physical properties of
limestone samples were measured by Mr. H. C. Weathers, engineer
of tests, Mr. E. F. Shanley, soils engineer, and Mr. G. A. Barber,
engineering aide, of the State Road Department Testing Labora-
tory at Gainesville, Florida, and appreciation is expressed for the
many other courtesies extended to the Florida Geological Survey
by the Road Department Testing Laboratory.
I would also like to express my appreciation to Mr. Sanders,
district freight agent of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, who so
kindly provided the information regarding rail freight rates.







THE LIMESTONE RESOURCES OF WASHINGTON, HOLMES
AND JACKSON COUNTIES, FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION

The Washington, Holmes and Jackson counties area has a large
reserve of very high grade limestone, which has in the past sup-
plied only a very local demand. In most instances, the limestone
is almost chemically pure calcium carbonate. Generally the area
is sparsely settled and remains one of the attractive unexploited
portions of Florida. It seems unusual that this natural resource
has been unexploited, especially so in recent years, since technology
has advanced to where rock of this type can be utilized for so many
products. It seems certain that in the future these limestones will
materially aid in the economic and population growth of this part
of Florida.
This study, in addition to pointing out unused natural resources,
is also a portion of the contribution of the Florida Geological Survey
to the Florida State Rural Development Committee. Washington
County, in which many of the deposits are situated, is one of the
pilot counties of this committee, and Jackson and Holmes counties
are designated by this committee as Rural Development counties.
Washington, Holmes and Jackson counties adjoin and are
located in the central portion of western Florida. Holmes County
lies to the north of Washington County and both form the western
border of Jackson County, Holmes and Washington counties are
bounded on the west by Walton County, and on the south by Bay
County. The northern boundary of Holmes County is Geneva
County, Alabama. Jackson County is bounded on the south by
Bay and Calhoun counties, on the east by the Chattahoochee and
Apalachicola rivers and on the north by Houston County, Alabama.
Holmes County is the smallest of the three counties, having a
total land surface area of 506 square miles. Washington County has
625 square miles, and Jackson County, the largest of the three
counties, has 942 square miles.
The principal towns, which are the county seats, are Chipley in
Washington County, Bonifay in Holmes County, and Marianna in
Jackson County.
The area is served by gas and electric power and is well pro-
vided with highways. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad
traverses the area, passing through the county seats.
Regarding water transportation, the Apalachicola River, which





2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

is the main artery of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river
system, lies along the eastern border of the three-county area. The
western border of the area is formed by the Choctawhatchee River
which is the main artery of the Choctawhatchee-Pea river system.
Lying between these river systems is the Chipola River, Holmes
Creek and Wrights Creek (fig. 1). The current development of
the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system provides the
three-county area with access northward into Georgia and Alabama,
and southward to the gulf coast area. Along the area's western
boundary, studies are currently being made by State and Federal
authorities to determine the feasibility of developing the Chocta-
whatchee-Pea river system for water transport northward to
Alabama and southward to the gulf coast area. Thus, the three-
county area is potentially supplied with adequate waterways which
could provide the area with inexpensive water transportation.
Rock materials which lie along the river banks and also between
the two river systems could readily be moved by this inexpensive
method of transportation if both the rock deposits and the water-
ways are fully developed.

METHODS OF INVESTIGATION
GENERAL

The greatest single aid in investigation of the rock of the area
was complete 71/2-minute topographic map coverage of Washington,
Holmes and Jackson counties. Coupled with the above sheets, the
two rather recent detailed geological bulletins with area maps
(Vernon, 1942; Moore, 1955) covering the entire project, gave
the ideal basic requirements for an investigation of this type. The
"sinkhole" topography as contoured on the topographic sheet
makes exposures of rock easily located.
Samples were collected from previously unrecorded localities,
as well as recorded localities. They were collected from sinks,
quarries, surface exposures, road cuts, and river valleys. Sampled
exposures ranged in vertical thickness from a few inches to over
30 feet. By far the best exposures are in sinks, some of which
approach a quarter of a mile in diameter.
The sample locations do not represent all of the areas in the
three counties where rock bodies are either exposed or near the
surface; however, they do represent a majority of those occurring
along and adjacent to the paved and unpaved county, state and
federal roads. The locations were chosen because of accessibility



































--~-H /



WASHINGTON, HOLMES
and

JACKSON COUNTIES,

FLORIDA


o0 2 8 12 16 20
APPROX. SCALE


R18W- R7W I R16W + R15W 4 R14W + R13W R12W


RIIW RIOW R9W R8W + R7W


Figure 1. Map of Washington, Holmes and Jackson counties, Florida.


z


F-
--i


z




z




z

rf)


z


cli



z



U)


0
z
1-l









c2
0
O
H

M

tO


m
M






4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

to mining, size of deposit, and for general lithologic information.
Undoubtedly other favorable bodies of rock near the surface are
unrecorded and one seeking for additional commercial deposits
of limestone may wish to drill and prospect the area in more detail.


FIELD SAMPLING

When possible, channel samples of exposures were collected.
In every case, at least 1 inch of the weathered surface of the rock
was removed prior to sampling. The channel thus formed varied
from 5 to 7 inches in width and was cut from the top to the bottom
of the rock face. In instances where a continuous channel proved
impractical, the channels cut were carefully staggered with the
use of a land level, thus utilizing the natural slope of the land to
make the higher rock faces attainable. The channel thus cleaned
was completely sampled from top to bottom and into the fresh rock
for an additional 1 to 11/ inches. All fragments were collected on
a large cloth at the foot of the channel cut. No contamination was
allowed. Bagged samples ranged from 25 to 35 pounds each.
All elevations given in the text of this report were taken with
an Aneroid altimeter and therefore these elevations should be
expected to have a marginal error.


LABORATORY METHODS


To determine the percent of insolubles, the field samples were
air dried and, because of their large size, split by quartering. The
final split for analysis was made with a mechanical sample splitter.
A 5-percent solution of HCI was used to digest the limestone. All
drying and weighing was done at air temperature with controlled
humidity. Since all insoluble residues were saved for future study,
the above precautions were taken to minimize the alteration of
the clay minerals within the limestone sample.
Standard ASTM and AASHO methods were used by the State
Road Department Testing Laboratory at Gainesville, Florida, in
determining the liquid limit, plastic limit, plastic index, shrinkage
limit and Los Angeles abrasion.
The chemical analyses of the limestones were made, using
standard chemical procedures as approved by the Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture Fertilizer Laboratory.





LIMESTONE RESOURCES


STRATIGRAPHY
GENERAL

Although many thousands of feet of sediments underlie the
Crystal River formation, they are deleted from the stratigraphic
section (fig. 2) of this report since they are not exposed nor are
they available at depth, using present mining techniques.

EOCENE SERIES
JACKSON STAGE
Crystal River Formation

The name Crystal River formation was proposed by Puri
(1953a, p. 130) as that stratum including all calcareous deposits
of upper Eocene age lying stratigraphically between the older
Williston formation and the younger Oligocene limestones. The
Crystal River is the youngest formation of the Ocala group. The
Ocala group is composed of the Inglis, Williston and Crystal River
formations (fig. 2). The entire Crystal River formation is nowhere
completely exposed since its surface is marked by an erosional
unconformity. This formation is exposed in two generalized areas
in Florida, in the northern portions of Holmes and Jackson
counties, where it is associated with the Chattahoochee Arch, and
in the northwestern portion of peninsular Florida where it has
been brought to the surface by the Ocala uplift. The limestone
underlies the entire State with the exception of areas along the
axis of the uplift where it has been stripped off, and in irregular
areas between Marion County and Cape Canaveral, where it has
been undetected in deep drilling.
The Crystal River formation ranges in color from white to
cream and texturally it is granular. In places it occurs almost as
a chalk and grades through microcoquina into coarse carbonate
clastics, being made up largely of the tests of Foraminifera as well
as the larger fossils. The rock is generally poorly indurated to
indurated, with small local bodies of irregular well indurated re-
crystallized rock. The Crystal River is made up almost entirely of
calcium carbonate, having in many places less than 1 percent
impurities. However, along the Alabama line as the ancestral
shoreline is approached, the rock becomes more argillaceous and
arenaceous.
Puri (1957, p. 38) reported that a total of 310 feet of Crystal






6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO


E SYSTEM SERIES STAGE
R and and and GROUP or FORMATION
A PERIOD EPOCH AGE


Unnamed sand, silt, clay and peat


Silver Bluff
Pamlico
Wicomico
Okefenokee
Coharie


Undifferentiated sands,
silts,clays, soils and peats


L


LL1R~
I-C-
2c




Li
-I


?PLIO-
PLEISTOCENE







C-)

iI~
C-,
rLLA .4











C-,
QD LJ













lei


L&J
.j4~

? LIOi
PLuISTCN




COO)


S)
-O
- 0)




0







c 0
u c/



04)






n 3 a


0)
o <

"il


"Choctawhatchee formation"







Shoal River fm., Chipola fm., Hawthorn fm.


Unnamed coarse clastics




St. Marks limestone Chattahoochee fm.



Suwannee limestone

Byram formation

Marianna limestone

Crystal River formation

Ocala group Williston formation

Inglis formation


Figure 2. Stratigraphic column for Washington, Holmes and Jackson counties,
Florida.


LaL

C=,


CD,
LJ6J


High level alluvial and deltaic deposits


LLJ
1-



LLJ



















LLJ
CM

LU
LUJ

LLJ

a-




LIMESTONE RESOURCES


River is present in water well W-381 in Polk County and that over
300 feet of the formation is present in the subsurface of Jackson
County.
Vernon (1942, p. 42) reported that the top of the Ocala
(Crystal River) strikes west-northwest and dips south at ap-
proximately 12 feet per mile in Washington County, and that in
Holmes County the dip increases to as much as 20 feet per mile
with the beds striking northwest. Moore (1955, p. 32) noted that
the Crystal River formation strikes northeast and regionally dips
southeast in the eastern part of Jackson County and strikes east
and west in the central and western parts of the county with the
dip toward the south. These strikes and dips differ because of the
effect of the doing along the Chattahoochee Arch.

OLIGOCENE SERIES

VICKSBURG STAGE
Marianna Limestone

The name Marianna limestone was suggested by Matson and
Clapp (1909, p. 51-52) for those light gray, soft, porous limestones
exposed in the vicinity of Marianna, Florida.
The Marianna limestone is underlain by the Crystal River
formation and overlain by the Byram formation (fig. 2). The
Marianna is either exposed or near the surface, in a general east-
west pattern from the Apalachicola River westward through
Marianna and Cottondale, to the northeastern part of Washington.
County east of Chipley. Vernon (1942) mapped a small exposure
of Marianna in the south-central portion of Holmes County and
a larger exposure in the west-central portion of Holmes County.
The best exposures may be seen between Blue Springs and Cotton-
dale, in Jackson County, where the Marianna is exposed along a
northward facing escarpment. Eastward and westward from this
area there is a general thickening of overlying younger material
except in western Holmes County where Vernon (1942, p. 55)
reported a sink (Vernon's locality H-37) exposing limestone quite
near the surface.
The Marianna limestone ranges in color from white to cream
to light gray. It is a soft equigrained, chalky to fine grained,
poorly indurated limestone, containing an abundant foraminiferal
fauna. Small local pods or stringers of recrystallized limestone
that have no particular preferred orientation, occur in the rock.





8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

The formation averages about 95 percent calcium carbonate and
where exposed it frequently has medium red-brown colored specks
scattered on the surface as well as within the rock.
Vernon (1942, p. 52) reported about 45 feet of Marianna lime-
stone at depth in southwestern Holmes County and about 30 feet
were encountered in the subsurface in the northeastern portion of
Washington County. Moore (1955, p. 45) reported that in Jackson
County the thickness of the Marianna is 35 to 40 feet in the
exposed area, thinning to about 25 feet in the subsurface in the
southern part of the county. Judging from the thicknesses as
presented, there is apparently about 5 to 10 feet of thickening
:westward between central Jackson County and southwestern
Holmes County.
The Marianna strikes west-northwest and dips'southward at
about 11 feet per mile in Washington County according to Vernon
(1942, p. 52) and strikes northwest dipping southward about 18
feet per mile in Holmes County. Moore (1955, p. 45) showed the
Marianna as striking east-west in Jackson County and dipping
toward the south at 13 feet per mile. However, Moore reported
that south of T. 4 N., the dip increases to 64 feet per mile.

Byram Formation

The Byram formation was first recognized in Florida by
Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 74-76). This formation is underlain
by the Marianna limestone and overlain by the Suwannee limestone,
all of which are of the Oligocene series (fig. 2).
The Byram has definitely been recognized in several exposures
in Jackson County by Puri (1959, p. 88) although Moore (1955, p.
50) included the Byram within the younger Suwannee limestone.
Vernon (1942, p. 59) included in the Suwannee in Washington
and Holmes counties all limestones below Tampa and above
Marianna. This includes the Byram within the Suwannee lime-
stone. Vernon noted, however, that the Byram fauna does exist in
these counties in sediments which cannot be lithologically
separated from the Suwannee sediments. Therefore, not being a
distinct lithologic unit, the Byram fauna is justly included within
the Suwannee fauna and its corresponding lithology. Puri (1959,
p. 9) and Cooke (1945, p. 82) both recognized the Byram as
occurring in peninsular Florida.
The Byram in Florida is buff, dense, indurated, finely
crystalline dolomitic limestone and light grayish tan, poorly





LIMESTONE RESOURCES


indurated argillaceous magnesian limestone which varies to a
massive or a fissile shale. Puri (1959, p. 89) described 16 to 19
feet of Byram as occurring in Jackson County, and Cooke (1945,
p. 86) described as much as 7.5 feet of Byram as occurring in
peninsular Florida with probably 10 feet occurring along the
Suwannee River. At Natural Bridge in northwestern Florida,
Cooke (1945, p. 82) reported that the Byram is at least 40 feet
thick.
The Byram appears to be essentially a littoral formation and
care should be taken in areas where the Byram is thought to be
present so, as not to confuse this formation with the weathered
surface of other limestone formations.

Suwannee Limestone

The name Suwannee limestone was proposed by Cooke and
Mansfield (1936, p. 71) for the exposures on the Suwannee River
between Ellaville and White Springs in peninsular Florida. The
Suwannee is underlain by the Byram formation and overlain by
the younger Miocene Tampa sediments (fig. 2).
The Suwannee limestone is a fairly well distributed formation
in Florida and is exposed over rather large areas in northern
peninsular Florida, as well as in Washington, Holmes and Jackson
counties in West Florida.
The Suwannee limestone is light cream to light gray, poorly
indurated to well indurated, porous, massive, fossiliferous to
coquinoid, coarse carbonate plastic limestone, frequently containing
beds of soft, chalky limestone, which is quite similar to the Mari-
anna limestone. The deposit frequently contains small irregular
zones and narrow stringers of recrystallized well indurated lime-
stone showing no preferred orientation. In the peninsula the
Suwannee varies from a yellow to cream, hard, compact,
fossiliferous, sometimes dense limestone to a cream, very porous,
soft, granular calcarenite. Cooke (1945, p. 85) reported that in
Hernando County, the Suwannee contains patches of hard and
soft rock that are irregularly distributed and apparently show no
relationship to bedding planes. Moore (1955, p. 51) described
the Suwannee in Jackson County as consisting of tan to buff
colored limestone, dolomitic limestones and dolomitic to calcareous
clays, and (p. 50) included the Byram formation within the
Suwannee limestone.
Vernon (1942, p. 55) reported 45 feet of Suwannee in the





10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

subsurface in southwestern Holmes County and an exposure of
Suwannee at Falling Water Hill in Washington County, which
exceeds 73 feet in thickness. Moore (1955, p. 51) reported that
the thickness of the Suwannee varies from 5 to 12 feet in central
Jackson County between Cottondale and Marianna, but that it
increases in thickness in the subsurface in the south-central portion
of the county to about 210 feet. The Suwannee strikes northwest
across Holmes County and dips south about 20 feet per mile
according to Vernon (1942, p. 60) and strikes west-northwest
across Washington County with a dip to the south of about 10 feet
per mile. Vernon also noted that the Suwannee equivalent near
Pensacola is found at a depth of 1,200 feet, indicating an increase
in dip toward the southwest. The Suwannee beds strike in a
general east-west direction in Jackson County and Moore (1955,
p. 51) noted that these beds may dip as much as 64 feet per mile
in the south-central part of the county. Southward from Jackson
County the beds probably flatten out and assume the regional dip
of about 12 to 15 feet per mile.


MIOCENE SERIES

TAMPA STAGE
St. Marks and Chattahoochee Formations

The name Tampa was first used by Johnson in 1888 (p. 235).
Vernon (1942, p. 68) defined the Tampa formation as those
(Miocene) sediments above the Suwannee limestone and below the
Alum Bluff group (fig. 2). Puri (1953b, p. 17) did not recognize
the Tampa formation as such, but did recognize the Tampa sedi-
ments as Vernon (1942, p. 68) delimited them. Puri described the
Tampa sediments as the Tampa stage. Within the Tampa stage
Puri delimits two really segregated "aspects" or facies of differing
nature which are genetically related to the sedimentary body of the
Tampa stage. Hence the Tampa stage includes two distinct facies
which, if mappable, could be regarded as formations within the
Tampa stage. Puri refers to these facies as formations in Panhandle
Florida and calls them the St. Marks formation, which is the
calcareous downdip facies of the Tampa stage, and the Chatta-
hoochee formation, which is the updip silty clayey facies of the
Tampa stage (1953b, p. 16).
According to Puri (1959, p. 101) the Tampa stage included
all Miocene sediments lying between the Oligocene series and the





LIMESTONE RESOURCES


Alum Bluff stage. His definition includes all sediments deposited
between post-Vicksburg (Nodosaria blanpiedi zone of the
Chickasawhay limestone) and pre-Alum Bluff ages, including those
sediments exposed in the Florida Panhandle, as well as their
equivalents in the central and western Gulf States. The type
locality is at the famous Ballast Point location on Tampa Bay, and
on Sixmile Creek at Orient, Hillsborough County, Florida.
The Tampa formation, according to Vernon (1942, p. 68) gen-
erally underlies a region of high relief and the surface
configuration is controlled largely by overlying formations.
Exposures of the Tampa in Washington and Holmes counties are
rather rare and Vernon mapped the Tampa largely on the basis
of structure. It is exposed at the base of the high hills in north-
eastern Washington County and extends westward through the
vicinity of Hard Labor Creek to Holmes Creek and Choctawhatchee
River. In Holmes County, the Tampa is exposed near the base
of hills centered in the vicinity of the town of Prosperity.
Vernon (1942, p. 68) noted that the Tampa is predominantly
limestone in Washington County, but green, argillaceous silts occur
at the base of the section in Holmes County.
In Jackson County, the Tampa is exposed in almost the entire
southern part of the county. Moore (1955, p. 58) described the
Tampa as being more calcareous along the Chipola River and in
the southeastern part of the county, and more argillaceous in the
western and northwestern part of the county. More specifically,
Moore (1955, p. 58) described the Tampa as consisting of white,
gray and green clays that are frequently calcareous, but in the
southeastern part of the county white arenaceous and argillaceous
limestones are present. In some instances the magnesium carbon-
ate content of these limestones reaches as high as 35 percent. (See
general discussion under Jackson County areas.) The entire
formation is characterized by fine quartz grains. In addition to the
few quartz grains, the gray and white clays and argillaceous lime-
stones commonly contain scattered pellets of green clay similar to
the Chattahoochee formation as exposed above Jim Woodruff Dam.
Vernon (1942, p. 69) reported that the Tampa has a maximum
thickness of 59 feet in Holmes County and an estimated 50 feet
of Tampa in northern Washington County. Thinner deposits occur
in other parts of the counties where they have been reduced by
erosion.
In Jackson County, according to Moore (1955, p. 58) the
Tampa at Jim Woodruff Dam is 170 feet thick and thins to 100





12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

feet at Sink Creek. In the southwestern part of the county near
Round Lake the Tampa is about 70 feet thick.
Vernon (1942, p. 69) reported that in Holmes County, the
Tampa dips approximately 20 feet per mile and strikes northwest
and that in Washington County, the Tampa dips approximately 12
feet per mile and strikes west-northwest. In Jackson County,
Moore (p. 61) showed the Tampa to dip southward at about 13
feet per mile, with a general east-west strike.

ALUM BLUFF STAGE
Chipola Formation, Shoal River Formation, Hawthorn Formation
and Unnamed Coarse Clastics

According to Vernon (1942, p. 74) the Alum Bluff group of
formations include those beds lying stratigraphically between the
younger Choctawhatchee formation and the older Tampa formation
(fig. 2). Vernon (1942, p. 75) questioned that the various
lithologies of the Alum Bluff should be regarded as mappable
formations and Puri (1953b, p. 16) regarded these varying
lithologies as facies and formations of the Alum Bluff stage. For
the purpose of this report the above formations are not
differentiated, because of lack of detailed information regarding
the areal extent of each unit.
These sands, marls and limestones of the Alum Bluff are
exposed in the narrow valleys beneath the highest terrace deposits
in southwestern Holmes County. The exposures continue down
the Choctawhatchee River and Holmes Creek to the vicinity of
Norum and Vernon, Washington County, where they are exposed
in a series of hills. Vernon (1942, p. 75) mapped the Alum Bluff
in the vicinity of Wausau, Washington County, where it had been
weathered to deep red clay soils. Vernon (1942, p. 75) noted two
additional exposures in Washington County, the Econfina River
bed in southeastern Washington County and the silts that are
exposed in the high hills in northeastern Washington County.
Moore (1955, p. 69-70) suggested the presence of Alum Bluff beds
in the hills of southern Jackson County; however, the extent of
the Alum Bluff in this area is unknown since it is unmapped.
The thickness of the Alum Bluff stage is extremely variable.
Vernon (1942, p. 76) reported a maximum thickness of 130 feet
in Holmes County which thins to a marine phase 30 feet thick in
Washington County. Northward toward central Washington
County, the Alum Bluff thickens to 73 feet, and thins to 56 feet in






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


the vicinity of Falling Water Hill. No accurate mapping is avail-
able for southern Jackson County, though Moore (1955, pl. IV)
shows the Alum Bluff stage to be approximately 60 feet thick in
the vicinity of Round Lake.
Vernon (1942, p. 76) reported that the Alum Bluff beds strike
northwest and dip 18 feet per mile to the south in Holmes County,
and strike northwest and dip about 10 feet per mile in Washington
County. The beds strike approximately east-west in Jackson
County and probably follow the regional dip of about 12 to 15
feet per mile toward the south.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE STAGE
"Choctawhatchee Formation"

The Choctawhatchee formation (fig. 2) includes all Miocene
sediments of post-Alum Bluff age in the Florida Panhandle, Florida
Peninsular and their equivalents in the Central and Western Gulf
States, as stated by Puri (1959, p. 131). Within these beds Puri.
recognized four faunizones in Panhandle Florida, the Area, Yoldia,
Cancellaria and Ecphora. In the peninsula, Puri recognized three
formations as belonging to the Choctawhatchee stage. The Bone
Valley and Alachua formations belong in part to the Choctawhat-
chee stage and in part to older stages, and the Tamiami formation
was shown by Puri (1959, p. 9) as restricted to the
Choctawhatchee stage.
Vernon (1942, p. 97) reported that no part of the
Choctawhatchee is present in Holmes County and that two facies
of the Choctawhatchee were exposed in Washington County. The
Area faunizone of this formation is exposed chiefly along the
escarpment facing Holmes Creek southward to the junction of
Holmes Creek with the Choctawhatchee River. South of the
Holmes valley escarpment in Washington County, Vernon (1942,
p. 98) reported that the Ecphora-Cancellaria faunizone of the
Choctawhatchee is exposed along the steep walls of the narrow
stream valleys. Vernon indicated that areas such as the "Deadens"
and "Gully Pond Sink" owe their origin to the solution of that limy
portion of the Choctawhatchee formation.
The Choctawhatchee is unmapped in Jackson County; however,
it probably exists in the subsurface in the southern part of the
county.
Lithologically, the Choctawhatchee includes particles ranging
in size from clay to gravel. Vernon (1942, p. 98) noted that in










A L A B A M A
----- O
of
-" 'o' < <- _
m 0 M E sIl I
SCRESTVIEW -
S A SANTA RosA ASD -NNI'N HIPLE MARIANNA-
MILTON SPRINGS :
.





SI AL 8 E R T Y

vPA XAMIJ U 1
C T










o
INDEX -
4 ," ,-" 1 ,
INDEX "- -,%'.1 V




TOPOGRAPHIC QUADRANGLES , -.



F OIODA GEO10GICAL SURVEY


Figure 3.







LIMESTONE RESOURCES


western Washington County the exposures are primarily plastic,
being made up of interbedded fossiliferous gravel, saccharoidal
limestone, and slightly fossiliferous clays and sands. In eastern
Washington County, the formation consists of quartz sand, shell
marls, and limestone containing large portions of shell and shell
fragments.
Vernon (1942, p. 98) found 67 feet of Choctawhatchee present
at sec. 16, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., about 31/, miles southwest of Vernon,
and about 25 feet exposed along the Econfina Creek in the south-
eastern portion of the county.
Calculations by Vernon (1942, p. 99) showed the Choctawhat-
chee to strike west-northwest with a dip of 8 feet per mile toward
the south.

POST-MIOCENE SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS


Overlying the Miocene sediments in Washington, Holmes and
Jackson counties and discounting the unnamed coarse plastics of
Alum Bluff stage, are thick deposits of gravels, sands, silts and
clays, some of which contain organic remains (fig. 2). The
geologic history, terminology, age and interpretations of these de-
posits are quite lengthy and the reader is referred to Florida
Geological Survey Bulletins 21, 29, 41 and Special Publication 5;
also, to the bibliography at the end of this report.
In general these deposits are found on the higher hills in the
southern part of the three counties, as well as forming a mantle
covering almost the entire State of Florida. These deposits in
the State range from a few feet in thickness to over 150 feet.
These plastic deposits are thought to be of two ages. The higher
somewhat better indurated material is thought by Vernon (1942,
p. 134) to be of Plio-Pleistocene age, whereas the lower flanking
plastics represent deposits formed by Pleistocene and Recent sea
level fluctuations. The higher deposits are generally thought of as
more typically continental in origin, whereas the lower, younger,
flanking deposits are a combination of both alluvial and marine
origin.






16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

LIMESTONE AREAS OF POTENTIAL ECONOMIC
IMPORTANCE
WASHINGTON COUNTY
GENERAL

As can be expected in a karst area such as that present in the
area of this report, the surface of the limestone beneath the variable
thickness of sand and clay mantle is quite irregular. As a general
rule the top of the rock conforms to the topographic surface, but
departures from this rule are common. Many times a swale on
the surface may be reflected and magnified on the top of the
limestone in the subsurface, and incipient sinkholes are manifest in
this manner. The upper portion of the limestone is generally better
indurated along the contact of the mantle rock with the limestone.
The thickness and distribution of this indurated upper zone in
the limestone will vary greatly and, where it has been observed
at the exposure, it varies in thickness from 1 to 5 feet. Since this
zone of induration is not regular and does not conform to bedding
planes it is quite difficult to determine the thickness. Probably
exploratory drilling for aggregate would give only a poor estimate
if the holes were not closely spaced.
All of the areas, as noted below, fall within Vernon's Suwannee
limestone as mapped in 1942. There is probably one exception to
the above and that is Loc. WRL-7. Loc. WRL-7 (Area IV) is a
roadside exposure (southeast corner NEI/tNEI/. sec. 32, T. 4 N.,
R. 13 W.) in which the limestone is exposed at an elevation of 160
feet. The limestone exposed at Loc. WRL-7 is lithologically quite
similar to the Chattahoochee formation which is exposed on Falling
Water Hill (Loc. WRL-1) where the Suwannee-Chattahoochee
contact is also at 160 feet. The similarity of the chemical analyses
of rock at Loc. WRL-1 and Loc. WRL-7 also indicate that the two
samples are from one formation. The Chattahoochee formation
at Loc. WRL-1 is primarily a silty, fine grained, chalky to pasty,
limestone or calcilutite, whereas Loc. WRL-7 is only a slightly
silty fine grained, chalky to pasty, limestone or calcilutite with a
local calcirudite facies. Loc. WRL-7 is about 1 mile downdip from
Loc. WRL-1. The exposure represents an erosional remnant of
Tampa limestone near the southwest flank of Falling Water Hill,
where the Chattahoochee is the capping limestone formation.
Two generalizations can be made regarding the exposed
Suwannee limestone in Areas I through IV (fig. 4, 5): (1) The
upper few feet of the highest exposed rock is usually quite dense






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


and hard. In addition, there is a slightly higher magnesium
carbonate content within this zone, as compared to the magnesium
carbonate content of the rock lying directly beneath. This more
indurated, higher magnesium zone will be seen in cuts along the
graded road at Loc. WRL-9 and Loc. WRL-10. The magnesium
carbonate content of the rock may also be expected to show an
increase on any upper bare horizontal surface within the composite
section. Obviously, the above holds true only if the section has
not been previously disturbed by earth moving equipment and
the like. As in the case of the uppermost portion of the section, the
upper zones of lithologic units within the section also show a
higher degree of induration than the limestone lying directly
beneath them. This zone of more indurated rock is probably due to
physical weathering along with chemical weathering and slight
recrystallization. The upper portions of these exposures contain
up to 9.4 percent magnesium carbonate and, in all probability,
may exceed this amount at other locations. The magnesium
carbonate is probably secondary; that is, the magnesium was
added to the limestone subsequent to its deposition. The samples
as collected and chemically analyzed in the report do not lend them-
selves to a detailed study of the upper zone magnesium, but a
few of the analyses will bear out the trend. Such is the case in
the following locations: Loc. WRL-5-1 and 2, where Loc. WRL-5-1
is higher in the section; Loc. WRL-6 through Loc. WRL-6-C, where
Loc. WRL-6-C is near the top of the section; Loc. WRL-13-1
through Loc. WRL-13-4, where Loc. WRL-13-2 represents exposed
rock near a natural bench and where Loc. WRL-13-4 did not
continue to the upper magnesium zone; and Loc. WRL-16-1 and 2,
where Loc. WRL-16-2 was near the top of the section. Quarry
operators, quarrying the Marianna limestone in Jackson County,
also report that the magnesium content increases in the upper
part of that limestone. (2) The limestone varies in lithology over
short areas. Pure limestone beds of slightly indurated light gray to
light cream chalk merge vertically and horizontally to a slightly in-
durated to indurated, occasionally slightly iron stained, coquinoid
limestone of the same color. In more concise geological terms, the
Suwannee generally is a pure fine grained limestone or calcilutite
with irregular and regular shaped lenses or pods of granular or
calcarenitic limestone, calcarenite, and calcirudite. The lithologies
are discontinuous and cannot be traced for any great distance.
These individual lithologic units may vary from 3 to 7 feet in
thickness and commonly there is a ledge or natural bench developed
where there is a vertical change in lithology. Occasionally, nearly






18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

vertical to somewhat horizontal irregular narrow stringers, lenses,
nodules or blebs and otherwise nondescriptive masses of subcrystal-
line to dense limestone, occur within the soft granular and coarse
carbonate plastic limestone. These better indurated zones of a more
dense limestone will pass from one lithology downward to another
as if they are the result of the downward percolation or seepage of
water, having brought about recrystallization in its path.
Deposits of indurated limestones and marls are intermittently
exposed along the banks and beds of the Choctawhatchee River and
its tributaries from southwest Washington County through Holmes
County to the Alabama state line. Loc. WRL-20 (Area V) and
Loc. WRL-21 occur along the Choctawhatchee River in Washington
County. At Loc. WRL-20, which is the limestone of the Tampa
stage, is a calcilutite but not enough exposures of the bed were
observed to make a definite lithologic classification.
Loc. WRL-21, which is limestone of the Alum Bluff stage, is an
isolated exposure of calcarenitic limestone. This exposure probably
does not justly represent the formation since the major portion of
the rock was covered by younger sands and clays.
Loc. WRL-22, which is a portion of the Choctawhatchee occur-
ring along the Econfina Creek would be classified as a fine grained
calcilutite. The exposure occurs near the water level and is
overlain by unsampled sandy shell marl.
Currently, feasibility studies being made by State and Federal
groups, are underway which will help determine the economic
justification for developing the Choctawhatchee River as a main-
tained waterway. If developed, the Choctawhatchee could quite
adequately serve nearby producers of earth materials with
transportation facilities to nearby markets. This potential facility
would by no means be limited to only those limestone producers
along the river. The more extensive and higher grade limestone
(or products thereof) in central Washington County, about 15
miles to the east of the Choctawhatchee River, may also be
profitably trucked to the river for shipment to markets along the
gulf coast.

AREA I

Area I (fig. 4) includes a series of exposures of limestone
trending in an east-northeast west-southwest direction in north-
eastern Washington County. The area is located in the east central
portion of sec. 15 and the west central portion of sec. 14, T. 4 N.,





" ---' .. ,. -" \ e '
.^*t t F .. J/

-. I .. 11

r \. .. -
\Iif:.I AI .


S / I






="- v .




e ^ ...... ..^ -'/ L- 1 0 .. ..








Figure 4. Northern one-quarter of the Wausau quadrangle and southern one-quarter
of Chipley (luadrangle, showing potential limestone producing Areas I and II, Wash-
ington County (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)
0 P0 P

Fiur 4 Nrter oe-uate o te auauqudrnge ndsothrnon-qare
of hipey uaranlesho in poentallimstoe pod cin Aras ad I, W sh
ingtn Cunt (Se firur 3 or uadrngl inex.








TABLE 1. Location Data of Washington County Samples


o .

00~
EE e t: o-
| | ^


WRL-1
WRL-3
WRL-4
WRL-4-B
WRL-4-C
WRL-5-1
WRL-5-2
WRL-6
WRL-6-B
WRL-6-C
WRL-7
WRL-7-2
WRL-7-3
WRL-7-4
WRL-8
WRL-9
WRL-10
WRL-11-B-1
WRL-11
WRL-11-B-2
WRL-11-2-1
WRL-11-2-2


11.5
29
14
14
14
20
20
29.1
29.1
29.1
8.4
10.5
134.6
21

7
3
30
30
30
28
i28


Vertical
Slope
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Slope
Slope
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Slope
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Slope
SSlope
Vertical
Slope
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical


ow




172
160
158
158
158
102
102
101
101
101
160
158
148
120
56?
167
174
1140
140
140
148
148


160.5
131
144
144
144
82
82
71.9
71.9
71.9
151.6
147.5
113.4
99

160
171
110
110
110
120
120


Channel
Spot
Spot
E




Channel
Spot
Spot
SpotChannel
Spot
Spot
Spot
SpotChannel
Spot
SpotChannel
Channel
Spot
SpotChannel
Channel
Spot
Spot

Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel


0)


- 0


160.5-172
151
146
144-149.8
147
100-101
90
71.9
73.9
101
158-160
156
113.4-134.5
99-110

160
171
110-123.9
123.1-125.1
126.9-133.9
120-129
129-140


5-30+
2
2
2
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-10
3-8
3-15
1-8
3-10

3-8
3-8
3-10
S3-10
S3-10
3-10
3-10


0



Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
SSand, clayey sand


x




Under Aiea V
SArea II
Area II
Area II
Area II
Area IV
Area IV
Area IV
Area IV
Area IV
Area III
Area III
Area III
Area III
Under Area II
Area I
Area I
Area I
Area I
Area I
Area I
Area I





TABLE 1. (Continued)


cis

WRL-11-2-3
WRL-12
WRL-13-1
WRL-13-2
WRL-13-3
WRL-13-4
WRL-14
WRL-15-1
WRL-15-2
WRL-16-1
WRL-16-2
WRL-17-1
WRL-17-2
WRL-18
WRL-19
WRL-20
WRL-21
WRL-22


a -> E

28 Vertical 148
S8.5 Vertical 81
30 Vertical 109
30 Vertical 109
30 Vertical 109
30 Vertical 109
16 Vertical 91
16 Vertical 155
16 Vertical 155
26.7 Vertical 163
26.7 Vertical 163
32 Vertical 117
32 Vertical 117
14 Vertical 99
4 Vertical 110
4 Slope 54
20
3 Vertical 24


11



i
1








'1
Il
1


00



120 CI
72.5 CI
79 Ci
79 CI
79 CI
79 CI
75 CI
139 Sj
139 SC
136.3 S1
136.3 S
85 Cl
85 SI
85 C1
106 j C
50 SI
SI
20 SI


5
E >



channel 140-148
channel 72.5-76.5
channel 80-82
channel 83.5-85.2
channel 87.5-92.7
channel 98.3-104.3
channel 88-91
pot 146-148
pot 148-149
pot 143-147
pot 147-150
channel 100-102
pot 110
channel 97-99
channel 106-108
pot 52-54
pot :20
pot ;21-24


3-10
i>

0
-10
2-10

2-10
2-10


2-5
0-8

0-8
0-8
4-10
4-10
S2-5
21-4
1-10
S20
10


0





Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand


Sand, clayey sand
: Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand




Sandy shell marl


*4J




Area 1
0


Area I
Area IV
Area IV
Area IV
Area IV
Area II
SArea II
Area II
Area II
Area II
Area II
Area II
SArea II
Area IV
Area IV
SArea V
Under Area V
Under Area V





22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

R. 13 W. The following locations and sample numbers apply to
this area: Loc. WRL-9, Loc. WRL-10, Loc. WRL-11, Loc. WRL-11-
B-l, Loc. WRL-11-B-2, Loc. WRL-11-2-1; Loc. WRL-11-2-2 and
Loc. WRL-11-2-3 (fig. 4). These sample locations include two
roadside exposures and two sinkholes. As can be seen on table 1,
the composite thickness of the limestone, from the lowest exposure
in the area having an elevation of 110 feet (Loc. WRL-11) to the
highest exposure having an elevation of 167 feet (Loc. WRL-10),
is 57 feet. The limestone is quite pure, generally having less than 1
percent impurities.
A rough estimate of limestone tonnage present in Area I
exceeds 3.5 million cubic yards of material.
In general, other than perched water and local zones of
saturation, the piezometric surface stands at about 55 feet above
sea level; thus discounting local zones of saturation, no more than
112 feet of limestone are available at the highest exposed elevation,
for a dry mining operation.

AREA II

Area II (fig. 4) includes a series of rock exposures trending in
a northwest-southeast direction in northeastern Washington
County. The area is located about one-half mile west of Area I.
Area II is located in the southwest corner of sec. 15, T. 4 N., R. 13
W., and in the central southeast corner of sec. 16, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.,
3 miles south of the town of Chipley. The following locations and
sample numbers apply to this area: Loc. WRL-3, Loc. WRL-4, Loc.
WRL-4-b, Loc. WRL-4-C, Loc. WRL-15-1, Loc. WRL-15-2, Loc.
WRL-16-1, Loc. WRL-16-2, Loc. WRL-17-1, Loc. WRL-17-2 and
Loc. WRL-8, located northwest of Area II. These locations include
a roadside exposure on a sink flank, and five sinks.
As can be seen on table 1, the composite thickness of the lime-
stone from the lowest exposed elevation of 85 feet (Loc. WRL-17-1
and 2) to the highest exposed elevation of 163 feet (Loc. WRL-16-1
and 2) is 78 feet. There, as in Area I, the piezometric surface
stands at about 55 feet above sea level; thus, discounting locally
saturated zones, there are about 108 feet of limestone at the most
which would be available for dry mining. A rough estimate of
available limestone in Area II shows the area to contain almost 5
million cubic yards of material.
As can be seen on table 2, the limestone is quite pure. Probably
more indurated limestone exists in Area II than the other areas as
listed under Washington County in table 9.





TABLE 2. Chemical Analysis of Washington County Samples


n Si' e 0
MaCrc SiO ,' Pe O


WRL-1
WRL-3
WRL-4
WRL-4-B
WRL-4-C
WRL-5-1
WRL-5-2
WRL-6
WRL-6-B
WRL-6-C
WRL-7
WRL-7-2
WRL-7-3
WRL-7-4
WRL-8
WRL-9
WRL-10
WRL-11-B-1
WRL-11
WRL-11-B-2
WRL-11-2-1
WRL-11-2-2
WRL-11-2-3
WRL-12
WRL-13-1


Samnle
Number


'/ soluble
', carbonates
A1O.., Total: (Reagent, 5%' HCI):3


CaCo,

65.20
100.80
101.50
103.50
102.40
104.00
109.80
107.00
105.20
105.00
92.30
103.30
106.10
102.30

103.50
104.00
104.50
102.70
105.50
102.30
103.00
103.50
105.70
105.50


1.46
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
1.25
1.05
Trace
Trace
1.25
1.67
Trace
Trace
Trace

Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace


40.95
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
5.45
0.92
0.92
0.92

0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92


Formation


0.55
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
Trace
0.01
0.26
0.01
0.02
Trace

0.01
Trace
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
Trace
0.01


108.40
101.80
102.50
104.49
103.45
106.28
111.86
107.99
106.19
107.25
100.00
104.31
107.13
103.33

104.47
104.96
105.47
103.68
106.53
103.31
104.03
104.51
106.68
106.51


49.98
99.89
99.59
99.66
98.69
99.63
99.81
99.76
99.85
99.86
85.05
99.40
99.59
99.37

99.82
99.93
99.82
99.67
99.42
99.29
99.60
99.71
99.52
99.84


Chattahoochee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Chattahoochee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Crystal River
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee








TABLE 2. (Continued)


% soluble
', '4/ ',, '/ carbonates
CaCo. MgCo,: SiO., Fe.,O, AI..O: Total' (Reagent, 5'/, HCI)-


Sample
Number

WRL-13-2
WRL-13-3
WRL-13-4
WRL-14
WRL-15-1
WRL-15-2
WRL-16-1
WRL-16-2
WRL-17-1
WRL-17-2
WRL-18
WRL-19
WRL-20
WRL-21
WRL-22


1.25
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
1.46(
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
Trace
1.67
1.67


0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92
10.25
0.92


0.01
Trace
0.01
Trace
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.03
Trace
0.03
Trace
Trace
0.01
0.14
0.08


109.68
104.30
105.31
111.11
102.48
103.38
102.81
105.67
107.8!)
107.19
107.30
104.78
103.08
102.44
102.87


99.59
99.73
99.65
99.77
99.82
97.90
99.81
99.6(6
99.48

99.77
99.75

8(;.51
97.5.8


Formation

Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Tampa stage
Alum Bluff stage
"Choctawhatchee"


'Where the silicon dioxide content of the samples is 0.92'/ the percentage represents an average SiO- content for the
samples falling in the 98'/ to 110'/ calcium carbonate range. This average figure was derived from actual silicon dioxide
analyses of selected samples falling within this 98'/ to 110% range.
:This total is the sum of the percentages of the individual chemical components of the sample. These percentages have
not been converted mathematically to a basis of 100'/ since this could introduce an error into the analysis. To convert
sample component percentages to a basis of 100: (divide) sample component percentages x 100
percent total
::A separate analysis, in which the insoluble fraction includes other insolubles in addition to silicon dioxide.


107.40
103.30
104.30
110.10
101.50
102.40
101.80
103.20
106.80
106.00
106.30
103.80
102.10
89.80
99.60






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


AREA III

Area III trends in an east-west direction in northeastern Wash-
ington County, and is located in the northeastern portion of sec. 32
and in the northwestern portion of sec. 33, T. 4 N., R. 13 W., 5.2
miles south of the town of Chipley. The following locations and
samples apply to the area: Loc. WRL-7, Loc. WRL-7-2, Loc. WRL-
7-3, and Loc. WRL-7-4 (fig. 5). These locations include one road-
side exposure and three sinks. The composite thickness of
limestone as exposed in the area from the lowest exposed elevation
of 99 feet (Loc. WRL-7-4) to the highest exposed elevation of 160
feet (Loc. WRL-7) is 61 feet. With the exception of Loc. WRL-7,
which is a roadside exposure of the Chattahoochee formation, the
limestone is quite pure as are the exposures in the other areas of
Washington County (table 2). A rough estimate of limestone
available in Area III exceeds 3 million cubic yards.
Indurated zones of limestone are present in all four localities;
however, it is of limited amount, generally occurring in the upper
6 to 10 feet of exposure. The piezometric surface here stands at
approximately 55 feet, and discounting local perched water and
inflow into the sinks, there is a probable maximum of 105 feet
of limestone available for dry mining.

AREA IV

Area IV (fig. 5) is a discontinuous group of exposures trending
in a northeast-southwest direction in the northeastern part of the
county. They are located in the central and southwestern part of
sec. 36, and the southeastern portion of sec. 35, T. 4 N., R. 14 V.
The area also includes the northwestern portion of sec. 1, T. 3 N.,
R. 14 W. The following locations and samples refer to Area IV:
Loc. WRL-5-1, Loc. WRL-5-2, Loc. WRL-6, Loc. WRL-6-B, Loc.
WRL-6-C, Loc WRL-12, Loc. WRL-13-1, Loc. WRL-13-2, Loc.
WRL-13-3, Loc. WRL-13-4, Loc. WRL-14, Loc. WRL-18, and Loc.
WRL-19 (fig. 5).
Other than one roadside exposure, these locations in Area IV
are sink exposures. One unsampled location is an exposure in the
north-south graded road, which is somewhat along the axis of
the grouping of localities. This rock is well indurated and it is
the highest exposed in Area IV (elevation 128 feet). The lowest
elevation of exposed rock is at Loc. WRL-6, where the limestone
occurs at 71.9 feet (table 1). Thus the maximum apparent thick-
ness of limestone is 56.1 feet. The rock in Area IV is quite pure





































AREA~
i '--


.J
* I


/


;wR Wf- j;- I~s
1~~. 1,K ,i~C7







I\- J
WRLf







SC.A.I 24W'





C I i C
~~"c


Figure 5. Northern one-half of Wausau quadrangle showing potential limestone pro-
ducing Areas III and IV, Washington County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)


r





r
O









o
r













,4
cl












31






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


as is the limestone of the other areas in Washington County (table
2). The amount of limestone available for mining in Area IV will
probably exceed 11 million cubic yards. The piezometric surface
in Area IV stands roughly at 50 feet above sea level. Thus,
discounting localized zones of saturation as well as a small amount
of surface discharge into the area, there should be a maximum of
about 78 feet of limestone available for dry mining above the
piezometric surface.

AREA V

Area V (fig. 6) is located along the east bank of the Chocta-
whatchee River flood plain. The area is confined to the escarp-
ment which forms the boundary between the flood plain on the
west and the dissected highlands to the east. Yates Mill Creek
flows southwestward along the foot of this escarpment on its way to
its point of juncture with the Choctawhatchee River. Area V
trends in a north-northeast and south-southwest direction and
extends from the NEI/&. sec. 17, T. 3 N., R. 16 W., to the SEI/ sec.
8, T. 3 N., R. 16 W. Vernon (1942) maps the limestone of the
Tampa stage as occurring along this escarpment and projects this
formation well beyond the north-south limits of the area. He
projected the Tampa formation (Tampa stage) from sec. 8 of
Area V northward through sec. 9 and also projected the formation
from sec. 17 of Area V southward well into sec. 20. These ex-
tremities were not included in Area V since they were unvisited
by the author.
Vernon (1942, p. 71, 72) described three localities in Area V,
localities W-3, W-4, and W-5. Loc. WRL-20 (fig. 6; tables 1, 2)
is a 4-foot stratum of indurated high grade limestone lying near
Vernon's locality W-4. Less well indurated beds of sandy
fossiliferous limestone lay above and below this better indurated
zone.
The limestone in Area V forms a natural bench at an elevation
of 50 to 54 feet above sea level. This bench is perhaps the result
of erosion connected with high stands of the Choctawhatchee River
coupled with the resistance of the limestone to erosion. Case-
hardened and solution-pitted boulders occur along the flanks of
the exposure from the crest of the bench to Yates Mill Creek. The
thickness of the exposed rock is between 15 and 18 feet.
For the most part the exposures are covered with varying
thicknesses of sandy clay and organic material, which in the zone






28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO


Figure 6. West-central portion of Hinson Crossroads quadrangle showing
potential limestone producing Area V, Washington County. (See figure 3 for
quadrangle index.)


of potential mining may at the most reach 10 feet in thickness. A
conservative estimate of limestone available in Area V exceeds 0.5
million cubic yards.
In general, past mining of this type of deposit has been by dry
methods; however, procedures utilizing floating dredges or drag-
lines may prove advantageous in coping with problems located so
near the ground-water levels and the Choctawhatchee River. The
proximity of the Choctawhatchee River which is less than 0.5 miles
westward makes the area quite attractive for barge transport.









LIMESTONE RESOURCES


-- t - 7 -


OXlp.- 406 d



A; o 4p -r

Z. & 4p.
4 40


4o-
440.
I A


411






'I e
46


-dw4


Vs


SCALE 1 24000


ii
V ,,% A4 1















\\~\
Its





4k.)






AL3Z2\4
wJ \!

ZI t \S,

,Ok:


0 0 Iu ..


Figure 7. Southeastern portion of the Redbay quadrangle showing sample
location WRL-21, Washington County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)


29






30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

OTHER LOCATIONS

Other exposures occur south of Area V along the Choctawhat-
chee River banks and in the stream bed. One such location (Loc.
WRL-21) at Spears Fish Camp, on the east side of the river in
the NEI/ESEI/' sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. (fig. 7), exposes at the
water level a 1-foot ledge of sandy fossiliferous limestone having
over 87 percent calcium carbonate. The exposure is overlain by a


{^J A v^ 0 N 4- \ I 1
Figure 8. Northeastern portion of the Bennett quadrangle showing sample
location WRL-22, Washington County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


few feet of sandy clayey shell marl. The deposit was placed by Ver-
non (1942) in the Alum Bluff group (table 1), and would now fall
in the Alum Bluff stage of Puri, (1953b).
Indurated limestone also is exposed at water level at Jenkins
Fish Camp, on the east side of the river, in the northwest corner
of the SW'/4 sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. (fig. 7). In all probability
many additional exposures of rock, such as the two above and
those of Area V, occur along the Choctawhatchee River and along
its tributaries from southwest Washington County upstream
through Holmes County to the Alabama state line, but because
these were relatively inaccessible they were not studied.
Rocks that can be mined along the river should be carefully
considered since they can be favorably exploited by use of draglines
and dredges and transported by barge to the consumer.
Indurated limestone and marl deposits occur in the southern
portion of Washington County along the Econfina Creek. These
deposits are exposed intermittently from Walsingham Bridge in
the SW1/ sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., south into Bay County. Three
feet of indurated limestone is exposed at Loc. WRL-22 (fig. 8),
overlain by 10 feet of sandy shell marl. The indurated rock con-
tains over 96 percent calcium carbonate along with 1 to 2 percent
magnesium carbonate (tables 1, 2). If a market for shell marl
is established, along with markets for the more indurated limestone,
regions adjacent to the Econfina Creek, where the overburden is
negligible, would offer some hope of economic development. The
presence of water, within 13 feet of the ground surface, may
make a dragline or floating barge mining operations practical.
Loc. WRL-1 (Falling Water, fig. 5) was mainly established for
lithologic control and the rock could not be mined, since the area
is dedicated to recreation.

HOLMES COUNTY
GENERAL

Limestone exposures are rare in Holmes County as compared
to those in Washington and Jackson counties. Only a few well
developed sinks expose rock faces. Additional exposures were noted
by Vernon (1942) but many of these could not be reoccupied. The
observation regarding enriched zones and general karst charac-
teristics as discussed under the general heading of Washington
County area applies also to the Holmes County limestones.
Area I (fig. 9) lies in the area mapped as Marianna limestone









NI- I- (I>- "
". I -u -.I
........ ,,,-a :- \ l' l oh
-( .W -



2z
No t










Figure 9. Northeastern portion of the Prosperity quadrangle showing potential lime-
stone produeinl. Area I and sample location HRL-7, Holmes County. (See figure
3 for quadrangle index.)






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


by Vernon in 1942. There is a possibility, as Vernon (1942, p. 55)
pointed out, that the upper limestone part of Area I may be
Byram marl. Color and chemical evidence suggests that these rocks
differ from that exposed at Marianna.
The Crystal River formation, as exposed at Loc. HRL-1, is a
pure calcarenitic limestone, but beds or lenses of calcilutite or
calcirudite probably are present both laterally and at depth.
The Marianna as exposed at Loc. HRL-2, is a well indurated
calcilutite, whereas at Loc. HRL-3 and Loc. HRL-3-2 the Marianna
is poorly indurated to indurated calcilutite along with occasional
lenses of poorly indurated to indurated calcarenitic limestone.
Undoubtedly large reserves of limestone are present in Holmes
County but these will probably have to be proved by test drilling.
(See Vernon, 1942.)
Many deposits of rock are known to occur along the Chocta-
whatchee River and its tributaries. One such deposit, Loc. HRL-1,
along Wrights Creek exposes high grade limestone a few feet above
water level (fig. 10). Vernon, 1942, mapped many Ocala limestone
deposits masked by a thin veneer of surficial sediments along
Wrights Creek in central Holmes County and along Pittman Creek
in north-central Holmes County. Additional deposits occur along
the Choctawhatchee River from the Alabama line southward for
2.5 miles. These deposits could be mined by dragline or floating
dredge and transported by means of the Choctawhatchee River to
markets along the gulf coast. As noted before, under Washington
County, feasibility studies are currently under way by State and
Federal authorities which may prove the Choctawhatchee River
to be of sufficient value as a waterway to justify the cost of
improving and maintaining a channel into Alabama. If the cost-
benefit ratio justifies such a channel, an inexpensive waterway
will be provided, and rock in the Choctawhatchee watershed would
have a greater mining potential.

AREA I

Area 1 (fig. 9) includes a group of locations that trend in a
northwest-southeast direction in the west-central part of Holmes
County. The area is located in the El/. sec. 3, T. 4 N., R. 17 W.
The following locations and samples apply to this area: Loc. HRL-
2, Loc. HRL-3-1, Loc. HRL-3-2. The rock is exposed in two sink-
holes. The composite exposure, from the lowest exposed elevation
of 97 feet (Loc. HRL-2) to the highest elevation of 148 feet

















Ir*r l- -- .
p r4






.N


















HRL-1 and north-central portion of Ponce de Leon quadrangle showing sample











location HRL-4, Holmes County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)





TABLE 3. Location Data of Holmes County Samples


0 r_
g: e *-g o ^ a
-.- .. S

.0 0.0. 0 c 00 a
EE 0. 4
go =>' i W. w 0
&0) > ; E- 04, Ea M C0


P
w*
U-2
C i0m
oo
0 b<
1? aI
a s!


1 Slope
4 Vertical
!8 Vertical
18 Vertical
Ponce de
Leon
Springs
Water
eleva-
tion 48
Morrison
Spring
Water
eleva-
tion 30
Blue
Spring
Water
eleva-
tion 74
1 Slope


Spot
Spot
Channel
Channel


81-82
98
120-125.7
131-140


2
4-15
2-12
2-12


Sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand


Sand, clayey sand





Sand, clayey sand


Under Area 1
Area I
Area I
Area I
Under Area I






Under Area I





Under Area I


127 127 Spot 127 2-15 Sand, clayey sand


HRL-1
HRL-2
HRL-3-1
HRL-3-2
HRL-4


HRL-5





HRL-6(


HRL-7


Under Area I







TABLE 4. Chemical Analysis of Holmes County Samples


% soluble
Sample % % carbonates
Number CaCo: MgCo, SiO.,' Fe..O: Al.,O, Total' (Reagent, 5%/ HCI): Formation

HRL-1 98.50 1.67 0.92 0.50 0.14 101.73 97.71 Crystal River
HRL-2 99.30 1.67 0.92 0.25 0.08 102.22 99.46 Marianna 0
HRL-3-1 101.50 1.26 0.92 0.09 0.01 103.78 99.33 Marianna o
HRL-3-2 101.80 Trace 0.92 0.14 0.04 102.90 99.35 Marianna
HRL-4 No Samples Tampa stage
HRL-5 (Walton County) No Samples Tampa stage
HRL-6 No Samples Tampa stage
HRL-7 No Samples Suwannee

iThis percentage represents an average SiO., content for the samples falling in the 98% to 110% calcium carbonate
range. This average figure was derived from actual silicon dioxide analyses of selected samples falling within this 98% to
110%' range.
The above also holds true for all samples whose silicon dioxide content is shown as 3.30%', with the exception that C
this average figure was derived from actual analyses of selected samples falling within the 95.0% to 96.5% calcium car-
bonate range.
'This total is the sum of the percentages of the individual chemical components of the sample. These percentages have '
not been converted mathematically to a basis of 100% since this could introduce an error into the analysis. To convert Z
sample component percentages to a basis of 100: (divide) sample component percentages x 100
percent total 0
:'A separate analysis, in which the insoluble fraction includes other insolubles in addition to silicon dioxide.


o






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


(Loc. HRL-3-2 is 51 feet). The limestone is quite pure having only
slightly less purity than the Washington County limestone (tables
3 and 4). An estimate of the limestone reserves available in Area
I exceeds 1.5 million cubic yards.
As in all of the areas before, water problems encountered above
the piezometric surface will be those caused by perched water zones,
local zones of saturation, or surface discharge into the area. The
piezometric surface stands roughly at 90 feet, thus there should
be at least 58 feet of limestone available for a dry mining operation.

OTHER LOCATIONS

The remaining locations in Holmes County are not mentioned
within an area description for specific reasons, as will be seen.
Loc. HRL-1, about 6 miles north of Bonifay in the SWI/INEI/ sec.
1, T. 5 N., R. 15 W., occurs just above ground level near Wrights
Creek (fig. 10). The limestone is rather poorly indurated and
exceeds 98 percent in calcium carbonate percentage. The exposure
is located alongside the above creek and could easily be mined by
dredging (fig. 10). A rough estimate of limestone available at
Loc. HRL-1 exceeds 0.5 million cubic yards. Loc. HRL-4 is Ponce
de Leon Springs and is used as a reference point to obtain the
elevation of the limestone in that part of Holmes County (fig. 10).
Loc. HRL-5 (Morrison Spring, fig. 11), which is slightly over 3
miles south of Holmes County in Walton County, and Loc. HRL-6
(Blue Springs, fig. 11) were used to determine the elevation of
the top of the limestone, in that particular part of the county.
Loc. HRL-7 (fig. 9) which is a double sink located slightly over
1.5 miles south-southwest of Loc. HRL-3-1 exposes a few boulders
of limestone in its bottom. Limestone would probably be
encountered a few feet below the bottom of this broad sink. The
piezometric surface at Loc. HRL-7 stands at about 90 feet as it
does at Loc. HRL-3-1. Therefore, approximately 37 feet of dry
mining is available since the top of the limestone would be en-
countered at about 127 feet above sea level.

JACKSON COUNTY
GENERAL

Deposits of limestone are quite abundant in Jackson County.
The area descriptions of this report do not attempt to include all
of the exposures in the county, but merely give the details of the








S .. .. . .."
S13 00







- I \ .
c










2' 0- .

- . -* - -


I -



254







Figure 11. Southeastern portion of Ponce de Leon quadrangle showing sample loca-
tion HRL-5, Walton County, and south-central portion of Prosperity quadrangle
showing sample location HRL-6, Holmes County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)
'1I c0
rl8 r IL

Fiur 1. ouheser prtonofPoc d Lonqudrngeshwig amleloa
tinHL5 ato ony n suhcnrlpoto fPopeiyqarnl
shwn apelctinHL6 omsCuny Sefgr orqarnl ne.


- ,!.\
., ,.
-' '



..

,


,.

n,'I c


i'
i.







LIMESTONE RESOURCES


more obvious occurrences. Undoubtedly many exposures can be
seen outside the areas as outlined on figures 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and
20, and it is hoped that the descriptions of the outlined areas will
point toward additional locations which may prove to be of
economic value.
Though deposits of limestone are abundant in this county,
there are currently only two producers. The Marjax Company
and the West Florida Lime Company. The Marjax Company quarry
is located a few miles northwest of Marianna in the SWt sec. 30,
T. 5 N., R. 10 W., and the West Florida Lime Company is mining
about 1 mile north of Cottondale in sec. 30, T. 5 N., R. 11 W. Both
producers mine from the Marianna limestone and market their
product primarily for agricultural purposes.
The Crystal River formation, the Marianna limestone, the
Suwannee limestone, and sediments of the Tampa stage are exposed
in northern Jackson County. Of these, the Crystal River limestone
and the Marianna limestone are the purest chemically and most
widely exposed. Where the plane of dip of these formations rises
toward the surface in northern Jackson County, solution of the
limestone has reduced the land surface to a broad lowland.
This lowland is part of a larger physiographic feature named
by Cooke (1939) which extends westward into the Chipley area.
The exposed and buried limestone surface within this basin is
highly irregular. Along the northward facing escarpment at the
southern border of the lowland, the local relief of the exposed lime-
stone exceeds 70 feet. The local relief of the limestone surface
beneath the soil mantle within the basin itself is perhaps as great
as along the southern border of the lowland; however, no informa-
tion is available to bear this out. The red sand-silt-clay mantle
covering the limestone surface within the basin represents in
part the insoluble residue of the eroded limestone and now fills
the low spots on the uneven limestone surface. This plastic mantle
did not necessarily form in place, but has been transported and
redeposited by local stream action. This broad solution basin has
many characteristics of a large uvala which is a large sink area
formed by the coalescence of many sinks. Solution irregularities
in the limestone are also sometimes filled by a dark organic clay
which form lenticular and vertical pockets. The lenticular pockets
have been observed in the Marianna limestone to be 20 or 30 feet
long and 3 or 4 feet thick. The vertical pockets may be on the
order of 3 or 4 feet in diameter and may exceed 20 or 30 feet
into the limestone. These clay pockets are one of the problems
of mining and they must be either mined around or removed,





TABLE 5. Location Data of Jackson County Samples


JRL
JRL
JRL
JRL


> -

0 E
22
C 0




-1 2.5 Vertical 161
4-1-2 5.4 Slope 159.1
-2 3 Vertical 109
-3-1 15 Vertical 105


JRL-3-2
JRL-4
JRL-5

JRL-6
JRL-7
JRL-8

JRL-9
JRL-10
JRL-11


JRL-12
JRL-13
JRL-14
JRL-15


Vertical
Vertical
Vertical

Vertical
Slope
Slope

Slope
Vertical
Vertical


Slope
Vertical
Vertical
Slope


108
135
136

163
159
131

158
100
108


142
122
48.8
133


10
159.5
153.8
106
90

105
130
106

162
150
89

145
96
96


140
117
44.8
132


ac

Spot
Spot
Spot
Spot

Spot
Channel
Composite
section
Spot
Spot
Spot

Spot
Channel
Spot


Spot
Channel
Spot
Spot


0
cc



159.5-160.5
153.8
107
90, 92, 96,
98, 100
106, 108
130-134

10(-136
162-163
150-152
115, 118-121

153-154
96-100
96-97,
99-100
100-101
141
117-122
17.8-48.8
132-133


2-4
2-4
1-4

3-8
0-5
1-8


S0


Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sandl

Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand


3-4 Sand, clayey sand
2-4 Sand, clayey sand
3-8 Sand, clayey sand
4-10 Dolostone, clayey
sand and sand

14 Sand, clayey sand

2-6 Sand, clayey sand

3 Sand, clayey sand
8-12 Sand, clayey sand
4 Sand, clayey sand
6 ; Sand


Area V
Area V
Area I

Area II
Area II
Area IV

Area IV
Area III
Area III
Area III

Area III
Area II

Area II

Area VII
Area VII
Under Area VII
Under Area VII





TABLE 5. (Continued)


3.- 'a 0-S *l-.
-2 0; g2 'Se a-< ^
22 C
wd 4.
0. co cc 0 O
E1E >l >1 !
cP1 4) E~i
0E ~ m W


JRL-16


JRL-17
JRL-18-1
JRL-18-2
JRL-19
JRL-20
JRL-21-A
JRL-21-B
JRL-22
JRL-23
JRL-24
JRL-25
JRL-26-1
JRL-26-2
JRL-27
JRL-28
JRL-29
JRL-30
JRL-31
JRL-32
JRL-33


* Vertical

Slope
SVertical
Vertical
Vertical
Slope
SVertical
Vertical
Vertical


Slope
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical


S143

149.3
142
142
103
103
161
161
125


z -P
4)



> X~
>a
.P u
o a*

ao ss 1
Z4
n-a -r


Composite 123-143
section


Channel
Spot
Channel
Spot
Channel
Channel
Channel


Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel


S128-136

82-103
84-86
139.5-158
112.4-119
120-125


117-125.5
105-107
120-122
106-108


4

0-12
2-10
2-10
1-5
4-10
2-6
2-6
2-15+


2-3
2-5
2-5
2-8
15+
1-10
1-10
1-10
1-12
1-12


-p:
e 0


Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand

Sand, clayey sand

Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand
Sand, clayey sand


-a
Area V

Area V
Area VI
Area VI
Under Area II
Area II
Area IV
Area IV
Area VIII
Area V
Area VIII
Area VI
Area VI
Area VI
Area VI
Area V
Area IV
Area VII
Area VII
Area VII
Area VII






42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

since the presence of clay in limestone is very undesirable for
many commercial uses.
The thickness of the sand and clay mantle of the younger
formations lying above the limestone is quite variable, but on a
large scale the irregular topographic surface conforms to the
surface of the underlying limestone. This is especially true where
the Crystal River and Marianna limestone are near the surface.
In the relatively more plastic facies of the Suwannee limestone
and Tampa stage sediments, the topographic surface of the over-
lying sand and clay mantle conforms to the buried formation
surface only where the formation is calcareous. This degree of
conformity between the topographic surface and the underlying
formation is ultimately the result of the solution of the underlying
soluble limestone.
At some exposures the Marianna limestone is overlain by a
poorly indurated to indurated, fissile to blocky shale. In some
instances, this bed is an indurated dolomitic limestone. Puri and
Vernon (1961) placed these beds in the Byram formation and
believed that the Bucatunna clay may be represented by the clay
or shale beds. However, MacNeil (1944, p. 1341) stated that
"eastern Holmes, northern Washington and western Jackson
counties, Florida, is an area of pre-Chickasawhay erosion" and
Marsh (1960, personal communication) felt that "MacNeil implied
that there the Chickasawhay equivalent rests upon the marl
member of the Byram, the Bucatunna having been removed by
erosion."
Moore (1955, p. 51) apparently included these sediments in
the Suwannee limestone as he defined and mapped the formation
(pl. I).
The Byram sediments and possibly some recrystallized
Marianna sediment may be observed at the following localities:
Loc. JRL-3-3, Loc. JRL-7, Loc. JRL-8, Loc. JRL-9, Loc. JRL-10,
Loc. JRL-11, and Loc. JRL-28.
Large production of high purity rock is available from the
Crystal River formation and the Marianna limestone. Each varies
very little chemically and lithologically between exposures. Table
6 indicates that the Crystal River formation is quite pure
chemically, and that the Marianna limestone follows closely, being
only a few percent lower in calcium carbonate. The Suwannee
limestone generally is more argillaceous and more arenaceous than
the Crystal River formation and Marianna limestone, but less
argillaceous and arenaceous than the younger sediments of the





TABLE 6. Chemical Analysis of Jackson County Samples


CaCo M'g, Si
CaCo, MgCo:: SiO.,' Fe,O,0


'i soluble
'h 1/ carbonates
Al.,O:, Total' (Reagent, 5'/ HCI):1


1.67
2.35
1.88
1.88
37.20

2.09
1.88
34.20

2.09
2.09


JRL-1
JRL-1-2
JRL-2
JRL-3-1
JRL-3-2

JRL-4
JRL-5
JRL-6,

JRL-7
JRL-8
JRL-9

JRL-10
JRL-11
JRL-12
JRL-13
JRL-14
JRL-15
JRL-16
JRL-17
JRL-18-1
JRL-18-2
JRL-19


0.28 100.91
0.20 102.49
0.01 105.77
0.07 101.18
0.49 100.77

0.28 102.17
0.28 102.42
0.55 100.41


95.30
98.80
102.80
95.80
5(i.00

98.50
96.50
55.50

96.30
98.6;0


101.10
95.30
46.50
25.00
57.50
53.80
95.00

102.10
103.10
97.80


Trace 0.92
2.34 3.30
35.30 16.75
15.80 55.25
35.70 6.88
40.60 9.95
1.88 3.30
No analysis


1.05
Trace
2.09


0.92 0.12
0.92 0.08
0.92 0.31


0.22 102.38
0.08 101.21
0.15 99.31
0.73 97.41
0.03 100.57
0.25 104.95
0.25 100.86;

0.03 104.22
0.01 104.01
0.11 101.23


96.89
97.44
98.10
96.79
85.52

97.49
95.72
75.38

97.81
97.91


97.84
97.28
79.63
34.27
89.88
89.87
95.97

99.35
99.60
97.88


Suwannee
Mal ianna
Mai ianna
Marianna
Byram/
Suwannee
Marianna
Marianna
Byram/
Suwannee
Marianna
Marianna
Byram/
Suwannee
Marianna
Marianna
Chattahoochee
Chattahoochee
Suwannee
Tampa stage
Marianna
Marianna
Crystal River
Crystal River
Marianna


Sample
Number


Formation


0.92 0.38
3.30 0.46;
9.75 0.41


3.30 0.13 0.09 101.91
0.92 0.30 0.21 102.12
No analysis but similar to Loc. JRL-6


~





TABLE 6. Chemical Analysis of Jackson County Samples


soluble
Sample ', ', '/ carbonates
Number C(aCo MgCo SiO.' Fe.,O AI..O Total" (Reagent, 5' HCl) Formation
ft-
JRL-20 99.60 1.46 0.92 0.27 0.16 102.41 98.09, Marianna
JRL-21-A 100.70 1.77 0.92 0.25 0.15 103.79 97.24 Marianna
JRL-21-B 101.20 1.19 0.92 0.28 0.10 103.69 96.86 Crystal River
JRL-22 96.30 2.09 3.30 0.20 0.16 102.05 95.46 Marianna 0
JRL-23 No analysis Marianna
JRL-24 No analysis Marianna
JRL-25 99.80 1.46 0.92 0.11 0.03 102.32 99.25 Crystal River
JRL-26-1 101.30 Trace 0.92 0.12 0.04 102.38 99.29 Crystal River
JRL-26-2 101.30 1.05 0.92 0.11 0.03 103.41 99.35 Crystal River
JRL-27 102.3 Trace 0.92 0.09 0.01 103.32 99.53 Crystal River
JRL-28 No analysis Marianna :
JRL-29 Similar to Area V analysis Crystal River/ t
Marianna
JRL-30 No analysis; similar to Loc. JRL-12 Chattahoochee
JRL-31 No analysis; similar to Loc. JRL-12 and 13 Chattahoochee
JRL-32 No analysis Chattahoochee
JRL-33 No analysis; similar to Loc. JRL-12 and 13 Chattahoochee

'Where the silicon dioxide content of the samples is 0.92', the percentage represents an average SiO., content for the sam- 1j
ples falling in the 98'/ to 110'` calcium carbonate range. This average figure was derived from actual silicon dioxide analy- g
ses of selected samples falling within this 98% to 110% range.
The above also holds true for all samples whose silicon dioxide content is shown as 3.307 with the exception that this
average figure was derived from actual analyses of selected samples falling within the 95.0% to 96.5%r/ calcium carbonate E
range. 0
-This total is the sum of the percentages of the individual chemical components of the sample. These percentages have
not been converted mathematically to a basis of 100'/ since this could introduce an error into the analysis. To convert
sample component percentages to a basis of 100: (divide) sample component percentages x 100
percent total
:A separate analysis, in which the insoluble fraction includes other insolubles in addition to silicon dioxide.






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


Tampa stage. The Suwannee limestone is exposed over much of
central Jackson County, but exposures are limited. (See Moore,
1955, pl. I.)
No tonnage estimates were made of the Jackson County
deposits because of the large extent of the areas as delimited by
this report. Millions of tons are present in the larger areas and
it is felt that even the smallest areas when prospected will show
over a million tons present.
Lithologically, the Crystal River formation and the Marianna
limestone are distinguishable, whereas facies of the Tampa stage
are sometimes quite similar to that of the Suwannee limestone.
For the most part the Crystal River limestone is a white to cream
colored, chalky, soft to locally indurated fossiliferous coquinoid
limestone. More concisely, this formation would be considered as
having three lithologic types: calcilutite, calcarenite, and an inter-
mediate calcarenitic unit. Each rock unit can be expected to grade
laterally and vertically into other lithologies. Local small hard
lenses and nodules of finely crystalline to dense limestone occur
randomly throughout the exposures. The Marianna limestone is
a slightly darker cream colored fossiliferous chalky equigrained,
soft to slightly indurated limestone, containing a small percentage
of arenaceous insolubles and a small percentage of magnesium
carbonate. It would be considered generally as varying from a
calcilutite to calcarenite. As in the Crystal River formation, local
small hard lenses and nodules of finely crystalline to dense limestone
occur randomly throughout the exposures of the Marianna
limestone. Moore (1955, p. 51) described the Suwannee limestone
as tan to buff colored limestones, dolomitic limestones, and
calcareous clays. He (Moore, 1955, p. 59) described the Tampa
formation as a white, gray and green clay which is frequently
calcareous. In the southeastern part of the county the Chattahoo-
chee formation of the Tampa stage occurs as a white arenaceous
argillaceous limestone. To slightly rephrase the above description,
one may say that the Suwannee varies from a tan to buff limestone,
to a dolomitic limestone, and to a calcareous clay, whereas the
Tampa formation varies from a sandy clayey limestone, to a
calcareous white, gray and .green clay. The dolomitic character is
not restricted to the Suwannee limestone however. At Loc. JRL-12,
Loc. JRL-13 and Loc. JRL-15, the latter two of which are lime-
stone exposures of the Tampa as described by Moore (Loc. JRL-13
is Moore's J-111, and Loc. JRL-15 is Moore's J-131), the
magnesium carbonate percentage reached as high as 40 percent of
the analysis. It thus appears that the final distinguishing lithologic





46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO
difference between the limestone facies of the two formations
involves color and texture. Generally, the younger Tampa sediments
are devoid of tan to buff colors and is more argillaceous and
arenaceous than the Suwannee limestone. This relationship would
only be true in this immediate area since lateral lithologic change
can be expected in each formation.


AREA I

Area I (fig. 12) includes a group of exposures noted on the
northern shore of Merritts Mill Pond and along State Highway
164. These exposures extend from the NEI/NEI/.t sec. 6, T. 4 N.,
R. 9 W., northeastward through the central and southern portion of
sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 9 W., and into the western portion of sec. 33,
T. 5 N., R. 9 W. Two limestone formations are apparent in the area,
contact of the formation in the road cut at the western side of the
SEI/tNW/1. sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 9 W. Here the contact elevation is
127 feet. A short distance westward from this point, an indurated
layer of Suwannee limestone may be observed on the north side of
the road right-of-way. The underlying Marianna limestone may be
seen at various locations eastward from the above mentioned
points to the center of sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 9 W. Eastward and
southeastward from this latter point numerous small sinkholes can
be seen within and on the flanks of the larger, partially filled and
cultivated sinks. From the above mentioned Marianna-Suwannee
limestone contact, eastward along State Highway 164 to the center
of sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 9 W., the elevations on the top of the exposed
limestone vary as follows: 127 109 114 100 118 feet above sea
level. This attests to the uneven surface of the exposed rock.
The Marianna limestone forms some of the topographic lobes
that extend southward to the edge of Merritts Mill Pond where
rock is exposed above the water level at an elevation of about 80
feet. The top of the Marianna along a line extending from the
NEI/t sec. 6, T. 4 N., R. 9 W., to the SEIt sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.,
on these same lobes stands between 98 and 102 feet above sea level.
Though the area was not visited, in all probability the topographic
lobes on the southeast shore of Merritts Mill Pond across the pond
from the above discussed lobes should expose the top of the
Marianna limestone at about the 100-foot contour. Thus in Area
I there is a maximum of about 47 feet of Marianna limestone above
the level of Merritts Mill Pond and Blue Spring. Moore (1955, pl.
I) also extended the Suwannee and Tampa (Tampa stage)




! \ 'n #o. , .. O I)\
.." *, -
?00 I f








.m .
00
~ 29










000000

poui At .- JRL-










"figure w fr u a l ine .).0
4k I %. : ,. ,\, I



.13 IL.31 33









;y, ,_.. ....
W. 0.
4 Ir IV









... t: ;-i,4,-
N 0n










.. 46> 4 tJ
,1.0

Id P~O ~3 i


. .. ,, ,'%

Fgr 1. S n o


figure 3 .or q a index.)
producin Areas and II and saple locaion JRL19, Jacson Couty. (Se

figure 3 for quadrangle index.)





48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

formations into this area. The Suwannee is represented by
indurated rock as present southeastward from sec. 33, T. 4 N.,
R. 9 W., on the road to Grand Ridge where a few exposures of
the Suwannee limestone may be seen. One such exposure in a sink
located in the SEI/tNEIi sec. 11, T. 4 N., R. 9 W., adjacent to
the road on the north side, is typical. It is anticipated that the
greatest amount of indurated rock will be found within the
Suwannee exposure.
Loc. JRL-2 is in Area I (fig. 12). The Marianna limestone is
quite pure, having a minor percentage of magnesium carbonate
and quartz (tables 5, 6). The piezometric surface stands at about
90 feet in this area, which is somewhat above the level of the
water at Blue Spring. This could be expected since a cone of
depression is formed around the springhead. As mentioned earlier,
there are 47 feet of Marianna limestone above the level of Blue
Spring. Since, potentially, the piezometric surface may stand
10 feet higher away from the spring, the amount of available
limestone for mining is about 37 feet. However, if there are no
fissures in the quarry area mining may be carried somewhat
deeper until water under artesian pressure is encountered. Even
so, this deeper mining would seem hazardous, since many solution
channelways can be expected in the limestone. Other than the
artesian water, local zones of saturation above the piezometric
surface can be expected, and these zones would have to be
eliminated by pumping or ditching if an area such as this were to
be mined dry.

AREA II

Area II (fig. 12) includes a number of exposures located on
the east and west side of the Chipola River just east of Marianna,
south of the Florida Caverns State Park and north of the confluence
of Spring Creek and the Chipola River. Here a number of topo-
graphic lobes point inward and southward toward the Chipola
River. These rounded hills expose the Marianna limestone with
a minimum of overlying material at an elevation of 100 to 105
feet above sea level. The top of the Marianna is expected to be
progressively lower southward since the dip of the formation is
about 14 feet per mile toward the south. Generally, the Marianna
limestone is overlain by the Suwannee limestone and or the
Tampa sediments; but this overlying material may have been
removed to varying thicknesses depending on the extent of the
local erosion.






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


The Marianna limestone in the area is of reasonably high
purity, being above 95 percent in calcium carbonate content
(tables 5, 6). The overlying Suwannee limestone as exposed at Loc.
JRL-3-2 shows an appreciable amount of magnesium carbonate and
silicon dioxide.
Noteworthy exposures of limestone in Area II from which
samples were taken are Loc. JRL-3-1, Loc. JRL-3-2, Loc. JRL-10,
Loc. JRL-11, and Loc. JRL-20 (fig. 12). The N/.NE'it sec. 2,
T. 4 N., R. 10 W., is a noteworthy exposure where a hundred yards
or so east of the graded road the face of an old quarry can be seen.
West of the graded road (Loc. JRL-20) a northeast-southwest
elongate hill exposes the top of the Marianna limestone at about
the 103-foot level. This hill is probably overlain by a few feet
of dolomitic Suwannee limestone. South of the northern boundary
of sec. 2, where the graded road leaves the section, the Marianna
and Suwannee limestone are exposed along the road at about 103
feet above sea level.
In the SWl/.NW/1. and NWl/tSWl/t sec. 35, T. 5 N., R. 10 W.,
a north-south trending elongate rounded hill exposed the Marianna
limestone below the 103 feet of elevation. Large quantities of rock
can probably be produced from this site. As above, the Marianna
is probably overlain by the Suwannee limestone. On the west side
of the Chipola River, east, northeast and southeast of the city of
Marianna, exposures occur on hills that are elongated perpen-
dicularly to the river. Many of these exposures are in residential
areas. Nevertheless, they are mentioned since they further index
the top of the Marianna limestone at an elevation of about 103
feet, and may help find accessible mining locations.
The piezometric surface would stand somewhat lower in Area
II than Area I because of artesian discharge into the Chipola
River. In all probability, this artesian water surface would stand
at about 80 feet. Thus, in the vicinity of the hills as discussed,
which are present along the Chipola River, there would be
approximately 20 feet of Marianna limestone available for mining.
Local zones of saturation would be at a minimum in this area
since there is good surface drainage.
Loc. JRL-19 (fig. 12), though outside of Area II is noteworthy,
since it represents a good exposure of the Marianna limestone.
This old "chimney block" quarry, located in the SW/I.NWl/1 sec.
30, T. 5 N., R. 9 W., lies about 2 miles northeast of Area II. The
top of the Marianna limestone in the quarry stands at 103 feet and
the floor of the quarry stands at 81 feet above sea level. The






50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

bottom of the quarry is quite near the potential head of the
artesian water, and the rock would have to be mined underwater
if the quarry were deepened only a few more feet. The rock in
this quarry exceeds 95 percent calcium carbonate with traces of
magnesium carbonate, silica, iron and clay. The limestone occurs
in many places of the immediate area at an elevation of about 103
feet. Local depressions on the surface away from the quarry
indicate that the rock has deteriorated, thus the top of minable
rock, away from the quarry, will occur at elevations lower than
103 feet. No estimate has been made as to the depth at which the
underlying Crystal River formation will be encountered, but a
projection of the contact of the various limestone and Crystal
River formations from the bridge east of Marianna into sec. 30
would place the Crystal River limestone near the surface in this
area.
Locally the overburden is red, clayey sand which will vary in
thickness from 1 to 10 feet.

AREA III

Area III (fig. 13) includes a number of exposures which for
the most part are located along the Bump Nose Road. Area III
trends generally in a north-northwesterly direction from the
eastern part of sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 10 W., on the northern boundary
of the city of Marianna to the SEI/4 sec. 7, T. 5 N., R. 10 W. The
area under consideration lies just west of the Chipola River and
the northern portion ends in the flood-plain swamp.
Many exposures of limestone, the locations where limestone
occurs at a shallow depth beneath the ground, are present in Area
III. The locations described are the more obvious exposures of
rock along the roads. The rock is exposed in roadside ditches, in
small "chimney stone" quarries, in fields, and one cave is present
just to the west of the road in the northern part of the area.
The limestone exposures as noted on figure 13 are Loc. JRL-6,
Loc. JRL-7, Loc. JRL-8 and Loc. JRL-9 (tables 5, 6). Additional
exposures may be seen from Loc. JRL-7 northward to the roadside
cave mentioned above, located in the NWI/SE1/4SE/4 sec. 7, T. 5 N.,
R. 10 W.
The four formations exposed in this area are the Crystal River
formation, Marianna limestone, Suwanne limestone and the
sediments of the Tampa stage. Limestone of the Crystal River and
Marianna formations analyze the highest purity and total the




Si ,. . .. EA







*4-;" ... r', Y-: 'J ,1^ ^-.
, .i :" - ^ ," , I .' .. E .10 . : -


.. .- ,. : Kf N 4RL l A
.-_.._ -.. . .-.. ..... I-






. . $ ., .
tt


-i 29 .. .
R EA, A'.1. _- .- V_.,,
so po ti Ae I an V ackson ounty(Seefigur3-f


quadranle in 'ex





,~1" i ." ".- ,.-I



quadirangle index.)





52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

greatest tonnage. Both formations exceed 95 percent calcium car-
bonate content. The Suwannee limestone contains as high as 34
percent magnesium carbonate but is limited in tonnage. The Tampa
sediments consist of clays and calcareous dolomitic clays.
Rock of reasonably high purity and high tonnage can be seen
on the north side of a hill at Loc. JRL-8. On the flank of the hill
there is exposed in a road ditch, limestone which would represent
40 vertical feet of Crystal River and Marianna limestone. The
calcium carbonate content at this section will exceed 97 percent.
Moore (1955, p. 42) placed the Crystal River-Marianna contact at
93 feet at his Loc. J-77 at the bottom of the hill. Lying above, at.
about 127 feet is the Suwannee-Marianna contact and overlying
this contact the thin, calcareous dolomitic shaley material
comprising the Suwannee (Byram?) does not exceed 4 feet in
thickness.
About 0.7 miles north-northwestward from Loc. JRL-8 the
Marianna-Suwannee limestones are exposed on the south flank of
an east-west trending hill at Loc. JRL-9. The contact between the
two formations lies at 145 feet, with an unknown thickness of
Marianna present and at least 13 feet of calcareous dolomitic
Suwannee (Byram?) shal being exposed. East and west of this
exposure and generally below the 145-foot Marianna-Suwannee
contact, rather high tonnages of high purity limestone should be
found. Quarries should penetrate the very pure limestone of the
Crystal River formation at some point above 93 feet elevation.
The amount of overburden to be stripped could be controlled by
careful prospecting in this area. The maximum thickness of the
overlying calcareous dolomitic shale is unknown, but the thickness
of this capping material is 13 feet at this location and would
probably reach its maximum thickness in the subsurface 0.8 mile
northwestward from Loc. JRL-9 at the junction of Bump Nose
Road and St. Johns School Road (fig. 13). At this road crossing
the calcareous dolomitic shale is overlain by more recent sands
and clays of the Tampa formation (Tampa stage) as stated by
Moore (1955, pl. I).
The piezometric surface in the southern portion of Area III
should not be over 90 feet above sea level. Thus, about 40 or 50
feet of Marianna and limestone of the Crystal River formation are
available in this part of the area for dry mining.
At Loc. JRL-7, which lies 0.9 mile northwest of Loc. JRL-9, is
an intermittent section down the flank of a north-south trending
topographic ridge which continues to the northeastern corner of






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


sec. 19, T. 5 N., R. 10 W. The Marianna-Crystal River contact
should occur at this corner but it is obscured by overlying detrital
material. The Marianna-Suwannee limestone is exposed at an
elevation of 159 feet, southward from the previously mentioned
corner. The calcareous dolomitic Suwannee shale (Byram?) lying
above the Marianna limestone is exposed up the slope of the hill
to an elevation of 167 feet.
At Loc. JRL-6, which lies a short distance southwest of Loc.
JRL-7, the Suwannee (Byram?) is exposed on the surface at an
elevation of 163 feet. Overlying this calcareous dolomitic shale is
a thin veneer of clays and sands of the Tampa formation and
younger sediments. As in the southern part of Area III, the amount
of overburden to be handled above the Marianna limestone, could
be minimized by mining below the Suwannee-Marianna contact
contour (159 feet) and around the hill, choosing a location with a
minimum of overlying younger sediments.
The piezometric surface in this northern part of Area III is
probably no higher than 90 feet above sea level. Thus, near Loc.
JRL-7, there should be about 69 feet of Marianna limestone avail-
able for dry mining above the potential head of the artesian water.
Other than artesian water, local zones of saturation and runoff
would have to be accounted for.
Northward toward the boundary of Area III in the NEI/iNEI/E
sec. 18 and in the SEI/VSEI/i sec. 7, both of which are in T. 5 N.,
R. 10 W., two exposures of Crystal River limestone occur (fig. 13).
Each is located on a slight topographic rise. In each instance, the
exposure is about 100 feet above sea level. The upper foot or so of
the exposure has undergone recrystallization and is indurated to
well indurated. Occasional stringers and small pods of indurated
to well indurated limestone occur below the indurated surface and
pass into the softer rock beneath. Probably the piezometric surface
here also stands at 90 feet, thus leaving approximately 10 feet
of limestone available for dry mining. Continued mining to a
greater depth could be carried out by floating dredges or draglines.
The largest percentage of indurated rock in Area III probably lies
in this vicinity.

AREA IV

Area IV (fig. 13) is composed of a number of limestone
exposures along State Highway 73, just northwest of Marianna.
Area IV lies between Marianna and the intersection of State






54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

Highway 73 with U. S. Highway 231. The area extends from the
NW1/ sec. 31, T. 5 N., R. 10 W., to the SEI/i sec. 16, T. 5 N., R. 11
W., roughly 2 miles north of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad.
Minable deposits of limestone extend far beyond the limits of Area
IV and it is hoped that the area description will serve as a partial
index to the immediately surrounding region.
The exposures occur as road cuts, limestone sinks and quarries.
The locations in Area IV are Loc. JRL-5 (the Marjax Company;
owner, Mr. J. C. Corcoran), Loc. JRL-21-A and 21-B (the quarries
of the currently inoperative Marianna Limestone Products
Company; owner, Mr. Sam Smith), Loc. JRL-29 and Loc. JRL-4.
The important limestone formations in Area IV are the Crystal
River formation and the Marianna limestone. As a general rule,
limestone of the Crystal River formation here exceeds 97.5 percent
calcium carbonate and the Marianna limestone exceeds 94 percent
calcium carbonate, each of which contains traces of magnesium
carbonate, sand, iron and clay (tables 5, 6).
The Crystal River formation-Marianna limestone contact is
120 feet at Loc. JRL-21-B (Moore, 1955, p. 41, reports this contact
as 115 feet at his J-5). Southeastward 1.5 miles at Loc. JRL-29
(Moore's J-74) the same contact can be observed at 105 feet above
sea level (fig. 13). The above contacts are in keeping with the
dip of the Marianna which is about 13 feet per mile in this area.
The elevation of Marianna limestone-Suwannee limestone
(Byram?) contact in this area is not known exactly, but an eleva-
tion on the top of the Marianna at Loc. JRL-21-B was 161 feet.
This elevation must be quite close to this contact for this area since
it is in keeping with the same contact at Loc. JRL-7 which is 2.5
miles eastward along strike. About 0.9 mile southwest of Loc.
JRL-21-A and 21-B (Moore, 1955, p. 50) notes the elevation of the
Marianna limestone-Suwannee limestone (Byram?) contact, at his
J-173 and J-174, as 137 feet. It follows that in the southern part of
Area IV this contact would be at a lower elevation since the
Marianna limestone and the Suwannee limestone dip at the rate of
12 to 15 feet per mile toward the south. Local irregularities along
the formational contact will nevertheless give a varying contact
elevation. Exposures of the Suwannee limestone along State High-
way 73, south of Loc. JRL-5, at Moore's Loc. J-3 (SWI/t sec. 30,
T. 5 N., R. 10 W.) occur at 143 feet. The contact between the
Marianna and the Suwannee would be between 137 feet and 140
feet, if the regional dip is applied to known elevations in the
vicinity.






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


At Loc. JRL-4 (SWI/.NWI/1 sec. 22, T. 5 N., R. 11 W.) an
elevation on top of the Marianna limestone is 135 feet. A short
distance northeastward near the foot of the hill, Tanner Springs
emerges from the Crystal River limestone. This spring marks the
northern terminus of a northeast-southwest trending hill. The
piezometric surface stands at about 90 feet in this area, thus 45
feet of Marianna limestone and limestone of the Crystal River
formation are available above the potential head of the artesian
water. The Crystal River-Marianna contact should be at an
elevation of about 120 feet at this site. Overburden in the vicinity
of the exposure varies from 1 to 8 feet.
The 90-foot piezometric contour parallels the general trend of
Area IV; therefore, there should be a maximum of 71 feet of lime-
stone of the Crystal River and Marianna available at Loc. JRL-21-A
and 21-B, 45 feet of the same limestone available at Loc. JRL-29
and 46 feet of the same available at Loc. JRL-5, before the potential
head of artesian water would force dry mining operations into
wet mining practices. In each location above, the calcium
carbonate percentage should increase after mining enters the
limestone of the Crystal River formation.
Other than artesian water, the only water to be encountered in
mining would be that from locally saturated zones above the
piezometric surface, and inflow into the area. These local zones
of saturation above the piezometric surface would fluctuate with
rainfall and season.

AREA V

Area V (fig. 14) is a north-south trending area extending from
the SWI/, sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., to the NWI/1. sec. 20, T. 5 N.,
R. 11 W. The exposures lie in discontinuous locations to the east
and north of Cottondale. The exposures occur in sinks, road cuts
and in the quarry of the West Florida Lime Company. The locations
in Area V are Loc. JRL-1, Loc. JRL-16, Loc. JRL-17, Loc. JRL-23,
and Loc. JRL-28 (tables 5, 6).
The major limestone present in this area is the Marianna lime-
stone, though limited exposures of Suwannee limestone (Byram?)
and sediments of the Tampa stage are present. No definite
formational contacts are noticeable on the surface but a few
generalizations can be made. At Loc. JRL-28, the top of a
calcareous magnesium shale is 146 feet in a road cut on U.S.
Highway 90. At about 142 feet the exposure definitely increases





56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO








.O! Bo t ,o j " V -- \
Sond nd
U.jv





:,- y "o*. :_;/J ., ..-
2 .









...-. -. -. :. .... .- .-- / ,
16

'" "- "" 'YA "

Gnat s I A -



yw,., t ; i , R









SCALE 1 2400C
=..- i- rl =.. :_ L'_- 1Z= : --= .. -.. ..... I

Figure 14. West-central portion of Cottondale East quadrangle showing po-
tential limestone producing Area V, Jackson County. (See figure 3 for quad-
rangle index.)






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


in calcium carbonate and appears somewhat like the Marianna
limestone. Moore (1955, pl. I) maps the Marianna-Suwannee-
Tampa formational contacts in this area but, nevertheless, it is
not clear whether the above location is the Marianna-Suwannee
contact or the Marianna-Byram contact. Northward from this
point toward the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, in the vicinity
of Loc. JRL-23, exposures occur between the 140- and 150-foot
contour. Here, since the lower portions of the exposures have been
quarried for "chimney rock," the occurrence of the Marianna
limestone is suggested. Northward, and a few feet south of the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad tracks at Loc. JRL-17, a pinnacle
of what appears to be Marianna limestone occurs at 149.3 feet
(near a U.S. Geological Survey bench mark). Moore (1955, p. 50)
reports an exposure of Marianna limestone in this area located in
the southwest corner NWl/NW'/i sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 11 W.
(Moore's J-86) where the elevation of the top of the rock is 136
feet above sea level. Florida Geological Survey well W-1783 at
the top of the hill north of Moore's locality encountered the
Marianna limestone at essentially the same elevation as that of
Moore. It is thus pointed out that the top of the Marianna lime-
stone is higher in this area than hitherto reported. Northwest-
ward 1,800 feet from Loc. JRL-17 in the northwest corner of
NEIINEI/I sec. 31, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., at an elevation of 150 feet, is
an exposure of the calcareous dolomitic shale facies of the
Suwannee or what may be the Byram formation.
At Loc. JRL-16, about 1 mile north of Cottondale, the Marianna
limestone is being mined by the West Florida Lime Company. The
natural top of the exposure is at 143 feet, and mining had pro-
gressed to an elevation of 123 feet by October 1958. Lying above
the upper surface, there is a 3-foot stratum of dark red clay. If
this red clay material is in part an insoluble residue from the
underlying Marianna limestone, it would point favorably toward
a separate origin for the brown calcareous dolomitic shale which
in other places (figs. 12, 13, 14) lies above the Marianna limestone,
thus ruling out any concepts which would favor the brown shale as
weathered Marianna. Northward in the NWlM/ sec. 20, T. 5 N.,
R. 11 W., a road cut at Loc. JRL-1 is thought to expose the
Suwannee limestone (Moore, 1955, pl. I), though the lithology is
quite similar to the Marianna limestone. The top of the exposed
rock here is 161 feet. Better exposures of limestone can be
observed across the highway at Loc. JRL-1-2, as well as southward
along a graded county road.
The piezometric surface at Loc. JRL-1 is about 90 feet. Thus





58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

a maximum of 71 feet of Marianna and underlying Crystal River
limestone is available for dry mining. The piezometric surface
stands at about 85 feet at Loc. JRL-16 and about 80 feet in the
vicinity of Loc. JRL-17, Loc. JRL-23 and Loc. JRL-28. Thus,
there is available at Loc. JRL-16 about 58 feet and at the latter
three locations a maximum of 69 feet of limestone lying above
the potential head of artesian water. Other than artesian water,
local zones of saturation, perched water and surficial inflow can
be expected and dealt with by standard mining practices.

AREA VI

Area VI (fig. 15) is a small area of exposures located in the
NI/,SEI/' sec. 32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W., in the N1/! sec. 32, T. 6 N.,
R. 11 W., in the SEIASWI/ sec. 29, T. 6 N., R. 11 W., and in the
NWI/.SW sec. 33, T. 6 N., R. 11 W. The locations present in
the area are Loc. JRL-18-1, Loc. JRL-18-2, Loc. JRL-25, Loc. JRL-
26-1, Loc. JRL-26-2, and Loc. JRL-27. The exposures are
represented by three limestone quarries and a "chimney rock"
quarry, none of which are presently being operated. Numerous
exposures of limestone occur at the head of Waddells Mill Pond in
the southeastern edge of the area.
All of the limestone in the area is mapped by Moore (1955, pl.
1) as the Crystal River formation. The rock exceeds 97.6 percent
calcium carbonate, and contains traces of magnesium carbonate,
silica, iron and clay (tables 5, 6).
With the exception of Loc. JRL-25, the remaining quarries have
been mined to a depth of about 30 feet, none of which appear to
have been mined to the elevation of the potential head of artesian
water. The piezometric surface in the area stands at about 95 feet,
however; the level of the water at the spring which forms
Waddells Mill Pond is about 90 feet. This decrease in the
piezometric surface elevation at the spring is due to the free
movement of water seeking an easy outlet thus causing a local
cone of depression around the spring. In the vicinity of Loc. JRL-
18-1 and 2, about 47 feet of Crystal River formation is available
for mining. This elevation would limit mining to a point about
17 feet below the present lowest point in this quarry.
Adjacent to Loc. JRL-25, Loc. JRL-26-1 and 2, and Loc
JRL-27, there would be about 37 feet, 35 feet, and 32 feet,
respectively, of limestone available for dry mining above the
potential head of artesian water. In addition to the above, perched






4


SCALE 1:24000


1 MILE


Figure 15. Southwestern portion of Sills quadrangle showing potential limestone pro-
ducing Area VI, Jackson County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)


z



0
C)
w
tn


--




60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

water and local zones of saturation may be encountered above the
piezometric surface.

AREA VII

Area VI (fig. 16) is a small area south of Ocheesee Pond where
limestone is exposed in a shallow road cut and also in a drainage
ditch. The area is located in the SE/ sec. 18 and in the SWI
sec. 17, T. 3 N., R. 7 W. Moore (1955, pl. I) maps the area as
underlain by the Tampa formation (Tampa stage). Many
exposures occur in this portion of Jackson County south of Sneads,


SCALE 1:24000
S0 1MILE

Figure 16. Southwestern portion of Sneads quadrangle showing potential
limestone producing Area VII, Jackson County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle
index.)






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


between Ocheesee Pond and the Apalachicola River. The area
delimited as Area VII was set aside since the Tampa sediments
as exposed here is unusual for its high percentages of silica, calcium
carbonate and magnesium carbonate (table 6). At Loc. JRL-13, the
silica exceeds 55 percent whereas the calcium and magnesium
carbonate together only slightly exceed 40 percent of the total
analysis (tables 5, 6). In addition, this sample has greater than
0.73 percent clay fraction. This clay percentage is the highest
of any limestone sampled in the three-county area. The top of the
Tampa sediments here stand at 122 feet and 0.7 mile east-northeast
at Loc. JRL-12 the elevation of the top of the Tampa is 142 feet.
At this locality the limestone contains just under 17 percent silica
with over 81 percent calcium and magnesium carbonate. This
sample contains over twice the magnesium carbonate content of
Loc. JRL-13. It would be a hazardous guess to state that the
Tampa at Loc. JRL-12 would become more siliceous and less
dolomitic with depth, since vertical and horizontal variations can
be expected. Only drilling could prove the character of the
formation.
The piezometric surface in the area should stand in excess of
70 feet; therefore, a maximum of 52 feet of limestone at Loc.
JRL-13 and 72 feet at Loc. JRL-12 are available for mining before
the potential head of artesian water would be encountered.
Surficial runoff, local zones of saturation and perched water can be
expected locally and dealt with by standard mining practices.
Lying northeast of Area VII, south of Sneads and west of the
Apalachicola River, are additional exposures. The elevation of
these locations are known, but no analyses are available. All of
the locations occur in the Chattahoochee formation of the Tampa
stage. The top of the Chattahoochee at Loc. JRL-30 stands at 108
feet; at Loc. JRL-31, 100 feet; at Loc. JRL-32, 75 feet; and, at
Loc. JRL-33, 110 feet (fig. 17). The following locations of Moore
(1955, p. 64) fall within this general area: J-64, J-69, J-70, and
J-71. The piezometric surface in this general area will probably
stand at an elevation in excess of 70 feet above sea level. Thus a
maximum of 40 feet of limestone is available above the piezometric
surface.
Loc. JRL-15 (fig. 18) is an additional location lying about 5.5
miles southwest of Area VII (Moore's 1955, pl. I, J-131). Here
the sediments of the Tampa are exposed at an elevation of 133 feet
in the NWI/tNEI/& sec. 32, T. 3 N., R. 8 W. The exposure contains
over 51 percent calcium carbonate, over 38 percent magnesium
carbonate, over 9.4 percent silica, and traces of iron and clay. For





62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

the most part, the rock is located just above or in the stream
bed and mining could best be undertaken along the flanks of and
parallel to the stream in the narrow valley. Mining in this manner
would probably limit the amount of overburden to be removed to
less than 10 feet.
The piezometric surface stands at a minimum of 70 feet above
sea level in this area; thus, a maximum of 63 feet of the limestone


I f I .

Figure 17. East-central and southeast portion of Sneads quadrangle showing
sample locations JRL-30, 31, 32, 33, Jackson County. (See figure 3 for quad-
rangle index.)








































SCALE 1:24000

a0


r4
Ci)
0
z




t!1
M
Ci)
0,
0
c)


Figure 18. North-central portion of Altha East quadrangle showing sample
location JRL-15, Jackson County. (See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)


MILE


I





64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

would be available before the potential head of artesian water
would be encountered. The presence of a stream in this area along
with local saturated zones would be the major contributors to water
problems at this location.
The establishment of the vertical as well as horizontal lithologic
changes could only be determined by drilling since the exposure is
confined to a stream course. Only a small portion of the rock is
visible.
Lying far to the southwest of Area VII and on the east bank
of Chipola River, Loc. JRL-14 exposes a 4-foot exposure of
the Suwannee limestone (as mapped by Moore, 1955, pl. I) at an
elevation of 48.8 feet (fig. 19). This location is in the NEI/1SEI/.
sec. 30, T. 3 N., R. 9 W., and is lithologically and chemically quite
similar to the Tampa stage. The Suwannee limestone here contains


/" 01 o RkCr~ k\

-'

i .
S...... Ro ,, A C,


1AL9 E 1 7s 20














Sink Cr..
SCALE 1:24000
1 4 0 14MII

Figure 19. South-central portion of Oakdale quadrangle showing sample
location JRL-14, Jackson County. (Sec figure 3 for quadrangle index.)






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


over 57 percent calcium carbonate, 35 percent magnesium car-
bonate, 6 percent silica and traces of iron and clay. The formation
will probably be encountered in the immediate area away from
rock exposures at elevations slightly higher than the exposure
elevation. The stratum top will generally follow the land contour
but at a somewhat reduced rate of change. The clayey overburden
along the Chipola River, where the rock is exposed is about 4 feet
thick and locally may increase to about 10 to 15 feet in thickness.
The piezometric surface probably stands rather close to the eleva-
tion of the Chipola River; therefore, any mining operation would
probably be a wet one.
The above locations (Loc. JRL-14 and Loc. JRL-15), as well
as the other locations located outside of Area VII (Loc. JRL-30-31-
32-33) are located on a northeast-southwest trend at the
extremities of Area VII. Moore's (1955, pl. 1) locations J-129-
115-114-72-64-69-70-71 all fall into this northeast-southwest pat-
tern of exposures which collectively could be termed a super area.
This super area is not subdivided because of general lack of
lithologic information.
One location of note lying well to the northeast of Area VII
but within what has been referred to as a super area, is Loc.
JRL-32 (fig. 17). This site is in the SE/I.SWI/. sec. 12, T. 3 N.,
R. 7 W. Here the Chattahoochee formation is exposed at 75 feet
above sea level. The exposure exceeds 10 feet in thickness and is
located near the head of the water discharge canal at the steam
power plant.
This limestone occurs along the escarpment which marks the
western edge of the flood plain of the Apalachicola River. Though
not observed, exposures of limestone should occur along this
escarpment both above and below the power plant, all of which
are below the Jim Woodruff Dam. The rock is covered by a thin
mantle of surficial sediment but the extent of this mantle could
only be proven by further investigation and drilling. The surface
of the limestone should generally follow the contour of the land
rising to the westward toward Loc. JRL-33, where it is exposed at
an elevation of 110 feet.
This general location is very well situated geographically since
it is adjacent to the Apalachicola River where barge transportation
is available. In addition, the exposures are only 2.5 miles from
both U.S. Highway 90 and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad
(fig. 1).
No analysis of Loc. JRL-32 is available but the properties of






66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

this limestone would probably be somewhat similar to Loc. JRL-12
and 13.

AREA VIII

Area VIII (fig. 20) is a dry valley exposure and a sink about
3 miles southeast of Cottondale located in parts of the S1/ sec. 3
and 4, Wi/ sec. 10, E'i/ sec. 9, N'72 sec. 16, and S!, sec. 10, all of


SCALE 1:24000
0


I MILE


Figure 20. Southwest portion of Cottondale East quadrangle showing potential
limestone producing Area VIII and sample location JRL-24, Jackson County.
(See figure 3 for quadrangle index.)


;=-~=hPILI-E=9L-b_--- i-I~__~ _~3~-1 1____~-~_=51 __1 -- ~ -I~-~----







LIMESTONE RESOURCES


which are in T. 4 N., R. 11 W. Locations in Area VIII are Loc.
JRL-22 and Loc. JRL-24.
The Marianna limestone is exposed along the edge of the
valley and in places along the floor of the valley. Presently, the
valley is dry and used for cattle grazing. Moore (1955, pl. I) shows
the Marianna limestone as overlain in this area by the Suwannee
(Byram?) limestone. The valley in the western part of Area VIII
is reported by Mr. Leland Thomas of Cottondale (personal com-
munication) to contain exposures such as that in the eastern valley.
Mr. Thomas also reports the presence of limestone in the large
sink located in the WI/._SEI/. sec. 10, T. 4 N., R. 11 W. The
elevation of the Marianna limestone (Loc. JRL-22) on the eastern
side of its easternmost valley in Area VIII and lying along the
section line separating secs. 3 and 10, T. 4 N., R. 11 W., is 125
feet above sea level. The exposures can be traced intermittently
north and south in the valley, rising and falling with local
irregularities and the dip of the formation. The limestone exceeds
94 percent calcium carbonate along with minor percentages of
silica, magnesium carbonate, iron, and clay (tables 5, 6).
The piezometric surface in the area stands at about 75 feet.
Since the elevation of the limestone at Loc. JRL-22 is 125 feet, a
maximum of 50 feet of limestone could be mined before the
potential head of artesian water would be reached.
Area VIII is favorably located about 1 mile south of the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad on U. S. Highway 90. Good
drainage and easy access to the area further favors this area.
By mining along the exposure, overburden removal could be kept
at a minimum. Additionally, a calcareous, dolomitic shale over-
burden may reveal a stratum of some economic importance.

LOCALITY DESCRIPTION
WASHINGTON COUNTY
(See tables 1 and 2)

Loc. WRL-1 (fig. 5), Falling Water Sink located on the land of
the International Paper Company in the NW/I.NWi/i. sec. 27,
T. 4 N., R. 13 W. (Wausau, U.S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 11.5 feet of light gray, indurated, massive,
chalky, sandy, silty, argillaceous, fossiliferous limestone of
the Chattahoochee formation, containing lenses and seams of
blue-green clay. According to Vernon (1942, p. 60), this Tampa
limestone is underlain by 72.3 feet of exposed Suwannee





68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

limestone. At this locality only the Chattahoochee formation was
sampled. The exposures in the immediate vicinity of Falling
Water Sink were the only ones noted in the immediate vicinity
of Falling Water hill, though the Chattahoochee formation
should be expected to be exposed rather near the surface on
the flanks of the hill at the 170-foot contour. In a few
instances, this is true and a rather abrupt change in soil color
and texture at the 170-foot contour indicates that the Tampa
limestone is near the surface. An example of the above can be
seen on a graded road near the center of sec. 21, T. 4 N.,
R. 13 W. Here the soils change from sands to red clays indi-
cating the degraded nature of the underlying limestone.
In the area of exposure of this formation, the adjacent
overburden is excessive and difficulty may be experienced when
trying to prove a deposit. Furthermore, the general area is
rather picturesque with its dense foliage, 70-foot waterfall and
numerous caves. Residents in the Chipley area are utilizing
this spot as a park for recreation and picknicking, and efforts
are currently being made to dedicate this area as a State park.
Loc. WRL-3 (fig. 4), a road cut on Falling Water Road, 2.5 miles
due south of Chipley, in the NI2-SE/. sec. 16, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.
(Waursau, U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle)
exposes a 29-foot stratigraphic section along the road. The
exposure is a well indurated to indurated, dense to chalky, fine,
equigrained, massive, coquinoid limestone. The dense portion
of the limestone occurs in irregular masses and stringers on
the surface, and in the subsurface. Vernon (1942, p. 64)
referred this exposure to the Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-4 (fig. 4), a sink located on the land of Mr. John Dunn
in the NE/'SWI/t sec. 16, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. (Wauisau, U.S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a vertical
14-foot face of light cream, indurated to poorly indurated,
chalky to dense, coquinoid Suwannee limestone. The sample is
a spot sample. See Loc. WRL-4-B.
Loc. WRL-4-B (fig. 4) is the same as the above location, but more
representative of the exposure, since it is a channel sample.
Loc. WRL-4-C (fig. 4) is the same as Loc. WRL-4 except it is a
spot sample.
The two types of sampling were used as a check against
sampling techniques and to determine gradual changes in rock
composition.






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


Loc. WRL-5-1 (fig. 5), a road cut located 0.10 mile north of the
southwest corner, SW/,tSWJ1i. sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 14 W.,
(Wausau, U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle),
exposes a light cream, indurated to poorly indurated, dense to
chalky, coquinoid Suwannee limestone. The dense, well indur-
ated portion of the rock occurs as seams a few inches to a few
feet wide, or as a surficial secondary limestone. The more
indurated portions of the exposure would be suitable for
aggregate.
Loc. WRL-5-2 (fig. 5) is the same location as Loc. WRL.5-1, but
50 yards north on the same side of the road. The lithology is
about the same as Loc. WRL-5-1 and it represents a spot sample
about 10 feet lower in the section as exposed along the road.
This exposure was identified by Vernon (1942, pl. 2) as the
Suwannee limestone. The dense or well indurated zones in this
exposure and in Loc. WRL-5-1 represent only a small percentage
of the total rock.
Loc. WRL-6 (fig. 5) is a portion of a composite sink and roadside
exposure located in the SW1/NE'~i sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 14 W.
(Wausan, U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle).
The limestone as exposed on the sink face varies from a tan to
light gray, indurated to poorly indurated, dense to chalky,
massive coquinoid Suwannee limestone. The lithologies in this
area vary quite rapidly from a dense recrystallized rock to a
chalk, each containing only a few visible fossils. Commonly,
quite fossiliferous beds will be found adjacent to both of the
above lithologies. Beds of chalk may pass vertically as well as
horizontally into a much less chalky and more coquinoid to
coquina faces. In some instances, there has been a moderate
amount of recrystallization and slight silicification. The
recrystallized limestone generally is present on the horizontal
surface of the exposure where it may attain a thickness of 2
feet. These recrystallized portions also occur as stringers
passing vertically or obliquely downward from the surface to
variable depths. The silicified zones are sometimes found on
the uppermost level of the exposed rock and in some instances
occur on the exposed vertical faces. Generally, the face of the
exposure is weathered to a depth of 2 inches. Sample WRL-6
was collected from the bottom of the section and the analysis
represents the near chalky phase of the limestone. The sample
was not in place since it represented a rejected sawed block.
It was collected and analyzed chemically to determine the


69





70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

composition of that particular lithology. The exposed face of
rock which lies at the south end of the sink is 29.1 feet in
thickness. The rock is covered for the overlying 27.0 feet but is
exposed in the unpaved roadbed at the very top of the section.
The total thickness of the section of the exposed and covered
limestone is 56.1 feet. The exposure is mapped by Vernon
(1942, pl. 2) as the Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-6-B (fig. 5) is the same location as Loc. WRL-6, but
represents the more fossiliferous zone within the sink. The
rock is a tan to cream, brownish red speckled, indurated, mas-
sive, fossiliferous limestone. The exposure is mapped by
Vernon (1942, pl. 2) as the Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-6-C (fig. 5) is the same location as Loc. WRL-6 and Loc.
WRL-6-B but it represents the chalky phase of the exposure.
Here it is a light gray to tan, indurated to poorly indurated,
equigrained massive chalk. This portion of the exposure has
been sawed for chimney rock. The exposure is mapped by
Vernon (1942, pl. 2) as the Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-7 (fig. 5), a road cut located in the southeast corner of
NEI/iNEI/. sec. 32, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. (Wausau, U.S. Geological
Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a light gray to light
cream, slightly argillaceous, arenaceous, chalky, indurated to
poorly indurated fossiliferous limestone. Light blue-green
seams and pockets occur occasionally. The exposure has the
lithologic characteristics of the Chattahoochee formation. The
exposure must be quite close to the Chattahoochee-Suwannee
contact, since the contact on Falling Water hill (Loc. WRL-1)
and at this locality (Loc. WRL-7) lie at approximately 160 feet.
This exposure is mapped by Vernon (1942, pi. 2) as the
Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-7-2 (fig. 5), a sink located in the NWI/INW/t sec. 33,
T. 4 N., R. 13 W., about 0.2 mile northeast of Loc. WRL-7
(Wausau, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle)
exposes a 10.5-foot vertical section of tan to cream, poorly
indurated to indurated, dense to chalky, coquinoid Suwannee
limestone.

Loc. WRL-7-3 (fig. 5), a well developed sink in the NI/NEII/ sec.
32, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. (Wausau, U. S. Geological Survey topo-
graphic quadrangle) on the property of Mr. C. C. Coleman,
exposes a 34.6-foot section of light cream to light gray, poorly






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


indurated to indurated, chalky to dense, massive, coquinoid
Suwannee limestone. A small stream flows southeast into the
sink, where it disappears in a cavern at the base of the sink face.
Loc. WRL-7-4 (fig. 5), a sink on the Finch farm in the
Si/.NENI/.NWi/I sec. 33, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. (Wausau, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a 21-foot
section of light cream to light gray, poorly indurated to
indurated, chalky to dense, massive, coquinoid Suwannee lime-
stone.
It is of interest to note that in 1922 Mr. Finch cut the blocks
for his chimney from this sink. The point from which the
blocks were cut lies about 20 feet below the presently over-
grown bottom of the sink. Thus, in the past 36 years the sink
has been filling by sheet wash from the surrounding cultivated
fields at the rate of over one-half foot a year.
It is of further interest to note that when Vernon (1942, p.
63) visited the sink in 1940-41 the exposure was 25 feet in
thickness, whereas in 1958 the sink exposure was 21 feet in
thickness. It appears that most of the filling occurred prior to
1940 at which time cultivation was probably at a maximum.
Loc. WRL-8 (fig. 4), a sink behind Limestone Cemetery at the
flower nursery of Mr. Dickinson, in the S/.NEI/& sec. 7, T. 4
N., R. 13 W. (Chipley, U.S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposed about 1 foot of limestone in 1955 at a low
stand of the ground water. The top of the limestone at that
time was about 57 feet above sea level (personal communication
with Mr. Dickinson). By projecting the work of Vernon (1942,
p. 37), it appears that the rock is the Crystal River formation.
Because of the high stand of the water no sample was available
at the time of the visit in May 1958.
Loc. WRL-9 (fig. 4) lies 0.2 mile south of the intersection of an
unpaved road with a paved road. The unpaved road is a north-
south road splitting secs. 15 and 15, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. The
exposure lies about 0.1 mile south of the northeast corner
NEI./SE'1A sec. 15, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. (Wausau, U. S. Geological
Survey quadrangle). The limestone exposed is a light cream,
well indurated to poorly indurated, dense to chalky, massive,
coquinoid Suwannee limestone. As in most exposures of the
Suwannee limestone, the dense limestone portion occurs as pods
and stringers, or as a surficial mantle. It usually constitutes
a minor percentage of the total rock. The sample analysis was






72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

made on the dense or more crystalline portion of the exposure.
This location is flanked by Loc. WRL-10, Loc. WRL-11, and
Loc. WRL-11-2.
Loc. WRL-10 (fig. 4), a road cut in the NI/NWI/.SWi/ sec. 14,
T. 4 N., R. 13 W. (Wausau, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle) exposes a short grade or slope section of about
3 feet vertical resolution. The limestone as exposed here is a
light cream, indurated to well indurated, finely crystalline to
dense, moldic, massive, fossiliferous Suwannee limestone. This
sample locality is not representative of the rock as exposed in
the general area but represents that portion of the limestone in
the area which is the most indurated.
Loc. WRL-11-B-1 (fig. 4), a sink in the EI/2NWI/iSWI! sec. 14,
T. 4 N., R. 13 W., immediately south of Loc. WRL-10 (Wausau,
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a
30-foot section of Suwannee limestone. No aperture or cavern
is visible in the sink for surface water discharge, but slumps
commonly occur in the sink bottom after surface runoff has
discharged through the sink. This sample is a 13.9-foot channel
sample beneath Loc. WRL-11 and extends from the bottom of
the sink at an elevation of 110 feet to an elevation of 123.9
feet. The Suwannee limestone as exposed at this elevation is a
light cream to light gray, indurated to well indurated, fine
grained, chalky, massive, fossiliferous limestone.
The following two locations, Loc. WRL-11 and Loc.
WRL-11-B-2 complete the channel sample for this locality.
Loc. WRL-11 (fig. 4) is the same locality as Loc. WRL-11-B-1 and
is a short channel sample from 123.1 feet to 125.1 feet, and a
continuation of the Loc. WRL-11-B-1 channel sample. The
Suwannee limestone as exposed here is a light gray to white,
indurated to poorly indurated, slightly fossiliferous, massive
chalk.
Loc. WRL-11-B-2 (fig. 4) is the same location as Loc. WRL-11-B-1,
and is a continuation of the underlying channel sample of
Loc. WRL-11. The sample continues from an elevation of
126.9 feet to the top of the channel sample at 133.9 feet. At
this location, the Suwannee limestone is a light cream to light
gray, indurated, fine grained to chalky, massive, and is generally
more fossiliferous than that portion of the section lying
beneath.
The upper 7 feet of the 30-foot exposure was not sampled






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


since it is badly weathered and would give erroneous results.
These upper few feet are similar to the material directly
beneath, but are more fossiliferous and better indurated.
Loc. WRL-11-2-1 (fig. 4), a sink in the NEI/I.SE/I. sec. 15, T. 4 N.,
R. 13 W., 0.1 mile west-southwest of Loc. WRL-9 (Wausau,
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes 28
feet of light cream to light gray, poorly indurated to indurated,
chalky to coquinoid limestone containing occasional stringers,
lenses and surficial secondary expression of well indurated,
dense to finely crystalline, massive limestone. The latter
lithology is but a small percentage of the total exposure. This
sample, Loc. WRL-11-2-1, is the lower 9 feet of the 28-foot
exposure. The entire 28 feet were channel sampled. Vernon
(1942, p. 64) mapped this area as Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-11-2-2 (fig. 4) is the same as above, with the exception
that the sample is taken from the overlying 11 feet above Loc.
WRL-11-2-1.
Loc. WRL-11-2-3 (fig. 4) is the same as sample Loc. WRL-11-2-1
with the exception that the sample is the uppermost 8 feet of
the 28-foot exposure.
Loc. WRL-12 (fig. 5), a sink with an 8.5-foot face on the northeast
wall in the northeast corner NWI/.SW'/. sec. 36, T. 4 N.,
R. 14 W. (Wausau, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes a light cream to reddish cream, poorly
indurated to indurated, chalky, slightly fossiliferous, massive
limestone. Vernon, in a test pit (1942, p. 61) described bed 2
of this locality, W-27, as Suwannee limestone. Vernon's bed 2
is the same elevation as Loc. WRL-12. Loc. WRL-12 is 0.1
mile west of Vernon's W-27.
Loc. WRL-13-1 (fig. 5), a sink with a 30-foot face of limestone
located northeast of Piney Grove church (Duncan Church) in
the N,/SE/.t sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 14 W. (Wausau, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a light
cream to pinkish cream, indurated to poorly indurated, locally
finely crystalline to dense, chalky to coquinoid, massive
Suwannee limestone. Sample WRL-13-1 represents the lower
2 feet of the face of rock. The lithologies vary laterally and
vertically.
Loc. WRL-13-2 (fig. 5) is the same as Loc. WRL-13-1, except it is
higher on the exposure, being at an elevation of 83.5 to 85.2 feet.





74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

Loc. WRL-13-3 (fig. 5) is the same as Loc. WRL-13-1, except it is
higher on the exposure at an elevation of 87.5 to 92.7 feet.
Loc. WRL-13-4 (fig. 5) is the same as Loc. WRL-13-1, except it
is higher on the exposure at an elevation of 98.3 to 104.3 feet.
Loc. WRL-I1 (fig. 5), at a sink on the farm of Mr. L. W. Loyed,
there is, on the north side of the westernmost sink, a pair of
coalesced sinks, in the SW'NWi sec. 1 (along section line
separating sec. 1 and se. 2), T. 3 N., R. 14 W. (Wausao, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle) exposes a 16-foot
slumped section where 3 feet of limestone is visible. The rock.
as exposed, is cream to reddish cream, poorly indurated to
indurated, locally finely crystalline to dense, chalky, massive,
fossiliferous Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-15-1 (fig 4), on the north side of the eastern sink of a
double sink, in the SWI/SW10W see. 15, T. 4 N., R. 13 W.
(Wasaun, U. S Geological Survey topographic quadrangle)
there is exposed on the Sasser farm a nearly vertical exposure
of light cream, dense to finely crystalline, sharp fossiliferous
rock with poorly indurated, slightly chalky zones. Vernon
(1942, p. 62) maps the area as Suwannee limestone. Sample
Loc. WRL.15-1 represents a 2-foot sample from 146 to 148 feet.
Lic. WRL-15-2 (fig. 4) is the same as Loc. WRL-15-1 except it
represents a 1-foot sample at an elevation of 148 to 149 feet.
Loc. WRL.16-I (fig. 4) on the north side of the western sink of
the double sink as mentioned in Loc. WRL-15-1 on the Sasser
farm there is exposed about the same lithology of the
Suwannee limestone as in Loc. WRL-15-1. Sample WRL-16-1
represents a 4-foot sample, from 143 to 147 feet.
Loc. WRL-1-2 (fig. 4), is the same location as Loc. WRL-16-1
except it represents a 3-foot sample from 147 to 150 feet. Bare
rock is exposed on the surface for about 100 yards to the north
and to the east of Loc. WRL-15-1, Loc. WRL-15-2, Loc. WRL-16-
1, and Loe WRL-16-2. Where exposed on the surface the rock
is quite well indurated and represents a recrystallized or
"casehardened" surface. The thickness of the indurated zones
is unknown.
Loc. WRL-17-1 (fig. 4), a sink about 270 yards north of Loc.
WRL-15-1, located in the SEirNEi/SEI/ see. 16, T. 4 N,
R. 13 W. (Waosau, U S. Geological Survey topographic






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


quadrangle), exposes 32 feet of light cream, poorly indurated
to indurated, chalky to coquinoid and occasionally dense,
fossiliferous Suwannee limestone. The dense zones are generally
surficial recrystallized limestone, but may occur as lenses or
vertical bodies of small extent. The sample collected was a 2-
foot channel sample from an elevation of 100 to 102 feet. It
was collected from the chalky zone.
Loc. WRL-17-2 (fig. 4) is the same sink as Loc. WRL-17-1, except
that the sample was collected at an elevation of 110 feet and
from the dense or finely crystalline upper zone of the exposure.
Loc. WRL-18 (fig. 5), a sink in the SEI/SEI/ESEI/. sec. 35, T. 4 N.,
R. 15 W. (Wausau, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes a 2-foot ledge of rock above the small
entrance to a dry sink. The rock is a light tan to light cream,
poorly indurated to indurated, chalky to coquinoid and
occasionally dense, Suwannee limestone.
Loc. WRL-19 (fig. 5), on the edge of a sink in the northwest
corner of the SEI/SEI/1 sec. 35, T. 4 N., R. 14 W. (Wausau,
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a
light cream, poorly indurated to well indurated, chalky to dense,
Suwannee limestone. The sample was collected from the chalky
zone. The recrystallized or dense zone is of surficial character
and overlies the chalky zone.
Loc. WRL-20 (fig. 6), along the Choctawhatchee River, 700 feet
north from the end of a deadend graded road which terminates
in the center of sec. 17, there is located in the northwest corner
of the SWI1NEI1/ sec. 17, T. 3 N., R. 16 W. (Hinson Cross
Roads, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), 2 to
4 feet of light gray to light cream, indurated, equigranular,
slightly chalky limestone which was mapped by Vernon (1942,
pl. 2) as the Tampa formation (Tampa stage).
Loc. WRL-21 (fig. 7), along the Choctawhatchee River at Spears
Fish Camp, in the NEI/.SEI/. sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. (Red-
bay, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes
1 foot of medium reddish brown, well indurated, sandy
macrofossiliferous limestone, which was mapped by Vernon
(1942) as belonging to the Alum Bluff group (Alum Bluff
stage).
Loc. WRL-22 (fig. 8), along the east side of the Econfina Creek at
the Boy Scout Camp in or near sec. 4, T. 1 S.. R. 13 W.





76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

(Bennett, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle),
exposes 3 feet of medium tan, poorly indurated to indurated,
equigranular, slightly fossiliferous limestone near the water's
edge, overlain by 10 feet of sandy shell marl, all of which was
mapped by Vernon (1942) as the Choctawhatchee formation.
The underlying stratum, which is that portion which was
sampled, passes beneath the water level in the creek and is
therefore of unknown thickness.

HOLMES COUNTY
(See tables 3 and 4)

Loc. HRL-1 (fig. 10), a road cut in the SW/tNEI/ sec. 1, T. 5 N.,
R. 15 W., exposes about 1 foot of limestone in a small spring
alongside an unpaved county road about 50 feet southeast of a
bridge which crosses Wrights Creek (Bonifay, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle). The rock as
exposed is a medium red-brown, poorly indurated, chalky, equi-
grained, macro and microfossiliferous, coquinoid Crystal River
limestone (Ocala) (Vernon, 1942, p. 45). Exposures in this
area are limited and most likely will be seen under water and
perhaps along the banks of Wrights Creek at low water.
Loc. HRL-2 (fig. 9), a sink in the SW/tNEI/r sec. 3, T. 5 N., R.
17 W., (Prosperity, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle) exposes 4 feet of tan to medium reddish cream,
well indurated to locally poorly indurated, dense to chalky,
massive, fossiliferous Marianna limestone (Vernon, 1942, p.
55). The exposure is in the bottom of a small sink and since
the exposure is quite limited, the above lithologic description
could not be expected to persist for that unexposed portion.
Portions of the limestone in this area may be usable as
aggregate; however, a drilling program would be necessary to
prove the extent of the indurated zone.
Loc. HRL-3-1 (fig. 9), a sink in the center of the SEn/t sec. 3, T. 5
N., R. 17 W. (Prosperity, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 28 feet of light cream indurated to poorly
indurated, chalky to locally dense, massive, fossiliferous
Marianna limestone (Vernon, 1942, p. 54, locality H-10). This
sink lies roughly 1,400 feet south-southeast of Loc. HRL-2, and
is located on the land of Mr. J. C. Melson. This location
represents the lower 5.7 feet of what is probably the best






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


limestone exposure in Holmes County. The channel sample ex-
tends from 120 to 125.7 feet.
Loc. HRL-3-2 (fig. 9) represents the channel sample directly above
Loc. HRL-3-1. It is roughly the central 9 feet of the upper 22
feet of the exposure. There is very little lithologic difference
between Loc. HRL-3-1 and Loc. HRL-3-2, though there is a
slight color and composition difference. Loc. HRL-3-2 is very
light gray and Loc. HRL-3-1 is light cream in color.
Chemically, Loc. HRL-3-2 contains only a trace of MgCo:
whereas Loc. HRL-3-1 contains 1.26 percent MgCo:.. Normally,
the MgCo:, content is more prevalent in the upper zone of an
exposure; however, in this instance the reverse is noted. This
slight difference in rock color and chemical composition sup-
plements Vernon's (1942, p. 55) observation that the upper
beds of this exposure resemble the Byram formation of
Alabama. Since these upper beds cannot be differentiated into
satisfactory subdivisions, Vernon (1942, p. 54) included the
entire exposure in the Marianna limestone.
Loc. HRL-4 (fig. 10), Ponce de Leon Springs, though developed,
is currently not open. It is located east of the town of Ponce
de Leon in the SEI/MSWI/. sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 17 W. (Ponce de
Leon, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle). No
sample was collected, but the elevation of the limestone of
the Tampa stage is 38 feet above sea level.
Loc. HRL-5 (fig. 11) is Morrison Springs which is located roughly
5 miles southeast of the town of Ponce de Leon in Walton
County, in the NEI1.NE/1I sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 17 W. (Ponce
de Leon, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle).
Limestone of the Tampa stage is exposed beneath the water
level of the spring, at an elevation of 9 feet above sea level. The
water elevation at the spring is 30 feet above mean sea level.

Loc. HRL-6 (fig. 11) is Blue Spring in the NWIA. sec. 9, T. 4 N.,
R. 17 W. (Prosperity, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), 3.5 miles north-northwest of the town of Ponce
de Leon in Holmes County. The elevation of the water at Blue
Spring is 74 feet. The elevation of the top of the Tampa stage
occurring in the spring is unknown.

Loc. HRL-7 (fig. 9), a double sink on the Hudson farm in the
SWI/.NWI/1 sec. 15, T. 5 N., R. 17 W. (Prosperity, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a few small





78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

boulders in its bottom. Since analysis of a few surface boulders
would not give favorable results, no samples were collected.
However, when Vernon (1942, p. 65) visited this locality, 8
feet of cream to light gray, sandy, argillaceous limestone was
exposed, containing harder, white, crystalline, very fossiliferous,
sandy limestone layers. He assigned the exposure to the
Suwannee limestone. Since Vernon's visit in 1942, the sink has
been partially filled by sheet wash from the surrounding fields.

JACKSON COUNTY
(See tables 5 and 6)

Loc. JRL-1 (fig. 14), a road cut on the northwest side of U. S.
Highway 231, located on the east side of the NWII.NW'/. sec.
20, T. 5 N., R. 11 W. (Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey
topographic quadrangle), exposes 2.5 feet of light cream, poorly
indurated, chalky, equigrained, microfossiliferous limestone.
The geologic map of Jackson County, (Moore 1955, pl. I) places
this exposure in the Suwannee limestone. The Marianna
limestone underlies this deposit but, here, both the Suwannee
and the Marianna limestones are quite similar lithologically
and have essentially the same chemical composition (table 6).
Loc. JRL-1-2 (fig. 14) is southeast and across U. S. Highway 231
from Loc. JRL-1. Here a combination sink and borrow pit 5.7
feet are exposed which represents that portion of the stratum
directly beneath Loc. JRL-1. Loc. JRL-1 is mapped as Suwannee
(Moore, pl. I) but lithologically and chemically it is quite
similar to the Marianna limestone which is the next underlying
formation.
Loc. JRL-2 (fig. 12), on the south side of State Highway 164, 0.80
mile west of Blue Spring Road, in the center of the SWI/NEIA
sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 9 W., (Marianna, U. S. Geological Survey
topographic quadrangle), exposes 3 feet of light cream, poorly
indurated, chalky, equigrained, microfossiliferous Marianna
limestone. Numerous exposures occur eastward in the area for
roughly 1 mile and elevations on the top of the Marianna lime-
stone vary from 109 feet to 118 feet along the road. Westward
about 1,400 feet from Loc. JRL-2, Moore (1955, p. 47) placed
the Marianna limestone-Suwannee limestone contact at 127
feet. The above exposures are a good example of the highly
irregular solution surface which can be expected in Jackson
County. Because of the soft nature of this Marianna limestone





LIMESTONE RESOURCES


the State Road Department maintenance crews are able to
tilt their grader blades and cut the limestone to the slope of
the road cut banks. South of Loc. JRL-2, the northern bluffs
along Merritts Mill Pond expose Marianna limestone near
their base. Here the various elevations on top of this limestone
vary from 98 to 102 feet. The base of the exposed limestone
is generally 80 feet above mean sea level. At the first bluff,
one-half mile downstream from Blue Spring, it is interesting
to note that 1 foot thick, flat lying, well indurated, dense layer
of limestone is persistent within the Marianna limestone, at an
elevation of 93 feet, for a distance of 400 feet.
Loc. JRL-3-1 (fig. 12) is a roadside exposure just east of the
Chipola River on U. S. Highway 90, adjacent to Marianna,
Florida. This exposure is located in the Sl/.SWI/. sec. 2, T.
4 N., R. 10 W. (Marianna, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle). Here is exposed 15 feet of Marianna limestone.
Overlying this location is 3 feet of indurated dolomitic limestone
(Loc. JRL-3-2).
The Marianna limestone is a light cream, poorly indurated,
massive, chalky, equigrained, microfossiliferous limestone
containing a very few localized stringers and nodules of in-
durated limestone. This location is currently developed as a
business site and samples were collected only as a lithologic
check for control.
Loc. JRL-3-2 (fig. 12) is just east of the Chipola River on U. S.
Highway 90 adjacent to Marianna, Florida. This exposure is
located in the S ',SW/&. sec. 2, T. 4 N., R. 10 W. (Marianna,
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle). It is the
same locality as Loc. JRL-3-1 but this sample is from the
overlying 3 feet of indurated dolomitic limestone. This unit is
a tan, indurated to locally sharp, slightly chalky to dense,
fossiliferous dolomitic limestone. Vernon (1956, p. 66) referred
to this unit as the Byram limestone and Moore (1955, p. 50)
did not recognize the Byram but placed the Suwannee limestone
directly above the Marianna limestone in his stratigraphic
column.
Loc. JRL-4 (fig. 13), a road cut on the northeast side of State
Highway 73 in the middle of the NW'/i sec. 22, T. 5 N., R. 11
W. (Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 5 feet of light tan to cream, poorly indu-
rated, chalky, equigrained, fossiliferous limestone containing






80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

occasional small irregular nodules of indurated limestone.
Approximately 1,000 feet of Marianna limestone is exposed
along the highway along the crest of a small hill. The body of
limestones extends northeastward from Loc. JRL-4 for one-
fourth mile and southwestward for an equal distance, and is
overlain by clayey sand and sands of variable thickness.
Loc. JRL-5 (fig. 13) is the Marjax Company quarry located on
the northeast side of State Highway 73, 1.5 miles northwest of
the city of Marianna in the SWI/. sec. 30, T. 5 N., R. 10 W.
(Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle). Here a 30-foot section of Marianna limestone
in the company quarry exposes a light reddish tan, poorly
indurated, equigrained, chalky, fossiliferous Marianna limestone
containing an occasional lens of clay near the surface. The
uppermost 1 to 11/ feet of limestone contain a higher
magnesium percentage than the underlying exposed rock. The
deposit is easily mined with a hydraulic plow and tractor and
only occasionally is dynamite used in the operation. The
limestone reserves of the company seem quite sufficient. The
deposits are conveniently located near both railroad and high-
ways.
Loc. JRL-6 (fig. 13), on the north side of a graded road, east of
St. Johns School, in the NEII.NWi/.SEI. sec. 19, T. 5 N., R.
10 W. (Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 1 foot of cream to light tan, indurated,
chalky, equigrained, slightly fissile, blocky, slightly fossiliferous,
silty, calcium magnesium shale. Moore (1955, p. 99) suggested
that the exposure may be weathered Oligocene or possibly
Miocene, and mapped it as Suwannee (1955, pl. I). The
exposure is similar to Loc. JRL-3-2, which Vernon (1956, p.
66) placed in the Byram formation.
Loc. JRL-7 (fig. 13), on the west side of Bump Nose Road in the
SE1/i.NEIi. sec. 19, along the north-south section line
(Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes a 9-foot section of light cream poorly
indurated, chalky, equigrained, fossiliferous Marianna lime-
stone. Overlying the limestone is 8 feet of calcium
magnesium shale quite similar to that of Loc. JRL-6. This
overlying shale was mapped by Moore as Suwannee limestone
(1955, pl. I) and is quite similar to what Vernon (1956, p. 66)
called Byram. The contact between the Marianna and the
Suwannee limestones is at 159 feet.






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


Loc. JRL-8 (fig. 12), along Bump Nose Road near Marianna in the
center of the SEI/. sec. 29, T. 5 N., R. 10 W. (Marianna, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes on the
northeast flank of a northeast trending topographic nose a
42-foot sloping limestone section. The rock is a light cream,
poorly indurated, chalky, equigrained microfossiliferous
Marianna limestone. Moore (1955, p. 42) placed the contact
between the underlying Crystal River formation and the
Marianna limestone at 93 feet (Moore's location J-77). The
contact between the Marianna limestone and the overlying
Suwannee dolomitic calcium shale is about 127 feet.
Loc. JRL-9 (fig. 13), trending northwest-southeast along the Bump
Nose Road from the SWI/tSEI/1 sec. 20, T. 5 N., R. 10 W.
(Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 13 feet of light tan, indurated, chalky,
granular, equigrained, jointed, blocky, slightly fissile, silty,
dolomitic calcium shale which was mapped by Moore (1955, pl.
I) as the Suwannee limestone. The shale is quite similar to
what Vernon (1956, p. 66) called the Byram. The top of the
shale is at al elevation of 158 feet and the contact between
the shale and the underlying Marianna limestone is 145 feet.
In all probability the dolomitic calcium shale is present in the
area between Loc. JRL-6 and Loc. JRL-9, where the elevations
exceed 145 feet.
Loc. JRL-10 (fig. 12), 2 miles northeast of Marianna, Florida, on
State Highway 167 in the NI/NEIt sec. 34, T. 5 N., R. 10
W. and the S'/2SE1/. sec. 27, T. 5 N., R. 10 W. (Marianna, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes 4 feet
of light cream, poorly indurated, massive, equigrained, chalky,
fossiliferous Marianna limestone. Overlying the Marianna
limestone is 14 feet of alternately nonindurated to indurated,
calcium magnesium, silty sandy shale, referred to the Byram
formation by Vernon (1956, p. 66) and to the Suwannee by
Moore (1955, p. 50). This hill trends roughly northwest-
southeast having a length of about 1,600 feet and a width of
800 feet. The general elevation of the Marianna limestone is
100 to 103 feet and nowhere should the overlying material
(Suwannee/Byram) exceed much over 14 feet in thickness.
Roughly south-southeast of this body is a linear hill trending
north-northwest and south-southeast. The hill is approximately
2,600 feet in length and 600 feet wide. The hill was not
investigated but the general elevation of the Marianna






82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

limestone should also be about 100 feet. Disregarding local
variations, the overlying shale at most should not exceed 14
feet in thickness.
Another roadside exposure of Marianna limestone, 1,000
feet northeastward from Loc. JRL-10, shows the top of the
Marianna limestone to be 93 feet above sea level. The top of
this section has been somewhat reduced by erosion.
Loc. JRL-11 (fig. 12) is a road cut immediately west of the Chipola
River bridge on U. S. Highway 90 within the city limits of
Marianna. The exposure is located in the center of the SEI/.
sec. 3, T. 4 N., R. 10 W. (Marianna, U. S. Geological Survey
topographic quadrangle). The sample was taken purely for
lithologic, chemical, and structural control. Here the Marianna
limestone is a light cream, poorly indurated, chalky, massive,
equigrained, fossiliferous limestone. It is overlain by about 3
feet of magnesium bearing shaly limestone called the Byram
formation by Cooke (1945, p. 80), and quite similar to what
Vernon (1956, p. 66) also called Byram. Moore (1955, pl. I)
mapped this exposure as Suwannee limestone. Cooke, when
measuring the complete section, found 30 feet of Marianna
limestone underlying the Byram and 14 feet of limestone
belonging to the Ocala group underlying the Marianna.
This exposure is situated in a short east-west road cut
through a north-south trending hill whose linear measurement is
2,200 feet. Old chimney rock quarries are located immediately
south of the road cut and rock is exposed on the surface
northward from the road cut on residential property. Only
the vertical exposure in the road cut was measured, and only
the Marianna was sampled.
Loc. JRL-12 (fig. 16), on the northwest side of a paved county
road located in the NWI,/SWI/1 sec. 17, T. 3 N., R. 7 W.
(Sneads, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle),
exposes 2 feet of light cream, indurated to poorly indurated,
chalky, slightly massive, slightly fossiliferous, slightly silty,
clayey, dolomitic limestone belonging to the arenaceous,
argillaceous Chattahoochee formation.
Loc. JRL-13 (fig. 16) is a good exposure in a ditch, which drains
Ocheesee Pond and passes beneath a paved county road in the
SEI/tSWI/ sec. 18, T. 3 N., R. 7 W. (Sneads, U. S. Geological
Survey topographic quadrangle). Here is exposed a 5-foot
section of light tan to light gray, indurated to poorly indurated,






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


chalky, massive, fossiliferous, silty, clayey, dolomitic limestone
belonging to the Chattahoochee formation.
It is of interest to note that Loc. JRL-13 and Loc. JRL-12,
which are 3,600 feet apart, vary considerably lithologically,
though both are of the Chattahoochee formation. Loc. JRL-13
has considerably more clay, silt, and sand and appreciably less
calcium carbonate and calcium magnesium carbonate. Loc.
JRL-13 is 20 feet lower topographically than Loc. JRL-12, but
it would be false to assume that this lithology becomes more
arenaceous and argillaceous with depth. This assumption
would be incorrect since horizontal as well as vertical lithologic
changes are common in the Chattahoochee formation.
Loc. JRL-14 (fig. 19), along the east side of the Chipola River,
just north of the bridge on a graded road, in the southeastern
portion of the NEISEI/. sec. 30, T. 3 N., R. 9 W. (Oakdale,
U. S. Geographical Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes
about 4 feet of tan, indurated to poorly indurated, chalky,
slightly fissile, fossiliferous, silty, dolomitic Suwannee limestone.
Though identified and mapped as Suwannee limestone by Moore
(1955, p. 56), the exposure is lithologically quite similar to
limestone of the Tampa stage. At this locality, the limestone
is overlain by about 4 feet of clay, part of which is probably
an insoluble residue from the limestone. In the general area,
the limestone could be expected at other locations near the
same elevation as the exposure.
Loc. JRL-15 (fig. 18), beneath a bridge, along an unpaved graded
road in the NWI/NEI/t sec. 32, T. 3 N., R. 8 W. (Altha East,
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes 1
foot of light gray, indurated to poorly indurated, massive,
chalky, fossiliferous, silty, dolomitic limestone of the Tampa
stage. Moore (1955, p. 65) mentioned that this location, which
is his J-131, is unfossiliferous; however, this writer did note
the molds of several gastropods. This limestone forms the bed
of the branch for over 500 feet.
Loc. JRL-16 (fig. 14), a quarry of the West Florida Lime
Company just north-northeast of Cottondale, located in the
NEI/ sec. 30, T. 5 N., R. 11 W. (Cottondale East, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes 20 feet
of light reddish tan, indurated to poorly indurated, massive,
chalky, equigrained, fossiliferous Marianna limestone.
Occasional solution cavities filled with black organic clay are





84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

encountered near the surface. These are mined out in order to
maintain the high purity of the mined product.
Loc. JRL-17 (fig. 14) is an unsampled exposure of Marianna lime-
stone located 30 feet east of U. S. Geological Survey bench mark
145 on the south side of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad
grade, about 400 feet east of the town limits of Cottondale in
the NW/lNWI/I. sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 11 W. (Cottoudale East,
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle). Here is ex-
posed 2 feet of a typical Marianna lithology at an elevation of
149.3 feet. This elevation is 13.3 feet higher than a nearby point
reported by Moore (1955, p. 50). This variation in elevation
attests to the uneven nature of the buried limestone surface.
Between Loc. JRL-17 and U. S. Highway 90, there are several
exposures included within Area V (fig. 14). These exposures,
including Loc. JRL-23 and Loc. JRL-28, lie north, immediately
east, and south of the east end of Frank Pond. Here the
Marianna limestone is overlain in places by the thin sediments
of the Tampa stage.
Loc. JRL-18-1 (fig. 15), an old quarry on the north side of an
unpaved graded county road in the SEI/.SW1/i. sec. 29, T. 6 N.,
R. 11 W. (Sills, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 30 feet of light cream to light gray,
indurated, chalky, massive, fossiliferous, occasionally coquinoid
limestone of the Crystal River formation. This location was
quarried some years ago and the more indurated portion has
been crushed and used for gravel.
Loc. JRL-18-2 (fig. 15) is the same location as Loc. JRL-18-1. This
sample represents a more indurated fraction of the mined
material which had been set aside in the quarry for future use
as gravel.
Loc. JRL-19 (fig. 12), an old chimney block quarry located on the
west side of State Highway 71 in the SWn'/NW1/i. sec. 30,
T. 5 N., R. 9 W. (Marianna, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 21 feet of light cream, indurated to poorly
indurated, chalky, massive, equigrained Marianna limestone.
Loc. JRL-20 (fig. 12), a northeast-southwest trending hill on the
west side of an unpaved graded county road on the east side
of the Chipola River, just east of the town of Marianna,
located in the center of the N/i. of sec. 2, T. 4 N., R. 10 W.
(Marianna, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle),





LIMESTONE RESOURCES


exposes a few feet of light cream, indurated, chalky,
equigrained, massive, fossiliferous Marianna limestone. This
hill is roughly 2,500 feet long and 1,600 feet wide. The hill is
in all probability underlain by limestone though masked by
sand and clayey sand. Though no dolomitic limestone
exposures were noted, the Marianna limestone is probably
overlain by a dolomitic limestone as mentioned in Loc. JRL-10
and Loc. JRL-11. The Marianna is underlain by Crystal River
formation as noted under Loc. JRL-11.
Loc. JRL-21-A (fig. 13) is a quarry not in operation at the present
and owned by Mr. Sam Smith. The quarry is located on the
north side of State Highway 73, 3 miles northwest of Marianna.
In about the center of sec. 23, T. 5 N., R. 11 W. (Cottondale
East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle). Here
is exposed a maximum of 40 feet of light cream, indurated to
poorly indurated, chalky, massive, equigrained, fossiliferous
Marianna limestone. The Marianna limestone is overlain by a
thin veneer of clay and clayey sand and underlain by the Crystal
River formation.
Loc. JRL-21-B (fig. 13) is the same area as Loc. JRL-21-A, but
represents the exposed 14 feet of Crystal River formation which
underlies the Marianna. The Crystal River formation is a light
cream to white, poorly indurated to indurated, chalky,
fossiliferous limestone containing locally dense and locally
coquinoid bodies. Moore (1955, p. 37) gives a measured geologic
section of this locality in which he includes his Bumpnose
member of the Crystal River formation. The general area has
large reserves of high grade calcium carbonate, along with a
minor amount of harder rock suitable for gravel.
Loc. JRL-22 (fig. 20) is a dry stream valley on the ranch of Leland
Thomas, 1 mile south of U. S. Highway 90 and 2.6 miles east of
Cottondale in the NEI/NWI/. sec. 10, T. 4 N., R. 11 W. The
valley continues southwestward to the center of the W/. of
the same section (Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey
topographic quadrangle). The exposure is a light cream to
white, poorly indurated, chalky, massive, equigrained Marianna
limestone. Loc. JRL-22 is on the east valley edge, on the
east-west section line between the SEM/.SW/W1. sec. 3, T. 4 N.,
R. 11 W., and the NEI/NWI/& sec. 10, T. 4 N., R. 11 W. Moore
(1955, pl. I) shows the Marianna in this locality to be overlain
by Suwannee limestone, but with the exception of the valley






86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

edges where the rock is exposed, limestones are masked by a
veneer of sands and clayey sands. The above valley continues
southwestward into the SE1/, sec. 9, T. 4 N., R. 11 W., where it
joins another similar valley which trends north-northwest and
south-southeast. At the junction of the two valleys, the
exposures continue southeasterly for a short distance. The
westward valley is reported by Mr. Leland Thomas (personal
communication) to have exposures similar to that of the eastern
valley.
Loc. JRL-23 (fig. 14) is an unsampled location of rock exposed in
a field in the SWI/NWI/t sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., about 500
feet southeast of Frank Pond, just east of Cottondale (Cotton-
dale East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle).
This location is part of the general area discussed under Loc.
JRL-17.
Loc. JRL-24 (fig. 20) is an exposure not visited by the author but
according to Mr. Leland Thomas of Cottondale (personal
communication), limestone is exposed in a large sink located in
the center of the WI/.2SE!/. sec. 10, T. 4 N., R 11 W. (Cottondale
East, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle).
Loc. JRL-25 (fig. 15), and old "chimney block" quarry in the
SWI/ISEi/iNWI/i. sec. 32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W. (Sills, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes light cream
to light gray, indurated, chalky, massive, fossiliferous Crystal
River formation. The exposure is on the flank of a small hill
located 1,400 feet southwest of Loc. JRL-26.
Loc. JRL-26-1 (Fig. 15), an old rock quarry currently not
operating, located roughly 0.7 mile east of U. S. Highway 231
and 7 miles north of Cottondale in the SEI5 NEI/NWi'/ sec.
32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W. (Sills, U. S. Geological Survey topographic
quadrangle), exposes 28 feet of white to light gray, poorly
indurated to indurated, chalky, massive, fossiliferous limestone
of the Crystal River formation having well indurated zones and
coquinoid zones. The quarry is quite extensive but currently it
is somewhat overgrown. The short channel sample taken
extended from 105 to 107 feet.
Loc. JRL-26-2 (fig. 15) is the same quarry as Loc. JRL-26-1. The
short channel sample taken extended from 120 to 122 feet.
Loc. JRL-27 (fig. 15), a rock quarry currently not operating,
located one-half mile southeast of Loc. JRL-26-1 in the






LIMESTONE RESOURCES


NEI/tSEI/t sec. 32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W. (Sills, U. S. Geological
Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes 31 feet of white to
light gray, poorly indurated to indurated, chalky, massive,
fossiliferous limestone of the Crystal River formation having
local coquinoid zones and localized well indurated zones on the
surface and at depth. A cave having its entrance on the upper
northern face of the quarry is noteworthy since it contains
stalactites and stalagmites.
Loc. JRL-28 (fig. 14), along U. S. Highway 90, located in the
NWI/SESI/ sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 11 W. (Cottondale East, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a few feet
of cream to tan, indurated to poorly indurated dolomitic shaley
limestone whose top is at an elevation of 146 feet. Lower in
the section at an elevation of about 142 feet, the limestone be-
comes softer and lighter in color. Moore (1955, pl. I) maps the
Marianna-Suwannee limestone formational contact as occurring
near this lithologic change. The upper shaley zone is
lithologically quite similar to some of the beds of the Byram
formation which Vernon (1956, p. 66) described, and the lime-
stone below the contact is Marianna. No analysis of either
limestone is available.
Loc. JRL-29 (fig. 13), a roadside exposure located on the north side
of State Highway 73, in the southeast corner NWSI/ sec. 25,
T. 5 N., R. 11 W. (Cottondale East, U. S. Geological Survey
topographic quadrangle), exposes an impressive section of the
Crystal River formation and Marianna limestone. Here hidden
from roadside view is a 40-foot section which is listed in the
Southeastern Geological Society Guidebook of the Third Field
Trip (1945, p. 16) as Stop No. 7. Moore (1955, p. 49) lists this
location as Loc. J-74. The elevation of the top of the exposure is
135 feet and the lowermost exposed rock is 95 feet. The
elevation of the contact between the older Crystal River
formation and the Marianna limestone is 105 feet. No analysis
is available of either limestone at this location, but the Crystal
River should be expected to contain about 97 to 98 percent
calcium carbonate, with traces of magnesium carbonate, silica,
iron and clay. The Marianna will not be quite as pure as the
Crystal River, but nonetheless it should contain about 95 percent
calcium carbonate along with slightly more magnesium
carbonate, silica, iron and clay. Analysis of other limestones
in this area (Area IV) will serve as an index to the chemical
composition of this exposure.





88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

Loc. JRL-30 (fig. 17), along a paved county road south of Sneads,
in the N!/ANWi/I.NWI/. sec. 3, T. 3 N., R. 7 W. (Sneads, U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle), exposes a few
feet of white, poorly indurated, pasty, chalky, silty limestone
of the Chattahoochee formation. The top of the limestone
exposure is at 108 feet above sea level. No analysis is available
for the limestone at this location but it would probably be quite
similar to that of Loc. JRL-12.

Loc. JRL-31 (fig. 17), Moore's J-112, along a paved county road
south of U. S. Highway 90, in the approximate center of sec.
36, just north of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad crossing
(Sneads, U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle),
exposes about 2 feet of white, indurated to poorly indurated,
silty, fossiliferous limestone of the Chattahoochee formation.
Moore (1955, p. 64) places the elevation of the top of the
exposure at 135 feet, but this elevation is in error. The elevation
was found by this author to be 100 feet. Nowhere in the
immediate area do the elevations of the land surface get much
over 120 feet. No analysis of Loc. JRL-31 is available but the
analysis will be similar to that of Loc. JRL-12 and 13.

Loc. JRL-32 (fig. 17), located on the escarpment bordering the
west bank of the Apalachicola River near the water discharge
canal at the steam power plant located in the SEI!SWI/i sec.
12, T. 3 N., R. 7 W., exposes 10 or more feet of light gray,
indurated to poorly indurated, silty, fossiliferous limestone of
the Chattahoochee formation. The top of the limestone at this
location is 75 feet above sea level. This formation should be
exposed or have a thin cover at additional points northward
and southward from this location along the Apalachicola River
escarpment at elevations of 75 feet or higher. Additional
exposures were not sought after by the author but nevertheless
the economic potential of this area is very good. No analysis
is available for Loc. JRL-32.

Loc. JRL-33 (fig. 17), at the northeast corner at the intersection of
two graded roads at the southwest corner of SW1/I.NW1/I. sec.
11, T. 3 N., R. 7 W. (Sneads, U. S. Geological Survey
topographic quadrangle), exposes a bare surface of light cream,
poorly indurated, silty, nodular limestone of the Chattahoochee
formation. The elevation of the top of the exposure is 110 feet.
Though no analysis of Loc. JRL-33 is available, the analysis
would be similar to that of Loc. JRL-12 and 13.







LIMESTONE RESOURCES


LIMESTONE AS AN ECONOMIC DEPOSIT
GENERAL DEFINITION

Limestone is formed through the chemical or biochemical pre-
cipitation of calcium carbonate or by the accumulation of
calcareous shells as a bedded sediment in marine or fresh waters.
Varying quantities of other substances, such as magnesium
carbonate, silica, clayey material, salts or iron and organic matter,
may be present as impurities. Calcareous materials are consoli-
dated gradually into rock by compaction, dehydration and
crystallization. Through long geologic ages of mass adjustment
these deposits eventually become available for commercial use
(Bowles, 1941, p. 5).
The "Glossary of Geology and Related Sciences" (AGI 1957,
p. 169) defines limestone as:

"1. ... a bedded sedimentary deposit consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate
(CaCO,,) which yields lime when burned . Limestone is the most
important and widely distributed of the carbonate rocks and is the
consolidated equivalent of limy mud, calcareous sand, or shell frag-
ments (Stokes and Varnes, 1952, p. 83-84).
"2. . a general term for that class of rocks which contain at least 80
percent of the carbonates of calcium or magnesium .... The suitability
of the rock for the manufacture of lime is not an essential characteris-
tic (Pettijohn, 1949, p. 289)."

The essential chemical constituent of limestone is calcium
carbonate (CACO::), the mineral calcite. Many commercial
occurrences designate "high-calcium" limestone as that which
contains 93 to 97 percent calcium carbonate. When other substances
occur in the stone, it is classed according to the nature of the
impurities. An increasing percentage of dolomite in a specimen
alters the proper name of a limestone. A limestone must contain
less than 5 percent dolomite and greater than 95 percent calcite.
A magnesium limestone contains greater than 5 and less than 10
percent dolomite and greater than 90 and less than 95 percent
calcite. A dolomitic limestone contains greater than 10 and less
than 50 percent dolomite and greater than 50 and less than 90
percent calcite. A calcitic dolomite contains greater than 50 and
less than 90 percent dolomite and greater than 10 and less than
50 percent calcite. Dolomite contains greater than 90 percent
dolomite and less than 10 percent calcite. Argillaceous limestone
contains a considerable proportion of clay consisting mainly of
hydrous aluminum silicates. Siliceous, cherty or arenaceous varieties





90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN FORTY-TWO

of limestone contain considerable silica. Ferruginous limestone has
considerable iron content and colors the rock shades of brown and
red. Carbonaceous or bituminous material within a limestone
imparts a dark gray or black color to the rock.
Other varieties of limestone are based upon texture of physical
characteristics. Compact limestone is a fine grained, dense,
homogeneous rock which may range in color from white to black.
The degree of induration is the degree to which the hardening of
rock materials has progressed, through cementation, pressure, heat
or other causes (AGI, 1957, p. 148). Oolitic limestone is composed
of small, rounded grains of calcium carbonate with a concentrically
laminated structure. Some limestone beds have been formed under
conditions that left many shells almost intact or at least in frag-
ments sufficiently well preserved to indicate their origin and
character. These are known as fossiliferous limestones. Some
of them are made up almost entirely of shells of one kind and all
may be termed coralline limestone, crinoidal limestone, or coquina.
Unconsolidated oyster shell beds are closely related to fossiliferous
limestone and may be quite extensive. Oyster shell is a very pure
form of calcium carbonate that occurs in commercial quantities.
Uniformity and purity of lime made from shell beds of oysters is
outstanding. Though large beds of oyster shells are few, they
should not be overlooked as a potential source as a raw material.
Cherty limestones contain nodules and or bands of chert or flint
(Bowles, 1941, p. 6).
The common impurities in limestone are clay, which contains
silica and alumina; sand or other forms of free silica; iron oxide;
iron carbonates, sulfides of iron, gypsum; alkali salts; and
carbonaceous material. Clay is found most often along the bedding
planes and is also frequently found disseminated throughout the
rock. Silica occurs in limestones as nodules or masses of chert
(flint), and may be present in varying amounts. If concentrated,
the siliceous mass may be pure chert; where only slightly con-
centrated, the limestone will have the outward appearance of
limestone but will be saturated with silica. Silica also occurs as
grains of sand, silt, or finer size material. Iron compounds are
not only deposited with the calcium carbonate during the initial
period of sedimentation, but are also brought in by percolating
ground waters. These iron compounds are also formed by the
chemical reaction with other minerals. Sulfur may be present in
combination with iron as pyrite or marcasite, and in gypsum so
that under ordinary conditions it is not free. However, these
sulfides are easily oxidized. Small quantities of the alkalies, soda





LIMESTONE RESOURCES


and potash, are present in some limestones, probably in the form
of carbonates or in the clay impurities as silicates. Impurities are
noted in greater proportions in weathered rock than in unweathered
rock because the soluble components have been leached out (Bowles,
1941, p. 7).
Bowles (1941, p. 7) stated that impurities in limestones have
various effects on the properties of limes. Small amounts of silica
tend to decrease plasticity, sand carrying capacity, and yield of
lime, but have no apparent effect on its hardness or strength.
Silica in the form of chert or flint occurring in limestone is not
suitable for the manufacture of lime unless the chert can be
separated and removed at very little expense. If clay, an aluminum
silicate mineral, is present in certain proportions in the limestone,
and the limestone is then calcined to lime, a product is produced
(hydraulic lime) that when mixed with water has the property of
setting or otherwise forming a firm strong mass under water. For
making lime itself if silica is present in excess of four or more
percent, the limestone is rarely suitable for making lime.
Iron present in a burned limestone has much the same effect
as silica, except that lime containing large amounts of iron is
much stronger and harder. Kaolinite seems to act in a manner
similar to silica and iron. Gypsum shows detrimental effects, even
when only 1 percent is present. Moderate amounts of carbonaceous
material are not retained in the lime as they are consumed during
calcination. Magnesium limestone may embrace several varieties
texturally, and if physically and chemically suitable may be burned
to lime. The product will therefore be a mixture of calcium oxide
and magnesium oxide.

USES
GENERAL

The following discussion on the uses of limestone has been
compiled for general use with regard to the limestones of Wash-
ington, Holmes and Jackson counties, Florida, and by no means is
it intended to be a treatise on the uses of limestone. Study on the
uses of limestone must be supplemented by standard texts and
various specific publications.
In general, the uses of limestone may be classified into two
groups: "chemical uses" in which the chemical composition of
limestone is of dominant importance; and "physical use" in which
the physical characteristics of the limestone is of dominant