Mineral resource study of Holmes, Walton, and Washington Counties ( FGS: Bulletin 50)

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Mineral resource study of Holmes, Walton, and Washington Counties ( FGS: Bulletin 50)
Series Title:
Geological bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 50
Physical Description:
vii, 161 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Yon, J. William
Hendry, Charles W. Jr. ( joint author )
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Donor:
unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1969

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mines and mineral resources -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographies.
Statement of Responsibility:
by J. William Yon, Jr., and C. W. Hendry, Jr.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA1626
ltuf - AFC6386
alephbibnum - 001043577
oclc - 00320418
lccn - 72610035 //r86
lccn - 72610035
System ID:
UF00000235:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Main
        Page 6
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    Appendix
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    Back Cover
        Page 167
        Page 168
Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Chief



GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 50




MINERAL RESOURCE STUDY OF
HOLMES, WALTON AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES





By
J. William Yon, Jr. and C.W. Hendry, Jr.




Published for
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

TALLAHASSEE
1969





U. OF F. LIBRARY












STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert 0. Vernon, Chief





GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 50






MINERAL RESOURCE STUDY OF
HOLMES, WALTON AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES







By
J. William Yon, Jr. and C.W. Hendry, Jr.






Published for
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TALLAHASSEE
1969







D-D-7. C-7








DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer



FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Commissioner of Education


EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General



FRED 0. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Executive Director

















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
December 17, 1969

Honorable Claude R. Kirk,Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Kirk:

The Bureau of Geology under the Division of Interior Resources of the
Department of Natural Resources has as one of its' missions the development of
the mineral resources of the State. In particular the Bureau has attempted to
find sources of minerals that could be developed in counties of Florida that have
been losing population; the so-called deprived counties. Mr. William Yon, Jr. and
Mr. Charles Hendry, geologists of this department have completed a thorough
survey of Holmes, Walton, and Washington counties in panhandle Florida, and
have found new sources of sand and clay which can be developed. The locations
of these minerals and the tests performed to prove their value, is being published
as Geological Bulletin No. 50.

Respectfully yours,

R. O. Vernon,Chief






























































Completed manuscript received
December 17, 1969
Prepared by the Bureau of Geology
Published by Rose Printing Company
Tallahassee, Florida

iv







TABLE OF CONTENTS


Acknowledgments ........................
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose and scope of investigation . . . . . . .
Location of area ......................
Previous investigations . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation .......................
Clim ate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Well and outcrop numbering system . . . . . .
Geology .................... ..... ....
Physiography ........................
Northern Highlands . . . . . . . . .
Marianna Lowlands . . . . . . . . .
Gulf Coastal Lowlands . . . . . . . .
River Valley Lowlands . . . . . . . .
Stratigraphy ........................
Eocene Series .....................
Jackson Stage ..................
Crystal River Formation . . . . .
Oligocene Series ....................
Suwannee Limestone . . . . . .
"Duncan Church Beds" . . . . . .
Marianna Limestone . . . . . .
Miocene Series ..................... ..
Tampa Stage ...................
St. Marks and Chattahoochee Formations .
Alum Bluff Stage .................
Miocene coarse plastics, Chipola, Shoal River,
and Hawthorn Formations . . . . .
Choctawatchee Stage . . . . . . . .
Red Bay and Yellow River Formations . .
Plio-Pleistocene deposits . . . . . . . . .
Citronelle Formation . . . . . .
Recent stream alluvium . . . . . . . . . .
Economic minerals ........................
Introduction ........................
Clays . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General occurrence . . . . . . . .
Economic consideration . . . . . . .
Field work ....................
Ceramic properties of clays . . . . . .
Laboratory testing procedure . . . . .
Extrusion tests ..................
Plasticity or workability . . . . .
Water of plasticity . . . . . . .
Dry modulus of rupture or dry strength .
Fired modulus of rupture . . . . .
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . .
Firing shrinkage . . . . . . . .
Percent absorption . . . . . . .
Firing temperature . . . . . . .
Moh's hardness ...............
Bulk density ................







Test results .............................. . . 22
Sample descriptions, characteristics, and evaluations . . . .... 22
Holmes County ........................... 24
Walton County ........................... 36
Washington County ......................... 62
Lightweight aggregate ..........................72
Summary of clay study ............................... 74
Heavy minerals ................................ 75
Humate .. . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. . . . .. . 78
Limestone ................... .............. 80
Oyster shell ................... ............ 82
Sand . . . . . . . . . .................. ... 82
Uses of sand ................... ............ 83
Concrete ................... .............. 84
Masonry morter ............................. 84
Collection and presentation of sand data . . . . . .... 86
Production and mining ....................... 86
Conclusions .............................95
Holmes County ........................... 95
Walton County ...........................95
Washington County ......................... 96
Selected bibliography ................... ............ ..97
Appendix ........................................101


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Location of area of investigation . . . . . . . ..... . . . .. 2
2 Index to topographic coverage of area of investigation . . . . . . . . 3
3 Routes of interstate highways 10, natural gas pipeline and Intracoastal Canal in
the area of investigation ...............................
4 Locality and well-numbering system . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5 Physiographic map ..................................8
6 Locations of coreholes and outcrops . . . . . . . ..... ....... 15
7 Location of clay products plants . . . . . . . ..... .. ...... 17
8 Two views of Humate zones (dark beds) exposed in banks of Intracoastal Waterway
in southeastern Walton County .......................... 79
9 View of Natural Bridge in Walton County at locality LW1-6N-20W-26-d ..... .81
10 View of Adams Sand Pit in western Walton County at locality LW1-3N-21W-21-cd 94
11 View of Miller and Jerkins sand pit in Washington County at locality
LWs-2N-13W-7c ................... ................94


TABLES

1 Stratigraphic nomenclature chart . . . . . . . ..... . . . .. 11
2 Chemical analyses of selected Holmes County clays . . . . . . ... 23
3 Ceramic property tests on Holmes County clays . . . . . . . ... 39
4 Criteria for determining the usefulness of clays for ceramic clay products . . 76
5 Classification of clay localities according to potential use . . . . . 77
6 Screen analyses and general uses of sands in Holmes, Walton and Washington
Counties . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . ...... 87
7 Screen analyses and general uses of sands in Holmes County . . . . ... 92
8 Analyses of sands tested for use in the manufacture of glass . . . . ... 93









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writers are especially indebted to Dr. Robert O. Vernon, Chief of the
Bureau of Geology, who added greatly to this report through his many helpful
suggestions and encouragement. Appreciation is expressed to the geological staff
of the Bureau of Geology for their help in various aspects of the study and to
the clerical staff for patience and understanding during the preparation of the
manuscript.
Special thanks are expressed to Mrs. Patricia Potter, Executive Secretary to
the Walton County Chamber of Commerce for her interest and the many
courtesies she extended the writers during the course of the project.
The writers would like to express appreciation to Mr. Lawrence Shirley and
Mr. John Sweeney of the U. S. Bureau of Mines for cooperating with the writers
in making the reports "Clay and Sand and Gravel Resources Holmes County,
Florida" and "Limestone Resources of Washington County, Florida" available
for use in this report.
Gratitude is expressed to Mr. M. E. Tyrrell, U. S. Bureau of Mines, who added
immeasurably to this study through his advice and especially his untiring efforts
in the evaluation of the ceramic raw material submitted from the area of study.
Mr. John Carver, Farmers Home Administration, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, was very helpful in securing permission for the writers to use freely
the data from the reports by Sweeney and Shirley on the clay, sand, gravel and
limestone resources of Holmes and Washington counties, Florida.
The courtesies extended the writers by the County Development Commissions
in Holmes, Walton and Washington counties are appreciated.
Appreciation is expressed to the citizens of the counties in the area of this
study for their aid during the course of the field work for this report.









MINERAL RESOURCE STUDY OF
HOLMES, WALTON AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES

by
J. William Yon, Jr. and C. W. Hendry, Jr.


INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

The purpose of this investigation was to study the mineral resources of
Holmes, Walton and Washington counties, Florida, providing information on the
occurrence of certain minerals, types of tests performed and analyses of samples
collected. The information presented is not intended to be an exhaustive
investigation leading to immediate commercial development, because in most
cases the data only represents information on a single core hole, outcrop or pit.
However, the data, where favorable, would certainly indicate that the area might
warrant further investigation.
The cut of the intracoastal waterway canal in southern Walton County, stream
banks, roadcuts, and core holes were examined, and the samples collected were
analyzed for possible economic minerals.
LOCATION OF AREA
The adjoining Holmes, Walton and Washington counties are located in the
central part of panhandle Florida, shown in figure 1. Walton County is on the
west, Holmes and Washington counties are to the east. Holmes County is north
of Washington County. These three counties are bounded to the west by
Okaloosa County, to the east by Jackson and Bay counties, to the north by the
State of Alabama and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico.
Walton is the largest of the three counties, with a land-surface area of 1046
square miles. Holmes County has a land-surface area of 506 square miles, and
Washington County has 625 square miles.
The principal towns are DeFuniak Springs, in Walton County, Chipley, in
Washington County, and Bonifay, in Holmes County. These towns are also the
county seats.
All of west Florida is completely covered by U. S. Geological Survey
topographic maps in either the 7% or 15 minute series. The topographic map
coverage for Holmes, Walton and Washington counties is shown in figure 2.
PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Bell (1924, p. 53-266), in a preliminary report on the clay resources of
Florida, discussed clay deposits in Holmes, Walton and Washington counties.
In a report on the sand and gravel deposits of Florida these deposits in
Holmes, Walton and Washington counties were discussed in a general way by
Martens (1928, p. 33-123). Vernon (1942, p. 142-143), in his report on Holmes
and Washington counties, Florida, discussed the gravel, sand and clay resources.








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Figure 1. Location of area of investigation.


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Figure 2. Index to topographic coverage of area of investigation.
1 figure 2. Index to topographic coverage of area of investigation.


A L A BAMA
R A N G E WEST
+ 22 + 21 + 20 19 4- 18 + 17 + 16 + 15 14 + 13 + 12 + 11

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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The properties of Florida kaolins and clays are reviewed by Calver (1949) in
Florida Geological Survey Information Circular No. 2, with specific localities
and analyses of clays sampled in Holmes, Walton and Washington counties
mentioned on pages 10, 14, 19, 32-33, 43-47, 53, and 58-59.
The most recent and comprehensive report on the gravel, sand and clay
deposits of Holmes County is an open-file report prepared for the Farmers Home
Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture by J. W. Sweeney and L. E.
Shirley (1965) of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. Sweeney and Shirley investigated
the quality of the clay, and the extensiveness and suitability of the gravel and
sand for commercial use.
The U. S. Bureau of Mines and the Farmers Home Administration, U. S.
Department of Agriculture have given permission to use data from the above
report. It will be freely drawn from and discussed in this report.
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 42, by W. D. Reves (1961) is an
excellent report on the limestone resources of Holmes and Washington counties.
L. E. Shirley and J. W. Sweeney (1965) also investigated the limestone resources
of Washington County.
TRANSPORTATION
Holmes, Walton and Washington counties are served by the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad. This railroad parallels U. S. Highway 90 and also has a spur
across the northwest corner of Walton County and one across the northeast
corner of Holmes County. It maintains daily passenger and freight service with
connections to the west at New Orleans and to the east at Jacksonville.
U. S. Highway 90 traverses the counties in an east-west direction in the central
portion and U. S. Highway 98 is the main east-west coastal route. Numerous
State Highways cover the area, generally radiating from the county seats. In
addition to the Federal and State network of highways there are abundant
secondary county paved and unpaved roads that permit access to almost every
portion of the three counties.
Upon construction and completion of Interstate Highway 10, as shown on
figure 3, another valuable means of transportation will become available.
The intracoastal waterway passes along the southern part of Walton County
and provides a route for an inexpensive form of transportation (fig. 3).
The close proximity of the Choctawhatchee River to all three counties
provides a convenient route for shipping mineral products northward to
Alabama and southward to the intracoastal waterway.
Natural gas is available from the Houston Texas Gas and Oil Corporation pipe
line (fig. 3) that crosses the three counties, and it provides an important source
of economic fuel for use in the chemical processing of limestone and the making
of structural clay products. Gulf Power Company provides electrical power
throughout the area.


















-- 'ro Go. neosville i ot-,'d ,r r
.}' i I :^ R

WI:: Iston IT'
9 LJ
-
% p
Interstate Highway(Completed) % --. \ /f .
--------Interstate Highway(Under Const.or Proposed) 0
Natural Gas Pipeline
--- ----- Cross Florida Barge Canal *r p 1
0% L6M^ Intracoastal Waterways Orlondo
...... Open Bay Water Route '

modified ofter Reves -



Figure 3. Routes of interstate highways 10, natural gas pipeline, and Intracoastal Canal in the area of investigation.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


CLIMATE
Holmes, Walton and Washington counties are in an area of southeast wet
continental and north Florida transitional climate. They have an average January
temperature of 55-580F, an average July temperature of 80-840F, and are 8-10
months frost free. The average annual precipitation is 50-60 inches. Most of the
rainfall occurs during the months of June through September.
WELL AND OUTCROP NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well and outcrop numbering system used in this report is based on the
location of the well or outcrop and uses the rectangular system of section,
township and range for identification. The well or outcrop number consists of
six parts: W for well or L for outcrop, county abbreviation, the quarter/quarter
location within the section, the section, township, and range.
The basic rectangle is the township which is 6 miles square. It is consecutively
numbered by tiers both north and south of the Tallahassee Base Line and is also
consecutively numbered east and west of the principal meridian. In the present
numbering system the T will be left off the township number and the R off the
range number. Each township is divided equally into 36 square miles called
sections, which are numbered 1 through 36 as shown on figure 4. The sections
are divided into quarters with the quarters being labeled "a" through "d". In
turn, each of these quarters is divided into quarters with these quarter/quarter
squares labeled "a" through "d".
When there is more than one well or outcrop in a quarter/quarter section they
are identified by a sixth number at the end of the fifth unit. The abbreviation
used for counties in this report are Ho for Holmes, W1 for Walton, Ws for
Washington.
There are some locality or outcrop numbers used in this report that do not
conform to the above described system; however, these non-conforming
numbers are taken from other publications, and to convert them only would
create undue confusion.
GEOLOGY
PHYSIOGRAPHY
The deposits studied in this investigation lie within the East Gulf Coastal
Plain, a subdivision of the Coastal Plain Province (Fenneman, 1938, p. 1-83). In
Holmes, Walton and Washington counties the major physiographic divisions of
Vernon (1951, p. 16), White, Vernon and Puri (Puri and Vernon, 1964, p.
10-15) are recognized, and are as follows: 1) Northern Highlands, 2) Marianna
Lowlands, 3) Gulf Coastal Lowlands and 4) River Valley Lowlands, shown in
figure 5.







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R 21W


R 19


6

7

18

19

30

31


5

8

17

20

29

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Location
of
WALTON COUNTY


Figure 4. Locality and well-numbering system.


4

9

16

21

28
!3


3

10

15

22

27

3,


14

23

26

35


13

24

25

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RIGE IGRIDGEL HILLS

i1 I I I O l |
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litli i
l I I i 1 IIi ll i ltI i
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SI I COASTAL

IIG I I TAL



Figure 5. Physiographic map.






BULLETIN NO. 50


NORTHERN HIGHLANDS

The Northern Highlands is an almost continuous section of high land across
the northern part of the State. Within the area under discussion the Northern
Highlands has been dissected by stream erosion and is separable into lesser
continuous higher land masses that are the 1) Western Highlands, 2) The New
Hope Ridge, and 3) the Washington County Outliers.
Vernon (1951, p. 15) states that these features are the remnants of a large
delta plain made up of smaller coalescing subdelta plains that blanketed older
Miocene deposits in late Miocene or early Pleistocene time.
MARIANNA LOWLANDS
The Marianna Lowlands occupy most of central and eastern Holmes County
and the northern portion of Washington County. According to Puri, Vernon, and
White (Puri and Vernon, 1964, p. 12) the Marianna Lowlands are a result of
stream erosion and solution activity. The same agents that formed the Marianna
Lowlands also reduced the once continuous remnant hills of Washington
County, New Hope Ridge, Western Highlands, Grand Ridge and the Tallahassee
Hills. A well developed north-facing scarp (Holmes Valley Scarp) separates the
Marianna Lowlands from New Hope Ridge in Washington and Jackson counties.
The lowlands encompass parts of Jackson, Holmes, and Washington counties.
They are bounded on the west by the Western Highlands, on the southeast by
Grand Ridge and on the south by New Hope Ridge. To the north the lowlands
continue into Alabama.
Limestone is near the surface of the ground and consequently, the area is one
of karst development with many sinkholes. Many broad shallow basins are
present, some of which are filled with water, forming lakes.
GULF COASTAL LOWLANDS
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands are a series of coast-parallel plains or terraces
rising from the coast to successively higher levels in a landward direction. These
terraces were formed during the Pleistocene Epoch or "Great Ice Age" when
world-wide fluctuations of sea level were tied in with the growth and melting of
the ice caps. The periods of time when sea level was lowered are referred to as
glacial stages. This was accomplished by the storing of large quantities of ocean
water as land-glaciers. The interglacial stages were those times when the glaciers
receded, thus returning the water to the seas and causing a rise in sea level.
During each of the interglacial stages, when sea level rose and remained
stationary at one elevation for a long enough interval, a terrace and shoreline was
formed.
In the southern part of the area under study Vernon (1942, p. 18) recognized
plains lying almost parallel to the present coastline which are bound by erosional
scarps. The shorelines of these terraces occur at 220, 150, 105, and 30 feet
above the present sea level.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS
The term River Valley Lowlands is applied to all the stream valleys in Holmes,
Walton and Washington counties, and especially to those lowland sediments
associated with the Choctawhatchee River, the Shoal River and their tributaries.
Vernon (1942, p. 5-15) recognized that four depositional alluvial terraces
occur along the Choctawhatchee, separated by escarpments, and are similar in
origin to the present flood plain.
STRATIGRAPHY
It is not the purpose nor the intent of this report to discuss fully the
stratigraphy of the area under study. Consequently, only that part of the
stratigraphy will be discussed which has a direct bearing on the economic
geology of the area.
So that the reader will understand the relationship of the formations discussed
for economic consideration a stratigraphic chart is included as Table 1.
EOCENE SERIES
JACKSON STAGE
Crystal River Formation

Puri (1953, p. 130) proposed the term Crystal River Formation to replace
Vernon's Ocala limestone (restricted). The type locality of the Crystal River
Formation is in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Citrus County,
Florida, where 108 feet of limestone is exposed.
The Crystal River Formation primarily consists of a pale orange, soft to
medium hard, good to moderately porous, microfossiliferous, partially
recrystallized limestone (calcarenite). In some instances it is a calcirudite because
of the large number of Lepidocyclina specimens.
The Crystal River Formation in Holmes and Washington counties is a very
pure limestone, containing in many places less than 1% impurities (Reves, 1961,
p. 5). However, in Holmes County, Florida, near the Alabama State line, the
Crystal River becomes sandy and clayey.
OLIGOCENE SERIES
Suwannee Limestone
"Duncan Church Beds"

Cooke and Mansfield (1936) applied the name Suwannee Limestone to the
fossiliferous limestones cropping out along the Suwannee River from White
Springs to Ellaville. The history of the stratigraphic nomenclature of the
Suwannee Limestone has been adequately discussed in Florida Geological Survey
Bulletins 21 and 29, which are cited as very good references for historical
information.






BULLETIN NO. 50 11


TABLE I. STRATIGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE FOR GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS
IN HOLMES, WALTON, AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES


Stage


a a a a


Recent
Pleistocene


Plio-Pleistocene


I I


Miocene


Choctawhatchee


I4


Alum Bluff


I4


Tampa


Formation


Stream alluvium
Terrace sands


Citronelle


Red Bay
Yellow River


"Coarse plastics"
Hawthorn,
Shoal River,
Chipola


St. Marks
Chattahoochee


Suwannee
Limestone
Oligocene Vicksburg (Duncan Church Beds)


Marianna Limestone


System


Quaternary


Tertiary


Cenozoic


Eocene


Jackson


Crystal River





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The Suwannee Limestone crops out in Holmes and Washington counties, and
has been reported on by Vernon (1942), Reves (1961), and Shirley and Sweeney
(1965). The west Florida "Suwannee" is a microcoquina, with abundant
Lepidocyclina and Operculina forms in particular, whereas, the type Suwannee is
devoid of Lepidocyclina and Operculina forms but has abundant "cones". It is
described generally as a light yellowish orange, abundantly microfossiliferous,
partially recrystallized, soft to hard, granular limestone (calcarenite). The term
"Duncan Church beds" has been assigned informally to the Suwannee age
lithologies in west Florida (Puri and Vernon, 1964, p. 106).
Marianna Limestone
The Marianna Limestone is present both as a surface and subsurface unit in
Holmes, Walton and Washington counties. This formation crops out extensively
in the vicinity of Marianna, Jackson County, in the northeast corner of
Washington County and in west central Holmes County. An historical summary
is adequately presented in Florida Geological Survey Bulletin Nos. 21 and 29.
The only outcrop of Marianna Limestone in Walton County is at Natural Bridge,
section 26, T6N, R20W, but every core hole drilled by the Division of Geology
penetrated the Marianna overlying the "Duncan Church beds" in the northern
half of Walton County.
This formation is composed of a fine-grained, crystalline to earthy, sparcely
fossiliferous, firm massive limestone (calcilutite). It has been quarried for
building stone in west Florida as "chimney rock". (Florida State Road
Department testing data on the Natural Bridge outcrop is presented on page
80).
MIOCENE SERIES
TAMPA STAGE
St. Marks and Chattahoochee Formations
The sediments assigned to the Lower Miocene have been subdivided and
redefined many times since the name Tampa was first applied to those deposits
by L.C. Johnson (1888, p. 235). The latest revision was made by Puri (1953, p.
17). He places all sediments previously called the Tampa Formation in the
Tampa Stage. He divided the Tampa Stage into the St. Marks and Chattahoochee
Formations. In the present report, the writer will adhere to the nomenclature
presented by Puri.
The St. Marks and Chattahoochee formations would include all beds mapped
by Vernon (1942) as the Tampa Formation in Holmes and Washington counties.
He (Vernon, 1942, p. 68) states that although the Tampa is predominantly a
limestone in Washington County it does contain green clayey silts at the base of
the section in Holmes County.






BULLETIN NO. 50


ALUM BLUFF STAGE

Miocene Coarse Clastics, Chipola, Shoal River, and Hawthorn Formations

The Alum Bluff Stage encompasses all sediments lying above the Tampa and
all deposits below Choctawhatchee age sediments. (Puri and Vernon, 1964, p.
126).
For the purpose of this report the above formations will not be considered
individually. However, in a forthcoming report by the Division of Geology on
the Geology of Walton County each unit will be discussed in detail.
According to Vernon (1942, p. 76) the sediments of the Alum Bluff are marls,
sands, clays, silts, and limestones.
In Holmes County, he (Vernon, 1942, p. 76) reports that carbonaceous clays
and silty fine sands are present.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE STAGE
Red Bay and Yellow River Formations

The Red Bay and Yellow River Formations (Puri and Vernon, 1964) include
all Miocene sediments that are younger than the Alum Bluff deposits in the area
of study.
The Yellow River formation is a sand that is identified only in the subsurface
of Walton County, but is absent in Holmes and Washington counties.
The Red Bay Formation is a sand and clay unit that crops out in eastern
Walton County and in Washington County.
PLIO-PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS
(Citronelle Formation)
Overlying the Miocene deposits in Holmes, Walton and Washington counties
are younger gravels, sands and clays.
According to Vernon (1942, p. 134) these beds are Plio-Pleistocene in age.
These deposits generally lie at elevations above 200 feet, and were deposited on
a large delta that covered most of western Florida (Vernon, 1942, p. 134).
Cooke (1945, p. 236-238) relates these deposits to the Citronelle Formation
of Pliocene age. However, Puri and Vernon (1964, p. 230) believe the Citronelle
sediments are more closely related to the Pleistocene.
RECENT STREAM ALLUVIUM
The Recent deposits occurring along the stream valleys in Walton County
consists of sands, clayey sands and sandy clays. They are reworked Pleistocene
and Tertiary deposits.
According to Vernon (1942, p. 140) the Recent sediments in Holmes and
Washington counties deposited by the streams other than the Choctawhatchee
are fine to coarse sands. The Choctawhatchee River carries and deposits sands,
silts and clays. Vernon further states that the river deposits are a deep red and






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


orange color because they are derived from iron-rich beds in Alabama. The
deposits of the tributary streams of the Choctawhatchee, however, are light
colored because they were eroded from Tertiary and terrace material located
within the counties.
ECONOMIC MINERALS
INTRODUCTION
The following is a discussion of minerals that are presently in demand in the
industrial-minerals market, and for which little data has been available previously
from this area. Most of the treatment in this report is on the clays and sands,
although limited discussion is included on heavy minerals, humate, and oyster
shells. Gravels are not discussed since they do not occur in commercial quality or
quantity.
The location of the coreholes drilled inHolmes and Walton counties by the U.
S. Bureau of Mines and the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural
Resources and the outcrop samples are shown on figure 6.
As an appendix to this report there is included a heretofore unpublished
report by L.E. Shirley and J.W. Sweeney on the limestones of Washington
County.
CLAYS
GENERAL OCCURRENCE
The clays in Holmes, Walton and Washington counties, for the most part, were
transported and are both marine and fluvial.
The clays found in the Tampa, Alum Bluff and Choctawhatchee Stage
deposits are marine or near shore deposits. Examination by X-ray diffraction
indicates that these clays are either kaolinite or montmorillonite. The Miocene
clays are generally well bedded and can be seen cropping out in the counties
under study. Mapping and correlation of outcrops and core holes indicates that
the clays are lenticular in nature.
The Plio-Pleistocene clay deposits are believed to be fluvial and deltaic in
origin, and therefore, would be expected to be lenticular in occurrence.
Some of the clays found along the present stream valleys are Pleistocene to
Recent in age and are derived from existing deposits within the counties as well
as from Alabama.

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION
Some of the clays in the counties under study, through testing, were found to
be useful for making brick, sewer pipe, terra cotta, and several kinds of tile,
including glazed tile and lightweight aggregate.













LiZS $ ..2.F



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S .. . . . .. .
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/ ..... ......:.:: ~m .



F.IL . i 6..L ct o .f .--c .o..c.h.l..s..ad u.tc
r'" - C. w at 'L









1 7 f


Figure 6. Locations of corholes and outcrops.
I "oG~
Figure~~~~~~~ 6.Lcainso crhle ndotcos





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Most of the structural-clay products mentioned above are heavy in their
finished form; consequently, in consideration of a plant location, the shipping
distance from the plant to the market area is of considerable importance.
According to Sweeney and Shirley (1965), the generally accepted distance from
plant to market area for structural-clay products is 100 to 300 miles, recognizing
of course that this will vary depending on nearness of other producers, quality,
demand and price of the products.
So that the reader will more fully understand the basis the writers used for
determining an economic clay deposit, the following information is presented.
The average brick plant in the U.S. produces 30 million bricks a year. This
average includes the old out-moded plants and is, therefore, considered to
represent the minimum size for an economic installation. The annual clay
requirement for a plant this size would be approximately two cubic yards per
1,000 bricks or 60,000 cubic yards of clay (Aase, 1964).
In order to get a rough estimate of the acreage necessary to support a new
clay industry which would require an initial investment of from one-quarter to
one-third of a million dollars, the writers computed on the basis of a deposit five
feet thick. Since there are 1,613.33 cubic yards per acre foot, such a deposit
mined at the rate of 60,000 cubic yards a year would have to cover
approximately seven and one-half acres. Therefore, to justify a new plant
investment there should be a 30 to 50 year reserve of clay or at least 225 to 375
acres of the deposit averaging five feet in thickness (1.8-3.0 million cubic yards).
The production of structural-clay products in the area of investigation would
be in competition with production from the marketing region of Florida,
Georgia and Alabama. Aase and Associates (1964, p. 18), in a study on the
feasibility of a proposed structural-clay products industry in Redevelopment
Area A, Northwest Florida, show the points of present supply for structural-clay
products in Florida, Georgia and Alabama, figure 7. As they (Aase, 1964, p. 18)
point out, there is a wide distribution of structural-clay products production
within the region; however, they believe the following factors would make
location of structural-clay products in the northwest Florida area possible.
1. Capture a sufficient market from the area already being served by
existing plants.
2. Produce commodities for which there is only limited local
competition.
3. Penetrate the relatively unexploited market in the Florida
peninsula.
FIELD WORK
During the summers of 1966 and 1967, personnel of the Bureau of Geology
were engaged in a field investigation of the mineral resources of Holmes, Walton
and Washington counties. In the course of this work 30 clay samples were






BULLETIN NO. 50


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A BRICK PLANT
DRAIN TILE PLANT
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PRINCIPAL MARKETS and SUPPLY POINTS

of CLAY PRODUCTS
I0, m,, ,-ne :.-'
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Figure 7. Location of clay products plants.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


collected from outcrops and from one core hole (WWl-5N-21W-35-ac) that
penetrated 16 feet of clay. The clay samples were collected by channeling down
the face of the outcrop from fresh surfaces or as spot samples. Usually the
weight of the samples would range from 20 to 25 pounds. From the core hole
(WW1-5N-21W-35-ac) the complete interval of clay in the hole (16 feet) was
used, and these samples were sent to the U.S. Bureau of Mines for testing.
J. W. Sweeney under the supervision of L. E. Shirley, U. S. Bureau of Mines,
did a study on the clay, sand and gravel resources in Holmes County, Florida,
during August, September and October, 1964. According to Sweeney and
Shirley (1965), "Twenty-three holes were drilled for clays and fourteen for sand
and gravel. All drilling was under the supervision of Bureau representatives who
logged the holes... The objectives of the program were to locate clays, sand and
gravel deposits, to pick the most promising prospects, and to core drill to
determine vertical thickness and lateral extent... If an appreciable clay section
was penetrated in a deposit, it was usually impossible to pick up the same clay in
offset holes drilled a few hundred feet away, due to the rapid lateral facies
change. Although 23 holes were drilled only 13 contained clay suitable to
warrant testing. "
"In sampling the clays for testing, the whole clay section in a hole was saved
but was divided into intervals which corresponded to drill run intervals. In most
cases the plastic clay interval was not extensive, due to sand strata interbedded
with the clays. Where these interbedded sand strata were over 2 or 3 inches they
were discarded, otherwise, the silicious content of the clays would be
undesirably high."
CERAMIC PROPERTIES OF CLAYS
Pure clays, that is clays of only one kind of material, in nature are virtually
impossible to find. Instead they generally are mixed with substances such as
quartz sand, silt and mica as well as iron-bearing minerals.
Heron (1965) made the following observations concerning ceramic properties
of clays. The percentages of clay material to non-clay material in a sample has a
direct bearing on the use of that particular clay. The larger the percentage of
clay minerals present the greater is the increase in the plastic strength, dry
strength, water of plasticity, dry and firing shrinkage.
Kaolinite in general has low plastic strength, dry strength, water of plasticity,
whereas, montmorillonite has the opposite of these physical characteristics.
Montmorillonite is much more complex chemically than kaolinite and will fire
to darker colors as well as becoming glassy at low temperatures.
The blending of various clays may make it possible to obtain a useful product.
For example, montmorillonite generally has a high plasticity and becomes very
useful in blending with other clays that are deficient in this physical
characteristic.






BULLETIN NO. 50


Quartz, one of the most common non-clay minerals associated with clay, can
have both a good and bad effect on the use of the clay as ceramic material. Too
much quartz results in a low plasticity and a poor ceramic bond. However, too
little quartz can result in the material being too plastic and having too high
shrinkage.
The presence of iron in clay material has a decided effect on the color of the
fired-clay products. The final color of the fired-clay product is partially
dependent on the compounds of iron produced during the firing of the clay.
LABORATORY TESTING PROCEDURE

To determine the characteristics of clay it must be subjected to standard
ceramic testing to see if it as a finished product will meet standard specifications
for the various structural-clay products.
Because some clays have both the ideal physical and chemical characteristics
they can be used as they come from a deposit. However, if they do not have the
right characteristics it may be necessary to develop blends fitted to the
manufacturer's process and product.
The following testing procedures were used by the U. S. Bureau of Mines
(Hickman and Hamlin, 1964, p. 13):
"A 2-pound representative sample of the material as received is dried at
230F and ground so that 100 percent passes 20 mesh. One hundred grams of
the dried clay is mixed with water (measured) to form a plastic mass. The
working properties of the clay are noted, and small test specimens
(approximately 1-%" x 2-%" x Y4) are fabricated using a steel mold or die. The
test specimens are marked for shrinkage, dried at 150 F for 12 hours and at
230 F for an additional 12 hours. Six of the dried specimens are placed in a
laboratory kiln and the temperature raised slowly to prevent disintegration
when the mechanically and chemically combined water is released.
Approximately 3 hours are required for the kiln to reach 18000F. Test
specimens are removed from the kiln at 18000, 20000, 21000, 22000, 23000,
and 24000F, after a 15-minute "soak" at each indicated temperature. About 4
hours are required to cover the range of 18000 to 24000F, and these
temperatures cover the range encountered in most ceramic firing and are
adequate for general appraisals.
"The method described for making the test specimen is essentially the "soft
mud process" and, in comparison with the "stiff mud process" normally used
in commercial production, the quantity of water used for achieving plasticity is
higher. Firing shrinkages also are higher since the clay is not de-aired, and the
pressure used in forming is much less."
EXTRUSION TESTS
To explain why some of the samples were subjected to extrusion tests the
following is quoted from M. E. Tyrrell (personal communication, 1968).






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


"A laboratory de-airing extrusion machine of the drop-through type is used
to test samples found to be promising for heavy clay products in preliminary
tests.
"Bulk samples (20-25 pounds) are spread in trays and dried overnight at
1600F. Dried clay samples are crushed to pass a 6-mesh sieve, shales are
generally crushed to pass 12-mesh.
"After tempering with water in a dough mixer, the samples are extruded
under 28 inches of vacuum. The standard test shape is a 1-inch square bar cut
to 8-inch lengths. Shrinkage marks are spaced 6 inches apart on one face of the
bar. Bars are dried in air overnight followed by drying 24 hours at 1600F. The
bars are fired in an electric box-type kiln on a 24-hour schedule.
"From the extrusion test, the following data are reported: Tempering water,
drying shrinkage and dry modulus, characteristics of fired bars including total
shrinkage, color, hardness, absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, and
fired modulus of rupture."
In order to more fully understand the testing procedure mentioned above and
the laboratory results mentioned later in this report the following terminology is
discussed:

Plasticity or Workability

Clays when mixed with water become plastic. Generally clays that are highly
plastic when mixed with water are called "fat clays," whereas those that exhibit
only slight plasticity when mixed with water are called "lean clay." Clays should
be sufficiently plastic to assure good workability and with sufficient strength to
flow smoothly in a column during extursion.

Water of Plasticity

Water of plasticity is the percent of water required to cause a clay to reach a
plastic state.
The water of plasticity can be determined by the formula.

T=WpWd X 100
Wd

Dry Modulus of Rupture or Dry Strength

Dry modulus of rupture or dry strength is usually determined by either
compression or transverse tests performed on the unfired molded or extruded
product. The dry strength is sometimes expressed as low, good, etc. However, it
is also expressed mathematically in terms of the modulus of rupture in pounds
per square inch. Aase (1964, p. 58) states that the dry strength of a brick should
exceed 70 pounds per square inch so that it can be handled easily without the
danger of breakage.





BULLETIN NO. 50


Fired Modulus Of Rupture

The fired modulus of rupture is the measurement of transverse strength in
pounds per square inch of the clay product after firing. According to Aase
(1965, p. 58), the fired modulus of rupture for brick should exceed 600 pounds
per square inch, 2,000 pounds per square inch for hollow tile or sewer pipe,
1,200 pounds per square inch for drain tile, and 2,700 pounds per square inch
for quarry or floor tile.
Drying Shrinkage

Drying shrinkage is the amount of linear shrinkage that takes place in the clay
between the time it is shaped into its final form until it is ready for firing.
According to Murray (1960, p. 274), drying shrinkage is dependent on the
amount of water in the clay, its character, and its plasticity. That is, some fat
clays tend to warp and crack whereas lean clays will dry to form a weak and
porous body.
Firing Shrinkage

Firing shrinkage is the amount of linear shrinkage that takes place during
firing of the clays.
Total shrinkage which would include drying shrinkage must not exceed 16
percent if the clay is to be suitable for brick and drain tile (Aase, 1964, p. 58).
Percent Absorption
Percent absorption relates to the percent of water absorbed by the finished
structural-clay product. In cold climates this factor is important because of
freezing and thawing effects. However, Robinson, Buie, and Johnson (1961, p.
7-8) suggest that a better test for absorption is the determination of the
saturation coefficient (C/B ratio), which the ratio of absorption after 24 hours
submersion in cold water compared with 5 hours submersion in boiling water.
Firing Temperature
The point at which clays will harden and become brick is a significant factor
in the evaluation of clays for structural products. The lower the temperature
that the clay will vitrify into brick the better because of the lower amount of
fuel that is consumed in the manufacturing process.
The clays sent in by the writers to the Bureau of Mines for testing were fired
between 18000 and 23000F.

Moh's Hardness
Moh's hardness is an empirical scale by which the hardness of an object is
determined as compared with a standard. The number increases as the hardness
increases.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Bulk Density

Bulk density is in grams (gms) per cubic centimeter (cc), of a specimen
expressed as the quotient of its dry weight divided by the total volume.

TEST RESULTS

Thirty outcrop samples were submitted for testing by the writers from
Holmes, Walton, and Washington counties. As the test results will indicate there
are a number of samples from these counties that will produce structural-clay
products. The firing results indicate that some of the clays were unsuited
individually for structural-clay products. However, upon blending together the
clays from several localities it was determined the composite would make a
usable raw material.
Sweeney and Shirley (1965, p. 20), in their study of Holmes County clays,
said:

"Clay samples from each of the 13 holes tested were separated into 3 to 7
intervals and ceramic property tests run on each interval. In addition samples
from selected intervals from the first three holes were washed to remove sand
and fired to determine what effect beneficiation would have on the samples.
On evaluation the firing results of each clay interval of the 13 holes, composite
samples were prepared for five of the holes that showed potential. Each
composite consisted of all the clay intervals of holes, previously tested
separately. The composite sample represented the material that would be
extracted from a deposit; however, the test results from any one sample
interval or composite sample should not be considered conclusive for
development of a commercial operation because it only presented the test
results of one interval or one site tested, although it is indicative of the
possibilities of the material tested. A total of 70 ceramic property tests were
made which include 60 tests on individual intervals, five on beneficiated
material and five on composites."
They (Sweeney and Shirley, 1965, p. 20) also stated that:
"Chemical analyses were made on selected intervals from six drill holes. A
total of nine analyses were made to determine what minerals were present in
the clays and to determine if the fluxes, such as Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, were
excessive for the manufacture of structural-clay products. The results of these
analyses are shown in Table 3." (See Table 2, this report)
SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND EVALUATIONS

The location, field description, unfired characteristics, and the results of the
ceramic-property tests of each sample taken are given on the following pages. In
the instances where the ceramic-property tests were favorable extrusion tests
were conducted and these data are included.




TABLE 2. CHEMICAL ANALYSES IN PERCENT OF SELECTED HOLMES COUNTY CLAYS


Sample Location Interval, LOIj SiO2 A1203 Fe203 TiO2 CaO MgO NaO2 K20 P205 LOII Total
# feet at 1400C

HC-1 SW/4Sec. 11, T3N, R18W 29-33 3.92 68.46 14.44 4.09 .78 .50 .07 1.55 .14 9.55 99.58

HC-1 12-22 .65 84.50 8.87 1.93 .39 .10 Tr. .02 .25 .09 3.45 99.60
(washed)

HC-1 22-30 1.39 78.91 10.16 3.65 .65 .09 Tr. .05 1.15 .28 4.61 99.55
(washed)

HC-2 SW /Sec. 11, T3N, R18W 4-8 1.46 75.70 14.24 1.12 1.23 0 Tr. .04 .30 .11 7.01 99.75
(washed)
Z
HC-2 8-10 2.04 70.58 17.65 1.45 .96 0 Tr. .08 .47 .13 8.65 99.97 Z
(washed)

HC-3 SW/4 Sec. 11, T3N, R18W 12-13 1.71 82.49 8.40 3.70 .36 .09 Tr. .01 .30 .08 4.80 100.23
(washed)

HC-4 SSW'4 Sec. 10, T3N, R18W 13-17.5 3.31 82.44 8.05 2.00 .55 .38 .30 .63 0 6.09 100.49

HC-5 SSWA Sec. 10, T3N, R18W 13.6-18.4 6.90 72.29 12.12 1.90 .40 .96 .10 1.30 0 10.56 99.63

HC-6 SE NW/4 Sec. 14, T5N, R17W 1.5-2.9 4.04 67.78 16.52 4.03 .68 .37 .08 .47 .16 9.73 99.82

LOI Loss on ignition.
2 Total iron.


TTI Q *ID A






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Holmes County

The data on Sample Nos. 0-137, 0-138, 0-158, 0-197, 0-231 are taken from
Florida Geological Survey Information Circular No. 2 (Calver, 1949, p. 32, 33,
53). Though these data are included for reference they are not as complete as
test data obtained through present testing procedures of the U. S. Bureau of
Mines.

SAMPLE No. 0-137
LOCATION: About four miles east of Argyle and one-quarter mile downstream from
Scott's Mill in a bluff on the left bank of Sandy Creek.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Forty-one foot section containing 5 beds. Collected from 3-foot
clay (bed 3).
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity .......................... Excellent
Water of plasticity ....................... 39%
Linear shrinkage .......................11.2%
Modulus of rupture ................... 1100 psi
Unfired color .......................Dark gray
Slow Fired Characteristics

Temp. (OF) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
1740 1.0 15.0 33.7 Reddish orange
1920 0.5 15.4 34.7 Reddish orange
1995 3.0 10.1 28.2 Reddish orange
2100 -
2175 3.0 9.5 27.6 Brick red
2280 -
Potential Use: Not given
SAMPLE No. 0-138

LOCATION: About four miles east of Argyle and one-quarter mile downstream from
Scott's Mill in a bluff on the left bank of Sandy Creek.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Forty-one foot section containing 5 beds. Collected from 3.5-foot
clay bed (bed 4).
LABORATORY RESULTS:

Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity .......................... Excellent
Water of plasticity ....................... 51%
Linear shrinkage........................14.1%
Modulus of rupture .................... 820 psi
Unfired color ................... Grayish yellow






BULLETIN NO. 50


Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (F) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
1740 1.5 12.2 28.1 Reddish orange
1920 2.0 10.1 23.6 Reddish orange
1995 3.0 5.0 16.0 Reddish orange
2100 -
2175 6.0 2.7 9.5 Light brick red
2280 -
Potential Use: Not given
SAMPLE No. 0-158

LOCATION: Prospect pit near foot of hill 3.3 miles north of Ponce de Leon.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 6-foot grayish-yellow clay bed.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity ........................... Good
Water of plasticity ..................... 40%
Linear shrinkage ........................13.2%
Modulus of rupture .................... 720 psi
Unfired color ............Medium grayish yellow
Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (F) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
1740 0.0 17.3 32.4 Brick red
1920 1.0 14.5 30.8 Brick red
1995 3.0 10.5 25.8 Brick red
2100 4.5 7.5 20.5 Brick red
2175 5.0 4.9 19.5 Brick red
2280 6.0 4.9 17.7 Dark red
Potential Use: Shrinkage high but might be used in the manufacture of brick.

SAMPLE No. 0-197
LOCATION: Just north of milepost 739 on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, in a gully.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Sample collected from a 10-foot clayey sand and clay bed.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity ...... ......... ........... Good
Water of plasticity ..................... 46%
Linear shrinkage .........................9.4%
Modulus of rupture ................. 290 psi
Unfired color ...................Medium brown






26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (F) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
1740 1.5 23.8 41.9 Reddish orange
1920 2.5 19.1 38.2 Light red
1995 4.0 14.9 33.3 Light red
2100 7.5 9.8 26.2 Brick red
2175 7.0 8.9 25.4 Brick red
2280 7.5 8.3 24.4 Brick red
Potential Use: The composite sample is suitable for brick.


SAMPLE No. 0-231
LOCATION: About four miles east of Argyle and one-quarter mile downstream from
Scott's Mill in a bluff on the left bank of Sandy Creek.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Forty-one foot section containing 5 beds. A composite of beds 2,
3, and 4 (18.5 feet thick).
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity ........................... Good
Water of plasticity ..................... 28%
Linear shrinkage ......................... 7%
Modulus of rupture .................. 500 psi
Unfired color ................... Yellowish gray
Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (OF) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
1740 0.0 14.7 34.6 Reddish orange
1920 0.0 14.0 34.6 Reddish orange
1995 1.0 13.2 33.9 Reddish orange
2100 1.0 12.7 32.6 Brick red
2175 2.0 11.6 30.9 Brick red
2280 1.5 12.2 32.0 Brick red
Potential Use: Should make brick.
The writers submitted 12 clay samples from Holmes County to the U. S.
Bureau of Mines for ceramic property tests, and these data are presented as
follows:

SAMPLE No. LHo-5N-17W-31 cbb
LOCATION: SW%/, NE%, NE%, section 31, T5N, R17W (Prosperity Quadrangle).
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from clay bed cropping out in ditch on each side of
graded road.






BULLETIN NO. 50


LABORATORY RESULTS:

Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .........Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity ......................27.1%
Drying shrinkage .......................10.0%
Dry strength .......................... Good
Color .................................... Yellow

Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (F) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Orange tan
Orange tan
Light brown
Dark brown
Red brown
Red brown


(Moh's)
Hardness

3
4
5
5
6
6


Bulk density
gm/cc

2.03
2.07
2.33
2.36
2.38
2.34


Potential Use: -Because of excessive shrinkage this clay is not suitable for vitreous clay
productL
Remarks: Excessive shrinkage


SAMPLE No. LHo-5N-17W-35 adc
LOCATION: NWY4, SE%, SW%, section 35, T5N, R17W (Prosperity Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected on southwest side of roadcut about 7 feet above base of
40- to 50-foot section. Two clay beds exposed, each approximately 15-20 feet thick, and
separated by clayey sand beds.
LABORATORY RESULTS:


Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .
Water of plasticity . .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength . . .
Color ..........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF)
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color

12.5 24.7 Pink
12.5 24.4 Pink
12.5 22.7 Pink
20.0 13.3 Cream
25.0 0.1 Gray


. .. .Moderate plasticity
. . . . .. 36.0%
. . . . ... 10%
. . . .... .Good
......... ..White


(Moh's) Bulk density
Hardness gm/cc


Potential Use: Face brick and glazed structural-tile bodies
Remarks: High shrinkage, however, may be used as the plastic fraction in brick and glazed
structural-tile mixtures.





28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-18W-25 add
LOCATION: NW%, SE%, SE%, section 25, T4N, R18W (Prosperity Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from north side of graded road. Clay interbedded with
sand.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . . ... Low plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . ... 28.9%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . ... 2.5%
Dry strength .................. Fair
Color ..................... .Yellow
Slow Fired Characteristics
(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 5.0 22.1 Light brown 2 1.71
1900 5.0 21.3 Light brown 2 1.72
2000 7.5 17.9 Light brown 3 1.82
2100 12.5 9.7 Brown 4 2.09
2200 15.0 6.7 Dark brown 5 2.20
2300 15.0 4.9 Dark brown 6 29
Potential Use: Face brick
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick* specifications at about
21000F.
*"SW" brick intended for use where a high degree of resistance to frost action is desired,
and the expansion is such that the brick may be frozen when permeated with water.
EXTRUSION TEST
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-18W-25 add
Body Composition . . . . . . . .... . Raw clay through 6-mesh: 100%
Tempering Water . . . . . . . ..... .. ...... 29% of dry batch weight
Vacuum On Machine . . . . . . . ..... ........ ..21 inches of mercury
Drying ......................... 24 hours in air; 24 hours at 1400F.
Drying Shrinkage ................... .................6.3%
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired . . . . . . . .... . . . 580 psi
Firing:
Time .................................24 hours
Temperature ..............................2100F
Cone ................... ............. .. 4 over
Total shrinkage ................... ............... 12.5%
Absorption, 5-hour boiled ................... ............ 7.2%
Absorption, 24-hour soaked ..............................5.8%
Saturation coefficient ................................. 0.81
Apparent porosity ................... .............. 15.8%
Bulk density ................... ................2.19 gm/cc
Fired modulus of rupture ............................. 3140 psi
Moh's hardness ................... .................. 7.5
Color ................... .................. Light brown
Potential Use: Should meet "SW" face brick specifications as processed.






BULLETIN NO. 50


SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-5 ab

LOCATION: Center of S% of NW4, NE%, section 5, T4N, R17W (Prosperity Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from roadcut on north side of Florida Highway 51. Eight
feet of sandy clay interbedded with sand beds. The clay bed is overlain by two feet of
overburden. Observations of the clay bed in nearby roadcuts indicate it underlies the entire


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics ...... ..Good plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . ... 41.1%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . .... 12.0%
Dry strength ................. .Good
Color .......... ............ Buff

Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


(Moh's) Bulk density
Hardness gm/cc


Salmon
Salmon
Buff
Light brown
Brown
Dark brown


Potential Use: Common brick; face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at 19000-20000F. Shrinkage rather
high.
SAMPLE Nos. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (5, 6, 16, 46, 56, 156, 1456)
LOCATION: These samples were collected from a roadcut on the south side of U. S.
Highway 90 in the E/z, SE', NEI, section 30, T4N, R17W (Ponce de Leon Quadrangle).
The following section was measured by Yon, Hendry and Preston.

Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
10 Soil zone 4

9 Light brown, fine to very coarse, predominantly medium to very coarse,
angular to subrounded micaceous, quartz SAND; contains a trace of heavies,
up to 2% gravel present; within the bed are zones of kaolinitic clay and blind
shrimp tubes. The bed is indurated, toward the east end of the section it
becomes more weathered and cut with shear fractures that are filled with
clay.

8 Mottled medium red, yellow orange and yellowish gray, fine to coarse
graveliferous, silty, clayey quartz SAND. Bed contains more gravel toward
top of bed. Bed is indurated on weathered surface. 10 to 12






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


7 Dark yellow orange and pale greenish yellow, fine to medium, angular to
subangular, silty, clayey quartz SAND. The sand contains heavies and pea
gravel Grades into bed 8. 2.5

6 Mottled moderate red to reddish brown, dark yellowish orange, light olive
gray, very slightly sandy, silty, blocky CLAY. The clay contains arcuate
orange color banding. Grades into bed 7. 6 to 8

5 Light brown, slightly sandy CLAY. Top 3"of bed is dark brown because of
iron enrichment. Grades into bed 6. 1.5

4 Mottled dark yellow orange and yellowish gray, very fine to coarse, silty, very
clayey quartz SAND. Contains abundant molds and casts of macro-fossils
which have been replaced by iron oxide. Bed becomes more clayey toward
top. Grades into bed 5. 2.5

3 Dark yellow orange, fine to medium quartz SAND. Contains slight amount of
clay as matrix and blebs. Molds and casts of macro-fossils replaced by iron
oxide. Grades into bed 4. 3.0

2 Yellowish to light olive gray, silty to sandy, blocky CLAY. Contains a trace
of heavies and a white mineral. Some iron staining along thin bedding. Sharp
contact with bed 3. 2.0

1 Yellowish gray, fine to medium, quartz SAND. Contains a few coarse grains
and a trace of heavy minerals. Specks of light brown limonite staining
throughout bed. Grades into bed 2. 6.0

Base of section.
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (5)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from bed 5.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics ...... ..Good plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . .... 45.6%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . ..... 15%
Dry strength ................. .Good
Color ...................... Buff
Slow Fired Characteristics

(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 15.0 21.4 Salmon 3+ 1.66
1900 16.3 17.1 Salmon 5 1.78
2000 20.0 9.9 Light brown 6 1.96






BULLETIN NO. 50


2100 22.5 5.4 Brown 6+ 2.09
2200 23.8 4.1 Dark brown 6+ 2.12
2300 23.8 4.5 Dark brown 7 2.67
Potential Use: Sewer pipe.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face-brick specifications at 1900-20000F shrinkage is high.

SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (6)

FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from bed 6.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . . ... High plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . . . 33.3%
Drying shrinkage ................. 5%
Dry strength . . . . . . . . .Good
Color .......................Tan

Slow Fired Characteristics

(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 7.5 21.6 Tan 3 1.72
1900 7.5 19.6 Tan 4 1.76
2000 10.0 16.8 Tan 4 1.84
2100 12.5 11.7 Light brown 5 1.98
2200 12.5 10.0 Gray brown 6 2.05
2300 12.5 9.9 Gray 6 2.05
Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 2093F. Shrinkage a little
high.
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (16)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Composite sample of sand and clay from beds 1 and 6.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .... ..Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . ... 27.7%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . ... 5.0%
Dry strength ..................Good
Color ............. .......... Tan






32 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Slow Fired Characteristics
(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 5.0 20.3 Red tan 3 1.76
1900 5.0 20.1 Red tan 3 1.77
2000 7.5 17.5 Beige 3 1.84
2100 7.5 14.4 Light brown 4 1.91
2200 7.5 13.5 Brown 4 1.94
2300 7.5 13.5 Gray 4 1.95
Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 21560F. Mixed by weight:
25% bed 1, 75% bed 6. See Extrusion Test.
EXTRUSION TEST
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (16)
Body Composition . . . . . . ... Raw clay (bed 6) through 8 mesh: 75%
Raw clay (1) through 8 mesh: 25%
Tempering Water . . . . . . . ..... ........ ..24% of batch weight.
Vacuum On Machine . . . . . . . ..... ........ 26 inches of mercury.
Drying .......................... 24 hours in air; 24 hours at 60 C.
Drying Shrinkage ................... .................7.3%
Dry Modulus Of Rupture ............................. 151 psi.
Firing:
Time .................................24 hours
Temperature ..............................21400F
Cone ................... .............. 5 over
Total shrinkage ................... ................ 10.4%
Absorption, 5-hour ................... .............. 10.4%
Absorption, 24-hour ..................................6.8%
Saturation coefficient .................................0.65
Apparent porosity .................................. 20.5%
Bulk density ................... ................ 1.97 gm/cc
Fired modulus of rupture .............................1663 psi
Moh's hardness ................... ..................7.5
Color ....................................... Orange-red
Potential Use: Face brick.
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (46)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Composite sample of sand and clay beds 4 to 6 collected from
roadcut
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .... ..Moderate Plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . .... 25.9%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . ... 2.5%
Dry strength ................. .Good
Color .......................Tan






BULLETIN NO.50


Slow Fired Characteristics


(Moh's)


Bulk density


Temp. (OF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 2.5 21.1 Red tan 3 1.75
1900 2.5 20.1 Red tan 3 1.78
2000 5.0 16.7 Beige 4 1.86
2100 7.5 14.4 Light brown 4 1.94
2200 7.5 12.6 Brown 4 2.00
2300 7.5 13.2 Gray 4 1.97
Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 21560F. Mixed by weight:
25% bed 4, 75% bed 6.
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (56)

FIELD DESCRIPTION: Composite sample of clays from beds 5 and 6.


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color .........


. . .. .Moderate plasticity
. . . . . .. 30.5%
. . . . . . .. 2.5%
............ .Good
.............. Tan


Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF)


Shk. (%)


1800 2.5
1900 2.5
2000 10.0
2100 12.5
2200 12.5
2300 12.5
Potential Use: Face brick.


Abs. (%)
22.1
20.3
14.1
9.4
8.4
11.7


Color

Orange
Orange
Beige
Light brown
Brown
Gray


(Moh's)
Hardness
3
4
5
6
6
6


Bulk density
gm/cc

1.72
1.81
1.94
2.09
2.13
2.00


Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 20930F. Shrinkage slightly
high. Mixed by weight: 20% bed 5, 80% bed 6.


SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (156)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Composite sample of sand and clays from beds 1, 5, and 6 collected
from roadcut.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .... ..Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . . ... 29.5
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . ... 10.0%
Dry strength ................. .Good
Color ....................... . Tan






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF) Shk. (%)
1800 12.5
1900 12.5
2000 12.5
2100 12.5
2200 12.5
2300 12.5
Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Color marginal.
Extrusion Test


Abs. (%)
21.1
20.0
16.5
15.9
14.9
14.2


Color
Peach
Tan
Dark tan
Light brown
Brown
Gray


(Moh's)
Hardness
3
4
4
5
6
6


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.71
1.77
1.87
1.88
1.92
1.94


Mixes by weight: 25% bed 1, 15% bed 5, 60% bed 6. See


EXTRUSION TEST
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (156)
Body Composition . . . . . . .... Raw clay (bed 1) through 8 mesh: 25%
Raw clay (bed 5) through 8 mesh: 15%
Raw clay (bed 6)through 8 mesh: 60%
Tempering Water . . . . . . . ..... ........ ..18% of batch weight
Vacuum On Machine . . . . . . . ..... ....... ..26 inches mercury.
Drying .......................... 24 hours in air; 24 hours at 60C.
Drying Shrinkage ................... ................. 3.6%
Dry Modulus Of Rupture . . . . . . . ..... ....... Not determined.
Firing:
Time ................................. 24 hours
Temperature ..............................2140F
Cone ................... .............. 5 over
Total shrinkage ................... ................ 11.5%
Absorption, 5-hour ................... .............. 10.0%
Absorption, 24-hour ................... ...............6.4%
Saturation coefficient ................................. 0.64
Apparent porosity ................... .............. 19.3%
Bulk density ................... ................ 2.01 gm/cc
Fired modulus of rupture ............................. 1500 psi
Moh's hardness ................... .................. 7.5
Color ........................................ Light red.
Potential Use: Face brick.
SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-17W-30 db (1456)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Composite sample of sands and clays from beds 1, 4, 5 and 6.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . . ... Low plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . . . 21.4%
Drying shrinkage ............... 0.0%
Dry strength .................. Low
Color .......................Tan







BULLETIN NO. 50


Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


Orange
Orange
Tan
Light brown
Red brown
Gray brown


(Moh's)
Hardness

2
3
4
4
4
4


Bulk density
gm/cc

1.73
1.76
1.80
1.83
1.83
1.79


Potential Use: None.
Remarks: This mixture not suitable for use in clay products. Low dry strength; poor
ceramic bond; poor color. Mixed by weight: 35% bed 1, 15% bed 4, 10% bed 5, 40% bed 6.

SAMPLE No. LHo-4N-15W-13 cdc
LOCATION: SW%/, SEY4, SW4, section 13, T4N, R15W (Poplar Head Quadrangle)

FIELD DESCRIPTION: Sample collected from roadcut on north side of east-west road
from a 10-foot, massive clay zone. The clay zone is interbedded with sand zones up to six
inches thick. The clay zone is overlain by up to two feet of sand. Clay similar to this locality
occurs along the entire length of this graded road at the south edge of section 13, T4N,
R15W.

LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .... ..Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity. . . . . . 38.4%
Drying shrinkage. . . . ...... . 7.5%
Dry strength .................. Fair
Color ...... .......... ... ...Pink
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


Salmon
Salmon
Salmon
Beige
Tan
Buff


(Moh's) Bulk density
Hardness gm/cc

Poor bond
Poor bond
Poor bond -
3 1.59


Potential Use: None by itself, however, if blended with clays from LWs-4N-15W-6 bcd (See
Extrusion Test) face brick could be manufactured.
Remarks: Poor ceramic bond, however, may be useful as a nonplastic fraction to control
shrinkage in brick mixtures. See Sample LW-4N-15W-6 bed.


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


EXTRUSION TEST
COMPOSITE OF SAMPLE Nos. LWs-4N-15W-6 bcd and LHo-4N-15W-13 cdc
Body Composition ......... Raw clay LHo-4N-15W-13 cdc through 6 mesh; 50%
Raw clay LWs-4N-15W-6 bed through 6 mesh; 50%.
Tempering Water ................. ....... .. 29% of dry batch weight
Vacuum On Machine ................. ....... .. 22 inches of mercury.
Drying . . . . . . . .... ....... 24 hours in air; 24 hours at 1400F.
Drying Shrinkage ................... .................4.2%
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired . . . . . . . ..... ........ 380 psi
Firing:
Time ................................. 24 hours
Temperature ..............................21800F
Cone ................... ............. .. 6 over
Total shrinkage ................... ................ 12.5%
Absorption, 5-hour boiled ............................... 7.6%
Absorption, 24-hour soaked .............................. 5.9%
Saturation coefficient ................................. 0.78
Apparent porosity ................... .............. 16.7%
Bulk density ................... ................2.20 gm/cc
Fired modulus of rupture ............................. 1620 psi
Moh's hardness ...................................... 6.5
Color...........................................Buff
Potential Use: Should meet "SW" face brick specifications as processed. Attractive color.

The ceramic-property tests on clays from core holes in Holmes County, drilled
by the U. S. Bureau of Mines (Sweeney and Shirley, 1965, pp. 38-54) appear in
table 3.
Walton County
The following data on Walton County were taken from the Florida Geological
Survey Information Circular No. 2 (1949, p. 43, 58).
SAMPLE No. 0-195
LOCATION: One-quarter of a mile south of the railroad at Paxton.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from silty clay bed 7 feet thick occurring in a ditch.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity ................... .Good
Water of plasticity . . . . . ... 28%
Linear shrinkage . . . . . . ... 5.9%
Modulus of rupture . . . . ... 90 psi
Unfired color . . . ... Light pinkish brown






BULLETIN NO. 50


Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (OF) Linear shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color

1740 0.0 19.0 35.7 Reddish orange
1920 0.0 19.1 36.8 Buff
1995 0.5 18.1 35.4 Buff
2100 1.0 17.0 34.6 Buff
2175 1.0 16.7 34.0 Buff
2280 1.5 16.1 31.7 Buff
Potential Use: Suitable for making brick.

SAMPLE No. 0-413
LOCATION: A well on the D. R. Thompson property, 2 miles east of DeFuniak Springs, on
U.S. Highway 90, in section 30, T3N, R18W.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from the bottom six feet of (19-25) well and from an
auger hole 20 feet east of well.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity .................... High
Water of plasticity . . . . . . . 51.8%
Linear shrinkage . . . . . . ... 6.0%
Modulus of rupture . . . . . ... 190 psi
Unfired color .................. White
Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (oF) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
1740 10.4 36.8 49.1 White
1920 11.6 35.6 49.9 White
1995 11.6 35.2 49.4 White
2100 18.8 19.5 35.4 White
2175 21.0 15.5 30.0 White
2280 26.2 5.1 13.0 Light purple
Remarks: Steel hard at cone 4 (approximately 21000F). Pyrometric cone equivalent = 33+
(slightly greater than 31200F). Clay is 13% of total sample. According to Calver (1949, p.
10) "The kaolin has excellent color, high plasticity, low shrinkage, and moderate strength. It
compares, favorably with the Putnam County kaolins." For chemical analysis see Calver
(1949, p. 14).
The writers submitted ten samples from outcrops and one sample from a core
hole in Walton County to the U.S. Bureau of Mines for ceramic evaluation and
the conclusions of these tests are presented on the following pages.

SAMPLE No. LW1-6N-19W-34 cb
LOCATION: SWY4, NE/4, section 34, T6N, R19W (Glendale Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: About 10 feet of mottled gray, red-brown, silty, sandy clay
exposed on south side of Florida Highway 181.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


LABORATORY RESULTS:

Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color .........


. . . .Moderate plasticity
. . . . . .. 19.2%
. . . . ... 10.0%
............ Good
............Yellow


Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF)

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


12.5
12.5
12.5
15.0
15.0
Expanded


Orange tan
Orange tan
Light brown
Brown
Red brown


(Moh's)
Hardness

3
4
4
5
6


Bulk density
gm/cc

1.94
2.00
2.08
2.12
2.12


Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 20000F. Shrinkage a little
high.

SAMPLE No. WW1-5N-21W-35 ace (St. Regis Core hole No. 1)

LOCATION: NW/4, SW/4, SW/4, section 35, T5N, R21W (Laurel Hill Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from cored interval between 31-52 feet.

LABORATORY RESULTS:


Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of placticity .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color .........

Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%)

1800 5.0 16.5
1900 5.0 16.2
2000 5.0 15.9
2100 7.5 15.9
2200 7.5 15.6
2300 7.5 13.3


. . . Low plasticity
. . . . . ... 16.1%
. . . . . . . 2.5%
............. 25%
............. FaPink
. . . . . . . Pink


(Moh's) Bulk density
Color Hardness gm/cc

Pink 2 1.86
Pink 2 1.87
Light beige 2 1.88
Light beige 3 1.88
Light tan 3 1.88
Light ivory 4 2.08


Potential Use: Glazed brick and structural tile.
Remarks: The addition of a plasticizer might be required to improve extrusion
characteristics.






U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


HC-1


SW%4,
Sec 11,
T3N,
R18W


12.9-21.9


21.9-26.01 5.9


26.0-29.91 5.5


29.9-36.0


5.8 15.0


25.0







27.6







30.6


5.5


0.0







5.5







5.5







5.5


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000


Reddish tan
Reddish tan
Tan
Tan
Light brown
Purple tan

Red brown
Red brown
Brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Dark brown

Tan
Tan
Light brown
Chocolate
Brown
Dark gray

Tan
Tan
Light brown


Crumbled
Crumply
Crumply
Crumbly
Fair hard
Fair hard

Soft
Soft
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard


0.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1.4

5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.5

8.0
9.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

9.0
10.0
14.0


4.4
4.5
4.7
4.7
4.9
5.1

4.4
4.0
4.5
4.8
4.9
4.8

4.3
4.5
5.0
5.6
6.0
6.8

4.8
5.1
7.8


2.45
2.45
2.47
2.49
2.48
2.50

2.49
2.53
2.51
2.48
2.46
2.46

2.56
2.53
2.51
2.49
2.44
2.41

2.57
2.61
2.50


It


z
z
p

0


J


I


IUnfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic p~rop~erty tests




Table 3. Continued


0


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


30.6




32.0


HC-1




HC-1
(Washed)













HC-2


5.3 16.2


29.9-36.01 5.5


SW34,
Sec 11,
T3N,
R18W


5.5




5.0







10.0







4.5


2100
2200
2300


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Chocolate
Chocolate
Dark gray


Reddish tan
Reddish tan
Tan
Tan
Light brown
Brown

Red brown
Red brown
Light brown
Brown
Chocolate
Dark brown

Pink
Pink
Pale pink
Off white
Buff
Buff


Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard


Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Soft
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard


14.0
15.0
15.0


6.0
7.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.5
11.0
11.5
14.5
14.5
14.5

4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5


9.5
10.4
12.7


4.6
4.5
4.7
5.3
5.9
6.2

4.1
5.3
5.7
6.4
7.2
6.8

5.2
5.5
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.1


12.9-21.9 I 5.8


21.9-29.91 5.9 33.0


2.46
2.43
2.27


2.60
2.65 >
2.69
O
2.69
2.69
2.70 M

2.68 8
2.68
2.68
2.65
2.61
2.24

2.56
2.53
2.53
2.48
2.48
2.46


SW/4,
Sec 11,
T3N,
R18W


4-8




Table 3. Continued


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


HC-2


SW/4,
Sec. 11,
T3N,
R18W


8-10







10-14







14-16







16-18


5.0







5.1







5.9







5.7


25.0







26.0







32.2







18.8


4.5







5.0







5.5







5.0


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100


Pale pink
Pale pink
Off white
Pale buff
Buff
Light gray

Red tan
Red tan
Tan
Light brown
Chocolate
Purple brown

Red tan
Red tan
Tan
Brown
Dark brown
Purple brown

Red tan
Red tan
Tan
Light brown


It1

z
z

0
o


Soft
Soft
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard

Soft
Soft
Soft
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard


5.0
5.0
5.0
9.0
9.0
9.0

5.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0

10.0
10.5
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

5.0
5.0
8.0
12.0


4.5
5.0
4.9
5.2
5.7
5.9

4.2
4.7
4.7
5.5
5.8
5.9

4.8
5.2
7.6
13.2
13.9
18.5

4.9
5.5
5.8
5.8


2.56
2.54
2.53
2.49
2.47
2.46

2.54
2.50
2.54
2.47
2.48
2.45

2.69
2.69
2.61
2.50
2.49
2.45

2.44
2.40
2.42
2.45


I~




Table 3. Continued


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


18.8




3.08


8-10 15.01 25.0


SW1/4,
Sec. 11,
T3N,
R18W


2200 Gray brown
2300 Gray


5.7




5.6


HC-2












HC-2
(Washed)


Hard 12.0
Very hard 15.0


16-18




18-23







4-8


5.0




6.5







5.5
1900






5.5


5.6
5.2



4.9
5.6
8.4
11.0
12.4
13.5

4.5
4.4
4.5
5.0
5.7
6.3

4.1
4.2
4.3
5.2
6.2
6.6


2.47
2.50



2.62
2.59
2.48
2.45
2.41
2.37

2.60
2.68
2.67
2.68
2.67
2.64

2.62
2.67
2.66
2.70
2.62
2.63


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800

2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Red tan
Red tan
Light brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Brown black

Off white
Off white
Pale buff
Pale buff
Light gray
Light gray

Pale flesh
Pale flesh
Pale flesh
Buff
Gray buff
Light gray


Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard


10.0
10.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0

6.5
6.5
6.5
11.0
11.0
11.0

9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
14.0
14.0


5.31 32.0






Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. ir.
No. percent percent F ______ ___percent

HC-3 SW%, 12-13 5.7 18.8 5.0 1800 Lt. red-brown Crumbles 5.0 4.9 2.44
Sec. 11, 1900 Lt. red-brown Soft 5.0 5.5 2.40
T3N, 2000 Light brown Fair hard 8.0 5.8 2.42
R18W 2100 Brown Fair hard 12.0 5.8 2.45
2200 Dark brown Fair hard 12.0 5.6 2.47
2300 Dark brown Hard 15.0 5.2 2.50

13-17.5 5.6 20.4 1.0 1800 Lt. red-brown Soft 2.5 5.5 2.47
1900 Lt. red-brown Soft 2.5 5.8 2.44
2000 Light brown Fair hard 2.5 5.9 2.44
2100 Chocolate Fair hard 2.5 5.7 2.46
2200 Dark brown Hard 2.5 5.5 2.47
O
17.5-20 2.1 19.4 1.0 1800 Reddish tan Soft 1.0 5.3 2.51
1900 Reddish tan Fair hard 1.0 5.8 2.42 o
2000 Tan Fair hard 5.0 5.0 2.59
2100 Light brown Fair hard 5.0 5.4 2.55
2200 Chocolate Fair hard 5.0 5.9 2.47
2300 Dark brown Hard 5.0 5.2 2.52

20-29 5.6 19.2 0.5 1800 Reddish tan Soft .5 4.5 2.47
1900 Reddish tan Fair hard 1.5 5.3 2.42
2000 Tan Fair hard 1.5 5.1 2.44
2100 Brown Fair hard 1.5 5.1 2.50
2200 Chocolate Fair hard 1.5 5.0 2.50
2300 Purple brown Fair hard 1.5 5.2 2.44




Table 3. Continued


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent OF percent


38-47 15.01 29.8


13-17.5 12.11 42.8


HC-3







HC-3
(Washed)






HC-4


8-10.5 I 5.51 24.4


SW4,
Sec. 11,
T3N,
R18W











S2,
SW,
Sec. 10,
T3N,
R18W


5.0







9.0
1900






5.0







7.5


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800

2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100


Pink-tan
Pink-tan
Light tan
Tan
Tan
Light gray

Red-brown
Red-brown
Red-brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Dark brown

Red-brown
Red-brown
Brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Dark brown

Red-brown
Red-brown
Red-brown
Brown


Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard


7.5
7.5
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0

13.0
14.5
16.0
16.0
19.0
19.0

5.0
7.5
7.5
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
10.0
12.5
12.5


4.6
5.1
5.5
7.1
7.5
7.8

4.7
5.0
6.8
6.6
7.5
7.9

4.6
5.0
5.4
5.6
5.9
5.8

6.1
6.1
6.4
7.5


2.60
2.56
2.55
2.47
2.47
2.44

2.68
2.75
2.73
2.69
2.68
2.68

2.67
2.65
2.63
2.58
2.59
2.57

2.55
2.59
2.58
2.52


5.4 23.2


tz

C
o

M




C
0


4-8






U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent OF percent


HC-4


S%,
SWI!4,
Sec. 10,
T3N,
R18W


10.5-13 15.2


13-15


5.3


15-17.5 15.1


19.0







22.6







17.0


2.5







5.0







5.0


2200
2300




1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Dark brown
Purple brown




Red-tan
Red-tan
Tan
Brown
Chocolate
Dark brown

Light brown
Light brown
Light brown
Brown
Dark brown
Dark brown

Tan
Tan
Tan
Light brown
Brown
Dark brown


Very hard
Steel hard




Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard

Soft
Soft
Soft
Fair hard
Fair hard
Crumbled


12.5
12.5




4.5
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

5.0
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0


7.6
7.7


5.7
6.4
6.4
6.5
6.2
6.2

5.8
6.4
4.5
6.5
6.7
6.3

6.1
7.5
7.6
7.3
7.2


2.48
2.42


2.51
2.49
2.50
2.50
2.51
2.47

2.46
2.47
2.47
2.46
2.45
2.46

2.48
2.37
2.35
2.39
2.39
-


I q


O
z
Z

0


Unfired Characte s


Results of ceramic property tests






T


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


17.5-21.5 5.1


HC-4























HC-5


S%,
SW14,
Sec. 10,
T3N,
R18W




















SW4,
Sec. 10,
T3N,
R18W


16.2







22.4







31.8







23.0


0.5







8.0







10.0







7.5


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Tan
Tan
Tan
Light brown
Medium brow
Brown

Light brown
Light brown
Light brown
Chocolate
Chocolate
Dark brown

Red brown
Brown
Brown
Dark brown
Dark brown


Cream
Buff
Buff
Cream gray
Light gray
Light gray


Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Crumbled

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Very hard
Expanded
Melted

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard


C2


tT1
0
C)l
0
03


.5
.5
.5
.5
.5


8.5
10.0
10.0
13.5
13.5
10.0

15.0
17.5
14.5
11.0
3.0


7.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0


25.5-33.0 5.6


36.4-40.8 8.3


9.1
8.8
8.7
8.5
8.7


7.4
7.7
8.1
7.7
7.7
8.3

10.5
10.0
9.4
9.4
33.2


7.5
8.6
9.1
9.4
9.5
9.7


2.32
2.32
2.32
2.34
2.35


2.40
2.39
2.36
2.39
2.41
2.36

2.22
2.22
2.19
1.80
1.20


2.28
2.27
2.32
2.34
2.34
2.29


13.6-18.4


5.9


. .. ......


40,
O*


Table 3. Continued




..............~f~~R sutso crmi D o ervtet


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent ____F percent


HC-5






















HC-6


S2,
SW'4,
Sec. 10,
T3N,
R18W


















SE,
NW/4,
Sec. 14,
T5N,
R17W


18.4


8.4


20.5-24.0 8.9


13.6-24.0 7.3
Composite


1.5-2.9


6.3


31.2







19.2







30.0







16.0


12.0


5.0







10.0







2.0


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200


Light brown
Brown
Brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Dark brown

Light brown
Light brown
Light brown
Tan
Dark brown
Melted

Tan
Light brown
Light-brown
Gray brown
Dark brown
Dark brown

Red-tan
Red-tan
Light brown
Brown
Chocolate


Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard


Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard


14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
10.0

5.5
5.8
5.8
6.0
15.0


12.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
16.0
16.0

2.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
5.0


11.9
12.2
12.5
14.4
17.1
19.7

3.9
5.0
5.9
5.9
21.8


6.9
6.9
7.2
13.3
24.5
29.1

6.8
6.9
7.5
7.8
7.9


2.34
2.36
2.34
2.28
1.96
1.91

2.68
2.46
2.48
2.41
2.41


2.33
2.33
2.33
2.24
2.21
2.21

2.52
2.51
2.50
2.48
2.44


I
Lrl
oT1
=Z
0

0


Unfired Characte s


Results of ceramic
property tests





Table 3. Continued


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F_ __ percent


7.3-11.8 I5.61 15.4


11.8-14.6 6.21 18.0


HC-6















HC-10


25.6


SE4,
NW%,
Sec. 14,
T5N,
R17W










SE/4,
SENW,
NWI4,)
Sec. 10
T5N,
R17W


0.5







5.0







5.0







9.0


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Red-tan
Red-tan
Tan
Light brown
Chocolate
Chocolate

Tan
Tan
Light brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Dark brown

Light brown
Light brown
Light brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Dark brown

Tan
Light brown
Brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Black brown


Soft
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Very hard


.5
2.5
2.5
5.0
5.0
5.0

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.5
5.5

5.5
5.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
10.5
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0


5.6
6.4
8.1
7.1
7.3
7.2

8.2
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.8
6.6

7.2
8.6
6.7
6.0
11.8
11.1

9.6
12.3
14.3
16.6
17.0
22.5


21.1-24.2 6.8 17.8


2.52
2.51
2.50
2.47
2.47
2.42

2.31
2.34
2.36
2.37
2.33
2.30

2.47
2.43
2.39
2.41
2.40
2.39

2.25
2.34
2.31
2.37
2.36
1.76


27.4-29.7 7.5


I


- --







Sample
No.


HC-10







HC-11


SE,
NWl,
Sec. 10,
T5N,
R17W


N2,
NW%4,
Sec. 36,
T7N,
R14W


feet


29.7-33.41 8.0


4.3-8.8 15.8


8.8-14.8 15.8


14.8-21.8 5.6


plasticity,
percent


25.4







25.2







26.4







23.4


shrinkage
percent


9.0







5.0







9.0







7.5


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Light brown
Light brown
Brown
Chocolate
Dark brown
Black

Pink-tan
Pink-tan
Tan
Light brown
Gray brown
Gray

Pink-tan
Tan
Tan
Brown
Dark brown
Black-brown

Pink-tan
Pink-tan
Tan
Brown
Chocolate
Brown black


Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard


percent


10.0
10.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0

5.0
7.5
10.0
14.5
14.5
14.5

10.0
10.0
10.0
14.5
14.5
15.5

7.5
7.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5


percent


10.7
11.8
14.4
15.3
15.5
15.1

5.3
5.7
6.9
10.8
10.7
13.7

5.2
5.8
7.9
12.2
14.5
21.8

5.7
6.6
9.4
11.3
17.7
24.5


sp. Gr.
percent


2.37
2.36
2.35
2.35
2.44
2.25

2.64
2.62
2.62
2.54
2.54
2.45

2.62
2.62
2.58
2.50
2.50
2.48

2.58
2.53
2.45
2.41
2.43
2.40


z
z
0


I I I I -I I I 1 I I




Table 3. Continued


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


10.0


HC-11















HC-15


NW%,
Sec. 36,
T7N,
R14W










NE%,/
NE%,/
Sec. 31,
T7N,
R13W


21.8-25.8 5.5


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200


Tan
Tan
Light brown
Brown
Chocolate
Chocolate

Light brown
Light brown
Light brown
Chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate

Flesh
Flesh
Flesh-tan
Pale yellow
Yellow-tan

Tan
Tan
Tan
Tan-buff
Buff


Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard


7.5
8.0
10.1
11.4
14.2
14.4

6.0
6.2
5.9
12.6
14.7
13.1

6.2
5.8
6.4
6.3
6.5

6.8
7.0
7.1
7.6
8.2


Composite 6.2


5.1-10.1 6.2


31.9-38.8 6.7







U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent 0F percent


HC-15


NE/4,
NE4,
Sec. 31,
T7N,
R13W


38.8-43.11 6.7


43.1-46.91 6.9


46.9-50.3 6.5


50.3-52.6 6.6


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200


Red-tan
Red-tan
Tan
Light brown
Light brown

Red-tan
Red-tan
Red-tan
Brown
Brown

Red brown
Red brown
Red brown
Chocolate
Dark brown

Red brown
Tan
Tan
Light brown
Brown


Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard


_ .. .. ... .. .......


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests





Table 3. Continued


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


HC-15







HC-17


NEY4,
NE/4,
Sec. 31,
T7N,
R13W



SW/4,
NE/4,
Sec. 9,
T5N,
R15W


Composite 6.1


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Red brown
Red brown
Light brown
Brown
Brown
Brown

Pale flesh
Pale flesh
Pale pink
Pale buff
Pale buff
Buff

Pale pink
Pale pink
Gray buff
Buff
Buff

Flesh
Flesh
Pale tan
Buff
Buff
Gray buff


Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard
Steel hard


5.0
8.0
8.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

5.0
5.0
6.0
7.5
7.5
7.5

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0

5.0
5.0
5.0
6.5
6.5
6.5


4.6-9.1 5.9


9.1-13.6 6.0


13.6-18.8 5.6


I








I I percent percent F


4 1 4- + 4 - + I 1- t


18.8-23.01 6.3


HC-17























HC-18


E2,
SW/4,
NE4,
Sec. 9,
T5N,
R15W

















E2,
SW/4,
NE,
Sec. 9,
T5N,
R15W


6.5-9.1 16.1


17.6







16.8







20.4







17.4


1.0







1.0







1.0







1.0


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


np. cr.
percent


No. I


23.0-27.11 5.9


Composite 5.9


Red tan
Red tan
Tan
Tan
Buff tan


Red tan
Red tan
Tan
Brown
Brown
Dark brown

Red tan
Red tan
Tan
Yellow buff
Yellow buff
Gray buff

Red tan
Red tan
Pink tan
Pale tan
Pale tan
Buff


Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard


Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Steel hard


5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0


5.0
5.0
6.0
6.5
6.5
6.5

5.0
5.0
6.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

6.5
6.5
6.5
10.0
10.0
10.0


6.8
7.0
6.6
7.1
6.8


5.7
6.2
6.8
7.8
7.8
8.3

5.9
6.2
6.6
8.8
9.0
8.7

4.7
5.0
5.2
7.2
7.8
8.7


2.47
2.44
2.46
2.43
2.41


2.55
2.54
2.52
2.46
2.45
2.43

2.69
2.66
2.65
2.54
2.54
2.52

2.66
2.65
2.64
2.56
2.55
2.49


z
z
p
0






Table 3. Continued


Unfired Characteristics


Results of ceramic property tests


U.S.B.M. Location Interval, pH Water for Drying Firing Color Hardness Shrinkage Absorption Apparent
Sample feet plasticity, shrinkage Temp., percent percent Sp. Gr.
No. percent percent F percent


HC-18


E2,
SW14,
NE,
Sec. 9,
T5N,
R15W


9.1-12.3 6.2


23.2







24.8







29.8







22.0


5.0







4.5







5.0







5.0


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000


Red tan
Red tan
Pale tan
Cream
Buff
Gray buff

Red tan
Red tan
Tan
Cream
Buff
Gray buff

Pink-white
Pink-white
Off white
Pale buff
Buff
Buff

Flesh
Flesh
Pale flesh


Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Steel hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard


0
tzn
CT1



0

M<
03
0C


5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.2

5.0
7.0
7.0
9.0
11.0
11.0

5.0
6.5
6.5
10.0
13.0
13.0

5.0
5.0
5.0


2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.4
5.1

5.2
5.3
5.9
6.6
9.0
10.0

2.2
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.5
3.9

5.2
5.3
5.4


2.40
2.38
2.35
2.28
2.36
2.73

2.66
2.70
2.70
2.69
2.66
2.65

2.66
2.71
2.70
2.68
2.65
2.58

2.66
2.70
2.69


12.3-15.8 5.9


15.8-19.8 6.2


22.3-32:1 6.2








percent


percent


-F


JIL


+ +-i -t t t t 1 -r


E2,
SW/4,
NE14,
Sec. 9,
T5N,
R15W

















SE4,
SW14,
Sec 32,
T6N,
R14W


36.8-47.8 6.4


Composite 6.1


8.0-12.5


6.6


24.0







23.2







17.4


1.0







5.0







5.0


2100
2200
2300





1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Pale flesh
Pale buff
Gray buff





Pink-white
Pink-white
Pale buff
Buff
Buff
Buff

Light tan
Light tan
Cream
Yellow buff
Yellow buff
Yellow buff

Pale flesh
Pale flesh
Pink-white
Gray buff
Buff
Buff


Hard
Hard
Very hard





Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard


5.0
5.0
6.0





1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
3.5
3.5

5.0
5.0
5.0
9.0
9.0
9.0

5.0
5.0
5.0
6.5
6.5
6.5


5.7
6.4
6.6





4.2
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.3
4.5

4.7
4.6
4.8
6.3
6.3
5.9

4.6
4.6
4.8
5.2
6.3
7.1


No.


HC-22


pierce. t
percent


2.70
2.67
2.67


z




z
p
0
0010


2.55
2.59
2.59
2.61
2.68
2.59

2.61
2.61
2.61
2.54
2.52
3.15

2.55
2.60
2.61
2.61
2.56
2.47





56 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

EXTRUSION TEST
SAMPLE No. WW1-5N-21W-35 ace
Body Composition ................... .Raw clay through 6-mesh: 1
Tempering Water .........................17.0% of dry batch we
Vacuum On Machine .......................... 27 inches of meru
Drying ..........................24 hours in air; 24 hours at 140
Drying Shrinkage ..... ...............................1.0
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired ....................... ..270
Firing:
Time ................... .............. 24 hours
Temperature ..............................23000F
Cone ..................................10 over
Total shrinkage .................... ............... 2.1
Absorption, 5-hour boiled .............................. . 13.2
Absorption, 24-hour soaked ................... ......... 11.
Saturation coefficient ................... ..............0.
Apparent porosity .................. ............... 25.1
Bulk density ................... ........ .... 118.56 lb/cuf
Fired modulus of rupture ............................. 2080
Moh'shardness ................... ... ..................
Color ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. . ..... .. . . .. . . .. . Cr
Potential Use: Promising for glazed structural clay products. Some adjustments in the bo
might be required.
SAMPLE No. LW1-5N-19W-11 aa
LOCATION: NW/4, NW1/, section 11, T5N, R19W (Glendale Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: About 4 feet of mottled gray, red-brown, yellow brown, grayid
green, slightly silty clay.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .... ..Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . . 22.8%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . ... ..7.5%
Dry strength .................. Fair
Color ...................... Pink
Slow Fired Characteristics
(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 10.0 23.1 Pink 2 1.62
1900 10.0 17.7 Pink 2 1.76
2000 10.0 16.4 Pink 3 1.78
2100 12.5 15.4 Tan 4 1.84
2200 15.0 14.4 Buff 5 1.90
2300 15.0 13.9 Buff 5 1.91
Potential Use: Face brick mixtures.
Remarks: Might be used to increase the firing range of face brick and
structural tile bodies. Good color at 21000F.






BULLETIN NO. 50 57

SAMPLE No LW1-5N-19W-34 add

LOCATION: NW/4, SE/4, SE/4, section 34, T5N, R19W (Glendale Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 6- to 8-foot mottled gray, red brown clay bed. The
bed is exposed in a roadcut on the east side of Florida Highway 83.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .... ..Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity .... . . . 32.4%
Drying shrinkage ................ 5.0%
Dry strength ................. .Good
Color ...................... Tan
Slow Fired Characteristics
(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 5.0 20.6 Pink 2 1.72
1900 10.0 19.6 Pink 2 1.75
2000 10.0 16.3 Pink 3 1.86
2100 12.5 9.3 Beige 5 2.10
2200 15.0 3.1 Gray 6 2.32
2300 17.5 2.1 Olive 6 2.35
Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 2100 F, however, might
require addition of grog.
EXTRUSION TEST
SAMPLE No. LW1-5N-19W-34 add

Body Composition . . . . . . ..... ... .Raw clay through 6 mesh: 100%
Tempering Water . . . . . ..... . . . .. 28.0% of dry batch weight.
Vacuum On Machine . . . . . ..... . . .27 inches of mercury.
Drying .. . . .................... 24 hours in air; 24 hours at 140F.
Drying Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2%
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired . . . . . . . ..... . . .. 500 psi.
Firing:
Time . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 24 hours
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 2225 F
Cone .................................. 8 over
Total shrinkage ............ ... ..................... ..8.3%
Absorption, 5-hour boiled ............................. 11.3%
Absorption, 24-hour soaked ............................ .. ..9.2%
Saturation coefficient ................................ 0.81
Apparent porosity .. .................. .......... .. 22.5%
Bulk density ................................... 1.99 gm/cc
Fired modulus of rupture ............................. 670 psi
Moh'shardness .................... ................. 3
Color .............. ....... .. .. .................. Tan
Potential Use: None. Poor ceramic bond. Might be used in face brick mixtures.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SAMPLE No. LW1-5N-18W-4 baa
LOCATION: NE, NW/, NW/4, section 4, T5N, R18W (Glendale Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: About 20 to 30 feet of gray sandy, clay exposed in ditch along
road.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics


Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage ...
Dry strength .....
Color .........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


10.0
10.0
10.0
15.0
15.0
15.0


19.9
19.5
19.3
16.4
13.2
11.4


Pink
Pink
Pink
Cream
Ivory
Buff


... .. .Moderate plasticity
. . . . . . 23.5%
. . . ............. 10.0%
. . . . .............. Good
. . . .............. Pink


(Moh's)
Hardness
2
2
3
3
4
4


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.75
1.76
1.77
1.86
1.97
2.02


Potential Use: Artware and glazed structural-tile bodies.
Remarks: Might be used to increase the firing range of face brick mixtures. Good color at
2200F.
SAMPLE No. LWl-4N-19W-2 dccc
LOCATION: SW/4, SWA, SW, section 2, T4N, R19W (Glendale Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from clay pit formerly used to supply clay for a brick
plant located just north of Glendale. The clay bed here is 3 feet thick and is overlain by 8
feet of sand.
LABORATORY RESULTS:


Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics ...
Water of plasticity . . .
Drying shrinkage ... . .
Dry strength .........
Color .............
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF)
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


5.0
5.0
5.0
7.5
10.0
10.0


24.9
24.8
23.2
21.1
19.4
18.5


. . Low plasticity
. . . . 25.6%
. . . . .2.5%
......... Fair
......... Red


(Moh's) Bulk density
Hardness gm/cc
2 1.61
2 1.61
3 1.66
4 1.71
5 1.74
6 1.75


Light brown
Light brown
Light brown
Brown
Brown
Gray


Potential Use: Not suitable for use as the principle component in vitreous clay products.
Remarks: Might be used to control shrinkage in a face brick mixture.


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


58






BULLETIN NO. 50


SAMPLE No. LW1-4N-20W-26 ba

LOCATION: NE, NW/4, section 26, T4N, R20W (Glendale Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Sample collected from 2- to 3-foot dark gray carbonized clay bed
copping out along Big Swamp Creek near Liberty on U. S. Highway 331.


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color ..........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF)
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Shk. (%)
15.0
17.5
20.0
20.0
Expanded


Abs. (%)
22.5
16.9
12.4
11.1


. High plasticity
..... 24.9%
...... 12.5%
........ Good
....... Gray


Color
Tan
Tan
Light brown
Brown


(Moh's)
Hardness
3
4
4
5
-


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.63
1.76
1.88
1.92
-


Potential Use: Lightweight aggregate.
Remarks: High shrinkage, has positive bloating test and abrupt vitrification.
SAMPLE No. LWI-3N-18W-6 bbbd

LOCATION: NE/4, NE/4, NE4, SE, section 6, T3N, R18W (Glendale Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Sample collected from a 7-foot mottled dark yellowish orange, pale
yellowish brown, yellowish gray, silty, sandy clay bed. The bed is exposed in roadcut on
Florida Highway 183.


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color .........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (F) Shk. (%)
1800 12.5
1900 12.5
2000 15.0
2100 17.5
2200 20.0
2300 20.0
Potential Use: Flower pots.
Remarks: High shrinkage.


Abs. (%)
16.3
14.8
10.9
8.1
7.4
6.8


. ... .Moderate plasticity
. . . . . . 25.6%
............ 10.0%
.............Good
............ Yellow


Color
Light red
Light red
Light red
Light brown
Brown
Dark brown


(Moh's) Bulk density
Hardness gm/cc
2 1.84
3 1.88
4 2.00
5 2.09
6 2.12
6 2.13


59






60


Body Composition .........
Tempering Water . . . . .
Vacuum On Machine . . . .
Drying . . . . . . . .
Drying Shrinkage ..........
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired
Firing:


.Raw clay through 6-mesh = 100%
. . .. .. 25% of dry batch weigh
........ .21 inches of mercury
.24 hours in air; 24 hours at 1400F
................7.3%
. . . . . . . .990 pd


Time ................... .. ............ 24 hours
Temperature ..............................17500F
Conee .. . . . . . .... .... . . . . . 07flat
Cone . . e * * . * . . e . e . 07 flat


Total shrinkage .


. . . . . ......................... 7.3%


. . . . ........... 16.9%
. . . . ........... 15.1%
..... ............ 0.89
. . . . . . 30.9
.1.83 gm/cc; 114.2 lb/cuft
.......... 1750pd
o.. . . ........... .....6
. . . ........... Salmon


Absorption, 5-hour boiled .................
Absorption, 24-hour soaked .................
Saturation coefficient ................... .
Apparent porosity ................ ......
Bulk density .........................
Fired modulus of rupture ..................
Moh's hardness ........................
Color . ... .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .
Potential Use: Should be satisfactory for flower pots.
SAMPLE No. LW1-3N-17W-28 a


LOCATION: W'/2, NW%4, section 28, T3N, R17W (Ponce de Leon Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Sample collected from a 15-foot clay bed exposed along roadcut of
graded road.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . . . .High plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . . 34.1%
Drying shrinkage ............... 15.0%
Dry strength ................. .Good
Color ..... .................. Tan
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color
1800 20.0 11.4 Salmon
1900 20.0 8.0 Salmon
2000 25.0 2.3 Light brown
2100 25.0 1.4 Brown
2200 Expanded
2300 -
Potential Use: Not suitable for use in vitreous clay products.
Remarks: Excessive shrinkage.


(Moh's)
Hardness
3
4
5
6


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.94
2.06
2.27
2.34


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

EXTRUSION TEST
SAMPLE No. LW1-3N-18W-6 bbbd








BULLETIN NO. 50 61

SAMPLE No. LWl-1N-18W-3 a
LOCATION: NW4, section 3, T1N, R18W (DeFuniak Springs Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: About 40 feet of gray clay exposed in narrow ditch along graded
road on both sides of Bruce Creek.
LABORATORY RESULTS:

Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . . .Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . .... 25.3%
Drying shrinkage ............... 10.0%
Dry strength ................. .Good
SColor .....................Yellow
Slow Fired Characteristics
(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 12.5 14.0 Orange tan 3 1.87
1900 12.5 12.7 Orange tan 4 1.92
2000 17.5 10.0 Light brown 4 2.00
2100 17.5 6.7 Brown 4 2.14
2200 17.5 6.3 Red brown 5 2.16
2300 20.0 4.7 Gray brown 6 2.18
Potential Use: Face brick mixtures.
Remarks: High shrinkage, however, might be used as the plastic fraction in face-brick
mixtures.
EXTRUSION TEST
COMPOSITE OF SAMPLE Nos. LWl-IN-18W-3 a and LW1-4N-19W-2 daac
Body Composition . . . . .... Raw clay LW1-1N-18W-3 a through 6-mesh: 50%.
Raw clay LW1-4N-19W-2 daac through 6-mesh: 50%
Tempering Water . . . . . . . ..... ...... 22.0% of dry batch weight
Vacuum On Machine . . . . . . . . . . . .... 26 inches of mercury
Drying ..........................24 hours in air; 24 hours at 1400F
Drying Shrinkage .................................... 6.3%
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired ......................... .910 psi
Firing:
Time ................................. 24 hours
Temperature ..............................2100F
Cone .................................. 4 over
Total shrinkage ................... ............... 10.4%
Absorption, 5-hour boiled ...............................7.3%
Absorption, 24-hour soaked ..............................5.3%
Saturation coefficient ................ ................ 0.73
Apparent porosity .................................. 13.3%
Bulk density ........................... 1.83 gm/cc; 114.2 lb/cu ft
Fired modulus of rupture ............................ 2985 psi
Moh's hardness .. ................................... 6
Color T......................................... Light red
Potential Use: Should meet "SW" face brick specifications as processed. Color marginal.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SAMPLE No. LW1-1N-17W-32 d
LOCATION: SE%, section 32, T1N, R17W (Bruce Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from a 10-foot orange, mottled reddish-brown,
sandy clay bed exposed in a drainage ditch on southeast side of Florida Highway 81.
LABORATORY RESULTS:


Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . . .
Water of plasticity . . . .
Drying shrinkage .........
Dry strength ...........
Color ..............
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0


21.6
20.4
19.8
18.5
18.1


Orange
Orange
Tan
Tan
Brown
Brown


. Low elasticity
...... . 19.0%
........... 2.5%
.......... Low
......... Yellow


(Moh's)
Hardness
2
2
2
2
2
2


Potential Use: Not suitable for use as the principal component in vitreous clay products.
Remarks: Might be used to control shrinkage in a face-brick mixture.

Washington County

Calver (1949, p. 44-47, 58, 59)presented data on clays collected fi
Washington County. The following data were taken from his report.
SAMPLE No. 0-124
LOCATION: One mile south of Vernon at site of abandoned Vernon Brick Company.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 4- to 5-foot clay bed in pit.
LABORATORY RESULTS:


Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity .........
Water of plasticity . .
Linear shrinkage .....
Modulus of rupture . .
Unfired color . . . .
Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (oF) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%)


1740
1920
1995
2100
2175
2280


1.0
1.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
10.5


19.6
17.6
13.5
10.8
10.4
9.2


...... ... Good
. . . . . 43%
........ 11.6%
. ...... .290 psi
. . . . Dark red


Porosity (%)
37.8
35.9
28.2
27.4
26.8
25.2


Color
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Reddish orange


Potential Use: Suitable for use in manufacture of brick.


gm/cc


1.66
1.69
1.71
1.73
1.74


62





BULLETIN NO. 50 63

SAMPLE No. 0-126
TION: Three miles southeast of Vernon on south side of Cravey's Mill Creek.
DESCRIPTION: Light gray clay collected from 3-foot section.
RATORY RESULTS:
Characteristics
Plasticity . . . . . . ...... Excellent
Water of plasticity . . . . . . . 46%
Linear shrinkage ................7.6%
Modulus of rupture . . . . . .. 70 psi
Unfired color . . . . ... Light pinkish gray
low Fired Characteristics
Temp. (F) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
740 2.0 28.2 44.8 Very light pink
20 1.0 28.6 44.5 Very light pink
995 3.0 26.6 43.0 Light pinkish gray
100 4.5 24.2 40.7 Light pinkish gray
2175 7.0 17.0 34.0 Light pinkish gray
0 7.5 13.3 30.0 Light pinkish gray
~tential Use: Can be used for making brick.
SAMPLE No. 0-127
LOCATION: At brick plant of Peaden Materials Company (formerly Hall Brick Yard) two
s miles southwest of Chipley.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Sample taken from 3- to 6-foot gray clay bed.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
I Unfired Characteristics
SPlasticity ................... .Good
Water of plasticity . . . . . . ... 39%
Linear shrinkage ................9.0%
Modulus of rupture . . . . . 320 psi
Unfired color .................. Gray
Slow Fired Characteristics
STemp. (F) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%) Color
1740 2.0 23.0 40.7 Cream
1920 2.5 22.8 40.0 Cream
1995 5.0 16.0 40.0 Cream
2100 7.5 12.0 27.3 Cream
2175 10.5 6.0 17.2 Cream
2280 10.5 5.2 16.1 Cream
SPotential Use: Could be used for brick or semi-refractory brick.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SAMPLE No. 0-128
LOCATION: Borrow clay pit at Wausau, 800 feet west of Wausau Station.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 4-foot gray clay bed at top of section.


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity .........
Water of plasticity ....
Linear shrinkage . . .
Modulus of rupture . .
Unfired color . . . .
Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (oF) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%)
1740 2.5 26.9
1920 3.5 26.6
1995 5.0 19.3
2100 6.0 16.5
2175 11.0 7.9
2280 11.5 4.9


... .. .Excellent
. . . .. 48%
. . . . 7.9%
..... .140 psi
. Light pinkish gray


Porosity (%)
43.5
41.6
36.2
33.4
19.8
15.5


Potential Use: Suitable for use in manufacture of brick.
SAMPLE No. 0-129
LOCATION: Borrow clay pit at Wausau, 800 feet west of Wausau Station.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 3-foot light gray and pink clay
section.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity ..................Excellent
Water of plasticity . . . . .. . . 56%
Linear shrinkage ................ 9.8%
Modulus of rupture ............ .170 psi
Unfired color . . . . ... Light grayish pink
Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (oF) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Porosity (%)
1740 2.5 25.0 42.1
1920 1.0 26.6 43.0
1995 5.0 17.2 34.5
2100 6.5 13.8 29.6
2175 8.5 10.0 23.3
2280 12.0 3.8 13.0
Potential Use: Suitable for use in manufacture of brick.


Color
Light pinkish gray
Light pinkish gray
Light pinkish gray
Light pinkish gray
Light pinkish gray
Light pinkish gray





bed near base of












Color
Light pink
Light pink
Light pink
Light pink
Light pink
Light pinkish gray


64






BULLETIN NO. 50


SAMPLE No. 0-156
,LOCATION: Nine miles northeast of Wausau on road to Chipley in roadside ditch on east
ide of hill.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 3-foot clay bed which appears to be interbedded
with sands.


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity ...............
Water of plasticity . . . . . .
Linear shrinkage ............
Modulus of rupture .........
Unfired color .............
low Fired Characteristics
emp. (F) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Pore
740 0.5 17.0 35.0
1920 1.0 16.2 34.4
995 2.0 13.6 32.1
2100 3.5 11.9 29.1
14175 4.5 10.5 28.1
=280 3.5 9.7 27.2
potential Use: Suitable for use in the manufacture of brick.


..... Fair
. . 40%
.... 10.7%
... .440psi
..... Red


,sity (%)


Color
Brick red
Reddish orange
Brick red
Brick red
Dark red
Dark red


SAMPLE No. 0-198
IJOCATION: Borrow pit near bridge crossing the Choctawhatchee River at Caryville.
IIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 4-foot alluvial clay bed exposed in borrow pit.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Jnfied Characteristics
Plasticity .................... Fair
Water of plasticity . . . . . . ... 29%
Linear shrinkage . . . . . . . 7.0%
Modulus of rupture . . . . .... .290 psi
Unfired color... .............. Brown


ow Fired Characteristics
emp. (F) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%)
1740 0.5 17.0
1920 0.0 17.2
1995 0.5 16.4
2100 1.5 16.0
2175 1.5 14.2
02 1.5 14.7
trial Use: Suitable for use in making brick.
A;


Porosity (%)
35.3
35.8
35.2
33.8
32.0
32.5


Color
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Light brick red
Brick red
Brick red







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SAMPLE No. 0-246
LOCATION: Section located in a roadcut three miles south of Vernon on road to
Greenhead.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: A composite 12.5-foot sample of sandy clay, clay, and clayey sand.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics


Plasticity .......
Water of plasticity .
Linear shrinkage . .
Modulus of rupture .
Unfired color . . .


a........Good
S. . .. .36%
. .. .. .9.3%
. . 280 psi
. Medium orange


Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (oF) Linear Shk.(%)
1740 0.0
1920 1.5
1995 3.5
2100 4.0
2175 4.5
2280 5.0
Potential Use: Suitable for brick.


Abs. (%)
17.1
19.8
15.0
12.4
9.1
11.1


Porosity (%)
39.6
39.5
35.8
31.2
28.3
30.3


Color
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Light brick red
Brick red
Brick red
Brick red


SAMPLE No. 0-248
LOCATION: Roadside gully 2.7 miles west of Wausau on the Vernon road.
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 9-foot light gray clay bed in gully.


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Plasticity .........
Water of plasticity . .
Linear shrinkage . . .
Modulus of rupture . .
Unfired color . . . .
Slow Fired Characteristics
Temp. (oF) Linear Shk. (%) Abs. (%)
1740 0.0 13.5
1920 0.5 12.8
1995 1.5 12.4
2100 1.5 12.6
2175 2.5 10.9
2280 2.5 9.7


....... Poor
. . . 35%
. . 11.1%
. . 320 psi
. Yellowish gray


Porosity (%)
31.1
29.6
29.0
26.0
27.2
26.8


Color
Reddish orange
Reddish orange
Light brick red
Brick red
Brick red
Brick red


Potential Use: Probably suitable for manufacture of common brick.


66






BULLETIN NO. 50


The writers submitted eight clay samples from Washington County to the U.
S. Bureau of Mines for ceramic-property tests and these data are presented with
the data from one U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole as follows:
SAMPLE No. LWs-4N-15W-6 bcd
LOCATION: NE4, SW, SE%, section 6, T4N, R15W (Caryville Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from shallow borrow pit on east side of graded road. Clay
is overlain by less than 5 feet of overburden.
LABORATORY RESULTS:


Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color .........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF)


. . .. .Moderate plasticity
. . . . . .. 22.0%
. . . . . .... 5.0%
........... Good
.... ......... .Tan


Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color
7.5 18.5 Salmon
7.5 17.2 Salmon
10.0 14.2 Salmon
15.0 6.1 Buff
15.0 4.4 Brown
17.5 3.9 Olive


(Moh's)
Hardness
4
4
4
5
5
6


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.83
1.88
1.99
2.35
2.42
2.45


Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 20500F. Shrinkage a little
high. Color marginal. See extrusion tests on Sample Nos. LWs-4N-15W-6 dca and
LHo-4N-15W-13 cdc, p. 00.
SAMPLE No. LWs-4N-15W-8 c
LOCATION: Center SW/4, section 8, T4N, R15W (Caryville Quadrangle).
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from approximately 20 feet of massive clay exposed in
ditches on both sides of graded road. Clay bed overlain by 5 feet of overburden.
LABORATORY RESULTS:


Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of plasticity ..
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color .........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF)
1800
1900
2000


. . . .. High plasticity
. . . . ... 37.0%
. . . . . . 10.0%
............ .Good
............. Pink


Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color
15.0 22.5 Salmon
15.0 22.2 Pink
15.0 20.4 Pink


(Moh's)
Hardness
3
4


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.67
1.67
1.72






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


2100 17.5 12.0 Pink 5 2.02
2200 20.0 2.3 Gray 6 2.43
2300 20.0 1.6 Green 6 2.48
Potential Use: Face brick mixtures.
Remarks: High shrinkage, however, may be used as the plastic fraction in face brick
mixtures. Good color at 20000F.
SAMPLE No. LWs-4N-14W-25 bba

LOCATION: NE4, NE%/, NW, section 25, T4N, R14W (Wausau Quadrangle).
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from west side of Florida Highway 276.


LABORATORY RESULTS:

Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . .
Water of plasticity . . .
Drying shrinkage . . . .
Dry strength .........
Color .............
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp.
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Shk. (%)
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
12.5
12.5


Abs. (%)
20.8
19.9
19.9
18.0
15.7
15.5


Color
Pink
Pink
Pink
Beige
Buff
Buff


.Moderate plasticity
. . . .. 20.1%
. . . .. 7.5%
........ Fair
........ Pink


(Moh's) Bulk density
Hardness gm/cc
3 1.72
3 1.74
3 1.74
3 1.80
3 1.84
4 1.85


Potential Use: Face brick mixtures.
Remarks: Might be used to increase the firing range of face brick and structural tile bodies.
Good color at 21000F.
SAMPLE No. WWs-4N-13W-24 db (U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole)
LOCATION: SE, NE4, section 24, T4N, R13W
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics


Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage ...
Dry strength . . .
Color . . . . .
Slow Fired Characteristics


Shk. (%) Abs. (%)
9.0 8.9
9.0 8.8
10.0 9.0
10.0 10.3


.Smooth and plastic
. . . .. 20.4%
. . . ... .9.0%
.. . . . Good
. . .Light green


Color
Tan
Tan
Light brown
Brown


(Moh's)
Hardness
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard
Hard


Bulk density
gm/cc
2.43
2.42
2.40
2.37


Temp. (OF)
1800
1900
2000
2100







BULLETIN NO. 50


Chocolate Very hard 2.37
Chocolate Steel hard 2.35


Potential Use: Glazed brick and pottery.
Remarks: Fifty nine feet of clay were penetrated. The fired color was fair, the material a
little soft, absorption a little high, slight scum and slight effervesence which denotes some
carbonate material present.
SAMPLE No. LWs-3N-14W-27 dbd
LOCATION: SE4, NE%, SEY, section 27, T3N, R14W (Wausau Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected along west side of road from 15-foot exposure of light
gray, sandy clay. The clay is overlain by less than 5 feet of overburden.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics . . ... Low plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . .... 27.1%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . ... Fair
Color .......................Tan
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (oF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


1800 2.5 26.5
1900 2.5 26.0
2000 2.5 25.7
2100 5.0 24.0
2200 10.0 15.9
2300 10.0 12.6
Potential Use: Face brick mixtures.


Pink
Pink
Pink
Pink
Gray
Gray


(Moh's)
Hardness
2
2
3
3
4
5


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.56
1.58
1.59
1.64
1.86
1.97


Remarks: Poor ceramic bond. Might be used as a nonplastic fraction to control shrinkage in
brick mixtures.
SAMPLE No. LWs-3N-14W-28 bc
LOCATION: SE4, NE4, NE, section 2, T3N, R13W (Wausau Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 6-foot clay bed in north facing roadcut at
intersection of Florida Highways 156 and 273.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics


Working characteristics . .
Water of plasticity . . .
Drying shrinkage . . . .
Dry strength .........
Color .............
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF)


Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color


1800 5.0
1900 5.0


. . .Low plasticity
. . . .. 22.2%
. . . . .. 2.5%
......... Fair
......... Pink


(Moh's) Bulk density
Hardness gm/cc


17.1 Beige 2
16.8 Beige 3


2200
2300







70 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

2000 5.0 15.7 Beige 4 1.86
2100 7.5 13.2 Buff 4 1.92
2200 10.0 8.3 Yellow 5 2.03
2300 10.0 4.8 Olive 5 2.11
Potential Use: Face brick.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 21000F.
EXTRUSION TEST
SAMPLE No. LWs-3N-13W-2 dbbb
Body Composition . . . . . . . .. . Raw clay through 6 mesh: 100%
Tempering Water . . . . . . . ..... ........ 14.0% of dry batch weight
Vacuum On Machine . . . . . . . ..... ........ ..27 inches of mercury
Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 hours in air; 24 hours at 1400F
Drying Shrinkage ................... .................6.3%
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired . . . . . . . ..... ........ 610 psi
Firing:
Time .... .............. .. .. .. ......... 24 hours
Temperature ..............................21000F
Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Total shrinkage ................... ................ 12.5%
Absorption, 5-hour boiled ............................... 6.3%
Absorption, 24-hour soaked ..............................5.9%
Saturation coefficient ................................. 0.94
Apparent porosity ................... .............. 14.0%
Bulk density ................... ................2.22 gm/cc
Fired modulus of rupture ............................. 4310 psi
Moh's hardness ................... ................ 5
Color ................... .................. ....Light tan
Potential Use: Should meet "SW" face brick specifications as processed. Addition of grog
advisable.
SAMPLE No. LWs-3N-13W-ll dd

LOCATION: SE/4, SE, section 11, T3N, R13W (Wausau Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected on east side of Florida Highway 273 from 8-foot clay bed
exposed in roadcut. The clay bed has 8 feet of overburden.
LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics .... ..Moderate plasticity
Water of plasticity . . . . . ... 30.6%
Drying shrinkage . . . . . . ... 5.0%
Dry strength ................. .Good
Color ...................... Pink
Slow Fired Characteristics
(Moh's) Bulk density
Temp. (OF) Shk. (%) Abs. (%) Color Hardness gm/cc
1800 10.0 13.5 Light brown 2 1.91
1900 12.5 12.4 Light brown 3 1.93







BULLETIN NO. 50


2000 15.0 10.3 Light brown 4 2.00
2100 15.0 8.7 Brown 5 2.06
2200 15.0 7.7 Dark red 6 2.11
2300 15.0 8.0 Dark brown 6 2.09

Potential Use: Might be used as the plastic component in face brick mixtures.
Remarks: High firing shrinkage but fires to good red at 22000F.

SAMPLE No. LWs-2N-14W-23 dda
LOCATION: SEY4, SE4, NW/4, section 23, T2N, R14W (Gap Pond Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 9-foot clay bed in roadcut of Florida Highway 77
south of Wausau.


LABORATORY RESULTS:

Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics
Water of plasticity .
Drying shrinkage . .
Dry strength .....
Color .........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp. (OF)
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


Shk. (%)
15.0
17.5
20.0
25.0
25.0
Expanded


Abs. (%)
16.6
12.9
6.5
1.0
1.0


. . . ... .High plasticity
. . . . . .. 27.4%
. . . . . .. 12.5%
.............Good
. . . . . . .. .Tan


Color

Orange tan
Orange tan
Light brown
Brown
Dark brown


(Moh's)
Hardness
3
4
5
6
7


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.82
1.92
2.15
2.44
2.43
-


Potential Use: Not suitable for use in vitreous clay products.
Remarks: Excessive shrinkage.

SAMPLE No. LWs-2N-13W-7 dca
LOCATION: SE%, SW%, NW/4, section 7, T2N, R13W (Gap Pond Quadrangle)
FIELD DESCRIPTION: Collected from 40-foot thick mottled red orange and gray clay bed
exposed on both sides of graded road.


LABORATORY RESULTS:
Unfired Characteristics
Working characteristics ..
Water of plasticity . .
Drying shrinkage . . .
Dry strength . . . .
Color ..........
Slow Fired Characteristics


Temp.
1800
1900


Shk. (%)
5.0
5.0


Abs. (%)
18.9
17.6


. Moderate plasticity
. . . .. 25.4%
. . . . . 5.0%
. . . ... .Good
......... .Tan


(Moh s)
Hardness
3
4


Bulk density
gm/cc
1.75
1.78


Color

Tan
Tan






72 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

2000 7.5 14.7 Tan 4 1.79
2100 10.0 9.0 Tan 5 2.05
2200 12.5 5.7 Buff 6 2.15
2300 12.5 5.6 Gray 6 2.13
Potential Use: Face brick or glazed structural tile.
Remarks: Should fire to "SW" face brick specifications at about 21000F. At this
temperature the color is an attractive tan.
EXTRUSION TEST
Body Composition . . . . . . . .... . Raw clay through 6-mesh: 100%
Tempering Water . . . . . . . ..... ........ 28% of dry batch weight
Vacuum On Machine . . . . . . . ..... ........ ..22 inches of mercury
Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 hours in air; 24 hours at 140 F
Drying Shrinkage ................... .................6.3%
Modulus Of Rupture, Dry Unfired . . . . . . . ..... ........ 1180 psi
Firing:
Time ................................. 24 hours
Temperature ..............................20500F
Cone . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . 2 flat
Total shrinkage ................... ............... 12.5%
Absorption, 5-hour boiled ................... ............ 3.7%
Absorption, 24-hour soaked ............................. 2.6%
Saturation coefficient ................................. 0.70
Apparent porosity ................... ................8.2%
Bulk density ................................... 2.21 gm/cc
Fired modulus of rupture ............................. 6040 psi
Moh's hardness ................... ................ 8
Color .................................... ....... Tan
Potential Use: Might be suitable for face brick or glazed structural tile if blended with a low
shrinkage clay or grog.
LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE

Lightweight aggregate is a product of clay and shales that weighs less than
aggregates of sand, gravel, and crushed rock. For a clay to be suitable as a
lightweight aggregate it must bloat and expand when heated rapidly.
Lightweight aggregates are produced by either the rotary kiln or sinter
method. The rotary kiln method is used with clays that dry at a fast rate without
major disintegration taking place. The clays also must show good expansion
when heated rapidly. Clays subjected to the sintering process may expand only
slightly. This process involves a rapid and brief application of heat. Vitrification
and glazing of the clay should take place between 2200-23000F.
The factors related to testing of lightweight aggregate are discussed in Florida
Geological Survey Information Circular No. 46 (Hichman and Hamlin, 1965, p.
14 and 15) which states:
"The tests for bloating clays and shales are relatively simple and consist of
subjecting the material to heat treatments within the range of commercial working
temperatures. Five pounds of the clay are dried overnight at 2300F, crushed with a






BULLETIN NO. 50


roll crusher or jaw crusher (set at 1/ inch), and a screen analysis made of the crushed
material. With a laboratory kiln heated to 18000F, 20 grams of the clay (-'%+ inch
size) is placed on a refractory slab or boat, inserted in the kiln for 15 minutes, and
then removed. This process is repeated at 19000, 20000, 22000, 23000, and 24000, or
until the clay becomes very sticky and begins to melt.
"The expanded aggregate is tested for weight, percent absorption, and examined
for general structure and appearance. During the firing of the clay, the temperature at
which sticking or melting occurs is noted."

One sample of clay (LWl-4N-20W-26 ba) collected from a creek bank just
north of Liberty, Walton County, Florida, shows promise as a potential source
for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. The following data on this clay is
from tests run by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. However, it should be noted that
only when extruded did the clay prove suitable for use as lightweight aggregate.
PRELIMINARY BLOATING TESTS
SAMPLE No. LW1-4N-20W-26 ba
Type Material: Clay
Color: Gray
Crushing Characteristics: Angular
Particle Size: "
Retention Time: 15 minutes
Temp. (OF) Bulk density Lb/ft Percent abs. Remarks
2000 1.81 113 2.8 No expansion
2100 1.09 68 14.3 Good pore structure
2200 0.91 57 18.3 Good pore structure
2300 0.51 32 30.9 Over-fired; some large pores
Recommendations: Promising raw material for lightweight aggregate.
ROTARY KILN TEST
EXTRUDED MATERIAL
SAMPLE No. LW1-4N-20W-26 ba
Raw Material
Raw material extruded as 2 inch diameter by 1 inch thick discs, dried, and fed into kiln.
Firing Data:
Pour weight of feed, lbs/ft: 96.9
Bloating temperature OF: 2040
Logging temperature, OF: 2200
(Nodules sticking together)
Fired Material
(All fired material crushed through roll crushers)
Screen Analysis: (Percentages by weight passing sieves)

3/4" 1/2" 3/8" No. 4 No. 8
100.0 85.3 73.4 32.8 26.6
Loose pour weights, lbs/ft: Fine, Coarse 39.0
Comments: Appears to be a promising raw material for lightweight aggregate.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ROTARY KILN TEST
SAMPLE No. LWI-4N-20W-26 ba
Raw Material
Screen Analysis: (Crushed through hammermill with 1 1/2" screen)
Through Retained on Weight, percent Cumulative, percent
3/4" 1/2" 15.9 15.9
1/2" 3/8" 18.6 34.5
3/8" 4-mesh 24.6 59.1
4-mesh 8-mesh 13.4 72.5
8-mesh Pan 27.5 100.0
Fragment shape: Angular
Crushing loss (-4 mesh): 40.9%
Firing Data:
Size range of feed -3/4 + 8 mesh
Pour weight of feed, lbs/ft 96.9
Bloating temperature, F 2040
Logging temperature, OF 2200
(Nodules sticking together)
Fired Material
(All fired material crushed through roll crusher)
Screen Analysis: (Percentages by weight passing sieves)
3/4" 1/2" 3/8" Nob. 4 No. 8
Coarse 100.0 93.7 81.4 24.7 15.8
Loose pour weights, lbs/ft: Fine, Coarse 31.0
Comments: Popped off in thin flakes. Not suitable for use as lightweight aggregate.

SUMMARY OF CLAY STUDY

The results of the investigation by the authors as well as those of other
investigators indicate that resources of clay for use in the manufacture of
structural-clay products are available in Holmes, Walton and Washington
counties. The tests show that common brick, face brick, tile, pottery and
lightweight aggregate can be manufactured from the clays in the area of
investigation.
The deposits sampled obviously represent only that particular area from
which they were sampled. Although other deposits probably are available the
writers made every effort to reconnoiter the area and sampled every clay
outcrop that, in the opinion of the writers, had "quantity" possibilities.
The tests indicate that many of the clays sampled can be used in the
manufacture of clay products as they come from the ground. However, in others
selective mining as well as blending of clays would be necessary. Examples of
this are LHo-4N-15W-13 cdc plus LWs-4N-15W-6 cda and LWl-1N-18W-32 plus
LW1-4N-19W-2 daac. The data from these test are only departure points and in
no way are intended to be sufficient for plant or process design.
The deposition of the clays in Holmes, Walton and Washington counties may
be such that they are of a lenticular nature. This is not to say they might not
have lateral extent. However, only a drilling program can answer this question.





BULLETIN NO. 50


Table 4 shows the criteria for determining what the clay can be used for in
manufacturing clay products. Table 5 shows the classification of those clay
localities which proved suitable as potential structural-clay products. It is
apparent from Table 5 that the most common product that can be produced
from the clays in the counties under study is common brick and face brick.
One of the most significant finds is the clay collected at LW1-4N-20W-26 ba.
This clay is important because it is satisfactory for making lightweight aggregate.
The U. S. Bureau of Mines testing laboratory ran two rotary kiln tests. The first
test was run on a 3/4 inch clay as kiln feed and the aggregate produced was one
consisting of thin plates.
The second test was run using a clay crushed through a 4 mesh screen mixed
with about 25 percent tempering water. This material was extruded through a
round die 2 inches in diameter. The material coming from the die was then sliced
into 1 inch thick discs and fed into the kiln.
The material from the first test proved unsatisfactory for lightweight
aggregate because it popped off in thin flakes. The aggregate produced from the
extruded material (second test) proved to be satisfactory as an aggregate.
HEAVY MINERALS
The term heavy mineral is applied to those mineral species that have a specific
gravity greater than quartz. Minerals within this category, that occur in Florida
sediments, are ilmenite, rutite, zircon, and other numerous minerals of less
quantity and value. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is valuable for its titanium content.
Zircon (ZnSiO4) is valuable for its zirconium content; and rutile (TiO2) is
valuable for its titanium content.
Heavy minerals are present in all of the sediments in Holmes, Walton and
Washington counties. However, the surficial deposits along the coastal area of
Walton County offer the most potential as a source of heavy minerals. It is not
uncommon to find large local concentrations along the present beaches and in
the recent sand dunes in the southern part of Walton County. Though only one
specific study was made to determine the aggregate percentage of heavies in the
sands, the tests performed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on samples submitted for
evaluation as a potential source for glass sand indicate that the titanium content
ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 percent. Sample LW1-3S-20W-3 bb was collected from a
dune and contained the 0.5 percent titanium. According to the Bureau of Mines
analyses most of the titanium was concentrated on the minus 140 screen and
could be removed by froth flotation or magnetic separation.
A channel sample was collected from the seaward side of the highest beach
dune at Blue Mountain Beach in southern Walton County. This sample
(LWl-3S-20W-12 cb) was examined for its heavy mineral content, which
amounted to 2.4% by weight of the total sample. Those mineral species
identified were ilmenite, rutile, kyanite, zircon, garnet, staurolite, and
leucoxene.




TABLE 4. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE USEFULNESS OF CLAYS
FOR CERAMIC CLAY PRODUCTS (after Sweeney, Shirley and others)

Common brick Face brick Decorative Draintile Chimneytile Sewerpipe Lightweight aggregate
brick


Unfired properties:
Workability



pH




Water for
plasticity %
Drying
shrinkage %
Fired properties:
Maturing
Temp. F

Color



Hardness




Shrinkage %
Absorption %


Fairly plastic
to plastic

Basic




15-40

0-12



1800-2000



Reds, dark reds
red-browns

Very hard to
steel hard



0-10
Up to 20
Depending on
climatic
conditions


Fairly plastic
to plastic

Basic




15-40

0-12



1800-2200



Red buffs,
creams


Fairly plastic
to plastic

Basic




15-40

0-12



1800-2200



Mottled, pinks,
grays, etc.


Steel hard I Steel hard


0-10
Up to 15
Depending on
climatic
conditions


0-10
Up to 15
Depending on
climatic
conditions


Plastic to
very plastic
and smooth
Basic




15-40

0-8



1800-2000



Not critical



Very hard




0-8
1-12


Plastic to
very plastic
and smooth
Basic




15-40

0-8



1800-2400



Not critical



Very hard




0-8
0-20


Plastic to
very plastic
and smooth
Basic




0-35

0-8



1800-2100

Usually red




Steel hard




0-10
0-8


Unfired properties:
Drying
characteristics

Dry strength






Crushing
characteristics
Fired properties:
Firing range

Bloating range



Weight

Expansion




% Absorption



Color


Strength


Dry readily and show
only slightly disintegration
when bloating test is made
Strength must be
sufficient for proper
sizing when crushed
for kiln feed



-8 mesh material should
not exceed 20%

1800-2200

Minimum 100 F
2000 preferred

75-45 lb/ft3

Gradual weight
decrease through
bloating range

0-18.0
at bestbloating temp.

Light reds to light grays
preferred although
color not too critical
This must be determined
by concrete performance


........L... ._.... I I I I I....


t~tl
0


0





TABLE 5. CLASSIFICATION OF CLAY LOCALITIES ACCORDING TO POTENTIAL USE

Common Dec. Structural Chimney Lightweight
Brick Face Brick Brick Draintile Sewer Pipe Tile Tile Pottery Aggregate


0-231
0-197

0-158
HC-2
HC-5
HC-11
HC-15
0-195
0-198
0-127
0-124
0-126
0-246
0-128
0-129
0-251
0-248
0-249
0-156


HC-17
HC-18


HC-5
HC-11
HC-15
HC-17
HC-18


LHo-4N-17W-
30 bdbd(5)


LHo-5N-17W-35 cda

WW1-5N-21W-35 acc
LW1-5N-18W-4 baa
LW1-2N-13W-7 dca


HC-5
HC-11
HC-15
HC-17
HC-18


HC-2
HC-5
HC-11
HC-15
HC-18
LW1-3N-18W-
6 bbbd


LW1-4N-20W-26 ba


Blend of
LHo-4N-15W-13 cdc
LWs-4N-15W-6 dca
LHo-4N-17W-30 bdbd(6)
LHo-4N-17W-30 bdbd(16)
LHo-4N-17W-30 bdbd(46)
LHo-4N-17W-30 bdbd(56)
LHo-4N-17W-30 bdbd(156)
LHo-4N-17W-5 ba
LHo-4N-18W-25 ddad
LHo-5N-17W-35 cda
HC-17
HC-18
Blend of
LW1-1N-18W-3 a
LW1-4N-19W-2 daac
LW1-5N-19W-34 add

LW1-6N-19W-34 cb
LWs-2N-13W-7 dca
LWs-3N-13W-2 SE corner b
LWs-3N-14W-28 bc
LWs-4N-15W-6 dca





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


HUMATE
The term humate was first used by Swanson and Palacas (1965, p. B1). They
reported that "Layers of dune and beach sand along the north coast of the Gulf
of Mexico are cemented or impregnated with a conspicuous dark-brown to black
water-soluble organic substance herein called humate. The humate-cemented
sand, generally 6 inches to 3 feet thick but as much as 15 feet in some places,
forms one or several irregular layers in the subsurface of broad land areas at a
depth of a few inches to 35 feet. Humate accumulates in subsurface soil layers,
in and beneath marsh deposits, in shore and beach sands of bayous and bays,
commonly near the mouths of tea-colored streams and near ground-water
seepages, and as a type of organic sediment in bodies of brackish or saline
water."
Swanson and Palacus (p. B5-B10) list seven varieties of humate-impregnated
or humate-cemented sand, several of which are very similar to or the same as the
hard-pan of local water-well drillers and carbonaceous sand exposed in banks of
canals.
Vernon (1942, p. 136) reported 26.9 feet of "black, cross-bedded, coarse to
fine, slightly indurated sand, highly impregnated with stumps, roots and plants,
both carbonized and uncarbonized" in the NW4, NW%, Section 21, T2N, R15W,
Washington County that probably is identifiable as the fifth (p. B8) of the seven
varieties of Swanson and Palacas.
The writers noted 3 to 6-inch layers of humate or hard-pan exposed at many
localities around Choctawhatchee Bay, and in the banks of the Intracoastal
waterway in southeastern Walton County great thicknesses (up to 12-15 feet)
of this material are exposed, figure 8. Humate was also observed in samples
taken from auger and core holes in southern Walton County.
Swanson and Palacas believe that humate is formed through the leaching of
the decaying plant material on the surface then surface and subsurface waters
transport this humic substance either to be precipitated in some subsurface sand
or transported elsewhere by natural waters and subsequently deposited. The
geochemistry of humate is extremely complex (Swanson and Palacas, 1965, p.
Bl), and this aspect is not to be reviewed here. However, the economic
significance of humate is intriguing and a brief statement follows.
The humate cemented sand in the Choctawhatchee Bay area ranges from less
than 1 to more than 8 percent organic matter with the average composition of
the extracted humate being 55.0 percent carbon, 4.4 percent hydrogen, 38.5
percent oxygen, 1.4 percent nitrogen, and 0.7 percent sulfur (Swanson and
Palacas, 1965, p. B18).
"Humate has the capacity to sorb large amounts of metals..." (Swanson and
Palacas, 1965, p. B27). Swanson, et al (1966, p. C176) state "...it is suggested









BULLETIN NO. 50


" &

f\ V,


Zf--~-

Figure 8. Two views of Humate zones (dark beds) exposed in banks of Intracoastal
Waterway in southeastern Walton County.


,. ~4.
C~.
..a~P~~j -....I.1 *
.
: : II Be
~" ,,.., k.: .-b i
r:l
:-'. ..r...r~:


79


AtF






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


that the metal-sorption property of the Florida humate maybe of economic
use."
The large tonnages available, with the unique characteristic of selectively
extracting trace amounts of certain metals, makes humate potentially suitable
for use in the chemical and fertilizer industries.
Swanson, et al (p. C176-177) further state:
"Simple drying, light crushing, and sieveing of the humate-rich sand produces
a powder that is 60 to 75 percent humate. Another seemingly attractive aspect
of the humate is its almost instantaneous solubility, for example, in ammonia.
Ammonia is widely applied in liquid form to soils as a nitrogen fertilizer.
Humate is also soluble in a potassium phosphate (K3P04) solution, and might
also provide the other 2 of the 3 major constituents of fertilizers-potassium and
phosphorous.
"Other possible, but untested, uses of the physically separated or chemically
extracted humate are as a water purifying compound, as an additive in
well-drilling fluids, as a wood stain or paint pigment, and as a metal scavenger
in a variety of commercial processes."
LIMESTONE
Limestone occurs at or near the surface in Holmes and Washington counties in
the Marianna Lowlands area. The surface exposures of this area have been
studied in detail by Reves (1961). This comprehensive report should be very
helpful to anyone wishing to utilize limerock from these two counties.
Aase (1962) proposed cement and lime industries for Redevelopment Area A,
West Florida as possibilities of utilizing the limestone resources of Holmes and
Washington counties.
A recent open-file report on the potential limestone resources in Washington
County, Florida was prepared by Shirley and Sweeney of the U. S. Bureau of
Mines at the request of Farmers Home Administration (F.H.A.), U. S.
Department of Agriculture. This open-file report presents data collected from
subsurface sources, and the writers feel it is an excellent supplement to the
Reves report. The report is an evaluation of both the quantity and quality of
limestone available for commercial purposes.
Permission was granted the Bureau of Geology to use any portion of the
Shirley and Sweeney (1965) report by the Farmers Home Administration and
the U. S. Bureau of Mines. However, the comprehensive nature of their study is
such that the writers feel parts of it cannot be extracted without taking away
from an excellent report. Consequently, it will be included essentially in its
entirity as an appendix to the present study. Only where a discussion of the
general geology would create a duplicate is there an omission.
Limestone of Oligocene age crops out near the Alabama-Florida State line in
the northern part of Walton County along Bridge Creek at Natural Bridge, as
shown in figure 9.
A channel sample of limestone was collected at Natural Bridge, SE, SE%,
section 26, T6N, R20W, and submitted to the Florida State Road Department,
Division of Materials, Research and Training, for testing. William Wisner, State







BULLETIN NO. 50 81









te 41i%




go ,
T


Figure 9. View of Natural Bridge in Walton County at locality LWI-6N-2UW-2b-a.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Road Department, Division of Materials, Gainesville, (personal communication,
October 15, 1968), reported that the sample from this locality does not meet
the State Road Department specifications for Ocala type limestone because of
low carbonate content (90.0%) and high organic content (1.3%), though it did
exhibit good load-bearing characteristics.
OYSTER SHELL
Generally, oysters are thought of as a product commercialized for food value.
However, in this report the only interest in the oyster is the utilization of the
shell itself for commercial purposes. The oyster shell is of commercial value
because it is a source of high calcium carbonate.
The oyster shells produced in Florida from areas other than indian mounds or
fossil bars found on land are controlled by permit from the Florida Board of
Conservation.
In the area of study oyster shells are currently being dredged from
Choctawhatchee Bay by Radcliff Materials, Inc. of Shalimar, Florida.
The discussion that follows concerns information supplied to the writers by
Radcliff Materials, Inc., (personal communication of October 7, 1968).
Production: Radcliff Materials, Inc. has produced 803,141 tons of shell from
1967 to date in 1968 for a market value of $2.05 per cubic yard.
Mining Methods: The shell is mined by mobile floating dredge which uses a 12
inch pump. As the shell is pumped from the bay bottom it is washed and loaded
on barges for transport.
Reserves: Although the company has surveyed only a portion of
Choctawhatchee Bay, they estimate 5 years of reserves at the present rate of
production.
Uses: Presently, the primary use of the oyster shell is in road maintenance and
for road base. However, the shell is also used by a chemical company for making
lime which is used in their process of producing magnesium compounds from sea
water.
SAND
Sand is a name applied to an unconsolidated aggregate of minerals or rock
particles that range in size from 2 to 0.062 millimeters (0.078 to 0.002 inches).
According to the above definition, sand is a size characteristic and does not
connote mineralogic composition.
In this report the term sand is used as a size range, but it also has a
mineralogic connotation meaning that the sand is predominantly composed of
the mineral quartz. The term "high-silica" sand is used to distinguish those sands
composed of 98 percent or more silica from sands that are less pure because of
either inclusions or iron content.
The grains of sands seen in Holmes, Walton and Washington counties are
remnants of rocks that originally occurred in states to the north of Florida,






BULLETIN NO. 50


Georgia, Alabama and the Carolinas. Over a period of thousands of years
through various processes of chemical and physical weathering these sand
producing rocks were disintegrated and the resulting smaller sand particles were
washed into the streams by rains. The streams transported the sand to where
some was deposited along the stream-flood plains. That portion of the sand not
deposited along the channels finally reached the sea where it too finally came to
rest in the area.
This is not to say that this was the final movement of the sand. Even today
sands in the area are constantly being shifted around by the present day streams
and winds.
The formations exposed at the surface in the counties under study have
already been discussed and are shown in table 1 on page 11.
The Plio-Pleistocene (Citronelle) sands are the most important as a
commercial-sand source because of their wide-spread nature and because they
contain the variation in grain size necessary to meet standard specification for
construction sands.
These Plio-Pleistocene deposits are very fine to very coarse grained, iron
stained, multicolored, clayey quartz sands that are crossbedded and interbedded
with kaolinites. It is not uncommon for the deposits to contain gravel (grain
sizes above 4.5 mm or 0.2 inches). However, the gravel is not suitable for
economic purposes because it is very fractured and crumbly. Data obtained from
core holes drilled in Walton County indicate that in the southwest part of the
county these sediments are in excess of 100 feet thick, whereas, in the other
parts of the county they average 50 feet in thickness with some of the higher
hills capped with 80 feet of Citronelle.
The Recent sands occurring along the stream valleys probably are of economic
value but are not considered in this report because of the limited distribution of
the deposits when compared to the Plio-Pleistocene sands. Reves (1960), in a
report on the mineral resources of Choctawhatchee-Pea River Basin in Florida
and Alabama, reports that commercial sand is being mined from the
Choctawhatchee River in Alabama.
The sands from the Pleistocene terraces and the recent dunes along the coast
of Walton County were found to range in size from very fine to medium. These
sands because of their size range were tested for suitability in the manufacture of
glass. The results of these tests are discussed on page 93.
USES OF SAND
Vernon (1943, p. 123-127) has shown that Florida sands can be used in a
variety of ways to satisfy industrial needs.
The following are generalized criteria for the uses of sand as cited by Vernon
(1943) and others (Murphy 1960, A.S.T.M. Florida State Road Department,
1966).






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1. Building aggregate (concrete and mortar sand):
Specifications for sand in this category will vary according to local needs.
However, the sand is quite often required to meet A.S.T.M. standards or the
Florida State Road Department standard specifications for materials for road
and bridge construction. In general, if the sand is to meet the specifications it
should be hard, strong, durable, free of organic impurities, uncoated quartz
(silica) grains.
CONCRETE
The gradation of the sand for concrete shall be as follows:
S.R.D. 1966
Sec. 902.1
& A.S.T.M. (1966)
Total percent Percent passing
Seive No. retained on seive seive A.S.T.M.
3/4 in. 100
No. 4 0-5 95-100
No. 8 0-15 80-100
No. 16 3-35 50-85
No. 30 30-75 25-60
No. 50 65-95 10-30
No. 100 95-100 2-10
The fineness modulus of sand for concrete shall be not less than 2.3 nor
greater than 3.1.
MASONRY MORTER
The gradation of sand to be used for masonry morter is as follows:
A.S.T.M. (1966)
Seive No. Percent passing seive
No.4 100
No. 8 95 to 100
No. 100 25 maximum
No. 200 10 maximum
The fineness modulus of the sand shall be 1.6 to 2.5.
The State Road Department (1966) requires that all the material must pass
the No. 10 seive and be uniformly graded from coarse to fine.
2. Paving aggregate:
The sand under this category would be used for mixing with asphaltic or
bituminous pavements. It must be clean, tough, angular, free from clay or loam
and other foreign matter.





BULLETIN NO. 50


State Road Department (1966) grade size requirements are as follows:
Passing seive Retained on seive % by wt.
No. 4 -90-100
No. 4 No. 10 0-15
No. 10 No. 40 15-50
No. 40 No. 80 25-60
No. 80 No. 200 8-40
No. 200 -0-10
3. Molding Sand (refractory sand):
To be useful for molding, according to Vernon (1943) and Murphy (1960),
sand must possess the following characteristics:
a. Possess a high degree of refractoriness, that is, resist becoming
a coherent non-porous mass by heating.
b. Be highly permeable so that steam and gases from hot metal
can pass through them and thereby not causing bubbles in the metal.
c. Possess the ability to retain its molded form at all temperatures
to which the sand may be exposed.
d. The sand must be durable enough to resist breakdown and
deterioration after repeated use.
e. Either have a natural bonding agent as clay or organic matter
or have the bonding agent added.
f. Grain size can vary depending on the needs of the producer.
4. Blasting Sand:
As the name implies the sand is propelled at high velocity by some means. It is
very effective in removing paint, renovating stone faces and cleaning metal
castings.
Specifications vary according to use (Murphy, 1960, p. 763). Coarse grades
range from 4 mesh to 12 mesh, medium grades range from 12 mesh to 30 mesh,
finer grades range from 20 mesh to 100 mesh or finer.
5. Glass Sand:
If a sand is to be useful in the manufacture of glass it must be of high-silica
quality. That is, the sand must be chemically pure, (SiO2) and be free of
coatings, stains, or mineralogic impurities.
Alumina present in sufficient quantities will cause the glass to be cloudy.
The specifications for grain size of glass sand will vary depending on the
manufacture. According to Broadhurst (1954) most manufacturers will accept
sands that pass the No. 20 sieve with most of it retained on the No. 100 sieve.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Collection and Presentation of Sand Data
The sediments collected for testing unless otherwise noted in Tables 6, 7, 8
were taken from existing pits, outcrops, and coreholes in the counties under
study. Visual inspection of the deposits were made to determine the general
uniformity and then a channel sample was made down the complete face of the
exposure chosen.
The material was dried and then quartered, using a riffle type sample splitter.
After quartering, one quarter was weighed and then screened, using U. S.
Standard Sieve Series.
The data obtained from the results of the screening are given by county and
are presented in Table 6.
In using the following test results it should be remembered that the data
obtained from the sieve analyses represents only one particular set of samples
and does not necessarily depict all the material in a given deposit.
Test results of the U. S. Bureau of Mines are also included on Table 7 are
designated by the abbreviation U.S.B.M.
The data presented on Tables 6 and 7 represent only that necessary for
determining the general usefulness of the deposit for concrete, morter or
abrassives.
Four of the samples collected in the southern part of Walton County were
tested for use as glass sands and this data is presented in Table 8.
Production and Mining

Production: The present commercial production of sand in the area under study
comes from two mines; Adams Sand Company mine at Mossy Head, Walton
County, figure 10 and Miller and Jenkins mine south of Chipley, Washington
County, figure 11. The market for the sand from these two mines is local and
the use is primarily in construction.
In Washington County, during the year 1966, 13 thousand short tons of sand
were produced at a value of $12,000. In 1967, 8 thousand short tons of sand
were produced at a value of $6,000.
Mining Methods: The excavating of the sand from the two commercial mines in
Walton and Washington counties is by pumping from an open water-filled pit
The sand is pumped from the pit to a tower where gravel, clay balls, and
vegetable matter are screened out. The sand passing through the screen is either
passed directly through hoppers to waiting trucks for transportation to market
or to storage piles for later consumption. The sand taken from the borrow pits
the locations of which are shown on figure 6, was mined by dragline or front end
loader.




TABLE 6. SCREENiT


Deposits Laboratory Test Data, Screen Analyses General
Sieve No. and Weight Percent Uses
Method of Fineness
Sample No. Location Source Sampling 4 8 16 30 50 100 Pan Modulus1


HOLMES COUNTY
LHo-5N-17W-14 dd



LHo-5N-17W-22 bd



LHo-SN-17W-31 cc



WALTON COUNTY
LWl-5N-19W-22 bb



LWl-5N-21W-2 bb



LWl-5N-21W-28 bc


SESEE
Sec 14,
T5N, R17W

NE/SE/4
Sec 22,
T5N, R17W

SW1SW1/
Sec 31,
T5N, R17W


NE/4NE
Sec 22,
T5N, R19W

/4NENE/
Sec 2,
T5N, R21W

NESW
Sec 28,
T5N, R21W


Outcrop Channel


Barrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit



Borrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit


Channel



Channel





Channel



Channel



Channel


1.45 0.75



3.14 283


1.20








.30


.34





.20



.54



.30


9.80



8.90



4.32





5.11



5.30



.60


33.83



15.35



28.19





30.86



23.44



12.65


20.29



16.17



36.38





31.86



22.60



27.51


23.63



32.44



24.30





22.95



31.14



44.97


9.75



21.15



6.09





8.3



16.90



13.65


2.2



1.8



2.0





2.0



1.70



1.44


Concrete
Mortar
Abrasives

Mortar
Abrasives t0


Mortar
Abrasives z





Mortar
Abrasives
Mortar
Abrasives


00
---1


ANALYSES AND GENERAL USES OF SANDS IN HOLMES, WALTON AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES




TABLE 6. Continued

Deposits Laboratory Test Data, Screen Analyses General
Sieve No. and Weight Percent Uses
Method of Fineness
Sample No. Location Source Sampling 4 8 16 30 50 100 Pan Modulus1

LW1-5N-21W-29 aa NW/4NW Borrow Channel 0.50 0.80 9.27 32.35 20.16 24.49 12.39 2.05 Mortar
Sec 29, Pit Abrasives
T5N, R21W

LW1-4N-18W-17 bb NE/4NE/4 Borrow Channel 1.01 5.26 24.42 24.31 32.94 12.86 1.81 Mortar
Sec 17, Pit Abrasives
T4N, R18W

LW1-4N-21W-25 ac NWSW Borrow Channel .20 4.00 8.95 16.30 25.30 37.20 6.47 1.94 Mortar
(1)(Depth, Top to 5 fee )Sec 25, Pit Abrasives
T4N, R21W

LWl-4N-21W-25 ac NWSW/4 Borrow Channel .40 2.80 13.20 30.20 28.6 22.40 1.80 2.30 Concrete
(2)(Depth, 5 to 8 feet) Sec 25, Pit Mortar
T4N, R21W Abrasives

LWl-3N-18W-30 b NE4 Borrow Channel 1.40 3.13 8.19 30.33 30.35 20.36 6.17 2.29 Concrete
Sec 30, Pit Mortar
T3N, R18W

LWl-3N-19W-28 da SE/4NW/4 Borrow Channel .10 .20 9.11 34.76 48.99 6.81 1.47
Sec 28, Pit
T3N, R19W

LWl-3N-20W-19 ab NW/4NE/4 Borrow Channel .10 8.5 40.10 47.20 4.10 1.48
Sec 19, Pit
T3N, R20W


oo
oo














>
0

0
0




TABLE 6. Continued

Deposits Laboratory Test Data, Screen Analyses General
Sieve No. and Weight Percent Uses
Method of Fineness
Sample No. Location Source Sampling 4 8 16 30 50 100 Pan Modulus


LW1-3N-21W-28 aa



LW1-3N-16W-6 ac



LWI-2N-18W-22 cc



LW1-2N-19W-15 ad



LW1-2N-19W-7
center d


LW1-2N-20W-5 bb



LW1-2N-21W-19
NE corner a


NW/4NW/4
Sec 28,
T3N, R21W

NW%4SW%
Sec 6,
T3N, R16W

SW4SW/4
Sec 22,
T2N, R18W

NWSE
Sec 15
T2N, R19W

SE/4
Sec 7
T2N, R19WV

NENE1/
Sec 5,
T2N, R20h

NW/4
Sec 19,
T2N, R21P


Sand Channel
Mine


Borrow Channel
Pit


Borrow Channel
Pit


Borrow Channel
Pit


Borrow Channel
Pit


Borrow Channel
Pit


RailroadChannel-
Cut


.70 1.16


1.78








8.17



.60


1.21



1.82



5.85



2.01


12.89



.78



6.07



3.60



19.57



9.74



.10


50.65



8.20



24.13



17.31



16.44



19.09



1.90


21.53



17.69



24.41



23.16



21.79



21.50



19.30


10.83



44.79



34.86



50.23



31.07



38.19



74.20


2.05



28.39



7.12



3.56



6.35



8.84



4.60


2.64


1.08



1.97



1.72



2.79



1.91



1.18


Concrete
Mortar
Abrasives


Mortar
Abrasives


Mortar
Abrasives


Concrete
Mortar
Abrasives

Mortar
Abrasives


p
0





TABLE 6. Continued

Deposits Laboratory Test Data, Screen Analyses General
Sieve No. and Weight Percent Uses
Method of 1 Fineness
Sample No. Location Source Sampling 4 8 16 30 50 100 Pan Modulus


LWl-1N-18W-10 aa



LWI-2N-17W-35 ca



LWI-1N-19W-2 ad



LW1-1S-18W-21 ad



LWI-1S-19W-14 ac



WASHINGTON COUNI
LWs-3N-14W-35 dc



LWs-3N-15W-8 ab


NW/4NW/4
Sec 10,
T1N, R18W

SW/4NW1/
Sec 35,
T2N, R17W

NW/"NE1/
Sec 2,
T1N, R19W

NW/4SE
Sec 21,
T1S, R18W

NW/4SWY4
Sec 14,
T1S, R19W

rY
SESW
Sec 35,
T3N, R14W

NW/4NE1
Sec 35,
T3N, R15W


Borrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit



Borrow
Pit


Borrow
Pit


Channel



Channel



Channel



Channel



Channel




Channel



Channel


3.53








.17














.54


6.89



.32



.90



.09


1.15



.05


13.17



3.39



4.95



.89



.14




12.38



.06


21.31



24.29



16.62



13.90



2.32




47.57



4.01


16.00



26.04



21.93



27.10



8.44




21.45



38.99


29.32



31.96



41.35



46.40



78.27




10.43



49.07


9.56



13.71



13.51



11.60



10.79




5.68



7.74


2.34



1.72



1.60



1.46



1.03




2.54



1.40


03
O


Concrete
Mortar


Mortar
Abrasives


Mortar p
Abrasives c
0


O








Concrete
Mortar




TABLE 6. Continued

Deposits Laboratory Test Data, Screen Analyses General
Sieve No. and Weight Percent Uses
Method of Fineness
Sample No. Location Source Sampling 4 8 16 30 50 100 Pan Modulus


LWs-3N-15W-19



LWs-3N-16W-15 bc



LWs-3N-13W-7 cc



LWs-2N-13W-17 dd



LWs-2N-14W-12 cb



LWs-2N-16W-16 da



LWs-lN-13W-10 ab


center of
Sec 19,
T3N, R15W

SW/NE%
Sec 15,
T3N, R16W

SW/4SW/4
Sec 7,
T2N, R13W

SE/4SE1/4
Sec 17,
T2N, R13W

SW4NE/4
Sec 12,
T2N, R14W

SE/4NW/4
Sec 16
T2N, R16W

NW%/NE
Sec 10,
T1N, R13W


Roadcut Channel



Borrow Channel
Pit


Sand Channel
Mine


Borrow Channel
Pit


Borrow Channel
Pit


Borrow Channel
Pit


Sink Channel
Hole


0.54


1.77



.16








7.18



.64


1.15



.05



5.14



1.18



.06



1.20



7.52


12.38



2.15



29.28



2,69



.22



3.18



20.46


47.57



38.05



45.25



18.47



8.39



9.68



19.66


21.45



44.60



7.07



25.58



38.09



11.96



10.75


10.43



12.19



6.70



49.20



44.50



35.64



36.39


5.68



2.65



4.22



6.47



8.23



30.57



4.56


2.54



2.24



3.09



1.69



1.47



1.50



2.40


Concrete
Mortar


Mortar
Abrasives


Concrete
Mortar
Abrasives

Mortar
Adrasives


tTI


JI
0r


Concrete
Mortar
Abrasives