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Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala group ( FGS: Bulletin 38 )
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Title: Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala group ( FGS: Bulletin 38 )
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Creator: Puri, Harbans Singh
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Full Text






STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Herman Gunter, Director







GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 38






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCALA GROUP






HARBANS S. PURI








Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
November 1, 1957












FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


LEROY COLLINS
Governor


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State


J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller


ERNEST MITTS
Supervisor of Conservation






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


OJlorida geological Survey

(Callaiassee
April 17, 1957

MR. ERNEST MITTS, Director
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

SIR:

The Ocala limestone is probably the most significant formation
in the geologic section of Florida, because of its importance as a
fresh-water aquifer, as a source of high purity limestone and as
a key to the solution of the orogeny, stratigraphy, and historical
geology of Florida. A better understanding of the history of these
sediments is important since all of the early structural maps were
drawn upon the eroded top of the Ocala limestone.
This report, entitled "Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala
Group," was prepared by Dr. Harbans S. Puri, Paleontologist of
this department. Part I is a comprehensive report that contributes
much new data to the biostratigraphy of the Ocala group; Part
II is a detailed study of the Foraminifera and Part III describes
the Ostracoda contained in these rocks.
Respectfully submitted,
HERMAN GUNTER, Director




















































































































r







ABSTRACT


Regional studies of the Ocala limestone justify the use of the
term Ocala group, which is redefined to include all calcareous sedi-
ments of Jackson age that occur east of Tombigbee River. So de-
fined, the group includes the following formations: Inglis, Willis-
ton and Crystal River. The Inglis and the Williston were both
originally described as members of the Moodys Branch formation,
but are here raised to formational rank because of the distinctive-
ness of their lithology and fauna, and because of their lithologic
differences from the type Moodys Branch. The name Crystal River
formation is proposed for the 108 feet of limestone exposed in the
Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6, Township 19
South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida. It includes all cal-
careous sediments of upper Eocene age lying stratigraphically
between the Williston formation and the overlying Oligocene lime-
stones.
The following faunizones are recognized within the three for-
mations of the Ocala group:

Crystal River formation
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone
Asterocyclina-Spirolaca vernoni faunizone
Nummn elites vanderstoki-Hcmicyth ere faunizone
Lepidocyclina-Pseidophragmina faunizone
Spiroloculina newhcrryensis faunizone
Williston formation
Nuzmmiulites moodybranchensis faunizone
Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone
Inglis formation
Periarchus lyelli floridanum s-Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana
faunizone

Part II is a comprehensive study of the Foraminifera of the
Ocala group. The fauna of these sediments consists of 145 species,
of which 17 are new. These species are distributed over 78 genera,
of which, two, Neoclavulina and Vernonina, are described as new.




Part III is a detailed study of Ostracoda contained in these
rocks. Forty species are reported from the Ocala group, of which
23 are new. The ostracode fauna is distributed over 23 genera,
of which three, Pseudocytheromorpha, Jugosocythereis and Ab-
sonocytheropteron, are reported for the first time.




PREFACE


The lithologic homogeneity of sediments formerly included in
the Ocala limestone, with hardly any marked lateral facies, in-
creases the difficulty in correlation by ordinary methods based only
on lithology. Therefore, in determining the exact lithologic position
of various horizons within the "Ocala limestone" in widely scattered
areas, a basis of correlation independent of lithology must
be provided. A method of correlation is supplied by the de-
tailed zonation by means of microfossils and this method has been
used in this study to establish a greater number of biostratigraphic
units over a wider area than has been accomplished by other means.
A detailed examination of several outcrop sections and rock cuttings
from water wells show that in Florida at least eight faunizones can
be recognized in the "Ocala limestone."

The "Ocala limestone" is probably the most significant strati-
graphic unit in the geologic section of Florida, because of its im-
portance as a fresh-water aquifer, as a source of high purity lime-
stone, and as the key to the solution of the orogeny, stratigraphy and
historical geology of Florida Tertiary sediments, particularly of
those cropping out at the surface. The Florida Geological Survey
recognized the importance of the full understanding of the history
of these sediments since all of the early structural maps were
drawn upon the eroded top of the Ocala limestone and the structures
thus depicted were not truly representative.

Applin and Applin (1944) made the first subdivision of the Ocala
limestone, but not until Vernon's (1951) study on Citrus and Levy
counties could these sediments be divided into three stratigraphic
units that enabled the construction of a representative structural
map of the Tertiary beds of Florida.

Vernon (1951) recognized in the Ocala limestone three distinct
units, from top to bottom, the Ocala limestone (restricted), the
Williston member, and the Inglis member, the last two composing
the Moodys Branch formation. With the completion of this study
it was felt that the Ocala limestone (restricted) could be further
subdivided and W. R. Oglesby was encouraged to map Dixie and
Gilchrist counties and attempt further subdivisions. The present
study of the Ocala limestone was initiated early in 1950 as a result
of discussions with Oglesby on the possibility of such a zonation.





An attempt was then made to find accurate datum planes within
the Ocala limestone. It was realized early in the study that several
faunizones, each with characteristic fossils, could be recognized
in the Ocala limestone but it soon became apparent that only a
small portion of the Ocala limestone existed in Dixie and Gilchrist
counties. Additional work was, therefore, recommended at the
type locality at Ocala, Marion County, and other well-exposed sec-
tions in Peninsular Florida, to determine whether such faunizones
could be recognized laterally, irrespective of variation in the charac-
ter of sediments.

Four control sections, Newberry, Alachua County; Zuber and
Kendrick, Marion County; and Crystal River, Citrus County, were
collected at five-foot intervals in the summer of 1951. A study of
the rock cuttings from water well W-381, Polk County, served to
amplify the evidence relating to the stratigraphic distribution of
the faunal zones in the type area and to extend the correlation south-
ward. A manuscript entitled "Zonation of the Ocala Group in
Peninsular Florida" was submitted to the Florida Geological Survey
for publication in November, 1952, but Dr. R. O. Vernon suggested
that the correlation in Peninsular Florida be extended throughout
the State. The zonation in Peninsular Florida was presented at the
annual meeting of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and
Mineralogists at Houston on March 25, 1953, and was published in
abstract (Puri, 1953). It can now be established that the seven
faunizones recognized in the Ocala group in Peninsular Florida can
be correlated throughout Florida.

In spite of careful search to recognize any lithologic units with-
in the Ocala limestone (restricted) of Vernon, none was found to
be persistent enough to be of any real value.

The faunizones established in the present study are based on
the evaluation of suites of species; conclusions are drawn from
faunal assemblages rather than from individual species. Most of
these faunizones can be recognized in Florida. Species of Fora-
minifera and Ostracoda are most useful in this zonation. Several
characteristic fossils of these zones are figured in the belief that they
will help those not acquainted with the fauna. Several of the species
of Ostracoda are new and are described and figured for the first
time. Further studies may extend their stratigraphic range. Most
of the species of Foraminifera have been previously described and




figured. The literature on the foraminiferal fauna of the Ocala
limestone is widely scattered; in most cases either the descriptions
are too lengthy or the figures too generalized and poor. Very rarely
the exact stratigraphic occurrence of the fauna has been recorded.
With the exception of the few recent studies, the faunal succession
of the species of Foraminifera of the Ocala limestone has not hither-
to been clear and an attempt is here made to clarify some of these
problems.
Larger Foraminifera and Ostracoda are used for the most part
in this study because they are abundant and well preserved; in ad-
dition they are known to have a narrow vertical and a wide hori-
zontal range as compared with the ranges of smaller Foraminifera,
which are used more commonly in zonation in the western Gulf
coast. Smaller Foraminifera are, moreover, destroyed by leaching
and recrystallization in limestones and in many cases induration
makes it hard to free them from the rock. In addition to the Fora-
minifera, well-preserved Bryozoa are abundant in the Ocala lime-
stone. They offer promising possibilities as zonal markers, if care-
ful faunal studies are made in conjunction with a restudy of bryo-
zoan terminology.
The present zonation of the Ocala group was complicated by
the difficult task of assigning specific names to most species of
smaller Foraminifera because of their poor state of preservation.
Most ostracode carapaces are either closed, articulate valves, or
filled with calcium carbonate, and therefore it is difficult to observe
their detailed hinge structure, pore canals, and muscle scars. The
nature of the problem, in view of the poor state of preservation of
species, and consequent difficulties in identification due to poor pres-
ervation, does not warrant a complete taxonomic analysis.
Gratitude is expressed to W. R. Oglesby, William Lapinsky and
Lionel Brenneman, for their assistance in the field work and col-
lection of samples. The author is grateful to Dr. Robert O. Vernon
for his keen interest during the study and his constructive criti-
cism of the manuscript. Dr. Vernon also contributed much well
data from central and northern Florida; some of this data has
already been published (Vernon, 1951). Paul L. and Esther R.
Applin kindly allowed use of their well and slide collection and
helped to clarify some of the stratigraphic problems.
The report has been discussed with Drs. H. V. Howe, G. E.







Murray and the late L. J. Wilbert, Jr. Dr. Howe also assisted in
the comparison of ostracode species with his type collection. The
Foraminifera have been compared with homeotypes identified by
the late Dr. Joseph A. Cushman and Dr. Hans Naegeli. Mr. Andrew
R. Janson and Miss Doryand P. Janson assisted in the preparation
of illustrations. Mrs. Ruth Shuler helped type the final manuscript.
All types are deposited in the Florida Geological Survey Mu-
seum. Type numbers refer to the Survey catalog. A paratype set
of the new species of Ostracoda is deposited in the Henry V. Howe
collection, Louisiana State University.



























TABLE OF CONTENTS


Letter of Transmittal .....------- -- .----------- -- --.-- ---..- 3
Abstract .-----.---.---------------------------- 5
Preface .....----------------------------------- 7

Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group
Part I Stratigraphy 13
Part II Foraminifera 91
Part III Ostracoda ------------185
Index ...---............-- ------- -- ------- ----..-- 245







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PART I


STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCALA GROUP


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PART I



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Stratigraphy
Historical review ........-- -.... ....------------------.--.--------------- 17
Classification -------- .------------- ------ 22
Ocala group .-..-- ............------------------------------------ 22
Inglis formation --- ..--.---------- ----- 24
Type locality ---------..--------- --- 24
Fauna .........---------------- 25
Williston formation ------------------- 28
Type locality ---.-------------- 29
Fauna ---------------------- 29
Crystal River formation ----------- -31
Type locality .-------------------------- 35
Fauna ----------------36
Thickness ---. ------- 37--.. 37
Distribution --.- ----------------------------- 38
Downdip facies of the Ocala group --_----.--------------- 38
Larger Foraminifera of the Ocala group ------ 41
Notes on species of larger Foraminifera ---------- 42
Zonation -------------------------------------------- 46
Localities ....-------------------------- 57
Bibliography 86


ILLUSTRATIONS



Figures
1 Entrance to locality PM-2 ---------- 23
2 Panorama of Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing
Company, locality PM-2 23
3 Cavern at locality PA-4. The vertical drop is 30 feet. Such caverns
are common in the limestones of the Ocala group ---- 32
4 Solution pipes at locality PA-1. These "pipes" are filled with the
Hawthorn sediments and carry a varied vertebrate fauna 32
5 Boulders of chert at locality PA-2. Deposition of silica has replaced
the limestone. Pseudomorphs of shells are common in these boulders 33
6 Amusium bed at locality PL-1 ..----------------- 37
7 Surface occurrences of the Ocala group in Florida ----- 39
8 Typical sediment of the Inglis formation from borrow pit 49
9 Typical rock specimen of the Williston formation, locality L-37 -..-. 51







10 Typical sediment of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone
of the Crystal River ------------- 53
11 Typical rock specimen of Nummulites vanderstoki faunizone, lo-
cality PL-1 --- -- 54
12 Typical sediment of the Asterocyclina faunizone of the Crystal
River formation, locality PJ-1 56
13 Locality map of Florida with lines of sections ... In pocket
14 Panorama at locality PA-1 showing the Newberry Corporation pits 59
15 Entrance to S. M. Wall quarry, locality PA-2. Hawthorn clays
(background) overlie the Crystal River formation unconformably 61
16 Panorama at locality PA-2 showing the S. M. Wall quarry 61
17 Panorama at locality PA-3 showing the Buda Pit of the Williston
Shell Rock Co. .- - .. 62
18 Panorama at locality PA-4 showing the Duval Construction Co. pits 63
19 Panorama at locality PG-1 63
20 Panorama at locality PG-2 showing Gordon Philpot quarry 64
21 Panorama at locality PG-5 ..... -- 66
22 Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, locality PJ-1 67
23 Sam Smith quarry, locality PJ-4 ---...- 69
24 Panorama at locality PL-1 showing the Dell Mine (Mayo) of the
Williston Shell Rock Co.- -- 71
25 Panorama at locality PM-1, Dixie Lime Products Co., Reddick,
Florida .---- ---.. -. ..-- - - ---- .......... 73
26 Panorama at locality PM-3, Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and
Manufacturing Co. -- -........... .. ....... 73
27 Panorama at locality PS-1 --- 74
28 Panorama at locality PS-2 .-- 74
29 Panorama at locality PS-3, showing the Suwannee Limerock Co.
quarry .--...... ...... ..... ..--------- ... ....75
30 Crushing plant at locality PS-3, Suwannee Limerock Co. 75

Plates
1 Stratigraphic Sections A-A' and B-B' In pocket
2 Isometric Projection of the Ocala group In pocket
3 Isometric Projection of the Ocala group showing the various
faunizones ---...... In pocket

Tables
1 Classification of the Ocala group in Florida .......-. 28
2 Distribution of Foraminifera and Ostracoda in the Inglis and Wil-
liston formations - -- ........... 29
3 Comparison of septa per whorl in species of Nummulites in the
Ocala group .. ....-- ----- ................ ... 45





Part I


STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCALA GROUP

STRATIGRAPHY

HISTORICAL REVIEW

The term Ocala limestone was proposed by Dall (1892, pp. 103-
104) for the limestone exposures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion
County, Florida. Dall (op. cit.) correlated these sediments with
the "Nummulitic beds" and with the Oligocene of Heilprin (1887)
which Dall then thought to be of Eocene age. Dall (1892, pp. 103-
104) recognized three units in the Eocene of Peninsular Florida,
the "Orbitoides limestone" (Vicksburg), the "Nummulitic lime-
stone" (Ocala) and the "Miliolitic limestone" (? Williston). He
considered them to belong in part to the Vicksburg. Later Dall
(1903, p. 1554) proposed the name "Peninsular limestone" for part
of the orbitoidal limestone between the Vicksburg and the Ocala
limestone. He suggested that the Peninsular limestone might be
younger than the typical Vicksburg and older than the Ocala lime-
stone.
Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 51) adopted the name Peninsular
and Ocala limestones and proposed a new name "Marianna lime-
stone" for the limestone of northwestern Florida containing Lepi-
docyclina mantelli. They (op. cit.) referred Marianna limestone to
the Oligocene. They based this age determination on a species of
Nummulites (really a Lepidocyclina) identified by Heilprin (1882)
as associated with the Oligocene and were also influenced by Dall's
(1903) idea that the Ocala fauna was of upper Vicksburg age.
These conclusions were adopted by Matson and Sanford (1913)
without further question.
The credit for assigning the Ocala limestone to its correct strati-
graphic position goes to Cooke (1915) who for the first time showed
that much of the Peninsular limestone is the same as Ocala; that
"Ocala limestone" underlies the Marianna limestone and the "Ocala
fauna is essentially Jackson stage." Most subsequent authors have
accepted this age determination.





18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Sellards and Gunter (1918, p. 88) and Sellards (1919, p. 113)
referred to the Claiborne Eocene some "glauconitic calcareous sand-
rock" along the Choctawhatchee River. Vernon (1942, pp. 43-45)
notes strong faunal evidence for a lower Jackson age assignment
of these beds.
Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 47-48) lumped in the "Ocala" all
sediments of Eocene age exposed in Florida, including the "Orbi-
toidal," "Nummulitic" and "Miliolitic" limestones of Dall as well
as the "Peninsular" limestone of Matson.
Cooke, Gardner and Woodring (1943), in their correlation of
the Cenozoic formations of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain,
correlated the "Ocala limestone" with the Jackson stage of the
Gulf states.
Applin and Applin (1944), who subdivided the Ocala limestone
for the first time into a lower and an upper member, show that the
upper member which is the typical Ocala limestone occurs in sub-
surface throughout Florida except on the east coast in parts of
Seminole and Volusia counties. The wells in this area penetrated
the lower, less fossiliferous member directly beneath a thin cover
of Miocene or Pliocene beds.
Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 130), in their discussion of the
diagnostic Foraminifera of the subsurface formations of Florida,
listed the following species to be common and characteristic in
the Ocala limestone:

Amphistegina alabamensis Applin and Jordan
Cibicides mississippiensis ocalanus Cushman
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) nassauensis Cole
Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)
Gypsina globula (Reuss)
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman
Nonion chapapotensis Cole
Operculina mariannensis Vaughan
Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin)
Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman)
Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin)
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis (Vaughan)
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)

Applin and Jordan (op. cit.) thought the following species were
common and characteristic in the lower member of the Ocala lime-
stone in Peninsular Florida:

Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan
Camerina aff. vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt)
Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Bandy (1949), in his attempt to zone the upper Eocene, Jackson
group, which he called Jackson "formation" in Alabama (Little
Stave Creek section), divided it, in descending order, into zone B,
zone A, Yazoo clay "member" and Moodys Branch marl "member."
He listed and illustrated the following species to be diagnostic
of the Moodys Branch "member":

*Bolivina salebrosa Bandy
*Cibicides truncatus Bandy
*Discorbis hemisphericus Cushman
Nummulites jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna)
Operculinoides vaughani (Cushman)
*Reussella moodyensis Bandy
Sphaerogypsina globulus (Reuss)

The species indicated by an asterisk are common in the "mem-
ber" but are not restricted, the species without an asterisk are
good markers with the exception of Gypsina globula which is
known to range throughout the Cenozoic.
Bandy (1949, p. 13) listed the following species to be diagnostic
of the Yazoo clay "member":

Ammobaculites pseudorostratus Bandy
Ammobaculites yazooensis Bandy
*Cibicidina yazooensis Bandy
Massilina cookei Cushman
Massilina yazooensis Bandy
*Nonion advenum (Cushman)
*Nonion inexcavatum (Cushman and Applin)
*Nonionella spissa Cushman
Quinqueloculina constans Bandy
Spiroplectammina pseudoelongata Bandy
*Textularia adalta Cushman
*Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Triloculina subrotunda Bandy

The species shown by asterisks are common but not restricted
and the rest of the species are good markers.
He listed the following species to be restricted to his zone A,
overlying the Yazoo clay:

Aktinocyclina bainbridgensis Vaughan
Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman

Although Bandy (1949, p. 13) records that Lepidocyclina ocalana
is restricted to his zone A, the species is known to occur also in the
Williston sediments (lower Jackson substage) of Florida.
The following species are listed by Bandy (1949, p. 14) to be
characteristic of his zone B:





20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman
Asterigerinella gallowayi Bandy
Bolivina dalli (Cushman)
Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman
Bulimina jacksonensis cuneata Cushman
Discorbis cocoaensis Cushman and Garrett
Cibicidina walli Bandy
Gaudryina jacksonensis Cushman
Marginulina cocoaensis Cushman
Saracenaria ornatus Cushman and Bermudez
Robulus insitatus Cushman
Robulus rectidorsatus Bandy
Uvigerina cocoaensis Cushman
Vulvulina advena Cushman

In the opinion of the writer, zones A and B of Bandy are equiv-
alent in part to the Pachuta and Shubuta formations of Alabama
and Mississippi, respectively.
The most recent contribution, to our knowledge, of the "Ocala"
is that of Vernon (1951). After completion of a detailed study of
the geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Vernon came to the con-
clusion that the basal 80 feet of the "Ocala limestone" can be dis-
tinguished from the stratigraphically higher rock in the Moodys
Branch formation. Two lithologically as well as faunistically dis-
tinct units are recognized by him in the Moodys Branch formation,
approximately 50 and 30 feet thick. The lower 50 feet of the
Moodys Branch formation, to which the name Inglis member is
given by Vernon (op. cit., p. 111) is considered by him to cor-
respond to Applin and Applin's (1944) lower member of the Ocala
limestone. The overlying 30 feet of strata are included in the
Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation. Beds overlying
the Moodys Branch formation are placed by Vernon in the Ocala
limestone (restricted). Undifferentiated "Ocala limestone," as
used by previous workers, is contemporaneous with the Jackson
stage of the eastern Gulf states (Cooke, 1915; Cooke, Gardner and
Woodring, 1943; Cooke, 1945; Murray, 1952). MacNeil (1947)
used the Jackson group in the litho-stratigraphic sense but Vernon
(1952) used Jackson both as a stage and as a group name. Jackson
stage defined by Murray and Wilbert (1950) as "Jacksonian," is a
time-rock unit as used by most American stratigraphers and, accord-
ing to their best judgment, is of age or stage usage and therefore
should not be used in a rock sense. The Jackson stage in Mississippi
and Alabama is divided into a lower Moodys Branch formation and
an upper Yazoo group (Murray, 1952). East of the Mississippi-
Alabama state line the upper clayey facies become calcareous gradu-
ally and pass into a distinct limy facies in Florida. Vernon justifies
the extension of the Moodys Branch formation into Florida because




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


of the continuity of biozones from the type locality in the vicinity
of Jackson, Mississippi, to Florida and because of the gradual lateral
change in facies of deposition. The Moodys Branch formation at its
type locality consists of a lower sand member and an upper marl
member, which on induration may resemble a limestone at some
places. In Florida, however, both members (Inglis and Williston)
are calcareous. Whether or not these end members of the Moodys
Branch formation in Alabama, Mississippi and Florida, which are
certainly contemporaneous in age, should be referred to the same
formational name is a matter of opinion. Rather than introduce a
new name, and because of unfinished studies being undertaken on
the Florida sediments of the Jackson stage, Vernon' preferred to
extend the formational name to Florida, although he recognized that
the calcareous facies could not be called properly the Moodys Branch
formation in a litho-stratigraphic concept.
Vernon (1951, p. 112) listed the following Foraminifera from
the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation:

Fabiania cubensis
Spiroloculina seminolensis
Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni
Rotalia cushmani
Nonion advenum
"Camerina" vanderstoki

He (op. cit., p. 142) considered the following to be common in
the Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation:

"Camerina" vanderstoki
"Camerina" guayabalensis
Operculinoides floridensis
Operculinoides vaughani var.
Lepidocyclina ocalana
Heterostegina ocalana

He (op. cit., p. 158) considered the following species to be abun-
dant in the Ocala limestone (restricted):

Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.
"Camerina" jacksonensis
"Camerina" vanderstoki
"Camerina" moodybranchensis
Operculinoides vaughani
Operculinoides willcoxi
Heterostegina ocalana

Murray (1952, pl. 13) used the term "Ocala group" on a diagram,
to apply to the calcareous facies of the Jackson stage and included

'Personal communication, February 29, 1952.






22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

the Moodys Branch formation and the Ocala limestone (restricted)
of Vernon (1951) and Applin's (1944) "lower" and "upper" mem-
bers of the "Ocala." This term can be utilized as a group name in
this study but it requires definition. As used by this writer, the
Ocala group is a litho-stratigraphic unit that includes all the
calcareous sediments of the Jackson stage in Florida.


CLASSIFICATION
OCALA GROUP

The term Ocala limestone has been widely used, primarily as a
rock unit. The name was employed thus by various writers to
cover all the calcareous sediments in eastern Alabama and Florida
deposited between middle Eocene (Claiborne) and Oligocene (Vicks-
burg) time, although the exact stratigraphic position of the sedi-
ments remained in doubt until Cooke (1915) established them as
Eocene. He (op. cit.) showed that the Ocala limestone underlies the
Marianna limestone and that its fauna is essentially of Jackson
stage. Since then Ocala limestone, Jackson group, Jackson stage,
have been used indiscriminately by various writers for these upper
Eocene calcareous sediments. Vernon (1951) showed that "Ocala
limestone" consists of at least three easily recognizable lithologic
units. Murray (1952, pl. 13) used the term Ocala group on a dia-
gram to include the Moodys Branch and Ocala limestone (restricted)
of Vernon (op. cit.) or "lower Ocala" and "upper Ocala" of the
Applins (op. cit.). Murray, however, did not define the Ocala group
and he made the following passing reference to it under his dis-
cussion of the Yazoo (op. cit., p. 182) :

". .. regional studies (Murray and Wilbert 1950; Murray 1950; and pl.
13) of the Jackson stage indicate the advisability of using Yazoo (argil-
laceous) as a group term corresponding to the Ocala (calcareous) group
of the eastern Gulf and Fayette arenaceouss and volcanic) group of
the western Gulf region."

Present studies strongly suggest the advisability of using Ocala
as a group name. The Ocala limestone was described from expo-
sures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, Florida (Dall, 1892,
pp. 103-104), and ever since it has been commonly used to include
all calcareous sediments of upper Eocene age until the Applins
(1944) showed that it could be divided into an upper and a lower
member. Because Vernon (1951) has recognized three units and
has established its subdivisions into a lower Moodys Branch forma-
tion and upper Ocala limestone (restricted) and because its regional

























Figure 1
Entrance to locality PM-2.


Figure 2
Panorama of Zuber Pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Co., locality PM-2.






24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

nature has long been recognized, the name Ocala can no longer, in
the opinion of the writer, be used as a formational name. It is here
proposed to promote Ocala to a group name. Since the "Ocala lime-
stone" at the type locality has been quarried and the type section
destroyed, and the exposures in the vicinity of Ocala represent
only about 40 feet of sediments (the basal section in most pits
belongs to the Williston member), the Zuber pit of the Cummer
Lime and Manufacturing Company in the SE1/4 of the NW1/4 of
Section 11, Township 14 South, Range 21 East, Marion County, is
here designated as a cotype locality for the Ocala group. Seventy
feet of limestone is exposed here (see figs. 1 and 2).
The following three formations are assigned to the Ocala group
(Puri, 1953) and their relationship, together with faunizones
recognized in this article is shown in table 1.
Jackson stage
Ocala group
3. Crystal River formation
2. Williston formation
1. Inglis formation

INGLIS FORMATION

Vernon (1951, pp. 115-116) proposed the name Inglis member
of the Moodys Branch formation for 50 feet of the basal section of
the "Ocala limestone" as exposed in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy
County. Vernon2 extended the name Moodys Branch formation into
Florida although he realized that the calcareous facies could not
properly be called the Moodys Branch formation. His application
was that of age rather than rock usage. Since Inglis differs both
faunistically and lithologically from the overlying Williston and the
underlying Avon Park limestone and has been recognized in the
field and mapped, it is here proposed to raise it to formational
rank.

TYPE LOCALITY

The type locality of the Inglis formation is around the town of
Inglis, Levy County, where the limestone is exposed in several pits
and quarries, and also along the Withlacoochee River. Vernon
(1951, p. 123) gives the following section, about one-eighth mile
below the Florida Power Corporation plant at Inglis, on the right
bank of the Withlacoochee River in the southeast quarter of the
2Personal communication, February 29, 1952.







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


northwest quarter, Section 3, Township 17 South, Range 16 East:

"Locality L-135: Feet
Pleistocene series-Pamlico formation
2 Quartz sand .....------------- --- -- Variable
"Unconformity
"Upper Eocene Series-Inglis formation (member of Vernon)
1 Cream to tan, soft, porous, but case-hardened and densely crystalline
where weathered, massive, granular, miliolid, marine limestone. Con-
tains numerous echinoids, particularly Eupatagus mooreanus, Peri-
archus lyelli floridanus, and associated foraminifers. Exposed to
water level in the stream bank ----..--- -- -. 5.0
Total thickness -.-------.. --------- .- ------------------5.0
"The channel was improved in 1942 and the contact of the limestone facies
with the underlying dolomite facies of the Inglis member was penetrated.
Boulders of the following lithologies can be seen along the banks of the river
at locality L-135:
"1. Gray, granular limestone as exposed along the river banks.
2. Cream-colored, soft, granular, porous miliolid limestone with specimens
of Velates floridanus, Lucinid sp. "A", buckshot miliolids and echinoids.
In addition to these Dr. H. B. Stenzel identified "Cerithium" n. sp.,
Xenophora sp., Turritella carinata Lea?, Crassatella? flexura Conrad,
Trachycardium or Trigonocardia n. sp., and Corbula (Caryocorbula)
densata Conrad or C. alabamensis tecla de Gregorio. Across the river
in channel dredgings of similar rock, one Aturia sp. was found.
3. Mottled gray and brown, porous, finely crystalline, massive, sugary
textured dolomite with rare molds of mollusks and Periarchus lyelli
floridanus."

FAUNA

Inglis formation has a tremendous fauna.. Swain (1946) de-
scribed some Ostracoda from the Ocala. Vernon (1951) lists species
of Foraminifera and Mollusca from the Inglis formation in the
outcrop area. Fischer (1951) described the echinoid fauna. The
molluscan fauna has been described by Richards and Palmer (1953).
Roberts (1953) described a species of decapod crustaceous from the
Inglis.
Palmer (1953, p. 10, 11) lists the following gastropods from the
Inglis:

Astraea withlacoochensis Palmer
Velates floridanus Richards
Turritella fischeri Palmer
Diastoma sp.
Batillaria advena Palmer
Bellatara americana Palmer
Bellatara citrana Palmer
Bellatara floridana Palmer
Pseudoaluca clarki Palmer
Hipponix floridanus Palmer
Calyptraea aperta (Solander)
Xenophora sp.
Tugurium grayi Palmer






26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Laevella floridana Palmer
Terrebellum (Seraphs) beleminitum Palmer
Cypraedia fenestralis Conrad
A mpullinopsis citrinensis Palmer
Pseudocrommium brucei Palmer
Distorsio (Personella) jacksonensis (Meyer)
Papillina gunteri Palmer
Agaronia inglisia Palmer
Olivella (Callianax) poinciana Palmer
Conomitra sp.
Lapparia conradi Palmer
Eovasum vernoni Palmer
Athleta arangia Palmer
Sycospira eocenica Palmer
Caricella obsoleta Palmer
Voluticella levensis Palmer
Lyria citrusensis Palmer
Lyria pycnopleura eocenia Palmer
Pseudotoma floridana Palmer
Conus sp. A
Conus sp. B
Scaphander richardsi Palmer

Richards (1953, pp. 42, 43) lists the following pelecypods from
the Inglis:

Barbatia palmerae Richards
Barbatia? inglisia Richards
Glycymeris lisbonensis Harris
Ostrea falco Dall
Ostrea sp.
Volsella sp.
Crassatella inglisia Richards
Crassatella eltawacolens Harris
Crassatella sp.
Ven ericardia scabricostata Guppy
Venericardia withlacoochensis Richards
Pseudomiltha megameris Dall
Here cf. H. wacissana Dall
Here sp.
Divaricella robertsi Richards
Fimnbria vernoni Richards
Cardium (Dinocardium) levyi Richards
Cardi n (Trigoniocardium) protoalicutlum Richards
Cardium (Trachycardium) cf. C. (T.) claibornense Aldrich
Gari jacksonense Harris
Macrocallista annexa Conrad
Blagraveia? gunteri Richards
Corbula densata Conrad

Fischer (1951) lists the following species of irregular echinoids
from the Inglis:

Fibularia vaughani (Twitchell)
Oligopygus haldemani (Conrad)
Laganum ocalanum Cooke
Peronella crustuloides (Morton)
Peronella dalli Cooke
Peronella archerensis (Twitchell)
Periarchus lyelli floridanus Fischer







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Cassidulus (C.) ericsoni Fischer
Cassidulus (Paralampas) lyelli (Conrad)
Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus Fischer
Agassizia floridana de Loriol
Eupatagus mooreanus Pilsbry
Eupatagus clevei Cotteau

Cidaris (Phyllacanthus) mortoni (Conrad) is the only regular
echinoid known from the Inglis (Fischer, 1951, p. 55).
The following foraminiferal assemblage is contained in the
Inglis:

Ammospirata? levyensis Puri, n. sp.
Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan
Archaias withlacoochensis Puri, n. sp.
Camagueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez
Cyclamina sp.
Dentalina vertebralis albatrossi (Cushman)
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Elphidium sp.
Epistomaria semimarginata (d'Orbigny)
Fabiania cubensis Cushman and Bermudez
Globigerina sp.
Globulina gibba d'Orbigny
Globulina gibba globossa (Von Miinster)
Lepidocyclina sp. (small, noded)
Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman)
Lituonella sp.
Miliola cf. M. saxorum Lamarck
Nonion advenum (Cushman)
Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp.
Quinqueloculina ocalana Puri, n. sp.
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)
Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Sphaeogypsina globula (Reuss)
Spirolina coryensis Cole
Spiroloculina newberryensis Puri, n. sp.
Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan
Textularia adalta Cushman
Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Textularia ocalana Cushman
Textularia recta Cushman
Textularia triangulata Purl, n. sp.
Valvulina floridana Cole
Vernonia tuberculata Puri, n. gen., n. sp.

The following species of ostracodes occur in the Inglis:

Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe
Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe
Cytheretta daytonensis Swain
Cytheretta infirma Howe
Echinocythereis nuda Puri, n. sp.
Hemicythere mota Howe
Jugosocythereis bicarinata (Swain)
Jugosocythereis lebanonensis Howe
Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe
Spongicythere caudata Puri, n. sp.









28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Spongicythere spissa Howe
Trachyleberis parexanthemata (Swain)
Xestoleberis gunteri Howe

TABLE 1
CLASSIFICATION OF THE OCALA GROUP IN FLORIDA

Chrono-
logical-
Strati- Litho-
Time graphic logical Stratigraphic Biostratigraphic

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepi-
dina) chaperi faunizone

Crystal Asterocyclina-Spirolaea
Crystal vernoni faunizone
River
S. Nummulites vanderstoki-
Z Formation Hemicythere faunizone

Q 0 Lepidocyclina-Pseudo-
O phragmina faunizone

0 Spiroloculina new-
P m
S< Williston Operculinoides moodybranch-
W 0 ensis faunizone

Formation Operculinoides jacksonensis
faunizone

Periarchus lyelli floridanus-
Inglis Plectofrondicularia?
Formation inglisiana faunizone


WILLISTON FORMATION

Vernon (op. cit., p. 141) proposed the name Williston member
for about 30 feet of foraminiferal limestone overlying the Inglis
and placed it in the Moodys Branch formation. Over 60 feet of
the basal section at Newberry belongs to this formation. Vernon
(1952, pp. 122, 144) recorded that the Williston and Inglis thicken
toward Polk, Baker and Volusia counties and this is confirmed by
the presence of 25 feet of Williston and 55 feet of Inglis sediments
in water well W-381, Polk County. Furthermore, two faunizones
(Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone and Operculinoides moody-
branchensis faunizone) can be recognized in the Williston. Because







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 29

it is lithologically and faunistically distinct from the underlying
Inglis formation, and because faunizones are recognizable in it, it
is here proposed that the Williston be raised to formational rank.

TYPE LOCALITY

The Williston formation is typically exposed west of the town
of Williston in Levy County. Vernon (1951, p. 145) gives the fol-
lowing section on the southeast side of a limestone quarry in the
southeast quarter, northeast quarter, Section 27, Township 12
South, Range 18 East:

Locality L-37 Feet
Upper Eocene series-Williston formation (member of Vernon)
4 Cream to tan, soft detrital limestone containing numerous hard
crystalline nodules, many Pecten sp., rare Amusium sp., Lepido-
cyclina ocalana, Opcrculinoides floridensis, Amphistegina pinarensis
cosdeni and abundant Camerina vanderstoki -- ... .. 0.6
3 Cream-colored, massive, somewhat nodular, pasty foraminiferal co-
quina limestone with numerous spongiform concretions. Foraminifers
of bed no. 4, Operculinoides floridensis, Nonion advenum, Rotalia cush-
mani and Eponides jacksonensis are very abundant .. ---- 6.8
2 Cream-colored, very hard ledge, porous, somewhat crystalline, very
fossiliferous limestone containing numerous mollusks, molds, echinoid
plates, abundant miliolids and other rare foraminifers .. .. 0.45
1 Cream-colored, granular, detrital, soft, porous, miliolid limestone
containing the fossils above. Somewhat more resistant to weathering
and more massive than beds above ---... -----9.3
Total thickness ...-....---- ----... ..----- ----- 17.15

TABLE 2

DISTRIBUTION OF FORAMINIFERA AND OSTRACODA IN THE
INGLIS AND WILLISTON FORMATIONS

Inglis Inglis Williston
Foraminifera VGL-5 VGL-13 VGL-3
Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin
and Jordan xxxx xxxx
Ammospirata? levyensis Puri, n. sp. xxxx xxxx
Archaias withlacoochensis Puri, n. sp. xxxx xxxx
Dictyoco nus cookei (Moberg) xxxx
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole xxxx xxxx
Epistomaria semimarginata xxxx
Fabiania cubensis Cushman and Bermudez xxxx xxxx
Lepidocyclina A (noded small) xxxx xxxx
Liebuslla byraimensis turgida Cushman xxxx
Miliola cf. M. saxorum Lamarck xxxx xxxx







30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


Ostracoda
Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp.
Quinqueloculina ocalana Puri, n. sp.
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)
Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Sphaeogypsina globula (Reuss)
Spirolina coryensis Cole
Spiroloculina newberryensis Puri, n. sp.
Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan


Inglis Inglis Williston
VGL-5 VGL-13 VGL-3
xxxx


xxxx
xxxx
xxxx


xxxx


xxxx
xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx


xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx


xxxx
???


Textularia adalta Cushman xxxx xxxx xxxx
Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin xxxx xxxx xxxx
Textularia ocalana Cushman xxxx xxxx
Textularia recta Cushman xxxx xxxx xxxx
Vernonia tuberculata Puri, n. gen., n. sp. xxxx xxxx
Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe xxxx xxxx xxxx
Bairdoppilata vernoni Howe xxxx
Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe xxxx
Cytherelloidea floridana Howe xxxx
Cytheretta daytonensis Swain xxxx xxxx xxxx
Cytheretta informa Howe xxxx xxxx
Echinocythereis okeechobiensis (Swain) xxxx
Hemicythere mota Howe xxxx
Jugosocythereis bicarinata (Swain) xxxx xxxx xxxx
Jugosocythereis lebanonensis Howe xxxx
Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe xxxx
Spongicythere caudata Puri xxxx ???
Spongicythere spissa Howe xxxx
Trachyleberis parexanthemata (Swain) xxxx xxxx
Xestoleberis gunteri Howe xxxx



On the northwest side of the pit an additional 3.6 feet of bed
no. 4 is exposed in the face of the quarry and an additional two
feet, 50 feet back of the rim.






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION

The name Crystal River formation (Puri, 1953, p. 130; Vernon
and Puri, 1956, pp. 35, 38) proposed for the 108 feet of limestone
exposed in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6,
Township 19 South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida, in-
cludes all calcareous deposits of upper Eocene age, lying strati-
graphically between the Williston formation and the Oligocene
limestones. It consists of a homogeneous microcoquina, almost en-
tirely made up of tests of Foraminifera. The basal portion may
contain a few beds, as much as 12 feet thick, of secondary dolomite.
The Crystal River formation is synonymous with "Ocala lime-
stone (restricted)" of Vernon (op. cit.). The entire Crystal River
formation is nowhere exposed, because its top is marked by an
erosional unconformity, but a total of 310 feet of sediments belong-
ing to this formation are present in water well W-381, Polk County.
The following faunizones are recognized in the formation:

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone
Asterocyclina-Spirolaea vernoni faunizone
Nummulites vanderstoki-Hemicythere faunizone
Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone
Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone

A thickness of over 300 feet of the formation occurs in the sub-
surface of Jackson County, Florida, where its upper portion has
been designated Lepidocyclina fragilis zone by MacNeil (1944).
Moore's (1955, pp. 30-32) treatment of the Crystal River forma-
tion is different from the original definition of the formation. He
erroneously includes in this unit all upper Eocene beds overlying
the Operculinoides sabinensis faunizones of the Lisbon formation
(Claiborne). This is not surprising since Moore does not recognize
the existence of Moodys Branch (or Williston-Inglis) equivalent in
the Jackson County area. But he does recognize the Operculinoides
jacksonensis zone and places it in the lower portion of the Crystal
River. Regarding this faunizone he (p. 23) says:

"The 0. jacksonensis zone may not be equivalent to the Moodys Branch
formation, however, because:
1. The species of the Moodys Branch formation are not confined to the
0. jacksonensis zone in Jackson County and some of the species range
as high as the Bumpnose limestone member of the Crystal River
limestone.
2. There is no lithologic reason to separate the zone from the Crystal
River limestone.
3. Faunal indications that the Jackson County area was structurally
high during the Jackson Eocene and the existence of an unconformity
at the top of the middle Eocene, suggest that the Jackson County








32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


-.-*


4*


Figure 3
Cavern at locality PA-4. The vertical drop is 30 feet. Such caverns are
common in the limestones of the Ocala group.


Figure 4
Solution pipes at locality PA-1. These "pipes" are filled with the Hawthorn
sediments and carry a varied vertebrate fauna.






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 5
Boulders of chert at locality PA-2. Deposition of silica has replaced the lime-
stone. Pseudomorphs of shells are common in these boulders.

area may not have been covered by the sea during the Moodys
Branch time."
Beds of Moodys Branch age do exist in Jackson County and
have a significant fauna. It is true, as Moore says, that some of
the species do range into the Crystal River; but he is mistaken
when he uses it as an argument against recognition of their age.
Faunizones are not separated on changes in lithology but on distinct
faunal assemblages and Moore is not justified in assuming that the
beds of Moodys Branch age are absent in Jackson County because
the area was "structurally high." That there is an unconformity
on the top of Claiborne in Florida is an established fact; but, never
theless, beds of Moodys Branch age are present not only in Jacksog
County, but also in the adjoining counties (see pls. 1 and 2) (in
pocket).
Two stratigraphic units are proposed by Moore (1955). Re
garding the Bumpnose limestone member, Moore (op. cit., p. 3
says:






34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

"Beds younger than the Crystal River of Puri occur in Jackson County
at the top of the Ocala group. These beds are here named the Bumpnose
limestone member of the Crystal River limestone for the exposures along
and near the Bumpnose road north and west of Marianna, Florida."

Pur l(1953, p. 130) proposed the name Crystal River formation
(noT-Tlimestone" as Moore says) for "the 108 feet of limestone ex-
posed in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6, Town-
ship 19 South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida." Puri (op.
cit.) included in the Crystal River formation "all calcareous sedi-
ments of upper Eocene age lying stratigraphically between the
Williston formafibn and the overlying Oligocene limestones."
Moore's Bumpnose limestone member is not stratigraphically valid
because:
1. The beds for which this name is proposed are not "younger
than the Crystal River of Purl" since they underlie the Marianna
limestone of Oligocene age.
2. These beds are of upper Eocene age and Moore himself
placed them in the "Ocala group."
3. There is no lithologic distinction between these beds and the
rest of the Crystal River formation to justify the use of a new
name.
4. This stratigraphic interval is really a faunizone and exactly
the same beds are defined by MacNeil (1944, p. 1325) as Lepido-
cyclina fragilis faunizone at the same outcrop.
Moore (op. cit., p. 43) gives the following definition of the
Gadsden limestone:

"The Gadsden limestone in Jackson County consists of those limestones
of Jackson age that have no, or few, specimens of the larger Foramini-
fera such as Lepidocyclina, Asterocyclina, or Operculinoides. The
Gadsden limestone is known to occur only in the subsurface at present.
The foraminiferal fauna of the Gadsden limestone is dominated by the
families Buliminidae and Lagenidae. . The Gadsden limestone is
the stratigraphic equivalent of the Crystal River formation, which in-
cludes the Bumpnose member. The Gadsden limestone grades laterally
into the Crystal River formation in Jackson County, and the youngest
beds of the Gadsden limestone extend farthest to the northwest."

It will appear to the writer that Moore has named one of the
several faunal facies of the Crstaliver rather than a formation.
Moore (op. cit.) further says: "Depending upon where the Gadsden
limestone is encountered in wells, it is underlain by the Crystal
River limestone or by the older Eocene formations." How could
this particular unit be "stratigraphic equivalent" of the Crystal
River and also be "underlain" by Crystal River at the same time?
Sediments containing a sparse larger Foraminifera fauna occur







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


locally throughout the Crystal River and in the downdip facies in
the Apalachicola Embayment area. Whether a local name be as-
signed to a faunal facies is seriously doubted and it is here sug-
gested this term be abandoned.

TYPE LOCALITY

Locality C-64: Crystal River Rock Company quarry, NEI4 SW% Sec. 6, T.
19 S., R. 18 E., Citrus County, Florida. (Section from Vernon, 1951, pp.
166-167).
Bed Description Thickness
(feet)
Oligocene series
Suwannee limestone

13 A cream-colored, porous, firmly cemented, detrital limestone com-
posed of echinoid plates and spines, poorly preserved foraminifers
and granular calcite. Chlamys brooksvillensis, Chione sp., Clypeasftr
rogersi, Cassidulus gouldii, Kuphus incrassatus, and numerous
specimens of Dictyoconus cookei, Coskinolina floridana are present.
The bed measured 9 feet from the top of the highest pinnacle east
of the quarry to the rim and an additional 8 feet is exposed in the
quarry face -.. --- - ----- 17.0
12 Cream to tan, hard, crystalline, nodular, very porous limestone with
seams of the limestone of bed no. 13 and containing many poorly
preserved mollusk molds, including Chione sp. cf. C. bainbridgensis,
Turritella martinensis, T. vicksburgensis and rare specimens of Cas-
sidulus gouldii and Lepidocyclina sp.- --- .. ...- 1.6
11 White to light gray, dense, thin-bedded, pasty to cryptocrystalline
limestone containing rather numerous molds of Turritella martiunen-
sis and T. vicksburgensis. Weathered surfaces appear brecciated 2.0
10 Layer of light gray to cream-colored, weathered brown, crypto-
crystalline, sublithographic, hard, dense, thin-bedded limestone with
an occasional seam of light green, waxy marl 0.3
9 Light gray, dense, thin-bedded, hard, lithographic limestone with
rare molds of Turritella -. .. 1.65
8 Brown to light gray, dense, hard, cryptocrystalline limestone with
porous detrital limestone seams - 1.0
7 Light greenish-gray clay with fibrous, crystalline, light greenish-
gray calcite growths lying along a very irregular surface developed
upon bed no. 6, (see figs. 30, 31) .. 0.5
(variable)

Unconformity
Crystal River formation. Elevation: 124.65 feet.
6 Cream-colored, detrital, porous, firmly cemented limestone with
seams of dense, crystalline limestone and numerous poorly preserved
molds of mollusks and rare specimens of Gypsina sp. cf. G. globula.
The upper few inches are very indurated and the top of the limestone
is very irregular ---------------- --- ..-.---- 1.9
5 Cream to white, massive, bedded, pasty, soft coquina composed of
mollusks, Bryozoa, corals and large foraminifers in a pasty calcite
matrix. Specimens of Camerina vanderstoki are common in the
lower 25 feet, but decrease upward and are replaced by Operculi-
noides ocalana, Turritella sp., Pecten sp., corals, Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Gypsina globula, Eponides jacksoneusis, Gaudryina jack-
sonensis were identified -- -----... 43.25
4 Cream to white limestone of bed no. 5, but containing irregular
crystalline nodular concretions and Ostrea podagrina, Amusium
ocalanum, Pecten sp., Gypsina globula, Lepidocyclina ocalana,







36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Reussella eocena, Discocylina flintensis, Nonion preadvenum,
Cibicides mississippiensis ocalanus ------------ 9.5
3 Cream-colored, coquina limestone composed of foraminifers, Bryo-
zoa, echinoid plates and spines, corals, Pecten sp. cf. P. "perplanus,"
Agassizia floridana, Oligopygus haldemani, Fibularia vaughani,
Laganum floridanum, L. ocalanum, Peronella cubae, Schizaster
ocalanus, and some of the foraminiferas above ---------- 7.0
2 Cream-colored, pasty, massive, coquina limestone with numerous
irregular and spongiform concretions, and Amusium ocalanum, Os-
trea podagrina, Pecten sp. P. "perplanus," Fibularia vaughani, Pe-
ronella cubae, Lagena laevis and foraminifers of bed no. 4 -- -- 38.0
1 Cream-colored, very pasty, porous, soft limestone containing Lepi-
docyclina ocalana, Heterostegina ocalana, Operculinoides floridensis,
Operculinoides sp., Gypsina globula, Cibicides mississippiensis,
Rotalia cushmani and other poorly preserved foraminifers 8.25
Total thickness. 131.25

FAUNA

Crystal River formation has an abundant molluscan fauna. Mrs.
Katherine Van Winkle Palmer is presently engaged in a comprehen-
sive study of the molluscan fauna collected by Dr. R. O. Vernon and
the writer from numerous outcrop sections in Florida.
Harris (1951) lists the following pelecypods from the "Ocala"
(most of Harris' locations belong to the Crystal River formation) :

Ostrea georgiana Conrad
Ostrea "podagrina" Dall
Ostrea trigonalis Conrad
Plicatula filamentosa Conrad
Spondylus hollisteri Harris
Pecten perplanus Morton, var.
Pecten (Chlamys) spillmani (Gabb), vars.
Pecten (Chlamys) anatipes (Morton)
Amusium ocalanum (Dall)
Lima tricincta Harris
Lima vicksburgiana Dall
Pinna quadrata Dall
Atrina jacksoniana Dall
Pteria cf. P. argentea (Conrad)
Volsella ocalensis MacNeil
Arca cf. A. rhomboidella Lea, var.
Arca (Barbatia) cuculloides (Conrad)
Nuculana sp.
Glycymeris arctatus var. cookei Dall
Glycymeris cf. G. anteparilis Kellum
Venericardia planicosta var. ocalaedes Harris
Venericardia cf. V. nodifera Kellum
Euloxa sp.
Crassatella protexta var. sinus Harris
Crassatella sp.
Crassatella porcus Harris
Crassatella ocordia Harris
Lirodiscus jacksonensis (Meyer)
Here cf. H. wacissana (Dall)
Miltha ocalana (Dall)
Lucina perovata (Dall)
Pitar cf. P. nuttali Conrad
Pitar cf. P. subimpresa Conrad







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 6
Amusium bed at locality PL-1.


Pitar trigoniata (Lea)
Cardium nicolletti Conrad
Cardium cf. C. cabezai (Gardner)
Cardium eversum? Conrad
Cardium sp.
Cardium eversum Conrad
Gari cerasium (Dall)
Panope oblongata (Conrad)
Spisula praetenuis Conrad
Acroperna? sp.
Arcoperna sp. (sic.)

THICKNESS

An exact estimate of the thickness of the Crystal River formation
is rendered difficult because the rock is unevenly eroded at the top
and its base is of transitional nature. A maximum of 310 feet of






38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

the formation is present in water well W-381, Polk County. Over
300 feet of the formation occurs in the subsurface in Jackson Coun-
ty.
Vernon (1951, p. 141) assigned 30-50 feet of sediments to the
Williston formation. The Williston formation thickens at the ex-
pense of the Inglis formation in the Florida Panhandle, where Inglis
is absent.
The Inglis formation seems to have a more or less constant
thickness of 50-55 feet in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy County, which
is the type locality. In northeastern and eastern Peninsular Florida
(Columbia, Bradford, Duval and Volusia counties) the Inglis forma-
tion appears to thicken as much as 150 feet (Vernon, op. cit., p.
122).
Thickness and the correlation of the Ocala group appears on
plates 1 and 2.

DISTRIBUTION

The limestones of the Ocala group outcrop in two extensive
areas in Florida. The more extensive area is a regional feature,
the Ocala uplift, which borders the Gulf of Mexico in the northwest
part of Peninsular Florida. The other area is the northern half
of Washington and Jackson counties and the eastern portion of
Holmes County, whence the limestones extend into southern Ala-
bama and southwestern Georgia.
From surface samples, it is known that the Ocala group under-
lies the entire State of Florida except for small areas in northern
Seminole County, Volusia County, southern Orange County, north-
ern Osceola County, Lake County, Marion County, and in southern
Levy County where it is absent (Vernon, op. cit., pl. 2). Applin
and Applin (1944) showed that their upper member of the "Ocala,"
which is the typical Crystal River formation, occurs in subsurface
throughout Florida except on the east coast in parts of Seminole
County. The wells in this area, on the east coast, penetrated the
lower, less fossiliferous member of the "Ocala" directly beneath a
thin cover of Miocene or Pliocene beds.
Surface distribution of the Ocala group is shown on figure 7.

DOWNDIP FACIES OF THE OCALA GROUP

In several wells in the Florida Panhandle, the downdip facies
of the Ocala is a soft, chalky limestone that carries a Pachuta, Shu-
buta and Danville Landing microfauna. Genera of the large Fora-







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


SURFACE OCCURRENCES OF ',.r

THE OCALA GROUP IN FLORIDA .

IN PART AFTER VERNON. 1951

CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION

WILLISTON FORMATION

INOLIS FORMATION -0, I


25 0 25 50 75 100 MILES .





Figure 7

rinifera, like Lepidocyclina, Nummulites, Operculinoides, Hetero-
stegina, Pseudophragmina, and Asterocyclina are either absent or
occur as lenses sporadically. The microfauna encountered in these
wells consists of Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin),
Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman, Globorotalia sp., Bulimina jack-
sonensis Cushman, Robulus arcuatostriatus (Hantken), R. gutti-
costatus (Giimbel), R. gutticostatus cocoaensis (Cushman), No-
dosaria latejugata Giimbel, Dentalina jacksonensis (Cushman and
Applin), Valvulin.,ria jacksonensis Cushman, Uvigerina glabrans
Cushman, U. jacksonensis Cushman, U. gardnerae Cushman, U.
cocoaensis Cushman, Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny and Gyroi-
dina soldanii d'Orbigny. The above assemblage occurs in Calhoun


'4>-~ l.--.
k ,L i N I ~ 4 .


~~






40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

County, W-1103, 566 to 1000 feet. At 945 feet, specimens of
Pseudophragmina occur in association with the above assemblage.
In Gadsden County, W-4, the following microfauna is encoun-
tered between 650 and 1370 feet:

Anomalina bilateralis Cushman
Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin
Bulmina jacksonensis Cushman
Cibicides pseudoungerianus (Cushman)
Dentalina jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)
Dentalina vertebralis (Giimbel)
Eponides cocoaensis Cushman
Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)
Eponides ocalana Cushman
Globigerina sp.
Marginulina fragaria texasensis (Cushman and Applin)
Nodosaria latejugata carolinensis Cushman
Planulina cooperensis Cushman
Robulus alatolimbatus (Giimbel)
Robulus danvillensis (Howe and Wallace)
Robulus limbosus (Reuss)
Saracenaria moresiana Howe and Wallace
Siphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin
Uvigerina cocoaensis Cushman
Uvigerina cookei Cushman
Uvigerina glabrans Cushman
Uvigerina jacksonensis Cushman
Valvulineria texana Cushman and Ellisor

At 660 feet, this microfauna occurs in association with larger
Foraminifera like Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Nummulites
vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). At 670 feet, larger Fora-
minifera like Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin), Nummulites van-
derstoki (Rutten and Vermunt), Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.,
occur with the microfaunal assemblage listed above. At 720 to
750 feet, Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and Operculinoides will-
coxi (Heilprin) also occur.
In Jackson County, W-276, the Crystal River formation is en-
countered from 245-430 feet. The interval between 270-280 feet
has abundant Asterocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman,
and Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman). The section between 290-
430 feet has the following microfauna:

Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman
Dentalina jacksonensis Cushman
Dentalina vertebralis (Giimbel)
Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman)
Marginulina fragaria texasensis (Cushman and Applin)
Nodosaria latejugata (Giimbel)
Robulus alatolimbatus (Giimbel)
Robulus arcuatostriatus (Hantken)
Robulus gutticostatus (Giimbel) var.
Robulus limbosus (Reuss)
Uvigerina cookei Cushman






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


In this well, Moore (1955, p. 97) places the interval between 270 to
460 feet in the "Gadsden limestone." If Moore's definition of
"Gadsden limestone" and Crystal River formation is followed, we
will have several alternating beds of "Gadsden limestone" and
Crystal River formation. Since the stratigraphic unit Crystal
River formation was established to include all calcareous sediments
lying between the Williston formation and the overlying Oligocene
limestones (Puri, 1953), the downdip sediments are here referred
to the Crystal River formation.
Moore (1955, p. 97) places the top of Claiborne in W-276 at
460 feet. The section between 430 to 477 feet has yielded abundant
Operculinoides jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna), hence this in-
terval is here included in the Williston formation in spite of the fact
that Moore (1955, p. 23) does not recognize Moodys Branch equiva-
lent in Jackson County.
Moore (1955, p. 97) places the top of the Gadsden limestone at
140 feet below the top in W-1364. Sediments between 140-240 feet
below ground level belong in the Oligocene Marianna limestone since
they have yielded specimens of Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) undosa,
L. mantelli and Operculinoides dius. The top of the Crystal River
formation is at 240 feet below ground level. Sediments between
240-300 feet below have yielded abundant specimens of Asterocy-
clina characteristic of the Asterocyclina faunizone. Moore (op. cit.)
also places this interval in the "Gadsden limestone."

LARGER FORAMINIFERA OF THE OCALA GROUP

Only a few of the genera of the larger Foraminifera from the
Ocala group of Florida and Georgia are discussed in this paper
but the following is a complete list of the species reported" (F from
Florida, G from Georgia) :

Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) americana (Cushman) F, G
chipolensis Vaughan F
georgiana (Cushman) F, G
mariannensis (Cushman) F, G
var. papillata (Cushman) F, G
nassauensis Cole F
vaughani (Cushman) F, G
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman F
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) georgiana (Cushman) G
mortoni Cushman F, G
ocalana Cushman F, G
var. attenuata Cushman F
cookei Cushman F
floridana Cushman F
pseudocarinata Cushman F
pseudomarginata Cushman F
tschoppi Thiadens F






42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

(Nephrolepidina) fragilis Cushman F
semmesi Vaughan and Cole F
Nnimmnulites guayabalensis (Barker) F
jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna) F
moodybranchensis (Gravell and Hanna) F
vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt F
Operculina barkeri Vaughan and Cole F
mariannensis Vaughan F
Opercilin oides cookei (Cushman) F, G
curasvicus (Rutten and Vermunt) F
floridensis (Heilprin) F
ocalanus (Cushman) F, G
vaughani (Cushman) F, G
willcoxi (Heilprin) F
Pseidophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis Vaughan F
flintensis (Cushman) F, G
(Pseudophragmina) bainbridgensis (Vaughan) G
floridana (Cushman) F, G

NOTES ON SPECIES OF LARGER FORAMINIFERA

Vernon (1951, p. 142), while discussing the fauna of the Willis-
ton formation, observed that "the most common species and greater
number of specimens in the bed is Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten
and Vermunt) with minor percentages of C. guayabalensis Barker,
C. sp. cf. moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna." The identifications
of the first two species were made by Mme. de Cizancourt and the
latter by Vernon. Gravell, in 1950, did not recognize the specimens
that the writer calls Operculinoides moodybranchensis in the Willis-
ton formation as being typical of his species." Since the most abun-
dant species observed by the writer in the Williston formation is
Operculinoides moodybranchensis, there appears to be some con-
fusion regarding the determination of these species. Cole (1945,
pl. 13) figured specimens of both Nummulites vanderstoki and
0. moodybranchensis. While Cole's median and vertical sections of
both these species are excellent, his external views of Nunmiwlites
vanderstoki (pl. 13, fig. 1) and 0. moodybranchensis (pl. 13, fig. 2)
certainly belong to a single species, N. vanderstoki. Since there
seems to be some confusion in the identification of these species, it
is thought to be worthwhile to discuss the salient features of these
three species, which though allied, show definite specific charac-
teristics.
Nummulites guayabalensis is a Claiborne species described by
Barker (1939, p. 325) from the Guayabal of Mexico. It is a small
to medium form, completely involute and lenticular, with a well-
developed peripheral "keel." The form is pseudocarinate, the "keel"
is a mere thickening of the wall. The septal filaments are simple
:Letter dated February 23, 1950, addressed to R. O. Vernon, filed with the
Florida Geological Survey.






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


radiate, almost straight, anastomosing in such a way that only less
than half of them reach the center (text fig. la). Equatorial sec-
tions show 41/2 to 5 whorls (text fig. Ib). Vertical sections show
its strongly lenticular pseudocarinate form and a faintly developed
pustule which often breaks up into a series of polar pillars (text
fig. Ic). This species may occur in the middle Eocene (Claiborne)
of western Gulf states but has not yet been found by the writer in
the Jackson Eocene. It does not occur in the Ocala group.
Operculinoides moodybranchensis was described by Gravell and
Hanna (1935, p. 332) from the Moodys Branch formation, Mont-
gomery Bluff, Grant Parish, Louisiana. It is by far the most
common species of Operculinoides in the Moodys Branch formation
of the western Gulf states and the Williston formation of Florida.
Externally, it shows superficial resemblance to N. guayabalensis,
with which it has been confused in Florida. It is a relatively thin
form; lenticular but without a peripheral "keel." The septal fila-
ments are not straight but undulating with a retral swing toward
the periphery; the filaments anastomose near the poles (text fig.
2a). Equatorial sections show 4 to 5 whorls with 5 to 6 chambers in
the first whorl, 13 to 14 chambers in the second whorl, 18 to 19 in
the third whorl, 23 to 25 in the fourth whorl, and 28 to 30 chambers
in the fifth whorl. The chambers are rectangular in shape and are
relatively higher than either N. guayabalensis or N. vanderstoki
(text fig. 2b). It can be easily distinguished from N. guayabalen-
sis in equatorial section by its greater number of chambers in the
fifth whorl (N. guayabalensis has 24 to 27; 0. moodybranchensis
28 to 30). Vertical sections show its lenticular form, relatively thin
lateral whorl walls and moderately developed polar pillars (text fig.
2c). It is a very common species in the Williston formation and
locally occurs in great abundance.
Nummulites vanderstoki was described by Rutten and Vermunt
(1932, p. 240) from the upper Eocene Serce di Cueba limestone and
since has been reported from the Claiborne of Mexico by Barker
(1939, p. 323). It is a relatively inflated form, has simple radiate
septa, and a well-developed pustule (text fig. 3a). Between the
periphery and the center the septal filaments are thickest, tapering
toward each end (text fig. 3a). They are fewer in number than
in either N. guayabalensis or 0. moodybranchensis, and are widely
spaced. Equatorial sections show 4 to 5 whorls with a maximum of
22 chambers in the fourth, and 24 in the fifth whorl. In an equator-
ial section, it can be easily distinguished from N. guayabalensis and
0. moodybranchensis in having fewer chambers per whorl. The






44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT












lat
lb
1c










2 2 2c













3a 3b 3c

Explanation of text figures 1 to 3
1, Nummulies guayabalensis Barker; 2, Operculinoides moodybranchensis
(Gravell and Hanna); 3, Nummulites vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt.







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


chambers are rectangular and are lower in height than O. moody-
branchensis (text fig. 3b). Vertical sections show thick lateral
whorl walls, and a well-pronounced polar pustule composed of
several coalescing small pillars (text fig. 3c). The accompanying
table shows comparison of septa per whorl in Nummulites guaya-
balensis, 0. moodybranchensis and N. vanderstoki.
Operculinoides moodybranchensis and N. vanderstoki do occur
together but only in the Williston formation where O. moody-
branchensis is the common form, N. vanderstoki occurring only
infrequently except in the top few feet of the formation. It is only
near the top of the Nummulites vanderstoki faunizone of the Crystal
River formation that N. vanderstoki reaches its maximum develop-
ment in size and frequency. In the upper 40 feet of strata in the
Crystal River formation at the Crystal River quarry (locality C-64),
N. vanderstoki occurs in epidemic number, the beds being composed
almost entirely of a N. vanderstoki coquina with a small percentage
of species of Lepidocyclina.
Operculinoides jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna, 1935, p. 331)
is a common form in the Moodys Branch formation of western and
central Gulf states and the Williston formation of Florida. It can
be distinguished easily from the rest of the species of this genus
in the Ocala group by its papillate ornamentation which consists of
a group of radially arranged beads of clear shell material.


TABLE 3.
COMPARISON OF SEPTA PER WHORL IN SPECIES OF
NUMMULITES IN THE OCALA GROUP

Nummulites Operculinoides Nummulites
guayabalensis moodybranchensis vanderstoki
Diameter of specimen Average size Average size Average size
2.40 mm 3.00-3.50 mm 3.50 mm
Number of coils 41 -5 4-5 4-5
Number of septa
in 1st whorl 7 5-6 6-8
Number of septa
in 2nd whorl 15 13-14 12-15
Number of septa
in 3rd whorl 22 18-19 14-20
Number of septa
in 4th whorl 25 23-24 16-22
Number of septa
in 5th whorl 24-27 28-30 18-24




46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

There is a definite relationship in the development of Operculi-
noides cookei, 0. vaughani, 0. ocalana, 0. floridensis and 0. will-
coxi. Operculinoides cookei and 0. vaughani are closely related.
This relationship is shown by the rapidly flaring nature of the last
whorl as well as by the highly arched septa. The nature of coiling
in both these species is basically the same; the only difference being
the number of septa. 0. cookei, which is the older of the two, gave
rise to 0. vaughani by the reduction in the number of chambers.
0. cookei, in the adult whorl has 28 to 34 septa; 0. vaughani has 18
to 22. Cushman (1921) thought that both 0. vaughani and 0. oca-
lanus evolved from 0. cookei by gradual reduction in the number
of septa. That 0. ocalanus evolved from 0. vaughani by the reduc-
tion of septa, is doubted by the writer. Cushman (op. cit., pp. 155-
158), in his description of 0. ocalanus observed that in the last coil,
it has 16 to 18 chambers. His type specimen (pl. 19, fig. 5) has at
least 20 septa in the last whorl. The author has seen good specimens
of 0. ocalanus with 16 to 26 septa in the last whorl. It is more prob-
able that 0. ocalanus evolved from 0. cookei stock than 0. vaughani.
0. cookei is not known to occur either with 0. vaughani or with O.
ocalanus but 0. vaughani and 0. ocalanus do occur together. 0.
floridensis and 0. willcoxi are related species. 0. floridensis has 30
to 40 chambers in the last whorl, 0. willcoxi has only 20 to 32.

ZONATION

Detailed faunal studies of the subsurface of Florida are limited
to a few wells studied by Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944). Surface
reconnaissance work has been confined to a few selected localities
and the faunal succession has not been precisely determined. In
this work, most of the species were described by Heilprin (1885),
Cushman (1917, 1920, 1921, 1934), Vaughan (1928), Cole (1938,
1941, 1942, 1944) and Applin and Jordan (1945).
Among scores of papers published on the "Ocala limestone," only
three have a direct bearing on its zonation. Gravell and Hanna
(1938, pp. 99-106) reported three faunal zones in the "Ocala lime-
stone." These in the descending order are:
1. Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) zone including several species
of Discocyclina and Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Operculinoides
ocalanus (Cushman), Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) and
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman.
2. Operculinoides mariannensis zone.
3. "Camerina" jacksonensis zone including "Camerina" jack-




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


sonensis Gravell and Hanna, "Camerina" moodybranchensis Gravell
and Hanna and Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman.
Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1684) divided the "Ocala limestone"
informally into a lower and an upper member. The lower member
is hard, crystalline limestone and contains few species and speci-
mens of larger Foraminifera, the most abundant of these being
"Camerina" aff. "C." vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Other
species present in the lower member are Amphistegina pinarensis
Cushman and Bermudez var. lawsoni Applin and Jordan. The upper
member, which is mostly a chalky, porous coquinoid limestone, is
made entirely of Foraminifera containing Lepidocyclina ocalana
Cushman and its varieties, Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) and
Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman). This informal division did
not designate any names for these two members.
Vernon (1951) divided the upper Eocene into two formations,
a lower one, the Moodys Branch formation, and an upper one, the
"Ocala limestone (restricted)," on the basis of both lithology and
fauna. He recognized and mapped two units (Inglis and Williston)
in the Moodys Branch formation which also differs faunistically
from the overlying strata designated by him as "Ocala limestone
(restricted) ."
An attempt is made in this paper to correlate between equivalent
sedimentary facies and contemporaneously deposited sediments.
Correlation is based on the number of corresponding horizons of
marked faunal changes. The criteria used are: vertical distribution
of species; vertical changes in the number of individual species;
vertical changes in the average size and preservation of various
species. Zonal "index fossils," in the opinion of the writer, are
obsolete since evolution has been continuous and all kinds of grada-
tions do occur between allied forms. Unless there has been a break
in sedimentation or a distinct ecological change, in all probability
the "index fossils" will show a continuous gradation. Splitting of
such gradational forms on nothing better than their stratigraphic
occurrence has made paleontologic species unnatural and imaginary
"stratigraphic" species which more often than not serve to confuse
the nomenclature. Since the distinctiveness of the horizon of
marked faunal changes increases with the number of species simul-
taneously affected, such a distinctiveness becomes more effective for
abundantly occurring species than for those that occur less com-
monly or rarely. Sets of assemblages of larger Foraminifera,
smaller Foraminifera and Ostracoda are used here. Larger Fora-
minifera are known to occur in a restricted environment, living in




48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

a depth range of 125 to 200 feet, and in calcareous mud, on bio-
stromes and bioherms. Since they are definitely more specialized
than most smaller Foraminifera, they are more susceptible to rela-
tively smaller changes in salinity, lime content and temperature of
sea water as well as depth. These factors are reflected in their
abundance, size and preservation, which make them useful for
recognition of faunizones. Smaller Foraminifera on the other
hand are useful in erecting small faunizones because of the different
environments that various assemblages inhabit. Ostracoda and
Bryozoa furnished supplementary evidence to check the validity
of such faunizones.
The following faunizones are recognized in the Ocala group:

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone )
)
Asterocyclina-Spirolaea vernoni faunizone ) Crystal
)
Nummulites vanderstoki-Hemicythere faunizone ) River
)
Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone ) Formation
)
Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone )

Operculinoides moodybranchensis faunizone ) Williston
)
Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone ) Formation

Periarchus lyelli floridanus- ) Inglis
)
Plcctofrondicularia? inglisiana faunizone ) Formation

1. Periarchus lyelli floridanus-Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana faunizone:

Periarchus lyelli floridanus, and Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana
are by far the most common species of fossils found throughout

Figure 8
Typical sediment of the Inglis formation from borrow pit, three
miles south of Gulf Hammock (R. O. Vernon collection). Note the
abundance of Periarchus lyelli floridanus which appears as cross
sections. Fabiania cubensis is another guide fossil for the Periar-
chus lyelli floridanus faunizone. Natural size.





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Aj


4


r
c

*-_ SI .- -;- r
r

tiQ' ,
''
~i~~p
YIL

-i ;d~
~trt, c.
s
.I


k


- I


Figure 8


h


~ .


*i

~ "




50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

the Inglis formation and hence this biostratigraphic portion of the
Ocala group is named after these species. Other species of micro-
fossils which are restricted to this horizon are Archaias withlacoo-
chensis, Epistomaria semimarginata, Ammospirata? levyensis,
Quinqueloculina ocalana and Spongicythere caudata. Some of the
most common and easily recognizable forms as Fabiania cubensis,
Discorinopsis gunteri, Camagueyia perplexa, Spirolina coryensis,
Valvulina floridana, Cytheretta infirma and Bairdoppilata vernoni
also occur in the Inglis formation. All these forms were originally
described from the middle Eocene, but are also abundant in the
Inglis formation. The fauna of the Inglis formation is transitional
between the middle and the upper Eocene; hence some of the middle
Eocene forms occur in the Inglis in association with definite Jack-
son fauna like Textularia dibollensis, Textularia recta, Textularia
adalta, Textularia ocalanus, Reussella eocena, Reussella sculptilis
and Rotalia cushmani.
2. Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone (Will. 1):
This faunizone consists of 15 to 50 feet of basal Williston sedi-
ments. Operculina mariannensis (in the Newberry section, locality
PA-1) and Operculinoides jacksonensis (in Polk County well W-
381) are its markers. The writer has not observed Operculinoides
jacksonensis in any other part of the section in the Ocala group
and it seems to be confined to this faunizone. The basal 15 feet of
the section at Newberry (locality PA-1) belongs to this faunizone,
which is easily recognized by the marker species. Its top is marked
by the uppermost occurrence of either Operculina mariannensis or
Operculinoides jacksonensis in Peninsular Florida. In West Florida,
however, Operculina mariannensis occurs in the Asterocyclina
faunizone. This faunizone as such cannot be recognized in West
Florida.
3. Operculinoides moodybranchensis faunizone (Will. 2) :

The uppermost occurrence of Operculinoides jacksonensis over-
lain by an abundance of Operculinoides moodybranchensis, Am-
phistegina pinarensis cosdeni and the occasional occurrence of
Spiroloculina seminolensis and Spongicythere willistonensis mark
the base of this faunizone. Lepidocyclina ocalana and its varieties
are uncommon and the top of the faunizone is marked by the dis-
appearance of Operculinoides moodybranchensis, together with the
gradual increase in number of arenaceous forms (various species
of Textularia, Valvulina and Neoclavulina), Miliolidae (species of



















o
0






0





Figure 9
Typical rock specimen of the Williston formation, locality PL-37,
Levy County. Note large specimen of Operculinoides willcoxi (Heil-
prin) in the lower right quarter. X2.




52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Spiroloculina and Quinqueloculina) and Lepidocyclina ocalana and
its varieties. At some places Nummulites vanderstoki is associated
with Operculinoides moodybranchensis but occurs only in small
quantities. Relatively large individuals of Operculinoides flori-
densis and Operculinoides willcoxi are associated with Operculi-
noides moodybranchensis and Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni and
make it easy to identify this zone in the field.
The Operculinoides moodybranchensis faunizone varies in thick-
ness from 14 feet at Bell (locality PG-5) to 25 feet in the Polk
County well (locality W-381). At Newberry (PA-1) it is 30 feet
thick while at Kendrick (locality PM-3) it is only five feet.

4. Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone (CR-1):

Spiroloculina newberryensis is the most common miliolid species
in this faunizone. The base of the zone is marked by the uppermost
occurrences of Operculinoides moodybranchensis and Amphistegina
pinarensis cosdeni, and by the relative abundance of arenaceous
Foraminifera such as various species of Textularia, Valvulina and
Neoclavulina, and Spiroloculina newberryensis. The top of this
zone is marked by a distinct change in ecology. Several new forms
make their appearance here, e.g., at Zuber (locality PM-2) the top
of this zone is marked by the presence of Hirsutocythere spinosa,
Echinocythereis nuda, Jugosocythereis tricarinata, Absonocythe-
ropteron carinata, Textularia subhauerii and Rotalia cushmani.
Similar changes in other sections are seen by a total increase in
the number of species at the top of this zone. The fauna is sug-
gestive of shallow warm-water conditions, not over 60 feet in
depth, in an open sea. The fauna of the overlying sediments in-
habited a relatively deeper water, the fauna being suggestive of
a modern bioherm or reef facies in which larger Foraminifera
thrived at a depth between 60 to 150 feet.
The thickness of the Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone
varies between 25 feet (at Kendrick, locality PM-3) to 48 feet (at
Crystal River, locality C-64). Forty feet of sediments in the Polk
County section (locality W-381) and at Zuber (locality PM-2) and
40 feet of sediments at Newberry (locality PA-1) belong to this
zone. The correlation of the various sections examined is shown in
the accompanying correlation chart (pl. 3) (in pocket).

5. Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone (CR-2):
The base of this faunizone is marked by the uppermost occur-
rence of Spiroloculina newberryensis and by the abundance of




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 10
Typical sediment of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina fauni-
zone of the Crystal River formation, locality PS-3, bed no. 9. Note
the larger foraminiferal coquina dominated by species of Lepi-
docyclina. Natural size.




54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


Figure 11
Typical rock specimen of Nummulites vanderstoki faunizone,
locality PL-1, bed no. 3. Note the Nummulites coquina with scat-
tered specimens of Lepidocyclina. XIP/2.




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


species of Lepidocyclina and Pseudophragmina. Several species
like Jugosocythereis tricarinata, Absonocytheropteron carinata,
Valvulina jacksonensis, Textularia hozwei, Nonion planatum, Can-
cris sp., and Bulimina sp., occur at the base of this zone and help
to delineate it. The top of the zone is marked by the uppermost
occurrence of Hemicythere punctata in the Polk County section
(locality W-381) and the incoming of Nummulites vanderstoki in
epidemic occurrences in the Crystal River section (locality C-64).
The thickness of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone
varies from 10 feet (at Kendrick locality PM-3) to 60 feet (in the
Polk County section W-381). Thirty-two feet of sediments at
Crystal River (locality C-64) and at Newberry (locality PA-1)
and 10 feet of sediments at Kendrick (locality PM-3) are referred
to this zone.

6. Nummulites vanderstoki-Hemicythere faunizone (CR-3):

The base of this faunizone is marked by the epidemic occurrence
of Nummulites vanderstoki in the Crystal River section (locality
C-64) and is indicated by the occurrence of Hemicythere punctata
in the Polk County section (locality W-381). This composite zone,
which by some geologists may be considered as two distinct bathy-
metric zones, is essentially contemporaneous. There is a sugges-
tion of relatively deeper water conditions in the sediments referred
to this faunizone in the Polk County section (locality W-381). The
top of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost occurrence of Hemi-
cythere punctata. Twenty-seven feet of sediments in the Crystal
River section (locality C-64) and 30 feet of sediments in the Polk
County section (locality W-381) are referred to this zone.

7. Asterocyclina-Spirolaea vernoni faunizone (CR-4):

The base of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost occurrence
of Hemicythere punctata. The top is marked by an unconformity
and the zone is overlain by beds of the Oligocene or younger age in
Peninsular Florida and by Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi
faunizone in Jackson County. The species confined to this zone are:
Asterocyclina americana, Asterocyclina chipolensis, Asterocyclina
georgiana, Asterocyclina mariannensis, and Spirolaea vernoni. The
smaller Foraminifera are dominant over larger species and the
sporadic occurrences of Uvigerina suggest deeper water conditions
than those prevalent during the deposition of the Lepidocyclina-
Pseudophragmina zone.





56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


"07 -
j 4WO


IA

k%2*A:r ;c


?- "7.


Figure 12
Typical sediment of the Asterocyclina faunizone of the Crystal
River formation, locality PJ-1, bed no. 7. Note the larger foramini-
feral coquina chiefly made of test of Asterocyclina and Lepidocy-
clina X2/3.




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Correlation of the various zones recognized in the sections ex-
amined is shown in the accompanying correlation chart (pl. 3).
8. Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone (CR-5):
This faunizone represents the youngest upper Eocene sediments
in Florida which contain abundant specimens of Lepidocyclina
(Nephrolepidina) chaperi Lemoine and Douvill6. This faunizone
is represented by 14 feet of sediments at locality PJ-4, 10 feet of
sediments at locality PJ-5 and 15 feet of sediments in W-276.
Valvulina ocalana Cushman is a very distinctive form that oc-
curs in the shallow warm-water facies of the Crystal River forma-
tion. It is restricted to lower 50 feet of the section and is generally
very well preserved, although other species that accompany it are
in a poor state of preservation. This form is relatively large
enough to be easily recognized and should prove to be an excellent
marker for the lower portion of the section.
Another facies fossil that generally occurs in association with
V. ocalana is a relatively large form referred by Cushman (1935, p.
55) to Rupertia floridana Cushman. This elongate attached form
is easily recognized by its loose spiral chambers that are columnarly
arranged. It is very abundant in the shallow water facies of the
Crystal River formation and should prove to be a good ecologic
marker because of its attached nature.
These two species generally associated with an assemblage con-
sisting of Lepidocyclina ocalana, L. ocalana pseudomarginata, L.
ocalana floridana, L. ocalana attenuata, Heterostegina ocalana,
Operculinoides moodybranchensis, 0. ocalanus, 0. willcoxi, 0.
vaughani, Nummulites vanderstoki, Textularia adalta, T. recta, T.
ocalana, T. howei, Gaudryina gardnerae, Rotalia cushmani, Epo-
nides jacksonensis, among other smaller Foraminifera species. This
assemblage is typically shallow water with depth not more than
30 meters.

LOCALITIES

Listed below are the localities from which samples used were
collected. This list is divided into parts: outcrop samples and well
sections. All locations of outcrop samples and well sections are
listed alphabetically under counties; reference to locations con-
tained in the text are indicated by the index number which pre-
cedes each entry. Florida Geological Survey accession numbers pre-
cede each well location. The locality map (fig. 13) (in pocket)
shows their exact location.





58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

OUTCROP SAMPLES
ALACHUA COUNTY

Locality PA-1: Newberry Corporation pits, SW% SE%, Sec. 13, T. 9 S., R.
17 E., Alachua County, Florida.
Measured on the southern wall of quarry. Elevation 91.91'
Bed Description Thickness
Crystal River formation
5 Amusium bed. Shell coquina of Foraminifera, Mollusca and abun-
dant Amusium well cemented in a granular matrix, nodular weathering 16'
4 Moderately hard, granular limestone, with several holothurian-like
concretions and Mollusca, grades into a foraminiferal shell coquina
toward the upper portion _---------------------- -- -- ... 4'
3 Modiolus bed. Soft, chalky limestone, with molluscan, echinoid and
foraminiferal skeletal material; first smooth oval Amusium sp. at 81' 71/'
2 Soft, granular limestone, with Spondylus sp. and holothurian-like
concretions -------------- ... ...--..-.. .. .. ................ 21% '
1 Foraminiferal shell coquina. Holothurian-like concretions - 5'
Total thickness 35'

Two more sections were also measured; one on the east wall
and the other on the west wall of the quarry. The succession of
beds throughout the quarry is the same. Section on the west wall
measured 36 feet.

Locality PA-2: S. M. Wall quarry, SW% NE/4 Sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 18 E.,
Alachua County, Florida.
Section measured on northwest wall of quarry. Elevation 108.62'
Crystal River formation
4 Amusium bed. White, coarsely granular, chalky limestone with
abundant Amusium sp. (flat, smooth, oval sp.) 21'
3 A coquina of large foraminiferal shells in a chalky matrix with some
Amusium sp. (flat, smooth, oval sp.) present 10'
2 Soft, chalky, limestone matrix cementing a lepidocyclinic camerinid
shell coquina. Spondylus sp. and Pecten (striated) common. Holo-
thurian-like concretions present in lower portion of section 30'
1 Modiolus bed. Soft, granular limestone with pockets of Modiolus sp. -. 5'
Total thickness 66'

Water percolating through Modiolus bed has formed beautiful
stalactites around individual Modiolus. Toward the top of the
section, boulders of chert occur. These boulders are round and un-
like the trunk-shaped boulders around Kendrick, Marion County,
locality PM-3.

The upper portion in this quarry carries some boulders of chert.
Deposition of silica seemed to have started around grains of quartz
and gradually built up to chert boulders which are over six feet
across. Some Mollusca in these boulders are also replaced (see fig.
5).





















Figure 14
Panorama at locality PA-1 showing the Newberry Corporation pits.





60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Locality PA-3: Buda Pit of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NE /
NE/ Sec. 32, T. 8 S., R. 17 E., Alachua County, Florida.
Composite section. Elevation 63.23'
Crystal River formation
7 Soft, chalky, friable limestone, studded with Foraminifera and
Mollusca sp. --------------------------------- 14'8"
6 Soft, chalky limestone, questionably glauconitic, with abundant
Spondylus sp.; upper portion contains striated Pecten sp. ----- 9'
5 Cream-colored, moderately hard, granular limestone, with some
holothurian-like concretions; partially dolomitized ------ 3'
4 Soft, granular limestone, with very little chalk, thin streaks of fora-
miniferal shell coquina; striated Pecten sp. ..-----.- -.. ---- 5'
3 Larger foraminiferal shell coquina in a granular matrix; abundant
Mollusca; some holothurian-like concretions _---.-- - .--- 5'
2 Cream-colored, soft, granular, somewhat chalky limestone; with
abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus; somewhat
chalky ...___.------___... __--............-...--- 2'6"
1 Cream-colored, granular, pasty limestone; nodular weathering;
abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus sp., poorly 4'
bedded; dolomitized ledges up to %' thick with casts of mollusks (lowest
exposure)
15-20' Cream-colored, granular limestone 15'-20' (dredged)
Total thickness 58'2"-63'2"
GILCHRIST COUNTY
Locality PG-1: Abandoned quarry, 0.9 mile north of northern city limits of
Bell, SE%4 NW/4 Sec. 24, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida.
Section measured on east wall of quarry.
Crystal River formation
6 Cream to white-colored, granular limestone, with abundant Lepido-
cyclinas. Limestone is filled with pockets of gray clay and pink to
brown sand of Hawthorn and post-Hawthorn age; solution funnels
common __....._............------------- .--_----------- -- .. 7.7'
5 Hard, granular limestone, with molds of Spondylus sp. and other
Mollusca ..-...--.........--------.--....-------..--------------------- 1'
4 Cream to white-colored, granular limestone, almost a foraminiferal
coquina ---------------- ---- ------ ------- ----- --------------- -------- 3'
3 Hard, white, chalky limestone, with abundant Foraminifera and
Mollusca; some of the Foraminifera and Mollusca are of brownish
color and are embedded in a white chalky matrix _. ------._ 2'
2 White, chalky, granular limestone, with occasional Lepidocyclina sp. 6.5'
Williston formation
1 White to cream-colored, chalky limestone, with abundant Fora-
minifera and Mollusca; almost a foraminiferal coquina in places;
abundant Pecten sp., Solen sp. in lower 3' ........--------------------- 7'
Total thickness 27.2'
Locality PG-2: Gordon Philpot's quarry, 1.9 miles south of bridge on Santa
Fe River on Florida Highway 49, on section line, between Secs. 12 and 13, T.
7 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida.
Section measured on north wall of quarry.
Crystal River formation


2 Hard, white, foraminiferal coquina; weathers yellowish-brown,
Pecten sp.; solution funnels common, filled with gray and brown,
waxy clay and sand ....--.----.-----_ ......--------. --------
1 White, granular, foraminiferal limestone, soft and friable; lower
portion at the base of quarry with large Ostrea sp. _---------


Total thickness


7'10"
6'
13'10"















,- : .

Y>






.*..





Figure 15 z
Entrance to S. M. Wall quarry locality PA-2 Hawthorn clays (background) overlie
the Crystal River formation unconformably. 0

g

O


Figure 16
Panorama at locality PA-2 showing the S. M. Wall quarry.










-1
0











k~~. ;-.atPr~ ... lirr
o

0










o .
bm






.* z - 1



Figure 17
Panorama at locality PA-3 showing the Buda pit of the Williston Shell Rock Company. t
H














Figure 18
Panorama at locality PA-4 showing the Duval Construction Company pits.

o







.





Figure 19
Panorama at locality PG-1.




64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Locality PG-3: Marvin Stancel's pit, SW'/ NEI/ Sec. 11, T. 8 S., R. 14 E.,
Gilchrist County, Florida.
Crystal River formation
5 White to cream-colored, hard, granular, fossiliferous limestone;
many Lepidocyclina sp. and Bryozoa. Spondylus sp. ----- 3'
Williston formation
4 Coarsely granular limestone; in places almost a coquina of large
foraminifers -... ---------- ----.... -- .. ..........._.................... 3'6"
3 Cream-colored, granular limestone, with very little smaller Fora-
minifera. Modiolus sp., Xenophora sp. present .. --- 4'
2 Modiolus bed. Cream-colored, large foraminiferal coquina, loosely
cemented ------ -- ................ 2'
1 Soft, granular limestone with fewer larger Foraminifera than bed no.
2 ---..-..--..----------------- ---- --- 2'
Total thickness 14'6"
















-




Figure 20
Panorama at locality PG-2 showing Gordon Philpot quarry.
Solution funnels filled with clays of Hawthorn age have riddled
this quarry. Solution pipes and natural wells are common at the
top of the quarry where the sand overburden has been removed.
Locality PG-4: Bill Rush's pit, NE,4 SW%/, Sec. 15, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist
County, Florida.
Composite section.
Crystal River formation
4 Cream to white-colored, granular, chalky, pure limestone; lower 6"
to 9" with some calcite lenses; larger Foraminifera abundant .. 4'
3 Cream to white-colored, granular limestone, with some foraminiferal
and molluscan casts -------- ... .......................... .. 4'7"
Williston formation
2 Modiolus bed. Hard, granular limestone, with abundant Lepidocy-
clina and Mollusca; Modiolus sp., Turritella sp., Xenophora sp. ... 2'
1 White, granular limestone, very few larger Foraminifera, few
Lepidocyclinas ..-------------- .... 4'10"
Total thickness 15'5"





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Locality PG-5: Abandoned quarry, SE%4 SE'/ Sec. 23, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gil-
christ County, Florida.
Composite section.
Crystal River formation
6 Cream-colored to white foraminiferal limestone 5'
5 Hard, well cemented, granular limestone with casts of Mollusca 1'
4 Cream-colored, coarsely granular, chalky limestone with abundant
larger Foraminifera and Mollusca, Lepidocyclina sp., Pecten sp. ... 2'
3 Modiolus bed. Cream-colored, granular limestone, with few larger
Foraminifera and Mollusca, molds of mollusks and Lepidocyclina sp. 16'
Williston formation
2 Cream-colored foraminiferal limestone, studded with larger Fora-
minifera, holothurian-like concretions, Pecten sp. and Spondylus
sp.; has a characteristic nodular weathering; echinoids common ..-. 8'
1 Cream-colored granular limestone, few larger Foraminifera 6'
Total thickness 38'
JACKSON COUNTY
Locality PJ-1: Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, SE%4 NEj' Sec.
32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 115'
8 White, very hard, questionably dolomitic limestone, with rounded
solution cavities. (2'-3' behind the hill, hardening due to solution).
Back of the hill several pinnacles of hard limestone occur with the
softer part eroded away ------------------................. .-. 2'-3'
7 Amusium-Asterocyclina bed. Hard, white limestone, well cemented,
calcitic, with abundant specimens of Amusium sp. Top bed has
crystals of calcite, horizontal pocket and veins of calcite 1%' to
2' thick ....----- .____-______..... ..._ 5-------------'6"
6 White, chalky limestone, composed of broken pieces of echinoid frag-
ments, Bryozoa, Mollusca, and larger Foraminifera, Lepidocyclina
sp. common, occasional specimens of Asterocyclina sp., on weathered
exposures. It almost looks like a shell coquina; bedding not apparent.
Specimens of Lepidocyclinas oriented in all directions; geodes of
calcite common --------. ......... ...-...------- ........ 9'2"
5 Hard, white, calcitic limestone composed of tests of Foraminifera,
skeletal remains of Bryozoa, and some specimens of Lepidocyclina,
Amusium sp., Pecten sp., and Spondylus sp. Weathered exposures
pink to brown ----------------..------------------ 3'
4 White, chalky limestone, coarsely granular, specimens of Lepidocy-
clina, Spondylus sp. and Pecten sp., and echinoids common on
weathered exposures. The limestone has a nodular appearance -..- 1'
3 White, chalky limestone, with occasional specimens of Asterocyclina
georgiana, abundant tests of Foraminifera and skeletal remains of
Bryozoa, Pecten sp. and Amusium sp. fairly common (also Spon-
dylus sp.) ---------------- ------------------.. 2'
2 Hard, cream to white limestone, pink on weathered exposures, almost
microcoquina, lower portion calcitic, Lepidocyclina sp. frequent,
Pecten sp., Spondylus sp., Amusium sp. __________------- 1'6"
1 White, granular, fossiliferous limestone, composed mostly of
rounded calcium grains and tests of smaller Foraminifera. Bryozoa
and Lepidocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana rare _------- 3'
Total thickness 27'2"
Locality PJ-4: Sam Smith's quarry, SE% NE% Sec. 23, T. 5 N., R. 11 W.,
Jackson County, Florida.
Marianna limestone
Soft granular pure limestone _- ...-------- -----.. - ------- +60'












o


a


















Figure 21
Panorama at locality PG-5.











to




t=













Figure 22
Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, locality PJ-1.
0
t ;>





68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Crystal River formation
5 Lepidocyclina chaperi zone. Hard, white, granular limestone with
L. chaperi and some Pecten sp.; some Lepidocyclinas as large as
half a dollar. Glauconitic in places; oysters and echinoids common 4%'
4 White, granular limestone with microforaminiferal coquinas and
Lepidocyclina sp. Abundant Xenophora sp. and Conus sp. ____------ 4'9"
3 White, granular limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina chaperi ..--_ 9"-1'
2 White, granular limestone, with microforaminiferal coquina in
places, and Lepidocyclina sp. ------- ------___._ ___------------- 4'
1 Cream to brown, soft limestone -___--- ____ _____ .-. _8" (base)
Total thickness (Ocala) 14'8"
The Limerock Company mined the Marianna limestone as a
building stone up to the second level before mining the Crystal
River formation. The present operations are in the Crystal River
formation. In this general area the Crystal River formation is pene-
trated below 60 feet of Marianna limestone. The top portion of
Crystal River (chaperi zone) is exposed wherever the outcrop
exists and also occurs in wells. This section may as well be of Oligo-
cene age, being an equivalent of Red Bluff of the western Gulf
states (see MacNeil, 1944, pp. 1324, 1325). The Marianna gener-
ally is finer grained and yields purer lime and was quarried mostly
as building stone. Ocala limestone, however, yields around 80-85
percent of calcium (as against over 95 percent in Marianna lime-
stone) and has been quarried as agricultural fertilizer.

JACKSON COUNTY
Locality PJ-5: On the west side of Chipola River, under bridge on U. S. High-
way 90, about one mile east of Marianna, Jackson County, Florida.
Byram formation
6 Buff-colored, dense, finely crystalline dolomite ----------.._.-.--__ 3'
Marianna limestone
5 Hard, white to cream-colored granular limestone, Lepidocyclina
mantelli common ----.__.------- -- -.. _____._. --___ -... -__. 3'
4 Soft, white, massive limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina mantelli 15'
3 White limestone with glauconite; Lepidocyclina mantelli and Pec-
ten poulsoni common __ ___..____-------.-. __-- __----..._.. _._.. __.. 6'
Covered _.. __-.______... .. .. .. ... ___ 6'
Crystal River formation
2 Very hard, cream-colored limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina
(Nephrolepidina) chaperi .-.-- .. --.. .............._____ . ......... 10'
1 Soft, cream-colored microcoquinoid limestone with Asterocyclina sp.,
Lepidocyclina ocalana, Heterostegina ocalana and Operculina ocalana 1'
Total thickness 44'
LAFAYETTE COUNTY
Locality PL-1: Dell Mine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NE/4
NWl/ Sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., Lafayette County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 56.17'
9 White, chalky limestone --- -----------. ...._ 114'


















- -t



;ME N
. . . .... .
















Figure 23

Sam Smith Quarry, locality PJ-4.

0
: i0
:: i:.~.. Il~::~:~~L~i~i:~L ~ ."0


iji~l~t~P"f ::~:::~ii!jii.~!ii:
':~~,::' 'r~.~:;:`..l::::::i
i:L~~-:!
1..,..: .....




70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

8 Pecten bed. White, chalky limestone 9"-1'
7 White, chalky limestone ---- ------ 1'
6 Pecten bed with Nummulites sp. in a chalky matrix 9"
5 Nummulitid coquina in a chalky matrix 2'
4 White, granular, chalky limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina sp.
and some molluscan casts -_---- -- --- --------- --- 11'
3 White to pink, hard limestone; abundant Amusium sp. numerous Mol-
lusca and Foraminifera ------ 12'
2 Cream to pink, soft, nummulitid coquina with some Pecten and holo-
thurian-like concretions ------ ---- ----- 6"-2'
1 Cream to pink, granular limestone with holothurian-like concretion
impressions and nummulitids ---- ---------- 5'
Total thickness 33.25'-34.0'

LEVY COUNTY

Locality VGL-3, Williston formation. Road cut one-quarter mile northeast of
Sumner, Levy County. Collected by Vernon and Gunter.
Locality VGL-5 Inglis formation, Wylis quarry, north of Road 13, about two
miles northeast of Rosewood, Levy County, Florida. Collected by Vernon
and Gunter.
Locality VGL-13 Inglis formation, quarry, one mile west of Road 15, NEI%
NEI Sec. 3, T. 17 S., R. 16 E., Levy County, Florida. Collected by
Vernon and Gunter.

MARION COUNTY

Locality PM-1: Dixie Limestone Products Company pit at Reddick, Marion
County, Florida.
Composite section. Elevation 156.83'
?Hawthorn (marine) facies
3 Cream-colored molluscan limestone, cross-bedded in places, lower por-
tion honeycombed with molds of large Turritella sp., manatee ribs,
upper three feet beach rock facies -.-- ------.. ... 8'
Unconformity-
Crystal River formation
2 Amusium bed. White chalky limestone with abundant specimens of
Amusium sp. ------.. .------.-..... .. 20'
1 White chalky limestone, a coquina of larger Foraminifera mostly
Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars. --- --- -- 22'
Total thickness 50'
Locality PM-2: Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company
near Martin, SE%4 SW/4 Sec. 11, T. 14 S., R. 21 E., Marion County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 134.67'
6 Amusium bed. White chalky limestone with abundant Amusium sp.,
upper portion with several horizontal beds of silicified limestone 31'
5 White, soft, chalky limestone with occasional specimens of Spondylus
sp. and Pecten sp.- ------ ---- .... ... 5'
4 Cream-colored, soft, chalky limestone, in places a coquina of larger
Foraminifera; specimens of Pecten sp. and Turritella sp. common 10'
3 Pale granular limestone, in places almost entirely a larger Foramini-
fera coquina, with casts and molds of mollusks .... 9'













z










Figure 24 0
Panorama at locality PL-1, showing the Dell Mine (Mayo) of the
Williston Shell Rock Company.

0




72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

2 Very hard, consolidated limestone, a shell bed of Ostrea sp., Spondy-
lus sp., and several gastropod casts and molds -..-.- ..--..--_..- 5'
1 Pale, soft, granular limestone, in places a coquina of Lepidocyclina
ocalana and nummulitids; specimen of Xenophora sp., Cardium sp.,
and Ostrea sp. common -..- -------------__.----- 10'
Total thickness 70'

Locality PM-3: Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Com-
pany, Kendrick, Marion County, Florida.
Composite section. Elevation 115.39'
?Hawthorn (marine) facies
5 Pale to cream-colored hard molluscan limestone with abundant, large
Turritella sp. ------- -- - - - - - ...... ........._........ 10'
Unconformity-
Crystal River formation
4 Amusium bed. White chalky limestone with beds of calcite and chert.
Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars. common; abundant specimens of
Amusium sp. --......---------------------.--.................. ....... 22'
3 White chalky limestone, in places a larger Foraminifera coquina,
abundant large specimens of Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., Hetero-
stegina ocalana and Operculinoides ocalanus .--..----. --- .-.. 15'
2 Cream to white, soft limestone, chalky in places, with large specimens
of Lepidocyclina ocalana very common .. --..--- -- ................. 3'
Williston formation
1 Cream to white, granular limestone with dwarfed Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Operculinoides moodybranchensis, Operculinoides willcoxi 5'
Total thickness 55'

SUWANNEE COUNTY

Locality PS-1: Abandoned quarry, SE'4 SEI4 Sec. 18 and NEI NE/4 Sec.
19, T. 6 S., R. 15 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
Section measured on north wall, parallel with U. S. Highway 29.
Crystal River formation Elevation 52.72'
4 Amusium bed. White, soft, chalky limestone, with two species of Pec-
ten. Amusium sp. (smooth oval form, probably same horizon as PL-1)
Spondylus sp ........... 13'
3 White, granular limestone; large foraminiferal coquina and Pecten
sp. (smooth type) toward bottom, somewhat chalky; increases in
chalkiness toward top 11'
2 White, granular limestone, chalky in places ------------ --..... 1%'-2'
1 Hard, white limestone, firmly cemented with molluscan casts ...... 2%'-3'
Total thickness 28'-29'
Locality PS-2: Abandoned quarry, SW% SE% Sec. 14 and NWI NE%4 Sec.
23, T. 6 S., R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 45.72'
7 Cream-colored, foraminiferal coquina; with Pecten sp. and Amus-
ium sp.; weathered exposures are ferrugineous and brown in color 3'-3'
6 Amusium bed. Foraminiferal coquina, with abundant Amusium sp.
(smooth oval); Spondylus sp. harder than underlying bed --..... 7%'
5 Foraminiferal coquina cemented in a granular matrix with abun-
dant Lepidocyclina sp. - -. -.......... 7'





















z
Figure 25 o
Panorama at locality PM-1 Dixie Lime Products Co., Reddick, Florida.









Figure 26
Panorama at locality PM-3 Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Co.



















Figure 27
Panorama at locality PS-1.


Figure 28
Panorama at locality PS-2.




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 29
Panorama at locality PS-3 showing the Suwannee Limerock Company quarry.















Figure 30
Crushing Plant at locality PS-3, Suwannee Limerock Company.

4 Cream-colored, granular, somewhat chalky limestone, with some
larger Foraminifera and Amusium sp. 11'
3 Coarse, foraminiferal coquina, cemented in a granular limestone
matrix --........ ..... ....... 2'9"
2 Cream-colored, granular limestone, composed mostly of Foraminifera
and occasional Pecten sp. and Amusium sp. ..- -- 2'
1 Pecten-Amusium bed. Cream-colored, hard, well cemented limestone,
nodular, weathering, with striated Pecten sp.; in places it is a larger
foraminiferal coquina -------- ... 7'1"
Total thickness 31'-311/2'
Locality PS-3: Suwannee Limerock Company quarry, SE1/4 NW/4 Sec. 32, T.
5 S., R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 38.8'
9 Foraminiferal and molluscan coquina, cemented in a hard limestone
matrix. Larger Foraminifera are of Ocala age 5'
8 Very hard, questionably dolomitized, brownish limestone, with molds
of Foraminifera and Mollusca ------. .... 2'
7 Turritella bed. Soft, granular, cream-colored limestone, with abun-
dant Turritella sp., Conus sp., Pecten sp., and other Mollusca (oys-
ters common); no Lepidocyclina noted .. ................3'




76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

6 Cream-colored, granular limestone, with occasional Pecten sp. and
Foraminifera _-.. ---------- _-----------------..-- 5'
5 Pecten bed. Very hard, partially dolomitized limestone with abundant
Pecten sp. (striated) _______ -----------_ ______- 5'
4 Soil zone consisting of limonite and weathered specimens of Fora-
minifera and Pectens embedded in a ferrugineous matrix - 2"
3 White, granular limestone, with some tests of Foraminifera and molds
of Glycymeris sp.- __.--- __------------------ ____ 2'
2 Cream-colored foraminiferal coquina, well cemented, with occasional
Pecten sp. (striated) -.- --------.. --.------_ (lowest exposure) 5'
1 Cream-colored, granular limestone, moderately hard, massive; tests
of larger Foraminifera and Pecten sp., Pecten bed (striated) is also
represented in the dredged rock; Turritella sp. common ---.- 15' (dredged)
Total thickness 42'2"
The company removes all of the Hawthorn clay from solution
pipes and fills them back up with Crystal River formation in order
to blast the quarry effectively. This is the reason why no "pipe"
or sinkholes exist around the quarry.

WELL SECTIONS

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth
ALACHUA COUNTY

W-324 700' from E line, 525' from N line, Sec. 14,
T9S, R19E 78.28' 447'6"
W-505 2250' from E line, 300' from N line, SW%
SE1 Sec. 23, T9S, R20E 159' 446'8"
W-1379 NE corner SW4 NE/4 Sec. 3, T8S, R17E 70.82' 243'
W-1773 1350' N and 750' W of SE corner of Sec. 6,
T10S, R20E 163.20' 418'
W-1894 SE corner of Sec. 4, T10S, R20E 141.06' 464'

BAKER COUNTY

W-1500 660' S and 660' E of NW corner NE1 Sec.
21, T1N, R20E 124' 3349'

BRADFORD COUNTY

W-263 2568' from N line, 1056' from W line, Sec.
28, T6S, R22E 166.56' 610'
W-264 200' from N line, 100' from W line, Sec. 28,
T6S, R22E 168.77' 503'
W-531 550' from N line, 2190' from E line, NWa
NE/4 Sec. 30, T7S, R22E 145.57' 235'
W-1466 Center of NE' SE% Sec. 15, T6S, R20E 132' 3167'

BREVARD COUNTY

W-9 2350' from S line, 2325' from W line, Sec. 21,
T27S, R37E 17.58' 511'





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-104 2515' from N line, 1740' from E line, Sec. 28,
T29S, R38E, 1000' NE of Grant P. 0. 3.59' 872'
W-604 1600' from N line, 665' from E line, NWY
NW% Sec. 31, T24S, R37E 2.66' 180'
W-638 2460' from W line, 2090' from N line, NE'4
Sec. 33, T27S, R36E 24.2' 457'
W-1365 NWA NWl Sec. 1, T20S, R35E 11.17' 230'
W-1380 NWa Sec. 3, T24S, R36E, 6 mi. NE of P. 0. 2.46' 335'

CALHOUN COUNTY


W-1103 785' N and 660' W from SE corner of Sec. 2,
T1S, R11W 140' 3580'

CITRUS COUNTY


W-720 Back side of Crystal River Rock Company
quarry, Sec. 6, T19S, R18E, center SW%4 210' 300'

CLAY COUNTY

W-78 1663' from E line, 1742' from S line, S of normal
Sec. 9, T4S, R26E, Kingsley Grant 22.32'
W-136 1980' from N line, 240' from W line, NW part of
Sec. 16, T6S, R25E 82.8' 550'
W-321 150' from S line, 2160' from E line, Sec. 1,
T8S, R23E 135' 202'
W-522 Municipal Airport, Green Cove Springs 13.14' 650'
W-534 660' from S line, 2480' from E line, Sec. 14,
T6S, R23E 160' 700'
W-535 1635' from N line, 90' from W line, Sec. 24,
T6S, R23E 151' 680'
W-536 1510' from E line, 2460' from S line, Sec. 26,
T6S, R23E 162' 580'6"
W-537 730' from W line, 615' from S line, Sec. 26,
T6S, R23E 197' 581'
W-538 210' from W line, 1350' from S line, Sec. 27,
T6S, R23E 228' 718'
W-539 1180' from N line, 1920' from W line, Sec.
34, T6S, R23E 188' 695'
W-540 300' from W line, 1285' from S line, Sec. 13,
T6S, R23E 149' 685'
W-611 891' from S line, 1320' from W line, Sec. 8,
T8S, R23E 132.9' 395'
W-613 820' from W line, 930' from N line, Sec. 36,
T7S, R23E 214.2' 560'
W-617 840' from S line, 560' from E line, Sec. 23,
T6S, R23E 161' 765'9"
W-634 825' from N line, 1520' from W line, NE%
NWI4 Sec. 6, T8S, R23E 160.8' 474'
W-635 790' from W line, 395' from S line, SW1/
SWI Sec. 31, T7S, R23E 180' 535'
W-1590 1980' N of S line, 1980' E of W line, NEa
SW1/4, Sec. 4, T5S, R25E 105.1' 5862'





78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

COLUMBIA COUNTY

W-34 1612' from W line, 1558' from S line, Sec. 29,
T3S, R17E 196.07' 400'
W-268 1425' from N line, 2140' from E line, Sec. 5,
T4S, R17E 101.49' 360'
W-299 1420' from N line, 2135' from E line, Sec. 5,
T4S, R17E 101.47' 1016'
W-656 Sec. 1, T4S, R17E 181' 372'
W-702 50' from S line, 1770' from W line, SW/4
SEi/4 SW1 Sec. 28, T2S, R18E 133.53' 234'

DADE COUNTY

W-215 300' from W line, 3095' from S line, Sec. 12,
T55S, R40E 9.91' 5535'
W-443 3900' from N line, 40' from E line, Sec. 15,
T53S, R42E 6.9' 950'
W-466 260' from W line, 210' from S line, Sec. 31,
T53S, R35E 8.20' 1280'
W-468 2375' from N line, 1500' from E line, Sec. 30,
T52S, R40E 7.63' 223.4'
W-889 Center of NE'a NW14 Sec. 30, T55S, R36E 15' 11789'

DESOTO COUNTY

W-383 240' from E line, 2420' from N line, Sec. 23,
T38S, R24E 46.84' 541'

DIXIE COUNTY

W-504 Sec. 29, T9S, R10E, SW/ NEi4 7' 95'
W-593 140' from S line, 2330' from W line, NW4
Sec. 31, T9S, R12E 42.58' 118'
W-598 100' from N line, 1870' from E line, Sec. 9,
T10S, R12E 41.93' 100'
W-671 1420' from S line, 1250' from E line, Sec. 10,
T10S, R12E 42' 215'

DUVAL COUNTY

W-48 972' from E line, 2567' from S line, Sec. 20,
T2S, R26E 24' 900'
W-304 1540' from W line, 750' from S line, Sec. 12,
T2S, R26E 8.87' 1249'
W-322 2560' from N line, 205' from E line, Sec. 25,
T2S, R26E 19.72' 1278'
W-392 1440' from S line, 1620' from W line, Sec. 21,
T2S, R29E, N% SWY4 11.69' 622'
W-513 1765' from W line, 340' from S line, Sec. 23,
T3S, R26E 8.9' 1005'
W-514 3520' from W line, 350' from S line, Sec. 39,
(Wm. Traverse Grant) SW% SE% Sec.
22, T3S, R26E 22.3' 1015'
W-532 1460' from W line, 1905' from S line, Sec. 31,





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 79

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

T1N, R26E 10.50' 690'
W-544 2710' from N line, 600' from E line, near W
line of NW/ Sec. 13, TlS, R26E 13.73' 1019'
W-581 1610' from E line, 1612' from N line, SW
corner, NE1/ NE/4 Sec. 22, T3S, R24E 75' 990'
W-610 1785' from S line, 1160' from W line, Sec.
31, T2S, R26E 19.79' 730'
W-649 842' from W line, 4850' from N line, Sec. 18,
T2S, R27E 3.61' 1074.6'
W-661 2870' from S line, 2760' from E line, Sec. 21,
T3S, R26E 15.5' 987'5"
W-731 850' from S line, 840' from E line, Sec. 9,
T3S, R24E 79.6' 780'
W-741 2100' from S line, 640' from W line, Sec. 13,
T2S, R27E 60.17' 1050'
W-826 2544' from E line, 2286' from N line, Sec. 3,
T2S, R26E 28.90' 1064'

GADSDEN COUNTY

W-4 2305' from S line, 470' from W line, Sec. 6,
T2N, R3W 149.72' 1395'
W-226 129' from N line, 1510' from W line, Sec. 7,
T2N, R3W 253.51' 1001'

GILCHRIST COUNTY

W-318 1875' from W line, 1335' from N line, Sec. 16,
T10S, R15E 53.04' 234'

HARDEE COUNTY

W-2894 NEI/ NE% Sec. 29, T35S, R24E 88.86'-

HERNANDO COUNTY

W-274 1980' from N line, 396' from W line, Sec. 36,
T21S, R19E 261.4' 804'
W-707 785' from W line, 740' from S line, Sec. 18,
T23S, R19E 68' 340'

HIGHLANDS COUNTY

W-2859 SEW NW% Sec. 18, T34S, R29E 1400'

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY

W-119 330' from E line, 1320' from N line, NE corner
of SE%1 NE/4 Sec. 18, T30S, R22E 66.43' 776'
W-267 2140' from W line, 2150' from N line, Sec. 6,
T30S, R22E, 300' W and 600' N of the
center line 84.18' 805'
W-1448 Sec. 16, T30S, R22E 57' 820'
W-1504 NE corner NE% NEW Sec. 6, T29S, R19E 65.57' 620'




80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-1604 SEI% SWI/ Sec. 19, T29S, R18E +5' 720'
W-1627 SEi/ SE/4 SW% Sec. 19, T29S, R18E 5.2' 704'
W-2007 Sec. 35, T28S, R16E 5' 1805'
W-2008 Sec. 28, T29S, R21E 77.97' 1700'

HOLMES COUNTY

W-2301 2 blocks east of test well No. 1, at dead end of
street running east of Courthouse 120.4' 615'

JACKSON COUNTY

W-220 860' from S line, 940' from W line, Sec. 3,
T4N, R10W 117.47' 408'
W-235 1090' from S line, 1990' from W line, Sec. 18,
T4N, R10W 154.23' 250'
W-276 490' from N line, 1290' from W line, Sec. 36,
T4N, R7W 82.28' 477'
W-654 1170' from S line, 2440' from W line, Sec. 18,
T5N, R9W 117.50' 297'8"
W-687 370' from S line, 160' from E line, Sec. 13,
T5N, R10W 107.50' 240'
W-706 870' from S line, 790' from W line, Sec. 3,
T4N, R10W 115.75' 744'
W-1360 660' N and 1160' E of SW corner, Sec. 15,
T3N, R9W 96' 1300'
W-1364 2079' N and 3293' W of SE corner, Sec. 8,
T4N, R8W 122' 1478'
W-1824 SE corner NE4 Sec. 7, T4N, R10W 171.84' 362'

JEFFERSON COUNTY

W-19 775' from S line, 560' from W line, Sec. 17,
T2N, R5E 217.94' 3838'

LAFAYETTE COUNTY

W-44 1490' from N line, 420' from W line, NE corner
NW/4 NW'!4 Sec. 13, T5S, R11E 67.81' 202'
W-968 143' N 600 W of center of SW14 NE1/4 Sec. 25,
T6S, R12E 65' 4133'
W-1566 600' N and 50' E of SW corner, Sec. 34,
T7S, R13E 59' 1308'

LAKE COUNTY

W-275 535' from S line, 895' from E line, SEli
SE4 Sec. 17, T24S, R25E 113.66' 6129'
W-309 1187' from E line, 1190' from N line, NE
corner SW1 NW% NE%4 Sec. 11, T23S,
R25E 107.5' 210'
W-515 NW4 SW% NE4 Sec. 26, T19S, R24E
Leesburg at City Pumping Plant 93.90' 425'
W-998 About center of NW4 SW% Sec. 13, T20S,
R26E 84.61' 245'





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-1658 NW corner SE% SE% Sec. 9, T19S, R25E 77.69' 191'
W-1660 NW corner SE%/ Sec. 21, T19S, R24E 82.51' 108'
W-1711 NW corner SEa/ Sec. 17, T18S, R24E 79.83' 169'
W-2011 Center of W half of NE%4 NE% Sec. 27,
T19S, R24E 80.36' 320'

LEON COUNTY

W-453 1435' from S line, 320' from W line, Sec. 30,
T1N, R1E 186.66' 413'6"

LEVY COUNTY

W-170 2320' from N line, 750' from W line, Sec. 30,
T12S, R19E 83.9' 125'
W-171 1340' from S line, 1750' from W line, Sec. 35,
T12S, R18E 73.63' 114'
W-814 1885' from W line, 2047' from S line, Sec. 16,
T15S, R13E 8.7' 385'
W-1537 990' from W line and 1650' from S line, SW'%
Sec. 16, T15S, R13E 5' 5850'
W-1699 NE% NW%1 Sec. 6, T13S, R19E 76' 158'
W-1846 2000' S and 1200' W from NE corner Sec. 23,
T13S, R13E 419'

MADISON COUNTY

W-1596 Center of SW% SE% Sec. 6, T1S, R10E 102' 5381'

MANATEE COUNTY

W-23 1080' from N line, 160' from W line, W% of
NW% NW% Sec. 15, T34S, R17E 4.7' 1265'

MARION COUNTY

W-18 2900' from W line, 2520' from S line, center of
Sec. 10, T16S, R20E 75.5' 6180'
W-203 315' from S line, 10' from W line, SW1! Sec.
7, T16S, R23E 75.4' 125'
W-204 2625' from S line, 190' from W line, Sec. 29,
T16S, R22E 64.2' 100'
W-650 552' from W line, 295' from S line, Secs. 25,
26, 35, 36, T16S, R19E 62.0' 174'
W-651 612' from W line, 382' from N line, Sec. 36,
T16S, R19E 63.5'
W-888 398' from W line, 1700' from S line, Sec. 17,
T15S, R22E 110.11' 455'
W-891 19.7' from N line, 18.4' from E line, Sec. 2,
T13S, R21E 83.24' 375'
W-892 1320' from S line, 1320' from E line, Sec. 35,
T13S, R21E 111.23' 400'
W-901 330' from N line, 660' from W line, NEi/4
Sec. 25, T13S, R20E 165' 4334'
W-1904b Center of NE'4 SE% Sec. 24, T14S, R22E 69' 195'




82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

MARTIN COUNTY

W-2860 SEA Sec. 31, T38S, R38E 1155'
W-2861 NE14 Sec. 9, T38S, R40E 20' 958'

MONROE COUNTY

W-2 2380' from W line, 1320' from S line, Sec. 9,
T66S, R32E 6.50' 2555'
W-445 Center of NW1A Sec. 6, T55S, R34E 14' 10006'

NASSAU COUNTY

W-336 2310' from S line, 2475' from E line, NW
corner of NW14 SEI' Sec. 19, T4N, R24E 99.02' 4824'

OKALOOSA COUNTY

W-3550 NEI% NW1/ Sec. 8, T3N, R23W, in SE
corner 264' 920'

OKEECHOBEE COUNTY

W-50 1500' from W line, 360' from N line, Sec. 22,
T37S, R35E 24.6'
W-51 2490' from W line, 540' from S line, Sec. 16,
T37S, R35E 31.3' 810'

ORANGE COUNTY

W-26 820' from E line, 715' from S line, Sec. 9,
T21S, R28E 147.32'
W-57 5 miles SW of Orlando 89' 417'
W-312 SE corner of South Street and Chapman
Street, Sec. 35, T22S, R29E 107' 566'
W-3287 Magnolia Ranch, Secs. 3 and 4, T23S, R31E 81'

OSCEOLA COUNTY

W-696 1815' from E line, 175' from N line, Sec. 30,
T25S, R29E, 1800' W and 200' S of NE corner 77.7' 398'
W-697 1825' from E line, 415' from S line, Sec. 19,
T25S, R29E 79.5' 394'
W-1014 710' N of S line and 660' W of E line, Sec. 10,
T27S, R34E 62' 8044'6"
W-1411 660' N and 1980' W of SE corner, Sec. 12,
T31S, R33E 72.02' 8798'
W-1749 201' N and 83.5' E, SW corner SE/4 Sec. 27,
T25S, R34E 38.3' 1460'
W-1770 SW corner SE14 Sec. 27, T25S, R34E 44' 5856'
W-1833 45' S and 310' W of NE corner, SE1/4 SWi/4
Sec. 4, T27S, R32E 69' 6510'




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

PALM BEACH COUNTY

W-20 1305' from S line, 1920' from W line, Sec. 3,
T44S, R37E 14.1' 1332'

PASCO COUNTY

W-658 975' from W line, 1200' from N line, Sec. 13,
T26S, R21E 79.0' 325'
W-662 1220' from W line, 500' from N line, Sec. 13,
T26S, R21E 80.7' 330'
W-1545 200' S and 25' E of NW corner, Sec. 6,
T24S, R18E 79' 440'

PINELLAS COUNTY

W-60 545' from E line, 2040' from S line, Sec. 6,
T29S, R16E 68.26' 845'-
W-2007 Sec. 35, T28S, R16E 5.56' 1805'

POLK COUNTY

W-5 Sec. 30, T31S, R25E 131.2' 838'
W-ll 690' from N line, 480' from W line, Sec. 3,
T27S, R27E 121.88' 365'
W-24 260' from S line, 720' from W line, Sec. 12,
T28S, R23E 217.85' 753'
W-40 1733' from W line, 335' from N line, NW4a
NW14 Sec. 31, T27S, R25E 125.82' 752'
W-110 SE1A NW1I NEi4 Sec. 6, T30S, R24E 136.0' 778'
W-341 1440' from N line and 1035' from W line,
Sec. 24, T29S, R27E 222.0' 732'
W-344 800' W and 600' S of NE corner Sec. 17,
T29S, R24E 250.7' 757'
W-345 1013' from N line, 1080' from E line, Sec. 9,
T29S, R27E 130.0' 545'
W-381 2600' from S line, 8' from E line, Sec. 31,
T32S, R30E 61.0' 1035'
W-382 1944' from N line, 1944' from E line, Sec. 32,
T27S, R26E 179.40' 505'
W-402 1380' from N line, 85' from W line, Sec. 28,
T27S, R27E 177.60' 802'6"
W-448 410' from S line, 1920' from E line, Sec. 25,
T27S, R23E 158.18' 550'
W-457 1728' from S line, 459' from E line, Sec. 32,
T27S, R26E 179.86' 559'
W-458 2560' from S line, 1350' from E line, Sec. 12,
T28S, R27E 100.66' 600'
W-459 2360' from S line, 840' from E line, Sec. 35,
T27S, R23E 220.09' 708'
W-500 1160' from N line, 1510' from E line, Eh of
Sec. 2, T30S, R27E 242.44' 1063'
W-503 1540' from S line, 300' from E line, NE14
SEl4 Sec. 32, T28S, R24E 114.0' 1030'
W-518 1300' from E line, 1350' from S line, Sec. 18,
T28S, R26E 140.57' 550'





84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-519 2100' from S line, 740' from W line, Sec. 33,
T31S, R28E 93.0' 1060'
W-616 1800' from N line, 345' from W line, Sec. 1,
T28S, R26E 151.93' 592'
W-623 450' from S line, 1400' from W line, SE /
Sec. 28, T30S, R28E 161.65' 967'
W-639 1860' from N line, 1455' from W line, Sec. 10,
T31S, R25E 115.35' 800'
W-668 1850' from S line, 40' from E line, Sec. 31,
T32S, R30E 61.50' 1055'
W-672 2520' from E line, 740' from N line, Sec. 23,
T29S, R25E 127.5' 601'
W-673 2520' from E line, 45' from N line, Sec. 23,
T29S, R25E 129.0' 600'
W-928 500' S and 100' W of NE corner NW1 SW/4
Sec. 23, T30S, R26E 163.4' 658'
W-951 SW/4 SW4 NWY4 Sec. 33, T27S, R26E 170.81' 555'
W-956 1400' W and 900' N of SE corner, Sec. 1,
T30S, R24E 118.90' 635'
W-965 Center of SE/4 NW% Sec. 9, T32S, R28E 140.09' 1023'
W-974 NE/4 NE1/ NW4 Sec. 19, T30S, R26E 175.8' 781.6'
W-995 889' N and 59' W of SE corner SW/4 NW/4
Sec. 10, T31S, R25E 110.18' 747.6'
W-1006 SE/4 NWi/ Sec. 24, T30S, R25E 170.7' 717'
W-1008 98' S and 483' E of SW corner NE%4 Sec. 9,
T31S, R25E 131.02' 801'6"
W-1050 657' N, 96' W of SE corner SW'4 NW/4 Sec.
10, T31S, R25E 110.14' 797'
W-1059 Center of NW,4 SE%/ Sec. 17, T28S, R25E 160' 613'
W-1060 NW%4 SE/4 Sec. 10, T28S, R25E 146.28' 639'
W-llll NW corner of SW'4 SW'4 Sec. 10, T30S,
R26E 500' E and 50' S 159.4' 824'
W-1389 400' N and 200' E of SW corner of NE/4 Sec.
17, T28S, R25E 155.9' 609'
W-1395 111' N and 94' E of SW corner of NW%
NE'4 Sec. 30, T30S, R25E 135.5' 776'10"
W-1441 SW/4 Sec. 13, T29S, R24E 116.9' 605'
W-1445 NW'4 SE%1 Sec. 5, T29S, R26E 135.7' 662'
W-1476 210' N and 1198' E of SW corner of Sec.
23, T30S, R23E 135.04' 888'9"
W-1589 NW4 NW!4 SE%4 Sec. 19, T28S, R24E 200.86' 1111'
W-1754 SW corner SW/4 Sec. 18, T30S, R28E 146.7' 990'
W-1760 125' W and 100' N of SE corner Sec. 2, T30S,
R23E 116.24' 764'
W-1800 1500' E and 300' S from NW corner Sec. 10,
T28S, R24E 140.81' 570'
W-1801 S'/2 NE1/ Sec. 2, T30S, R25E 146.83' 1085'
W-1802 SY NE1 Sec. 2, T30S, R25E 146.31' 772'
W-1864 1000' S and 900' W of NE corner of NW'4
Sec. 11, T29S, R24E 122.72' 619'
W-1887 Center of NE%1 NW/ SE'/4 Sec. 8, T32S,
R28E 154.56' 1113'
W-1949 NW corner NW4 NE/4 SEi4 Sec. 12, T30S,
R28E 225.9' 743'
W-1997 120' from N line and 1050' from W line, Sec. 24,
T29S, R27E 201.32' 1100'
W-2003 SE corner of NW4 SE/4 Sec. 32, T28S,
R26E 147.3' 677'
W-2013 SW corner of NW14 Sec. 3, T27S, R27E 130.8' 577'
W-2014 SE'/4 SW/4 Sec. 31, T28S, R26E 141.7' 625'




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-2127 NW corner NW% SE%/ Sec. 30, T30S, R28E 187.9' 825'
W-2129 Center of Sec. 3, T29S, R23E 142.79' 698'6"

PUTNAM COUNTY

W-619 80' from N line, 1940' from W line, Sec. 38,
T10S, R27E 16.18' 247'
W-1514 150' SE of center of NWI% NW/4 Sec. 19,
T9S, R25E 196' 331'

ST. JOHNS COUNTY

W-236 1530' from E line, 2120' from S line, Sec. 18,
T7S, R30E 6.51' 1440'

SANTA ROSA COUNTY

W-454 1285' from S line, 350' from W line, Sec. 5,
T1S, R26W 11.59' 1063'

SARASOTA COUNTY

W-106 1800' from E line, 1420' from N line, Sec. 34,
T36S, R19E 27.10' 735'

SEMINOLE COUNTY

W-337 1750' from N line, 2160' from E line, Sec. 19,
T19S, R30E 26.32' 195'
W-347 2310' from N line, 1980' from E line, NE'%
Sec. 28, T19S, R30E 29.11' 164'
W-356 2370' from N line, 610' from W line, Sec. 33,
T19S, R31E 23.42' 195'
W-357 810' from S line, 1640' from E line, SE%
Sec. 28, T19S, R31E 15.19'
W-594 380' from S line, 1750' from E line, Sec. 30,
T19S, R31E 25.13' 183'

SUWANNEE COUNTY

W-6 2300' from S line, 530' from E line, Sec. 23,
T2S, R13E 104.58' 655'

TAYLOR COUNTY

W-1065 Sec. 12, T6S, R5E, 15 miles SW of Perry 1.59' 10.7'
W-2106 850' N and 750' W of SE corner Sec. 18, T4S,
R9E 85' 5243'

VOLUSIA COUNTY

W-582 1670' from W line, 2200' from N line, Sec. 3,




86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

T16S, R33E 4.7' 139.6'
W-923 100' from N line, 2080' from E line, Sec. 34,
T14S, R28E 75' 145'
W-1717 Center of NE% Sec. 2, T15S, R30E 35' 158'
W-3125 120'

WAKULLA COUNTY

W-12 1900' from E line, 2050' from N line, Sec. 16,
T3S, R1E 15.79' 2169'
W-440 680' from N line, 710' from W line, near
center of NW'% NW% Sec. 14, T3S, R1E 18.13' 5766'

WALTON COUNTY

W-148 1425' from N line, 2440' from W line, Sec. 12,
T1N, R19W 214.51' 5375'
W-249 About center of SW% Sec. 9, T2N, R21W 227.41' 625'
W-499 660' from N line, 2210' from E line, NW%
NE% Sec. 11, T1S, R20W 58.31' 2757'
W-739 720' from N line, 2340' from E line, NE/4
Sec. 5, T2S, R18W 23.43' 756'9"

WASHINGTON COUNTY

W-1 680' from N line, 875' from W line, NW'/
NW%/ Sec. 27, T4N, R13W 198.02' 4912'
W-2884 Center of NE%/ NE/4 Sec. 29, T1N, R6W 77.4' 4993'

GEORGIA-Decatur County

W-709 6 miles NW of Bainbridge, Decatur Co. 425'

GEORGIA-Bacon County

W-372 South side of RR, /4 mile east of Station
Alma, Georgia 199.7' 626'


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Applin, Esther R. (also see Applin, Paul L., 1944)
1945 (and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface
formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp.
129-148.
Applin, Paul L.
1944 (and Applin, Esther R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and
structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1673-1753.
Bandy, Orville L.
1949 Eocene and Oligocene Foraminifera from Little Stave Creek,
Clarke County, Alabama: Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131,
210 pp., 27 pls.





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Barker, R. W.
1939 Species of the foraminiferal family Camerinidae in the Tertiary
and Cretaceous of Mexico: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 86, no.
3052, p. 325.
Clapp, F. G. (also see Matson, 1909)
1941 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, 91 pp.
1942 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Flor-
ida Geol. Survey Bull. 20, 89 pp.
1944 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Flor-
ida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 168 pp.
Cole, W. Storrs
1938 Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two deep wells in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 16, 77 pp.
Cooke, C. Wythe
1915 The age of the Ocala limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
95, pp 107-117.
1929 (and Mossom, Stuart) Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
20th Ann. Rept., pp 29-227.
1939 Equivalence of the Gosport sand to the Moody's marl: Jour.
Paleontology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 337-340.
1943 (and Gardner, Julia, and Woodring, Wendell P.) Correlation of
the Cenozoic formations of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain
and the Caribbean Region: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 54, pp.
1713-1723.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29, 339 pp.
Cushman, Joseph A.
1917 Orbitoid Foraminifera of the genus Orthophragmina from Geor-
gia and Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108-G, pp.
115-124.
1920 The American species of Orthophragmina and Lepidocyclina:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125-D, pp. 39-105.
1921 American species of Operculina and Heterostegina: U. S. Geol.
Survey Prof. Paper 128-E, pp. 125-142.
1934 Upper Eocene Foraminifera of the southeastern United States:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, 181 pp.
Dall, William Harris
1890-
1903 Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida: Wagner Free
Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pts. 1-6, pp. 1-1654.
Fischer, A. G.
1951 The echinoid fauna of the Inglis member, Moodys Branch forma-
tion: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pt. 2, pp. 45-101, 7 pls.
1953 Petrology of Eocene limestone in and around the Citrus-Levy
County area, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Report of Investi-
gations, no. 9, pt. 2, pp. 41-70, 15 figs., 6 tables.
Gardner, Julia (see Cooke, 1943)
Gravell, D. W.
1935 (and Hanna, M. A.) Larger Foraminifera from the Moodys
Branch marl, Jackson Eocene, of Texas, Louisiana and Missis-
sippi: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 9, pp. 327-340.
1938 (and Hanna, M. A.) Subsurface Tertiary zones of correlation
through Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida: Am. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geologists Bull., vol. 22, pp. 984-1013.
Gunter, Herman (see Sellards, 1918)
Hanna, M. A. (see Gravell)
Harris, G. D.
1951 Preliminary notes on Ocala bivalves: Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol.
33, no. 138, 55 pp., 13 pls.
Heilprin, Angelo
1882 On the occurrence of Nummulitic deposits in Florida, and the
association of Nummilites with a fresh-water fauna: Acad. Nat.
Sci. Philadelphia Proc., pp. 189-193.





88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

1887 Exploration on the west coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee
wilderness: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 1, 134 pp.
Howe, Henry V.
1951 New Tertiary ostracode fauna from Levy County, Florida: Flor-
ida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pt. 1, pp. 1-43, 5 pls.
Jordan, Louise (see Applin, Esther R., 1944)
MacNeil, F. Stearns
1944 Oligocene stratigraphy of southeastern United States: Am. Assoc.
Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 28, pp. 1313-1354, 1 fig.
1947 Correlation chart of the outcropping Tertiary formations of the
eastern Gulf region: U.S. Geol. Survey, Oil and Gas Investiga-
tion Preliminary Chart 29.
Matson, G. C.
1909 (and Clapp, F. G.) A preliminary report on the geology of Flor-
ida with special reference to the stratigraphy: Florida Geol.
Survey 2nd Ann. Rept., 1908-1909, pp. 25-173.
1913 (and Sanford, S.) Geology and ground water of Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, 445 pp.
Moore, Wayne E.
1955 The geology of Jackson County: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 37,
101 pp.
Mossom, Stuart (see Cooke, 1929)
Murray, G. E.
1950a Lithological faces of Jacksonian stage, central and eastern
Gulf coast: Soc. Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, An-
nual Meeting, Chicago (abstract).
1950b (and Wilbert, L. J.) Jacksonian stage: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 23, pp. 1990-1997.
1952 Geology of Beauregard and Allen Parishes: Louisiana Dept. Cons.
Geol. Bull. 27 (stratigraphy, pl. 13).
Palmer, K. V. W. (see Richards, 1953)
Pressler, E. D.
1947 Geology and occurrence of oil in Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 31, pp. 1851-1862.
Puri, Harbans S. (also see Vernon, 1956)
1953 Zonation of the Ocala group in Peninsular Florida (abstract):
Jour. Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 23, p. 130.
Richards, Horace G.
1953 (and Palmer, K.V.W.) Eocene mollusks from Citrus and Levy
counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 35, 95 pp., 13 pls.
Roberts, Henry B. (in Richards and Palmer)
1953 A new species of Decapod Crustacean from the Inglis member:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 35, pp. 64-67.
Rutten, M. G.
1932 (and Vermunt, L. W. J.) The Serce di Cueba limestone from
Curacao: K. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, Proc. Sect. Sci.,
Amsterdam, Nederland, vol. 35, p. 240.
Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, 1913).
Sellards, E. H.
1918 (and Gunter, Herman) Geology between the Choctawhatchee and
Apalachicola rivers in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 10th-llth
Ann. Repts., 1917-1918.
1919 Review of the geology of Florida, with special reference to
structural conditions: Florida Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept.,
1918-1919, pp. 105-141.
Swain, Frederick M.
1946 Ostracoda from the Tertiary of Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol.
20, pp. 374-383, pls. 54, 55.
Vaughan, T. W.
1928 New species of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala
limestone: Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155-165.
1933 Studies of American species of Foraminifera of the genus Lepi-
docyclina: Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 89, no. 10, 53 pp., 32 pls.





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 89

Vermunt, L. W. J. (see Rutten, 1932)
Vernon, Robert O.
1947 Tertiary formations cropping out in Citrus and Levy counties:
Fifth Field Trip Guidebook, Southeastern Geol. Soc., Talla-
hassee, Florida, pp. 1-54.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 33, 256 pp., 2 pls.
1956 (and Purl, Harbans S.) A summary of the geology of Pan-
handle Florida and a guidebook to the surface exposures: Flor-
ida Geol. Survey, G.S.A. Field Trip, 83 pp.
Wilbert, L. J. (see Murray, 1950b)
Woodring, Wendell P. (see Cooke, 1943).




















Part II


STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCALA GROUP

FORAMINIFERA







PART II


TABLE OF CONTENTS AND TAXONOMY

The following foraminiferal associations are ascertained in the Ocala
group:
Page

Systematic Treatment ----------------- 93

FAMILY Rupertiidae _----------------- 99
GENUS Rupertia Wallich, 1877 --- 99
SPECIES Rupertia floridana Cushman ------ 99

FAMILY Textulariidae ------ 99
SUBFAMILY Textulariinae --------- 99
GENUS Textularia Defrance, 1824 -------- 99
SPECIES Textularia adalta Cushman -------- 99
Textularia recta Cushman -------- 100
Textularia ocalana Cushman ---- --- 100
Textularia howei Puri, n. sp. ------ 100
Textularia triangulata Puri, n. sp. ------------ 101
Textularia cf. T. hockleyensis Cushman and Applin --- 101
Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin 101
Textularia subhauerii Cushman ----- 102
SUBFAMILY Spiroplectammininae -._.------------... .---------- 102
GENUS Ammobaculites Cushman, 1910 ---------- 102
SPECIES Ammobaculites hockleyensis Cushman and Applin ---- 102
GENUS Ammospirata Cushman, 1933 ------- 102
SPECIES Ammospirata? levyensis Puri, n. sp. ------ 102

FAMILY Verneuilinidae ------------------- 103
GENUS Verneuilina d'Orbigny, 1840 __----- --- 103
SPECIES ?Verneuilina propinqua H. B. Brady -----_. 103
GENUS Guadryina d'Orbigny, 1839 ---------------- --- 103
SPECIES Gaudryina gardnerae Cushman -------------------- -. ...-- 103
GENUS Pseudogaudryina Cushman, 1936 .-- -------------- ---- -- 103
SPECIES Pseudogaudryina cf. P. jacksonensis Cushman -------- 103

FAMILY Valvulinidae _..------------------- 104
GENUS Valvulina d'Orbigny, 1826 --------------------- ---- ---- 104
SPECIES Valvulina ocalana Cushman ----------------------------- 104
Valvulina floridana Cole ------------------------ 104
GENUS Liebusella Cushman, 1933 ....----------------------- --- 104
SPECIES Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman) 104
GENUS Textulariella Cushman, 1927 ...--------------------- 105
SPECIES Textulariella barretti (Jones and Parker) 105
GENUS Dictyoconus Blanckenhorn, 1900 ------ 105
SPECIES Dictyoconus cookei Moberg ------------.......... 105
GENUS Lituonella Schlumberger, 1905 ..................---- 106
SPECIES Lituonella sp. _------------------------------- 106
GENUS Neoclavulina Puri, n. gen. .....------- .. .---- 106
SPECIES Neoclavulina robusta Puri, n. sp. ------...... --- 106

FAMILY Miliolidae ----------------------------- 107
GENUS Quinqueloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 --------- 107
SPECIES Quinquiloculina newberryensis Puri, n. sp. -- 107
Quinqueloculina ocalana Puri, n. sp. -------- 107




GENUS Miliola Lamarck, 1801 ------
SPECIES Miliola cf. M. saxorum Lamarck ------
Miliola jacksonensis Cushman ----
GENUS Massilina Schlumberger, 1893 ----
SPECIES Massilina cf. M. jacksonensis Cushman
GENUS Spiroloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 ----
SPECIES Spiroloculina bidentata Hadley ---
Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan
Spiroloculina newberryensis Puri, n. sp. -
GENUS Articulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------------.. .
SPECIES Articulina zuberensis Puri, n. sp. ---
GENUS Pyrgo Defrance, 1824 --------------
SPECIES Pyrgo cf. P. inornata (d'Orbigny)


FAMILY Lagenidae -------------------
SUBFAMILY Nodosariinae --------
GENUS Robulus Montfort, 1808 -------------
SPECIES Robulus alatolimbatus (Giimbel)
Robulus danvillensis (Howe and Wallace)
Robulus limbosus (Reuss) -----
Robulus gutticostatus (Giimbel)
Robulus arcuatostriatus (Hantken) --
Robulus cf. R. propinquus (Hantken) -
Robulus dumblei Weinzierl and Applin
GENUS Marginulina d'Orbigny, 1826
SPECIES Marginulina fragaria texasensis (Cushman
plin) --
Marginulina cf. M. karreriana Cushman
GENUS Dentalina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------
SPECIES Dentalina vertebralis albatrossi (Cushman)
Dentalina cooperensis Cushman ---
GENUS Nodosaria Lamarck, 1812 -------
SPECIES ?Nodosaria ewaldi Reuss
Nodosaria latejugata Gtimbel ----
Nodosaria fissicostata (Giimbel) ---
GENUS Saracenaria Defrance, 1824 -
SPECIES Saracenaria hantkeni Cushman ---
Saracenaria italica Defrance -----
Saracenaria moresiana Howe and Wallace
GENUS Lingulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------
SPECIES Lingulina ocalana Puri, n. sp. ---
SUBFAMILY Lageninae -------
GENUS Lagena Walker and Jacob, 1798 -----
SPECIES Lagena laevis (Montagu)
Lagena acuticosta Reuss
GENUS Planularia Defrance, 1824 --
SPECIES Planularia truncana (Gtimbel)

FAMILY Polymorphinidae -------------
SUBFAMILY Polymorphininae .................-------
GENUS Polymorphina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---------------
SPECIES Polymorphina sp. ..----------------------
GENUS Guttulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---------
SPECIES Guttulina irregularis (d'Orbigny) -----------
Guttulina spicaeformis (Roemer) --
GENUS Globulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------------
SPECIES Globulina gibba d'Orbigny -------
Globulina gibba globosa (Von Miinster) ----
GENUS Sigmomorphina Cushman and Ozawa, 1928 -
SPECIES Sigmomorphina jacksonensis (Cushman) .....

FAMILY Heterohelicidae ------.......
SUBFAMILY Plectofrondiculariinae ----------


--------------- 110
110
--- -- 110
S110
-- 110
110
110
-- 111
111
111
111
and Ap-
111
------ Ill---
112
112
112
-- 112
113
-- 113
-- 113
113
113
113
-- 114
114
-- 114
--- 114
115
-- 115
-- 115
-- 115
115
115

-- 116
116
---.- -- 116
- 116
116
----------- 116
.----. 116
----- 116
.-- 116
- 117
----- 117
--- ...... 117

118
.....---- 118




GENUS Plectofrondicularia Liebus, 1903 118
SPECIES Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp. 118

FAMILY Buliminidae -------- 118
SUBFAMILY Turrilininae ------- 118
GENUS Buliminella Cushman, 1911 118
SPECIES Buliminella sp. ------- 118
SUBFAMILY Bulimininae -__----- 118
GENUS Bulimina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------ 118
SPECIES Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman --- 118
SUBFAMILY Virgulininae -- ----119
GENUS Bolivina d'Orbigny, 1826 --- 119
SPECIES Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin -- 119
Bolivina advena Cushman 119
GENUS Bitubulogenerina Howe, 1934 119
SPECIES Bitubulogenerina vickburgensis Howe 119
SUBFAMILY Reussellinae ---- 119
GENUS Reussella Galloway, 1933 119
SPECIES Reussella eocena (Cushman) 119
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman) 120
SUBFAMILY Uvigerininae _-- ----- 120
GENUS Uvigerina d'Orbigny, 1826 120
SPECIES Uvigerina glabrans Cushman 120
Uvigerina jacksonensis Cushman 120
Uvigerina gardnerae Cushman --- 120
Uvigerina cf. U. cookei Cushman ---- --- 121
GENUS Trifarina Cushman, 1923- 121
SPECIES Trifarina bradyi advena Cushman 121
GENUS Angulogerina Cushman, 1927 121
SPECIES Angulogerina ocalana Cushman --- 121

FAMILY Cassidulinidae 121
GENUS Cassidulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ----- 121
SPECIES Cassidulina cf. C. moodyensis Cushman and Todd ---. 121

SUPERFAMILY Rotaliidea ------------ 122
FAMILY Rotaliidae ------ 122
SUBFAMILY Rotaliinae -------------- 122
GENUS Camagueyia Cole and Bermudez 122
GENUS Camagueyia Cole and Bermudez, 1944 --- 122
GENUS Rotalia Lamarck, 1804 ---------- 122
SPECIES Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan --- 122
SUBFAMILY Discorbisinae ----------- 122
GENUS Discorbis Lamarck, 1804 -------- 122
SPECIES Discorbis bulla Cushman 122
Discorbis ocalana Cushman ------- 123
GENUS Discorinopsis Cole, 1941 ---------- 123
SPECIES Discorinopsis gunteri Cole ------- 123
GENUS Mississippiana Howe, 1930 123
SPECIES Mississippiana monsouri Howe 123
GENUS Stomatorbina Dorreen, 1948 --------- 123
SPECIES Stomatorbina kendrickensis Puri, n. sp. --- 123
GENUS Vernonina Puri, n. gen. .---------- 124
SPECIES Vernonina tuberculata Puri, n. sp. 124
SUBFAMILY Valvulineriinae ---------- 124
GENUS Gyroidina d'Orbigny, 1826 -------- 124
SPECIES Gyroidina crystalriverensis Puri. n. sp. --- 124
Gyroidina nassauensis Cole 125
Gyroidina soldanii d'Orbigny ---- 125
Gyroidina springfieldensis Puri, n. sp. --- 125
GENUS Valvulineria Cushman, 1926 ---------------- 125
SPECIES Valvulineria texana Cushman and Ellisor -- 125
Valvulineria jacksonensis Cushman 125




GENUS Eponides Montfort, 1808 ......_--.---------------- 126
SPECIES Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin) ---- 126
Eponides ocalana Cushman -- 126
Eponides budensis planata Cushman ----- 126
Eponides cocoaensis Cushman 126

FAMILY Globorotaliidae -.---------------- 126
GENUS Cribrogloborotalia Cushman and Bermudez, 1936 ..---- 126
SPECIES Cribrogloborotalia marielina Cushman and Bermudez 126
GENUS Globorotalia Cushman, 1927 --------- 127
SPECIES Globorotalia crystariverensis Puri, n. sp. ---- 127
Globorotalia cocoaensis Cushman -----127

FAMILY Hantkeninidae ---127
GENUS Hantkenina Cushman, 1924 ------- 127
SPECIES Hantkenina alabamensis Cushman ------127

FAMILY Epistomininae .--128
GENUS Alabamina Toulmin, 1941 ---------128
SPECIES Alabamina obtusa (Burrows and Holland) --- 128
GENUS Epistomaria Galloway, 1933 -- _--- 128
SPECIES Epistomaria semimarginata (d'Orbigny) 128

FAMILY Cymbaloporidae ------------ 128
GENUS Fabiania A. Silvestri, 1926 --------128
SPECIES Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez) -- 128
SUBFAMILY Planulininae ----------------- 129
GENUS Planulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ----129
SPECIES Planulina cocoaensis Cushman ------129
Planulina kendrickensis Puri, n. sp. 129
SUBFAMILY Siphoninae ------ 129
GENUS Siphonina Reuss, 1850 ---------------------------- 129
SPECIES Siphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin --- -129

FAMILY Ceratobuliminidae ---......--...... ---------- ------ 180
SUBFAMILY Ceratobulimininae ....--- -------------------- 130
GENUS Lamarckina Berthelin, 1881 ------------ -------------- 130
SPECIES Lamarckina sp. ------------130

FAMILY Anomalinidae ........----- 130
SUBFAMILY Anomalininae -----------------------------. 130
GENUS Anomalina d'Orbigny, 1826 .... .... -------- -------- 130
SPECIES Anomalina bilateralis Cushman ------------------ 130
Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman ---.....-. .-- 130
SUBFAMILY Cibicidinae ---- 130
GENUS Cibicides Montfort, 1808 .....----------130
SPECIES Cibicides pseudoungerianus (Cushman) ----------- 130
Cibicides cf. C. yazooensis Cushman ......--------- 131
Cibicides cf. C. mississippiensis (Cushman) ----- 131
Cibicides cf. C. cooperensis Cushman _.._----------- 131
Cibicides mississippiensis ocalanus (Cushman) .... 131
GENUS Dyocibicides Cushman and Valentine, 1930 .-.....- 131
SPECIES Dyocibicides sp. ................-------------------------- 131

FAMILY Amphisteginidae ....... -----------------------. 132
GENUS Amphistegina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---------132
SPECIES Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan -- 132

FAMILY Nonionidae ........... .........------- 132
SUBFAMILY Nonioninae 132
GENUS Nonion Montfort, 1808 .... ........... .. 132
SPECIES Nonion advenum (Cushman) 132





Nonion planatum Cushman and Thomas -- 133
GENUS Nonionella Cushman, 1826 --------- 133
SPECIES Nonionella sp. ----------- 133

SUBFAMILY Elphidiinae -------- 133
GENUS Elphidium Montfort, 1808 133
SPECIES Elphidium sp. .. -------- 133

FAMILY Nummulitidae .------------ 133
GENUS Nummulites Lamarck, 1801 ---- 133
SPECIES Nummulites vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt 133
GENUS Operculina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------134
SPECIES Operculina mariannensis Vaughan ----- 134
GENUS Operculinoides Hanzawa, 1935 -------- 134
SPECIES Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman) ------ 134
Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin) ---- 134
Operculinoides moodybranchensis (Gravell and
Hanna) -.- ---- --- -- .- 135
Operculinoides vaughani (Cushman) ---- .. 135
Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) --- -- 135
Operculinoides jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna) -- -136
SUBFAMILY Heterostegininae -- ........... .. 136
GENUS Heterostegina d'Orbigny, 1826 .. ----- 136
SPECIES Heterostegina ocalana Cushman -- 136

FAMILY Lepidocyclinidae -------- -- 137
GENUS Lepidocyclina Giimbel, 1870 137
SPECIES Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman .---.- 137
Lepidocyclina ocalana floridana Cushman --- 137
Lepidocyclina ocalana attenuata Cushman --- 137
Lepidocyclina ocalana pseudomarginata Cushman ..- 138
Lepidocyclina mortoni Cushman --------- 138
SUBGENUS Nephrolepidina H. Douvill4, 1911 ---- 138
SPECIES Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi Lemoine and
R. Douvill -------------- 138
Lepidocyclina sp. -..---------------. 139

SUPERFAMILY Discocyclinidea .. ........---------------- 139
FAMILY Discocyclinidae ... -- --- 139
GENUS Pseudophragmina H. Douville, 1923 ------- 139
SUBGENUS Proporocyclina Vaughan and Cole, 1940 139
SPECIES Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) flintensis (Cush-
man) .....------------ -----.----- 139
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) floridana (Cush-
man) ......-- ---- ... .. --------... 139
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis
(Vaughan) 140
FAMILY Asterocyclinidae .. ------------------------ 140
GENUS Asterocyclina Guimbel, 1870 140
SPECIES Asterocyclina georgiana (Cushman) ..--- -- 140
Asterocyclina americana (Cushman) ..-- 140
Asterocyclina mariannensis (Cushman) 141
Asterocyclina chipolensis (Vaughan) 141
Asterocyclina vaughani (Cushman) ----- 141
Asterocyclina aff. A. nassauensis Cole --- 142
FAMILY Peneroplidae 1.... ---- ------- .. 142
SUBFAMILY Spirolininae .....- --.-.--....-- 112
GENUS Spirolina Lamarck, 1804 .-----. ---- 142
SPECIES Spirolina coryensis Cole --- -142
SUBFAMILY Archaiasinae -........... 142




GENUS Archaias Montfort, 1808 --
SPECIES Archaias withlacoochensis Puri, n. sp.

FAMILY Gypsininae
GENUS Sphaerogypsina Galloway, 1933 ---
SPECIES Sphaerogypsina globula (Reuss) --


FAMILY Planorbulinidae
GENUS Planorbulina d'Orbigny, 1826
SPECIES Planorbulina sp. ---
GENUS Linderina Schlumberger, 1893
SPECIES Linderina sp.


ILLUSTRATIONS


Plates


Tables
1 Stratigraphic distribution of the Foraminifera of the Ocala group




Part II

Description of Species


Family RUPERTIIDAE
Genus RUPERTIA Wallich, 1877
Rupertia floridana Cushman
Plate 8, figs. 7, 8; plate 12, fig. 8
Rupertia floridana Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr.,
vol. 9, p. 21, pl. 2, figs. 13, 14.
Rupertia floridana Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, p. 55, pl. 23, figs. 6, 7.
This attached, elongate, cylindrical form with inflated chambers
in a loose spiral can be easily identified by its large size, tapering
test with slightly depressed and distinct sutures and a multiple
aperture.
The typical specimen is figured on pl. 12, fig. 8. There are a
number of variations with this species, and some of the variants
are figured on pl. 8, figs. 7, 8.
This species is common in the Spiroloculina newberryensis and
the Asterocyclina faunizones of the Crystal River formation.
Doubtless, this species occurs throughout the Crystal River. Since
it occurs attached on the valves of mollusks and tests of larger
Foraminifera, it is difficult to spot in well cuttings.

Family TEXTULARIIDAE
Subfamily TEXTULARIINAE
Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824
Textularia adalta Cushman
Plate 1, figs. la, b
Textularia adalta Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr.,
vol. 2, p. 29, pl. 4, fig. 2.
Textularia adalta Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, p. 8, pl. 1, figs. 11, 12.
Textularia adalta Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32,
no. 131, p. 35, pl. 4, figs. 13a, b, 14a, b.
Textularia adalta Cushman. Todd, 1952, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 241,
p. 5, pl. 1, fig. 6.
This species can easily be identified by its elongate, slender,
tapering and compressed form with 5 or 6 chambers making up
more than half of the test. The periphery is subacute except in
the last few chambers where it is subrounded.




100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

This species occurs throughout the Ocala group but is more
abundant in the Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone of the Crys-
tal River formation.

Textularia recta Cushman
Plate 1, figs. 2a, b
Textularia recta Cushman, 1923, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, p. 17,
pl. 1, fig. 2.
Textularia recta Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, pp. 7, 8, pi. 1, figs. 8, 9.
This species can be easily identified by its elongate, slightly
compressed test, which in its early portion increases rapidly but
in the later portion increases slowly. This causes the adult to show
parallel sides.
This species occurs throughout the Ocala group, but is abun-
dant in the Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone of the Crystal
River formation.

Textularia ocalana Cushman
Plate 1, figs. 3a, b; plate 2, fig. 1
Textularia ocalana Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr.,
vol. 2, p. 30, pl. 4, figs. 3a, b.
Textularia ocalana Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, p. 7, pl. 1, figs. 7a, b.
This species could be easily identified by its small, compressed,
nearly flat test with few, uninflated chambers with slightly de-
pressed sutures.
This species has only been noticed in the Spiroloculina new-
berryensis faunizone of the Crystal River and Inglis formations
where it occasionally occurs at most locations.

Textularia howei Puri, n. sp.
Plate 1, fig. 4
Test small, average size 0.7 mm., short, broad, slightly com-
pressed; periphery rounded, initial end acute, apertural end broad.
Chambers few, distinct, increasing in height and breadth as added,
with early portion of the test triangular, later two chambers as
high as wide, making up half of the test. Sutures distinct, curved,
depressed. Aperture arched, at the inner margin of the last
formed chamber. Average height 0.7 mm.; breadth 0.5 mm.
Named in honor of Dr. Henry V. Howe, Louisiana State Uni-
versity.
This species could easily be identified from the rest of the Gulf
coast species by its short, broad test. T. dibollensis Cushman and