Biennial report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher:
The Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2006
Frequency:
biennial
regular
Edition:
2005-2006[24th report]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltuf - AJG7269
oclc - 22342552
alephbibnum - 001754280
lccn - sn 90001622
issn - 1052-6536
System ID:
UF00000224:00010

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Preceded by:
Biennial report


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
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        Page 6
        Page 7
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Full Text






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Cover: The Gunter Building, housing the main offices of the Florida Geological Survey, on
the campus of the Florida State University in Tallahassee (photo by Frank Rupert).









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Michael W. Sole, Secretary


LAND AND RECREATION
Robert G. Ballard, Deputy Secretary

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Director


BIENNIAL REPORT 24
2005 2006

By

Ron Hoenstine, P.G. #57


Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
2009




























































ISSN 1052-6536




I I









PREFACE


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida






The Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geological Survey
(FGS), is publishing Biennial Report 24, prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This
report summarizes the activities of the FGS staff during the two-year period January 1,
2005 through December 31, 2006. Research results are reported in the Survey's various
publication series, professional journals, presentations, and contract deliverables. Reports
for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other activi-
ties of the FGS.










Walt Schmidt, Ph.D, P.G.
State Geologist andDirector,
Florida Geological Survey










CONTENTS

Page

Foreword ...................................... .......................... 1
Introduction ...................................... .......................3
Research facilities ......................................... ..........3
FGS warehouse facilities .................................... .......... 3
This Biennial Report .................................................4
FGS organizational structure ................................................ .5
Office of the State Geologist ........................................... 5
Administrative and Geological Data Management Section .................... 7
Geological Data Management Program ................. ........... 7
Geographic Informational Systems ........................... .7
FGS W ells database ...................................... 8
Web technologies ..........................................8
Inform ation technologies ................................... .9
Education and Outreach Program ................................. .9
E explore Florida! .........................................9
O outreach events ........................................ 10
Research Library ................................................... 12
Library services .................................... .. .........12
Library computer services ...................................... 12
Publications distribution ...................................... .12
National Geologic M ap Database ................................. 12
Geological Investigations Section ..................................... .13
Coastal Research Program ................. ....... ............ 14
On-going coastal projects ................................. 14
Sedimentation Elevation Table project ................ .14
Cooperative coastal projects ............................... 14
Offshore sand investigation .......................... 14
Mapping portions of the Big Bend Seagrasses
Aquatic Preserve .................................15
Scallop research project ............................. 16
FGS and Florida State University
St. Vincent Island study .......................... 16
Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium ..... .17
Geologic Data Acquisition Program ............................... 17
On-going geologic Data Acquisition Projects ................... 17
Cooperative Geologic data acquisition projects ................. 18
Southeast Sprayfield investigation ................... .18
Woodville recharge basin aquifer protection study
Mangel's Farm core and monitor well ................ 18
Radar Hill core .....................................18
South Florida Water Management District
Cooperative Program ............................. 19
M ineral Resources Program ..................................... 19
Phosphate ................................... ........... 19
Stone (A ggregate) ....................................... 19










Sand and Gravel ........................................ 19
H eavy M inerals ......................................... 19
Peat .................................................. 20
Clay ........................................ .......... 20
STATEMAP Program ................... ......................20
Hydrogeology Section ................... ................... ...... .21
Hydrology Research Program .................................... 21
FGS hydrogeology projects ............................... .21
Geochemical modeling of arsenic mobilization during
storage and recovery ............................. 21
Aquifer storage and recovery studies ................... 21
Evaluation of temporal trends in the groundwater
quality of springs and wells of Florida .............. .22
Fanning Springs .................................. 23
Offshore springs research ........................... 23
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Phase II ...... .24
Geochemical characterization of potential aquifer storage
and recovery zones in the Floridan aquifer system, as part
of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan ..... 24
Florida aquifer storage and recovery geochemical study .... 25
Southwest Florida hydrologic framework mapping project .26
Cooperative hydrogeology projects ......................... .26
Tracing studies and instrumentation (metering) of the
W akulla springshed .............................. 27
In-situ measurement of water flow and quality in
W akulla Springs .............................. 28
Expansion of the cave metering network ................ 29
The Woodville Karst Plain modeling efforts ............. .29


Florida cave database .............................
Statistical analysis of data .........................
Studies for the purpose of hydrologic characterization of
karstic watersheds .............................
Estimating ground water discharges to surface
waters via radon tracing .........................
Using geophysical techniques to locate caves and
conduits in the Woodville Karst Plain ...............
Scientific basis of resistivity imaging .................


O il and G as Section ........................................
Regulatory Program ..................................
Drilling and production ...............................
Drilling in north Florida .........................
Geophysical exploration ...............................
Oil and Gas Plugging Program .........................
Equipm ent acquisition ...........................................
Alpha spectrom eter ........................................
Spectrophotom eter .........................................
Publications ...................................................
F G S publications ..........................................
Biennial R report .....................................


.30

.30

.31
.33


.........34
....... .34
.........34
......... 34
......... 35
......... 35
......... 37
......... 37
......... 37
.........38
.........38
......... 38










Florida Geology Forum ...........
Open File Map Series ............
Reports of Investigations .........
Poster ...........
Special Publications .............
Miscellaneous Reports ...........
Papers by staff in outside publications ....
Presentations and other professional activities ...
Presentations .......................
Field Trips ..........................
M meetings ...........................
T rainin g ............................
Booths and displays (FGS staff) .........
Personnel information ......................
Personnel changes ....................
Full time employees .............
Other Personal Services employees .
Full time employees ..................
Research associates and assistants .......
Outside research associates .............
FGS Awards Program .......................
FGS awards for 2005 ..................
FGS awards for 2006 ..................
Outside awards ......................


In Memoriam


Agencies contributing to the Grants and Donations Trust Fund through
cooperative contracts with the FGS .......................
FGS budget sum m ary ........................................


. . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . : ::






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FORWARD
by
Walt Schmidt
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey


The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
has been active and productive during 2005
and 2006. In 2005, we continued our water-
quality sampling and discharge monitoring
of many of Florida's springs. This ongoing
program is intended to compile data for
long-term trend analyses to provide a bet-
ter understanding of our groundwater and
springs systems. Also, related to this
aquifer conservation effort, is the field
mapping of swallets (stream to sink fea-
tures). This project is designed to produce
a database of swallets that can be convert-
ed to map coverage to assist state and local
agencies in making land-use decisions to
protect and conserve our aquifers and
groundwater resources. Also, in early
2005, the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA) study was completed
and submitted to the Department of
Environmental Protection's (DEP) Division
of Water Resource Management and sam-
pling and analysis began for the
Geochemical Analysis of Potential Aquifer
Storage and Recovery (ASR) Storage Zones
in the Floridan Aquifer System,
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Plan, which is a cooperatively funded proj-
ect by the FGS and the South Florida
Water Management District. Another ASR
geochemistry research project was complet-
ed in partnership with the St. Johns River
Water Management District. Several other
hydrogeology projects were outsourced to
universities and the private sector. These
included: Quantitative groundwater trac-
ing in the Woodville Karst Plain, field cali-
bration and validation of a groundwater
flow model, field-testing the utility and res-
olution of selected geophysical methods,
such as microgravity and electrical resistiv-
ity, in locating cavities and conduits, con-


tinued development of the Florida Cave
Database, and the online map-based cur-
riculum "Explore Florida."

The FGS again was awarded coopera-
tive STATEMAP funding from the National
Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program
(NCGMP). This jointly funded program
(FGS and NCGMP) provided support to
map the eastern portion of the 1: 100,000
Gainesville Quadrangle and the western
portion of the 1: 100,000 Lake City
Quadrangle, both in north-central Florida.
The Florida Geological Mapping Advisory
Committee meets each fall to review
progress and to recommend prioritized
areas for upcoming proposals.

In June, 2005, the FGS took delivery of
our new Schramm T450MIIA core drilling
rig. This rig allows for a total coring depth
of 2,500 feet, more than doubling the total
coring depth of the previous drill rig.

Our Coastal Research Program com-
pleted an investigation funded jointly by
the FGS and the Coastal and Aquatic
Managed Areas office of DEP, mapping bot-
tom features, bathymetric measurements,
and identification of bottom sediments and
characterization of subsurface stratigraphy
within a twenty-five square mile area of the
Apalachee Bay. This program also contin-
ued our cooperative partnership with the
U.S. Minerals Management Service and the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in studying
the potential sand resources for beach
renourishment off Florida's northeast
shore. Early 2005 also saw the release of a
new sea-level rise publication titled: High
Resolution Sea-Level History for the Gulf of
Mexico since the Last Glacial Maximum.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


The Oil and Gas Section, in 2005, ter-
minated a three year program to conduct
plugging operations on selected abandoned
oil and gas wells throughout the state.
These wells were generally drilled before
the state's formal regulatory system of per-
mitting and inspection was in place. Also
in that year, prolonged litigation came to
an end with the $12.5 million state buyout
of Coastal Petroleum's offshore mineral
rights in state waters.

In 2006, we neared completion of a
manual Designing Monitoring Programs to
Measure Changes and Evaluate
Environmental Management Outcomes.
This is a cooperative effort between the
FGS and the DEP's Division of Water
Resources Management. A new Online
Photo Archive was completed, which is a
new service to allow the public to access
various geologic-oriented photographs. The
photo categories are organized into picture
folders containing many geologically signif-
icant images including formations, caves,
geomorphology, old maps, fossils, rocks and
minerals, sinkholes and other karst fea-
tures, springs and geologists. New photo-
graphs will be continually added to these
archives and captions will be prepared for
each photo as the ongoing project contin-
ues. This is but a small fraction of the
activities and projects the staff of the


Florida Geological Survey has been
involved in these last two years. Details on
these and many other projects can be found
on the following pages.

A Personal Note:

During the fall of 2005, I learned that I
had failing kidneys. I was in and out of the
hospital several times. Finally in March of
2006, I was placed on dialysis. I continued
to work while on dialysis through
November but it was a struggle while I had
little strength or stamina. On November
28th, 2006, I received a kidney transplant
from my son David. So far so good, we are
both doing well and I am back to work full-
time. I mention this because I wish to
thank the staff of the Florida Geological
Survey for their support, dedication, and
dependability during that time. They car-
ried on without missing a beat, met their
project deliverable deadlines, complied
with all Department requests, and overall
kept the FGS running smoothly. I thank
them for their high level of professionalism
and friendship. My wife Cheryl, son David,
and daughter Amber, all appreciate the
way everyone pitched in and "just did what
had to be done." I thank them all. I'm glad
to be a part of the FGS Family. It's great to
be able to get up each day and come to work
and get older!






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION


The Florida Geological Survey's (FGS)
Main Office is located on the campus of the
Florida State University (FSU) in the
Herman W. Gunter Building, adjacent to
the university's Department of Geological
Sciences. The FGS's Oil and Gas Section
and Geological Data Acquisition Program
are colocated in office space in the



lIic ,-
Ilu0 1;


FGS Main Office, Gunter Building, FSU
Campus, Tallahassee, FL (photo by Tom Scott).

Department of Environmental Protection's
(DEP) Warehouse on Commonwealth
Boulevard. The FGS has a staff of 65 40
permanent full-time and 25 part-time OPS
employees.

Research Facilities

FGS research facilities include a geo-
logical research library, sample reposito-
ries, and laboratories. The library contains
an extensive collection of state and federal
publications, periodicals, and reference
works. The sample repositories hold cores
and well cutting samples from more than
18,000 wells (both onshore and offshore), as
well as more than 5,000 outcrop samples.

The laboratory facilities at the Gunter
Building include a permeability lab
equipped with 44 falling-head permeame-
ters; a sedimentology lab containing dia-
mond-blade rock-saws, drill press corer,
and core saw for core processing, sieve


shakers, ovens, and balances; sample
preparation equipment for clay mineralogy,
organic/carbonate content and micro/nan-
nofossil studies; and an alpha spectrome-
ter.

A Hydrogeochemistry Lab and scan-
ning electron microscope (SEM) laboratory
have been set up at the Warehouse. New
equipment includes an alpha spectrometer
and a radio-isotope fume hood, a Mega Pure
3A Water Still, and a Jeol JXA-840A SEM
and microprobe.

Field equipment includes a trailer-
mounted auger rig, a truck-mounted
Failing 1500 drill rig for continuous coring,
a truck-mounted Mobile Drill and CME
auger/core rigs with wire-line coring capa-
bility (Schramm T450MIIA), various pick-
up trucks and four-wheel drive vehicles,
two research vessels and six smaller boats
used for inland and marine research proj-
ects. In addition, the FGS has a Marine
Sonic side scan sonar system, a Geopulse
subsurface acoustic profiler, a vibracore
sediment collection system, a jet probe and
a number of water chemistry data loggers,
GPS units and sediment core and grab
sampling devices.

The FGS has a mobile "GeoLab". The
GeoLab is an aluminum step-van that has
been outfitted for mobile field and simple
laboratory work and can also be used for
educational demonstrations at environ-
mental fairs and schools. The FGS also has
cooperative agreements with FSU's
Department of Geological Sciences to share
an X-ray Diffractometer, an x-ray fluores-
cence spectrometer, and an atomic absorp-
tion spectrometer.

FGS Warehouse Facility

The Geological Data Acquisition
Program staff is located in offices in the






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Warehouse and Core Storage Facility locat-
ed behind the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Annex,
across the street from the FDEP Douglas
Building located just off of Capitol Circle
Northwest in Tallahassee.

This Biennial Report

Biennial reports have been historically
compiled by the FGS to chronicle its legacy
and inform the public as to its activities.
They also serve to insure accountability of
FGS activities to Florida government and
the public pursuant to FGS mission goals
prescribed by Chapter 377, Florida
Statutes.

Following this introduction, eleven sec-
tions provide information about our pro-
gram is provided in the following order. The
general organization of the FGS is
described in FGS ORGANIZATIONAL
STRUCTURE.

Work conducted by the FGS either on
its own or in conjunction with other agen-
cies in the past two calendar years is chron-
icled by individual FGS Sections. The four
sections are the: ADMINISTRATIVE AND
GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT,
GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS,
HYDROGEOLOGY and OIL AND GAS.


Next, SPECIAL PROJECTS describes
those projects which were not anticipated,
but were important enough to garner spe-
cial attention.

FGS scientists strive to maintain state-
of-the-art status regarding field support
and measurement and laboratory analyti-
cal equipment; new additions during the
biennial period are described in EQUIP-
MENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION.

Florida Statute 377.075 is specific con-
cerning FGS mandating the dissemination
of geologic information from investigations
in published products. These are listed and
abstracted in the PUBLICATIONS section.

In addition to published products, the
FGS is involved in in-house and outside
activities described in the PRESENTA-
TIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL
ACTIVITIES section.

The PERSONNEL INFORMATION
section chronicles personnel changes dur-
ing the past two-year period, and provides
short biographies of FGS personnel.
Accolades received by our staff or the FGS
are described in the AWARDS section.

Finally, a one-page tabulated represen-
tation of FGS funding is provided in the
FGS BUDGET SUMMARY.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE


OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST

The State Geologist carries a three-fold
responsibility: Chief of the Survey, State
Geologist, and Administrator of Oil and
Gas exploration and production operations
throughout the State. The Chief is respon-
sible for general program leadership, direc-
tion, and management authority in plan-
ning, scheduling and executing the pro-
grams of the Survey. As State Geologist, he
is the point of contact representing the
State of Florida on geoscience inquiries
from elected and appointed officials, gov-
ernment agencies, industry, mining compa-
nies, oil and gas companies, geologic and
hydrogeologic consultants, environmental
consultants, academia, land and mineral
owners, educators, students, and the pub-
lic. The responsibilities of the State
Geologist and the duties of the Florida
Geological Survey have been defined by the
Florida Legislature and are generally listed
in Section 377.075, Florida Statutes. With
this guidance and policy input from the
Department of Environmental Protection,
the FGS has a broad mission. It is
described in the Florida Statute 377.075 as
follows:

The mission of the FGS is two fold:
First: to collect, interpret, disseminate, store
and maintain geologic and earth science
data, thereby contributing to the responsible
use and understanding of Florida's natural
resources; and Second: to conserve the State
of Florida's oil and gas resources and mini-
mize environmental impacts from explo-
ration and production operations through
regulatory oversight using permits and
inspections.


Ur. Waiter "Walt" achmldt, state Uteologist and
Chief, Florida Geological Survey
(photo by Harley Means)
The FGS is presently organized into
four sections which are administered by the
State Geologist as Chief of the Survey. This
is shown in the organizational chart on the
following page. The sections include: the
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, the Geological
Investigations Section, the Hydrogeology
Section, and the Oil and Gas Section. Each
of these sections is managed by a Section
Administrator. In addition to the overall
administration of the FGS, the primary
responsibilities of the State Geologist
include the historical functions of acting as
the chief geoscientist for the State in vari-
ous capacities and needs, and overseeing
the overall production and quality of the
geological research produced by the staff.
The State Geologist is also ultimately
responsible for implementing the State's oil
and gas exploration and production regula-
tions.
















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
AS OF DECEMBER 2006


isigadons

Gtratokil Cosal R ch

Gaolokical Data Coastal Research


FTE I

Note that (P) Indicates part time in a particular posllion. A few of our OPS
OPS (P): PART TIME employees serve in multiple positions and, although they are part-time In
each particular potion, they may be equivalent to fulltime overall.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL
DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION

The Survey's Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section
includes the Administrative Secretary to
the State Geologist, administrative support
staff, the building Custodian, the Survey
Librarian, the FGS Network
Administrator, the Geological Mapping and
Analysis Staff, and the Environmental
Geology and Educational Outreach staff.

This section is responsible for adminis-
tration (budget, department and intera-
gency liaison, etc.) and personnel manage-
ment (travel, leave, benefits, etc.), Gunter
Building maintenance and repair, comput-
er system management and network
administration, and contract and grant
tracking. This group's functions also
include graphics design, geological map-
ping and map interpretation through geo-
graphic informational systems (GIS) and
computer assisted drafting (CAD) analysis,
geological research library services, publi-
cation production and distribution, geologi-
cal education and public outreach, and
environmental geology research.

GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT
PROGRAM

Geographic Information Systems

The Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) capability of the FGS consists of a
full-time GIS Analyst, a CAD analyst, a
general support group who contribute to
specific projects, and the support of the
Bureau of Information Systems (BIS)/GIS
division. Tasks undertaken by the GIS ana-
lyst include: assistance in map production,
development of GIS applications, imagery
manipulation support, and technical sup-
port to all users of GIS software (ESRI
ArcView 3.2a, ArcGIS 9.x, ESRI
Extensions, ERDAS Imagine and Surfer.)
Other tasks include software evaluation,


Jacqueline "Jackie" M. Lloyd, Assistant State
Geologist for Administrative and Geological
Data Management (photo by Harley Means).


development and maintenance of GIS data
on the FGS and DEP Intranet, installation
and maintenance of GIS software, scan-
ning, digitizing, map series production and
maintenance, image processing, interactive
web-based map development and mainte-
nance and development of GIS databases
and tools through programming languages
such as Avenue and Visual Basic.

A GIS-user needs assessment was com-
pleted during the 2005-2006 biennium. In
addition, GIS assistance was provided for
revision of Florida Oil and Gas maps, revi-
sion of the FGS GIS data library directory,
statewide hydrostratigraphic cross-section
design, Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
overlay and geomorphic mapping of
Suwannee River Water Management
District, springshed and swallet mapping,
and Apalachee Bay offshore bottom profil-
ing and mapping.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


FGS Wells Database

The precursor to the current FGS
Wells database dates back to the 1970's
with basic well data, formation picks and
lithologic descriptions coded and entered in
data files stored on the Florida State
University main frame computer.
Decoding routines were written in FOR-
TRAN. A later incarnation used the same
coding system but with "updated" BASIC
programs for data entry and decoding for
printing. These BASIC programs are still
in wide use by the Florida geologic commu-
nity but are limited in flexibility, querying,
reporting, and quality control. These
issues were initially addressed by updating
the database and its associated programs
into Access; this version of the FGS Wells
database was initially designed by a con-
tracted company. This version combined
the well cuttings and core records, includ-
ing sample depth and interval information,
basic location information and casing infor-
mation into one location.

In 2005, an OPS database designer was
hired to begin construction of a new front
end to the database and determine the best
direction for the new database. It was
decided to further upgrade the database to
Oracle in 2006. This would allow more
information, including the lithologic
descriptions, to be connected to the data-
base. It would also allow users to connect
the database to GIS applications and other
software including Hydro Geo-Analyst
which was purchased in the spring of 2006.
In the fall of 2006, this role was expanded
to include a second OPS employee.

Tasks for the database designers
included creating a front end where data
entry could be done directly into the data-
base. This would allow new entries to be
created as samples are processed and given
well numbers. Other tasks included pro-
cessing requests for information. This
included in-house and outside requests for


data about the FGS's sample collection.
Monthly meetings were held to discuss
data processing needs and what changes
would take place in the new database.
These included methods for cleaning data
and verifying information and determining
what sources of information would be com-
bined in the new database.

Major achievements of the database
project included the development of a data
entry interface. This interface prevents
duplicate entries and saves data to tempo-
rary tables that can be verified before com-
mitment to the master files. A backup
regime for the data housed in the database
was also designed. There is a weekly back-
up of the database on a separate server
located across town on the FGS server
housed with BIS. Standard queries were
also designed that allow users to search for
well information in a desired geographical
area by entering a Lat/Long or TRS range.

Web Technologies

The web capabilities of the FGS consist
of a full-time web master, who maintains,
enhances and adds to the FGS Internet and
Intranet web sites. All content on both sites
are supplied to the web master by full-time
and OPS employees of the FGS. These web
sites are part of the larger DEP website
which is made up of all websites main-
tained by the Department's Bureaus and
Divisions. The goal of the FGS webpage is
to present available geoscience information
to the citizens of the state of Florida. The
goal of the FGS Intranet is to supply forms,
graphics, library resources and helpful
information to FGS and DEP employees.

Tasks undertaken by the webmaster
included: preparation of information into
web pages for the Internet and Intranet in
compliance with the American with
Disabilities Act (ADA) section 508 require-
ments and DEP web standards, develop-
ment of websites presenting geoscience






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


information for CD's and DVD's and burn-
ing and label printing of CD's and DVD's
intended for mass distribution. Graphics
for websites, poster presentations and
CD/DVD labels are also developed.

Other major accomplishments during
the time period of January 1, 2005 to
December 31, 2006 included: additions to
the web page consisting of Uranium Isotope
Applications, Geologic Hazards, and
Hydrogeology Section information. The 4th
Annual Hydrogeology Consortium
Workshop, FGS Special Publication
Number 58, was published on CD and at
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geologv/pro-
grams/hydrogeology/hydrowkshp/index.htm

Information Technologies

Through July 2005, the information
technologies (IT) staffing of the FGS includ-
ed a full-time Systems Programmer and an
OPS automation specialist, supplemented
by assistance from Business and
Information Systems (BIS). The OPS posi-
tion was eliminated after July 2005 due to
increased demands on OPS staffing caused
by various FTE vacancies and hiring
freezes. Computer hardware and software
issues are addressed by the systems pro-
grammer. FGS primarily uses Microsoft
operating systems in conjunction with
Office utilities from Microsoft. Two small
database servers are maintained on site;
two primary network servers are main-
tained by BIS at a centralized site.

Tasks undertaken by IT include:
installation of newly acquired software,
maintenance and upgrading of all FGS
computer hardware systems including
installation of new devices, maintenance of
networked computer systems capabilities
and peripheral devices, and support for
FGS on-site servers.


Major IT accomplishments from
January 1, 2005 through December 31,
2006 include acquisition of a new server
and tape backup system and, in cooperation
with BIS, the move of the two main servers
to the centralized location. All computer
systems are protected from virus attacks by
McAfee Enterprise virus scan and are
updated automatically. In cooperation
with BIS, operating systems in use by the
FGS are setup to receive new updates that
have been tested by BIS and corresponding
IT technical representatives by the SUS
(Software Update Service) server. All data
generated by the FGS is now backed up in
house on a Certance DAT 72 Autoloader.
Backup strategies and contingency plans
are in compliance with BIS backup stan-
dards and retention schedules.

EDUCATION AND OUTREACH
PROGRAM

Explore Florida!

During the late 1990's, the FGS assist-
ed Clemson University in development of
Southeastern Maps and Aerial
Photographic Systems (SE MAPS). This
National Science Foundation-funded inter-
disciplinary science curriculum project is
centered on hands-on use of satellite and
airborne imagery, aerial photography, topo-
graphic maps, and other special-purpose
cartographic products (e.g., anaglyph
maps). With classroom activities focusing
on Florida and seven other southeastern
states, these materials allow middle and
high school students to visualize geologic
relationships and relate them to other dis-
ciplines, including mathematics, history,
social science and language arts. Student
and teacher manuals contain site-specific
background information and sets of 'hands-
on' and 'minds-on' interdisciplinary activi-
ties keyed to the national and state science
standards.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


During 2005 and 2006, the FGS
worked with the Florida Resources and
Environmental Analysis Center (FREAC)
to convert the Florida activities in SE
MAPS to an Internet-based resource for
Florida students and educators called
"Explore Florida!" The purpose of the
"Explore Florida!" project is to develop edu-
cational materials using maps and aerial
photographs as base materials for lesson
plans dealing with geology and earth sci-
ence. Another goal is to encourage the inte-
gration of science, math, language arts, and
history into the curriculum. Three
sites/units have been developed: the
Woodville Karst Plain, the Central
Peninsula, and South Florida. For each
site, map and photo sheets as well as
detailed lesson materials were developed.
Unlike the SEMAPS model originally fund-
ed by NSF, "Explore Florida!", funded by
the FGS, has been designed to be delivered
via the Internet rather than in hard copy
thus offering easier access to users. A unit
on map use has also been developed. It
should be noted that due to limited
resources this project is currently on hold.

Outreach Events

In both 2005 and 2006, the FGS held
its annual Open House celebrating Earth
Science Week at the Gunter Building.
Earth Science Week is celebrated national-
ly during the second week of October. The
weather was perfect on Friday, October 14,
2005 when the Florida Geological Survey
held its annual Open House celebrating
Earth Science Week. The new Schramm
drill rig acquired by the FGS in June 2005
was prominently displayed on the front
lawn of the Gunter Building. Drilling oper-
ations staff Craig Berninger, Ken
Campbell, and Eric Harrington explained
features of the rig, which has a coring depth
of 2500 feet. Core obtained in a current
drilling operation was displayed on the


porch so that participants could get a first-
hand look at the rocks that supply water in
our area in keeping with the year's nation-
al theme "Geoscientists Explore our Earth".
Our mobile GEOLAB was open for visitors
in the back parking lot. The event ran from
10:00 am to 5:00 pm and we welcomed over
100 guests.

We were joined by Gary L. Mahon of
the United States Geological Survey who
demonstrated how water enters and flows
through aquifers as well as how it becomes
polluted using a ground-water model. Greg
Ira and Jenny Dambek of Department of
Environmental Protection's Office of
Environmental Education introduced stu-
dents and scouts to the use of Global
Positioning System units in an outdoors
hands-on activity. FGS staff geologists led
indoor activities that included coloring and
experimentation with the making of fossil
molds for our youngest guests, fossil identi-
fication, carbonate dissolution experi-
ments, and the examination of samples of
rocks commonly found in Florida as well as
igneous and metamorphic rocks using
binocular microscopes.

On Friday, October 13, 2006 the
Florida Geological Survey celebrated Earth
Science Week with its annual Open House.
Recognizing the importance of the earth
sciences, then Governor Jeb Bush joined
states across the nation in proclaiming
October 8-14 Earth Science Week. Earth
Science Week is organized by the American
Geological Institute to promote public
awareness of the earth sciences and stew-
ardship of the earth. FGS staff Cindy
Fischler, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means,
Carolyn Stringer, Brie Coane and Paulette
Bond guided our guests through a variety
of interactive activities.

Members of the home-schooling com-
munity were our special guests at this
event. In keeping with this year's theme
"Be a Citizen Scientist" Katherine Gilbert,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


a representative from the organization
Frog Watch, and an employee of
Department of Environmental Protection,
joined us to explain the organization's work
in documenting frog populations around
the country. The United States Geological
Survey sent a team of volunteers who used
an aquifer model to explain groundwater
movement and pollution. Rick Copeland of
the FGS introduced our guests to Florida
Lake Watch.

The FGS conference room was set up
with binocular microscopes and samples of
rocks from Florida as well as igneous and
metamorphic rocks from elsewhere. A
truck-mounted auger rig on the lawn along
with core samples allowed guests to view
the rocks beneath the surface in our area
and gain an understanding of how they are
obtained. Our youngest visitors worked on
coloring sheets that showed some of
Florida's fossil mammals. They also experi-
mented with one way that fossils are
formed using Play Dough.

In both 2005 and 2006 two of our most
popular events were our Scout Nights, held
during Earth Science Week, which present-
ed activities specifically designed to assist
Webelos Scouts in completing their geology
badges. These evening events offered tours
of the Gunter Building and its labs for
scouts, leaders and parents. Small collec-
tions of Florida rocks and minerals were
provided to scouts along with discussions of
their uses and properties. Lastly, the mak-
ing of volcanoes and mountains were dis-
cussed and scouts had opportunities to
illustrate the processes and examine rocks
from those environments.

The FGS also supported Education and
Outreach Programs of the DEP Office of
Environmental Education with its partici-
pation in Earth Day at the Capitol held in
April both in 2005 and 2006. The 2005
theme was entitled Getting Down to
Business. FGS staff directed students in


interactive activities, discussed Survey pro-
grams with guests, and handed out select-
ed publications to interested participants.
In 2006 the theme was entitled Water is
Life. The FGS brought its mobile GEOLAB
and presented an activity for students
designed to acquaint them with various
rock types that make up aquifer systems in
Florida. In keeping with the theme of the
event the FGS distributed posters related
to geology and spring protection issues.
Staff from the FGS Coastal Research
Program participated in Ocean Day also
held at the Capitol in 2005 and 2006.

The FGS continued its support for the
Wakulla Wildlife Festival in 2005 and
2006. In keeping with the event's focus on
conservation of Florida's environment and
its wildlife, the FGS exhibit focused on
Florida's springs and their protection in
2005. FGS staff members distributed
posters and discussed the hydrogeology of
Wakulla Springs and explained how knowl-
edge of the area's hydrogeology is essential
to protection of the springs.

As the FGS Education and Outreach
program has expanded, FGS staff geolo-
gists have participated in the DEP Office of
Environmental Education's Environmental
Education Festival at the Lawrence-
Gregory Community Center in Tallahassee.
An FGS staff geologist mentored a Florida
State University student as part of the uni-
versity's Service Learning Project. Staff
geologists provided judges for a number of
local science fairs and have presented talks
on various aspects of Florida's geology and
hydrogeology at the request of local teach-
ers. Geologists have directed activities at
science enrichment events at local public
and private schools. Staff have presented
talks at the Marion County Springs
Festival and participated in the 2006 mem-
bership drive reception for the Leon
Association of Science Teachers. The
Education and Outreach Program also
attempts to arrange for geologists to speak
to classes in far flung areas of the state






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


when requests are received by phone or e-
mail.

RESEARCH LIBRARY

The FGS Research Library is an inte-
gral part of the Survey's research and regu-
latory programs; it had over 1000 volumes
as of the First Annual Report of E.H.
Sellards in 1908. Today, it has more than
32,000 volumes. In support of the informa-
tion needs of staff, students, and
researchers, the Library provides access to
books, periodicals, maps, state and federal
documents, technical reports, and photo-
graphs (historic & aerial). It also houses
the Archives of the Florida Sinkhole
Research Institute.

Library Services

The Research Library is primarily a
scientific special library supporting the
research of geologists, but it is open for use
by the general public, students and faculty,
other government agencies, and private
consulting companies. While circulation is
restricted to Survey staff, library materials
are available to libraries throughout the
world via the Interlibrary Loan system.
The Library is a member of the Panhandle
Library Access Network (PLAN) which pro-
vides access to the Online Computer
Library Center (OCLC) computer network
for cataloging and Interlibrary Loan.

Library Computer Services

The "parent library" of the Research
Library, the State Library of Florida, pro-
vides access to the GeoRef database and
more than 25 other bibliographic databases
including some with full text articles.
Internet access is available to patrons of
the Research Library as well as an online
catalog of holdings and two flatbed scanner
workstations. The library continues its out-
reach relationship with Leon County
Schools, providing job training for local
area high school students with special
needs. The students digitize an extensive


collection of older, hard-copy lithologic well
logs.

Publications Distribution

The library is responsible for maintain-
ing detailed information on the Survey's
800+ published documents and reports and
sells those publications which are still in
print. Over the two calendar years of 2005-
2006, publication sales consisted of 687
orders for 4507 items.

An online List of Publications at
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publica-
tions/listofpubs.htm gives a description of
each publication, its price, and a link to its
online version if available. A Publication
Order Form with ordering instructions can
be found with it. The University of Florida
has scanned and digitized about 60% of the
Survey's publications at its PALMM web-
site http://palmm.fcla.edu/fgs/ or at its UF
Digital Collections (UFDC) website
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?=FGS or at
its Aquatic Commons website http://aqua-
comm.fcla.edu/. A Gift and Exchange
depository program enables Survey publi-
cations to be distributed to more than 130
libraries throughout Florida, the U.S., and
around the world.

National Geologic Map Database

During 2005-2006, the Florida
Geological Survey Research Library contin-
ued inputting newly published STATEMAP
program products into the National
Geologic Map Database (NGMD). This
project is sponsored by the U.S. Geological
Survey's National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Program in cooperation with the
Association of American State Geologists.
The goal of the project is to establish a
database of all national and state produced
geologic maps, both paper and digital, and
to provide keyword and geographic search-
ing capabilities. The National Geologic Map
Database may be accessed at
http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
SECTION

The Geological Investigations Section
is comprised of the Coastal Research
Program, the Geologic Data Acquisition
Program, the Mineral Resources Program,
the Springs Initiative Program (created in
2001), the STATEMAP Program and the
Water Management District Cooperative
Program. The Geological Investigations
Section conducts research projects covering
a wide range of topics with section scien-
tists being involved in many basic and
applied research projects. The projects are
designed to produce and interpret geologi-
cal data to aid in growth planning, resource
management and a better understanding of
earth systems.

Under the auspices of the Governor's
Florida Springs Initiative, the 2001 Florida
Legislature authorized the inclusion of the
Florida Spring's Initiative in the
Department of Environmental Protection's
budget. The FGS was tasked with creating
an inventory of the State's more than 700
springs which was published in 2004 as
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66
Springs of Florida (Scott et al., 2004). The
FGS continued to conduct quarterly sam-
pling of selected first and second magni-
tude springs found on state-owned property
for water-quality analyses and water quan-
tity.

The Florida Springs Initiative began
funding an investigation of swallets in
2004. Swallets, those sinkholes that cap-
ture water from surface streams and rivers,
provide direct avenues of recharge to the
Floridan Aquifer System and, therefore,
are highly susceptible to pollution. FGS
teams located and described swallets in
order to provide the first comprehensive
listing of the features and their distribu-
tion. The FGS Swallet Project will be com-
pleted in mid 2007.


r._ .
..... -. W. ,




Dr. Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist for
Geological Investigations. (Photo by Harley
Means).

Ongoing cooperative research with the
State's water management districts result-
ed in the delineation of hydrostratigraphic
and lithostratigraphic units. The FGS iden-
tified potential beach renourishment sands
offshore from the state's northeastern and
panhandle coasts in cooperation with the
U.S. Minerals Management Service. Other
investigations include mapping funded
through the National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Act (STATEMAP) of the eastern
portion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale
quadrangle (2005), mapping in the western
portion of the Lake City 1:100,000 scale
quadrangle (2006), and began mapping in
the eastern portion of the Perry 1:100,000
scale quadrangle. Research was conducted
on the Citronelle Formation in the western
Florida panhandle, in cooperation with
State archeologists' investigations of
Native American sites. Work continued on
the development of a new State geomorphic
map which will delineate landform distri-
bution throughout the state and aid in
understanding the processes that devel-
oped the state's land surface.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


The section also consults with other
government agencies because the knowl-
edge of regional and local geology of a given
area is fundamental in the evaluation of
numerous environmental problems. The
Geological Investigations Section responds
to inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and
contamination, geologic hazards, geologic
mapping, Florida's geologic history, and
problems related to community planning
and development. The group prepares
detailed lithologic logs for wells that are on
file at the FGS. This information is added
to the Survey's digital data base which cur-
rently contains logs for nearly 5,450 wells.
This data base and the programs designed
to manipulate it are currently used by
other governmental agencies and a number
of private firms.

COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM

The Coastal Research Program (CRP)
is committed to continuing fundamental
research to improve our understanding of
Florida's coastal ecosystems and environ-
mental processes. This research provides
information that is essential for planning,
ecosystem management, conservation, and
protection of Florida's valuable coastal and
underwater resources.

On-Going Coastal Projects

Sedimentation Elevation Table Project

Florida Gulf Coast marshes along the
Big Bend are experiencing sea-level rise
and an insufficient sediment supply to
maintain marsh surface elevation. Local
mean sea level is rising at an approximate
rate of 1.5 to 2.4 millimeters (mm) per year
and the spring-fed or controlled (dammed)
rivers of the Florida Gulf Coast do not pro-
vide sufficient sediments to maintain long-
term health of the marshes. Marsh health
is determined by several factors; sediment
supply, sea-level rise, storm events, erosion
rate of waves and marsh subsidence. Over


the last 12 years, the Florida Geological
Survey's CRP, in cooperation with the
United States Geological Survey, installed
Sediment Elevation Tables (SETs) at a
number of sites along the Florida Gulf
Coast (St. Joe Bay, Apalachicola River,
Ochlockonee River, St. Marks River,
Aucilla River, Rocky Creek, Cedar Key area
and Waccasassa River area) to measure
elevation changes of the marsh surface.
SET measurements were combined with
feldspar marker horizon measurements to
quantify changes in marsh topography. The
sediment supply for the majority of these
marshes is not sufficient to keep pace with
sea level rise, resulting in a marsh surface
elevation loss of -0.3 to -15.0 mm/year. As a
result, this data suggests that the Big Bend
coastal areas are at risk; a finding that
points out the dynamic and mobile nature
of coastal environments.

The CRP continued monitoring SET
sites during the 2005-2006 period, evaluat-
ing the response of marshes to sea level
rise. A report of this data with interpreta-
tions will be issued as an interactive report
(CD) in 2008.

Cooperative Coastal Projects

Offshore Sand Investigation

In 2005, the Florida Geological Survey
and the U.S. Minerals Management Service
(MMS) continued a cooperative agreement
with the specific goal of locating and char-
acterizing both areal extent and volume of
available sands suitable for beach nourish-
ment lying in federal waters adjacent to
state submerged lands off the northeast
coast of Florida.

The area of investigation in 2005 com-
prised shallow sediments in federal waters
off St. Johns and Flagler Counties, from
three (4.8 kilometers) to approximately ten
miles (16.1 kilometers) offshore, and the
sediments on the beaches immediately






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


adjacent to that area. Including 12.3
statute miles (19.8 kilometers) of data pre-
viously collected by the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS), approximately 272 statute
miles (438 kilometers) of subsurface
acoustic profile data were acquired during
2005 offshore of Nassau, Duval, St. Johns
and Flagler Counties, with the bulk of
these data being acquired offshore of south-
ern St. Johns County. These data were
used to determine locations thought to be
favorable for the deposition of beach-
restoration quality sand. Beach samples
collected on the beaches of Flagler County
in previous years were processed from 20
locations for a total of 41 samples. A total
of 38 offshore seabed grab samples were
collected offshore of northern St. Johns
County. Descriptions were made and grain
size distributions were determined for all
beach and offshore seabed grab samples. A
preliminary seismic stratigraphic analysis
of subbottom profiler data collected was
completed. As a result of the seismic strati-
graphic analysis conducted, several fea-
tures indicative of high potential for the
occurrence of beach restoration quality
sand in federal waters off Nassau, Duval,
St. Johns, and Flagler Counties were iden-
tified. The results of the tasks completed in
2005 for this investigation were detailed in
A Geological Investigation of the Offshore
Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year
3 Annual Report to the United States
Department of Interior Minerals
Management Service (Phelps et al., 2005).
This report is available on DVD.

In 2006, the CRP continued this pro-
gram of offshore investigations in coopera-
tion with the Minerals Management
Service. Data collection in Year 4 of this
study concentrated primarily on the areas
offshore of Flagler and Volusia Counties
from three (4.8 kilometers) to approximate-
ly ten miles (16.1 kilometers) offshore, and
the sediments on the beaches immediately
adjacent to that area. Approximately 270
statute miles (435 kilometers) of seismic


reflection profile data offshore of Flagler
and Volusia Counties were collected and
interpreted to determine locations thought
to be favorable for the deposition of beach-
quality sand. A total of 107 beach samples
collected prior to 2005 from the beaches of
Volusia County were analyzed. A total of
22 samples collected offshore of Flagler and
northern Volusia Counties were described
and granulometrically analyzed as well.
The results of the tasks completed in 2006
of this investigation are detailed in A
Geological Investigation of the Offshore
Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year
4 Annual Report to the United States
Department of Interior Minerals
Management Service (Phelps et al., 2007).
This report is available on DVD.

Mapping Portions of the Big Bend
Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve

A 2005 study, funded by DEP's Coastal
Aquatic Management Areas (CAMA) and
conducted by the FGS Coastal Research
Program, involved mapping seabed fea-
tures in state submerged lands in a select-
ed portion of the Big Bend Seagrasses
Aquatic Preserve offshore St Marks. This
study utilized a Marine Sonic Sea Scan
System operating at 600 kHz, a Garman
168 Global Positioning Unit, and a
Bathymetric System operating at 50 kHz.
This offshore investigation examined an
area using side scan sonar mosaics. The
study area comprised an approximate 25
square mile (64.5 square kilometers) area
of seabed. The area, offshore of St. Marks,
Florida, includes hard grounds and areas of
sea grass as well as possible submarine
springs. Approximately 500 statute miles
(804.7 kilometers) of sidescan sonar data
were collected offshore of Wakulla and
Jefferson Counties, Florida. Some areas of
specific interest within the study area may
be investigated in a follow up study at
higher resolutions using a 1200 kHz tow
fish. Side scan data was computer
processed, and interpreted. A written






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Jim Ladner monitoring seismic reflection pro-
filing equipment aboard the R/V GeoSearch
during FGS/MMS-funded search for offshore
beach restoration sands (photo by Dan Phelps).
report was submitted at the conclusion of
the project with a follow up on DVD.

A similar CAMA-funded mapping
study conducted in 2006 by the FGS
involved mapping seabed features in state
submerged lands off a selected portion of
the Big Bend Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve
using a Marine Sonic Sea Scan System.
This study examined, via the use of side
scan sonar mosaics, an approximate 15+
square statute mile (38.8+ square kilome-
ters) area of seabed at a frequency of 600
kHz. The study area, offshore of
Steinhatchee, Florida, has extensive hard
grounds and areas of sea grass as well as
possible submarine springs. Some areas of
specific interest within the study area may
be investigated in a follow up study at high-
er resolutions using a 1200 kHz tow fish.
Approximately 350 statute miles (563 kilo-
meters) of sidescan sonar were collected off-
shore of Taylor and Dixie Counties, Florida.
This data was computer processed and
interpreted. A written report was submit-
ted at the conclusion of the project with a
follow up DVD.

Scallop Research Project

In 2005 and 2006, the FGS Coastal
Research Program and the Florida Fish


and Wildlife Research Institute (FWRI)
conducted an investigation of the offshore
area off Port Canaveral using an estab-
lished control grid to monitor the health of
scallops and associated biota (Calico
Project). The established research grid was
located in an area 15 to 30 miles (24.1 to
48.2 kilometers) offshore in water depths
ranging from 50 to 250 feet (15 to 76
meters). Utilizing the 50' FGS RV
GeoQuest, 60 trawl samples were collected.
In order to accomplish this task, it was
required that the GeoQuest be fitted with a
stern-mounted fast-retrieval winch, which
was built and installed by Wade Stringer,
the ship's captain.

Based on FGS and FWRI schedules
and weather constraints, the work was con-
ducted when possible. The distance to be
traveled to and from Port Canaveral to the
study area required two to three hours
travel time. Upon arriving at the coordi-
nates of a sampling site a mesh bag
attached to a tethered trawl frame measur-
ing 1.5 x 1.5 x 2.0 feet (.5 x .5 x .6 meters)
in size was lowered to the ocean bottom
where it was dragged at a speed of one to
four knots for a standard time period of five
minutes. Upon retrieval, the contents were
sorted and weighed and the scallop tissue
sampled. Run time between sampling sites
ranged from 20 to 60 minutes.

At times, prevailing sea conditions
became too dangerous for field work,
requiring periods of work stoppage.
Although less than optimum conditions
prevailed (high wind and waves), the sam-
pling goal was reached and the project com-
pleted.

FGS and Florida State University
St. Vincent Island Study

In January of 2006 a team from the
FGS Coastal Research Program along with
researchers from Florida State University's
(FSU) Department of Geology used the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FGS's ground penetrating radar system to
examine the subsurface structure of sand
ridges and other deposits on St. Vincent
Island. The data was processed, interpret-
ed and incorporated with other data collect-
ed by FSU researchers as part of their
ongoing investigations of Florida coastal
zone dynamics.

Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys
Consortium

A memorandum of agreement between
State Geologists, representing the five
states bordering the Gulf of Mexico
(Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
and Texas) formed the Gulf of Mexico State
Geological Surveys Consortium. This asso-
ciation was formed to provide for joint coop-
eration in investigations and scientific
exchanges concerning earth sciences
(including geology, geochemistry,
geochronology, geophysical, and geotechni-
cal studies) on subjects of mutual interest.
This cooperative endeavor strives to
advance the understanding of the Gulf of
Mexico and promote cooperation on region-
al studies. An improved understanding of
the geologic processes impacting the Gulf of
Mexico is essential for the formulation of
wise decisions regarding the use and
preservation of the region's natural
resources.

GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION
PROGRAM

The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. Very low topographic
relief characterizes the state and data
obtained from cores is essential to the
understanding of subsurface stratigraphy
and hydrogeology.

During 2005-2006, the FGS drilling
program drilled 19 core holes in six coun-
ties in support of seven different projects.
Core holes ranged from 43 to 487 feet (13 to
148 meters) in depth for a total of 4564 feet


(1391 meters) cored. Monitor wells were
constructed in 10 of these core holes in
cooperation with the City of Tallahassee,
McGlynn Labs, Leon County, the
Suwannee River and Southwest Florida
Water Management District and the
United States Geological Survey.

On-going Geologic Data
Acquisition Projects

The FGS maintains collections of well
and surface outcrop samples. The well
sample collection contains more than
18,000 sets of samples from exploration,
water, and oil wells. Most wells are repre-
sented by sets of drill cuttings.
Approximately 1150 wells are represented
by continuous core or core samples (a total
of approximately 205,000 feet, (62,484
meters). The deepest continuous core in
Florida, 1,968 feet (600 meters), is housed
in the FGS repository. The FGS, USGS,
Water Management Districts, drillers and
geologic consultants drill new core and cut-
tings sample sets which are added to the
archives. The sample repository facility
occupies 12,090 square feet (1123 square
meters), with almost 30,000 cubic feet (849
cubic meters) of shelf space, with room for
expansion.

A collection of approximately 5,750
outcrop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters
in the Gunter Building. These samples are
cross-indexed by formation, lithology, coun-
ty and location. The collection is referred to
as the "M-Series." The M-Series collection
is particularly valuable given Florida's high
rate of growth and development. Surface
exposures of critical lithologies have
become inaccessible with the continued
proliferation of roadways, shopping cen-
ters, parking lots and high-rise housing.

These sample archives and the FGS
data base are utilized by geologists at the
FGS, many other state, federal and local






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


governmental agencies, universities (both
in and out of the state), geological consult-
ants, well drillers and the public.

Cooperative Geologic Data
Acquisition Projects

Southeast Sprayfield Investigation

This was a Cooperative effort between
the FGS, City of Tallahassee Aquifer
Protection and Industrial Pre-treatment
Program and the USGS. Five sites were
investigated during 2005 and 2006 to deter-
mine whether the sprayfield is contributing
to the nutrient load being delivered to
springs in the area (including Wakulla
Springs). Each site has two wells 250' and
125' (76 and 152 meters) approximately)
with the deep hole being continuous core.
One core was drilled to the depth of 487'
(148 meters) to provide a deep set of sam-
ples for the area. Water samples were col-
lected approximately every 50 feet (15
meters) during drilling to assist in selecting
open hole/screen intervals. Lithologic logs
were generated, hydraulic conductivity
analysis conducted and formation picks
made for the FGS wells database.

Woodville Recharge Basin Aquifer
Protection Study

This was a cooperative effort between
the FGS, McGlynn Labs and Leon County,
Florida. As a small portion of this overall
study, three cores were drilled to approxi-
mately 250 feet (76 meters) and monitor
wells were installed in each borehole. Well
sites were selected to augment the wells
drilled for the Southeast Sprayfield
Investigation. Water samples were collect-
ed approximately every 50 feet (15 meters)
during drilling to assist in selecting open
hole/screen intervals. Water samples were
collected from the completed wells for
analysis. Lithologic logs were generated
and formation picks were made for inclu-
sion in the FGS wells database.


Mangel's Farm Core and Monitor Well

This was a cooperative effort between
the FGS and the Suwannee River Water
Management District. The core was drilled
to provide lithologic data for the FGS
Statemap project. The monitor well was
completed specifically with the open hole
interval only in the Avon Park Formation.
This is the only monitor well in the District
which produces water solely from the Avon
Park Formation.

Radar Hill Core

This was a cooperative effort between
the FGS, Lee Florea (University of South
Florida) and the SWFWMD. This core pro-
vides a set of core samples thru the Ocala
Limestone and into the top of the Avon
Park Formation. USF geologist Lee Florea
generated a lithologic log of the samples
and SWFWMD ran geophysical logs of the
borehole.


FGS's new Schramm T450MIIA drill rig
installing monitoring wells for Southeast
Spray field Investigation (photo by Ken
Campbell).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


South Florida Water Management District
Cooperative Program

The South Florida Water Management
District (SFWMD) provided funding for
FGS staff to describe and process core and
cuttings samples in 2005 and 2006. Several
OPS staff members described samples for
the SFWMD during this time frame, result-
ing in an addition of over 45,000 feet of new
descriptions from the district.

MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM

The Mineral Resource Program main-
tains communication with the mineral
industry in Florida. The group publishes a
biennial status report related to industry
activity. The program is also responsible for
providing mineral resource assessments on
parcels of land that are targeted for pur-
chase by the state. These assessments are
completed on an as-needed basis. We are
continuing to provide geologic input into
the mineral lands transfer between the
Federal Bureau of Land Management and
the state of Florida.

For the year 2005, the USGS ranked
Florida as fourth in the U.S. with an esti-
mated non-fuel mineral production value of
$2.89 billion. For the year 2006, the USGS
ranked Florida as seventh in the U.S. with
an estimated non-fuel mineral production
value of $2.79 billion. Following is a
description of such mineral resources.

Phosphate

Florida supplied approximately three-
quarters of U.S. domestic needs in 2005
and 2006. Nearly all of the phosphate rock
and sand that is mined in Florida is used to
manufacture fertilizer that, in turn, is used
for agricultural purposes. What is not used
in the manufacture of fertilizer is typically
used in a number of products including feed
supplements, vitamins, soft drinks, and
toothpaste. Phosphate is one of Florida's
leading export commodities.


Stone (Aggregate)

Florida ranked second nationally in
both production and consumption of
crushed stone (limestone and dolostone)
during the period of this report. Most of the
stone that is mined in Florida is used for
road construction. Limestone of high puri-
ty undergoes calcination (heating) and is
combined with other ingredients to produce
Portland and masonry cement. Florida
ranked fourth in production and consump-
tion of Portland cement and was first in the
production and consumption of masonry
cement in 2005 and 2006.

In 2006, the United States District
Court called into question the prospect of
continued mining in the Lake Belt region
(Dade County, -57,515 acres) of South
Florida. The Lake Belt region accounts for
approximately 45 percent of all aggregate
produced in Florida. The lawsuit chal-
lenged the overall permitting process for
the region. The ruling affected 12 mining
permits within the region.

Sand and Gravel

Florida ranked among the top fifteen
states in the country in construction sand
and gravel used or produced in 2005 and
2006. Sand and gravel is subdivided into
construction and industrial sand, the bulk
of which is, in Florida, construction grade.

Heavy Minerals

Heavy mineral grains have specific
gravities generally in excess of 2.9 g/cm3.
These include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and
leucoxene. Ilmenite and rutile are primary
ingredients in the manufacture of titanium
dioxide pigments, used in the manufacture
of paint, varnish and lacquers, plastics, and
paper. Florida was the top heavy mineral
producer in the nation in 2005 and 2006.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Peat

Peat is an organic-rich accumulation of
plant material in a wetland environment.
Although peat departs from the inorganic
definition of a mineral, it is generally con-
sidered an economic mineral. Florida
ranked first in the country in production of
horticultural peat in 2005 and 2006.

Clay

Fuller's Earth, common clay, and
kaolin are mined in a few locations in
Florida. Fuller's Earth is typically used as
an absorbent material, while kaolin is used
in the manufacture of paper and refracto-
ries. Common clay, mined in small quanti-
ties from various locations throughout the
state, can be used in the manufacture of
brick, cement and lightweight aggregate.
Florida ranked fourth in the country in pro-
duction of Fuller's Earth in 2005 and 2006.

STATEMAP PROGRAM

The STATEMAP Program is a coopera-
tive project funded jointly by the FGS and
the National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Program under the State Geologic
Mapping Component (STATEMAP). For
each of the last twelve years, staff members
from the FGS have performed detailed geo-
logic mapping of 1:100,000 scale USGS
quadrangles and published the results as
part of the Open-File Map Series (OFMS).

In 2004-2005, FGS staff geologists
Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave
Paul, and Tom Scott produced a geologic
map and several geologic cross sections for
the eastern portion of the Gainesville
1:100,000 Quadrangle. These maps and
cross sections are available through the
FGS Open File Map Series (OFMS-94).

In 2005-2006, FGS staff geologists
Richard Green, Dave Paul, William L.
Evans III, Tom Scott, and Steve Petrushak,


produced a geologic map for the western
portion of the 1:100,000 scale Lake City
Quadrangle. The project included a
bedrock geologic map and several geologic
cross sections. These maps and cross sec-
tions are also available through the FGS
Open File Map Series (OFMS-95).

In September of 2006, the FGS began
working on production of a bedrock geolog-
ic map, and several geologic cross sections
for the eastern portion of the 1:100,000
scale Perry Quadrangle. Field mapping
began in October, with a planned comple-
tion date of August, 2007. The maps and
cross sections for this area will be available
through the FGS Open File Map Series
beginning in September of 2007.

After input and an October workshop
with the Florida Geological Mapping
Advisory Committee, the western portion of
the USGS 1:100,000 Perry Quadrangle in
north-central Florida was selected for the
next area to be mapped under the
STATEMAP program. If the National
STATEMAP Advisory Committee approves
the project, mapping will begin in this area
in September of 2007.


Rick Green (L), Will Evans (R), and Jim
Balsillie (kneeling), examine outcrops of
Suwannee Limestone along the Suwannee
River for the STATEMAP project, 2005 (photo
by Rick Green).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION

The mission of the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection, Florida
Geological Survey Hydrogeology Section is
to disseminate hydrogeologic information,
conduct hydrogeologic research, and
administer such research through out-
sourcing in support of the need for unbi-
ased, scientific knowledge of Florida's
water resources with emphasis on aquifer-
system characterization and sustainability
of groundwater and watersheds. This
knowledge facilitates science-based deci-
sion-making for the conservation and pro-
tection Florida's water resources.

HYDROGEOLOGY RESEARCH
PROGRAM

FGS Hydrogeology Projects

Geochemical Modeling of Arsenic
Mobilization during Aquifer Storage
and Recovery

This study, conducted by the Florida
Geological Survey and the University of
Florida, measured arsenic in water stored
in aquifers during the rainy season to be
recovered during the dry season. This prac-
tice has gained popularity in Florida due to
the increasing demands for water and pres-
ents an attractive mechanism to many
municipalities for the conservation of
water. Test results on recovered water
showed arsenic concentrations exceeding
100 micrograms/L (pg/L). This level of
mobilized arsenic was considerably higher
than the EPA's Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) of 10 pg/L. Data obtained
from this study improved our understand-
ing of the geochemical mechanisms leading
to the mobilization of arsenic in aquifer
storage and recovery (ASR) operations that
lead to the elevated metals concentrations
in recovered water. Such understanding is
essential for the proper application of
measures that might be implemented to


Dr. Jon Arthur, Assistant State Geologist for
Hydrogeology (photo by Tom Scott).
reduce arsenic concentrations to levels that
are not harmful to human health or the
environment.

Aquifer Storage and Recovery Studies

The FGS was involved with two similar
ASR studies. The first (Orange County
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical
Study) was conducted jointly by
FDEP/FGS, CH2M Hill and the SJRWMD
and took place in Orange County. The sec-
ond (Southwest Florida Aquifer Storage
and Recovery Geochemical Study) was
funded by FDEP/FGS and the SWFWMD.
It took place near Tampa. Both projects
studied how surface waters injected under-
ground may have chemical and physical
characteristics dissimilar to the native
waters they displace. The introduction of
waters with different characteristics may
accelerate, inhibit or otherwise modify the
previous naturally occurring rock-water
interactions. A major concern for stored
waters is the entrainment of various natu-
rally occurring metals and radioactive
nuclides. In Florida, Eocene through
Miocene carbonate rocks have zones of con-






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Scanning electron microscope image of
pyrite framboids (photo by Jon Arthur).

siderable radioactivity and metals that can
be soluble or leachable.

The purpose of both studies was to gain
a better understanding of the interactions
between the aquifer matrix and surface
waters stored underground and the effect of
the stored waters on the aquifer matrix via
aquifer storage and recovery systems
through analyses and observation of
changes in water chemistry. In the Orange
County study, this was accomplished
through laboratory simulations and studies
including geochemical analysis of rock sam-
ples, bench-scale leaching studies, sequen-
tial leaching of rock samples (sequential
extraction leaching may be used to identify
the mineral phases that host arsenic and
other trace metals) and scanning electron
microscope and microprobe studies to iden-
tify minerals and determine their chemical
composition. In the Tampa study, two
cores were collected at the Rome Avenue
ASR site in Tampa. One core was located
within the ASR storage zone and the sec-
ond core was located outside of the storage
zone. Geochemical comparison of these
cores was accomplished through laboratory
simulations and studies including geo-
chemical analysis of rock samples, bench-


scale leaching studies, scanning electron
microscope and microprobe studies to
determine minerals and their chemical
composition.

Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the
Groundwater Quality of Springs and Wells
of Florida

For decades, Floridians have been
interested in the quality of spring and well
water. By the early 1900s, only a handful
of springs had been analyzed for their
chemical constituents. However, the num-
ber of springs sampled and the chemical
constituents analyzed increased through
the first half of the 20th century. In 1947,
the FGS published an inventory of springs
in Florida, which included water-quality
analyses (Ferguson et al., 1947). The pub-
lication was revised in 1977 (Rosenau et al.,
1977), and a third publication regarding
the springs of Florida was published by the
FGS (Scott et al., 2004).

It should be noted that nitrate concen-
trations have been increasing in springs for
the past several decades. Although this
has been an impetus in recent years for
increased spring monitoring, the State is
interested in monitoring for many chemi-
cals, not only from springs, but also in
wells. Over the years, the water manage-


neaculon vessels irom Dencn-scaie leacnmng
(photo by Jon Arthur).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ment districts and other organizations
began sampling and analyzing the water
quality from both spring and wells.

The purpose of this project was to sta-
tistically evaluate data collected from
springs and wells for the period 1991-2003.
During 2003 and 2004, the FGS collected
water-quality and flow data from springs
and wells which had data for the time peri-
od 1991-2003. The data have now been
evaluated and the report is in peer review.
The anticipated publication date is 2009.

Fanning Springs

Fanning Springs is the centerpiece of
Fanning Springs State Park. It is a beauti-
ful spring, but it discharges groundwater
containing the highest concentration of
nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) of all of Florida's
springs with first magnitude flow. The con-
centration of nitrate is consistently around
six mg/L. In an effort to protect the spring,
the Department's Division of Recreation
and Parks requested that the FGS delin-
eate the springshed, identify sources of the
nitrate, and establish a groundwater moni-
toring network in the vicinity of the spring.

The FGS completed the delineation of
the springshed and obtained land-use data
for the springshed. A model was then used
to estimate nitrate loading for each land
parcel. The results of these efforts were
preliminarily presented in a draft poster
(Sources of Nitrate Contamination in
Fanning Springs, Florida). The Division of
Recreation and Parks and the FGS will now
work cooperatively to establish the spring-
shed monitoring network.

Offshore Springs Research

Our groundwater resources are critical
to maintaining Florida's ecology and sup-
porting the needs of an ever expanding
human population. Continued declines in
groundwater levels and increasing concen-


trations of saline-indicator parameters
require effective management to sustain
these resources. Without an accurate
water budget, this can not be accomplished.
Submarine groundwater discharge is not a
component of the water budget that we
have quantified nor do we know the quality
of this discharge.

Seepage and spring discharge are
known to occur offshore of Florida in the
Atlantic Ocean as well in the Gulf of
Mexico. Two well-known examples of off-
shore springs are Crescent Beach Spring,
off St. Johns County in the Atlantic and the
group of springs collectively known as
Spring Creek, in the Gulf off Wakulla
County. Direct conveyance of contami-
nants and nutrients in groundwater to the
marine environment may occur via many of
these offshore springs.

The objective of this on-going research
was to locate and document submarine
seepage and spring discharge. Both
nearshore and offshore locations were tar-
geted. The nearshore environment has
been investigated by outsourced studies
utilizing satellite and aerial thermal imag-
ing, boat-towed electrical resistivity sur-
veys and radon sampling. Utilizing these
technologies, previously known nearshore
discharges were readily located and numer-
ous additional sites that need further
investigation were identified.


Aerial view of Offshore Springs Spring
Creek Springs Group in Wakulla County
(photo by Jim Stevenson).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Offshore springs research in the open
Gulf of Mexico has been limited to fixed-
wing aerial reconnaissance, side-scan sonar
surveys, diver reconnaissance and limited
water-quality monitoring and sampling.
This research was conducted in collabora-
tion with the Suwannee River Water
Management District, Florida State
University and volunteer divers. Other col-
laborations are developing with United
States Geological Survey and University of
Florida researchers.

Past research activities have been
funded piecemeal utilizing Springs
Initiative and in-house Hydrogeology
Section monies. It is anticipated that
future work will be funded from a grant
from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
Phase II

Greater than 90 percent of Florida's
drinking water sources originate from the
various aquifer systems. In addition, the
1996 Amendments to the Federal Safe
Drinking Water Act require that each state
establish a Source Water Assessment and
Protection Program (SWAPP) and the
Department has been designated to imple-
ment this program in Florida. The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Source Water Assessment Final Guidance
requires states to consider any potential
source of contamination to the public water
system. SWAPP requires that aquifer vul-
nerability be evaluated as part of each indi-
vidual assessment. Because the
Department's Division of Water Resource
Management (DWRM) considers the
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
(FAVA) model an important component of
vulnerability evaluation, as well as having
broad application for numerous state and
local government agencies, DRWM and the
FGS entered into an agreement to evaluate
aquifer vulnerability in several regions of


Florida. Most of the work was outsourced to
a Department contractor (Advanced
Geospatial Inc.)

During the 1990s, the DWRM complet-
ed a study involving depth to water,
recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topog-
raphy, impact of the vadose zone, and con-
ductivity (DRASTIC) model mapping
assessment of aquifer vulnerability
throughout the state. The FAVA model was
undertaken to add additional layers of
information, notably coverage for karst fea-
ture density, and the model provided a
raster grid that facilitated updating the
layers. FAVA version 1.0 was completed in
August 2004. During development of ver-
sion 1.0 it was noted that additional data
and information would strengthen the pre-
dictive capabilities of the model at the
county scale.

Additional data and information was
necessary to upgrade the FAVA model.
They include: (1) improved resolution of
intermediate confining zones; (2) enhance-
ment of the depth to water layer for the sur-
ficial aquifer; (3) improved resolution of
soils data for selected counties; (4) an
increase in the number of training points;
(5) continued public outreach; (6) improve-
ments to the digital elevation model (DEM)
and closed topographic depression cover-
age; and 7) model subdivision and regener-
ation. Under the agreement, new FAVA
models were produced for the Biscayne and
sand and gravel aquifers and the interme-
diate and Floridan aquifer systems, as well
as county-specific models (Citrus/Levy and
Wakulla).

Geochemical characterization of potential
Aquifer Storage and Recovery zones in the
Floridan aquifer system, as part of the
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Plan

This project was a collaborative effort
between the FDEP/FGS and SWFWMD to






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


study the geochemical characterization of
potential Aquifer Storage and Recovery
(ASR) zones in the Floridan aquifer system
(FAS), Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Plan (CERP).

Studies by the FDEP/FGS in west-cen-
tral Florida have demonstrated that car-
bonate rocks of the FAS are chemically het-
erogeneous, and that these rocks interact
with recharged water during ASR activi-
ties. The resultant water-quality changes
can be detected in recovered water. These
water-rock interactions release undesirable
metals (i.e., arsenic, iron, manganese, and
uranium) from the aquifer matrix into the
recharged water. The sources of these met-
als may include organic materials, fracture
or grain coatings, or minerals (e.g., arsen-
ian pyrite) disseminated through the car-
bonate rock.

In southern Florida, carbonates of the
upper FAS comprise the potential storage
zone for the Comprehensive Everglades
Restoration Plan (CERP) ASR wells.
Chemical and trace mineral compositions of
the upper FAS in the region are poorly
understood. As such, compositional data
are required to identify geochemical reac-
tions that may adversely affect native and
recovered water quality due to ASR activi-
ties. Moreover, long-term ASR operation
may be adversely affected by reductions in
aquifer transmissivity primarily due to
clogging of pores caused by various water-
rock geochemical interactions (e.g., mineral
precipitation leading to reduced permeabil-
ity).

The purpose of this project was to
define the range of rock chemical and min-
eralogical compositions within and adja-
cent to potential ASR storage zones with
emphasis on components that might impact
the suitability of the rock as a storage zone.
The scope included geochemical and miner-
alogical analyses of up to 280 rock samples.
Whole-rock geochemistry analyses included


multi-element (-64), multi-method analyti-
cal techniques yielding detection limits
that met the needs of geochemical modeling
tasks. Subsets of up to 40 samples were
analyzed for a variety of stable and radi-
ogenic isotopes. Sample preparation
included trimming, crushing, and powder-
ing of rock samples, clay-mineral separa-
tion, and polished thin sections. Detailed
mineralogical analyses of samples were
completed by binocular description, x-ray
diffraction, and scanning electron micro-
scope. Mineral chemistry was determined
by electron microprobe analyses. Bench-
scale and sequential extraction studies
were conducted to assess chemical reac-
tions, leachability and evaluate the associ-
ation of metals within minerals comprising
the aquifer matrix.

Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemical Study

This project was a collaborative effort
between the FDEP/FGS and DWRM
Underground Injection Control (UIC) to
gain a better understanding of the effect of
the aquifer matrix on surface waters stored
underground and the effect of the stored
waters on the aquifer matrix via aquifer
storage and recovery (ASR) systems
through analyses and observation of
changes in water chemistry.

The native waters, the waters to be
injected, the waters withdrawn after stor-
age, and appropriate rock samples of the
aquifer matrix in the area were analyzed
for their major, trace and rare earth ele-
ments. This additional hydrochemical data
complemented existing data and facilitated
the evaluation of long term (multi-ASR
cycle) chemical variations within and
among ASR facilities. The results of this
study increased the understanding of ASR
and storage aquifer (water-rock) interac-
tions and enhanced the ability for the
FDEP to formulate protective criteria for
future ASR projects.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Specific tasks included: 1) geochemical
analysis (including U isotopes) of water
samples from cycle tests at ASR wells; 2)
whole rock geochemical analysis of core
samples; 3) sequential leaching of rock
samples (sequential extraction leaching
may be used to identify the mineral phases
that host arsenic and other trace metals); 4)
scanning electron microscope and micro-
probe studies to determine minerals and
their chemical composition; and 5) report-
ing.

Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic
Framework Mapping Project

The Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic
Framework Mapping Project has been a
collaborative effort between the FGS and
Southwest Florida Water Management
District (SWFWMD) to create a Microsoft
Access database of wells within the district
for the mapping project. The creation of
this database, named FGS Wells, led to
state-wide implementation of this project in
2000 which included Oil and Gas regulato-
ry data and ArcGIS well location interfac-
ing.

The mapping project culmination, as of
2006, had generated 20 formation top and
thickness maps and 34 cross-sections illus-
trating the lithostratigraphic and hydros-
tratigraphic framework of the southwest-
ern Florida region. These maps were creat-
ed using ArcGIS and AutoCAD. Mapped
lithologic units include the Middle Eocene
Avon Park Formation to the
Miocene/Pliocene Peace River Formation.
Mapped hydrologic units include the
Middle Floridan Aquifer Confining Unit,
the Floridan aquifer system, the intermedi-
ate aquifer system or the intermediate con-
fining unit, and the surficial aquifer sys-
tem.

A database of more than 1000 wells
was the basis for the generated maps. Of
these wells, more than 60 percent were


inspected to determine lithostratigraphic
contacts. Detailed lithologic descriptions
were made of approximately one-quarter of
those wells. Where gaps exist, wells with
geophysical logs were included in the
analysis to provide adequate coverage for
the generated maps and cross-sections.

The maps were generated using the
Geostatistical and Spatial Analyst exten-
sions in ArcGIS 9.2. All regions of the
SWFWMD, including a ten-mile buffer
zone, were analyzed. The production of
these maps provided the most detailed
lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic
data in the state to date and provide the
basis for further refinement. The final
report was in both paper and digital for-
mats and accommodated the revisions in
Florida's hydrostratigraphic nomenclature
presently implemented.

Beyond the report to be published, the
DEP/FGS continued to work with the
SWFWMD to provide updates to the map
and the lithologic database through: 1)
detailed description analysis of newly cored
wells by SWFMWD; 2) long term archival
of cores in the FDEP/FGS sample deposito-
ry; 3) digitize any analog well data (such as,
driller's logs, lithologic descriptions, well
construction data, or geophysical logs)
housed by the FDEP/FGS; 4) develop and
maintain a digital geologic/geophysical
database; 5) serve-out the database pub-
licly; and 6) develop a website to serve-out
geospatial data created by the Florida
Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project.
The latter website is:
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/pro-
grams/hydrogeology/fava gis data.htm

Cooperative Hydrogeology Projects

Essential tools to use in the effort to
conserve, manage and protect Florida's nat-
ural resources are analytical and numerical
models that are capable of predicting the
impact of natural and anthropogenic events






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


on the quality and integrity of watersheds.
In many parts of Florida, such watersheds
are karstic in nature, allowing interaction
between groundwater and surface waters
through a maze of caves, conduits, chan-
nels, sinking streams and sinkholes. These
features are of varying diameters, mor-
phologies, depth and orientation resulting
in very complicated, multi-porosity ground-
water flow in the aquifers where the major-
ity of the water resides. Frequent and sig-
nificant interaction between surface and
groundwater in these watersheds demands
that they must be assessed and studied as
three-dimensional systems. Under these
conditions, calculation of the watershed's
water budget, necessary for the develop-
ment of mathematical models capable of
predicting water flow and contaminant
transport, becomes a very complicated
undertaking. The complexity of the tasks
involved is further magnified in coastal
watersheds where tidal influences must be
accounted for not only in model develop-
ment but eventually in the effort to protect
and manage such watersheds.

The creation of the Hydrogeology
Research Fund by the Legislature in 2002,
and the Hydrogeology Section within the
FGS shortly thereafter, allowed us to begin
addressing this problem through a collabo-
rative research program. Efforts were
focused on the characterization of a pilot
watershed (the Woodville Karst Plain
(WKP) in north Florida) as the necessary
first step toward developing the desired
predictive model.

The description of field studies con-
ducted and the resulting initial data were
discussed in the previous Biennial Report
that described the activities of the FGS in
2002-2004. In this report, we discuss the
various activities that continued and built
upon the previous efforts along with new
activities that were initiated and/or con-
ducted in 2005-2006.


Dye and natural markers (radon,
methane and bacteriaphage) tracing were
used in multifaceted field investigations to
address the nature of groundwater flow
through conduit systems. Additionally,
monitoring spring discharge, rainfall, and
water-quality parameters within subsur-
face conduits were also conducted through-
out 2005/2006 and will be continued as
funds become available. These field studies
provided some of the data necessary for the
calibration and validation of the predictive
model that was being developed during the
same period. Moreover, a cave database
that was established in 2004 was being
populated with new maps to serve as a data
source for these modeling efforts as well as
characterization of highly valuable and vul-
nerable natural resources.

Tracing studies and instrumentation
(metering) of the Wakulla Springshed

The quantitative groundwater tracing
program for the WKP, conducted by the
FGS in collaboration with private sector
firms, over the past several years has been
successful. Key flow paths in the WKP have
been documented between disappearing
streams, the Leon Sinks and Wakulla cave
systems, and Wakulla Springs. Perhaps the
most visible and publicized finding has
been the demonstration of a direct connec-
tion between the City of Tallahassee spray
field and Wakulla Spring through injection
of dyes and their subsequent recovery
(break through) downstream in various
wells and karst features. This demonstra-
tion resulted in a decision by the City of
Tallahassee to upgrade its domestic waste-
water treatment from secondary to
advanced wastewater treatment level at a
cost projected to be in excess of $150 mil-
lion. In addition to this "applied" use of the
data, we generated significant scientific
data including the calculation of groundwa-
ter flow direction, quality, velocities and
other hydraulic parameters that are crucial
to our current groundwater modeling






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


efforts. Another objective of these studies
was also to field-validate the theory that
groundwater flow in the WKP is composed
primarily of two major components. One is
the flow to the Wakulla Spring system and
the other is to the Spring Creek submarine
springs system. Our research teams, along
with others in the field, have long postulat-
ed that the two components are interactive
through cave and conduit flow of ground-
water that is highly affected by precipita-
tion rate, storm events and tidal cycles.
These factors are thought to highly influ-
ence, if not control, the flow and volume
thus, the quality of water in the entire
WKP.


In-situ measurement of water flow and
quality in Wakulla Springs

Known differences in flow dynamics
and quality (temperature, specific conduc-
tance, pH, etc.) between surface and
groundwater were used since 2003 in
assessing the interaction between the two
media within the WKP. In 2005 and 2006,
we continued the collection and statistical
analysis of data from seven spring oceano-
graphic meters (manufactured by
Falmouth Scientific) that were deployed in
the Wakulla Spring cave system. The
meters continually recorded velocity, flow,
temperature, atmospheric pressure and
specific conductance at 15-minute inter-


Dye tracing pathways indicating connection between the City of Tallahassee spray field
and Wakulla Spring.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


vals. The data was stored onboard the
devices then manually downloaded on-site
by FGS staff at approximately 30 to 60-day
intervals. The data was stored and can be
requested via e-mail (tkincaid@h2hassoci-
ates.com). This data is updated at approx-
imately 60 to 90 days intervals and made
available to the public upon request. The
dataset that was developed is one-of-a-kind
and represents the most detailed character-
ization of a karst aquifer anywhere in the
United States, if not the world. In
2005/2006, we tried to replace this labor-
intensive method of data collection by a
radio-based telemetry system that will
enable the research team members to
access data directly from a local server.
This effort was highly complex and
required special electronic expertise that
was available to our team only on part time
basis. This situation caused significant
delays in the installation of an operative
telemetry system, a problem which we are
currently addressing.

In 2005/2006, data from two tide
gauges, deployed close to Spring Creek,
were periodically downloaded and used to
quantify relationship between tidal fluctua-
tions, water flow and quality in both the
Wakulla and Spring Creek systems.

Expansion of the Cave Metering Network

The existing cave meter network in the
Wakulla Spring cave system effectively
characterized the flow to the spring from
four major and well-mapped conduit
sources. However, the results of the last
two groundwater tracing experiments
demonstrated that the Wakulla cave sys-
tem is also directly connected to the Leon
Sinks cave system and that groundwater
flows between the two systems in approxi-
mately seven days. This connection was
confirmed in a historic dive by the
Woodville Karst Program, an event that
dramatically resolved a question that had
lingered for some 17 years during which


period similar dives had failed to confirm
the connection. The divers played a critical
and well-appreciated role in our research
by deploying and retrieving the instru-
ments used in past and on-going studies in
the Wakulla Spring springshed.

The Woodville Karst Plain
modeling efforts

In 2004, the FGS outsourced an inves-
tigation to predict groundwater movement
and contaminant transport in karst using
finite-element models. The contractors
used existing and accepted finite-element
numerical strategies but employed the
detailed characterization data gleaned
from field studies to more accurately
describe karst features in the model
domain and calibrate the model simula-
tions to "real-world" conditions. The model
contained all of the key karst features in
the northern part of the WKP and calibrat-
ed fairly well to velocities measured
through groundwater tracing and historical
head-levels published in the literature.
This work continued in 2005/2006 by test-
ing the model with data generated by our
various monitoring and survey activities.
Testing indicated that the draft model
needed additional full-scale calibration and
validation before it can be applied to regu-
latory environmental decision-making.
Because of monitoring logistics and funding
limitations, it was necessary to allocate
only a minimum amount of funds to this
effort in 2005/2006. We submitted applica-
tions to potential funding agencies in an
effort continue the development of this
model in the 2007/2008 time frame.

Florida Cave Database

The Florida Cave Database was initial-
ly developed with funding from the
Hydrogeology Program in FY 2001-2002
and augmented, revised, and refined in FYs
2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The database
currently contains details from more than






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


30 underwater caves, each of which is rep-
resented by two ESRI GIS shape-files and
associated datasets: one representing the
survey points or significant turning points
in the caves, which contains sufficient data,
when available, to render a 3D model of the
cave; and one that represents the 2D trend
of the cave passages. All the files are pro-
jected to a custom FDEP Albers conformal
conic projection. These files can be request-
ed via e-mail (tkincaid@h2hassociates.com)
and incorporated in a GIS platform. In
2005/2006, we continued to populate the
database with data as it became available
to us. Depending on the availability of
funds; we hope to continue this effort for
the foreseeable future.

Statistical analysis of data

Statistical analyses of the data contin-
ued in 2005/2006. The data used in the
analyses were generated by in-situ instru-
ments, dye tracing and geophysical sur-
veys. The analyses were significantly aug-
mented by Dr. Eric Chicken of the FSU
Department of Statistics. He joined the
research team in 2006. Since then, the
study has focused attention on: 1) correla-
tion of flow and water-quality changes with
rain fall and discharge; 2) correlation with
data from our geophysical survey of tracts
within the Wakulla Spring springshed that
was designed to search for conduits located
between the spray field and the Wakulla
Spring. Analysis of the collected data
showed that microgravity anomalies,
indicative of the existence of conduits,
roughly matched our dye tracing data
obtained for this area. As discussed above,
that data ultimately suggested a direct con-
nection between the spray field and
Wakulla Springs and led the City of
Tallahassee to plan on treating its domestic
waste water to a higher treatment level.
The statistical analysis results will be used
in calibrating the finite element model.


Studies for the purpose of hydrogeological
characterization of karstic watersheds

Characterization of the hydrogeological
framework and dynamics of water flow in
karstic watersheds is essential to any effort
to understand and ultimately quantify
water flow and contaminant transport in
these systems. Aspects of this characteriza-
tion include constructing physical models of
aquifer systems, development of physical
aquifer property databases, assessing sur-
face-water/groundwater interaction and
calculating water budgets for the entire
watershed as a 3-dimensional entity. In
2005/2006, FGS initiated several projects
with an eye not only on generating the data
to answer these scientific questions, but
also to help the DEP resource managers in
addressing regulatory issues including:
how to account for groundwater contribu-
tion in Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
modeling and how to set Minimum Flows
and Levels (MFLs) for surface waters and
aquifers respectively. Below is a brief sum-
mary of these projects.

Estimating groundwater discharges to
surface waters via radon tracing

Virtually all of Florida is underlain by
karst geology, dominated in some parts of
the state by conduits, caves and channels.
These features facilitate interaction
between surface and groundwater and
causes the latter to assume multi-porosity
flow. Quantifying this interaction has been
a challenging problem to regulators
involved in allocating total maximum daily
loads (TMDL) to surface waters located in
such settings. Difficulties in accurately
quantifying groundwater contribution to
surface waters have forced those involved
in implementing the TMDL program to
estimate such contribution as percentages
of total flow or to ignore it altogether.
However, groundwater contribution to sur-
face waters has been shown by the USGS to






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


range from as little as 10percent to over
90percent across the United States. In
some spring-fed streams in Florida, such as
the Wakulla and the Suwannee Rivers, it
could approach 100 percent of base flow
under low flow conditions. Overlooking
such contribution could obviously result in
significant miscalculations in allocating
waste loads to surface waters and in the
decisions by the regulatory agencies to "list
or de-list" bodies of water as "impaired" or
"recovered", respectively.

To help in addressing this problem, the
Hydrogeology Section outsourced a
research task, in 2004/2005, to faculty
members of the Department of
Oceanography at FSU to develop a scientif-
ically-based, yet simplified and cost-effec-
tive method of estimating groundwater con-
tribution to surface waters. The method is
based on using radon (typically found in
groundwater) as a natural tracer of such
water as it is discharged to streams, lakes
and estuarine systems (normally contain-
ing very low concentrations of radon).
Schematic diagram below illustrates the
theoretical basis of the method.

In order to allow for easy use in the
field by minimally-trained regulatory field


Radon Conceptual Model









Mass balance approach: measure what's there and
what's leaving calculate benthic flux to support
observations convert to water flux
Schematic showing the use of radon decay
in measuring ground water contribution
to surface water.


personnel, a user-friendly interface for cal-
culating flow through permeable sedi-
ments, based on radon inventories in the
overlying waters, was also developed.
Calculations were based on a radon mass
balance and assumed steady-state condi-
tions. A Graphical User Interface (GUI)
using MS Excel 2002 or a higher version
was employed to simplify calculation of
advective flux estimates while fully execut-
ing the necessary mass balance calcula-
tions. The purpose of the GUI was to facili-
tate the calculation of the velocity of
groundwater movement into surface waters
through an incremental approximation
method and an iteration process using the
bisection method. The report submitted by
the researchers discussed the type of easily
obtained data (wind speed, radon concen-
trations etc.) which can be entered into spe-
cific forms and exported to allow hand-held
or notebook computers to perform calcula-
tions that convert advective radon flux esti-
mates in disintegration per minute per
meter squared per day (dpm/m2/day) into
groundwater discharge volumes in liters
per meter squared per day (L/m2/day).

A continuous radon monitor process
integrates a commercial radon-in-air moni-
tor (Durridge RAD7) with an air-water
exchanger. Water is continuously pumped
from a desired depth with a submersible
pump to the exchanger. A closed air path
circulates between the 222Rn monitor and
the exchanger. The 222Rn in the air is
measured and recorded electronically. A
separate measurement of the water tem-
perature allows conversion to radon-in-
water via a calculated solubility coefficient.

Using geophysical techniques to locate caves
and conduits in theWoodville Karst Plain.

In 2005/2006, we initiated geophysical
studies and surveys to test the resolution of
such techniques in locating caves and con-
duits in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP)
and Fanning Spring springshed that could







BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


act as pathways for contamination. Two of
these techniques, microgravity and resis-
tivity, were found to be useful in locating
conduits at depths of up to 300 feet (91.4
meters), beyond which the resolution
becomes suspect. Most of the groundwater
flow to Wakulla and Fanning Springs is at
depths within that limit.

In May of 2005, Technos Inc., of Miami,
Florida, was selected by an independent
committee to test the effectiveness of cer-
tain geophysical techniques in determining
the location and morphology of conduits
that dominate this karstic watershed and
are the likely pathways of transporting con-
taminants into the spring system. The
findings of the survey are presented in
Technos Report to the FGS: 05 -146:
Evaluation of geophysical techniques in
determining the location and morphology of
conduits and cavities in karstic settings.
The results showed that microgravity and
resistivity imaging are effective methods
for locating karst conduits within the WKP.
The 2005/2006 surveys built on earlier
studies conducted in 2003/2004 which used
known caves mapped by divers as a frame
of reference for testing the applicability and
resolution of the geophysical techniques.


On the basis of existing data and site
visits, FGS personnel, in conjunction with
Technos and the project team, determined
the optimal locations for survey lines with-
in the WKP and Fanning Spring spring-
shed. Geophysical surveys were carried out
at various locations in the WKP.

Microgravity data along east-west sur-
vey lines through the Woodville Karst
Plain. Approximately 12 line-miles (19.3
kilometers) were surveyed. Microgravity
and resistivity data along a 0.5-mile (0.8
kilometer) test line over known karst con-
duits at Manatee Spring was conducted.
Microgravity data along selected lines
within the Fanning Spring area with a
total survey line length of 4.7 miles (7.6
kilometers) was also conducted.

In the 2003/2004 demonstration proj-
ect, the study showed that the microgravity
method is capable of identifying areas of
karstification associated with known con-
duits. The conduits are detectable as grav-
ity lows due to their missing mass. In addi-
tion to the conduits, possible fracture zones
or other low-density features within the
limestone are detectable in the microgravi-
ty data and can serve as near-surface indi-


Micronravitu Profile Wakulla Snrinns


North South
.Po W S
60
_ T _ _
___ ___ __ _T_ _ __ _ _
0 ______
_____~ ____


100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700


50

0

-50


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700


Wakulla Spring's microgravity data (horizontal scale in feet).





~







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


cators (manifestations) of the deeper con-
duits. An example of the microgravity data
acquired previously over two known large
conduits near Wakulla Springs is shown in
the accompanying figure.

Scientific basis of resistivity imaging

Resistivity imaging data was acquired
along 2,200 feet (670.6 meters) of the test
line at Manatee Spring. Resistivity data
was also acquired at up to eight anomalous
locations defined by the microgravity data



























CSS


in the Fanning Spring area totaling 8,800
feet (2682 meters). Resistivity data from
Leon Sinks is shown below.

Final reports provided summaries of
the methodology, data, quality control,
interpretations, conclusions, and recom-
mendations. They included maps of the sur-
vey lines and the data plotted in profiles
and cross-sections (these and other reports,
data, maps etc. cited in this document; can
be reviewed by contacting Dr. Rodney
DeHan at: rodney.dehan@dep.state.fl.us.





























Fracruae Zones


300 4
Station (ft)


Leon Sinks resistivity imaging data.


---






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


OIL AND GAS SECTION

REGULATORY PROGRAM

The Oil and Gas Section regulates
petroleum exploration and production
within the state and state waters pursuant
to Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and imple-
menting Rules 62C-25 to 62C-30, Florida
Administrative Code. The Section's pri-
mary responsibilities are environmental
protection, safety, conservation of oil and
gas resources, and correlative rights protec-
tion. These objectives are addressed when
permit applications are reviewed and per-
mit conditions are enforced by field inspec-
tion. The Section's home office is located in
Tallahassee and the field offices are in Jay
and Ft. Myers. The Section's key activities
include permitting of geophysical, drilling,
and transport operations, inspecting field
operations, tracking exploration, drilling,
and production, enforcing financial security
requirements, and maintaining databases
for well and geophysical permits. During
2005/2006, Oil and Gas Section staff con-
ducted 6392 inspections and reviewed 107
industry proposals.

DRILLING AND PRODUCTION

Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude
oil and 5.9 billion cubic feet of natural gas
were produced in Florida during 2005 and
2006. On December 31, 2006 the state's
cumulative production totals reached 600
million barrels of oil and 635 billion cubic
feet of gas. Florida's annual petroleum pro-
duction rates peaked in 1978 at 48 million
barrels of oil and 52 billion cubic feet of gas
which ranked Florida 8th among oil pro-
ducing states. Since 1945, the state has
received approximately 1383 drilling per-
mit applications, of which 319 wells were
never drilled, 716 were dry holes, and 347
became producers. The state currently has
56 producing wells operating within 9
active oil and gas fields. One field with 3


II


Ed Garrett, Oil and Gas Section
Administrator (photo by David Taylor).

wells is currently shut in and 12 formerly
producing fields have been permanently
plugged and abandoned. Drilling began
under ExxonMobil's Permit 1322 in Jay
Field, August 9, 2005.

Drilling In North Florida

Three new production wells were per-
mitted and drilled in north Florida. All
three were drilled in Jay Field by
ExxonMobil Production Company and all
three successfully tested for crude oil and
natural gas. In early 2005, one wildcat well
was completed by United Energy
Conservation, LLC in an orange grove
south of Lake Placid in Highlands County.
It was a dry hole.

Jay Field continues to dominate state
production with approximately 64% of the
state's total oil and 97% of the gas. Jay
Field has now produced 419 million barrels
of oil and 557 billion cubic feet of natural
gas. Oil production at Jay for the 10 year
period ending December 31, 2006 dropped
67% while statewide production dropped
62%. The state's last field discovery well






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Annual

Crude Oil Production

1943 2006
45 -

40 -

35 -

30 -


1945 Io50 1965 1960 1966 1970 1976 1960 1986 1990 1996 2000 2006
Year


was drilled in 1988 at
Escambia County.


McDavid Field in


GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

During 2005-2006, one geophysical
survey totaling 18 miles (29 kilometers)
was conducted by Zinke & Trumbo, Inc.
under Permit No. G-161-05 along I-10 in
Santa Rosa and Okaloosa Counties.

The survey also included an 8-mile
(12.9 kilometer) survey line which crossed
the interstate (rig is located on right-of-
way). The survey method was 2-dimension-
al reflection/refraction using vibrating
energy sources.

One other geophysical application for
Permit G-162-06 was submitted by Collier
Resources Company for a 72 square mile
(186.5 square kilometers) 3-dimensional
seismic survey using explosives in the Big
Cypress National Preserve. The application


was withdrawn shortly before the
Department considered approval/denial.

OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM

During 2005, plugging operations con-
tinued under a 5-year program approved by
the Legislature to conduct remedial plug-


Vibrating Trucks along 1-10, Permit G-161-
05, May 2006 (photo by David Taylor).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


going on old, improperly p]lu;.;II and aban-
doned oil and gas wells throughout the
state. These wells were generally drilled
before the implementation of the State's
formal regulatory system of rigorous per-
mitting and inspection. The targeted wells
were prioritized on the basis of potential


threat to potable groundwater. The sec-
tion's petroleum engineer directed a con-
tracted drilling service to plug one 8000-ft
(2438 meters) well in St. John's County and
one 12,000-ft (3658 meters) well in Collier
County. The final two years of the plugging
project were aborted.


Photo of rig on the Interstate 10 right-of-way in Okaloosa and Santa Rosa Counties (photo
by John Lecesse).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


EQUIPMENT ACQUISITION


Alpha Spectrometer

The Coastal Program acquired a new
Alpha Spectrometer for 210Pb dating sed-
iments covering an age range of up to ca.
120 years. The application of this isotope
dating method to the marine environ-
ment permits the establishment of a
geochronology for sediment cores taken
from salt marshes, establishing sedi-
ment accumulation rates in a changing
coastal environment, and identifying
natural catastrophic events. Another
dating technique available with this
spectrometer uses a uranium series dise-
quilibrium method to date Quaternary
deposits, deep sea sediments, corals, cal-
cite/aragonite mollusks, speleothems,
marine shells, and peat up to 350,000
years.

The Ortec Octete Plus Alpha


Spectrometer is a fully integrated control
for eight internal alpha spectrometers,
automatic networking, acquisition and
analysis of the data using Windows plat-
form 32-bit software. This instrument is
currently housed at the FGS environ-
mental isotope laboratory. The Lab is
equipped with a radioisotope fume hood
and a Mega Pure 3A water
distillation/deionization unit.

Spectrophotometer

A Spectrophotometer was also
acquired by the Coastal Program in
2005. This DR-4000 Spectrophotometer
is used for water quality measurements.
This includes the measurement of inor-
ganic contaminants such as arsenic, bar-
ium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead,
nitrate, nickel, selenium, aluminum,
iron, manganese, sulfate, and zinc.


Adel Dabous operating the FGS Alpha spectrometer (photo by Jim Sparr).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


PUBLICATIONS


FGS PUBLICATIONS

The following reports in the FGS publi-
cation series were published during the
period from January 2005 through
December 2006:

BIENNIAL REPORT

Greenhalgh, T., Ladner, J., and
Rupert, F., 2005, Florida Geological
Survey Biennial Report 23, 2003-2004:
Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report
23, 112 p.

This report summarizes the Florida
Geological Survey activities, projects, pub-
lications and other staff activities and
accomplishments during the biennial peri-
od 2003-2004.

FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM

The Florida Geology Forum newsletter
is designed to reach a wide range of readers
interested in geology and natural resources
of Florida. Each issue includes current
events and activities at the FGS as well as
meeting announcements and contributed
articles from other geoscience organiza-
tions and university geology departments.

Poulson, P., ed., 2005, Florida Geology
Forum, v. 19, no. 1, March 2005, 12 p.

Bond, P., ed., 2005, Florida Geology
Forum, v. 19, no. 2, October 2005, 12 p.

2006, Florida Geology Forum,
v. 20, no. 1, March 2006, 12 p.

2006, Florida Geology Forum,
v. 20, no. 2, October 2006, 12 p.

Schmidt, Walt, 2005, Geologic hazards:
earthquakes, volcanoes, sinkholes, hurri-
canes, floods, and tsunamis Oh My!!, in


Florida Geology Forum, v. 19, no. 1, March
2005, p. 8-9.

Schmidt, Walt, 2005, Geohazards -
Florida Style, in Florida Geology Forum, v.
19, no. 2, October 2005, p. 8-9.

Schmidt, Walt, 2006, Understanding
"acceptable risk"; Living on our dynamic
Earth,: in Florida Geology Forum, v. 20, no.
1, March 2006, p. 9-10.

Schmidt, Walt, 2006, Property Owners
"imminent danger" from sinkholes and sea
level rise, in Florida Geology Forum, v. 20,
no. 2, October 2006, p. 9.

OPEN FILE MAP SERIES

Green, R. C., Evans III, W. L., Paul, D.
T., and Scott, T. M., 2005, Geologic map of
the eastern portion of the U.S.G.S.
1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle,
northern Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Open File Map Series 94, [2 sheets].

Plate 1 shows a geologic map depicting the
surficial geology of the area. Plate 2 depicts
several geologic cross sections of the study
area.

Greenhalgh, T. H., and Baker, A. E.,
2005, Florida springs protection areas:
Florida Geological Survey Open File Map
Series 95, [1 sheet].

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
was asked to create an updatable "Florida
Springs Protection Areas" map for the
Florida Department of Community Affairs.
The purpose of the map is to identify areas
that contribute flow to Florida's springs
and provide growth and land use decision-
makers with a published resource to assist
them in protecting and restoring the quan-
tity and quality of spring discharge.
Utilizing data from Florida water manage-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ment districts, the U.S. Geological Survey
and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, the FGS uti-
lized GIS software, expert knowledge and
interpretation to generate a map delineat-
ing springs protection areas. Initially,
delineated springsheds and documented
springs locational data layers were applied
to a map of Florida. Next, a data layer
identifying areas where the Floridan
aquifer system (FAS) is overlain with less
than 100 feet of overburden was applied.
This layer was utilized to address recharge
and vulnerability of the FAS to contamina-
tion. To refine the resulting springs pro-
tection areas identified to this point, areas
were removed where the FAS is known to
be confined. Small isolated springs protec-
tion areas were merged to form a contigu-
ous protection area. Then, utilizing a 2000
FAS potentiometric surface data layer,
boundaries of the springs protection areas
were further refined. Finally, a township
buffer was added to address the lateral
uncertainty of springshed boundaries,
which are known to be dynamic. In addi-
tion, rules or policies stemming from this
map can easily reference the township
boundary. Several third magnitude
springs (discharging <10 cubic feet per sec-
ond) fell outside the buffered springs pro-
tection area. Utilizing published recharge
rates, an area of 15 square miles would be
required to generate this amount of flow.
Circles encompassing 15 square miles cen-
tered on the spring vent were drawn as pro-
tection area boundaries for these springs.

Green, R. C., Paul, D. T., Evans, W. L.
III., Scott, T. M., and Petrushak, S. B.,
2006, Geologic map of the western portion
of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Lake City
quadrangle, northern Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Open File Map Series 97.

Plate 1 shows a geologic map depicting
the surficial geology of the area. Plate 2
depicts several geologic cross sections of the
study area.


REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS

Cichon, J. R., Baker, A. E., Wood, A. R.,
and Arthur, J. D., 2005, Wekiva aquifer
vulnerability assessment: Florida
Geological Survey Report of Investigations
104, 36 p.

The Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (WAVA) was completed to pro-
duce a map that predicts relative contami-
nation potential of the Floridan aquifer sys-
tem in the region. The geostatistical tech-
nique used to produce the map is weights of
evidence (WofE) modeling technique used
in the statewide Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Use of
WofE requires the combination of diverse
spatial data which are used to describe and
analyze interactions and generate predic-
tive models. In WAVA, the spatial data is
composed of a training point theme and evi-
dential themes. The training point theme
consists of locations of known occurrences.
In WAVA these are wells that exceed a cer-
tain concentration of dissolved oxygen.
Wells with high dissolved oxygen concen-
trations are indicative of areas where a
good connection exists between the top of
the aquifer and land surface. The eviden-
tial themes include soil permeability,
buffered effective karst features, intermedi-
ate aquifer system (IAS) thickness and
head difference between the surficial
aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer
system. These themes act as evidence in
the model by either protecting the aquifer
from contamination or allowing contamina-
tion to move quickly from land surface to
the top of the aquifer system (i.e., areas of
thick IAS sediments versus areas of thin
IAS sediments). The WofE technique quan-
tifies relationships between these eviden-
tial themes and the training point theme in
order the predict zones of vulnerability.
These zones are classified into a primary
protection zone, a secondary protection






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


zone and a tertiary protection zone. These
protection zones will be used in decision
making, development of rules, or policies
regarding environmental conservation, pro-
tection, growth management and planning.

POSTER

Means, G. H., and Anderson, D. S., 2005,
Springs of Marion County: Florida
Geological Survey Poster 14, Color, 24" x
36".

This map series highlights the numer-
ous springs found in Marion County. It
also depicts the areas that contribute flow
to Rainbow and Silver Springs and contains
photos of other springs found in the county.
In addition, there are several paragraphs
about the occurrence and health of springs
around the state.

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS

Copeland, R. E. (Compiler), 2005, Florida
Spring Classification System and Spring
Glossary: Florida Geological Survey Special
Publication 52 (revised with addendum
pages to address spring magnitude).

This publication elaborates on the defi-
nition of sping magnitude, the methodology
used to determine spring magnitude, and
examples.

Schmidt, W., 2005, Geological and geot-
echnical investigation procedures for evalu-
ation of the causes of subsidence damage
in Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Special Publication 57, Online only,
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publica-
tions/sp/sp57d.pdf.

This report is a consensus compilation
from twenty six professionals who partici-
pated in Sinkhole Summit II, a meeting to
discuss said issues. The meeting was initi-


ated by the FGS to solicit input as the
agency prepared to assist the Florida State
University, College of Business in its report
to the Florida Legislature in response to
Chapter 627.7077 Florida Statutes. This
report should assist the insurance indus-
try, geologic and geotechnical consultants,
government agencies, property owners,
and the public, in providing a template for
sinkhole investigations protocols.

Anonymous, 2005, 4th annual hydrogeol-
ogy consortium workshop: solving water
pollution problems in the Wakulla spring
shed of north Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Special Publication 58, CD format
only.

In 2005 the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) co-sponsored this workshop in an
effort to bring together the various parties
knowledgeable and involved in activities
that potentially impact the water quality
in Wakulla Spring. The main objective of
the workshop was to facilitate open and
scientifically-based discussion of these
activities and the available data to better
understand the hydrogeology of the system
and its reaction to various land use activi-
ties. A common objective of the co-sponsors
was to reverse the observed and document-
ed deterioration of the spring's water qual-
ity. To further bolster the objectivity of the
workshop and the legitimacy of its find-
ings; the co-sponsors invited a group of rep-
utable scientists to act as an independent
peer review committee and to write a
report reflecting their impressions of the
information presented. This compilation of
presentations, data, figures, panel findings
and recommendations, along with the Peer
Reviewers Report, reflects the professional
opinions of authors, presenters and partic-
ipants and does not constitute endorse-
ment by the FGS or the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection.
The workshop proceedings are being pub-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


lished as an FGS Special Publication to
facilitate scientific discussion of the issues
involved and to educate the public at large
in the hope of conserving this priceless nat-
ural resource for future generations.


MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS


Lloyd, Jacqueline M. (editor and compil-
er), 2006, Florida Geological Survey
Annual Work Plan, FY 2006-2007:
Unpublished internal report, 76 p.

This annual work plan covers the proj-
ects and activities planned by the
DEP/FGS for the 2006-2007 fiscal year
(FY06-07). In addition to describing the
projects and activities, the report provides
background information which places the
selection and prioritization of projects and
activities within a rational framework.
This information includes the organiza-
tional structure, the program mission and
mandates, needs-assessment methods as
well as project selection and prioritization
methods, program products, and project
evaluation methods.

Lloyd, Jacqueline M. (editor and compil-
er), 2005, Florida Geological Survey
Employee Handbook Revisions:
Unpublished internal report, 164 p.

The DEP provides an online Employee
Handbook to familiarize employees with
the Department, its functions and policies,
special programs, benefits, rules and regu-
lations, and the Department's expectations
of you. The FGS Employee Handbook adds
to this with additional information specific
to the FGS and its history, mission, organ-
ization, and policies and procedures. This
handbook is periodically revised as policies
and procedures evolve and change.

Schmidt, Walter, 2005, Report to the
2006 Florida Legislature As Required By
Chapter 2005-111, Laws of Florida,
Regarding Activities Relating To The


Sinkhole Database; in preparation and in
consultation with the Department of
Financial Services.

PAPERS BY STAFF IN
OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS

Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A.A., and Cowart,
J.B., 2005, Chapter 24: Water-rock geo-
chemical considerations for aquifer storage
and recovery: Florida case studies, in
Tsang, C-F. and Apps, J.A., eds.,
Underground Injection Science and
Technology, Developments in Water
Science: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 327-339.

Three aquifer storage and recovery
(ASR) facilities in southwest Florida are
investigated to further understand water-
rock geochemical interactions during the
ASR process. Facilities included in this
study are the Rome Avenue ASR
(Hillsborough County), Punta Gorda ASR
(Charlotte County), and Peace River ASR
(DeSoto County). All of these utilize the
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone as the stor-
age zone. Combined results from multiple-
cycle tests suggest that As, Co, Fe, Mn, Mo,
Ni, V, and U are mobilized from the aquifer
system matrix into the injected waters. Of
these metals, only As is of concern with
respect to water-quality standards.
Mobilization is most apparent during the
recovery phase of a cycle test at the ASR
well. Arsenic and U mobilization are the
most consistent and well-documented
trends, with maximum concentrations
exceeding 112 and 12 pg/L, respectively.
Successive cycle tests indicate that maxi-
mum observed As concentrations decrease
with time; however, this preliminary obser-
vation holds true only where both cycle-test
injection volumes are similar and exposure
of "new" aquifer matrix to the injected
water is minimal. This result is not only
desired, but expected, assuming that the As
source is a fixed and consistently depleted
concentration within the aquifer matrix
and not replenished due to changes in






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


redox or pH conditions, mixing, or changes
in flow paths.

In contrast, data from paired cycle
tests, where the second injection input vol-
ume is greater, reveal different results.
Arsenic concentrations in the second-cycle
test are equal to or greater than those of
the first-cycle test due to the exposure of
input waters to a larger volume of previ-
ously unaffected (e.g., unleached) aquifer
matrix.

Evaluation of cycle test data demon-
strates that mobilization varies not only
between cycle tests in a given well, but also
within wells in the same well field, and
among ASR wells in the same region utiliz-
ing the same lithostratigraphic unit as a
storage zone. Arsenian pyrite is among the
sources of As and other trace metals in the
aquifer; however, preliminary sequential
extraction studies and work by other
researchers suggest that phases such as
organic contain As and other metals.
Moreover, organic material may contain U,
which is also thought to be associated with
carbonate minerals in the Suwannee
Limestone. Further work evaluating cycle
tests utilizing different aquifers, sequential
extraction studies, and geochemical model-
ing are needed to enhance our understand-
ing of mobilized metals during ASR. With
this knowledge comes an improved ability
to minimize these geochemical effects on
water quality, and facilitate more cost-effi-
cient ASR operations in Florida by reducing
the need for post-recovery treatment.

Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A., and Fischler,
C., 2005, Application of bench-scale leach-
ing studies to predict hydrogeochemical
processes during aquifer recharge:
Geological Society of America Abstracts
with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 166.

Mobilization of As and other metals
during artificial recharge into upper
Floridan aquifer system carbonates is a


cause for concern. During initial recharge,
oxygen-rich surface waters displace native,
reduced groundwater within permeable
storage zones. Water quality in the aquifer
is controlled by changes in physio-chemical
conditions that affect water-rock interac-
tions and mineral stability. As a result,
naturally occurring As may be released into
stored water with concentrations exceeding
150 ug/L. A principal mechanism for the
release of As and associated metals (e.g.,
Ni, Co, V) is oxidation of arsenian pyrite,
which occurs locally in trace amounts in the
aquifer matrix. Additional forms of As iden-
tified by sequential extraction studies
include soluble As and As bound to carbon-
ates, oxides and organic.

Bench-scale leaching studies have been
employed to assess metals mobilization
during simulated recharge and recovery
using aquifer core chips (Eocene Avon Park
Formation) and both deionized/distilled
and source (recharge) waters. Each leach-
ing apparatus, which contains 1000ml of
water and 300g of core chips, is designed to
minimize evaporation, allow measurement
of physical parameters (pH, DO, etc.), and
vary DO concentrations through aeration
or N2 (gas) saturation. Cycle test simula-
tions involve a water change every month.
Leachate samples are collected for trace
metal analyses. In addition, whole-rock
analyses of major, trace and rare-earth ele-
ments, as well as microprobe studies pro-
vide characterization aquifer matrix com-
positions.

Results of three simulated cycle tests
confirm that; 1) the experimental water-
rock ratio yields leachate concentrations
comparable to levels observed in field stud-
ies; 2) DO saturation causes an increase in
the release of As; 3) successive cycles result
in a step-wise decrease in mobilized metal
concentrations. The leaching studies also
demonstrate that low-DO (< 0.8 mg/L) con-
ditions exhibit increasing As concentra-
tions with time. This ongoing research also






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


includes microprobe element mapping of
pre- and post-leached thin sections. Results
of these bench-scale leaching and extrac-
tion studies will hopefully prove to be a
cost-efficient technique for predicting
hydrogeochemical conditions and processes
at the field scale.

Copeland, R., 2005, An overview of the
influences of scarps on a variety of topics
within the Suwannee River Basin of
Florida: in Copeland R., ed., Southeastern
Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook
44, p. 1-17.

Geomorphic escarpments have had a
profound influence on the lives of the resi-
dents of the Suwannee River Basin of
Florida. Scarps have influenced the devel-
opment of karst features such as sinkholes,
swallets, and springs. Scarps have also
influenced where the Native American and
the original European pioneers settled. For
example, the location of scarps influence
where the settlers obtained their water and
the quality of the water they drank. In
more recent time, scarps have significantly
affected land use patterns and thus the
economy of the citizens of north-central
Florida.

For these and other reasons, the
Southeastern Geological Society organized
a trip in order to see the influences that
scarps have had in north-central Florida.
The influences that a large scarp (the Cody
Scarp) and a small one (the San Pedro Bay
"Scarplet") were examined, compared, and
contrasted. In particular, comparisons
were made regarding the highlands above
the crest, the lowlands below the toe and
the transition zone between the correspon-
ding crests and the toes. Comparisons
included, but were not restricted to, topog-
raphy and relief, surface-water drainage,
lake characteristics, aquifers, groundwater
chemistry, relative groundwater recharge
rates, human development and land use
patterns.


Scott, T.M., 2005, Revisions to the geomor-
phology of Florida focusing on north-central
Florida and the eastern panhandle,: in
Copeland, R., ed., Geomorphic influence of
scarps in the Suwannee River Basin,
Southeastern Geological Society field trip
guidebook 44, p. 18-36.

The physiography of Florida exhibits
quite a bit of variation although it is subtle
in comparison to North Carolina with its
coastal plain and mountainous features.
Many visitors to Florida see only the
coastal lowlands and think of Florida as a
very flat plain. Some areas of the State,
such as the Everglades, are remarkable for
being extremely flat with very little varia-
tion in elevation over vast areas. However,
in the interior of the peninsula and in the
panhandle, there are areas of rolling hills
and valleys with local relief of nearly 200
feet (61 meters). These vistas stand in
stark contrast to the flat profile often asso-
ciated with the typical images of Florida.
The geomorphology is closely associated
with how surface drainage develops, where
and how quickly recharge to the aquifer
systems occurs, and, in conjunction with
the climate, what ecosystems dominate
various areas. The geomorphology often
dictates where development occurs and
how susceptible an area is to karst process-
es.

The last state-wide geomorphic map
published by the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) at a 1:2,000,000 scale was released in
1964 (White, Vernon and Puri, 1964).
Brooks published a geomorphic map of the
state at a scale of 1:500,000 in 1982. The
new geomorphic map is a combination of an
upgrade of the 1964 map and a reinterpre-
tation of the state's physiography. Utilizing
a combination of old-fashioned geological
mapping techniques and modern, digital
techniques, a new geomorphic map of
Florida is being produced by the FGS.
Initial mapping employed visual inspection
of 1:24,000 scale topographic maps to iden-






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


tify physiographically-similar areas then
transferring those areas to a 1:750,000
scale map by hand. The resultant map was
digitized. The digital outlines of the geo-
morphic features are being overlain on
topography and aerial photography layers
to aid in the resolution of boundary issues.
Field checking of boundaries is occurring
during travel for other FGS projects.

Presented in this paper is a revised
interpretation of Florida's geomorphic
framework. This interpretation relies on
previous interpretations for the foundation.
Among these previous investigations are
Brooks (1981), Cooke and Mossom (1929),
Cooke (1939, 1945) and White (1958, 1970).
White, Vernon and Purl (1964) delineated
the geomorphic subdivisions that most
geologists working in the state utilize
today. The geomorphology recognized in
this publication follows this framework
with some modification. Interpretations of
the geomorphology of Alabama (Drahovzal,
1968) and Georgia (Clark and Zisa, 1976)
were utilized in tying the regional geomor-
phology together and avoiding "state-line
faults."

Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2005
Geological discussion of the Rucks' Pit,
northeastern Okeechobee County, Florida,
in Maddox, G., Scott, T.M., and Means,
G.H., eds., Southeastern Geological Society
Field Trip Guidebook 45, p. 6-10.

In early 1990, a USGS geologist inves-
tigating the Plio-Pleistocene of Florida
approached the senior author to discuss the
distribution and lithostratigraphy of these
shell-bearing sediments. The USGS geolo-
gist mentioned, in passing, a pit encoun-
tered in the northeastern portion of
Okeechobee County. Dr. Scott was sur-
prised to learn that the pit operators were
mining a "coquina" at this location since he
had not seen a coquina or a lithified shelly
sand deposit west of the St. Johns River
Swamp. Prior to this time, he had only


found pits west of the river and swamp to
be mining sand and shell. When he finally
got to visit the site, he found a small, fami-
ly-run mining operation. The pit was
pumped exposing a limited thickness of a
sandy coquina and lithified sand reminis-
cent of the faces of the Anastasia
Formation exposed along the coast of Palm
Beach County. Inspecting the spoil piles
and the pit walls, he found that there was
shelly sand below the coquina that was
only occasionally encountered, often in
areas where the coquina was thinner.
Overlying the coquina was younger shelly
sand which, in turn, was overlain by sand
with varying amounts of organic material.

The areal distribution of the coquina
faces is not well known since little explo-
ration off-site has been done. Mr. Edwin
Rucks, the property owner, discussed the
rock distribution on his property and point-
ed out how the rock ended suddenly at the
eastern end of the now water filled north-
ern pit. His description of how the rock just
ended sounded like wave cut erosion as we
see today along the east coast exposures of
the Anastasia Formation. The coquina
thins from east to west across the property
and appears to be absent west of the oldest
mined area. The current mining activity on
the Rucks' property is quickly running out
of reserves. Exploration may reveal more
data on the extent of the rock in this por-
tion of northeastern Okeechobee County.

Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2005,
Geoheritage resources: An example of
preservation and management in Florida:
Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting Salt Lake City, Utah, Abstracts
with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 190.

The State of Florida, through the
Department of Environmental Protection,
Florida Parks Service, has preserved geo-
heritage resources for the education and
enjoyment of the public. The sites, desig-
nated "State Geological Sites" include
Devil's Millhopper Geological State Park,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Caverns State Park and Windley
Key Fossil Reef Geological State Park.
Numerous other parks and preserves
include geological features within their
boundaries and provide geological informa-
tion on the features to the public, raising
public awareness. Currently, the State
Parks system includes springs, swallets,
river rises (resurgent's), sinkholes, exten-
sive cavern systems and coastal features.
The Nature Conservancy (Blowing Rocks
Preserve and Apalachicola Bluffs and
Ravines) and the Federal government
(Leon Sinks Geological Area, Alexander
Springs and others) also are preserving
geological features in Florida. The Florida
Geological Survey provides information,
interpretations and, often, display materi-
als to the parks and conservation areas.

Florida has more than 700 springs. The
springs have been gathering places for pre-
historic, historic and present day man.
These sites often contain fossils and cultur-
al artifacts of significance. The Florida
Governor's Springs Initiative (begun in
2001) provided funding to investigate
springs and educate the public on springs'
related issues. Recognizing the value these
geologic resources, Florida Forever, a State
land acquisition program, has purchased
hundreds of thousands of acres of ground-
water recharge areas aiding in the protec-
tion of the aquifers and the springs.

The preservation and management of
geoheritage sites and areas relies on edu-
cating the public teaching them what is
beneath their feet and out-of-sight. Without
the backing of the public and the elected
officials, sites of geological importance will
continue to be degraded and, subsequently,
affect our quality of life. Land-use regula-
tions and best management practices allow
for sustainable development in and around
the geoheritage areas. Geological surveys
must be actively involved in the preserva-
tion of the geoheritage sites.


Means, G.H., and Scott, T.M., 2005,
Swallets in Florida: Contaminant path-
ways: Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting Salt Lake City, Utah, Abstracts
with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 435.

Florida's karst landscape is riddled
with thousands of sinkholes and provides
little protection for underlying aquifer sys-
tem from potential contamination. The
Floridan aquifer system, Florida's primary
drinking water aquifer, provides water to
the majority of springs in the state. Florida
is home to more than 700 springs, 33 of
which discharge more than 100 cubic feet
per second (first magnitude). In 2001, the
Governor established the Florida Springs
Initiative (FSI) which provided funding,
through the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, for springs
research and monitoring, outreach and
education, and landowner assistance. The
Florida Geological Survey (FGS) has been
funded yearly, by the FSI, to conduct
research on water quality, water quantity
and location of Florida's springs. In 2004, a
study was funded jointly by the FGS and
FSI to map the distribution of swallets in
Florida with primary attention focused on
springsheds. The goal of the FGS study is
to identify swallets and collect as much per-
tinent data about these features as possi-
ble. These data will be compiled in a data-
base and made available to the appropriate
agencies and the public in ArcGIS format.
Swallets commonly occur in the transition
zone between the upland regions and karst
plains in Florida. Many of these features
receive untreated storm water and other
surface waters directly from urban areas.
Florida's springs have seen a steady decline
in water quality over the past 30 years due
to rapid urbanization, agricultural prac-
tices, and the demands for drinking water
from a rapidly growing population.

It is currently unknown how many
swallets exist within spring recharge
basins and how they affect water quality of






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


springs. Several studies in the Wakulla
and Ichetucknee Springs springsheds have
linked swallets to springs using dye trac-
ing. Many more are suspected of having
direct connections to springs. Since swal-
lets provide direct access to the aquifer it is
important for municipalities, land plan-
ners, and other agencies to know where
they exist and what role they play in sur-
face-water/groundwater systems.

Mirecki, J., Bednar, A., Arthur, J., and
Molina, L., 2005, Trends in arsenic and
radium geochemistry during aquifer stor-
age and recovery in the Upper Floridan
aquifer, Lee County, Florida: National
Ground Water Association Naturally
Occurring Contaminants Conference:
Arsenic, Radium, Radon, and Uranium,
February 24-25, 2005, Charleston, South
Carolina.

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR)
involves recharge of excess potable (treated
drinking) water into permeable zones for
subsequent storage, recovery, and distribu-
tion during dry or high-demand periods.
Geochemical reactions between water and
aquifer material during storage can affect
the quality of recovered water, resulting in
higher post-recovery treatment costs. In
Lee County (Ft. Myers area) Florida, sever-
al ASR systems recharge potable water into
permeable zones of the lower Hawthorn
Group and Suwannee Limestone in which
the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) is devel-
oped in the region. ASR systems generally
consist of a single recharge well and one or
two monitoring wells installed 200 to 400
feet (61 to 122 meters) from the recharge
well. Recharge volumes range between 45
and 130 million gallons. Recharge water
generally is stored for one to six months.
Groundwater-quality data collected during
successive ASR cycle tests at several Lee
County ASR systems show that arsenic
concentration and radium isotope (226Ra,
228Ra) activity increase during recovery.
However, the mechanisms that control
increasing arsenic and radium differ.


Arsenic concentrations increase due to oxi-
dation of microcrystalline pyrite in aquifer
material. Radium isotope activity increases
because of mixing between recharged water
and native UFA water, which shows natu-
rally elevated radium isotope activities.
Arsenic concentrations in native UFA
water and recharged water generally are at
or below the detection limit (1 to 3 pg/L) by
graphite furnace atomic absorption or
inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrom-
etry (ICP-MS) methods. As+3 is the primary
species in recovered water samples. As
recovery proceeds, total dissolved arsenic
concentrations increase to 40 pg/L, and
As+3/As+5 values increase to approximately
1.0 to 1.5 pg/L. All methyl arsenical species
were below detection (-1 pg/L) by ion-chro-
matography/ICP-MS.

Similar increases in arsenic have been
observed at ASR systems in other west cen-
tral Florida counties (Arthur et al., 2001).
The source of arsenic was suggested by
Arthur et al. (2004) to be microcrystalline
pyrite in Suwannee Limestone. Pyrite oxi-
dation is facilitated by dissolved oxygen
concentrations in recharge water that
range between 4 and 8 mg/L and decline
nearly to zero during storage. Geochemical
modeling, bench-scale leaching and extrac-
tion studies, and microprobe analyses are
ongoing to further characterize water-rock
interactions during ASR in the UFA. Gross
alpha values typically serve as a proxy of
uranium-series isotope activity. 226Ra is
most abundant isotope in native water of
the UFA in lower Hawthorn
Group/Suwannee Limestone lithologies,
with activities between 1 and 16 picocuries
(pCi) /L. Recharged potable water shows
226Ra and 228Ra activities of one pCi/L or
less. 226Ra activity increases as recovery
proceeds (5-10 pCi/L) suggesting mixing
between native and recharged waters in
the aquifer. Geochemical models will simu-
late mixing of waters with respect to radi-
um isotopes during ASR cycle testing.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Balsillie, J.H., Means, G.H. and,
Dunbar, J.D., 2006, Fluvial sedimentolog-
ical character of the Florida Ryan/Harley
Site with evidence of no post-depositional
reworking: Geoarchaeology, v. 21, no. 4,
Special Issue: Geoarchaeology and the
Peopling of the New World, p. 363 391.

The Ryan/Harley site (Florida Master
Site File Number: 8Je-1004) is a Middle
Paleo-Indian habitation site containing
Suwannee points. Based on stratigraphic
correlation and diagnostic artifact serra-
tion, Suwannee-age sites have been rela-
tively dated from -10,900 14C yr BP to
-10,500 14C yr BP. Clovis-like traits on the
Suwannee points and other stone tools
from the Ryan/Harley site suggests it dates
to the earlier end of the Suwannee time-
frame. The currently inundated site is par-
tially buried beneath a sediment column
located in a swamp forest and partially
exposed in a side channel section of the
Wacissa River, Jefferson County, Florida.
Research done prior to this analysis deter-
mined that the artifact assemblage
appeared to be unsorted and was contained
in a midden-like unit. Our purpose here is
to further assess the issue of site integrity.
Unconsolidated sediment samples collected
from the artifact bearing horizon and from
horizons immediately above and below the
artifact horizon were analyzed using gran-
ulometric techniques. Arithmetic probabil-
ity plots of the grain-size distributions
show that the sediments were transported
and deposited by fluvial processes. Thus
the Suwannee points and associated arti-
facts and faunal remains appear to have
accumulated during a time of subaerial
exposure, perhaps after a regional water
table decline, and have remained largely or
essentially intact, with little or no post-
depositional reworking. The artifacts and
faunal remains recovered from the artifact-
bearing horizon at Ryan/Harley are distrib-
uted randomly, showing no sign of sorting.
In the fossil suite, two articulated white-


tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) verte-
bra were recovered in situ. The unsorted
nature of artifacts and articulated faunal
remains that are contained within the flu-
vially deposited sediments suggests the
Suwannee point level of the Ryan/Harley
site has remained undisturbed since origi-
nal deposition.

Balsillie, J.H., Means, G.H, Dunbar,
J.D., and Means, R.C., 2006,
Geoarchaeological consideration of the
Ryan-Harley Site (8Je-1004) in the Wacissa
River northern Florida, in Cenozoic
Vertebrates of the America's: Papers to
Honor S. David Webb: Gainesville, Florida
Museum of Natural History Bulletin, v. 45,
no. 4, p. 541 562.

The inundated Ryan-Harley site (8Je-
1004) is located in a swamp forest dissect-
ed by channels of the spring-fed Wacissa
River. The discovery is thought to repre-
sent an undisturbed Middle Paleo-Indian
site placed in time from -10,900 14C BP to
-10,500 14C BP (Anderson et al., 1996;
Goodyear, 1999; Dunbar, 2002).
Distribution and taphonomic analyses of
the artifacts and vertebrate faunal
remains recovered from the Suwannee-
point level suggest the artifact assemblage,
including the faunal remains, represent an
archaeological site component that
remains relatively intact since its time of
deposition. Additional confirmation
beyond the artifact suite was also neces-
sary. To accomplish this, granulometric
analyses of unconsolidated sediment sam-
ples were performed. Samples were col-
lected from the artifact-bearing horizon
and from horizons immediately above and
below the artifact horizon. Arithmetic
probability plots of grain-size distributions
suggest that most but not all of the sandy
sediments were originally transported and
deposited by fluvial processes. The artifact
assemblage, faunal remains, and fine frac-
tion aeolian sand recovered from the site
were deposited subsequent to the fluvial






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


conditions. The artifact assemblage, faunal
remains, and fine fraction eolian sand
recovered from the site were deposited sub-
sequent to the fluvial conditions. The
granulometric analyses as well as other
lines of evidence indicate the Suwannee-
point level at the Ryan-Harley site is
essentially intact with little or no post-
depositional reworking.

Herrera, J.C., Portell, R.W., and Means,
G.H., 2006, Echinoids of a middle to late
Pleistocene deposit from the central
Atlantic Coast of Florida: Southeastern
Section of the Geological Society of
America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 38,
no. 3, p. 17.

Complete tests of three echinoid
species were collected from middle to late
Pleistocene deposit at Dickerson Quarry in
St. Lucie County, Florida. The sand dollar,
Encope michellini, the sea biscuit
Rhyncholampas sp. and the regular sea
urchin Arbacia punctulata were present.
This is the first record of a regular urchin
reported from middle to late Pleistocene
sediments in Florida. In addition, it is only
the second fossil record of the extant sea
urchin A. punctulata. The one previous
report, by F.S. Holmes (1860), was derived
from Simmons' Bluff, South Carolina. The
discovery of Rhyncholampas sp. in this
deposit represents the youngest fossil
occurrence of the genus in Florida. Ten
complete tests and numerous radia of A.
puncutlata were collected along with
dozens of complete tests of E. michellini
and Rhyncholampas sp. The low number of
spines associated with each intact test of A.
punctulata, in addition to the presence of
the two burrowing echinoid species, indi-
cates that the echinoids probably died off-
shore and were washed inshore where dep-
osition and fossilization occurred. Many of
the specimens had barnacles attached to
their surface signifying that the tests sat on
the seafloor for some time prior to burial.
Living specimens of both A. punctulata and


E. michellini are found in Florida's coastal
waters today, while prior to this study, no
known species of Ryncholampas sp. had
survived past the Upper Pliocene/lower
Pleistocene Caloosahatchee Formation. All
three echinoid species were collected from
Unit 4 of the Dickerson Quarry. Unit 4 is a
sandy coquina limestone layer that is litho-
logically similar to the Anastasia
Formation that is found along much of
Florida's Atlantic Coast. A vertebrate fau-
nal assemblage below the echinoid layer
helped confirm that specimens in the study
are no older than middle to late
Pleistocene.

Kromhout, C. and Arthur, J., 2006,
Aquifer framework mapping in SW
Florida: data management, interpolation
and statistical validation: Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 38, no. 7, p. 108.

The goal of the Hydrostratigraphic
Framework of the Southwest Florida
Water Management District project was to
create a detailed series of lithostratigraph-
ic and hydrostratigraphic maps and cross-
sections covering the 16 county (16,000
km2) region to facilitate science-based deci-
sion making with regard to southwest
Florida's ground water resources. Thirty
four cross-sections and 22 surface and
thickness maps were developed based upon
data from 1072 wells. During analysis of
continuous cores, well cuttings, existing
descriptions, and geophysical logs, a sys-
tem was implemented to identify vertical
uncertainty of unit boundaries. Three
dimensional spatial analyses were used to
refine the data on which interpolations
were based. The ordinary kriging interpo-
lator available with in ESRI
Geostatistical Analyst extension was used
to create surface and thickness maps as a
series of grids. All 22 grids were analyzed
in 3D to ensure correct spatial relations at
each stage of the modeling process. Grids






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


were then compared with a 15m digital ele-
vation model to ensure no surfaces exceed-
ed ground surface. The interpolated grids
were subjected to a custom "grid to point"
script created to calculate any elevation
differences between the mapped value and
interpolated values. Contour intervals for
each mapped unit were determined based
upon kriging prediction error statistics.
The resulting maps provide a better vision
and understanding of the geologic and
hydrogeologic 3D architecture in south-
west Florida.

Poucher, S., and Copeland, R., 2006,
Speleological and karst glossary of Florida
and the Caribbean: Gainesville, University
Press of Florida, 196 p.

In April 2003, the Florida Geological
Survey and the Hydrogeology Consortium
sponsored a workshop regarding the signif-
icance of caves in the management and
protections of Florida's watersheds. One
conclusion of the workshop was that,
because caves contain and support biota
sensitive to pollution, the environmental
health of caves is critically important to
regulators in the management and protec-
tion of both springsheds and watersheds.
Because of the importance of caves, and
because cavers (both wet and dry) spend
considerable time inside caves, it is imper-
ative that they communicate their sub-
stantial knowledge of caves in a standard-
ized manner with each other and with the
scientific community. For these reasons,
during the workshop it was recommended
that a cave glossary, emphasizing terms
used in and near Florida, including the
Caribbean, be developed.

As a result of the workshop, a commit-
tee was formed to generate the glossary.
The Florida Committee for the Terminology
for Cave and Karst Systems was estab-
lished. The committee consisted of repre-
sentatives from the dry caving and the


cave diving communities, as well as geolo-
gists from the Florida Geological Survey.
Ms. Sandy Poucher of the National
Speleological Society, Cave Diving Section,
and Rick Copeland of the Florida
Geological Survey served as Co-Chairs.
The purposes of the glossary are to: (1)
improve the overall understanding of wet
and dry caves in Florida and the Caribbean
Sea, and (2) improve consistency in the
usage of terms associated with caves.

Scott, T. M., 2006, The Doc Haney
Experience: Southeastern Section
Geological Society of America meeting,
Knoxville, TN March 23-24, 2006,
Abstracts with Program, v. 38, no. 3, p. 65.

Little did I know when I applied in the
spring of 1971 to attend Eastern Kentucky
University that I would become Dr. Donald
Haney's first grad student? Being a rather
typical beginning MS student, I knew I
loved geology but did not have a thesis topic
in mind. One day, Doc called me into his
office and asked if I liked doing X-ray dif-
fraction analyses. I did, so he suggested a
thesis topic to me the clay mineralogy of
the Silurian Crab Orchard Formation. I
started researching the topic and kept Doc
informed as to my progress. In the mean-
time, I "discovered" a fascination with the
quartz geodes found in the Mississippian
section of eastern Kentucky. Several of us
grad students began going into the Knobs
Region to collect geodes. We started cutting
them and making bookends, pen sets and
other items. Doc told us he would purchase
saw blades for us as long as we gave him
selected pieces which he used as gifts to
"important" people. I decided that a thesis
on the geodes would be more fun and
approached Doc. He said, flat out, no, stick
with the clay project. Doc further stated
that I needed to spend more time on the
thesis project and less in the field collecting
geodes. This led to Doc finding me hanging
on an outcrop, collecting geodes when I was






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


supposed to be in the lab. This and other
Doc Haney and EKU Geology stories will be
discussed.

Because of Doc Haney, the other pro-
fessors, and the collection of grad students
that were in the Geology Department dur-
ing the first years of the grad program, I
obtained excellent geological education.
This also brought about membership in a
unique group within the geological commu-
nity, the Eastern Kentucky Mafia. Donald
Haney has been an important influence in
my geological career and for that, Thanks
Doc!

Scott, T.M., and Courtney, J., 2006, The
southern extension of the Central Florida
Phosphate District A stratigraphic discus-
sion and future mining plans, in 21st
Regional Phosphate Conference, October
11-12, 2006, Lakeland, Florida,: Florida
Institute of Phosphate Research, p. 12.


For more than 100 years, phosphate
has been mined in central Florida.
Although other deposits have been identi-
fied and one in northern Florida actively
mined, the deposits of the Central Florida
Phosphate District (CFPD) have remained
the mainstay of the state's phosphate
industry. As higher grade deposits were
depleted, mining has moved to the south in
to lower grade deposits.

The highest grade deposits were found
in the Bone Valley Member, Peace River
Formation of the Hawthorn Group. The
deposits currently being mined, with few
exceptions, are in the Peace River
Formation undifferentiated. The Peace
River Formation thickens to the south in
the southern extension of the CFPD. It is
primarily a siliciclastic unit composed of
clay and quartz sand with widely varying
amounts of sand-sized phosphate. Varying
amounts of carbonate occur both within the
sediment matrix and as discrete beds.


n Sr


., -r It


Dragline in a modern phosphate mine (photo by Tom Scott)






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PRESENTATIONS


2005

Conserving South Florida's Groundwater
Resources, There is still a lot we don't
know. What Information do we need to col-
lect to make the most informed decisions?
Presented to the 13th Annual Lecture
Series "The Delicate Balance of Nature" at
the John D. Pennekamp Coral Reef State
Park, Key Largo, FL, by Walt Schmidt,
January, 2005.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
American Water Works Association, Palm
Beach Gardens, FL, by Jon Arthur,
January, 2005.

Understanding Exploration Oil Drilling
Units, Routine and Non-Routine Unit
Criteria. Presented to the DEP Division of
State Lands, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt
Schmidt, February, 2005.

Sand Source Availability Investigations:
the Search for Sand for Duval County,
Florida, Beach Renourishment. Presented
to the National Convention on Shore and
Beach Preservation Technology
Sustainable Beaches Conference Destin,
FL, by Dan Phelps (with Garry W. Holem,
Senior Geologist, Jacksonville District
USACE), February, 2005.

Water Resource Lecture Series. Presented
to the FAMU/FSU School of Engineering,
Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means,
February, 2005.

Geology and Water Resources of Suwannee
County and Vicinity. Presented to the
Branford Rotary Club, Branford, FL, by
Harley Means, February, 2005.


A Geological Overview of Florida.
Presented to the Florida Department of
Health, Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means,
February, 2005.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
Presented to the University of Florida
Department of Geology, Gainesville, FL, by
Jon Arthur, February, 2005.

Overview of the Geology and Hydrogeology
of Northwest Florida. Presented to the
Florida Water Well Drilling Contractor
Continuing Education Course for Licensing
Requirements, Carr Building Training
Room, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt,
March, 2005.

Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemistry. Southeast District Office of
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, West Palm Beach, FL. Jon
Arthur, March, 2005.

Geology of Florida. Lecture at FSU Pepper
Center, Tallahassee, FL, by Tom Scott,
March 2005.

The Florida Geological Survey. Lecture to
the University of Florida Geology of Florida
class, Gainesville, FL, by Tom Scott, April,
2005.

Introduction to Geomorphic Influence of
Scarps in the Suwannee River Basin.
Southeastern Geological Society Annual
Meeting, Live Oak, FL, by Rick Copeland,
May, 2005.

Florida's aquifers: vulnerability and water-
rock interactions. FDEP Wastewater
Workshop, Daytona Beach, FL, by Jon
Arthur, May, 2005.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Geology of Wakulla County in Support of
the Proposed Model Springs Protection
Land Development Code. Presented to the
Wakulla County Commissioners,
Crawfordville, FL, by Walt Schmidt,
August, 2005.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
Florida Environmental Health Association
Annual Meeting, Jacksonville Beach, FL,
by Jon Arthur, August, 2005.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
Florida Association of Professional
Geologists, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur,
August, 2005.

Geohazards in Florida and the Geology of
the Florida Platform. Presented to the
Graduate Geohazards class at Florida
State University Department of
Geosciences, Tallahassee, FL, by Ron
Hoenstine, September, 2005.

The Geology of the Woodville Karst Plain.
Lecture presented to the Fall 2005 Master
Wildlife Conservationist class,
Crawfordville, FL, by Frank Rupert,
September, 2005.

The Progress of Sand Source Availability
Investigations off the Northeast Coast of
Florida. Presented at the Minerals
Management Service Meeting, Melbourne,
FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2005.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
Florida Association of Professional
Geologists, Pensacola, FL, by Jon Arthur,
September, 2005.

Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter
Building, Tallahassee, FL, by Craig
Berninger, Paulette Bond, Ken Campbell,
Cindy Fischler, Tom Greenhalgh, Eric
Harrington, Jim Ladner, Jackie Lloyd,
Clint Kromhout, Elizabeth Kromhout, Dan
Phelps, Frank Rupert and Walt Schmidt,
October, 2005.


Geology and Hydrogeology of Marion
County with an Emphasis on Springs.
Presentation to the City of Ocala, City
Council, Ocala, FL, by Harley Means,
October, 2005.

The behavior of As and other metals in
bench-scale leaching studies that simulate
ASR conditions. ASR V Forum American
Ground Water Trust, Tampa, FL, by Jon
Arthur, October, 2005.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
University of Florida, Department of
Geology Seminar, Gainesville, FL, by Jon
Arthur, November, 2005.

The Florida Geological Survey. Lecture to
UF Geology of Florida class, Gainesville,
FL, by Tom Scott, November, 2005.

Where is the Sand to Replenish the
Beaches of the North and Central East
Coast of Florida? A presentation at the
80th Annual Coastal Engineering Research
Board Meeting, St. Petersburg, FL, by Dan
Phelps, November, 2005.

Sand Investigations off the Central and
Northeast Florida Coast. Presented at the
Sustainable Beaches Conference, St.
Petersburg, FL, by Dan Phelps, November,
2005.

Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of
the Southwest Florida Water Management
District. Southwest Florida Water
Management District, Brooksville, FL, by
Rick Copland, Neal Doran, Aaron White
and Sam Upchurch, December, 2005.

2006

Research at the FDEP/Florida Geological
Survey. Department of Geology and
Geography, Florida Atlantic University,
Boca Raton, FL, by Jon Arthur, February,
2006.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Geology of Florida's Springs. Lecture to
the Sierra Club of Gainesville, Gainesville,
FL, by Harley Means, February, 2006.

Swallet Project Swallets in the Wakulla
Springshed. Lecture to the Wakulla
Springs Working Group, Tallahassee, FL,
by Harley Means, February, 2006.

Professional Geology Careers in Florida.
Department of Geology and Geography,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton,
FL, by Jon Arthur, February, 2006.

Nutrient Trends in the Water Quality of
Florida Springs. Poster Presentation at the
American Institute of Hydrology, Baton
Rouge, LA, by Aaron White, Rick Copland,
Neal Doran and Sam Upchurch, April,
2006.

Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of
the Northwest Florida Water Management
District. Northwest Water Management
District, Havana, FL, by Rick Copland,
Neal Doran, Aaron White and Sam
Upchurch, April, 2006.

Natural Hazards Affecting Public Works:
Sinkholes in Florida. Presentation to the
American Public Works Association 2006
Annual Conference, Tallahassee, FL, by
Frank Rupert, May, 2006.

Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of
the St. Johns River Water Management
District. Presented to the St. Johns River
Water Management District Palatka, FL,
by Rick Copland, Neal Doran, Aaron White
and Sam Upchurch, May, 2006.

Geologic and Geophysical Investigations on
the East Coast of Florida. Presentation at
the Minerals Management Service
Information Transfer Meeting, Melbourne,
FL, by Dan Phelps, June, 2006.

Fanning/Manatee Flagging for Resistivity
Study. 24th Jefferson County Commission


meeting presentation, Monticello, FL, by
Tom Greenhalgh, August, 2006.

What is happening to Florida's Springs and
Ground Water?: Florida Local
Environmental Resource Agencies 2006
Annual Meeting, Sarasota, FL, by Neal
Doran, Rick Copeland, Aaron, White, and
Sam Upchurch, Gail Sloane, and Jay
Silvanima, August, 2006.

The Floridan Aquifer: Florida's Fragile
Underground Reservoir. Silver River
Museum and Environmental Education
Center, Ocala, FL, by Harley Means,
August, 2006.

The geology of the Leon Sinks Geological
Area Lecture to the Tallahassee
Community College Green Guide Program,
Fall 2006 class, Crawfordville, FL, by
Frank Rupert, September, 2006.

Geohazards in Florida and the Geology of
the Florida Platform. Presented to the
Graduate Geohazards class at Florida
State University Department of
Geosciences, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt
Schmidt, September, 2006.

Karst Geology. Presented to the
Educational Workshop on Karst and the
Alachua Fissure, sponsored by the Cave
Diving Museum and Library, City of
Alachua Community Center, Alachua, FL,
by Tom Scott, September, 2006.

Welcoming Lecture. Ground Water
Protection Council meeting in Miami,
Miami, FL, by Tom Scott, September, 2006.

Geochemical and microbiological character-
ization of aquifer systems to assess ASR
suitability. ASR VI Forum American
Ground Water Trust, Orlando, FL, by Jon
Arthur, October, 2006.

Animal Carcass Disposal: Application of
Geologic Data. Department of Agriculture






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, FL,
by Jon Arthur, October, 2006.

Designing Monitoring Programs to
Measure Groundwater Quality Changes
and to Evaluate Environmental
Management Outcomes. Ground Water
Protection Council 2006 Annual Forum,
Miami Beach, FL, by Rick Copeland,
October, 2006.

Karst Features in the Wakulla Spring
Springshed. Karst Waters Institute,
Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means,
October, 2006.

The Geology of Florida's Springs. Lecture
to Big Cypress National Preserve, Ochopee,
FL, by Harley Means, October, 2006.

The Geology of Florida. Lecture to Big
Cypress National Preserve, Ochopee, FL,
by Tom Scott, October, 2006.

Geologic Features of the Wakulla
Landscape. Presented as part of the
Wakulla Ecotourism Institute, at
Tallahassee Community College Wakulla
Center, Crawfordville, FL, by Walt
Schmidt, October, 2006.

Local Geology Talk. Sabal Palm
Elementary School, Tallahassee, FL, By
Tom Greenhalgh, November, 2006.

Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of
the Suwannee River Water Management
District. Presented to the Suwannee River
Water Management District, Live Oak, FL,
By Rick Copland, Neal Doran, Aaron White
and Sam Upchurch, November, 2006.

Florida's Sinkholes. Lecture to the John
Riley Museum after school program, at
John Riley Elementary School,
Tallahassee, FL, by Frank Rupert,
November, 2006.


Geological Overview of Leon County and
Vicinity. Lecture to the Florida Association
of Environmental Professionals,
Tallahassee Chapter, Tallahassee, FL, by
Harley Means, November, 2006.

Significance of FGS Research Activities
and Data in protecting the Wakulla Spring
System. Presented to the Board of
Directors of the Friends of Wakulla,
Tallahassee, FL, by Rodney DeHan,
November, 2006.

Calcite Collecting in Florida. Lecture given
to the Florida Paleontological Society,
Melbourne, FL, by Harley Means,
December, 2006.

FIELD TRIPS

2005

Vulcan Quarry fieldtrip for the University
of South Florida Geology Alumni,
Brooksville, FL, by Tom Scott and Harley
Means, February, 2005.

Southeastern Geological Society 44th
Annual Field Trip to Suwannee County,
FL, area, Rick Copeland, May 2005.

SMAC (State Mapping Advisory
Committee) field trip to Gainesville area,
Gainesville, FL, Rick Green, October, 2005.

2006

University of South Florida Geology
Alumni Society field trip to the Central
Florida Phosphate District, by Tom Scott,
February 2006.

University of South Florida Geology
Department Alum Bluff Trip, Liberty
County, FL, by Tom Scott and Harley
Means, April, 2006.

Vulcan Quarry fieldtrip for the University
of South Florida, Geology Club, Brooksville,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FL., by Tom Scott and Harley Means, April,
2006.

The Leon Sinks Geological Area fieldtrip
for the Tallahassee Community College
Green Guide Program, Fall 2006 class,
Crawfordville, FL., by Frank Rupert,
September, 2006.

State Mapping Advisory Committee field
trip to Gainesville area, Gainesville, FL, by
Rick Green, October, 2006

Geology of the Everglades National Park
fieldtrip for the National Groundwater
Association Annual Meeting, Dade County,
F., by Tom Scott and Harley Means,
October, 2006.

Dickerson Quarries fieldtrip for the Florida
Paleontological Society, St. Lucie and
Okeechobee Counties, FL., by Harley
Means, December, 2006.

SEGS Wakulla Springs Field Trip,
Tallahassee, FL., by Tom Greenhalgh,
December, 2006.

MEETINGS

2005

Sinkhole Assessment and Remediation
Meeting. Ardaman & Associates., Orlando,
FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2005.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott,
January, 2005.

ASPIRE (Proposed State Accounting
System) Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Sharon
Lee, Jacqueline Lloyd, Carolyn Stringer,
February 2005.

Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing
System Regional Association Meeting.
Melbourne, FL, Ron Hoenstine, February,
2005.


Regional Science Fair
Tallahassee, FL, David
February, 2005.


Judging.
Anderson,


National Academy of Sciences Committee
Meeting. Washington D.C., Jon Arthur,
February, 2005.

Wekiva Coordinating Committee Meeting.
Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, February, 2005.

Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature
Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur,
Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley
Means, Tom Scott- February, 2005.

Geological Society of America, Southeast
Section Meeting. Biloxi, MS, Harley Means,
March, 2005.

Springshed Delineation Meeting.
Gainesville, FL, Jon Arthur, Walt Schmidt,
Tom Scott, March, 2005.

Naval Air Station Jacksonville Restoration
Advisory Board Meeting. Jacksonville, FL,
Ron Hoenstine, March, 2005.

Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature Meetings.
Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick
Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means,
Tom Scott, March, 2005.

Annual FGS Awards Luncheon.
Tallahassee, FL, FGS staff, March, 2005.
Wakulla Wildlife Festival. Wakulla
Springs State Park, Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, Tom Scott, Sarah Ramdeen, Brie
Coane, April, 2005.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting., Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Jon
Arthur, April, 2005.

Ocean Day 2005. Tallahassee, FL, Ron
Hoenstine, Jim Ladner, Dan Phelps, April,
2005.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature
Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur,
Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley
Means, Tom Scott, April 2005.

Florida Association of Professional
Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, Tom Scott, April, 2005.

Workshop on Sinkhole Proposed
Legislation., Legislative Committee
Conference. Room, Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, April, 2005.

Earth Day at the Florida Capitol.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Paulette
Bond, Frank Rupert, Jackie Lloyd, April,
2005.

Wakulla Groundwater Workshop and
Fieldtrip. Leon and Wakulla Counties, FL,
Jon Arthur, May, 2005.

Southeastern Geological Society Meeting.
Live Oak, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland,
Rick Green, Tom Greenhalgh, Harley
Means, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, May,
2005.

Wakulla Groundwater Workshop and
Fieldtrip. Leon and Wakulla Counties, FL,
Walt Schmidt, May, 2005.

LIDAR Mapping Workshop. Tallahassee,
FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2005.

Association of American State Geologists
Annual Meeting. St. Charles, IL, Jon
Arthur, Walt Schmidt, June, 2005.

Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature
Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur,
Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley
Means, Tom Scott, June, 2005.

Department Of Community Affairs /
Environmental Protection Model Springs
Protection Land Development Code
Workshop. Ocala, FL, Walt Schmidt, June,
2005.


Model Springs Code Meeting. Ocala, FL,
Harley Means, Tom Scott, June 2005.

Environmental Systems Research Institute
(ESRI) Annual Conference. San Diego, CA,
David Anderson, July 2005.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, July,
2005.

DCA / DEP Model Springs Protection Code
Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
Harley Means, Tom Scott, August, 2005.

Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature
Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur,
Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley
Means, Tom Scott, August, 2005.

Southeastern Coastal Ocean Observing
Systems SECOORA). Orlando, FL, Ron
Hoenstine, August, 2005.

Department of Financial Services / DEP
Meeting regarding Sinkhole Legislation.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2005

National Academy of Sciences Committee
Meeting. Irvine, CA, Jon Arthur, July,
2005.

DCA / DEP Model Springs Protection Code
Workshop. Lake City, FL, Walt Schmidt,
July, 2005.

Florida Association of Professional
Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jon
Arthur, Tom Scott, August 2005.

Animal Carcass Disposal Meeting. Office
of Agricultural Law Enforcement,
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon
Arthur, August, 2005.

Wakulla County Commission Meeting.
Crawfordville, FL, Walt Schmidt, August,
2005.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Association of Professional
Geologists Meeting. Orlando, FL, Jon
Arthur, August, 2005

Florida Association of Professional
Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jon
Arthur, Paulette Bond, Jacqueline Lloyd,
Tom Scott, August 2005.

Marion County Springs Festival. Ocala,
FL, Harley Means, Tom Scott, September
2005.

Florida Sinkhole Database Planning
Meeting with Department of Financial
Services. Tallahassee, FL, September,
2005.

DEP Climate Survey Proctor Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd,
September 2005.

Panhandle Library Access Network
(PLAN) Meeting. Panama City, FL, Carol
Armstrong, September, 2005.

Florida State Employees Charitable
Campaign (FSECC) Meeting. Tallahassee,
FL, Jacqueline Lloyd, September, 2005.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
Jon Arthur, Tom Scott, October, 2005.

Geological Society of America. Salt Lake
City, UT, Jon Arthur, Harley Means, Tom
Scott, October, 2005.

Coastal Issues Important to Florida. FAMU
Environmental Program, Tallahassee, FL,
Walt Schmidt, October, 2005.

State Geologic Mapping Advisory
Committee (SMAC) Meeting. Florida
Museum of Natural History, Gainesville,
FL, Will Evans, Rick Green, Tom
Greenhalgh, Harley Means, David Paul,
Tom Scott, October, 2005.

Earth Science Week. FGS / Gunter
Building Open House, Tallahassee, FL,


Walt Schmidt, October, 2005.

Association of American State Geologists
mid-year meeting. Salt Lake City, UT, Tom
Scott, October, 2005.

St. John's River Water Management
District Contractual Services
Teleconference Tallahassee, FL, Paulette
Bond, Jacqueline Lloyd, Walt Schmidt,
Tom Scott, November, 2005.

National Academy of Sciences Committee
Meeting. Washington D.C., Jon Arthur,
December, 2005.

DEP Climate Survey Division of Resource
Management (DRAM) Review Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd,
December, 2005.

Godby High School Science Fair Judging.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December,
2005.

Coastal Ocean Observing System (COOS)
Meeting. St. Petersburg, FL, Ron
Hoenstine, December, 2005.

2006

Hydrogeology Subcommittee meeting of
CERP ASR Project. Altamonte Springs, FL,
Jon Arthur, January, 2006.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott,
January, 2006.

DEP Climate Survey FGS Review Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Ed Garrett,
Ron Hoenstine, Jacqueline Lloyd, Carolyn
Stringer Tom Scott, January, 2006.

FGS Annual Awards Luncheon.
Tallahassee, FL, FGS Staff, February,
2006.

National Academy of Sciences Committee
Meeting. Phoenix, AZ, Jon Arthur, March,
2006.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL,
Walt Schmidt, April, 2006.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, April,
2005.

Wakulla Wildlife Festival. Wakulla
Springs State Park, Tallahassee, FL, Brie
Coane, Sarah Ramdeen, Tom Scott, April,
2006.

North American Coastal Alliance Working
Group of the Interstate Oil & Gas Compact
Commission (IOGCC) Midyear Issues sum-
mit meeting. Billings, MT, Steve Spencer,
May 2006.

Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature meet-
ings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick
Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means,
Tom Scott, May, 2006.

Southeastern Section Meeting of Geological
Society of America, Knoxville, TN, Harley
Means, Tom Scott, March, 2006.

FDOT aggregates committee meetings.
Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, May, 2006.

DEP Geospatial Web Portal Briefing and
Discussion. Tallahassee, FL, David
Anderson, Jacqueline Lloyd, Paula Polson,
April, 2006.

The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)
briefing. Tallahassee, FL, David Anderson,
Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint
Kromhout, Rick Green, Tom Greenhalgh,
Jacqueline Lloyd, Harley Means, Walt
Schmidt, Tom Scott, April, 2006.

Association of American State Geologists
Annual Meeting. Santa Fe, NM, Jon
Arthur, Caroline Stringer, Walt Schmidt,
June, 2006.

EPA Underground Injection Control meet-
ing. St. Petersburg, FL, Jon Arthur, June,
2006.


Florida Board of Professional Geologists
meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, July,
2005.

FDOT aggregates committee meetings.
Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, July, 2006.

CERP ASR committee meeting. Vero
Beach, FL, Jon Arthur, July, 2006.

DRAM Bureau of Laboratories and
Mercury Program Work Plan review meet-
ing. Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd,
August, 2006.

FDOT aggregates committee meetings.,
Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, August, 2006.

Gulf Islands National Seashore geologic
resource evaluation meeting. Pensacola,
FL, Ron Hoenstine, September, 2006.

Association of American State Geologists
Liaison Committee meeting. Washington,
D.C., Jon Arthur, September, 2006.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
Tom Scott, October, 2006.

Earth Science Week FGS / Gunter Building
Open House. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur,
Paulette Bond, Brie Coane, Cindy Fischler,
Tom Greenhalgh, Clint Kromhout, Harley
Means, Frank Rupert, Walt Schmidt, and
Carolyn Stringer, October, 2006.

State Geologic Mapping Advisory
Committee (SMAC) meeting. Florida
Museum of Natural History, Gainesville,
FL, Will Evans, Rick Green, Tom
Greenhalgh, Harley Means, David Paul,
Tom Scott, October, 2006.

Association of American State Geologists
Mid-Year meeting. Philadelphia, PA, Jon
Arthur, October, 2006.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Seven Hills Region Users Group (SHRUG)
GIS Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, David
Anderson, November, 2006.


NWFWMD meeting
areas. Tallahassee,
November, 2006.


on sensitive karst
FL, Tom Scott,


DRAM Recognition Research meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd,
November, 2006.

Palm Beach County aggregates meeting.
West Palm Beach, FL, Tom Scott,
December, 2006.

Southeastern Geological Society Annual
Fieldtrip Conference. Woodville Karst
Plain, Harley Means, Tallahassee, FL,
December, 2006.

FGS Needs Assessment Workshop.
Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Traci
Billingsley, Paulette Bond, Rodney DeHan,
Leslie Knight, Jacqueline Lloyd, Tom Scott,
December, 2006.

TRAINING

2005

My Florida Market Place, training for the
use of the State of Florida commodities and
services web based procurement proce-
dures. Classroom and web based instruc-
tion, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom
Scott, January, 2005.

Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation /First
Aid Training. Tallahassee, FL, FGS field
staff, March, 2005.

DEP Online Prevent Harassment: Promote
Respect training. Tallahassee, FL, FGS
staff, February, 2005.


Workshop on 3-D
Geological Society of
City, NV, Jon Arthur,


Aquifer Mapping,
America. Salt Lake
October, 2005.


2006

MSHA Training. Tallahassee, FL, Will
Evans, Rick Green, David Paul, Tom Scott,
May, 2006.

Florida Administrative Weekly Public
Noticing and Formatting Training
Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
May, 2006.

Florida State and DEP Ethics Training
Workshop: Held by the DEP / OGC.
Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL, Ron
Hoenstine, Jackie Lloyd, Walt Schmidt,
Tom Scott, July, 2006.

Time Management Training Workshop:
Tallahassee Community College,
Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL,
Walt Schmidt, July, 2006.

Motivation and Team Leadership.
Tallahassee Community College,
Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL,
Walt Schmidt, August, 2006.

Putting Your Troubles Behind You:
Introduction to Trailer Safety. Tallahassee,
FL, Ken Campbell, August, 2006.

Performance Standards. Tallahassee
Community College, Classroom workshop,
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, September,
2006.

Strategic Planning. Tallahassee
Community College, Classroom workshop,
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, September,
2006.

BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF)

2005

Earth Day at the Capitol, Tallahassee, FL,
April, 2005.

Wakulla Wildlife Festival, Wakulla
Springs, FL, April, 2005.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Ocean Day, Tallahassee, FL, April, 2005.

Earth Science Week Open House, Gunter
Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2005.

Earth Science Week Scout Night, Gunter
Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2005.

DEP Fall Festival, Maclay Gardens State
Park, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2005.


2006


Earth Day at the Capitol, Tallahassee, FL,
April, 2006.


Wakulla Wildlife Festival,
Springs, FL, April, 2006.


Wakulla


Earth Science Week Open House, Gunter
Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2006.

Earth Science Week Scout Night, Gunter
Building, Tallahassee, FL, October 2006.


Walt Schmidt explains fossils to a group of visitors during the 2005 Earth Science Week
open house at the FGS (photo by Frank Rupert).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PERSONNEL INFORMATION


PERSONNEL CHANGES

Personnel changes at the FGS during
the biennial period have been due to
changes brought about by program changes
and by employees refocusing career objec-
tives or lifetime goals.

FULL TIME EMPLOYEES (FTEs)

Steve Spencer, Professional Geologist I,
transferred from the Geological
Investigations Section to the Oil and Gas
Section in January, 2005.

Dorothy Black joined the FGS Oil and
Gas Section as a Secretary Specialist in
January, 2005.

Clint Kromhout was promoted from an
OPS Research Assistant to an
Environment Specialist III in the
Hydrogeology Section in February, 2005.

Debbie Westberg, resigned from her
Secretary Specialist position with the
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section in February, 2005 to
pursue private enterprise.

Harley Means was promoted from a
Geologist II to a Professional Geologist I in
the Geological Investigations Section in
February, 2005.

Cris Poarch left his System Programmer I
position, Administrative and Geological
Data Management Section, to pursue his
career goals at Municipal Bond Corporation
in July, 2005.

Sarah Ramdeen transferred from her
FTE position as Laboratory Technician,
Geological Investigations Section to an
OPS Database Administrator position with
the Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section in April, 2006.


Tim Walker, Environmental Specialist II,
Oil and Gas Section, Jay Field Office,
resigned from his position in April, 2006 to
pursue outside business interests.

Paula Polson resigned from her position
as an Environmental Specialist I,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, in June, 2006 to take
a web programming position with the
Department of State.

Carol Armstrong resigned from her posi-
tion as Geological Research Librarian,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, in July, 2006. Carol
is now serving as Librarian at the Tall
Timbers Research Station and Land
Conservancy.

Doug Calman joined the FGS as
Geological Research Librarian,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, in August 2006.
Doug previously served in this position
from September, 1977 through November,
1980.

Susan Trombley left her Administrative
Secretary position with the Administrative
and Geological Data Management Section
in August, 2006 to take a position in the
Leon County Clerk of Courts office.

Jeremy Poarch was promoted from OPS
IT Assistant to full time System
Programmer I, Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section, fill-
ing the vacancy left by Cris Poarch in July,
2005. Jeremy resigned from this position in
September, 2006 to pursue his career goals
at GTO, Inc.

Jeff Erb was hired as the FGS System
Programmer I, Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section, in
November, 2006 to fill the vacancy left by






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Jeremy Poarch in September, 2006.

David McCarthy, Environmental
Specialist II, joined the Jay Field office in
November, 2006 as an inspector. Mr.
McCarthy was previously an industrial
technician.

David Anderson left the FGS,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, in November, 2006 to
be the National Hydrographic Dataset
Coordinator in DEP's Division of Water
Resource Management.

Sharon Lee left the FGS, Administrative
and Geological Data Management Section,
in November, 2006 to take a position with
the FDEP Division of Waste Management.

Traci Billingsley joined the FGS as an
Administrative Assistant, Administrative
and Geological Data Management Section,
in November, 2006.

Leslie Knight joined the FGS as a
Secretary Specialist, Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section, in
November, 2006.

Jim Balsillie, Professional Geologist III,
Geological Investigations Section Coastal
Research Program, was sadly lost to the
FGS when he succumbed to lung cancer in
December, 2006. His memorial can be
found on page 76 of this publication.

OTHER PERSONAL
SERVICES EMPLOYEES

The following Other Personal Services
(OPS) employees resigned from their FGS
positions during this biennium. They are
listed here with their month of resignation.

Ed Chelette, Biological Scientist,
Geological Investigations Section, June,
2006.


William L. Evans III, Professional
Geologist, Geological Investigations
Section, April, 2006.

Frances C. Ijeoma, Fiscal Assistant,
Hydrogeology Section, August, 2005.

Amy Jensen, Research Assistant,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, September, 2005.

Robert Kurtz, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section, May,
2006.

Ryan C. Means, Biological Scientist,
Geological Investigations Section, June,
2005.

Rebecca P. Meegan, Biological Scientist,
Geological Investigations Section, June,
2005.

James McClean, Environmental
Specialist, Hydrogeology Section, June,
2005.

Aaron Lower, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section,
November, 2005.

Mike Miller, Computer Programmer
Analyst, Administrative and Geological
Data Management Section, March, 2006.

Sean Roberts, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section, June,
2006

Christie Seale, Secretary Specialist,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, February, 2006.

Rob Stoner, Environmental Specialist,
Hydrogeology Section, April, 2006.

Diana Thurman-Nowak, Biological
Scientist, Geological Investigations
Section, June, 2006.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


William Walker, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section, June,
2006.

The following OPS employees joined
the FGS during this biennium. They are
listed here with their month of hire.

Scott Barrett Dyer, Research Assistant,
Hydrogeology Section, December, 2006.

Jake Halfhill, Driller's Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section, March,
2005.

Muriel Hannion, GIS Assistant,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, January, 2006.

Adam Humphreys, Research Assistant,
Hydrogeology Section, November, 2006.

Ellen Lyle, Secretary Specialist,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, July, 2006.

Anthony Miller, Webmaster, Administrative
and Geological Data Management Section,
November, 2006.

Michael Miller, Computer Programmer
Analyst, Administrative and Geological
Data Management Section, February,
2005.

Anita Nash, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section, June,
2005.

Mike Nash, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section, June,
2005'

Elizabeth M. Parker, Data Entry


Operator, Geological
Section, May, 2006.


Investigations


Steve Petrushak, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section, May, 2005.


Sarah Ramdeen, Database Administrator,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, April, 2006


David Wagner, Research
Geological Investigations
September, 2006.


Assistant,
Section,


Aaron White, Gubernatorial Fellow,
Hydrogeology Section, August, 2005; trans-
ferred to Environmental Specialist,
Geological Investigations Section, July,
2006.

FULL TIME EMPLOYEES

Carol J. Armstrong, Librarian,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section. B.A., Art (1986) and
History (1989), Brenau University;
M.L.I.S., Florida State University (1993).
2001 and 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award.
Completed SOLINET's Management 101
Series, 2004. Currently serving on the
Board of Directors for the Panhandle
Library Access Network (PLAN).

Jonathan D. Arthur, Professional
Geologist Administrator of the FDEP/FGS
Hydrogeology Section. B.S., with Honors
,Florida State University in Geology (1982);
Ph.D., Florida State University in Geology
(1994). His research interests include:
hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry. Dr.
Arthur is a Licensed Professional Geologist
(Florida) and member of several state com-
mittees including the FDEP Aquifer
Vulnerability Mapping Committee and
three aquifer storage and recovery Project
Development Teams (Comprehensive
Everglades Restoration Plan). He also
holds a Courtesy Faculty Appointment in
the Department of Geological Sciences,
Florida State University. Professional
memberships include the Florida
Association of Professional Geologists
(served as President from 2003-2006),
Southeastern Geological Society, Geological
Society of America, National Ground Water






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Association, and International Association
of Hydrogeology. Awards include 1996
FGS Employee of the Year; 1997
Governor's Environmental Education
Award for "Florida's Geology Unearthed",
New York Festivals, 1997 Finalist for Non-
Broadcast Film and Video for production of
"Florida's Geology Unearthed", April 1997
DEP Employee of the Month; 1997 DEP
Sustained Exemplary Performance Award,
1999 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Most
recently, Jon participated as a committee
member on the National Academy of
Sciences project titled: "Sustainable
Underground Storage of Recoverable
Water."

Paul Attwood, Professional Geologist I,
Oil and Gas Section, Ft. Myers field office.
B.S., Denison University in Geology (1974);
M.S., University of Kansas in Geology
(1981). Licensed Professional Geologist
(Florida). Bonita Springs Utilities Board of
Directors, 2001 to present. Past President,
Everglades Geological Society. FGS Extra
Effort Award, 2006.

James H. Balsillie, Senior Research
Scientist and Coastal Engineering
Geologist, Coastal Research Program,
Geological Investigations Section. B.S.,
Portland State University (1970); Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida); Graduate
studies, Florida State University (1975-
1977). Research interests: structural geol-
ogy, sedimentology including design of core
laboratory processing tools and sampling
devices, and sedimentologic standards, sta-
tistics in geology, numerical computer mod-
eling, La Nina associated karst responses
of periodic lacustrine drawdown events,
geological applications to archaeological
problems, and coastal engineering geology
including hurricane and tropical storms,
storm and long-term coastal erosion, astro-
nomical tides, wave mechanics and theory,
longshore bar dynamics, seasonal beach
changes, sea level changes. He is a
Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida).


He served with the Coastal Engineering
Research Center as a principal investigator
for five years, with the Bureau of Beaches
and Coastal Systems of the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection
as a coastal engineer for 18 years (including
Chief of the Analysis/Research Section) and
has served with the Florida Geological
Survey as a coastal engineering geologist
and sedimentologist for the past ten years.
Professional memberships: Florida
Association of Professional Geologists. 1998
FGS Employee of the Year, 2000 FGS Team
Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis
Productivity Award, FGS 2003 Extra Effort
Award, and FGS 2003 Team Extra Effort
Award, and the FGS 2004 Team Extra
Effort Award. He has written over 100 pub-
lished papers and numerous computer pro-
grams and numerical models.

Traci Billingsley, Administrative
Assistant I, Administrative and Geological
Data Management Section. A.A.,
Tallahassee Community College (1997).
Ten years experience small business man-
agement / administration.

Craig Berninger, Engineer I, Geological
Investigations Section. Area of specializa-
tion: well drilling and coring, licensed
Water Well Contractor (Florida). Research
interests: Water well and core drilling.
Professional Memberships: National
Drillers Association, Florida Groundwater
Association.

Dorothy Black, Secretary Specialist, Oil
and Gas Section, Business management
training at Lively Vocational-Technical
School. Professional background includes
administrative secretarial work and man-
agement of family owned business.

Paulette Bond, Professional Geologist II,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section. B.S., West Virginia
University in Geology (1971); M.S.,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in Geology (1974). Research interests: envi-
ronmental geology, geologic hazards and
environmental education. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida). Member:
Geological Society of America, Florida
Association of Professional Geologists.

Davis Lee Booth, Geological
Investigations Section. Area of specializa-
tion: core drilling and well construction,
licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida).
2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award.

J. Douglas Calman, Librarian Specialist,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, hired in August of
2006. B.A., State University of New York
at Buffalo in Geological Sciences (1974);
M.S., FSU in Library Science (1977). Doug
has served as an academic science refer-
ence librarian at both Florida State's Dirac
Science Library (1980-1997) and
Washington State University's Owen
Science & Engineering Library (2003-
2005). He was also a Computer Systems
Administrator for UNC-Greensboro (1997-
2002) and actually started his career as a
geology librarian with the Florida
Geological Survey (1977-1980). Member,
Special Libraries Association (SLA).
Specialty areas include literature search-
ing using such databases as GeoRef and
managing citations with bibliographic
database management software such as
EndNote.

Kenneth M. Campbell, Professional
Geologist III, Geologic Investigations
Section. B.S., Old Dominion University in
Geology (1975); M.S., Florida State
University in Geology (1979). Geologic
Interests: Core drilling, monitor well con-
struction, Cenozoic stratigraphy, sedimen-
tation and coastal processes. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida). Licensed
Water Well Contractor (Florida).
Professional Memberships: Florida
Association of Professional
Geologists/AIPG. 1996 FGS Team Extra


Effort Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award, 2000 FGS Employee of the Year,
2000 Davis Productivity Award, 2003 FGS
Team Extra Effort Award, 2005. FGS Team
Extra Effort Award, 2005 Division of
Resource Management Directors Award.

Robert S. Caughey, Professional
Geologist II, Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field
Office. B.S., University of Arizona in
Geology (1976). Research interests:
Cenozoic stratigraphy and the "boulder
zones" of south Florida. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: Society for
Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc.,
Association of Exploration Geochemists,
New Mexico Geological Society, Everglades
Geological Society, 1997 FGS Employee of
the Year Award, commendation letter from
Governor Bush for "job well done" (June 28,
2002).

Rick Copeland, Professional Geologist
III, Florida Geological Survey,
Hydrogeology Section. B.S., University of
Florida in Geology (1972); M.S., University
of Florida in Geology (1974); Ph.D., Florida
State University in Geology (1998);
Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida).
His research interests include: the theory of
water-quality and quantity monitoring,
interpretation of groundwater quality and
its relationship to land use and geomor-
phology, and interpretations of trends in
groundwater quality and quantity. He was
a hydrogeologist with the Suwannee River
Water Management District for nine years
where he established and maintained sev-
eral groundwater quality monitoring net-
works. He was the administrator of the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection's statewide groundwater quality
network for 18 years and was instrumental
is re-designing and integrating the
Department's combined surface-water and
groundwater quality monitoring network
into one based on randomized sampling.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


He has served as a hydrogeologist with the
Florida Geological Survey since 2003.
Professional memberships: Florida
Association of Professional Geologists (Vice
President, 2001 -2002), the Florida
Academy of Sciences (Program Chair
Coordinator, 2003 2004; Chairman -
Geological and Hydrological Section, 2001 -
2002), the American Institute of
Professional Geologists, the National
Ground Water Association, the American
Water Resource Association, Florida
Association of Professional Geologists (Vice
President, 2003), and the Southeastern
Geological Society (Vice President, 2004-
2005 and President, 2005-2006). He cur-
rently serves on the U.S. Advisory
Committee on Water Information,
Subcommittee on Groundwater, Design
Work Group. He also serves on the Florida
Water Resource Monitoring Council's
Ground Water Sub-Discipline for the
Development of Ground Water Metadata
Standards. He received the Department's
Division of Water Resource Management's
Employee of the Month award in August,
1998, the Sustained Exemplary
Performance award in 2000, and 2001
Extra Effort Award.

Rodney S. DeHan, Senior Research
Scientist, Hydrogeology Program,
Geological Investigations Section. Doctor of
Veterinary Medicine, University of
Edinburgh, Scotland (1967); M.S.
University of Kansas in
Microbiology/Virology (1969); Ph.D. Florida
State University in Biological Sciences
(1973). He continued his association with
Florida State University as a member of
the research faculty of the Department of
Biological Sciences until 1980. He is cur-
rently an adjunct professor in the
Department of Geological Sciences of the
Florida State University. Dr. DeHan joined
the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection in 1974 and worked in the
Treatment Process Technology and Biology


Sections. He established the Florida
Ground Water Program in 1979 and helped
guide its development into a leader in
groundwater protection in the country. He
joined the Florida Geological Survey in
1997 where he is currently a Senior
Research Scientist. His research interests
and current projects are focused on the role
of groundwater as a component of water-
sheds with special interest in the charac-
terization and dynamics of interaction
between ground and surface water in the
coastal environment

Jeff Erb, Systems Programmer I,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section. Data and
Telecommunications Specialist U.S.A.F.
(2003), 13 years experience in IT manage-
ment and repair. He is certified for
Administration and Deployment of
Windows XP (2005).

Dave Files, Engineer IV, B.S., Petroleum
Engineering, University of Tulsa (1972).
Professional memberships: Society of
Petroleum Engineers. He joined the Oil
and Gas Section September 2004 to serve
as the section's general technical advisor
and to manage the section's old well plug-
ging program. Mr. Files worked since 1972
as a drilling engineer for various independ-
ent and major oil companies in Alabama,
Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico,
California, and offshore.

Ed Garrett, Environmental Administrator,
Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office, B.S., FSU
in Geology (1983) and a Certified Public
Manager, Florida State University, 2005.
Research interests: Energy policy and
environmental effects of offshore drilling.
Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida).
Davis Productivity Award, 2006. Askew
Award, 2005. Director's Service
Recognition Award, 2006. DEP Employee
of the Month Award, March 2006. FGS
Employee of the Year Award, 2005.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Richard C. Green, Professional Geologist
I, STATEMAP Program Principal
Investigator, Geologic Mapping, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S., Florida State
University in Geology (1986); M.S., Florida
State University in Geology (1993).
Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida).
Research Interests: Uranium /Thorium
geochemistry, environmental hydrogeology,
and stratigraphy. Member of the FAPG.

Thomas H. Greenhalgh III, Professional
Geologist I, Hydrogeology Section. B.S.,
FSU in Geology, (1984). Research inter-
ests: hydrogeology, groundwater contami-
nation, and environmental education.
Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida).
Member: FDEP Springs subcommittees,
Hydrogeology Consortium. Professional
memberships: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists, National Ground
Water Association, Southeastern
Geological Society.

Eric P. Harrington, Engineer Technician
IV, Geological Investigations Section, 2000
FGS Team Extra Effort Award. 2000 Davis
Productivity Award. 2002 FGS Extra Effort
Award. 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award 2004 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award. 2005 Team Extra Effort Award.
2005 Director's Service Recognition Award
for the Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield
Project & 2004-2005 STATEMAP Drilling
Crews.

Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section.

Ronald W. Hoenstine, Professional
Geologist Supervisor, Supervisor Coastal
Research Program, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S. University of
Florida in Geology (1967); M.S. University
of Florida in Geology (1974); Ph.D., Florida
State University in Geology (1982).
Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal
geology and environmental geology.


Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: Installation
Restoration Environmental Cleanup
Advisory Committee, Jacksonville Naval
Air Station. 1995 FGS Employee of the
Year.

Leslie Knight, Secretary Specialist,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section. B.A., Georgetown
College in English (1984), M.A., Marshall
University in Journalism (1986). Twenty
years of public relations, marketing and
writing experience.

Clint Kromhout, Geologist /
Environmental Specialist III, Hydrogeology
Section. B.S., Florida State University in
Geology (2003). Worked for four years as an
OPS Laboratory Technician and Geologist
II for the Florida Geological Survey and
took a FTE position with FGS in 2005.
Works as the representative Southwest
Florida district geologist, conducts oil, gas
and mineral assessments for State Lands,
as well as being a contact for mining and
industrial minerals. Projects: Southwest
Florida Sub-surface Mapping Project,
STATEMAP Program, Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment. Research inter-
ests: hydrogeology, groundwater issues,
mining and mining issues, industrial min-
erals and aggregates, karst, GIS applica-
tions, applied geostatistical analysis and
modeling, geophysics, remote .n-i- .
structural geology, cartography, drilling
processes, and well construction. 2003
Manatee Springs Extra Effort Team Award
Recipient. 2004 Southwest Florida Sub-
surface Mapping Project Extra Effort Team
Award Recipient. 2005 Team Extra Effort
State Map Drilling Team Award Recipient.
2004 and 2005 Director's Service
Recognition Award.

Lucien James Ladner, Professional
Geologist I, Coastal Geologist, Coastal
Research Program, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S., University of






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Southern Mississippi in Geology (1970).
Research interests: hydrogeology, environ-
mental and coastal geology. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida), 1st runner
up DEP Safety Awareness Event, 2004
Team Extra Effort Award STATEMAP
Project

John L. Leccese, Engineer IV, began
working for the Oil and Gas Section
December 2002 as assistant inspector in
the Jay Field Office. He was promoted to
the role of chief inspector in April 2004. Mr.
Leccese's oilfield experience over the previ-
ous 36 years includes production manage-
ment and the drilling of wildcats,
workovers, development wells, and gas
storage wells for independent oil companies
in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, California,
Alaska, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico
and Gulf of Alaska. Professional training
included drilling technology, well control,
petroleum production technology, H2S
safety, and oilfield firefighting.

Sharon Lee, Financial Coordinator,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section. B.S., University of
Maryland in English (1981); 2005 FGS
Extra Effort Award, 2005 Director's Service
Recognition Award, 2006 FGS Employee of
the Year Award.

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Professional
Geologist Administrator, Assistant State
Geologist for Administration and
Administrator of the Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section. B.S.,
Florida Atlantic University in Geology
(1976); M.S., University of Chicago in
Geology (1979). Research interests: envi-
ronmental geology and public manage-
ment. Licensed Professional Geologist
(Florida). Florida Certified Public
Manager. Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America, American
Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Southeastern Geological Society
(Secretary/Treasurer, 1984), and Florida


Association of Professional Geologists (Vice
President-1999; President-2000; Past
President-2001-2002), 1995 DEP Extra
Effort Award, 2000 FGS Extra Effort
Award, 2004 FGS Extra Effort Award.

David McCarthy, Environmental
Specialist II, Oil and Gas Section Jay Field
Office. AA, Pensacola Junior College, 2005.
Professional background primarily focused
on technical work in the paper industry.

Guy Harlan (Harley) Means,
Professional Geologist I, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S., Florida State
University in Geology (1996), Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida). Research
interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, mollusk
and vertebrate paleontology, Florida pre-
historic underwater archaeology.
Professional memberships: Southeastern
Geological Society (Vice President 2002,
President 2003), Geological Society of
America, Florida Association of
Professional Geologists, Florida
Paleontological Society. 1996 FGS Team
Extra Effort Award, 1998 FGS Extra Effort
Award, 1999 DEP Team Performance
Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award,
2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003
FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 Extra
Effort Award.

Daniel C. Phelps, Professional Geologist
I, Coastal Geologist, Coastal Research
Program, Geological Investigations
Section. B.S., Campbell University in
Geology (1974) M.S., Duke University in
Geology (1979) M.S. University of Houston
at Clear Lake in Environmental
Management (1990). Research interests:
applied marine geophysics, seismic stratig-
raphy, continental shelf sedimentation,
coastal processes, environmental geology,
hydrogeology and coastal zone resource
management. Licensed Professional
Geologist (Florida). 2004 Team Extra
Effort Award from FGS for vibracoring
investigations offshore of Northeast
Florida.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Paula Poison, Environmental Specialist I,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section. Web Master, Florida
Geology Forum Editor, Graphic Design.
Training in graphic arts, drafting and Web
Design, Florida State University Center for
Professional Development, Tallahassee,
FL.; Virginia Commonwealth University,
Richmond, VA; Tidewater Community
College, Virginia Beach, VA; John Tyler
Community College, Richmond, VA.
Interests: computer graphics/illustrations
and web design. Awards: 2001 FGS Extra
Effort Award, 2002 Employee of the Year,
September 2003, DEP Employee of the
Month, 2003 Team Extra Effort Award

Christopher J. Poarch, Systems
Programmer I, Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section. B.S.,
Florida State University in Information
Studies (2002). Concentration in Network
Administration, Database Administration,
and Web Development. 2003 Microsoft
Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), 2003
Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator
(MCSA), 2003 Microsoft Certified
Professional (MCP), 2003 FGS Employee of
the Year, 2002; 2003 FGS Team Extra
Effort Award.

Frank R. Rupert, Professional Geologist
II, Paleontologist and Publications
Coordinator, Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section. B.S.,
Florida Atlantic University in Geology
(1976); M.S., Florida State University in
Geology (1980). Research Interests:
Cenozoic micropaleontology and biostrati-
gra-phy and environmental hydrogeology.
Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: Florida
Paleontological Society (Past President,
Board Member, and Newsletter Editor),
1988 FGS Employee of the Year, July 1989
DEP Employee of the Month, Co-recipient
GSA John C. Frye Memorial Award in
Environmental Geology, October, 1999;
2000 and 2004 FGS Team Extra Effort


Award; 2000 Davis Productivity Award;
2001 and 2003 FGS Extra Effort Awards.

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and
Chief of the Florida Geological Survey.
B.A., University of South Florida in
Geology (1972); M.S., Florida State
University in Geology (1977); Ph.D.,
Florida State University in Geology (1983).
Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy,
hydrogeology, environmental geology, pale-
ogeography, petroleum geology, economic
geology, geology and public policy. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida), Alabama,
Pennsylvania, North Carolina (inactive),
and South Carolina (inactive). Professional
memberships: Geological Society of
America (Fellow), Southeastern Geological
Society (Past President), American
Institute of Professional Geologists
(Member, CPG), Florida Board of
Professional Geologists (Legislative
appointment, Past Chair), Governor's
Outer Continental Shelf Advisory
Committee Association of American State
Geologists (Member and Past President,
current Chair of Coastal Processes
Committee, current Chair of the John C.
Frye Memorial Award in Environmental
Geology Committee, current Statistician,
current member of Awards, Continental
Margins, Environmental Affairs, Honorary
Members, Liaison, Professional Affairs,
and Water Policy committees), Southeast
Petroleum Technology Transfer Council
(Advisory Committee Member), American
Association for the Advancement of
Science, Society for Sedimentary Geology,
Ground Water Protection Council, Florida
Association of Professional Geologists
(Founding Member), Florida Academy of
Sciences (Past Chair of Geology / hydrolo-
gy Section), Big Cypress Swamp Advisory
Committee (Legislative Appointment and
Chair), National Research Council Oceans
Studies Board (Past Member). Adjunct
Professor, Florida State University
Department of Geological Sciences.
"University of South Florida, Geology






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Alumni Society 2005 Outstanding Alumni
Award" presented at the Fifth Annual
Geology Alumni Society Dinner, Tampa,
Florida, February 11, 2005. "FGS Staff
Recognition Extra Effort Award" present-
ed at the Employee of the Year Luncheon,
February 27, 2006. "Director's Outstanding
Service Award" presented by the
DEP/DRAM Director at the annual
Division Awards Event, April 3, 2006.

Thomas M. Scott, Professional Geologist
Administrator, Assistant State Geologist
for Geological Investigations. B.A.,
University of South Florida in Geology
(1971); M.S., Eastern Kentucky University
in Geology (1973); Ph.D, FSU in Geology
(1986). Research interests: Cenozoic lithos-
tratigraphy, geologic history, and hydroge-
ology. Licensed Professional Geologist
(Florida), Certified Professional Geologist
(American Institute of Professional
Geologists). Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America,
Southeastern Geological Society (Past-
President, 1978 and 1990-92), Society for
Sedimentary Geology (Past President,
Southeastern Section, 1996-97), American
Institute of Professional Geologists (Florida
Section Past-President, 1985-86), Florida
Association of Professional Geologists (Vice
President and Board Member, 1996),
Research Associate, University of South
Florida, courtesy appointment, Master's co-
directive status, Department of
Oceanography, Florida State University,
serving on Department of Business and
Professional Regulation Board of
Professional Geologists, chairman in 2004,
Association of American State Geologists,
Associate Member. More than 150 publica-
tions, maps, and abstracts. Awards "Hero
of Industry Award from Florida Section of
American Institute of Professional
Geologists, 1992; Donald C. Haney
Outstanding Alumnus Award, 1996; Davis
Productivity Award, 1999; Florida
Geological Survey Employee of the Year,
2001; Outstanding Alumni Award from the


University of South Florida Geology
Alumni Society, March 2002; elected as a
Fellow of the Geological Society of America,
2004; FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2004;
FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2007.

Steve Spencer, Professional Geologist I,
Oil and Gas Section. B.S., Florida State
University in Geology (1981) in Geology.
Research interests: regulatory computer
applications, environmental geology, and
coastal geology. Licensed Professional
Geologist (Florida), January 1992 DEP
Employee of the Month Award, 1994/95
DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance
Award. January 2003 Leon County
Schools/FGS cooperative Program Team
Extra Effort Award.

Carolyn Stringer, Management Analyst,
Administrative and Geologic Data
Management Section. B.S., University of
Alabama in Home Economics (1970). FGS
Extra Effort Awards 2001 and 2003; FGS
2004 Employee of the Year.

Wade Stringer, Engineer I, Coastal
Research Program, Geological
Investigations Section. Certified Yamaha
Motors and Honda Marine Corporation
Outboard Mechanic, U.S. Coast Guard
licensed Captain, FAA Airframe and Power
plant License, PADI Certified Open Water
Diver and First Aid Medic. 2000 FGS Extra
Effort Award.

Dave Taylor, Geophysical Operations
Engineer, Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office.
AA, Miami Dade Community College 1985.
University of Michigan, Aeronautical
Engineering School 1970-73, Florida
International University, Business
Management candidate. Commercially
rated aircraft pilot. Coast Guard licensed
captain. FGS Extra Effort Award, 2006.

Susan B. Trombley, Executive Secretary,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section. Susan has nine years






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


State service which includes working for
Florida Department of Highway Safety and
Motor Vehicles, Department of Labor, and
Department of Environmental Protection.
In her years of State service, Susan has
attended several seminars such as:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Introduction,
Microsoft Access 2000 Introduction,
Mistake-Free Grammar and Proofreading,
and Outstanding Receptionist.

Tim Walker, Environmental Specialist II,
Oil and Gas Section Jay Field Office, B.S.,
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
in Geology (1980). Licensed Professional
Geologist in: Illinois, Kentucky, and
Tennessee. Environmental well drilling
certification in: Florida, Missouri,
Kentucky, and Indiana. Research interest:
In-situ bioremediation.

Joel Webb, Database Manager, B.S. in
Economics, Florida State University
(1996), B.S. in Management Information
Systems, Florida State University (2000),
Microsoft Certified Professional for MS
Access.

RESEARCH ASSOCIATES AND
ASSISTANTS

Edward Chelette, OPS Laboratory
Technician I, Geological Investigations
Section, B.S., Florida State University in
Geology (1990). Worked as a research assis-
tant and teaching assistant at the
University of Hawaii while doing post-
graduate work in volcanology and hydroge-
ology (1990-1993). Worked part time at the
Northwest Florida Water Management
District while doing post-graduate work in
chemical hydrogeology at Florida State
University (1993-1995). Worked as a hydro-
geologist with the Northwest Florida Water
Management District working on a joint
project with DEP and DOH to identify, per-
mit, test and regulate construction of wells
in EDB contaminated areas, primarily in
Jackson County, FL. Worked as IS admin-


istrator for the Professional Development
Center, Tallahassee Community College
from 1997-2004.

Bridget (Brie) Coane, Driller and
Geologist, Geological Investigations
Section. B.S., Florida State University in
Environmental Studies (2003). Research
interests: core drilling, monitor well con-
struction, environmental geology, stratig-
raphy, sedimentation, and hydrogeology.
2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2005
City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield
and Statemap Drilling Team Extra Effort
Award, 2005 Director's Service Recognition
Award for 2004-2005 City of Tallahassee
Southeast Sprayfield Statemap Drilling
Crews.

Adel Dabous, OPS Geochemistry
Research Associate, Hydrogeology Section,
Geological Investigation Section. B.S.,
Alexandria University in Geology (1968)
and M.S., Alexandria University in Geology
(1973); Ph.D. Florida State University in
Geology (1981). Research interests: envi-
ronmental geochemistry and environmen-
tal radioactivity; applications of uranium
and other uranium-series nuclides in
hydrology and Quaternary geochronology;
water/rock interactions. Professional mem-
berships: Geochemical Society of America,
Geological Society of Egypt, Geological
Society of America, and Mineralogical
Society of Egypt.

Scott Barrett Dyer, Hydrogeology
Section, OPS Lab Technician II, B.S.,
Florida State University in Geology (2007),
B.A., Florida State University in
International Affairs (1989). Research
interests: Characterization of the Woodville
Karts Plain; Instrumentation, Marker Dye
Tracing (Natural and Synthetic),
Groundwater and Surface water interac-
tion, Conduit Flow and Water Table moni-
toring. Graduate student in
Geology/Hydrology, Florida State
University. Research involves the physical






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


characterization of the Woodville Karst
Plain and the interface of fresh surface
waters and the coastal margin of the Gulf
of Mexico.

William L. Evans III, OPS Professional
Geologist I, Geological Investigations
Section. Dual B.S., University of Central
Florida in Zoology and Biology (1979); M.S.,
Florida State University in Geology (1996).
Research interests: hydrogeology, lake
hydrology, aquifer storage and recovery
system geochemistry and hydrogeology,
environmental geology, stratigraphy and
heavy mineral deposition. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida). DEP
Scientific Diver (in training). Co-Principal
Investigator, USGS STATEMAP Program.
Professional memberships: Florida
Association of Professional Geologist (Past
Board of Directors Member), National
Ground Water Association, Southeastern
Geological Society. August 1999 DEP
Employee of the Month, 1997, 1998, and
1999 DEP Extra Effort Awards, 1999 DEP
Division of Waste Management
Appreciation Award, 2002 FGS Extra
Effort Award, and 2003 FGS Team Extra
Effort Award.

Cindy Fischler, OPS Environmental
Specialist III, Hydrogeology Section. B.S.,
Florida State University in Environmental
Studies (2002). Research interests: geo-
chemistry and hydrogeology especially
water-rock interaction; coastal geology and
processes, and carbonate petrology. 2006
Director's Service Recognition Award for
Hydrogeochemistry Research Team.

Frances C. Ijeoma, OPS Fiscal Assistant
II, Hydrogeology Section. B.S., University
of Calabar, Nigeria in Geology, (1998);
Certification in Oracle9i. Interest: Systems
management and administration.

Amy Jensen, OPS Laboratory Technician
I, Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, B.S. candidate,


Department of Geoscience, Florida State
University (2005), Research Interests:
structural geology, planetary geology,
igneous environments, GIS analysis and
remote sensing.

Robert Kurtz, OPS Laboratory
Technician I, Geological Investigations
Section. B.S., Florida State University in
Geology, (2004). Currently at Florida State
University as a graduate student in geolo-
gy. FGS research assistant working on
analysis of sample cuttings and cores for
STATEMAP and South Florida Water
Management District.

Michelle Lachance, OPS Laboratory
Technician I, Coastal Research Program,
Geological Investigations Section. B.S.,
Florida State University in Civil
Engineering, Geology and Social Science
(2002); Certificate in Urban and Regional
Planning (2002). Research interests:
Geophysics, Structural Engineering and
Geographical Information Sy stems .
Professional memberships: American
Society of Civil Engineers.

Aaron Lower, OPS Laboratory Technician
I, Coastal Research Program, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S. Purdue
University in Geology (2004); Research
interests: Coastal Geology, Sedimentology,
Geophysics. Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America.

James McClean, OPS Environmental
Specialist II, Hydrogeology Section, B.A.,
University of New Mexico in Art and
Anthropology (1994). M.S., FSU in
Anthropology (2002). Research interests:
Remote Sensing and GIS for marine
resource management, karst, and sea level
change and scientific diving. Professional
memberships: American Academy of
Underwater Sciences, National Association
of Underwater Instructors, and National
Speleological Society.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


\K
-\4


1ga 1^


James McClean prepares a sidescan sonar
spring search (photo by Tom Greenhalgh).
Ryan C. Means, OPS Biological Scientist
I, SpringsInitiative, G e o 1 o g i c a 1
Investigations Section. B.S., University of
Florida in Zoology (1996), M.S., University
of Florida in Wildlife Ecology and
Conservation (2001). Research Assistant
working on springs-related topics.
Research interests: biological inventorying
and monitoring, herpetology, temporary
pond metapopulation dynamics, environ-
mental geology, prehistoric archaeology,
and vertebrate paleontology.

Rebecca P. Meegan, OPS Biological
Scientist I, Springs Initiative, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S., Virginia Tech
in Forestry and Wildlife Resources (1996);
M.S., Texas A&M in Forestry (2000).
Research assistant working on springs
related topics. Research interests include
landscape ecology, environmental geology,
ephemeral pond ecology, and amphibian
metapopulation dynamics.


sh and datalogger for an (


Anita M. Nash, OPS Biological Scientist I,
Springs Initiative, Geological
Investigations Section. Springs Trend
water-quality sampling, valedictorian of
York County Area Vocational Technical
School.

David T. Paul, OPS Environmental
Specialist II, B.S., Florida State University
in Geology (1999). USGS STATEMAP
Program; Research interests:
Environmental geology, stratigraphy, GIS
analysis, and cartography; core drilling and
monitor well construction. 2005
STATEMAP Drilling Team Extra Effort
Award, 2005 Director's Service Recognition
Award for 2004-2005 STATEMAP Drilling
Crews; 2006 Employee Awards Committee
OPS Representative.

Jeremy Poarch, OPS IT Assistant,
Geological Data Management Section. B.S.
candidate Tallahassee Community College/
FSU in Management Information Systems,






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


projected graduation: Summer 2006.
Interest: Computer network systems man-
agement. 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award.

Sarah Ramdeen, Computer Programmer
Analyst II, Administrative and Geological
Data Management Section. B.S. FSU in
Geology (2003); B.A., Florida State
University in Humanities (2003); M.S.,
Florida State University in Information
Studies (2006). Completed an internship
with the Micropaleontology section of the
Natural History Museum of London, UK.
(Fall 2006).

Sean Roberts, OPS Laboratory
Technician I, Geological Investigations
Section, Research Assistant with the
Swallet Team (Florida Springs Initiative
project). A.A., Santa Fe Community College
in General Science and Engineering (2003).
Research interests include: cave mapping
and exploration, photo documentation.
Current president of the Florida
Speleological Society, member of the
Florida Paleontological Society, National
Speleological Society.

Christie Seale, OPS Secretary Specialist,
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, B.S. candidate
Florida State University in College of
Business (2007).

James (Jim) Sparr, OPS Laboratory
Technician I, Coastal Research Program,
Geological Investigations Section. B.S.,
Tarleton State University in Earth Science
(1994). Research interests: X-ray diffrac-
tometry, geophysical instrumentation,
coastal dynamics, ecology and aquaculture
of hermatypic corals, sea-level fluctuation,
and astroblemes.


Diana M.
Laboratory
Initiative,


Thurman-Nowak, OPS
Technician I, Springs
Geological Investigations


Section. B.A., University of North Carolina
at Charlotte in Biology (1990). Post-gradu-
ate studies in Environmental Biology,
Western Carolina University and Florida
International University (1996). Research
Assistant on preliminary studies for the
Southern Everglades Restoration Project
(1996). Prior to coming to FGS, worked as a
Hydrogeology Specialist for the Northwest
Florida Water Management District, for
two years. State of Florida licensed
Drinking Water Plant Operator with five
years of experience in groundwater treat-
ment. Professional Memberships: Florida
Water Pollution Control Operator
Association.

David J. Wagner, OPS Laboratory
Technician I, STATEMAP Research
Assistant, Geologic Mapping, Geological
Investigations Section, also describer of
SFWMD drill cuttings. B.S., Florida State
University in Geology (2005); currently
pursuing a M.S. degree in Civil
Engineering at Florida State University
with primary interest in Geotechnical
Engineering.

Aaron White, Environmental Specialist,
Hydrogeology Section, B.S., Johnson C.
Smith University in Geology (2002); M.S.,
Florida A&M University in Marine and
Estuarine Ecology (2005) Research inter-
ests: hydrogeology, environmental geology,
marine and estuarine ecology. 2005
Outstanding Graduate Assistant, 2005-
2006 Florida Gubernatorial Fellow DEP,
2006 American Institute of Hydrogeology
Travel Award.

OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES

Hal Davis (USGS)
Koren Taylor (City of Tallahassee)
Sean McGlynn (McGlynn Labs)
Lee Florea (USF)
Jerry Mallams (SWFWMD)






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FGS AWARDS PROGRAM


FGS AWARDS FOR 2005

The 2005 Employee of the Year was Ed
Garrett. During that time frame, Ed was
promoted to the Environmental
Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section.
After taking this position, his leadership
ability was demonstrated by effectively pro-
moting teamwork and performance by his
staff. He implemented an internal docu-
ment tracking system and completed a two-
year Certified Public Managers course.
During the course he was awarded the
George C. Askew Award at the annual con-
ference of the American Academy of
Certified Public Managers in Manchester,
New Hampshire.

There were four Individual Extra
Effort Awards presented at the 2005
Awards Luncheon. Susan Trombley cheer-
fully helped almost everyone in one way or
the other. She became an expert on My
Florida Market Place. And she helped with
travel paperwork, P-card processing, and
ordered the office supplies whenever the
need arose. Paulette Bond was extraordi-
nary. She managed the FGS Education
and Outreach Program. Ms. Bond was ded-
icated and creative. She gave excellent pre-
sentations to a variety of audiences and
venues of educational programs. Paulette


Clint Kromhout presents the 2006 FGS
Employee of the Year Award to Sharon
Lee (photo by Harley Means).


was appointed to the State Instructional
materials Committee by the Florida
Commissioner of Education to review text-
books, especially from the standpoint of
content. Sharon Lee turned the FGS finan-
cial administration into a smooth-running
operation in record time. Ms Lee created
new user-friendly filing systems, estab-
lished good working relations with grant
managers and updated FGS accounting
records. She did this without requesting
assistance and without missing a beat with
her other duties. Dave Files spent countless
hours d.-i'ninL, budgeting, and recording
the plugging of several oil wells in south
Florida, spending weeks on the road. He
used his professional experience and judg-
ment to make numerous decisions in order
to get the maximum amount of plugging
work completed and he did this with a very
small budget.

Two teams won Extra Effort Awards.
The first was the drilling operations team
on the City of Tallahassee Southeast
Sprayfield geologic investigation project.
Team members include Craig Berninger,
Lee Booth, Brie Coane, Jake Halfhill, Eric
Harrington, Sarah Ramdeen and Ken
Campbell. The project was part of the City
of Tallahassee/USGS investigation to
determine whether the sprayfield was con-
tributing nutrients to springs in Wakulla
County including Wakulla Springs. FGS
drilled three 250 feet deep cores drilled and
constructed six monitor wells in very diffi-
cult karstic geologic conditions. The local
geology made for difficult drilling and well
construction. In spite of the difficulties, the
team completed their work in timely man-
ner.

The second team award went to the
STATEMAP drilling team. Members
include Lee Booth, Brie Coane, Will Evans,
Jake Halfhill, Eric Harrington, Clint






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


Kromhout, David Paul, and Sarah
Ramdeen. In spite of a six month delay in
the initiation of drilling in 2005, the team
met the STATEMAP drilling deadline. In
order to meet the deadline, the team
worked extra hours, often during difficult
drilling and weather conditions. The condi-
tions included lightning and rainstorms,
and extreme summer heat. In these condi-
tions, they were able to complete over 800
feet (244 meters) of coring in order to meet
the drilling deadline.

FGS AWARDS FOR 2006

In 2006 the employee of the year was
Sharon Lee. Sharon accurately tracked
funding and expenditures for the Minerals
Trust Fund, Grants and Donations Trust
Fund, plus those for the Hydrogeology and
Springs Programs within the FGS. She
worked with My Florida Market Place, the
State of Florida P-cards, and many addi-
tional financial issues for the FGS. Ms. Lee
handled perquisite tracking and was
always on top of every situation from budg-
et projections to special reports. In spite of
the heavy work load, she kept a positive
work attitude and remained enthusiastic
and helpful.

There were two winners of the
Individual Extra Effort Award. Dave
Taylor almost always exceeded the expecta-
tions of his job and went "the extra mile" to
help others get their job done. The extra
effort varied from moving, maintaining,
and repairing other individuals' equipment
to answering their telephones for them.
Paul Atwood consistently exceeded the
expectations of his job. He was diligent and
had a perfectionist attitude. The attitude
made jobs easier for others. He conducted
hundreds of inspections in the south
Florida oil and gas fields and was responsi-
ble for the enforcement of Florida's oil and
gas statutes. Mr. Atwood always did a
great job and at all times maintained a pos-
itive, helpful attitude.


The Team Extra Effort Award went to
the Interim Librarian Team consisting of
Sarah Ramdeen and Muriel Hannion.
Sarah and Muriel administered the FGS
library during a long transition period
between FGS librarians. During this time,
they checked in and routed journals, han-
dled the mail, handled public publication
sales and mail outs. They did all of this in
addition to keeping their regular job
responsibilities on task.

In 2006, the FGS handed out two
Lifetime Achievement Awards. They went
to Bob Caughey and Jim Balsillie. The for-
mer Employee of the Year Award winner
for the FGS, Bob headed the South Florida
Oil and Gas field office for many years.
This job required a knowledge that few
have and the ability to implement the reg-
ulatory aspects as required by Florida's
statutes and rules. He effectively per-
formed his duties for over 30 years and was
virtually on call 24 hours a day, seven days
a week. Jim Balsillie was an individual of
many talents. During his tenure with the
Department, he dedicated his life to his
geologic work and achieved many accom-
plishments. In the 1970s, Jim began work-
ing for the Department's Beaches and
Shores Bureau and by 1982 became the
Administrator of the Bureau of Data
Acquisition Section. In 1994, he took a
position with the FGS as a Coastal
Engineering Geologist and remained there
until his death. He was a researcher who
published over 100 papers in the fields of
sedimentation and coastal processes. He
will be greatly missed.

OUTSIDE AWARDS

Walt Schmidt was the Recipient of the
2005 Outstanding Alumni Award given at
the University of South Florida, Geology
Alumni Society Annual Banquet, Tampa,
FL., February, 2005.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


IN MEMORIAL

James Hugh Balsillie
December 7, 1946 December 21, 2006



Jim Balsillie, a pioneer in coastal geology, succumbed to lung cancer on December 21,
2006. His passing cut short an exceptionally productive scientific career and took from
many of us a great friend and colleague. Jim was born in Yakima, Washington on
December 7, 1946. He earned a B.S. degree in Geology in 1970 from Portland State
University, in Portland, Oregon.

Jim's graduate studies were interrupted in late 1970 by induction into the Army where
he was invited to work at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Coastal Engineering Research
Center (CERC) in Washington, D.C. Among his projects at the CERC, he carried out
research on shore and coastal retention structures, beginning a long and prolific career in
coastal research. He was honorably discharged in 1972. For his exemplary service he was
awarded the Army Commendation Medal, the fourth highest individual decoration the U.
S. Army can bestow.

In 1975, Jim obtained a leave of absence from the CERC where he continued in a civil-
ian capacity, to attend graduate school in Geology at Florida State University, in
Tallahassee. In 1977, in the midst of his graduate research, Jim accepted a request to
become the scientific liaison with the State of Florida's Department of Natural Resources,
Beaches and Shores Division, and the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department
at the University of Florida. This decision began a scientific career with the State of Florida
that spanned 29 years. Jim assisted in the regulatory permitting program of the Beaches
and Shores Division of the Department of Natural Resources. In 1982, he was named
Administrator of the newly formed Analysis and Research Section of the Bureau of Coastal
Data Acquisition. In 1990, Jim moved to the Office of Beach Erosion control in the Division
of Beaches of Shores to develop beach restoration management plans for the State of
Florida.

In 1994, Jim moved to his final post in the new coastal geology program at the Florida
Geological Survey. Jim's expertise in all aspects of geologic field work was frequently put
to use in his work at the FGS. He developed methods for offshore sampling and remote
sensing in many projects off both the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. He also was a mainstay in
the operation of the FGS' research vessels. Jim authored more than 100 publications dur-
ing a long and productive professional career that spanned more than three decades.

Among Jim's many other professional accomplishments are included the following: he
was a founder of the National Hurricane Conference; he was a recipient of the James A.
Purpura International Award of the Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association
(FSBPA), for outstanding research in coastal engineering and coastal processes; he was
designated a Florida Beach Pioneer in 1994 by the FSBPA; and he was a longtime member
of the editorial board of the Journal of Coastal Research.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


AGENCIES CONTRIBUTING TO THE GRANTS AND DONATIONS TRUST
FUND THROUGH COOPERATIVE CONTRACTS WITH THE FGS


Agency FY 04/05 FY 05/06

Alachua County X

BFA Environmental Consultants X

Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc X X

City of Tallahassee X X

Collier County Government X

Florida Department of Environmental Protection X

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission X X

Northwest Florida Water Management District X

St. Johns River Water Management District X X

Suwannee River Water Management District X X

South Florida Water Management District X X

Southwest Florida Water Management District X X

U. S. Geological Survey X X

U. S. Minerals Management Service X X

University of Texas X






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 24


FGS BUDGET SUMMARY


Summary by Fiscal Year


Fund Grants and Minerals Water Totals
Donations Trust Fund Quality (Dollars)
Trust Fund (Dollars) Assurance
(Dollars) Trust Fund
(Dollars)


FTE Salaries and Benefits

Other Personal Services

Expenses

Operating Capital Outlay

Vehicle Acquisition

TOTALS




FTE Salaries and Benefits


Other Personal Services

Expenses

Operating Capital Outlay

Vehicle Acquisition

TOTALS


Fiscal Year 2004-2005

0 2,007,372

332,912 210,226

120,599 324.161

1,169 85,620

0 685,889

454,680 3,313,268


Fiscal Year 2005-2006

0 2,103,511


332,898

215,097

20,831

0

568,826


79,690

273,214

81,722

0

2,538,137


143,230

0

403,776

11,966

0

580,772




143,230


0

403,776

10,150

0

557,156


2,246,741

412,588

892,087

98,755

685,889

4,348,720




2,246,741


412,588

892,087

112,703

0

3,664,119