Citation
Biennial report

Material Information

Title:
Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2006
Frequency:
Biennial
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
2005-2006[24th report]
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
AJG7269 ( LTUF )
22342552 ( OCLC )
001754280 ( AlephBibNum )
sn 90001622 ( LCCN )
1052-6536 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report (Florida Geological Survey)

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Full Text

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Cover: The Gunter Building, housing the main offices of the Florida Geological Survey, on the campus of the Florida State University in Tallahassee.

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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Michael W. Sole, Secretary LAND AND RECREATION Robert G. Ballard, Deputy Secretary FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Director BIENNIAL REPORT 24 2005 2006 By Ron Hoenstine, P.G. #57 Published for the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY Tallahassee, Florida 2009

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ISSN 1052-6536 ii

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PREFACE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida The Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geological Survey (FGS), is publishing Biennial Report 24, prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the FGS staff during the two-year period January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2006. Research results are reported in the Survey's various publication series, professional journals, presentations, and contract deliverables. Reports for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other activities of the FGS. Walt Schmidt, Ph.D, P.G. State Geologist andDirector, Florida Geological Survey iii

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CONTENTS Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Research facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 FGS warehouse facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 This Biennial Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 FGS organizational structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Office of the State Geologist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Administrative and Geological Data Management Section . . . . . . . . . .7 Geological Data Management Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Geographic Informational Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 FGS Wells database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Web technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Information technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Education and Outreach Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Explore Florida! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Outreach events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Research Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Library services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Library computer services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Publications distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 National Geologic Map Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Geological Investigations Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Coastal Research Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 On-going coastal projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Sedimentation Elevation Table project . . . . . . . . .14 Cooperative coastal projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Offshore sand investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Mapping portions of the Big Bend Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Scallop research project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 FGS and Florida State University St. Vincent Island study . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium . . .17 Geologic Data Acquisition Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 On-going geologic Data Acquisition Projects . . . . . . . . . .17 Cooperative Geologic data acquisition projects . . . . . . . . .18 Southeast Sprayfield investigation . . . . . . . . . .18 Woodville recharge basin aquifer protection study Mangel's Farm core and monitor well . . . . . . . .18 Radar Hill core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Mineral Resources Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Stone (Aggregate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 iv

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Sand and Gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Heavy Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 STATEMAP Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Hydrogeology Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Hydrology Research Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 FGS hydrogeology projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Geochemical modeling of arsenic mobilization during storage and recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Aquifer storage and recovery studies . . . . . . . . . .21 Evaluation of temporal trends in the groundwater quality of springs and wells of Florida . . . . . . . .22 Fanning Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Offshore springs research . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Phase II . . . .24 Geochemical characterization of potential aquifer storage and recovery zones in the Floridan aquifer system, as partof the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan . . .24 Florida aquifer storage and recovery geochemical study . .25 Southwest Florida hydrologic framework mapping project .26 Cooperative hydrogeology projects . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Tracing studies and instrumentation (metering) of the Wakulla springshed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 In-situ measurement of water flow and quality in Wakulla Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Expansion of the cave metering network . . . . . . . .29 The Woodville Karst Plain modeling efforts . . . . . . .29 Florida cave database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Statistical analysis of data . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Studies for the purpose of hydrologic characterization of karstic watersheds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Estimating ground water discharges to surface waters via radon tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Using geophysical techniques to locate caves and conduits in the Woodville Karst Plain . . . . . . . .31 Scientific basis of resistivity imaging . . . . . . . . .33 Oil and Gas Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Regulatory Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Drilling and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Drilling in north Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Geophysical exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Oil and Gas Plugging Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Equipment acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Alpha spectrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Spectrophotometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 FGS publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Biennial Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 v

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Florida Geology Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Open File Map Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Reports of Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Poster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Special Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Miscellaneous Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Papers by staff in outside publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Presentations and other professional activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Field Trips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Booths and displays (FGS staff) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Personnel information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Personnel changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Full time employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Other Personal Services employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Full time employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Research associates and assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Outside research associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 FGS Awards Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 FGS awards for 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 FGS awards for 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Outside awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 In Memoriam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Agencies contributing to the Grants and Donations Trust Fund through cooperative contracts with the FGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 FGS budget summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 vi

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The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) has been active and productive during 2005 and 2006. In 2005, we continued our waterquality sampling and discharge monitoring of many of Florida's springs. This ongoing program is intended to compile data for long-term trend analyses to provide a better understanding of our groundwater and springs systems. Also, related to this aquifer conservation effort, is the field mapping of swallets (stream to sink features). This project is designed to produce a database of swallets that can be converted to map coverage to assist state and local agencies in making land-use decisions to protect and conserve our aquifers and groundwater resources. Also, in early 2005, the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) study was completed and submitted to the Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) Division of Water Resource Management and sampling and analysis began for the Geochemical Analysis of Potential Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Storage Zones in the Floridan Aquifer System, Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, which is a cooperatively funded project by the FGS and the South Florida Water Management District. Another ASR geochemistry research project was completed in partnership with the St. Johns River Water Management District. Several other hydrogeology projects were outsourced to universities and the private sector. These included: Quantitative groundwater tracing in the Woodville Karst Plain, field calibration and validation of a groundwater flow model, field-testing the utility and resolution of selected geophysical methods, such as microgravity and electrical resistivity, in locating cavities and conduits, continued development of the Florida Cave Database, and the online map-based curriculum "Explore Florida." The FGS again was awarded cooperative STATEMAP funding from the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP). This jointly funded program (FGS and NCGMP) provided support to map the eastern portion of the 1: 100,000 Gainesville Quadrangle and the western portion of the 1: 100,000 Lake City Quadrangle, both in north-central Florida. The Florida Geological Mapping Advisory Committee meets each fall to review progress and to recommend prioritized areas for upcoming proposals. In June, 2005, the FGS took delivery of our new Schramm T450MIIA core drilling rig. This rig allows for a total coring depth of 2,500 feet, more than doubling the total coring depth of the previous drill rig. Our Coastal Research Program completed an investigation funded jointly by the FGS and the Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas office of DEP, mapping bottom features, bathymetric measurements, and identification of bottom sediments and characterization of subsurface stratigraphy within a twenty-five square mile area of the Apalachee Bay. This program also continued our cooperative partnership with the U.S. Minerals Management Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in studying the potential sand resources for beach renourishment off Florida's northeast shore. Early 2005 also saw the release of a new sea-level rise publication titled: High Resolution Sea-Level History for the Gulf of Mexico since the Last Glacial Maximum FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 1 FORWARDby Walt SchmidtState Geologist and Chief Florida Geological Survey

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The Oil and Gas Section, in 2005, terminated a three year program to conduct plugging operations on selected abandoned oil and gas wells throughout the state. These wells were generally drilled before the state's formal regulatory system of permitting and inspection was in place. Also in that year, prolonged litigation came to an end with the $12.5 million state buyout of Coastal Petroleum's offshore mineral rights in state waters. In 2006, we neared completion of a manual Designing Monitoring Programs to Measure Changes and Evaluate Environmental Management Outcomes. This is a cooperative effort between the FGS and the DEP's Division of Water Resources Management. A new Online Photo Archive was completed, which is a new service to allow the public to access various geologic-oriented photographs. The photo categories are organized into picture folders containing many geologically significant images including formations, caves, geomorphology, old maps, fossils, rocks and minerals, sinkholes and other karst features, springs and geologists. New photographs will be continually added to these archives and captions will be prepared for each photo as the ongoing project continues. This is but a small fraction of the activities and projects the staff of the Florida Geological Survey has been involved in these last two years. Details on these and many other projects can be found on the following pages. A Personal Note : During the fall of 2005, I learned that I had failing kidneys. I was in and out of the hospital several times. Finally in March of 2006, I was placed on dialysis. I continued to work while on dialysis through November but it was a struggle while I had little strength or stamina. On November 28th, 2006, I received a kidney transplant from my son David. So far so good, we are both doing well and I am back to work fulltime. I mention this because I wish to thank the staff of the Florida Geological Survey for their support, dedication, and dependability during that time. They carried on without missing a beat, met their project deliverable deadlines, complied with all Department requests, and overall kept the FGS running smoothly. I thank them for their high level of professionalism and friendship. My wife Cheryl, son David, and daughter Amber, all appreciate the way everyone pitched in and "just did what had to be done." I thank them all. I'm glad to be a part of the FGS Family. It's great to be able to get up each day and come to work and get older! BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 2

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The Florida Geological Survey's (FGS) Main Office is located on the campus of the Florida State University (FSU) in the Herman W. Gunter Building, adjacent to the university's Department of Geological Sciences. The FGS's Oil and Gas Section and Geological Data Acquisition Program are colocated in office space in the Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) Warehouse on Commonwealth Boulevard. The FGS has a staff of 65 40 permanent full-time and 25 part-time OPS employees. Research Facilities FGS research facilities include a geological research library, sample repositories, and laboratories. The library contains an extensive collection of state and federal publications, periodicals, and reference works. The sample repositories hold cores and well cutting samples from more than 18,000 wells (both onshore and offshore), as well as more than 5,000 outcrop samples. The laboratory facilities at the Gunter Building include a permeability lab equipped with 44 falling-head permeameters; a sedimentology lab containing diamond-blade rock-saws, drill press corer, and core saw for core processing, sieve shakers, ovens, and balances; sample preparation equipment for clay mineralogy, organic/carbonate content and micro/nannofossil studies; and an alpha spectrometer. A Hydrogeochemistry Lab and scanning electron microscope (SEM) laboratory have been set up at the Warehouse. New equipment includes an alpha spectrometer and a radio-isotope fume hood, a Mega Pure 3A Water Still, and a Jeol JXA-840A SEM and microprobe. Field equipment includes a trailermounted auger rig, a truck-mounted Failing 1500 drill rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted Mobile Drill and CME auger/core rigs with wire-line coring capability (Schramm T450MIIA), various pickup trucks and four-wheel drive vehicles, two research vessels and six smaller boats used for inland and marine research projects. In addition, the FGS has a Marine Sonic side scan sonar system, a Geopulse subsurface acoustic profiler, a vibracore sediment collection system, a jet probe and a number of water chemistry data loggers, GPS units and sediment core and grab sampling devices. The FGS has a mobile "GeoLab". The GeoLab is an aluminum step-van that has been outfitted for mobile field and simple laboratory work and can also be used for educational demonstrations at environmental fairs and schools. The FGS also has cooperative agreements with FSU's Department of Geological Sciences to share an X-ray Diffractometer, an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and an atomic absorption spectrometer. FGS Warehouse Facility The Geological Data Acquisition Program staff is located in offices in the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 3 INTRODUCTION FGS Main Office, Gunter Building, FSU Campus, Tallahassee, FL (photo by Tom Scott).

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Warehouse and Core Storage Facility located behind the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Annex, across the street from the FDEP Douglas Building located just off of Capitol Circle Northwest in Tallahassee. This Biennial Report Biennial reports have been historically compiled by the FGS to chronicle its legacy and inform the public as to its activities. They also serve to insure accountability of FGS activities to Florida government and the public pursuant to FGS mission goals prescribed by Chapter 377, Florida Statutes. Following this introduction, eleven sections provide information about our program is provided in the following order. The general organization of the FGS is described in FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. Work conducted by the FGS either on its own or in conjunction with other agencies in the past two calendar years is chronicled by individual FGS Sections. The four sections are the: ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT, GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, HYDROGEOLOGY and OIL AND GAS. Next, SPECIAL PROJECTS describes those projects which were not anticipated, but were important enough to garner special attention. FGS scientists strive to maintain stateof-the-art status regarding field support and measurement and laboratory analytical equipment; new additions during the biennial period are described in EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION Florida Statute 377.075 is specific concerning FGS mandating the dissemination of geologic information from investigations in published products. These are listed and abstracted in the PUBLICATIONS section. In addition to published products, the FGS is involved in in-house and outside activities described in the PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES section. The PERSONNEL INFORMATION section chronicles personnel changes during the past two-year period, and provides short biographies of FGS personnel. Accolades received by our staff or the FGS are described in the AWARDS section. Finally, a one-page tabulated representation of FGS funding is provided in the FGS BUDGET SUMMARY. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 4

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OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST The State Geologist carries a three-fold responsibility: Chief of the Survey, State Geologist, and Administrator of Oil and Gas exploration and production operations throughout the State. The Chief is responsible for general program leadership, direction, and management authority in planning, scheduling and executing the programs of the Survey. As State Geologist, he is the point of contact representing the State of Florida on geoscience inquiries from elected and appointed officials, government agencies, industry, mining companies, oil and gas companies, geologic and hydrogeologic consultants, environmental consultants, academia, land and mineral owners, educators, students, and the public. The responsibilities of the State Geologist and the duties of the Florida Geological Survey have been defined by the Florida Legislature and are generally listed in Section 377.075, Florida Statutes. With this guidance and policy input from the Department of Environmental Protection, the FGS has a broad mission. It is described in the Florida Statute 377.075 as follows: The mission of the FGS is two fold: First: to collect, interpret, disseminate, store and maintain geologic and earth science data, thereby contributing to the responsible use and understanding of Florida's natural resources; and Second: to conserve the State of Florida's oil and gas resources and minimize environmental impacts from exploration and production operations through regulatory oversight using permits and inspections. The FGS is presently organized into four sections which are administered by the State Geologist as Chief of the Survey. This is shown in the organizational chart on the following page. The sections include: the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, the Geological Investigations Section, the Hydrogeology Section, and the Oil and Gas Section. Each of these sections is managed by a Section Administrator. In addition to the overall administration of the FGS, the primary responsibilities of the State Geologist include the historical functions of acting as the chief geoscientist for the State in various capacities and needs, and overseeing the overall production and quality of the geological research produced by the staff. The State Geologist is also ultimately responsible for implementing the State's oil and gas exploration and production regulations. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 5 FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Dr. Walter "Walt" Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief, Florida Geological Survey (photo by Harley Means)

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BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 6

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ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTIONThe Survey's Administrative and Geological Data Management Section includes the Administrative Secretary to the State Geologist, administrative support staff, the building Custodian, the Survey Librarian, the FGS Network Administrator, the Geological Mapping and Analysis Staff, and the Environmental Geology and Educational Outreach staff. This section is responsible for administration (budget, department and interagency liaison, etc.) and personnel management (travel, leave, benefits, etc.), Gunter Building maintenance and repair, computer system management and network administration, and contract and grant tracking. This group's functions also include graphics design, geological mapping and map interpretation through geographic informational systems (GIS) and computer assisted drafting (CAD) analysis, geological research library services, publication production and distribution, geological education and public outreach, and environmental geology research. GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Geographic Information Systems The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) capability of the FGS consists of a full-time GIS Analyst, a CAD analyst, a general support group who contribute to specific projects, and the support of the Bureau of Information Systems (BIS)/GIS division. Tasks undertaken by the GIS analyst include: assistance in map production, development of GIS applications, imagery manipulation support, and technical support to all users of GIS software (ESRI ArcView 3.2a, ArcGIS 9.x, ESRI Extensions, ERDAS Imagine and Surfer.) Other tasks include software evaluation, development and maintenance of GIS data on the FGS and DEP Intranet, installation and maintenance of GIS software, scanning, digitizing, map series production and maintenance, image processing, interactive web-based map development and maintenance and development of GIS databases and tools through programming languages such as Avenue and Visual Basic. A GIS-user needs assessment was completed during the 2005-2006 biennium. In addition, GIS assistance was provided for revision of Florida Oil and Gas maps, revision of the FGS GIS data library directory, statewide hydrostratigraphic cross-section design, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) overlay and geomorphic mapping of Suwannee River Water Management District, springshed and swallet mapping, and Apalachee Bay offshore bottom profiling and mapping. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 7 Jacqueline "Jackie" M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist for Administrative and Geological Data Management (photo by Harley Means).

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FGS Wells Database The precursor to the current FGS Wells database dates back to the 1970's with basic well data, formation picks and lithologic descriptions coded and entered in data files stored on the Florida State University main frame computer. Decoding routines were written in FORTRAN. A later incarnation used the same coding system but with "updated" BASIC programs for data entry and decoding for printing. These BASIC programs are still in wide use by the Florida geologic community but are limited in flexibility, querying, reporting, and quality control. These issues were initially addressed by updating the database and its associated programs into Access; this version of the FGS Wells database was initially designed by a contracted company. This version combined the well cuttings and core records, including sample depth and interval information, basic location information and casing information into one location. In 2005, an OPS database designer was hired to begin construction of a new front end to the database and determine the best direction for the new database. It was decided to further upgrade the database to Oracle in 2006. This would allow more information, including the lithologic descriptions, to be connected to the database. It would also allow users to connect the database to GIS applications and other software including Hydro Geo-Analyst which was purchased in the spring of 2006. In the fall of 2006, this role was expanded to include a second OPS employee. Tasks for the database designers included creating a front end where data entry could be done directly into the database. This would allow new entries to be created as samples are processed and given well numbers. Other tasks included processing requests for information. This included in-house and outside requests for data about the FGS's sample collection. Monthly meetings were held to discuss data processing needs and what changes would take place in the new database. These included methods for cleaning data and verifying information and determining what sources of information would be combined in the new database. Major achievements of the database project included the development of a data entry interface. This interface prevents duplicate entries and saves data to temporary tables that can be verified before commitment to the master files. A backup regime for the data housed in the database was also designed. There is a weekly backup of the database on a separate server located across town on the FGS server housed with BIS. Standard queries were also designed that allow users to search for well information in a desired geographical area by entering a Lat/Long or TRS range. Web Technologies The web capabilities of the FGS consist of a full-time web master, who maintains, enhances and adds to the FGS Internet and Intranet web sites. All content on both sites are supplied to the web master by full-time and OPS employees of the FGS. These web sites are part of the larger DEP website which is made up of all websites maintained by the Department's Bureaus and Divisions. The goal of the FGS webpage is to present available geoscience information to the citizens of the state of Florida. The goal of the FGS Intranet is to supply forms, graphics, library resources and helpful information to FGS and DEP employees. Tasks undertaken by the webmaster included: preparation of information into web pages for the Internet and Intranet in compliance with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) section 508 requirements and DEP web standards, development of websites presenting geoscience BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 8

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information for CD's and DVD's and burning and label printing of CD's and DVD's intended for mass distribution. Graphics for websites, poster presentations and CD/DVD labels are also developed. Other major accomplishments during the time period of January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006 included: additions to the web page consisting of Uranium Isotope Applications, Geologic Hazards, and Hydrogeology Section information. The 4th Annual Hydrogeology Consortium Workshop, FGS Special Publication Number 58, was published on CD and at http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/pro grams/hydrogeology/hydrowkshp/index.htm Information Technologies Through July 2005, the information technologies (IT) staffing of the FGS included a full-time Systems Programmer and an OPS automation specialist, supplemented by assistance from Business and Information Systems (BIS). The OPS position was eliminated after July 2005 due to increased demands on OPS staffing caused by various FTE vacancies and hiring freezes. Computer hardware and software issues are addressed by the systems programmer. FGS primarily uses Microsoft operating systems in conjunction with Office utilities from Microsoft. Two small database servers are maintained on site; two primary network servers are maintained by BIS at a centralized site. Tasks undertaken by IT include: installation of newly acquired software, maintenance and upgrading of all FGS computer hardware systems including installation of new devices, maintenance of networked computer systems capabilities and peripheral devices, and support for FGS on-site servers. Major IT accomplishments from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2006 include acquisition of a new server and tape backup system and, in cooperation with BIS, the move of the two main servers to the centralized location. All computer systems are protected from virus attacks by McAfee Enterprise virus scan and are updated automatically. In cooperation with BIS, operating systems in use by the FGS are setup to receive new updates that have been tested by BIS and corresponding IT technical representatives by the SUS (Software Update Service) server. All data generated by the FGS is now backed up in house on a Certance DAT 72 Autoloader. Backup strategies and contingency plans are in compliance with BIS backup standards and retention schedules. EDUCATION AND OUTREACH PROGRAM Explore Florida! During the late 1990's, the FGS assisted Clemson University in development of Southeastern Maps and Aerial Photographic Systems (SE MAPS). This National Science Foundation-funded interdisciplinary science curriculum project is centered on hands-on use of satellite and airborne imagery, aerial photography, topographic maps, and other special-purpose cartographic products (e.g., anaglyph maps). With classroom activities focusing on Florida and seven other southeastern states, these materials allow middle and high school students to visualize geologic relationships and relate them to other disciplines, including mathematics, history, social science and language arts. Student and teacher manuals contain site-specific background information and sets of 'handson' and 'minds-on' interdisciplinary activities keyed to the national and state science standards. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 9

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During 2005 and 2006, the FGS worked with the Florida Resources and Environmental Analysis Center (FREAC) to convert the Florida activities in SE MAPS to an Internet-based resource for Florida students and educators called "Explore Florida!" The purpose of the "Explore Florida!" project is to develop educational materials using maps and aerial photographs as base materials for lesson plans dealing with geology and earth science. Another goal is to encourage the integration of science, math, language arts, and history into the curriculum. Three sites/units have been developed: the Woodville Karst Plain, the Central Peninsula, and South Florida. For each site, map and photo sheets as well as detailed lesson materials were developed. Unlike the SEMAPS model originally funded by NSF, "Explore Florida!", funded by the FGS, has been designed to be delivered via the Internet rather than in hard copy thus offering easier access to users. A unit on map use has also been developed. It should be noted that due to limited resources this project is currently on hold. Outreach Events In both 2005 and 2006, the FGS held its annual Open House celebrating Earth Science Week at the Gunter Building. Earth Science Week is celebrated nationally during the second week of October. The weather was perfect on Friday, October 14, 2005 when the Florida Geological Survey held its annual Open House celebrating Earth Science Week. The new Schramm drill rig acquired by the FGS in June 2005 was prominently displayed on the front lawn of the Gunter Building. Drilling operations staff Craig Berninger, Ken Campbell, and Eric Harrington explained features of the rig, which has a coring depth of 2500 feet. Core obtained in a current drilling operation was displayed on the porch so that participants could get a firsthand look at the rocks that supply water in our area in keeping with the year's national theme "Geoscientists Explore our Earth". Our mobile GEOLAB was open for visitors in the back parking lot. The event ran from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm and we welcomed over 100 guests. We were joined by Gary L. Mahon of the United States Geological Survey who demonstrated how water enters and flows through aquifers as well as how it becomes polluted using a ground-water model. Greg Ira and Jenny Dambek of Department of Environmental Protection's Office of Environmental Education introduced students and scouts to the use of Global Positioning System units in an outdoors hands-on activity. FGS staff geologists led indoor activities that included coloring and experimentation with the making of fossil molds for our youngest guests, fossil identification, carbonate dissolution experiments, and the examination of samples of rocks commonly found in Florida as well as igneous and metamorphic rocks using binocular microscopes. On Friday, October 13, 2006 the Florida Geological Survey celebrated Earth Science Week with its annual Open House. Recognizing the importance of the earth sciences, then Governor Jeb Bush joined states across the nation in proclaiming October 8-14 Earth Science Week. Earth Science Week is organized by the American Geological Institute to promote public awareness of the earth sciences and stewardship of the earth. FGS staff Cindy Fischler, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Carolyn Stringer, Brie Coane and Paulette Bond guided our guests through a variety of interactive activities. Members of the home-schooling community were our special guests at this event. In keeping with this year's theme "Be a Citizen Scientist" Katherine Gilbert, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 10

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a representative from the organization Frog Watch, and an employee of Department of Environmental Protection, joined us to explain the organization's work in documenting frog populations around the country. The United States Geological Survey sent a team of volunteers who used an aquifer model to explain groundwater movement and pollution. Rick Copeland of the FGS introduced our guests to Florida Lake Watch. The FGS conference room was set up with binocular microscopes and samples of rocks from Florida as well as igneous and metamorphic rocks from elsewhere. A truck-mounted auger rig on the lawn along with core samples allowed guests to view the rocks beneath the surface in our area and gain an understanding of how they are obtained. Our youngest visitors worked on coloring sheets that showed some of Florida's fossil mammals. They also experimented with one way that fossils are formed using Play Dough. In both 2005 and 2006 two of our most popular events were our Scout Nights, held during Earth Science Week, which presented activities specifically designed to assist Webelos Scouts in completing their geology badges. These evening events offered tours of the Gunter Building and its labs for scouts, leaders and parents. Small collections of Florida rocks and minerals were provided to scouts along with discussions of their uses and properties. Lastly, the making of volcanoes and mountains were discussed and scouts had opportunities to illustrate the processes and examine rocks from those environments. The FGS also supported Education and Outreach Programs of the DEP Office of Environmental Education with its participation in Earth Day at the Capitol held in April both in 2005 and 2006. The 2005 theme was entitled Getting Down to Business. FGS staff directed students in interactive activities, discussed Survey programs with guests, and handed out selected publications to interested participants. In 2006 the theme was entitled Water is Life. The FGS brought its mobile GEOLAB and presented an activity for students designed to acquaint them with various rock types that make up aquifer systems in Florida. In keeping with the theme of the event the FGS distributed posters related to geology and spring protection issues. Staff from the FGS Coastal Research Program participated in Ocean Day also held at the Capitol in 2005 and 2006. The FGS continued its support for the Wakulla Wildlife Festival in 2005 and 2006. In keeping with the event's focus on conservation of Florida's environment and its wildlife, the FGS exhibit focused on Florida's springs and their protection in 2005. FGS staff members distributed posters and discussed the hydrogeology of Wakulla Springs and explained how knowledge of the area's hydrogeology is essential to protection of the springs. As the FGS Education and Outreach program has expanded, FGS staff geologists have participated in the DEP Office of Environmental Education's Environmental Education Festival at the LawrenceGregory Community Center in Tallahassee. An FGS staff geologist mentored a Florida State University student as part of the university's Service Learning Project. Staff geologists provided judges for a number of local science fairs and have presented talks on various aspects of Florida's geology and hydrogeology at the request of local teachers. Geologists have directed activities at science enrichment events at local public and private schools. Staff have presented talks at the Marion County Springs Festival and participated in the 2006 membership drive reception for the Leon Association of Science Teachers. The Education and Outreach Program also attempts to arrange for geologists to speak to classes in far flung areas of the state FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 11

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when requests are received by phone or email. RESEARCH LIBRARY The FGS Research Library is an integral part of the Survey's research and regulatory programs; it had over 1000 volumes as of the First Annual Report of E.H. Sellards in 1908. Today, it has more than 32,000 volumes. In support of the information needs of staff, students, and researchers, the Library provides access to books, periodicals, maps, state and federal documents, technical reports, and photographs (historic & aerial). It also houses the Archives of the Florida Sinkhole Research Institute. Library Services The Research Library is primarily a scientific special library supporting the research of geologists, but it is open for use by the general public, students and faculty, other government agencies, and private consulting companies. While circulation is restricted to Survey staff, library materials are available to libraries throughout the world via the Interlibrary Loan system. The Library is a member of the Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN) which provides access to the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) computer network for cataloging and Interlibrary Loan. Library Computer Services The "parent library" of the Research Library, the State Library of Florida, provides access to the GeoRef database and more than 25 other bibliographic databases including some with full text articles. Internet access is available to patrons of the Research Library as well as an online catalog of holdings and two flatbed scanner workstations. The library continues its outreach relationship with Leon County Schools, providing job training for local area high school students with special needs. The students digitize an extensive collection of older, hard-copy lithologic well logs. Publications Distribution The library is responsible for maintaining detailed information on the Survey's 800+ published documents and reports and sells those publications which are still in print. Over the two calendar years of 20052006, publication sales consisted of 687 orders for 4507 items. An online List of Publications at http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publica tions/listofpubs.htm gives a description of each publication, its price, and a link to its online version if available. A Publication Order Form with ordering instructions can be found with it. The University of Florida has scanned and digitized about 60% of the Survey's publications at its PALMM website http://palmm.fcla.edu/fgs/ or at its UF Digital Collections (UFDC) website http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?=FGS or at its Aquatic Commons website http://aqua comm.fcla.edu/ A Gift and Exchange depository program enables Survey publications to be distributed to more than 130 libraries throughout Florida, the U.S., and around the world. National Geologic Map Database During 2005-2006, the Florida Geological Survey Research Library continued inputting newly published STATEMAP program products into the National Geologic Map Database (NGMD). This project is sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program in cooperation with the Association of American State Geologists. The goal of the project is to establish a database of all national and state produced geologic maps, both paper and digital, and to provide keyword and geographic searching capabilities. The National Geologic Map Database may be accessed at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/ BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 12

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GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION The Geological Investigations Section is comprised of the Coastal Research Program, the Geologic Data Acquisition Program, the Mineral Resources Program, the Springs Initiative Program (created in 2001), the STATEMAP Program and the Water Management District Cooperative Program. The Geological Investigations Section conducts research projects covering a wide range of topics with section scientists being involved in many basic and applied research projects. The projects are designed to produce and interpret geological data to aid in growth planning, resource management and a better understanding of earth systems. Under the auspices of the Governor's Florida Springs Initiative, the 2001 Florida Legislature authorized the inclusion of the Florida Spring's Initiative in the Department of Environmental Protection's budget. The FGS was tasked with creating an inventory of the State's more than 700 springs which was published in 2004 as Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66 Springs of Florida (Scott et al., 2004). The FGS continued to conduct quarterly sampling of selected first and second magnitude springs found on state-owned property for water-quality analyses and water quantity. The Florida Springs Initiative began funding an investigation of swallets in 2004. Swallets, those sinkholes that capture water from surface streams and rivers, provide direct avenues of recharge to the Floridan Aquifer System and, therefore, are highly susceptible to pollution. FGS teams located and described swallets in order to provide the first comprehensive listing of the features and their distribution. The FGS Swallet Project will be completed in mid 2007. Ongoing cooperative research with the State's water management districts resulted in the delineation of hydrostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic units. The FGS identified potential beach renourishment sands offshore from the state's northeastern and panhandle coasts in cooperation with the U.S. Minerals Management Service. Other investigations include mapping funded through the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Act (STATEMAP) of the eastern portion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quadrangle (2005), mapping in the western portion of the Lake City 1:100,000 scale quadrangle (2006), and began mapping in the eastern portion of the Perry 1:100,000 scale quadrangle. Research was conducted on the Citronelle Formation in the western Florida panhandle, in cooperation with State archeologists' investigations of Native American sites. Work continued on the development of a new State geomorphic map which will delineate landform distribution throughout the state and aid in understanding the processes that developed the state's land surface. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 13 Dr. Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist for Geological Investigations. (Photo by Harley Means).

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The section also consults with other government agencies because the knowledge of regional and local geology of a given area is fundamental in the evaluation of numerous environmental problems. The Geological Investigations Section responds to inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and contamination, geologic hazards, geologic mapping, Florida's geologic history, and problems related to community planning and development. The group prepares detailed lithologic logs for wells that are on file at the FGS. This information is added to the Survey's digital data base which currently contains logs for nearly 5,450 wells. This data base and the programs designed to manipulate it are currently used by other governmental agencies and a number of private firms. COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM The Coastal Research Program (CRP) is committed to continuing fundamental research to improve our understanding of Florida's coastal ecosystems and environmental processes. This research provides information that is essential for planning, ecosystem management, conservation, and protection of Florida's valuable coastal and underwater resources. On-Going Coastal Projects Sedimentation Elevation Table Project Florida Gulf Coast marshes along the Big Bend are experiencing sea-level rise and an insufficient sediment supply to maintain marsh surface elevation. Local mean sea level is rising at an approximate rate of 1.5 to 2.4 millimeters (mm) per year and the spring-fed or controlled (dammed) rivers of the Florida Gulf Coast do not provide sufficient sediments to maintain longterm health of the marshes. Marsh health is determined by several factors; sediment supply, sea-level rise, storm events, erosion rate of waves and marsh subsidence. Over the last 12 years, the Florida Geological Survey's CRP, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, installed Sediment Elevation Tables (SETs) at a number of sites along the Florida Gulf Coast (St. Joe Bay, Apalachicola River, Ochlockonee River, St. Marks River, Aucilla River, Rocky Creek, Cedar Key area and Waccasassa River area) to measure elevation changes of the marsh surface. SET measurements were combined with feldspar marker horizon measurements to quantify changes in marsh topography. The sediment supply for the majority of these marshes is not sufficient to keep pace with sea level rise, resulting in a marsh surface elevation loss of -0.3 to -15.0 mm/year. As a result, this data suggests that the Big Bend coastal areas are at risk; a finding that points out the dynamic and mobile nature of coastal environments. The CRP continued monitoring SET sites during the 2005-2006 period, evaluating the response of marshes to sea level rise. A report of this data with interpretations will be issued as an interactive report (CD) in 2008. Cooperative Coastal Projects Offshore Sand Investigation In 2005, the Florida Geological Survey and the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) continued a cooperative agreement with the specific goal of locating and characterizing both areal extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state submerged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. The area of investigation in 2005 comprised shallow sediments in federal waters off St. Johns and Flagler Counties, from three (4.8 kilometers) to approximately ten miles (16.1 kilometers) offshore, and the sediments on the beaches immediately BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 14

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adjacent to that area. Including 12.3 statute miles (19.8 kilometers) of data previously collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), approximately 272 statute miles (438 kilometers) of subsurface acoustic profile data were acquired during 2005 offshore of Nassau, Duval, St. Johns and Flagler Counties, with the bulk of these data being acquired offshore of southern St. Johns County. These data were used to determine locations thought to be favorable for the deposition of beachrestoration quality sand. Beach samples collected on the beaches of Flagler County in previous years were processed from 20 locations for a total of 41 samples. A total of 38 offshore seabed grab samples were collected offshore of northern St. Johns County. Descriptions were made and grain size distributions were determined for all beach and offshore seabed grab samples. A preliminary seismic stratigraphic analysis of subbottom profiler data collected was completed. As a result of the seismic stratigraphic analysis conducted, several features indicative of high potential for the occurrence of beach restoration quality sand in federal waters off Nassau, Duval, St. Johns, and Flagler Counties were identified. The results of the tasks completed in 2005 for this investigation were detailed in A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 3 Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior Minerals Management Service (Phelps et al., 2005). This report is available on DVD. In 2006, the CRP continued this program of offshore investigations in cooperation with the Minerals Management Service. Data collection in Year 4 of this study concentrated primarily on the areas offshore of Flagler and Volusia Counties from three (4.8 kilometers) to approximately ten miles (16.1 kilometers) offshore, and the sediments on the beaches immediately adjacent to that area. Approximately 270 statute miles (435 kilometers) of seismic reflection profile data offshore of Flagler and Volusia Counties were collected and interpreted to determine locations thought to be favorable for the deposition of beachquality sand. A total of 107 beach samples collected prior to 2005 from the beaches of Volusia County were analyzed. A total of 22 samples collected offshore of Flagler and northern Volusia Counties were described and granulometrically analyzed as well. The results of the tasks completed in 2006 of this investigation are detailed in A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 4 Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior Minerals Management Service (Phelps et al., 2007). This report is available on DVD. Mapping Portions of the Big Bend Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve A 2005 study, funded by DEP's Coastal Aquatic Management Areas (CAMA) and conducted by the FGS Coastal Research Program, involved mapping seabed features in state submerged lands in a selected portion of the Big Bend Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve offshore St Marks. This study utilized a Marine Sonic Sea Scan System operating at 600 kHz, a Garman 168 Global Positioning Unit, and a Bathymetric System operating at 50 kHz. This offshore investigation examined an area using side scan sonar mosaics. The study area comprised an approximate 25 square mile (64.5 square kilometers) area of seabed. The area, offshore of St. Marks, Florida, includes hard grounds and areas of sea grass as well as possible submarine springs. Approximately 500 statute miles (804.7 kilometers) of sidescan sonar data were collected offshore of Wakulla and Jefferson Counties, Florida. Some areas of specific interest within the study area may be investigated in a follow up study at higher resolutions using a 1200 kHz tow fish. Side scan data was computer processed, and interpreted. A written FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 15

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report was submitted at the conclusion of the project with a follow up on DVD. A similar CAMA-funded mapping study conducted in 2006 by the FGS involved mapping seabed features in state submerged lands off a selected portion of the Big Bend Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve using a Marine Sonic Sea Scan System. This study examined, via the use of side scan sonar mosaics, an approximate 15+ square statute mile (38.8+ square kilometers) area of seabed at a frequency of 600 kHz. The study area, offshore of Steinhatchee, Florida, has extensive hard grounds and areas of sea grass as well as possible submarine springs. Some areas of specific interest within the study area may be investigated in a follow up study at higher resolutions using a 1200 kHz tow fish. Approximately 350 statute miles (563 kilometers) of sidescan sonar were collected offshore of Taylor and Dixie Counties, Florida. This data was computer processed and interpreted. A written report was submitted at the conclusion of the project with a follow up DVD. Scallop Research Project In 2005 and 2006, the FGS Coastal Research Program and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute (FWRI) conducted an investigation of the offshore area off Port Canaveral using an established control grid to monitor the health of scallops and associated biota (Calico Project). The established research grid was located in an area 15 to 30 miles (24.1 to 48.2 kilometers) offshore in water depths ranging from 50 to 250 feet (15 to 76 meters). Utilizing the 50' FGS RV GeoQuest, 60 trawl samples were collected. In order to accomplish this task, it was required that the GeoQuest be fitted with a stern-mounted fast-retrieval winch, which was built and installed by Wade Stringer, the ship's captain. Based on FGS and FWRI schedules and weather constraints, the work was conducted when possible. The distance to be traveled to and from Port Canaveral to the study area required two to three hours travel time. Upon arriving at the coordinates of a sampling site a mesh bag attached to a tethered trawl frame measuring 1.5 x 1.5 x 2.0 feet (.5 x .5 x .6 meters) in size was lowered to the ocean bottom where it was dragged at a speed of one to four knots for a standard time period of five minutes. Upon retrieval, the contents were sorted and weighed and the scallop tissue sampled. Run time between sampling sites ranged from 20 to 60 minutes. At times, prevailing sea conditions became too dangerous for field work, requiring periods of work stoppage. Although less than optimum conditions prevailed (high wind and waves), the sampling goal was reached and the project completed. FGS and Florida State University St. Vincent Island Study In January of 2006 a team from the FGS Coastal Research Program along with researchers from Florida State University's (FSU) Department of Geology used the BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 16 Jim Ladner monitoring seismic reflection profiling equipment aboard the R/V GeoSearch during FGS/MMS-funded search for offshore beach restoration sands (photo by Dan Phelps).

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FGS's ground penetrating radar system to examine the subsurface structure of sand ridges and other deposits on St. Vincent Island. The data was processed, interpreted and incorporated with other data collected by FSU researchers as part of their ongoing investigations of Florida coastal zone dynamics. Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium A memorandum of agreement between State Geologists, representing the five states bordering the Gulf of Mexico (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) formed the Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium. This association was formed to provide for joint cooperation in investigations and scientific exchanges concerning earth sciences (including geology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysical, and geotechnical studies) on subjects of mutual interest. This cooperative endeavor strives to advance the understanding of the Gulf of Mexico and promote cooperation on regional studies. An improved understanding of the geologic processes impacting the Gulf of Mexico is essential for the formulation of wise decisions regarding the use and preservation of the region's natural resources. GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION PROGRAM The FGS maintains an active scientific drilling program. Very low topographic relief characterizes the state and data obtained from cores is essential to the understanding of subsurface stratigraphy and hydrogeology. During 2005-2006, the FGS drilling program drilled 19 core holes in six counties in support of seven different projects. Core holes ranged from 43 to 487 feet (13 to 148 meters) in depth for a total of 4564 feet (1391 meters) cored. Monitor wells were constructed in 10 of these core holes in cooperation with the City of Tallahassee, McGlynn Labs, Leon County, the Suwannee River and Southwest Florida Water Management District and the United States Geological Survey. On-going Geologic Data Acquisition Projects The FGS maintains collections of well and surface outcrop samples. The well sample collection contains more than 18,000 sets of samples from exploration, water, and oil wells. Most wells are represented by sets of drill cuttings. Approximately 1150 wells are represented by continuous core or core samples (a total of approximately 205,000 feet, (62,484 meters). The deepest continuous core in Florida, 1,968 feet (600 meters), is housed in the FGS repository. The FGS, USGS, Water Management Districts, drillers and geologic consultants drill new core and cuttings sample sets which are added to the archives. The sample repository facility occupies 12,090 square feet (1123 square meters), with almost 30,000 cubic feet (849 cubic meters) of shelf space, with room for expansion. A collection of approximately 5,750 outcrop samples and mineral specimens is maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in the Gunter Building. These samples are cross-indexed by formation, lithology, county and location. The collection is referred to as the "M-Series." The M-Series collection is particularly valuable given Florida's high rate of growth and development. Surface exposures of critical lithologies have become inaccessible with the continued proliferation of roadways, shopping centers, parking lots and high-rise housing. These sample archives and the FGS data base are utilized by geologists at the FGS, many other state, federal and local FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 17

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governmental agencies, universities (both in and out of the state), geological consultants, well drillers and the public. Cooperative Geologic Data Acquisition Projects Southeast Sprayfield Investigation This was a Cooperative effort between the FGS, City of Tallahassee Aquifer Protection and Industrial Pre-treatment Program and the USGS. Five sites were investigated during 2005 and 2006 to determine whether the sprayfield is contributing to the nutrient load being delivered to springs in the area (including Wakulla Springs). Each site has two wells 250' and 125' (76 and 152 meters) approximately) with the deep hole being continuous core. One core was drilled to the depth of 487' (148 meters) to provide a deep set of samples for the area. Water samples were collected approximately every 50 feet (15 meters) during drilling to assist in selecting open hole/screen intervals. Lithologic logs were generated, hydraulic conductivity analysis conducted and formation picks made for the FGS wells database. Woodville Recharge Basin Aquifer Protection Study This was a cooperative effort between the FGS, McGlynn Labs and Leon County, Florida. As a small portion of this overall study, three cores were drilled to approximately 250 feet (76 meters) and monitor wells were installed in each borehole. Well sites were selected to augment the wells drilled for the Southeast Sprayfield Investigation. Water samples were collected approximately every 50 feet (15 meters) during drilling to assist in selecting open hole/screen intervals. Water samples were collected from the completed wells for analysis. Lithologic logs were generated and formation picks were made for inclusion in the FGS wells database. Mangel's Farm Core and Monitor Well This was a cooperative effort between the FGS and the Suwannee River Water Management District. The core was drilled to provide lithologic data for the FGS Statemap project. The monitor well was completed specifically with the open hole interval only in the Avon Park Formation. This is the only monitor well in the District which produces water solely from the Avon Park Formation. Radar Hill Core This was a cooperative effort between the FGS, Lee Florea (University of South Florida) and the SWFWMD. This core provides a set of core samples thru the Ocala Limestone and into the top of the Avon Park Formation. USF geologist Lee Florea generated a lithologic log of the samples and SWFWMD ran geophysical logs of the borehole. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 18 FGS's new Schramm T450MIIA drill rig installing monitoring wells for Southeast Spray field Investigation (photo by Ken Campbell).

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South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) provided funding for FGS staff to describe and process core and cuttings samples in 2005 and 2006. Several OPS staff members described samples for the SFWMD during this time frame, resulting in an addition of over 45,000 feet of new descriptions from the district. MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM The Mineral Resource Program maintains communication with the mineral industry in Florida. The group publishes a biennial status report related to industry activity. The program is also responsible for providing mineral resource assessments on parcels of land that are targeted for purchase by the state. These assessments are completed on an as-needed basis. We are continuing to provide geologic input into the mineral lands transfer between the Federal Bureau of Land Management and the state of Florida. For the year 2005, the USGS ranked Florida as fourth in the U.S. with an estimated non-fuel mineral production value of $2.89 billion. For the year 2006, the USGS ranked Florida as seventh in the U.S. with an estimated non-fuel mineral production value of $2.79 billion. Following is a description of such mineral resources. Phosphate Florida supplied approximately threequarters of U.S. domestic needs in 2005 and 2006. Nearly all of the phosphate rock and sand that is mined in Florida is used to manufacture fertilizer that, in turn, is used for agricultural purposes. What is not used in the manufacture of fertilizer is typically used in a number of products including feed supplements, vitamins, soft drinks, and toothpaste. Phosphate is one of Florida's leading export commodities. Stone (Aggregate) Florida ranked second nationally in both production and consumption of crushed stone (limestone and dolostone) during the period of this report. Most of the stone that is mined in Florida is used for road construction. Limestone of high purity undergoes calcination (heating) and is combined with other ingredients to produce Portland and masonry cement. Florida ranked fourth in production and consumption of Portland cement and was first in the production and consumption of masonry cement in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, the United States District Court called into question the prospect of continued mining in the Lake Belt region (Dade County, ~57,515 acres) of South Florida. The Lake Belt region accounts for approximately 45 percent of all aggregate produced in Florida. The lawsuit challenged the overall permitting process for the region. The ruling affected 12 mining permits within the region. Sand and Gravel Florida ranked among the top fifteen states in the country in construction sand and gravel used or produced in 2005 and 2006. Sand and gravel is subdivided into construction and industrial sand, the bulk of which is, in Florida, construction grade. Heavy Minerals Heavy mineral grains have specific gravities generally in excess of 2.9 g/cm3. These include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and leucoxene. Ilmenite and rutile are primary ingredients in the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments, used in the manufacture of paint, varnish and lacquers, plastics, and paper. Florida was the top heavy mineral producer in the nation in 2005 and 2006. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 19

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Peat Peat is an organic-rich accumulation of plant material in a wetland environment. Although peat departs from the inorganic definition of a mineral, it is generally considered an economic mineral. Florida ranked first in the country in production of horticultural peat in 2005 and 2006. Clay Fuller's Earth, common clay, and kaolin are mined in a few locations in Florida. Fuller's Earth is typically used as an absorbent material, while kaolin is used in the manufacture of paper and refractories. Common clay, mined in small quantities from various locations throughout the state, can be used in the manufacture of brick, cement and lightweight aggregate. Florida ranked fourth in the country in production of Fuller's Earth in 2005 and 2006. STATEMAP PROGRAM The STATEMAP Program is a cooperative project funded jointly by the FGS and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program under the State Geologic Mapping Component (STATEMAP). For each of the last twelve years, staff members from the FGS have performed detailed geologic mapping of 1:100,000 scale USGS quadrangles and published the results as part of the Open-File Map Series (OFMS). In 2004-2005, FGS staff geologists Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave Paul, and Tom Scott produced a geologic map and several geologic cross sections for the eastern portion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 Quadrangle. These maps and cross sections are available through the FGS Open File Map Series (OFMS-94). In 2005-2006, FGS staff geologists Richard Green, Dave Paul, William L. Evans III, Tom Scott, and Steve Petrushak, produced a geologic map for the western portion of the 1:100,000 scale Lake City Quadrangle. The project included a bedrock geologic map and several geologic cross sections. These maps and cross sections are also available through the FGS Open File Map Series (OFMS-95). In September of 2006, the FGS began working on production of a bedrock geologic map, and several geologic cross sections for the eastern portion of the 1:100,000 scale Perry Quadrangle. Field mapping began in October, with a planned completion date of August, 2007. The maps and cross sections for this area will be available through the FGS Open File Map Series beginning in September of 2007. After input and an October workshop with the Florida Geological Mapping Advisory Committee, the western portion of the USGS 1:100,000 Perry Quadrangle in north-central Florida was selected for the next area to be mapped under the STATEMAP program. If the National STATEMAP Advisory Committee approves the project, mapping will begin in this area in September of 2007. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 20 Rick Green (L), Will Evans (R), and Jim Balsillie (kneeling), examine outcrops of Suwannee Limestone along the Suwannee River for the STATEMAP project, 2005 (photo by Rick Green).

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HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION The mission of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geological Survey Hydrogeology Section is to disseminate hydrogeologic information, conduct hydrogeologic research, and administer such research through outsourcing in support of the need for unbiased, scientific knowledge of Florida's water resources with emphasis on aquifersystem characterization and sustainability of groundwater and watersheds. This knowledge facilitates science-based decision-making for the conservation and protection Florida's water resources. HYDROGEOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM FGS Hydrogeology Projects Geochemical Modeling of Arsenic Mobilization during Aquifer Storage and Recovery This study, conducted by the Florida Geological Survey and the University of Florida, measured arsenic in water stored in aquifers during the rainy season to be recovered during the dry season. This practice has gained popularity in Florida due to the increasing demands for water and presents an attractive mechanism to many municipalities for the conservation of water. Test results on recovered water showed arsenic concentrations exceeding 100 micrograms/L ( g/L). This level of mobilized arsenic was considerably higher than the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 g/L. Data obtained from this study improved our understanding of the geochemical mechanisms leading to the mobilization of arsenic in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) operations that lead to the elevated metals concentrations in recovered water. Such understanding is essential for the proper application of measures that might be implemented to reduce arsenic concentrations to levels that are not harmful to human health or the environment. Aquifer Storage and Recovery Studies The FGS was involved with two similar ASR studies. The first (Orange County Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study) was conducted jointly by FDEP/FGS, CH2M Hill and the SJRWMD and took place in Orange County. The second (Southwest Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study) was funded by FDEP/FGS and the SWFWMD. It took place near Tampa. Both projects studied how surface waters injected underground may have chemical and physical characteristics dissimilar to the native waters they displace. The introduction of waters with different characteristics may accelerate, inhibit or otherwise modify the previous naturally occurring rock-water interactions. A major concern for stored waters is the entrainment of various naturally occurring metals and radioactive nuclides. In Florida, Eocene through Miocene carbonate rocks have zones of conFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 21 Dr. Jon Arthur, Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology (photo by Tom Scott).

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siderable radioactivity and metals that can be soluble or leachable. The purpose of both studies was to gain a better understanding of the interactions between the aquifer matrix and surface waters stored underground and the effect of the stored waters on the aquifer matrix via aquifer storage and recovery systems through analyses and observation of changes in water chemistry. In the Orange County study, this was accomplished through laboratory simulations and studies including geochemical analysis of rock samples, bench-scale leaching studies, sequential leaching of rock samples (sequential extraction leaching may be used to identify the mineral phases that host arsenic and other trace metals) and scanning electron microscope and microprobe studies to identify minerals and determine their chemical composition. In the Tampa study, two cores were collected at the Rome Avenue ASR site in Tampa. One core was located within the ASR storage zone and the second core was located outside of the storage zone. Geochemical comparison of these cores was accomplished through laboratory simulations and studies including geochemical analysis of rock samples, benchscale leaching studies, scanning electron microscope and microprobe studies to determine minerals and their chemical composition. Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the Groundwater Quality of Springs and Wells of Florida For decades, Floridians have been interested in the quality of spring and well water. By the early 1900s, only a handful of springs had been analyzed for their chemical constituents. However, the number of springs sampled and the chemical constituents analyzed increased through the first half of the 20th century. In 1947, the FGS published an inventory of springs in Florida, which included water-quality analyses (Ferguson et al., 1947). The publication was revised in 1977 (Rosenau et al., 1977), and a third publication regarding the springs of Florida was published by the FGS (Scott et al., 2004). It should be noted that nitrate concentrations have been increasing in springs for the past several decades. Although this has been an impetus in recent years for increased spring monitoring, the State is interested in monitoring for many chemicals, not only from springs, but also in wells. Over the years, the water manageBIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 22 Scanning electron microscope image of pyrite framboids (photo by Jon Arthur). Reaction vessels from bench-scale leaching (photo by Jon Arthur).

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ment districts and other organizations began sampling and analyzing the water quality from both spring and wells. The purpose of this project was to statistically evaluate data collected from springs and wells for the period 1991-2003. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS collected water-quality and flow data from springs and wells which had data for the time period 1991-2003. The data have now been evaluated and the report is in peer review. The anticipated publication date is 2009. Fanning Springs Fanning Springs is the centerpiece of Fanning Springs State Park. It is a beautiful spring, but it discharges groundwater containing the highest concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) of all of Florida's springs with first magnitude flow. The concentration of nitrate is consistently around six mg/L. In an effort to protect the spring, the Department's Division of Recreation and Parks requested that the FGS delineate the springshed, identify sources of the nitrate, and establish a groundwater monitoring network in the vicinity of the spring. The FGS completed the delineation of the springshed and obtained land-use data for the springshed. A model was then used to estimate nitrate loading for each land parcel. The results of these efforts were preliminarily presented in a draft poster (Sources of Nitrate Contamination in Fanning Springs, Florida). The Division of Recreation and Parks and the FGS will now work cooperatively to establish the springshed monitoring network. Offshore Springs Research Our groundwater resources are critical to maintaining Florida's ecology and supporting the needs of an ever expanding human population. Continued declines in groundwater levels and increasing concentrations of saline-indicator parameters require effective management to sustain these resources. Without an accurate water budget, this can not be accomplished. Submarine groundwater discharge is not a component of the water budget that we have quantified nor do we know the quality of this discharge. Seepage and spring discharge are known to occur offshore of Florida in the Atlantic Ocean as well in the Gulf of Mexico. Two well-known examples of offshore springs are Crescent Beach Spring, off St. Johns County in the Atlantic and the group of springs collectively known as Spring Creek, in the Gulf off Wakulla County. Direct conveyance of contaminants and nutrients in groundwater to the marine environment may occur via many of these offshore springs. The objective of this on-going research was to locate and document submarine seepage and spring discharge. Both nearshore and offshore locations were targeted. The nearshore environment has been investigated by outsourced studies utilizing satellite and aerial thermal imaging, boat-towed electrical resistivity surveys and radon sampling. Utilizing these technologies, previously known nearshore discharges were readily located and numerous additional sites that need further investigation were identified. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 23 Aerial view of Offshore Springs Spring Creek Springs Group in Wakulla County (photo by Jim Stevenson).

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Offshore springs research in the open Gulf of Mexico has been limited to fixedwing aerial reconnaissance, side-scan sonar surveys, diver reconnaissance and limited water-quality monitoring and sampling. This research was conducted in collaboration with the Suwannee River Water Management District, Florida State University and volunteer divers. Other collaborations are developing with United States Geological Survey and University of Florida researchers. Past research activities have been funded piecemeal utilizing Springs Initiative and in-house Hydrogeology Section monies. It is anticipated that future work will be funded from a grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Phase II Greater than 90 percent of Florida's drinking water sources originate from the various aquifer systems. In addition, the 1996 Amendments to the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act require that each state establish a Source Water Assessment and Protection Program (SWAPP) and the Department has been designated to implement this program in Florida. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Source Water Assessment Final Guidance requires states to consider any potential source of contamination to the public water system. SWAPP requires that aquifer vulnerability be evaluated as part of each individual assessment. Because the Department's Division of Water Resource Management (DWRM) considers the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model an important component of vulnerability evaluation, as well as having broad application for numerous state and local government agencies, DRWM and the FGS entered into an agreement to evaluate aquifer vulnerability in several regions of Florida. Most of the work was outsourced to a Department contractor (Advanced Geospatial Inc.) During the 1990s, the DWRM completed a study involving depth to water, recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, and conductivity (DRASTIC) model mapping assessment of aquifer vulnerability throughout the state. The FAVA model was undertaken to add additional layers of information, notably coverage for karst feature density, and the model provided a raster grid that facilitated updating the layers. FAVA version 1.0 was completed in August 2004. During development of version 1.0 it was noted that additional data and information would strengthen the predictive capabilities of the model at the county scale. Additional data and information was necessary to upgrade the FAVA model. They include: (1) improved resolution of intermediate confining zones; (2) enhancement of the depth to water layer for the surficial aquifer; (3) improved resolution of soils data for selected counties; (4) an increase in the number of training points; (5) continued public outreach; (6) improvements to the digital elevation model (DEM) and closed topographic depression coverage; and 7) model subdivision and regeneration. Under the agreement, new FAVA models were produced for the Biscayne and sand and gravel aquifers and the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems, as well as county-specific models (Citrus/Levy and Wakulla). Geochemical characterization of potential Aquifer Storage and Recovery zones in the Floridan aquifer system, as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan This project was a collaborative effort between the FDEP/FGS and SWFWMD to BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 24

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study the geochemical characterization of potential Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) zones in the Floridan aquifer system (FAS), Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Studies by the FDEP/FGS in west-central Florida have demonstrated that carbonate rocks of the FAS are chemically heterogeneous, and that these rocks interact with recharged water during ASR activities. The resultant water-quality changes can be detected in recovered water. These water-rock interactions release undesirable metals (i.e., arsenic, iron, manganese, and uranium) from the aquifer matrix into the recharged water. The sources of these metals may include organic materials, fracture or grain coatings, or minerals (e.g., arsenian pyrite) disseminated through the carbonate rock. In southern Florida, carbonates of the upper FAS comprise the potential storage zone for the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) ASR wells. Chemical and trace mineral compositions of the upper FAS in the region are poorly understood. As such, compositional data are required to identify geochemical reactions that may adversely affect native and recovered water quality due to ASR activities. Moreover, long-term ASR operation may be adversely affected by reductions in aquifer transmissivity primarily due to clogging of pores caused by various waterrock geochemical interactions (e.g., mineral precipitation leading to reduced permeability). The purpose of this project was to define the range of rock chemical and mineralogical compositions within and adjacent to potential ASR storage zones with emphasis on components that might impact the suitability of the rock as a storage zone. The scope included geochemical and mineralogical analyses of up to 280 rock samples. Whole-rock geochemistry analyses included multi-element (~64), multi-method analytical techniques yielding detection limits that met the needs of geochemical modeling tasks. Subsets of up to 40 samples were analyzed for a variety of stable and radiogenic isotopes. Sample preparation included trimming, crushing, and powdering of rock samples, clay-mineral separation, and polished thin sections. Detailed mineralogical analyses of samples were completed by binocular description, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope. Mineral chemistry was determined by electron microprobe analyses. Benchscale and sequential extraction studies were conducted to assess chemical reactions, leachability and evaluate the association of metals within minerals comprising the aquifer matrix. Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study This project was a collaborative effort between the FDEP/FGS and DWRM Underground Injection Control (UIC) to gain a better understanding of the effect of the aquifer matrix on surface waters stored underground and the effect of the stored waters on the aquifer matrix via aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems through analyses and observation of changes in water chemistry. The native waters, the waters to be injected, the waters withdrawn after storage, and appropriate rock samples of the aquifer matrix in the area were analyzed for their major, trace and rare earth elements. This additional hydrochemical data complemented existing data and facilitated the evaluation of long term (multi-ASR cycle) chemical variations within and among ASR facilities. The results of this study increased the understanding of ASR and storage aquifer (water-rock) interactions and enhanced the ability for the FDEP to formulate protective criteria for future ASR projects. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 25

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Specific tasks included: 1) geochemical analysis (including U isotopes) of water samples from cycle tests at ASR wells; 2) whole rock geochemical analysis of core samples; 3) sequential leaching of rock samples (sequential extraction leaching may be used to identify the mineral phases that host arsenic and other trace metals); 4) scanning electron microscope and microprobe studies to determine minerals and their chemical composition; and 5) reporting. Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project The Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project has been a collaborative effort between the FGS and Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) to create a Microsoft Access database of wells within the district for the mapping project. The creation of this database, named FGS Wells, led to state-wide implementation of this project in 2000 which included Oil and Gas regulatory data and ArcGIS well location interfacing. The mapping project culmination, as of 2006, had generated 20 formation top and thickness maps and 34 cross-sections illustrating the lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic framework of the southwestern Florida region. These maps were created using ArcGIS and AutoCAD. Mapped lithologic units include the Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation to the Miocene/Pliocene Peace River Formation. Mapped hydrologic units include the Middle Floridan Aquifer Confining Unit, the Floridan aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system or the intermediate confining unit, and the surficial aquifer system. A database of more than 1000 wells was the basis for the generated maps. Of these wells, more than 60 percent were inspected to determine lithostratigraphic contacts. Detailed lithologic descriptions were made of approximately one-quarter of those wells. Where gaps exist, wells with geophysical logs were included in the analysis to provide adequate coverage for the generated maps and cross-sections. The maps were generated using the Geostatistical and Spatial Analyst extensions in ArcGIS 9.2. All regions of the SWFWMD, including a ten-mile buffer zone, were analyzed. The production of these maps provided the most detailed lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic data in the state to date and provide the basis for further refinement. The final report was in both paper and digital formats and accommodated the revisions in Florida's hydrostratigraphic nomenclature presently implemented. Beyond the report to be published, the DEP/FGS continued to work with the SWFWMD to provide updates to the map and the lithologic database through: 1) detailed description analysis of newly cored wells by SWFMWD; 2) long term archival of cores in the FDEP/FGS sample depository; 3) digitize any analog well data (such as, driller's logs, lithologic descriptions, well construction data, or geophysical logs) housed by the FDEP/FGS; 4) develop and maintain a digital geologic/geophysical database; 5) serve-out the database publicly; and 6) develop a website to serve-out geospatial data created by the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. The latter website is: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/pro grams/hydrogeology/fava_gis_data.htm Cooperative Hydrogeology Projects Essential tools to use in the effort to conserve, manage and protect Florida's natural resources are analytical and numerical models that are capable of predicting the impact of natural and anthropogenic events BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 26

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on the quality and integrity of watersheds. In many parts of Florida, such watersheds are karstic in nature, allowing interaction between groundwater and surface waters through a maze of caves, conduits, channels, sinking streams and sinkholes. These features are of varying diameters, morphologies, depth and orientation resulting in very complicated, multi-porosity groundwater flow in the aquifers where the majority of the water resides. Frequent and significant interaction between surface and groundwater in these watersheds demands that they must be assessed and studied as three-dimensional systems. Under these conditions, calculation of the watershed's water budget, necessary for the development of mathematical models capable of predicting water flow and contaminant transport, becomes a very complicated undertaking. The complexity of the tasks involved is further magnified in coastal watersheds where tidal influences must be accounted for not only in model development but eventually in the effort to protect and manage such watersheds. The creation of the Hydrogeology Research Fund by the Legislature in 2002, and the Hydrogeology Section within the FGS shortly thereafter, allowed us to begin addressing this problem through a collaborative research program. Efforts were focused on the characterization of a pilot watershed (the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP) in north Florida) as the necessary first step toward developing the desired predictive model. The description of field studies conducted and the resulting initial data were discussed in the previous Biennial Report that described the activities of the FGS in 2002-2004. In this report, we discuss the various activities that continued and built upon the previous efforts along with new activities that were initiated and/or conducted in 2005-2006. Dye and natural markers (radon, methane and bacteriaphage) tracing were used in multifaceted field investigations to address the nature of groundwater flow through conduit systems. Additionally, monitoring spring discharge, rainfall, and water-quality parameters within subsurface conduits were also conducted throughout 2005/2006 and will be continued as funds become available. These field studies provided some of the data necessary for the calibration and validation of the predictive model that was being developed during the same period. Moreover, a cave database that was established in 2004 was being populated with new maps to serve as a data source for these modeling efforts as well as characterization of highly valuable and vulnerable natural resources. Tracing studies and instrumentation (metering) of the Wakulla Springshed The quantitative groundwater tracing program for the WKP, conducted by the FGS in collaboration with private sector firms, over the past several years has been successful. Key flow paths in the WKP have been documented between disappearing streams, the Leon Sinks and Wakulla cave systems, and Wakulla Springs. Perhaps the most visible and publicized finding has been the demonstration of a direct connection between the City of Tallahassee spray field and Wakulla Spring through injection of dyes and their subsequent recovery (break through) downstream in various wells and karst features. This demonstration resulted in a decision by the City of Tallahassee to upgrade its domestic wastewater treatment from secondary to advanced wastewater treatment level at a cost projected to be in excess of $150 million. In addition to this "applied" use of the data, we generated significant scientific data including the calculation of groundwater flow direction, quality, velocities and other hydraulic parameters that are crucial to our current groundwater modeling FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 27

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efforts. Another objective of these studies was also to field-validate the theory that groundwater flow in the WKP is composed primarily of two major components. One is the flow to the Wakulla Spring system and the other is to the Spring Creek submarine springs system. Our research teams, along with others in the field, have long postulated that the two components are interactive through cave and conduit flow of groundwater that is highly affected by precipitation rate, storm events and tidal cycles. These factors are thought to highly influence, if not control, the flow and volume thus, the quality of water in the entire WKP. In-situ measurement of water flow and quality in Wakulla Springs Known differences in flow dynamics and quality (temperature, specific conductance, pH, etc.) between surface and groundwater were used since 2003 in assessing the interaction between the two media within the WKP. In 2005 and 2006, we continued the collection and statistical analysis of data from seven spring oceanographic meters (manufactured by Falmouth Scientific) that were deployed in the Wakulla Spring cave system. The meters continually recorded velocity, flow, temperature, atmospheric pressure and specific conductance at 15-minute interBIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 28 Dye tracing pathways indicating connection between the City of Tallahassee spray field and Wakulla Spring.

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vals. The data was stored onboard the devices then manually downloaded on-site by FGS staff at approximately 30 to 60-day intervals. The data was stored and can be requested via e-mail (tkincaid@h2hassoci ates.com ). This data is updated at approximately 60 to 90 days intervals and made available to the public upon request. The dataset that was developed is one-of-a-kind and represents the most detailed characterization of a karst aquifer anywhere in the United States, if not the world. In 2005/2006, we tried to replace this laborintensive method of data collection by a radio-based telemetry system that will enable the research team members to access data directly from a local server. This effort was highly complex and required special electronic expertise that was available to our team only on part time basis. This situation caused significant delays in the installation of an operative telemetry system, a problem which we are currently addressing. In 2005/2006, data from two tide gauges, deployed close to Spring Creek, were periodically downloaded and used to quantify relationship between tidal fluctuations, water flow and quality in both the Wakulla and Spring Creek systems. Expansion of the Cave Metering Network The existing cave meter network in the Wakulla Spring cave system effectively characterized the flow to the spring from four major and well-mapped conduit sources. However, the results of the last two groundwater tracing experiments demonstrated that the Wakulla cave system is also directly connected to the Leon Sinks cave system and that groundwater flows between the two systems in approximately seven days. This connection was confirmed in a historic dive by the Woodville Karst Program, an event that dramatically resolved a question that had lingered for some 17 years during which period similar dives had failed to confirm the connection. The divers played a critical and well-appreciated role in our research by deploying and retrieving the instruments used in past and on-going studies in the Wakulla Spring springshed. The Woodville Karst Plain modeling efforts In 2004, the FGS outsourced an investigation to predict groundwater movement and contaminant transport in karst using finite-element models. The contractors used existing and accepted finite-element numerical strategies but employed the detailed characterization data gleaned from field studies to more accurately describe karst features in the model domain and calibrate the model simulations to "real-world" conditions. The model contained all of the key karst features in the northern part of the WKP and calibrated fairly well to velocities measured through groundwater tracing and historical head-levels published in the literature. This work continued in 2005/2006 by testing the model with data generated by our various monitoring and survey activities. Testing indicated that the draft model needed additional full-scale calibration and validation before it can be applied to regulatory environmental decision-making. Because of monitoring logistics and funding limitations, it was necessary to allocate only a minimum amount of funds to this effort in 2005/2006. We submitted applications to potential funding agencies in an effort continue the development of this model in the 2007/2008 time frame. Florida Cave Database The Florida Cave Database was initially developed with funding from the Hydrogeology Program in FY 2001-2002 and augmented, revised, and refined in FYs 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The database currently contains details from more than FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 29

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30 underwater caves, each of which is represented by two ESRI GIS shape-files and associated datasets: one representing the survey points or significant turning points in the caves, which contains sufficient data, when available, to render a 3D model of the cave; and one that represents the 2D trend of the cave passages. All the files are projected to a custom FDEP Albers conformal conic projection. These files can be requested via e-mail (tkincaid@h2hassociates.com ) and incorporated in a GIS platform. In 2005/2006, we continued to populate the database with data as it became available to us. Depending on the availability of funds; we hope to continue this effort for the foreseeable future. Statistical analysis of data Statistical analyses of the data continued in 2005/2006. The data used in the analyses were generated by in-situ instruments, dye tracing and geophysical surveys. The analyses were significantly augmented by Dr. Eric Chicken of the FSU Department of Statistics. He joined the research team in 2006. Since then, the study has focused attention on: 1) correlation of flow and water-quality changes with rain fall and discharge; 2) correlation with data from our geophysical survey of tracts within the Wakulla Spring springshed that was designed to search for conduits located between the spray field and the Wakulla Spring. Analysis of the collected data showed that microgravity anomalies, indicative of the existence of conduits, roughly matched our dye tracing data obtained for this area. As discussed above, that data ultimately suggested a direct connection between the spray field and Wakulla Springs and led the City of Tallahassee to plan on treating its domestic waste water to a higher treatment level. The statistical analysis results will be used in calibrating the finite element model. Studies for the purpose of hydrogeological characterization of karstic watersheds Characterization of the hydrogeological framework and dynamics of water flow in karstic watersheds is essential to any effort to understand and ultimately quantify water flow and contaminant transport in these systems. Aspects of this characterization include constructing physical models of aquifer systems, development of physical aquifer property databases, assessing surface-water/groundwater interaction and calculating water budgets for the entire watershed as a 3-dimensional entity. In 2005/2006, FGS initiated several projects with an eye not only on generating the data to answer these scientific questions, but also to help the DEP resource managers in addressing regulatory issues including: how to account for groundwater contribution in Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) modeling and how to set Minimum Flows and Levels (MFLs) for surface waters and aquifers respectively. Below is a brief summary of these projects. Estimating groundwater discharges to surface waters via radon tracing Virtually all of Florida is underlain by karst geology, dominated in some parts of the state by conduits, caves and channels. These features facilitate interaction between surface and groundwater and causes the latter to assume multi-porosity flow. Quantifying this interaction has been a challenging problem to regulators involved in allocating total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to surface waters located in such settings. Difficulties in accurately quantifying groundwater contribution to surface waters have forced those involved in implementing the TMDL program to estimate such contribution as percentages of total flow or to ignore it altogether. However, groundwater contribution to surface waters has been shown by the USGS to BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 30

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range from as little as 10percent to over 90percent across the United States. In some spring-fed streams in Florida, such as the Wakulla and the Suwannee Rivers, it could approach 100 percent of base flow under low flow conditions. Overlooking such contribution could obviously result in significant miscalculations in allocating waste loads to surface waters and in the decisions by the regulatory agencies to "list or de-list" bodies of water as "impaired" or "recovered", respectively. To help in addressing this problem, the Hydrogeology Section outsourced a research task, in 2004/2005, to faculty members of the Department of Oceanography at FSU to develop a scientifically-based, yet simplified and cost-effective method of estimating groundwater contribution to surface waters. The method is based on using radon (typically found in groundwater) as a natural tracer of such water as it is discharged to streams, lakes and estuarine systems (normally containing very low concentrations of radon). Schematic diagram below illustrates the theoretical basis of the method. In order to allow for easy use in the field by minimally-trained regulatory field personnel, a user-friendly interface for calculating flow through permeable sediments, based on radon inventories in the overlying waters, was also developed. Calculations were based on a radon mass balance and assumed steady-state conditions. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) using MS Excel 2002 or a higher version was employed to simplify calculation of advective flux estimates while fully executing the necessary mass balance calculations. The purpose of the GUI was to facilitate the calculation of the velocity of groundwater movement into surface waters through an incremental approximation method and an iteration process using the bisection method. The report submitted by the researchers discussed the type of easily obtained data (wind speed, radon concentrations etc.) which can be entered into specific forms and exported to allow hand-held or notebook computers to perform calculations that convert advective radon flux estimates in disintegration per minute per meter squared per day (dpm/m2/day) into groundwater discharge volumes in liters per meter squared per day (L/m2/day). A continuous radon monitor process integrates a commercial radon-in-air monitor (Durridge RAD7) with an air-water exchanger. Water is continuously pumped from a desired depth with a submersible pump to the exchanger. A closed air path circulates between the 222Rn monitor and the exchanger. The 222Rn in the air is measured and recorded electronically. A separate measurement of the water temperature allows conversion to radon-inwater via a calculated solubility coefficient. Using geophysical techniques to locate caves and conduits in theWoodville Karst Plain. In 2005/2006, we initiated geophysical studies and surveys to test the resolution of such techniques in locating caves and conduits in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP) and Fanning Spring springshed that could FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 31 Radon Conceptual ModelMass balance approach : measure whats there and whats leaving calculate benthic flux to support observations convert to water flux Schematic showing the use of radon decay in measuring ground water contribution to surface water.

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act as pathways for contamination. Two of these techniques, microgravity and resistivity, were found to be useful in locating conduits at depths of up to 300 feet (91.4 meters), beyond which the resolution becomes suspect. Most of the groundwater flow to Wakulla and Fanning Springs is at depths within that limit. In May of 2005, Technos Inc., of Miami, Florida, was selected by an independent committee to test the effectiveness of certain geophysical techniques in determining the location and morphology of conduits that dominate this karstic watershed and are the likely pathways of transporting contaminants into the spring system. The findings of the survey are presented in Technos Report to the FGS: 05 -146: Evaluation of geophysical techniques in determining the location and morphology of conduits and cavities in karstic settings The results showed that microgravity and resistivity imaging are effective methods for locating karst conduits within the WKP. The 2005/2006 surveys built on earlier studies conducted in 2003/2004 which used known caves mapped by divers as a frame of reference for testing the applicability and resolution of the geophysical techniques. On the basis of existing data and site visits, FGS personnel, in conjunction with Technos and the project team, determined the optimal locations for survey lines within the WKP and Fanning Spring springshed. Geophysical surveys were carried out at various locations in the WKP. Microgravity data along east-west survey lines through the Woodville Karst Plain. Approximately 12 line-miles (19.3 kilometers) were surveyed. Microgravity and resistivity data along a 0.5-mile (0.8 kilometer) test line over known karst conduits at Manatee Spring was conducted. Microgravity data along selected lines within the Fanning Spring area with a total survey line length of 4.7 miles (7.6 kilometers) was also conducted. In the 2003/2004 demonstration project, the study showed that the microgravity method is capable of identifying areas of karstification associated with known conduits. The conduits are detectable as gravity lows due to their missing mass. In addition to the conduits, possible fracture zones or other low-density features within the limestone are detectable in the microgravity data and can serve as near-surface indiBIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 32 010020030040050060070080090010001100120013001400150016001700 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Residual Gravity (uGals) North South Microgravity Profile Wakulla Springs 010020030040050060070080090010001100120013001400150016001700 -50 0 50 Depth (ft) Sand (1.9 g/cc) Limestone (2.4 g/cc) "K Tunnel" 60x58-ft water-filled conduit (1.0 g/cc) "A Tunnel" 100x40-ft water-filled conduit (1.0 g/cc) Wakulla Spring's microgravity data (horizontal scale in feet).

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cators (manifestations) of the deeper conduits. An example of the microgravity data acquired previously over two known large conduits near Wakulla Springs is shown in the accompanying figure. Scientific basis of resistivity imaging Resistivity imaging data was acquired along 2,200 feet (670.6 meters) of the test line at Manatee Spring. Resistivity data was also acquired at up to eight anomalous locations defined by the microgravity data in the Fanning Spring area totaling 8,800 feet (2682 meters). Resistivity data from Leon Sinks is shown below. Final reports provided summaries of the methodology, data, quality control, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations. They included maps of the survey lines and the data plotted in profiles and cross-sections (these and other reports, data, maps etc. cited in this document; can be reviewed by contacting Dr. Rodney DeHan at: rodney.dehan@dep.state.fl.us. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 33 Leon Sinks resistivity imaging data.

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OIL AND GAS SECTION REGULATORY PROGRAM The Oil and Gas Section regulates petroleum exploration and production within the state and state waters pursuant to Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and implementing Rules 62C-25 to 62C-30, Florida Administrative Code. The Section's primary responsibilities are environmental protection, safety, conservation of oil and gas resources, and correlative rights protection. These objectives are addressed when permit applications are reviewed and permit conditions are enforced by field inspection. The Section's home office is located in Tallahassee and the field offices are in Jay and Ft. Myers. The Section's key activities include permitting of geophysical, drilling, and transport operations, inspecting field operations, tracking exploration, drilling, and production, enforcing financial security requirements, and maintaining databases for well and geophysical permits. During 2005/2006, Oil and Gas Section staff conducted 6392 inspections and reviewed 107 industry proposals. DRILLING AND PRODUCTION Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and 5.9 billion cubic feet of natural gas were produced in Florida during 2005 and 2006. On December 31, 2006 the state's cumulative production totals reached 600 million barrels of oil and 635 billion cubic feet of gas. Florida's annual petroleum production rates peaked in 1978 at 48 million barrels of oil and 52 billion cubic feet of gas which ranked Florida 8th among oil producing states. Since 1945, the state has received approximately 1383 drilling permit applications, of which 319 wells were never drilled, 716 were dry holes, and 347 became producers. The state currently has 56 producing wells operating within 9 active oil and gas fields. One field with 3 wells is currently shut in and 12 formerly producing fields have been permanently plugged and abandoned. Drilling began under ExxonMobil's Permit 1322 in Jay Field, August 9, 2005. Drilling In North Florida Three new production wells were permitted and drilled in north Florida. All three were drilled in Jay Field by ExxonMobil Production Company and all three successfully tested for crude oil and natural gas. In early 2005, one wildcat well was completed by United Energy Conservation, LLC in an orange grove south of Lake Placid in Highlands County. It was a dry hole. Jay Field continues to dominate state production with approximately 64% of the state's total oil and 97% of the gas. Jay Field has now produced 419 million barrels of oil and 557 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Oil production at Jay for the 10 year period ending December 31, 2006 dropped 67% while statewide production dropped 62%. The state's last field discovery well BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 34 Ed Garrett, Oil and Gas Section Administrator (photo by David Taylor).

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was drilled in 1988 at McDavid Field in Escambia County. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION During 2005-2006, one geophysical survey totaling 18 miles (29 kilometers) was conducted by Zinke & Trumbo, Inc. under Permit No. G-161-05 along I-10 in Santa Rosa and Okaloosa Counties. The survey also included an 8-mile (12.9 kilometer) survey line which crossed the interstate (rig is located on right-ofway). The survey method was 2-dimensional reflection/refraction using vibrating energy sources. One other geophysical application for Permit G-162-06 was submitted by Collier Resources Company for a 72 square mile (186.5 square kilometers) 3-dimensional seismic survey using explosives in the Big Cypress National Preserve. The application was withdrawn shortly before the Department considered approval/denial. OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM During 2005, plugging operations continued under a 5-year program approved by the Legislature to conduct remedial plugFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 35 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1 1 9 9 4 4 5 5 1 1 9 9 5 5 0 0 1 1 9 9 5 5 5 5 1 1 9 9 6 6 0 0 1 1 9 9 6 6 5 5 1 1 9 9 7 7 0 0 1 1 9 9 7 7 5 5 1 1 9 9 8 8 0 0 1 1 9 9 8 8 5 5 1 1 9 9 9 9 0 0 1 1 9 9 9 9 5 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 5 5 Year Million Barrels Per Yea South Florida North Florida Total State Florida Annual Crude Oil Production 1943 2006 Vibrating Trucks along I-10, Permit G-16105, May 2006 (photo by David Taylor).

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ging on old, improperly plugged and abandoned oil and gas wells throughout the state. These wells were generally drilled before the implementation of the State's formal regulatory system of rigorous permitting and inspection. The targeted wells were prioritized on the basis of potential threat to potable groundwater. The section's petroleum engineer directed a contracted drilling service to plug one 8000-ft (2438 meters) well in St. John's County and one 12,000-ft (3658 meters) well in Collier County. The final two years of the plugging project were aborted. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 36 Photo of rig on the Interstate 10 right-of-way in Okaloosa and Santa Rosa Counties (photo by John Lecesse).

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Alpha SpectrometerThe Coastal Program acquired a new Alpha Spectrometer for 210Pb dating sediments covering an age range of up to ca. 120 years. The application of this isotope dating method to the marine environment permits the establishment of a geochronology for sediment cores taken from salt marshes, establishing sediment accumulation rates in a changing coastal environment, and identifying natural catastrophic events. Another dating technique available with this spectrometer uses a uranium series disequilibrium method to date Quaternary deposits, deep sea sediments, corals, calcite/aragonite mollusks, speleothems, marine shells, and peat up to 350,000 years. The Ortec Octete Plus Alpha Spectrometer is a fully integrated control for eight internal alpha spectrometers, automatic networking, acquisition and analysis of the data using Windows platform 32-bit software. This instrument is currently housed at the FGS environmental isotope laboratory. The Lab is equipped with a radioisotope fume hood and a Mega Pure 3A water distillation/deionization unit. Spectrophotometer A Spectrophotometer was also acquired by the Coastal Program in 2005. This DR-4000 Spectrophotometer is used for water quality measurements. This includes the measurement of inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nitrate, nickel, selenium, aluminum, iron, manganese, sulfate, and zinc. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 37 EQUIPMENT ACQUISITION Adel Dabous operating the FGS Alpha spectrometer (photo by Jim Sparr).

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FGSPUBLICATIONS The following reports in the FGS publication series were published during the period from January 2005 through December 2006: BIENNIAL REPORT Greenhalgh, T., Ladner, J., and Rupert, F., 2005, Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report 23, 2003-2004: Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report 23, 112 p. This report summarizes the Florida Geological Survey activities, projects, publications and other staff activities and accomplishments during the biennial period 2003-2004. FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM The Florida Geology Forum newsletter is designed to reach a wide range of readers interested in geology and natural resources of Florida. Each issue includes current events and activities at the FGS as well as meeting announcements and contributed articles from other geoscience organizations and university geology departments. Poulson, P., ed., 2005, Florida Geology Forum, v. 19, no. 1, March 2005, 12 p. Bond, P. ed., 2005, Florida Geology Forum, v. 19, no. 2, October 2005, 12 p. __________, 2006, Florida Geology Forum, v. 20, no. 1, March 2006, 12 p. __________, 2006, Florida Geology Forum, v. 20, no. 2, October 2006, 12 p. Schmidt, Walt, 2005, Geologic hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, sinkholes, hurricanes, floods, and tsunamis Oh My!!, in Florida Geology Forum, v. 19, no. 1, March 2005, p. 8-9. Schmidt, Walt 2005, Geohazards Florida Style, in Florida Geology Forum, v. 19, no. 2, October 2005, p. 8-9. Schmidt, Walt 2006, Understanding "acceptable risk"; Living on our dynamic Earth,: in Florida Geology Forum, v. 20, no. 1, March 2006, p. 9-10. Schmidt, Walt 2006, Property Owners "imminent danger" from sinkholes and sea level rise, in Florida Geology Forum, v. 20, no. 2, October 2006, p. 9. OPEN FILE MAP SERIES Green, R. C., Evans III, W. L., Paul, D. T., and Scott, T. M., 2005, Geologic map of the eastern portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle, northern Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Map Series 94, [2 sheets]. Plate 1 shows a geologic map depicting the surficial geology of the area. Plate 2 depicts several geologic cross sections of the study area. Greenhalgh, T. H., and Baker, A. E., 2005, Florida springs protection areas: Florida Geological Survey Open File Map Series 95, [1 sheet]. The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) was asked to create an updatable "Florida Springs Protection Areas" map for the Florida Department of Community Affairs. The purpose of the map is to identify areas that contribute flow to Florida's springs and provide growth and land use decisionmakers with a published resource to assist them in protecting and restoring the quantity and quality of spring discharge. Utilizing data from Florida water manageBIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 38 PUBLICATIONS

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ment districts, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the FGS utilized GIS software, expert knowledge and interpretation to generate a map delineating springs protection areas. Initially, delineated springsheds and documented springs locational data layers were applied to a map of Florida. Next, a data layer identifying areas where the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) is overlain with less than 100 feet of overburden was applied. This layer was utilized to address recharge and vulnerability of the FAS to contamination. To refine the resulting springs protection areas identified to this point, areas were removed where the FAS is known to be confined. Small isolated springs protection areas were merged to form a contiguous protection area. Then, utilizing a 2000 FAS potentiometric surface data layer, boundaries of the springs protection areas were further refined. Finally, a township buffer was added to address the lateral uncertainty of springshed boundaries, which are known to be dynamic. In addition, rules or policies stemming from this map can easily reference the township boundary. Several third magnitude springs (discharging <10 cubic feet per second) fell outside the buffered springs protection area. Utilizing published recharge rates, an area of 15 square miles would be required to generate this amount of flow. Circles encompassing 15 square miles centered on the spring vent were drawn as protection area boundaries for these springs. Green, R. C., Paul, D. T., Evans, W. L. III., Scott, T. M., and Petrushak, S. B. 2006, Geologic map of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Lake City quadrangle, northern Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Map Series 97. Plate 1 shows a geologic map depicting the surficial geology of the area. Plate 2 depicts several geologic cross sections of the study area. REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS Cichon, J. R., Baker, A. E., Wood, A. R., and Arthur, J. D. 2005, Wekiva aquifer vulnerability assessment: Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigations 104, 36 p. The Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (WAVA) was completed to produce a map that predicts relative contamination potential of the Floridan aquifer system in the region. The geostatistical technique used to produce the map is weights of evidence (WofE) modeling technique used in the statewide Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Use of WofE requires the combination of diverse spatial data which are used to describe and analyze interactions and generate predictive models. In WAVA, the spatial data is composed of a training point theme and evidential themes. The training point theme consists of locations of known occurrences. In WAVA these are wells that exceed a certain concentration of dissolved oxygen. Wells with high dissolved oxygen concentrations are indicative of areas where a good connection exists between the top of the aquifer and land surface. The evidential themes include soil permeability, buffered effective karst features, intermediate aquifer system (IAS) thickness and head difference between the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system. These themes act as evidence in the model by either protecting the aquifer from contamination or allowing contamination to move quickly from land surface to the top of the aquifer system (i.e., areas of thick IAS sediments versus areas of thin IAS sediments). The WofE technique quantifies relationships between these evidential themes and the training point theme in order the predict zones of vulnerability. These zones are classified into a primary protection zone, a secondary protection FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 39

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zone and a tertiary protection zone. These protection zones will be used in decision making, development of rules, or policies regarding environmental conservation, protection, growth management and planning. POSTER Means, G. H., and Anderson, D. S. 2005, Springs of Marion County: Florida Geological Survey Poster 14, Color, 24" x 36". This map series highlights the numerous springs found in Marion County. It also depicts the areas that contribute flow to Rainbow and Silver Springs and contains photos of other springs found in the county. In addition, there are several paragraphs about the occurrence and health of springs around the state. SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS Copeland, R. E. (Compiler), 2005, Florida Spring Classification System and Spring Glossary: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 52 (revised with addendum pages to address spring magnitude). This publication elaborates on the definition of sping magnitude, the methodology used to determine spring magnitude, and examples. Schmidt, W., 2005, Geological and geotechnical investigation procedures for evaluation of the causes of subsidence damage in Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 57, Online only, http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publica tions/sp/sp57d.pdf. This report is a consensus compilation from twenty six professionals who participated in Sinkhole Summit II, a meeting to discuss said issues. The meeting was initiated by the FGS to solicit input as the agency prepared to assist the Florida State University, College of Business in its report to the Florida Legislature in response to Chapter 627.7077 Florida Statutes. This report should assist the insurance industry, geologic and geotechnical consultants, government agencies, property owners, and the public, in providing a template for sinkhole investigations protocols. Anonymous 2005, 4th annual hydrogeology consortium workshop: solving water pollution problems in the Wakulla spring shed of north Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 58, CD format only. In 2005 the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) co-sponsored this workshop in an effort to bring together the various parties knowledgeable and involved in activities that potentially impact the water quality in Wakulla Spring. The main objective of the workshop was to facilitate open and scientifically-based discussion of these activities and the available data to better understand the hydrogeology of the system and its reaction to various land use activities. A common objective of the co-sponsors was to reverse the observed and documented deterioration of the spring's water quality. To further bolster the objectivity of the workshop and the legitimacy of its findings; the co-sponsors invited a group of reputable scientists to act as an independent peer review committee and to write a report reflecting their impressions of the information presented. This compilation of presentations, data, figures, panel findings and recommendations, along with the Peer Reviewers Report, reflects the professional opinions of authors, presenters and participants and does not constitute endorsement by the FGS or the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The workshop proceedings are being pubBIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 40

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lished as an FGS Special Publication to facilitate scientific discussion of the issues involved and to educate the public at large in the hope of conserving this priceless natural resource for future generations. MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS Lloyd, Jacqueline M. (editor and compiler), 2006, Florida Geological Survey Annual Work Plan, FY 2006-2007: Unpublished internal report, 76 p. This annual work plan covers the projects and activities planned by the DEP/FGS for the 2006-2007 fiscal year (FY06-07). In addition to describing the projects and activities, the report provides background information which places the selection and prioritization of projects and activities within a rational framework. This information includes the organizational structure, the program mission and mandates, needs-assessment methods as well as project selection and prioritization methods, program products, and project evaluation methods. Lloyd, Jacqueline M. (editor and compiler), 2005, Florida Geological Survey Employee Handbook Revisions: Unpublished internal report, 164 p. The DEP provides an online Employee Handbook to familiarize employees with the Department, its functions and policies, special programs, benefits, rules and regulations, and the Department's expectations of you. The FGS Employee Handbook adds to this with additional information specific to the FGS and its history, mission, organization, and policies and procedures. This handbook is periodically revised as policies and procedures evolve and change. Schmidt, Walter, 2005, Report to the 2006 Florida Legislature As Required By Chapter 2005-111, Laws of Florida, Regarding Activities Relating To The Sinkhole Database; in preparation and in consultation with the Department of Financial Services.PAPERS BY STAFF IN OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A.A., and Cowart, J.B., 2005, Chapter 24: Water-rock geochemical considerations for aquifer storage and recovery: Florida case studies, in Tsang, C-F. and Apps, J.A., eds., Underground Injection Science and Technology, Developments in Water Science: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 327-339. Three aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) facilities in southwest Florida are investigated to further understand waterrock geochemical interactions during the ASR process. Facilities included in this study are the Rome Avenue ASR (Hillsborough County), Punta Gorda ASR (Charlotte County), and Peace River ASR (DeSoto County). All of these utilize the Oligocene Suwannee Limestone as the storage zone. Combined results from multiplecycle tests suggest that As, Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, and U are mobilized from the aquifer system matrix into the injected waters. Of these metals, only As is of concern with respect to water-quality standards. Mobilization is most apparent during the recovery phase of a cycle test at the ASR well. Arsenic and U mobilization are the most consistent and well-documented trends, with maximum concentrations exceeding 112 and 12 g/L, respectively. Successive cycle tests indicate that maximum observed As concentrations decrease with time; however, this preliminary observation holds true only where both cycle-test injection volumes are similar and exposure of "new" aquifer matrix to the injected water is minimal. This result is not only desired, but expected, assuming that the As source is a fixed and consistently depleted concentration within the aquifer matrix and not replenished due to changes in FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 41

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redox or pH conditions, mixing, or changes in flow paths. In contrast, data from paired cycle tests, where the second injection input volume is greater, reveal different results. Arsenic concentrations in the second-cycle test are equal to or greater than those of the first-cycle test due to the exposure of input waters to a larger volume of previously unaffected (e.g., unleached) aquifer matrix. Evaluation of cycle test data demonstrates that mobilization varies not only between cycle tests in a given well, but also within wells in the same well field, and among ASR wells in the same region utilizing the same lithostratigraphic unit as a storage zone. Arsenian pyrite is among the sources of As and other trace metals in the aquifer; however, preliminary sequential extraction studies and work by other researchers suggest that phases such as organics contain As and other metals. Moreover, organic material may contain U, which is also thought to be associated with carbonate minerals in the Suwannee Limestone. Further work evaluating cycle tests utilizing different aquifers, sequential extraction studies, and geochemical modeling are needed to enhance our understanding of mobilized metals during ASR. With this knowledge comes an improved ability to minimize these geochemical effects on water quality, and facilitate more cost-efficient ASR operations in Florida by reducing the need for post-recovery treatment. Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A., and Fischler, C., 2005, Application of bench-scale leaching studies to predict hydrogeochemical processes during aquifer recharge: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 166. Mobilization of As and other metals during artificial recharge into upper Floridan aquifer system carbonates is a cause for concern. During initial recharge, oxygen-rich surface waters displace native, reduced groundwater within permeable storage zones. Water quality in the aquifer is controlled by changes in physio-chemical conditions that affect water-rock interactions and mineral stability. As a result, naturally occurring As may be released into stored water with concentrations exceeding 150 ug/L. A principal mechanism for the release of As and associated metals (e.g., Ni, Co, V) is oxidation of arsenian pyrite, which occurs locally in trace amounts in the aquifer matrix. Additional forms of As identified by sequential extraction studies include soluble As and As bound to carbonates, oxides and organics. Bench-scale leaching studies have been employed to assess metals mobilization during simulated recharge and recovery using aquifer core chips (Eocene Avon Park Formation) and both deionized/distilled and source (recharge) waters. Each leaching apparatus, which contains 1000ml of water and 300g of core chips, is designed to minimize evaporation, allow measurement of physical parameters (pH, DO, etc.), and vary DO concentrations through aeration or N2(gas) saturation. Cycle test simulations involve a water change every month. Leachate samples are collected for trace metal analyses. In addition, whole-rock analyses of major, trace and rare-earth elements, as well as microprobe studies provide characterization aquifer matrix compositions. Results of three simulated cycle tests confirm that; 1) the experimental waterrock ratio yields leachate concentrations comparable to levels observed in field studies; 2) DO saturation causes an increase in the release of As; 3) successive cycles result in a step-wise decrease in mobilized metal concentrations. The leaching studies also demonstrate that low-DO (< 0.8 mg/L) conditions exhibit increasing As concentrations with time. This ongoing research also BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 42

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includes microprobe element mapping of preand post-leached thin sections. Results of these bench-scale leaching and extraction studies will hopefully prove to be a cost-efficient technique for predicting hydrogeochemical conditions and processes at the field scale. Copeland, R., 2005, An overview of the influences of scarps on a variety of topics within the Suwannee River Basin of Florida: in Copeland R., ed., Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 44, p. 1-17. Geomorphic escarpments have had a profound influence on the lives of the residents of the Suwannee River Basin of Florida. Scarps have influenced the development of karst features such as sinkholes, swallets, and springs. Scarps have also influenced where the Native American and the original European pioneers settled. For example, the location of scarps influence where the settlers obtained their water and the quality of the water they drank. In more recent time, scarps have significantly affected land use patterns and thus the economy of the citizens of north-central Florida. For these and other reasons, the Southeastern Geological Society organized a trip in order to see the influences that scarps have had in north-central Florida. The influences that a large scarp (the Cody Scarp) and a small one (the San Pedro Bay "Scarplet") were examined, compared, and contrasted. In particular, comparisons were made regarding the highlands above the crest, the lowlands below the toe and the transition zone between the corresponding crests and the toes. Comparisons included, but were not restricted to, topography and relief, surface-water drainage, lake characteristics, aquifers, groundwater chemistry, relative groundwater recharge rates, human development and land use patterns. Scott, T.M. 2005, Revisions to the geomorphology of Florida focusing on north-central Florida and the eastern panhandle,: in Copeland, R., ed., Geomorphic influence of scarps in the Suwannee River Basin, Southeastern Geological Society field trip guidebook 44, p. 18-36. The physiography of Florida exhibits quite a bit of variation although it is subtle in comparison to North Carolina with its coastal plain and mountainous features. Many visitors to Florida see only the coastal lowlands and think of Florida as a very flat plain. Some areas of the State, such as the Everglades, are remarkable for being extremely flat with very little variation in elevation over vast areas. However, in the interior of the peninsula and in the panhandle, there are areas of rolling hills and valleys with local relief of nearly 200 feet (61 meters). These vistas stand in stark contrast to the flat profile often associated with the typical images of Florida. The geomorphology is closely associated with how surface drainage develops, where and how quickly recharge to the aquifer systems occurs, and, in conjunction with the climate, what ecosystems dominate various areas. The geomorphology often dictates where development occurs and how susceptible an area is to karst processes. The last state-wide geomorphic map published by the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) at a 1:2,000,000 scale was released in 1964 (White, Vernon and Puri, 1964). Brooks published a geomorphic map of the state at a scale of 1:500,000 in 1982. The new geomorphic map is a combination of an upgrade of the 1964 map and a reinterpretation of the state's physiography. Utilizing a combination of old-fashioned geological mapping techniques and modern, digital techniques, a new geomorphic map of Florida is being produced by the FGS. Initial mapping employed visual inspection of 1:24,000 scale topographic maps to idenFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 43

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tify physiographically-similar areas then transferring those areas to a 1:750,000 scale map by hand. The resultant map was digitized. The digital outlines of the geomorphic features are being overlain on topography and aerial photography layers to aid in the resolution of boundary issues. Field checking of boundaries is occurring during travel for other FGS projects. Presented in this paper is a revised interpretation of Florida's geomorphic framework. This interpretation relies on previous interpretations for the foundation. Among these previous investigations are Brooks (1981), Cooke and Mossom (1929), Cooke (1939, 1945) and White (1958, 1970). White, Vernon and Puri (1964) delineated the geomorphic subdivisions that most geologists working in the state utilize today. The geomorphology recognized in this publication follows this framework with some modification. Interpretations of the geomorphology of Alabama (Drahovzal, 1968) and Georgia (Clark and Zisa, 1976) were utilized in tying the regional geomorphology together and avoiding "state-line faults." Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H. 2005 Geological discussion of the Rucks' Pit, northeastern Okeechobee County, Florida, in Maddox, G., Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., eds., Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 45, p. 6-10. In early 1990, a USGS geologist investigating the Plio-Pleistocene of Florida approached the senior author to discuss the distribution and lithostratigraphy of these shell-bearing sediments. The USGS geologist mentioned, in passing, a pit encountered in the northeastern portion of Okeechobee County. Dr. Scott was surprised to learn that the pit operators were mining a "coquina" at this location since he had not seen a coquina or a lithified shelly sand deposit west of the St. Johns River Swamp. Prior to this time, he had only found pits west of the river and swamp to be mining sand and shell. When he finally got to visit the site, he found a small, family-run mining operation. The pit was pumped exposing a limited thickness of a sandy coquina and lithified sand reminiscent of the facies of the Anastasia Formation exposed along the coast of Palm Beach County. Inspecting the spoil piles and the pit walls, he found that there was shelly sand below the coquina that was only occasionally encountered, often in areas where the coquina was thinner. Overlying the coquina was younger shelly sand which, in turn, was overlain by sand with varying amounts of organic material. The areal distribution of the coquina facies is not well known since little exploration off-site has been done. Mr. Edwin Rucks, the property owner, discussed the rock distribution on his property and pointed out how the rock ended suddenly at the eastern end of the now water filled northern pit. His description of how the rock just ended sounded like wave cut erosion as we see today along the east coast exposures of the Anastasia Formation. The coquina thins from east to west across the property and appears to be absent west of the oldest mined area. The current mining activity on the Rucks' property is quickly running out of reserves. Exploration may reveal more data on the extent of the rock in this portion of northeastern Okeechobee County. Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H. 2005, Geoheritage resources: An example of preservation and management in Florida: Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Salt Lake City, Utah, Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 190. The State of Florida, through the Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Parks Service, has preserved geoheritage resources for the education and enjoyment of the public. The sites, designated "State Geological Sites" include Devil's Millhopper Geological State Park, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 44

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Florida Caverns State Park and Windley Key Fossil Reef Geological State Park. Numerous other parks and preserves include geological features within their boundaries and provide geological information on the features to the public, raising public awareness. Currently, the State Parks system includes springs, swallets, river rises (resurgent's), sinkholes, extensive cavern systems and coastal features. The Nature Conservancy (Blowing Rocks Preserve and Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines) and the Federal government (Leon Sinks Geological Area, Alexander Springs and others) also are preserving geological features in Florida. The Florida Geological Survey provides information, interpretations and, often, display materials to the parks and conservation areas. Florida has more than 700 springs. The springs have been gathering places for prehistoric, historic and present day man. These sites often contain fossils and cultural artifacts of significance. The Florida Governor's Springs Initiative (begun in 2001) provided funding to investigate springs and educate the public on springs' related issues. Recognizing the value these geologic resources, Florida Forever, a State land acquisition program, has purchased hundreds of thousands of acres of groundwater recharge areas aiding in the protection of the aquifers and the springs. The preservation and management of geoheritage sites and areas relies on educating the public teaching them what is beneath their feet and out-of-sight. Without the backing of the public and the elected officials, sites of geological importance will continue to be degraded and, subsequently, affect our quality of life. Land-use regulations and best management practices allow for sustainable development in and around the geoheritage areas. Geological surveys must be actively involved in the preservation of the geoheritage sites. Means, G.H., and Scott, T.M. 2005, Swallets in Florida: Contaminant pathways: Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Salt Lake City, Utah, Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 435. Florida's karst landscape is riddled with thousands of sinkholes and provides little protection for underlying aquifer system from potential contamination. The Floridan aquifer system, Florida's primary drinking water aquifer, provides water to the majority of springs in the state. Florida is home to more than 700 springs, 33 of which discharge more than 100 cubic feet per second (first magnitude). In 2001, the Governor established the Florida Springs Initiative (FSI) which provided funding, through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, for springs research and monitoring, outreach and education, and landowner assistance. The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) has been funded yearly, by the FSI, to conduct research on water quality, water quantity and location of Florida's springs. In 2004, a study was funded jointly by the FGS and FSI to map the distribution of swallets in Florida with primary attention focused on springsheds. The goal of the FGS study is to identify swallets and collect as much pertinent data about these features as possible. These data will be compiled in a database and made available to the appropriate agencies and the public in ArcGIS format. Swallets commonly occur in the transition zone between the upland regions and karst plains in Florida. Many of these features receive untreated storm water and other surface waters directly from urban areas. Florida's springs have seen a steady decline in water quality over the past 30 years due to rapid urbanization, agricultural practices, and the demands for drinking water from a rapidly growing population. It is currently unknown how many swallets exist within spring recharge basins and how they affect water quality of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 45

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springs. Several studies in the Wakulla and Ichetucknee Springs springsheds have linked swallets to springs using dye tracing. Many more are suspected of having direct connections to springs. Since swallets provide direct access to the aquifer it is important for municipalities, land planners, and other agencies to know where they exist and what role they play in surface-water/groundwater systems. Mirecki, J., Bednar, A., Arthur, J., and Molina, L., 2005, Trends in arsenic and radium geochemistry during aquifer storage and recovery in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Lee County, Florida: National Ground Water Association Naturally Occurring Contaminants Conference: Arsenic, Radium, Radon, and Uranium, February 24-25, 2005, Charleston, South Carolina. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) involves recharge of excess potable (treated drinking) water into permeable zones for subsequent storage, recovery, and distribution during dry or high-demand periods. Geochemical reactions between water and aquifer material during storage can affect the quality of recovered water, resulting in higher post-recovery treatment costs. In Lee County (Ft. Myers area) Florida, several ASR systems recharge potable water into permeable zones of the lower Hawthorn Group and Suwannee Limestone in which the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) is developed in the region. ASR systems generally consist of a single recharge well and one or two monitoring wells installed 200 to 400 feet (61 to 122 meters) from the recharge well. Recharge volumes range between 45 and 130 million gallons. Recharge water generally is stored for one to six months. Groundwater-quality data collected during successive ASR cycle tests at several Lee County ASR systems show that arsenic concentration and radium isotope (226Ra,228Ra) activity increase during recovery. However, the mechanisms that control increasing arsenic and radium differ. Arsenic concentrations increase due to oxidation of microcrystalline pyrite in aquifer material. Radium isotope activity increases because of mixing between recharged water and native UFA water, which shows naturally elevated radium isotope activities. Arsenic concentrations in native UFA water and recharged water generally are at or below the detection limit (1 to 3 g/L) by graphite furnace atomic absorption or inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. As+3is the primary species in recovered water samples. As recovery proceeds, total dissolved arsenic concentrations increase to 40 g/L, and As+3/As+5values increase to approximately 1.0 to 1.5 g/L. All methyl arsenical species were below detection (~1 g/L) by ion-chromatography/ICP-MS. Similar increases in arsenic have been observed at ASR systems in other west central Florida counties (Arthur et al., 2001). The source of arsenic was suggested by Arthur et al. (2004) to be microcrystalline pyrite in Suwannee Limestone. Pyrite oxidation is facilitated by dissolved oxygen concentrations in recharge water that range between 4 and 8 mg/L and decline nearly to zero during storage. Geochemical modeling, bench-scale leaching and extraction studies, and microprobe analyses are ongoing to further characterize water-rock interactions during ASR in the UFA. Gross alpha values typically serve as a proxy of uranium-series isotope activity. 226Ra is most abundant isotope in native water of the UFA in lower Hawthorn Group/Suwannee Limestone lithologies, with activities between 1 and 16 picocuries (pCi) /L. Recharged potable water shows226Ra and 228Ra activities of one pCi/L or less. 226Ra activity increases as recovery proceeds (5-10 pCi/L) suggesting mixing between native and recharged waters in the aquifer. Geochemical models will simulate mixing of waters with respect to radium isotopes during ASR cycle testing. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 46

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Balsillie, J.H., Means, G.H. and, Dunbar, J.D. 2006, Fluvial sedimentological character of the Florida Ryan/Harley Site with evidence of no post-depositional reworking: Geoarchaeology, v. 21, no. 4, Special Issue: Geoarchaeology and the Peopling of the New World, p. 363 391. The Ryan/Harley site (Florida Master Site File Number: 8Je-1004) is a Middle Paleo-Indian habitation site containing Suwannee points. Based on stratigraphic correlation and diagnostic artifact serration, Suwannee-age sites have been relatively dated from ~10,900 14C yr BP to ~10,500 14C yr BP. Clovis-like traits on the Suwannee points and other stone tools from the Ryan/Harley site suggests it dates to the earlier end of the Suwannee timeframe. The currently inundated site is partially buried beneath a sediment column located in a swamp forest and partially exposed in a side channel section of the Wacissa River, Jefferson County, Florida. Research done prior to this analysis determined that the artifact assemblage appeared to be unsorted and was contained in a midden-like unit. Our purpose here is to further assess the issue of site integrity. Unconsolidated sediment samples collected from the artifact bearing horizon and from horizons immediately above and below the artifact horizon were analyzed using granulometric techniques. Arithmetic probability plots of the grain-size distributions show that the sediments were transported and deposited by fluvial processes. Thus the Suwannee points and associated artifacts and faunal remains appear to have accumulated during a time of subaerial exposure, perhaps after a regional water table decline, and have remained largely or essentially intact, with little or no postdepositional reworking. The artifacts and faunal remains recovered from the artifactbearing horizon at Ryan/Harley are distributed randomly, showing no sign of sorting. In the fossil suite, two articulated whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) vertebra were recovered in situ. The unsorted nature of artifacts and articulated faunal remains that are contained within the fluvially deposited sediments suggests the Suwannee point level of the Ryan/Harley site has remained undisturbed since original deposition. Balsillie, J.H., Means, G.H, Dunbar, J.D., and Means, R.C. 2006, Geoarchaeological consideration of the Ryan-Harley Site (8Je-1004) in the Wacissa River northern Florida, in Cenozoic Vertebrates of the America's: Papers to Honor S. David Webb: Gainesville, Florida Museum of Natural History Bulletin, v. 45, no. 4, p. 541 562. The inundated Ryan-Harley site (8Je1004) is located in a swamp forest dissected by channels of the spring-fed Wacissa River. The discovery is thought to represent an undisturbed Middle Paleo-Indian site placed in time from ~10,900 14C BP to ~10,500 14C BP (Anderson et al., 1996; Goodyear, 1999; Dunbar, 2002). Distribution and taphonomic analyses of the artifacts and vertebrate faunal remains recovered from the Suwanneepoint level suggest the artifact assemblage, including the faunal remains, represent an archaeological site component that remains relatively intact since its time of deposition. Additional confirmation beyond the artifact suite was also necessary. To accomplish this, granulometric analyses of unconsolidated sediment samples were performed. Samples were collected from the artifact-bearing horizon and from horizons immediately above and below the artifact horizon. Arithmetic probability plots of grain-size distributions suggest that most but not all of the sandy sediments were originally transported and deposited by fluvial processes. The artifact assemblage, faunal remains, and fine fraction aeolian sand recovered from the site were deposited subsequent to the fluvial FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 47

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conditions. The artifact assemblage, faunal remains, and fine fraction eolian sand recovered from the site were deposited subsequent to the fluvial conditions. The granulometric analyses as well as other lines of evidence indicate the Suwanneepoint level at the Ryan-Harley site is essentially intact with little or no postdepositional reworking. Herrera, J.C., Portell, R.W., and Means, G.H., 2006, Echinoids of a middle to late Pleistocene deposit from the central Atlantic Coast of Florida: Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 3, p. 17. Complete tests of three echinoid species were collected from middle to late Pleistocene deposit at Dickerson Quarry in St. Lucie County, Florida. The sand dollar, Encope michellini, the sea biscuit Rhyncholampas sp. and the regular sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were present. This is the first record of a regular urchin reported from middle to late Pleistocene sediments in Florida. In addition, it is only the second fossil record of the extant sea urchin A. punctulata. The one previous report, by F.S. Holmes (1860), was derived from Simmons' Bluff, South Carolina. The discovery of Rhyncholampas sp. in this deposit represents the youngest fossil occurrence of the genus in Florida. Ten complete tests and numerous radia of A. puncutlata were collected along with dozens of complete tests of E. michellini and Rhyncholampas sp. The low number of spines associated with each intact test of A. punctulata, in addition to the presence of the two burrowing echinoid species, indicates that the echinoids probably died offshore and were washed inshore where deposition and fossilization occurred. Many of the specimens had barnacles attached to their surface signifying that the tests sat on the seafloor for some time prior to burial. Living specimens of both A. punctulata and E. michellini are found in Florida's coastal waters today, while prior to this study, no known species of Ryncholampas sp. had survived past the Upper Pliocene/lower Pleistocene Caloosahatchee Formation. All three echinoid species were collected from Unit 4 of the Dickerson Quarry. Unit 4 is a sandy coquina limestone layer that is lithologically similar to the Anastasia Formation that is found along much of Florida's Atlantic Coast. A vertebrate faunal assemblage below the echinoid layer helped confirm that specimens in the study are no older than middle to late Pleistocene.Kromhout, C. and Arthur, J. 2006, Aquifer framework mapping in SW Florida: data management, interpolation and statistical validation: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 7, p. 108. The goal of the Hydrostratigraphic Framework of the Southwest Florida Water Management District project was to create a detailed series of lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic maps and crosssections covering the 16 county (16,000 km2) region to facilitate science-based decision making with regard to southwest Florida's ground water resources. Thirty four cross-sections and 22 surface and thickness maps were developed based upon data from 1072 wells. During analysis of continuous cores, well cuttings, existing descriptions, and geophysical logs, a system was implemented to identify vertical uncertainty of unit boundaries. Three dimensional spatial analyses were used to refine the data on which interpolations were based. The ordinary kriging interpolator available with in ESRIGeostatistical Analyst extension was used to create surface and thickness maps as a series of grids. All 22 grids were analyzed in 3D to ensure correct spatial relations at each stage of the modeling process. Grids BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 48

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were then compared with a 15m digital elevation model to ensure no surfaces exceeded ground surface. The interpolated grids were subjected to a custom "grid to point" script created to calculate any elevation differences between the mapped value and interpolated values. Contour intervals for each mapped unit were determined based upon kriging prediction error statistics. The resulting maps provide a better vision and understanding of the geologic and hydrogeologic 3D architecture in southwest Florida. Poucher, S., and Copeland, R. 2006, Speleological and karst glossary of Florida and the Caribbean: Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 196 p. In April 2003, the Florida Geological Survey and the Hydrogeology Consortium sponsored a workshop regarding the significance of caves in the management and protections of Florida's watersheds. One conclusion of the workshop was that, because caves contain and support biota sensitive to pollution, the environmental health of caves is critically important to regulators in the management and protection of both springsheds and watersheds. Because of the importance of caves, and because cavers (both wet and dry) spend considerable time inside caves, it is imperative that they communicate their substantial knowledge of caves in a standardized manner with each other and with the scientific community. For these reasons, during the workshop it was recommended that a cave glossary, emphasizing terms used in and near Florida, including the Caribbean, be developed. As a result of the workshop, a committee was formed to generate the glossary. The Florida Committee for the Terminology for Cave and Karst Systems was established. The committee consisted of representatives from the dry caving and the cave diving communities, as well as geologists from the Florida Geological Survey. Ms. Sandy Poucher of the National Speleological Society, Cave Diving Section, and Rick Copeland of the Florida Geological Survey served as Co-Chairs. The purposes of the glossary are to: (1) improve the overall understanding of wet and dry caves in Florida and the Caribbean Sea, and (2) improve consistency in the usage of terms associated with caves.Scott, T. M. 2006, The Doc Haney Experience: Southeastern Section Geological Society of America meeting, Knoxville, TN March 23-24, 2006, Abstracts with Program, v. 38, no. 3, p. 65. Little did I know when I applied in the spring of 1971 to attend Eastern Kentucky University that I would become Dr. Donald Haney's first grad student? Being a rather typical beginning MS student, I knew I loved geology but did not have a thesis topic in mind. One day, Doc called me into his office and asked if I liked doing X-ray diffraction analyses. I did, so he suggested a thesis topic to me the clay mineralogy of the Silurian Crab Orchard Formation. I started researching the topic and kept Doc informed as to my progress. In the meantime, I "discovered" a fascination with the quartz geodes found in the Mississippian section of eastern Kentucky. Several of us grad students began going into the Knobs Region to collect geodes. We started cutting them and making bookends, pen sets and other items. Doc told us he would purchase saw blades for us as long as we gave him selected pieces which he used as gifts to "important" people. I decided that a thesis on the geodes would be more fun and approached Doc. He said, flat out, no, stick with the clay project. Doc further stated that I needed to spend more time on the thesis project and less in the field collecting geodes. This led to Doc finding me hanging on an outcrop, collecting geodes when I was FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 49

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supposed to be in the lab. This and other Doc Haney and EKU Geology stories will be discussed. Because of Doc Haney, the other professors, and the collection of grad students that were in the Geology Department during the first years of the grad program, I obtained excellent geological education. This also brought about membership in a unique group within the geological community, the Eastern Kentucky Mafia. Donald Haney has been an important influence in my geological career and for that, Thanks Doc! Scott, T.M., and Courtney, J. 2006, The southern extension of the Central Florida Phosphate District A stratigraphic discussion and future mining plans, in 21st Regional Phosphate Conference, October 11-12, 2006, Lakeland, Florida,: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, p. 12. For more than 100 years, phosphate has been mined in central Florida. Although other deposits have been identified and one in northern Florida actively mined, the deposits of the Central Florida Phosphate District (CFPD) have remained the mainstay of the state's phosphate industry. As higher grade deposits were depleted, mining has moved to the south in to lower grade deposits. The highest grade deposits were found in the Bone Valley Member, Peace River Formation of the Hawthorn Group. The deposits currently being mined, with few exceptions, are in the Peace River Formation undifferentiated. The Peace River Formation thickens to the south in the southern extension of the CFPD. It is primarily a siliciclastic unit composed of clay and quartz sand with widely varying amounts of sand-sized phosphate. Varying amounts of carbonate occur both within the sediment matrix and as discrete beds. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 50 Dragline in a modern phosphate mine (photo by Tom Scott)

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PRESENTATIONS 2005Conserving South Florida's Groundwater Resources, There is still a lot we don't know. What Information do we need to collect to make the most informed decisions? Presented to the 13th Annual Lecture Series "The Delicate Balance of Nature" at the John D. Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, Key Largo, FL, by Walt Schmidt, January, 2005. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. American Water Works Association, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, by Jon Arthur, January, 2005. Understanding Exploration Oil Drilling Units, Routine and Non-Routine Unit Criteria. Presented to the DEP Division of State Lands, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, February, 2005. Sand Source Availability Investigations: the Search for Sand for Duval County, Florida, Beach Renourishment. Presented to the National Convention on Shore and Beach Preservation Technology Sustainable Beaches Conference Destin, FL, by Dan Phelps (with Garry W. Holem, Senior Geologist, Jacksonville District USACE), February, 2005. Water Resource Lecture Series. Presented to the FAMU/FSU School of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means, February, 2005. Geology and Water Resources of Suwannee County and Vicinity. Presented to the Branford Rotary Club, Branford, FL, by Harley Means, February, 2005.A Geological Overview of Florida. Presented to the Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means, February, 2005. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. Presented to the University of Florida Department of Geology, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur, February, 2005. Overview of the Geology and Hydrogeology of Northwest Florida. Presented to the Florida Water Well Drilling Contractor Continuing Education Course for Licensing Requirements, Carr Building Training Room, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, March, 2005. Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemistry. Southeast District Office of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, West Palm Beach, FL. Jon Arthur, March, 2005. Geology of Florida. Lecture at FSU Pepper Center, Tallahassee, FL, by Tom Scott, March 2005. The Florida Geological Survey. Lecture to the University of Florida Geology of Florida class, Gainesville, FL, by Tom Scott, April, 2005. Introduction to Geomorphic Influence of Scarps in the Suwannee River Basin. Southeastern Geological Society Annual Meeting, Live Oak, FL, by Rick Copeland, May, 2005. Florida's aquifers: vulnerability and waterrock interactions. FDEP Wastewater Workshop, Daytona Beach, FL, by Jon Arthur, May, 2005. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 51 PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

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Geology of Wakulla County in Support of the Proposed Model Springs Protection Land Development Code. Presented to the Wakulla County Commissioners, Crawfordville, FL, by Walt Schmidt, August, 2005. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. Florida Environmental Health Association Annual Meeting, Jacksonville Beach, FL, by Jon Arthur, August, 2005. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. Florida Association of Professional Geologists, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, August, 2005. Geohazards in Florida and the Geology of the Florida Platform. Presented to the Graduate Geohazards class at Florida State University Department of Geosciences, Tallahassee, FL, by Ron Hoenstine, September, 2005. The Geology of the Woodville Karst Plain. Lecture presented to the Fall 2005 Master Wildlife Conservationist class, Crawfordville, FL, by Frank Rupert, September, 2005. The Progress of Sand Source Availability Investigations off the Northeast Coast of Florida. Presented at the Minerals Management Service Meeting, Melbourne, FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2005. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. Florida Association of Professional Geologists, Pensacola, FL, by Jon Arthur, September, 2005. Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, by Craig Berninger, Paulette Bond, Ken Campbell, Cindy Fischler, Tom Greenhalgh, Eric Harrington, Jim Ladner, Jackie Lloyd, Clint Kromhout, Elizabeth Kromhout, Dan Phelps, Frank Rupert and Walt Schmidt, October, 2005. Geology and Hydrogeology of Marion County with an Emphasis on Springs. Presentation to the City of Ocala, City Council, Ocala, FL, by Harley Means, October, 2005. The behavior of As and other metals in bench-scale leaching studies that simulate ASR conditions. ASR V Forum American Ground Water Trust, Tampa, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2005. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. University of Florida, Department of Geology Seminar, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2005. The Florida Geological Survey. Lecture to UF Geology of Florida class, Gainesville, FL, by Tom Scott, November, 2005. Where is the Sand to Replenish the Beaches of the North and Central East Coast of Florida? A presentation at the 80th Annual Coastal Engineering Research Board Meeting, St. Petersburg, FL, by Dan Phelps, November, 2005. Sand Investigations off the Central and Northeast Florida Coast. Presented at the Sustainable Beaches Conference, St. Petersburg, FL, by Dan Phelps, November, 2005. Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville, FL, by Rick Copland, Neal Doran, Aaron White and Sam Upchurch, December, 2005. 2006 Research at the FDEP/Florida Geological Survey. Department of Geology and Geography, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, by Jon Arthur, February, 2006. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 52

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The Geology of Florida's Springs. Lecture to the Sierra Club of Gainesville, Gainesville, FL, by Harley Means, February, 2006. Swallet Project Swallets in the Wakulla Springshed. Lecture to the Wakulla Springs Working Group, Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means, February, 2006. Professional Geology Careers in Florida. Department of Geology and Geography, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, by Jon Arthur, February, 2006. Nutrient Trends in the Water Quality of Florida Springs. Poster Presentation at the American Institute of Hydrology, Baton Rouge, LA, by Aaron White, Rick Copland, Neal Doran and Sam Upchurch, April, 2006. Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of the Northwest Florida Water Management District. Northwest Water Management District, Havana, FL, by Rick Copland, Neal Doran, Aaron White and Sam Upchurch, April, 2006. Natural Hazards Affecting Public Works: Sinkholes in Florida. Presentation to the American Public Works Association 2006 Annual Conference, Tallahassee, FL, by Frank Rupert, May, 2006. Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of the St. Johns River Water Management District. Presented to the St. Johns River Water Management District Palatka, FL, by Rick Copland, Neal Doran, Aaron White and Sam Upchurch, May, 2006. Geologic and Geophysical Investigations on the East Coast of Florida. Presentation at the Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting, Melbourne, FL, by Dan Phelps, June, 2006. Fanning/Manatee Flagging for Resistivity Study. 24th Jefferson County Commission meeting presentation, Monticello, FL, by Tom Greenhalgh, August, 2006. What is happening to Florida's Springs and Ground Water?: Florida Local Environmental Resource Agencies 2006 Annual Meeting, Sarasota, FL, by Neal Doran, Rick Copeland, Aaron, White, and Sam Upchurch, Gail Sloane, and Jay Silvanima, August, 2006. The Floridan Aquifer: Florida's Fragile Underground Reservoir. Silver River Museum and Environmental Education Center, Ocala, FL, by Harley Means, August, 2006. The geology of the Leon Sinks Geological Area Lecture to the Tallahassee Community College Green Guide Program, Fall 2006 class, Crawfordville, FL, by Frank Rupert, September, 2006. Geohazards in Florida and the Geology of the Florida Platform. Presented to the Graduate Geohazards class at Florida State University Department of Geosciences, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, September, 2006. Karst Geology. Presented to the Educational Workshop on Karst and the Alachua Fissure, sponsored by the Cave Diving Museum and Library, City of Alachua Community Center, Alachua, FL, by Tom Scott, September, 2006. Welcoming Lecture. Ground Water Protection Council meeting in Miami, Miami, FL, by Tom Scott, September, 2006. Geochemical and microbiological characterization of aquifer systems to assess ASR suitability. ASR VI Forum American Ground Water Trust, Orlando, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2006. Animal Carcass Disposal: Application of Geologic Data. Department of Agriculture FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 53

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and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2006. Designing Monitoring Programs to Measure Groundwater Quality Changes and to Evaluate Environmental Management Outcomes. Ground Water Protection Council 2006 Annual Forum, Miami Beach, FL, by Rick Copeland, October, 2006. Karst Features in the Wakulla Spring Springshed. Karst Waters Institute, Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means, October, 2006. The Geology of Florida's Springs. Lecture to Big Cypress National Preserve, Ochopee, FL, by Harley Means, October, 2006. The Geology of Florida. Lecture to Big Cypress National Preserve, Ochopee, FL, by Tom Scott, October, 2006. Geologic Features of the Wakulla Landscape. Presented as part of the Wakulla Ecotourism Institute, at Tallahassee Community College Wakulla Center, Crawfordville, FL, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2006. Local Geology Talk. Sabal Palm Elementary School, Tallahassee, FL, By Tom Greenhalgh, November, 2006. Water Quality in the Springs and Wells of the Suwannee River Water Management District. Presented to the Suwannee River Water Management District, Live Oak, FL, By Rick Copland, Neal Doran, Aaron White and Sam Upchurch, November, 2006. Florida's Sinkholes. Lecture to the John Riley Museum after school program, at John Riley Elementary School, Tallahassee, FL, by Frank Rupert, November, 2006. Geological Overview of Leon County and Vicinity. Lecture to the Florida Association of Environmental Professionals, Tallahassee Chapter, Tallahassee, FL, by Harley Means, November, 2006. Significance of FGS Research Activities and Data in protecting the Wakulla Spring System. Presented to the Board of Directors of the Friends of Wakulla, Tallahassee, FL, by Rodney DeHan, November, 2006. Calcite Collecting in Florida. Lecture given to the Florida Paleontological Society, Melbourne, FL, by Harley Means, December, 2006. FIELD TRIPS 2005 Vulcan Quarry fieldtrip for the University of South Florida Geology Alumni, Brooksville, FL, by Tom Scott and Harley Means, February, 2005. Southeastern Geological Society 44th Annual Field Trip to Suwannee County, FL, area, Rick Copeland, May 2005. SMAC (State Mapping Advisory Committee) field trip to Gainesville area, Gainesville, FL, Rick Green, October, 2005. 2006 University of South Florida Geology Alumni Society field trip to the Central Florida Phosphate District, by Tom Scott, February 2006. University of South Florida Geology Department Alum Bluff Trip, Liberty County, FL, by Tom Scott and Harley Means, April, 2006. Vulcan Quarry fieldtrip for the University of South Florida, Geology Club, Brooksville, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 54

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FL., by Tom Scott and Harley Means, April, 2006. The Leon Sinks Geological Area fieldtrip for the Tallahassee Community College Green Guide Program, Fall 2006 class, Crawfordville, FL., by Frank Rupert, September, 2006. State Mapping Advisory Committee field trip to Gainesville area, Gainesville, FL, by Rick Green, October, 2006 Geology of the Everglades National Park fieldtrip for the National Groundwater Association Annual Meeting, Dade County, F., by Tom Scott and Harley Means, October, 2006. Dickerson Quarries fieldtrip for the Florida Paleontological Society, St. Lucie and Okeechobee Counties, FL., by Harley Means, December, 2006. SEGS Wakulla Springs Field Trip, Tallahassee, FL., by Tom Greenhalgh, December, 2006. MEETINGS 2005 Sinkhole Assessment and Remediation Meeting. Ardaman & Associates., Orlando, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2005. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2005. ASPIRE (Proposed State Accounting System) Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Sharon Lee, Jacqueline Lloyd, Carolyn Stringer, February 2005. Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association Meeting. Melbourne, FL, Ron Hoenstine, February, 2005. Regional Science Fair Judging. Tallahassee, FL, David Anderson, February, 2005. National Academy of Sciences Committee Meeting. Washington D.C., Jon Arthur, February, 2005. Wekiva Coordinating Committee Meeting. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, February, 2005. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Tom ScottFebruary, 2005. Geological Society of America, Southeast Section Meeting. Biloxi, MS, Harley Means, March, 2005. Springshed Delineation Meeting. Gainesville, FL, Jon Arthur, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, March, 2005. Naval Air Station Jacksonville Restoration Advisory Board Meeting. Jacksonville, FL, Ron Hoenstine, March, 2005.Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Tom Scott, March, 2005. Annual FGS Awards Luncheon. Tallahassee, FL, FGS staff, March, 2005. Wakulla Wildlife Festival. Wakulla Springs State Park, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Sarah Ramdeen, Brie Coane, April, 2005. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting., Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Jon Arthur, April, 2005. Ocean Day 2005. Tallahassee, FL, Ron Hoenstine, Jim Ladner, Dan Phelps, April, 2005. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 55

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Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Tom Scott, April 2005. Florida Association of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, April, 2005. Workshop on Sinkhole Proposed Legislation., Legislative Committee Conference. Room, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2005. Earth Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Paulette Bond, Frank Rupert, Jackie Lloyd, April, 2005. Wakulla Groundwater Workshop and Fieldtrip. Leon and Wakulla Counties, FL, Jon Arthur, May, 2005. Southeastern Geological Society Meeting. Live Oak, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Rick Green, Tom Greenhalgh, Harley Means, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, May, 2005. Wakulla Groundwater Workshop and Fieldtrip. Leon and Wakulla Counties, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2005. LIDAR Mapping Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2005. Association of American State Geologists Annual Meeting. St. Charles, IL, Jon Arthur, Walt Schmidt, June, 2005. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Tom Scott, June, 2005. Department Of Community Affairs / Environmental Protection Model Springs Protection Land Development Code Workshop. Ocala, FL, Walt Schmidt, June, 2005. Model Springs Code Meeting. Ocala, FL, Harley Means, Tom Scott, June 2005. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Annual Conference. San Diego, CA, David Anderson, July 2005. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, July, 2005. DCA / DEP Model Springs Protection Code Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Harley Means, Tom Scott, August, 2005. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature Meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Tom Scott, August, 2005. Southeastern Coastal Ocean Observing Systems SECOORA). Orlando, FL, Ron Hoenstine, August, 2005. Department of Financial Services / DEP Meeting regarding Sinkhole Legislation. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2005 National Academy of Sciences Committee Meeting. Irvine, CA, Jon Arthur, July, 2005. DCA / DEP Model Springs Protection Code Workshop. Lake City, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2005. Florida Association of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Tom Scott, August 2005. Animal Carcass Disposal Meeting. Office of Agricultural Law Enforcement, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, August, 2005. Wakulla County Commission Meeting. Crawfordville, FL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2005. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 56

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Florida Association of Professional Geologists Meeting. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, August, 2005 Florida Association of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Paulette Bond, Jacqueline Lloyd, Tom Scott, August 2005. Marion County Springs Festival. Ocala, FL, Harley Means, Tom Scott, September 2005. Florida Sinkhole Database Planning Meeting with Department of Financial Services. Tallahassee, FL, September, 2005. DEP Climate Survey Proctor Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd, September 2005. Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN) Meeting. Panama City, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2005. Florida State Employees Charitable Campaign (FSECC) Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd, September, 2005. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Tom Scott, October, 2005. Geological Society of America. Salt Lake City, UT, Jon Arthur, Harley Means, Tom Scott, October, 2005. Coastal Issues Important to Florida. FAMU Environmental Program, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, October, 2005. State Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee (SMAC) Meeting. Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, Will Evans, Rick Green, Tom Greenhalgh, Harley Means, David Paul, Tom Scott, October, 2005. Earth Science Week. FGS / Gunter Building Open House, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, October, 2005. Association of American State Geologists mid-year meeting. Salt Lake City, UT, Tom Scott, October, 2005. St. John's River Water Management District Contractual Services Teleconference Tallahassee, FL, Paulette Bond, Jacqueline Lloyd, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, November, 2005. National Academy of Sciences Committee Meeting. Washington D.C., Jon Arthur, December, 2005. DEP Climate Survey Division of Resource Management (DRAM) Review Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd, December, 2005. Godby High School Science Fair Judging. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2005. Coastal Ocean Observing System (COOS) Meeting. St. Petersburg, FL, Ron Hoenstine, December, 2005. 2006 Hydrogeology Subcommittee meeting of CERP ASR Project. Altamonte Springs, FL, Jon Arthur, January, 2006. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2006. DEP Climate Survey FGS Review Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Ed Garrett, Ron Hoenstine, Jacqueline Lloyd, Carolyn Stringer Tom Scott, January, 2006. FGS Annual Awards Luncheon. Tallahassee, FL, FGS Staff, February, 2006. National Academy of Sciences Committee Meeting. Phoenix, AZ, Jon Arthur, March, 2006. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 57

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Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2006. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, April, 2005. Wakulla Wildlife Festival. Wakulla Springs State Park, Tallahassee, FL, Brie Coane, Sarah Ramdeen, Tom Scott, April, 2006. North American Coastal Alliance Working Group of the Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) Midyear Issues summit meeting. Billings, MT, Steve Spencer, May 2006. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Tom Scott, May, 2006. Southeastern Section Meeting of Geological Society of America, Knoxville, TN, Harley Means, Tom Scott, March, 2006. FDOT aggregates committee meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, May, 2006. DEP Geospatial Web Portal Briefing and Discussion. Tallahassee, FL, David Anderson, Jacqueline Lloyd, Paula Polson, April, 2006. The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) briefing. Tallahassee, FL, David Anderson, Jon Arthur, Rick Copeland, Clint Kromhout, Rick Green, Tom Greenhalgh, Jacqueline Lloyd, Harley Means, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, April, 2006. Association of American State Geologists Annual Meeting. Santa Fe, NM, Jon Arthur, Caroline Stringer, Walt Schmidt, June, 2006. EPA Underground Injection Control meeting. St. Petersburg, FL, Jon Arthur, June, 2006. Florida Board of Professional Geologists meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, July, 2005. FDOT aggregates committee meetings. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, July, 2006. CERP ASR committee meeting. Vero Beach, FL, Jon Arthur, July, 2006. DRAM Bureau of Laboratories and Mercury Program Work Plan review meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd, August, 2006. FDOT aggregates committee meetings., Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, August, 2006. Gulf Islands National Seashore geologic resource evaluation meeting. Pensacola, FL, Ron Hoenstine, September, 2006. Association of American State Geologists Liaison Committee meeting. Washington, D.C., Jon Arthur, September, 2006. Florida Board of Professional Geologists meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, October, 2006. Earth Science Week FGS / Gunter Building Open House. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Paulette Bond, Brie Coane, Cindy Fischler, Tom Greenhalgh, Clint Kromhout, Harley Means, Frank Rupert, Walt Schmidt, and Carolyn Stringer, October, 2006. State Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee (SMAC) meeting. Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, Will Evans, Rick Green, Tom Greenhalgh, Harley Means, David Paul, Tom Scott, October, 2006. Association of American State Geologists Mid-Year meeting. Philadelphia, PA, Jon Arthur, October, 2006. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 58

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Seven Hills Region Users Group (SHRUG) GIS Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, David Anderson, November, 2006. NWFWMD meeting on sensitive karst areas. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, November, 2006. DRAM Recognition Research meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Jacqueline Lloyd, November, 2006. Palm Beach County aggregates meeting. West Palm Beach, FL, Tom Scott, December, 2006. Southeastern Geological Society Annual Fieldtrip Conference. Woodville Karst Plain, Harley Means, Tallahassee, FL, December, 2006. FGS Needs Assessment Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Jon Arthur, Traci Billingsley, Paulette Bond, Rodney DeHan, Leslie Knight, Jacqueline Lloyd, Tom Scott, December, 2006. TRAINING 2005 My Florida Market Place, training for the use of the State of Florida commodities and services web based procurement procedures. Classroom and web based instruction, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, January, 2005. Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation /First Aid Training. Tallahassee, FL, FGS field staff, March, 2005. DEP Online Prevent Harassment: Promote Respect training. Tallahassee, FL, FGS staff, February, 2005. Workshop on 3-D Aquifer Mapping, Geological Society of America. Salt Lake City, NV, Jon Arthur, October, 2005. 2006 MSHA Training. Tallahassee, FL, Will Evans, Rick Green, David Paul, Tom Scott, May, 2006. Florida Administrative Weekly Public Noticing and Formatting Training Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2006. Florida State and DEP Ethics Training Workshop: Held by the DEP / OGC. Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL, Ron Hoenstine, Jackie Lloyd, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, July, 2006. Time Management Training Workshop: Tallahassee Community College, Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2006. Motivation and Team Leadership. Tallahassee Community College, Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2006. Putting Your Troubles Behind You: Introduction to Trailer Safety. Tallahassee, FL, Ken Campbell, August, 2006. Performance Standards. Tallahassee Community College, Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, September, 2006. Strategic Planning. Tallahassee Community College, Classroom workshop, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, September, 2006. BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) 2005 Earth Day at the Capitol, Tallahassee, FL, April, 2005. Wakulla Wildlife Festival, Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2005. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 59

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Ocean Day, Tallahassee, FL, April, 2005. Earth Science Week Open House, Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2005. Earth Science Week Scout Night, Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2005. DEP Fall Festival, Maclay Gardens State Park, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2005. 2006 Earth Day at the Capitol, Tallahassee, FL, April, 2006. Wakulla Wildlife Festival, Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2006. Earth Science Week Open House, Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2006. Earth Science Week Scout Night, Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October 2006. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 60 Walt Schmidt explains fossils to a group of visitors during the 2005 Earth Science Week open house at the FGS (photo by Frank Rupert).

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PERSONNEL CHANGES Personnel changes at the FGS during the biennial period have been due to changes brought about by program changes and by employees refocusing career objectives or lifetime goals. FULL TIME EMPLOYEES (FTEs) Steve Spencer Professional Geologist I, transferred from the Geological Investigations Section to the Oil and Gas Section in January, 2005. Dorothy Black joined the FGS Oil and Gas Section as a Secretary Specialist in January, 2005. Clint Kromhout was promoted from an OPS Research Assistant to an Environment Specialist III in the Hydrogeology Section in February, 2005. Debbie Westberg, resigned from her Secretary Specialist position with the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section in February, 2005 to pursue private enterprise. Harley Means was promoted from a Geologist II to a Professional Geologist I in the Geological Investigations Section in February, 2005. Cris Poarch left his System Programmer I position, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, to pursue his career goals at Municipal Bond Corporation in July, 2005. Sarah Ramdeen transferred from her FTE position as Laboratory Technician, Geological Investigations Section to an OPS Database Administrator position with the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section in April, 2006. Tim Walker, Environmental Specialist II, Oil and Gas Section, Jay Field Office, resigned from his position in April, 2006 to pursue outside business interests. Paula Polson resigned from her position as an Environmental Specialist I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in June, 2006 to take a web programming position with the Department of State. Carol Armstrong resigned from her position as Geological Research Librarian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in July, 2006. Carol is now serving as Librarian at the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy. Doug Calman joined the FGS as Geological Research Librarian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in August 2006. Doug previously served in this position from September, 1977 through November, 1980. Susan Trombley left her Administrative Secretary position with the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section in August, 2006 to take a position in the Leon County Clerk of Courts office. Jeremy Poarch was promoted from OPS IT Assistant to full time System Programmer I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, filling the vacancy left by Cris Poarch in July, 2005. Jeremy resigned from this position in September, 2006 to pursue his career goals at GTO, Inc. Jeff Erb was hired as the FGS System Programmer I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in November, 2006 to fill the vacancy left by FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 61 PERSONNEL INFORMATION

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Jeremy Poarch in September, 2006. David McCarthy Environmental Specialist II, joined the Jay Field office in November, 2006 as an inspector. Mr. McCarthy was previously an industrial technician. David Anderson left the FGS, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in November, 2006 to be the National Hydrographic Dataset Coordinator in DEP's Division of Water Resource Management. Sharon Lee left the FGS, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in November, 2006 to take a position with the FDEP Division of Waste Management. Traci Billingsley joined the FGS as an Administrative Assistant, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in November, 2006. Leslie Knight joined the FGS as a Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, in November, 2006. Jim Balsillie, Professional Geologist III, Geological Investigations Section Coastal Research Program, was sadly lost to the FGS when he succumbed to lung cancer in December, 2006. His memorial can be found on page 76of this publication. OTHER PERSONAL SERVICES EMPLOYEES The following Other Personal Services (OPS) employees resigned from their FGS positions during this biennium. They are listed here with their month of resignation. Ed Chelette, Biological Scientist, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2006. William L. Evans III Professional Geologist, Geological Investigations Section, April, 2006. Frances C. Ijeoma, Fiscal Assistant, Hydrogeology Section, August, 2005. Amy Jensen, Research Assistant, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, September, 2005. Robert Kurtz Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, May, 2006. Ryan C. Means Biological Scientist, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2005. Rebecca P. Meegan, Biological Scientist, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2005. James McClean, Environmental Specialist, Hydrogeology Section, June, 2005. Aaron Lower, Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, November, 2005. Mike Miller Computer Programmer Analyst, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, March, 2006. Sean Roberts, Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2006 Christie Seale, Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, February, 2006. Rob Stoner, Environmental Specialist, Hydrogeology Section, April, 2006. Diana Thurman-Nowak Biological Scientist, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2006. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 62

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William Walker, Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2006. The following OPS employees joined the FGS during this biennium. They are listed here with their month of hire. Scott Barrett Dyer Research Assistant, Hydrogeology Section, December, 2006. Jake Halfhill, Driller's Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, March, 2005. Muriel Hannion, GIS Assistant, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, January, 2006. Adam Humphreys, Research Assistant, Hydrogeology Section, November, 2006. Ellen Lyle, Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, July, 2006. Anthony Miller, Webmaster,Administrativeand Geological Data Management Section, November, 2006. Michael Miller Computer Programmer Analyst, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, February, 2005. Anita Nash Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2005. Mike Nash, Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, June, 2005 Elizabeth M. Parker Data Entry Operator, Geological Investigations Section, May, 2006. Steve Petrushak, Research Assistant,Geological Investigations Section, May, 2005. Sarah Ramdeen, Database Administrator, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, April, 2006 David Wagner, Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, September, 2006. Aaron White, Gubernatorial Fellow, Hydrogeology Section, August, 2005; transferred to Environmental Specialist, Geological Investigations Section, July, 2006. FULL TIME EMPLOYEES Carol J. Armstrong Librarian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.A., Art (1986) and History (1989), Brenau University; M.L.I.S., Florida State University (1993). 2001 and 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award. Completed SOLINET's Management 101 Series, 2004. Currently serving on the Board of Directors for the Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN). Jonathan D. Arthur Professional Geologist Administrator of the FDEP/FGS Hydrogeology Section. B.S., with Honors ,Florida State University in Geology (1982); Ph.D., Florida State University in Geology (1994). His research interests include: hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry. Dr. Arthur is a Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida) and member of several state committees including the FDEP Aquifer Vulnerability Mapping Committee and three aquifer storage and recovery Project Development Teams (Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan). He also holds a Courtesy Faculty Appointment in the Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State University. Professional memberships include the Florida Association of Professional Geologists (served as President from 2003-2006), Southeastern Geological Society, Geological Society of America, National Ground Water FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 63

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Association, and International Association of Hydrogeology. Awards include 1996 FGS Employee of the Year; 1997 Governor's Environmental Education Award for "Florida's Geology Unearthed", New York Festivals, 1997 Finalist for NonBroadcast Film and Video for production of "Florida's Geology Unearthed", April 1997 DEP Employee of the Month; 1997 DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance Award, 1999 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Most recently, Jon participated as a committee member on the National Academy of Sciences project titled: "Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water." Paul Attwood Professional Geologist I, Oil and Gas Section, Ft. Myers field office. B.S., Denison University in Geology (1974); M.S., University of Kansas in Geology (1981). Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Bonita Springs Utilities Board of Directors, 2001 to present. Past President, Everglades Geological Society. FGS Extra Effort Award, 2006. James H. Balsillie, Senior Research Scientist and Coastal Engineering Geologist, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Portland State University (1970); Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida); Graduate studies, Florida State University (19751977). Research interests: structural geology, sedimentology including design of core laboratory processing tools and sampling devices, and sedimentologic standards, statistics in geology, numerical computer modeling, La Nina associated karst responses of periodic lacustrine drawdown events, geological applications to archaeological problems, and coastal engineering geology including hurricane and tropical storms, storm and long-term coastal erosion, astronomical tides, wave mechanics and theory, longshore bar dynamics, seasonal beach changes, sea level changes. He is a Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). He served with the Coastal Engineering Research Center as a principal investigator for five years, with the Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as a coastal engineer for 18 years (including Chief of the Analysis/Research Section) and has served with the Florida Geological Survey as a coastal engineering geologist and sedimentologist for the past ten years. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists. 1998 FGS Employee of the Year, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, FGS 2003 Extra Effort Award, and FGS 2003 Team Extra Effort Award, and the FGS 2004 Team Extra Effort Award. He has written over 100 published papers and numerous computer programs and numerical models. Traci Billingsley, Administrative Assistant I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. A.A., Tallahassee Community College (1997). Ten years experience small business management / administration. Craig Berninger, Engineer I, Geological Investigations Section. Area of specialization: well drilling and coring, licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). Research interests: Water well and core drilling. Professional Memberships: National Drillers Association, Florida Groundwater Association. Dorothy Black Secretary Specialist, Oil and Gas Section, Business management training at Lively Vocational-Technical School. Professional background includes administrative secretarial work and management of family owned business. Paulette Bond, Professional Geologist II, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S., West Virginia University in Geology (1971); M.S., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 64

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in Geology (1974). Research interests: environmental geology, geologic hazards and environmental education. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Member: Geological Society of America, Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Davis Lee Booth, Geological Investigations Section. Area of specialization: core drilling and well construction, licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. J. Douglas Calman Librarian Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, hired in August of 2006. B.A., State University of New York at Buffalo in Geological Sciences (1974); M.S., FSU in Library Science (1977). Doug has served as an academic science reference librarian at both Florida State's Dirac Science Library (1980-1997) and Washington State University's Owen Science & Engineering Library (20032005). He was also a Computer Systems Administrator for UNC-Greensboro (19972002) and actually started his career as a geology librarian with the Florida Geological Survey (1977-1980). Member, Special Libraries Association (SLA). Specialty areas include literature searching using such databases as GeoRef and managing citations with bibliographic database management software such as EndNote. Kenneth M. Campbell, Professional Geologist III, Geologic Investigations Section. B.S., Old Dominion University in Geology (1975); M.S., Florida State University in Geology (1979). Geologic Interests: Core drilling, monitor well construction, Cenozoic stratigraphy, sedimentation and coastal processes. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). Professional Memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists/AIPG. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Employee of the Year, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2005. FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2005 Division of Resource Management Directors Award. Robert S. Caughey Professional Geologist II, Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field Office. B.S., University of Arizona in Geology (1976). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and the "boulder zones" of south Florida. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc., Association of Exploration Geochemists, New Mexico Geological Society, Everglades Geological Society, 1997 FGS Employee of the Year Award, commendation letter from Governor Bush for "job well done" (June 28, 2002). Rick Copeland, Professional Geologist III, Florida Geological Survey, Hydrogeology Section. B.S., University of Florida in Geology (1972); M.S., University of Florida in Geology (1974); Ph.D., Florida State University in Geology (1998); Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). His research interests include: the theory of water-quality and quantity monitoring, interpretation of groundwater quality and its relationship to land use and geomorphology, and interpretations of trends in groundwater quality and quantity. He was a hydrogeologist with the Suwannee River Water Management District for nine years where he established and maintained several groundwater quality monitoring networks. He was the administrator of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's statewide groundwater quality network for 18 years and was instrumental is re-designing and integrating the Department's combined surface-water and groundwater quality monitoring network into one based on randomized sampling. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 65

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He has served as a hydrogeologist with the Florida Geological Survey since 2003. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President, 2001 -2002), the Florida Academy of Sciences (Program Chair Coordinator, 2003 2004; Chairman Geological and Hydrological Section, 2001 2002), the American Institute of Professional Geologists, the National Ground Water Association, the American Water Resource Association, Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President, 2003), and the Southeastern Geological Society (Vice President, 20042005 and President, 2005-2006). He currently serves on the U.S. Advisory Committee on Water Information, Subcommittee on Groundwater, Design Work Group. He also serves on the Florida Water Resource Monitoring Council's Ground Water Sub-Discipline for the Development of Ground Water Metadata Standards. He received the Department's Division of Water Resource Management's Employee of the Month award in August, 1998, the Sustained Exemplary Performance award in 2000, and 2001 Extra Effort Award. Rodney S. DeHan, Senior Research Scientist, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigations Section. Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (1967); M.S. University of Kansas in Microbiology/Virology (1969); Ph.D. Florida State University in Biological Sciences (1973). He continued his association with Florida State University as a member of the research faculty of the Department of Biological Sciences until 1980. He is currently an adjunct professor in the Department of Geological Sciences of the Florida State University. Dr. DeHan joined the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in 1974 and worked in the Treatment Process Technology and Biology Sections. He established the Florida Ground Water Program in 1979 and helped guide its development into a leader in groundwater protection in the country. He joined the Florida Geological Survey in 1997 where he is currently a Senior Research Scientist. His research interests and current projects are focused on the role of groundwater as a component of watersheds with special interest in the characterization and dynamics of interaction between ground and surface water in the coastal environment Jeff Erb, Systems Programmer I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Data and Telecommunications Specialist U.S.A.F. (2003), 13 years experience in IT management and repair. He is certified for Administration and Deployment of Windows XP (2005). Dave Files Engineer IV, B.S., Petroleum Engineering, University of Tulsa (1972). Professional memberships: Society of Petroleum Engineers. He joined the Oil and Gas Section September 2004 to serve as the section's general technical advisor and to manage the section's old well plugging program. Mr. Files worked since 1972 as a drilling engineer for various independent and major oil companies in Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, California, and offshore. Ed Garrett, Environmental Administrator, Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office, B.S., FSU in Geology (1983) and a Certified Public Manager, Florida State University, 2005. Research interests: Energy policy and environmental effects of offshore drilling. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Davis Productivity Award, 2006. Askew Award, 2005. Director's Service Recognition Award, 2006. DEP Employee of the Month Award, March 2006. FGS Employee of the Year Award, 2005. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 66

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Richard C. Green, Professional Geologist I, STATEMAP Program Principal Investigator, Geologic Mapping, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Florida State University in Geology (1986); M.S., Florida State University in Geology (1993). Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Research Interests: Uranium /Thorium geochemistry, environmental hydrogeology, and stratigraphy. Member of the FAPG. Thomas H. Greenhalgh III, Professional Geologist I, Hydrogeology Section. B.S., FSU in Geology, (1984). Research interests: hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental education. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Member: FDEP Springs subcommittees, Hydrogeology Consortium. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists, National Ground Water Association, Southeastern Geological Society. Eric P. Harrington, Engineer Technician IV, Geological Investigations Section, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. 2000 Davis Productivity Award. 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award. 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award 2004 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. 2005 Team Extra Effort Award. 2005 Director's Service Recognition Award for the Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Project & 2004-2005 STATEMAP Drilling Crews. Jessie L. Hawkins Custodian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Ronald W. Hoenstine, Professional Geologist Supervisor, Supervisor Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. University of Florida in Geology (1967); M.S. University of Florida in Geology (1974); Ph.D., Florida State University in Geology (1982). Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal geology and environmental geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Installation Restoration Environmental Cleanup Advisory Committee, Jacksonville Naval Air Station. 1995 FGS Employee of the Year. Leslie Knight, Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.A., Georgetown College in English (1984), M.A., Marshall University in Journalism (1986). Twenty years of public relations, marketing and writing experience. Clint Kromhout Geologist / Environmental Specialist III, Hydrogeology Section. B.S., Florida State University in Geology (2003). Worked for four years as an OPS Laboratory Technician and Geologist II for the Florida Geological Survey and took a FTE position with FGS in 2005. Works as the representative Southwest Florida district geologist, conducts oil, gas and mineral assessments for State Lands, as well as being a contact for mining and industrial minerals. Projects: Southwest Florida Sub-surface Mapping Project, STATEMAP Program, Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. Research interests: hydrogeology, groundwater issues, mining and mining issues, industrial minerals and aggregates, karst, GIS applications, applied geostatistical analysis and modeling, geophysics, remote sensing, structural geology, cartography, drilling processes, and well construction. 2003 Manatee Springs Extra Effort Team Award Recipient. 2004 Southwest Florida Subsurface Mapping Project Extra Effort Team Award Recipient. 2005 Team Extra Effort State Map Drilling Team Award Recipient. 2004 and 2005 Director's Service Recognition Award. Lucien James Ladner Professional Geologist I, Coastal Geologist, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., University of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 67

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Southern Mississippi in Geology (1970). Research interests: hydrogeology, environmental and coastal geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), 1st runner up DEP Safety Awareness Event, 2004 Team Extra Effort Award STATEMAP Project John L. Leccese Engineer IV, began working for the Oil and Gas Section December 2002 as assistant inspector in the Jay Field Office. He was promoted to the role of chief inspector in April 2004. Mr. Leccese's oilfield experience over the previous 36 years includes production management and the drilling of wildcats, workovers, development wells, and gas storage wells for independent oil companies in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, California, Alaska, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Alaska. Professional training included drilling technology, well control, petroleum production technology, H2S safety, and oilfield firefighting. Sharon Lee, Financial Coordinator, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S., University of Maryland in English (1981); 2005 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2005 Director's Service Recognition Award, 2006 FGS Employee of the Year Award. Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Professional Geologist Administrator, Assistant State Geologist for Administration and Administrator of the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S., Florida Atlantic University in Geology (1976); M.S., University of Chicago in Geology (1979). Research interests: environmental geology and public management. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Florida Certified Public Manager. Professional memberships: Geological Society of America, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Southeastern Geological Society (Secretary/Treasurer, 1984), and Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President-1999; President-2000; Past President-2001-2002), 1995 DEP Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2004 FGS Extra Effort Award. David McCarthy Environmental Specialist II, Oil and Gas Section Jay Field Office. AA, Pensacola Junior College, 2005. Professional background primarily focused on technical work in the paper industry. Guy Harlan (Harley) Means, Professional Geologist I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Florida State University in Geology (1996), Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, mollusk and vertebrate paleontology, Florida prehistoric underwater archaeology. Professional memberships: Southeastern Geological Society (Vice President 2002, President 2003), Geological Society of America, Florida Association of Professional Geologists, Florida Paleontological Society. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 1998 FGS Extra Effort Award, 1999 DEP Team Performance Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 Extra Effort Award. Daniel C. Phelps, Professional Geologist I, Coastal Geologist, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Campbell University in Geology (1974) M.S., Duke University in Geology (1979) M.S. University of Houston at Clear Lake in Environmental Management (1990). Research interests: applied marine geophysics, seismic stratigraphy, continental shelf sedimentation, coastal processes, environmental geology, hydrogeology and coastal zone resource management. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). 2004 Team Extra Effort Award from FGS for vibracoring investigations offshore of Northeast Florida. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 68

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Paula Polson Environmental Specialist I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Web Master, Florida Geology Forum Editor, Graphic Design. Training in graphic arts, drafting and Web Design, Florida State University Center for Professional Development, Tallahassee, FL.; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Tidewater Community College, Virginia Beach, VA; John Tyler Community College, Richmond, VA. Interests: computer graphics/illustrations and web design. Awards: 2001 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2002 Employee of the Year, September 2003, DEP Employee of the Month, 2003 Team Extra Effort Award Christopher J. Poarch Systems Programmer I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S., Florida State University in Information Studies (2002). Concentration in Network Administration, Database Administration, and Web Development. 2003 Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), 2003 Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA), 2003 Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP), 2003 FGS Employee of the Year, 2002; 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Frank R. Rupert, Professional Geologist II, Paleontologist and Publications Coordinator, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S., Florida Atlantic University in Geology (1976); M.S., Florida State University in Geology (1980). Research Interests: Cenozoic micropaleontology and biostratigra-phy and environmental hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Florida Paleontological Society (Past President, Board Member, and Newsletter Editor), 1988 FGS Employee of the Year, July 1989 DEP Employee of the Month, Co-recipient GSA John C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental Geology, October, 1999; 2000 and 2004 FGS Team Extra Effort Award; 2000 Davis Productivity Award; 2001 and 2003 FGS Extra Effort Awards. Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief of the Florida Geological Survey. B.A., University of South Florida in Geology (1972); M.S., Florida State University in Geology (1977); Ph.D., Florida State University in Geology (1983). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, hydrogeology, environmental geology, paleogeography, petroleum geology, economic geology, geology and public policy. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), Alabama, Pennsylvania, North Carolina (inactive), and South Carolina (inactive). Professional memberships: Geological Society of America (Fellow), Southeastern Geological Society (Past President), American Institute of Professional Geologists (Member, CPG), Florida Board of Professional Geologists (Legislative appointment, Past Chair), Governor's Outer Continental Shelf Advisory Committee Association of American State Geologists (Member and Past President, current Chair of Coastal Processes Committee, current Chair of the John C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental Geology Committee, current Statistician, current member of Awards, Continental Margins, Environmental Affairs, Honorary Members, Liaison, Professional Affairs, and Water Policy committees), Southeast Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (Advisory Committee Member), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society for Sedimentary Geology, Ground Water Protection Council, Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Founding Member), Florida Academy of Sciences (Past Chair of Geology / hydrology Section), Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee (Legislative Appointment and Chair), National Research Council Oceans Studies Board (Past Member). Adjunct Professor, Florida State University Department of Geological Sciences. "University of South Florida, Geology FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 69

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Alumni Society 2005 Outstanding Alumni Award" presented at the Fifth Annual Geology Alumni Society Dinner, Tampa, Florida, February 11, 2005. "FGS Staff Recognition Extra Effort Award" presented at the Employee of the Year Luncheon, February 27, 2006. "Director's Outstanding Service Award" presented by the DEP/DRAM Director at the annual Division Awards Event, April 3, 2006. Thomas M. Scott Professional Geologist Administrator, Assistant State Geologist for Geological Investigations. B.A., University of South Florida in Geology (1971); M.S., Eastern Kentucky University in Geology (1973); Ph.D, FSU in Geology (1986). Research interests: Cenozoic lithostratigraphy, geologic history, and hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), Certified Professional Geologist (American Institute of Professional Geologists). Professional memberships: Geological Society of America, Southeastern Geological Society (PastPresident, 1978 and 1990-92), Society for Sedimentary Geology (Past President, Southeastern Section, 1996-97), American Institute of Professional Geologists (Florida Section Past-President, 1985-86), Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President and Board Member, 1996), Research Associate, University of South Florida, courtesy appointment, Master's codirective status, Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, serving on Department of Business and Professional Regulation Board of Professional Geologists, chairman in 2004, Association of American State Geologists, Associate Member. More than 150 publications, maps, and abstracts. Awards "Hero of Industry Award from Florida Section of American Institute of Professional Geologists, 1992; Donald C. Haney Outstanding Alumnus Award, 1996; Davis Productivity Award, 1999; Florida Geological Survey Employee of the Year, 2001; Outstanding Alumni Award from the University of South Florida Geology Alumni Society, March 2002; elected as a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, 2004; FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2004; FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2007. Steve Spencer Professional Geologist I, Oil and Gas Section. B.S., Florida State University in Geology (1981) in Geology. Research interests: regulatory computer applications, environmental geology, and coastal geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), January 1992 DEP Employee of the Month Award, 1994/95 DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance Award. January 2003 Leon County Schools/FGS cooperative Program Team Extra Effort Award. Carolyn Stringer, Management Analyst, Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section. B.S., University of Alabama in Home Economics (1970). FGS Extra Effort Awards 2001 and 2003; FGS 2004 Employee of the Year. Wade Stringer, Engineer I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. Certified Yamaha Motors and Honda Marine Corporation Outboard Mechanic, U.S. Coast Guard licensed Captain, FAA Airframe and Power plant License, PADI Certified Open Water Diver and First Aid Medic. 2000 FGS Extra Effort Award. Dave Taylor, Geophysical Operations Engineer, Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office. AA, Miami Dade Community College 1985. University of Michigan, Aeronautical Engineering School 1970-73, Florida International University, Business Management candidate. Commercially rated aircraft pilot. Coast Guard licensed captain. FGS Extra Effort Award, 2006. Susan B. Trombley, Executive Secretary, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Susan has nine years BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 70

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State service which includes working for Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Department of Labor, and Department of Environmental Protection. In her years of State service, Susan has attended several seminars such as: Microsoft Windows 2000 Introduction, Microsoft Access 2000 Introduction, Mistake-Free Grammar and Proofreading, and Outstanding Receptionist. Tim Walker, Environmental Specialist II, Oil and Gas Section Jay Field Office, B.S., Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in Geology (1980). Licensed Professional Geologist in: Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Environmental well drilling certification in: Florida, Missouri, Kentucky, and Indiana. Research interest: In-situ bioremediation. Joel Webb, Database Manager, B.S. in Economics, Florida State University (1996), B.S. in Management Information Systems, Florida State University (2000), Microsoft Certified Professional for MS Access. RESEARCH ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS Edward Chelette, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, B.S., Florida State University in Geology (1990). Worked as a research assistant and teaching assistant at the University of Hawaii while doing postgraduate work in volcanology and hydrogeology (1990-1993). Worked part time at the Northwest Florida Water Management District while doing post-graduate work in chemical hydrogeology at Florida State University (1993-1995). Worked as a hydrogeologist with the Northwest Florida Water Management District working on a joint project with DEP and DOH to identify, permit, test and regulate construction of wells in EDB contaminated areas, primarily in Jackson County, FL. Worked as IS administrator for the Professional Development Center, Tallahassee Community College from 1997-2004. Bridget (Brie) Coane, Driller and Geologist, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Florida State University in Environmental Studies (2003). Research interests: core drilling, monitor well construction, environmental geology, stratigraphy, sedimentation, and hydrogeology. 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2005 City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield and Statemap Drilling Team Extra Effort Award, 2005 Director's Service Recognition Award for 2004-2005 City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Statemap Drilling Crews. Adel Dabous, OPS Geochemistry Research Associate, Hydrogeology Section, Geological Investigation Section. B.S., Alexandria University in Geology (1968) and M.S., Alexandria University in Geology (1973); Ph.D. Florida State University in Geology (1981). Research interests: environmental geochemistry and environmental radioactivity; applications of uranium and other uranium-series nuclides in hydrology and Quaternary geochronology; water/rock interactions. Professional memberships: Geochemical Society of America, Geological Society of Egypt, Geological Society of America, and Mineralogical Society of Egypt. Scott Barrett Dyer Hydrogeology Section, OPS Lab Technician 1I, B.S., Florida State University in Geology (2007), B.A., Florida State University in International Affairs (1989). Research interests: Characterization of the Woodville Karts Plain; Instrumentation, Marker Dye Tracing (Natural and Synthetic), Groundwater and Surface water interaction, Conduit Flow and Water Table monitoring. Graduate student in Geology/Hydrology, Florida State University. Research involves the physical FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 71

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characterization of the Woodville Karst Plain and the interface of fresh surface waters and the coastal margin of the Gulf of Mexico. William L. Evans III OPS Professional Geologist I, Geological Investigations Section. Dual B.S., University of Central Florida in Zoology and Biology (1979); M.S., Florida State University in Geology (1996). Research interests: hydrogeology, lake hydrology, aquifer storage and recovery system geochemistry and hydrogeology, environmental geology, stratigraphy and heavy mineral deposition. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). DEP Scientific Diver (in training). Co-Principal Investigator, USGS STATEMAP Program. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologist (Past Board of Directors Member), National Ground Water Association, Southeastern Geological Society. August 1999 DEP Employee of the Month, 1997, 1998, and 1999 DEP Extra Effort Awards, 1999 DEP Division of Waste Management Appreciation Award, 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award, and 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Cindy Fischler, OPS Environmental Specialist III, Hydrogeology Section. B.S., Florida State University in Environmental Studies (2002). Research interests: geochemistry and hydrogeology especially water-rock interaction; coastal geology and processes, and carbonate petrology. 2006 Director's Service Recognition Award for Hydrogeochemistry Research Team. Frances C. Ijeoma, OPS Fiscal Assistant II, Hydrogeology Section. B.S., University of Calabar, Nigeria in Geology, (1998); Certification in Oracle9i. Interest: Systems management and administration. Amy Jensen, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, B.S. candidate, Department of Geoscience, Florida State University (2005), Research Interests: structural geology, planetary geology, igneous environments, GIS analysis and remote sensing. Robert Kurtz OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Florida State University in Geology, (2004). Currently at Florida State University as a graduate student in geology. FGS research assistant working on analysis of sample cuttings and cores for STATEMAP and South Florida Water Management District. Michelle Lachance OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Florida State University in Civil Engineering, Geology and Social Science (2002); Certificate in Urban and Regional Planning (2002). Research interests: Geophysics, Structural Engineering and Geographical Information Systems. Professional memberships: American Society of Civil Engineers. Aaron Lower, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Purdue University in Geology (2004); Research interests: Coastal Geology, Sedimentology, Geophysics. Professional memberships: Geological Society of America. James McClean, OPS Environmental Specialist II, Hydrogeology Section, B.A., University of New Mexico in Art and Anthropology (1994). M.S., FSU in Anthropology (2002). Research interests: Remote Sensing and GIS for marine resource management, karst, and sea level change and scientific diving. Professional memberships: American Academy of Underwater Sciences, National Association of Underwater Instructors, and National Speleological Society. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 72

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Ryan C. Means, OPS Biological Scientist I, SpringsInitiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., University of Florida in Zoology (1996), M.S., University of Florida in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (2001). Research Assistant working on springs-related topics. Research interests: biological inventorying and monitoring, herpetology, temporary pond metapopulation dynamics, environmental geology, prehistoric archaeology, and vertebrate paleontology. Rebecca P. Meegan, OPS Biological Scientist I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Virginia Tech in Forestry and Wildlife Resources (1996); M.S., Texas A&M in Forestry (2000). Research assistant working on springs related topics. Research interests include landscape ecology, environmental geology, ephemeral pond ecology, and amphibian metapopulation dynamics. Anita M. Nash, OPS Biological Scientist I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. Springs Trend water-quality sampling, valedictorian of York County Area Vocational Technical School. David T. Paul OPS Environmental Specialist II, B.S., Florida State University in Geology (1999). USGS STATEMAP Program; Research interests: Environmental geology, stratigraphy, GIS analysis, and cartography; core drilling and monitor well construction. 2005 STATEMAP Drilling Team Extra Effort Award, 2005 Director's Service Recognition Award for 2004-2005 STATEMAP Drilling Crews; 2006 Employee Awards Committee OPS Representative. Jeremy Poarch, OPS IT Assistant, Geological Data Management Section. B.S. candidate Tallahassee Community College/ FSU in Management Information Systems, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 73 James McClean prepares a sidescan sonar fish and datalogger for an offshore freshwater spring search (photo by Tom Greenhalgh).

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projected graduation: Summer 2006. Interest: Computer network systems management. 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Sarah Ramdeen, Computer Programmer Analyst II, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. FSU in Geology (2003); B.A., Florida State University in Humanities (2003); M.S., Florida State University in Information Studies (2006). Completed an internship with the Micropaleontology section of the Natural History Museum of London, UK. (Fall 2006). Sean Roberts, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, Research Assistant with the Swallet Team (Florida Springs Initiative project). A.A., Santa Fe Community College in General Science and Engineering (2003). Research interests include: cave mapping and exploration, photo documentation. Current president of the Florida Speleological Society, member of the Florida Paleontological Society, National Speleological Society. Christie Seale OPS Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, B.S. candidate Florida State University in College of Business (2007). James (Jim) Sparr, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S., Tarleton State University in Earth Science (1994). Research interests: X-ray diffractometry, geophysical instrumentation, coastal dynamics, ecology and aquaculture of hermatypic corals, sea-level fluctuation, and astroblemes. Diana M. Thurman-Nowak OPS Laboratory Technician I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.A., University of North Carolina at Charlotte in Biology (1990). Post-graduate studies in Environmental Biology, Western Carolina University and Florida International University (1996). Research Assistant on preliminary studies for the Southern Everglades Restoration Project (1996). Prior to coming to FGS, worked as a Hydrogeology Specialist for the Northwest Florida Water Management District, for two years. State of Florida licensed Drinking Water Plant Operator with five years of experience in groundwater treatment. Professional Memberships: Florida Water Pollution Control Operator Association. David J. Wagner OPS Laboratory Technician I, STATEMAP Research Assistant, Geologic Mapping, Geological Investigations Section, also describer of SFWMD drill cuttings. B.S., Florida State University in Geology (2005); currently pursuing a M.S. degree in Civil Engineering at Florida State University with primary interest in Geotechnical Engineering. Aaron White, Environmental Specialist, Hydrogeology Section, B.S., Johnson C. Smith University in Geology (2002); M.S., Florida A&M University in Marine and Estuarine Ecology (2005) Research interests: hydrogeology, environmental geology, marine and estuarine ecology. 2005 Outstanding Graduate Assistant, 20052006 Florida Gubernatorial Fellow DEP, 2006 American Institute of Hydrogeology Travel Award. OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Hal Davis (USGS) Koren Taylor (City of Tallahassee) Sean McGlynn (McGlynn Labs) Lee Florea (USF) Jerry Mallams (SWFWMD) BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 74

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FGS AWARDS FOR 2005 The 2005 Employee of the Year was Ed Garrett. During that time frame, Ed was promoted to the Environmental Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section. After taking this position, his leadership ability was demonstrated by effectively promoting teamwork and performance by his staff. He implemented an internal document tracking system and completed a twoyear Certified Public Managers course. During the course he was awarded the George C. Askew Award at the annual conference of the American Academy of Certified Public Managers in Manchester, New Hampshire. There were four Individual Extra Effort Awards presented at the 2005 Awards Luncheon. Susan Trombley cheerfully helped almost everyone in one way or the other. She became an expert on My Florida Market Place. And she helped with travel paperwork, P-card processing, and ordered the office supplies whenever the need arose. Paulette Bond was extraordinary. She managed the FGS Education and Outreach Program. Ms. Bond was dedicated and creative. She gave excellent presentations to a variety of audiences and venues of educational programs. Paulette was appointed to the State Instructional materials Committee by the Florida Commissioner of Education to review textbooks, especially from the standpoint of content. Sharon Lee turned the FGS financial administration into a smooth-running operation in record time. Ms Lee created new user-friendly filing systems, established good working relations with grant managers and updated FGS accounting records. She did this without requesting assistance and without missing a beat with her other duties. Dave Files spent countless hours designing, budgeting, and recording the plugging of several oil wells in south Florida, spending weeks on the road. He used his professional experience and judgment to make numerous decisions in order to get the maximum amount of plugging work completed and he did this with a very small budget. Two teams won Extra Effort Awards. The first was the drilling operations team on the City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield geologic investigation project. Team members include Craig Berninger, Lee Booth, Brie Coane, Jake Halfhill, Eric Harrington, Sarah Ramdeen and Ken Campbell. The project was part of the City of Tallahassee/USGS investigation to determine whether the sprayfield was contributing nutrients to springs in Wakulla County including Wakulla Springs. FGS drilled three 250 feet deep cores drilled and constructed six monitor wells in very difficult karstic geologic conditions. The local geology made for difficult drilling and well construction. In spite of the difficulties, the team completed their work in timely manner. The second team award went to the STATEMAP drilling team. Members include Lee Booth, Brie Coane, Will Evans, Jake Halfhill, Eric Harrington, Clint FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 75 FGSAWARDSPROGRAM Clint Kromhout presents the 2006 FGS Employee of the Year Award to Sharon Lee (photo by Harley Means).

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Kromhout, David Paul, and Sarah Ramdeen. In spite of a six month delay in the initiation of drilling in 2005, the team met the STATEMAP drilling deadline. In order to meet the deadline, the team worked extra hours, often during difficult drilling and weather conditions. The conditions included lightning and rainstorms, and extreme summer heat. In these conditions, they were able to complete over 800 feet (244 meters) of coring in order to meet the drilling deadline. FGS AWARDS FOR 2006 In 2006 the employee of the year was Sharon Lee. Sharon accurately tracked funding and expenditures for the Minerals Trust Fund, Grants and Donations Trust Fund, plus those for the Hydrogeology and Springs Programs within the FGS. She worked with My Florida Market Place, the State of Florida P-cards, and many additional financial issues for the FGS. Ms. Lee handled perquisite tracking and was always on top of every situation from budget projections to special reports. In spite of the heavy work load, she kept a positive work attitude and remained enthusiastic and helpful. There were two winners of the Individual Extra Effort Award. Dave Taylor almost always exceeded the expectations of his job and went "the extra mile" to help others get their job done. The extra effort varied from moving, maintaining, and repairing other individuals' equipment to answering their telephones for them. Paul Atwood consistently exceeded the expectations of his job. He was diligent and had a perfectionist attitude. The attitude made jobs easier for others. He conducted hundreds of inspections in the south Florida oil and gas fields and was responsible for the enforcement of Florida's oil and gas statutes. Mr. Atwood always did a great job and at all times maintained a positive, helpful attitude. The Team Extra Effort Award went to the Interim Librarian Team consisting of Sarah Ramdeen and Muriel Hannion. Sarah and Muriel administered the FGS library during a long transition period between FGS librarians. During this time, they checked in and routed journals, handled the mail, handled public publication sales and mail outs. They did all of this in addition to keeping their regular job responsibilities on task. In 2006, the FGS handed out two Lifetime Achievement Awards. They went to Bob Caughey and Jim Balsillie. The former Employee of the Year Award winner for the FGS, Bob headed the South Florida Oil and Gas field office for many years. This job required a knowledge that few have and the ability to implement the regulatory aspects as required by Florida's statutes and rules. He effectively performed his duties for over 30 years and was virtually on call 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Jim Balsillie was an individual of many talents. During his tenure with the Department, he dedicated his life to his geologic work and achieved many accomplishments. In the 1970s, Jim began working for the Department's Beaches and Shores Bureau and by 1982 became the Administrator of the Bureau of Data Acquisition Section. In 1994, he took a position with the FGS as a Coastal Engineering Geologist and remained there until his death. He was a researcher who published over 100 papers in the fields of sedimentation and coastal processes. He will be greatly missed. OUTSIDE AWARDS Walt Schmidt was the Recipient of the 2005 Outstanding Alumni Award given at the University of South Florida, Geology Alumni Society Annual Banquet, Tampa, FL., February, 2005. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 76

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 77 Jim Balsillie, a pioneer in coastal geology, succumbed to lung cancer on December 21, 2006. His passing cut short an exceptionally productive scientific career and took from many of us a great friend and colleague. Jim was born in Yakima, Washington on December 7, 1946. He earned a B.S. degree in Geology in 1970 from Portland State University, in Portland, Oregon. Jim's graduate studies were interrupted in late 1970 by induction into the Army where he was invited to work at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) in Washington, D.C. Among his projects at the CERC, he carried out research on shore and coastal retention structures, beginning a long and prolific career in coastal research. He was honorably discharged in 1972. For his exemplary service he was awarded the Army Commendation Medal, the fourth highest individual decoration the U. S. Army can bestow. In 1975, Jim obtained a leave of absence from the CERC where he continued in a civilian capacity, to attend graduate school in Geology at Florida State University, in Tallahassee. In 1977, in the midst of his graduate research, Jim accepted a request to become the scientific liaison with the State of Florida's Department of Natural Resources, Beaches and Shores Division, and the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department at the University of Florida. This decision began a scientific career with the State of Florida that spanned 29 years. Jim assisted in the regulatory permitting program of the Beaches and Shores Division of the Department of Natural Resources. In 1982, he was named Administrator of the newly formed Analysis and Research Section of the Bureau of Coastal Data Acquisition. In 1990, Jim moved to the Office of Beach Erosion control in the Division of Beaches of Shores to develop beach restoration management plans for the State of Florida. In 1994, Jim moved to his final post in the new coastal geology program at the Florida Geological Survey. Jim's expertise in all aspects of geologic field work was frequently put to use in his work at the FGS. He developed methods for offshore sampling and remote sensing in many projects off both the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. He also was a mainstay in the operation of the FGS' research vessels. Jim authored more than 100 publications during a long and productive professional career that spanned more than three decades. Among Jim's many other professional accomplishments are included the following: he was a founder of the National Hurricane Conference; he was a recipient of the James A. Purpura International Award of the Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association (FSBPA), for outstanding research in coastal engineering and coastal processes; he was designated a Florida Beach Pioneer in 1994 by the FSBPA; and he was a longtime member of the editorial board of the Journal of Coastal Research. INMEMORIAMJames Hugh Balsillie December 7, 1946 December 21, 2006

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BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 78 Jim Balsillie examining outcrop of Suwannee Limestone on the Suwannee River for the STATEMAP project, 2005.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 79 Agency FY 04/05 FY 05/06 Alachua County X BFA Environmental Consultants X Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc X X City of Tallahassee X X Collier County Government X Florida Department of Environmental Protection X Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission X X Northwest Florida Water Management District X St. Johns River Water Management District X X Suwannee River Water Management District X X South Florida Water Management District X X Southwest Florida Water Management District X X U. S. Geological Survey X X U. S. Minerals Management Service X X University of Texas X AGENCIES CONTRIBUTING TO THE GRANTS AND DONATIONS TRUST FUND THROUGH COOPERATIVE CONTRACTS WITH THE FGS

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BIENNIALREPORT NO. 24 80 FGS BUDGET SUMMARY Totals (Dollars) Water Quality Assurance Trust Fund (Dollars) Minerals Trust Fund (Dollars) Grants and Donations Trust Fund (Dollars) Fund Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Fiscal Year 2004-2005 FTESalaries and Benefits 0 2,103,511 143,230 2,246,741 Other Personal Services 332,898 79,690 0 412,588 Expenses 215,097 273,214 403,776 892,087 Operating Capital Outlay 20,831 81,722 10,150 112,703 Vehicle Acquisition 0 0 0 0 TOTALS 568,826 2,538,137 557,156 3,664,119 FTE Salaries and Benefits 0 2,007,372 143,230 2,246,741 Other Personal Services 332,912 210,226 0 412,588 Expenses 120,599 324.161 403,776 892,087 Operating Capital Outlay 1,169 85,620 11,966 98,755 Vehicle Acquisition 0 685,889 0 685,889 TOTALS 454,680 3,313,268 580,772 4,348,720 Summary by Fiscal Year