Biennial report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher:
The Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date:
Frequency:
biennial
regular
Edition:
2001-2002[22nd report]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltuf - AJG7269
oclc - 22342552
alephbibnum - 001754280
lccn - sn 90001622
issn - 1052-6536
System ID:
UF00000224:00009

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    FGS organizational structure
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    FGS programs, projects, and cooperative efforts
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Special projects
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Equipment and facilities acquisition
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Publications
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Presentations and other professional activities
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Personnel information
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Awards
        Page 111
        Page 112
    In memorium
        Page 113
        Page 114
    FGS budget summary
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Back Cover
        Page 117
        Page 118
Full Text





Coastal Research


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STATE OF FLORIDA


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
David B. Struhs, Secretary

DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Edwin J. Conklin, Director

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief


BIENNIAL REPORT 22
2001 2002


by

James H. Balsillie, P.G. #167


Tallahassee, Florida
2003


ISSN 1052-6536

















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
January 2003







The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and
Management, Department of Environmental Protection is publishing Biennial Report 22,
prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This report summarized the activities of the FGS
staff during the two-year period January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2002. Research results
are reported in the Survey's various publication series, professional journals, presentations, and
contract deliverables. Reports for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended
services and other activities of the FGS.




Walt Schmidt, Ph.D, P.G.
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey








COVER PHOTO CREDITS


Cover designed and compiled by James H. Balsillie.

Archived Knowledge: FGS library, photo by J. H. Balsillie.

Coastal Research: Fifty-foot research vessel GeoQuest on the Gulf of Mexico, photo by Ted
Kiper.

Geologic Mapping: A paleo-stream channel in Washington County, FL, formed in Alum Bluff
Group and filled with sediment from the Cirtronelle Formation; individuals from left to right are
Jon Bryan, Alan Baker, Rick Green, Alex Wood, John Phillips, Will Evans, Dave Paul, Jim
Cichon, Ed Marks, Fran Flores, and Jon Arthur, photo by R. C. Green.

Hydrogeology: Limestone "swiss cheese" outcrop of Suwannee Formation, White Springs,
Suwannee County, FL, photo by Jon Arthur.

Oil & Gas: Well head pumping petroleum (staff photo).

Springs: G. H. Means, Ryan Means, Rebecca Meegan, and Tom Scott dive in Alexander
Springs, Lake County, FL, photo by Tom Scott.







CONTENTS

Page

FO R E W O R D ....................... ... ..... .... ....... .. ....... .......... ............................. . ..... 1

IN T R O D U C T IO N ............................................. ............. ............................................................ 5
F G S R E O R G A N IZ E S ................................. ........... .... ........................................................ 5
FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL OFFICE SPACE............................. ...................... 5
THIS BIENNIAL REPO RT ........................................................................... 6

FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ............................... ...... ............ ......................... 7
OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST...................................... 7
ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION.................... 9
GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION........................................ .......... ............ 9
OIL AND GAS SECTION .................. .......................................... 11

FGS PROGRAMS, PROJECTS, AND COOPERATIVE EFFORTS........................................... 13
IN T R O D U C T IO N ... ............................. .......... ........................................................ 13
COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM ........................ ........ ..................... 13
Gulf of Mexico Sand Search Project .......................................................... 16
Florida Sea Level Rise Project.......................................................................... 16
Offshore Springs Search Project of the Florida Springs Inititive................ 17
Ongoing Applied Sedimentologic Research................................................. 18
Sedimentation Elevation Table (SET) Project................................ .......... 19
Storm/Hurricane Damage Potential Project ........................................ .......... 19
Joint Coastal Research ..................................................................................... 20
Offshore Sand Investigation .................................................. ....................... 21
Hydrogeology of St. Joseph Bay........................................................................ 20
Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Coastal Consortium .....................22
COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM........................................................................ 22
CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM .................................................................. 23
DATA FILES PRO G RA M ......... ......................................................................................... 23
DRILLING PROGRAM ............................. ...................................................................... 23
Manatee Springs Investigation .................................... ............... ............... 24
Background Groundwater Monitoring Program...............................................24
Floridan Aquifer Investigation, Volusia County............................................... 26
Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment................................. ..................... 26
FLORIDA BOARD OF PROFESSIONAL GEOLOGISTS................................. ............ 26
FLORIDA SINKHOLE DATABASE PROGRAM.......................... ...................... 26
FLO RIDA SPRINGS INITIATIVE................................................................................. 26
FLORIDA STATEMAP PROGRAM ................................ ........... .................... 30
GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS........................ ...................................................... 32
Statewide Geology Mapping Program .............................................................. 32
GEOLOGIC SAMPLE COLLECTIONS PROGRAM....................... ... ........ ........... 33
HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM .................................................................................. 33
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA)............................ .......... 38
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study......................................... 40







Geologic Cross-Sections ....................................................................... 40
Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping ................................ 41
Suwannee District Springs Project ............................................................. 42
Subsurface Lithologic Core/Cutting Descriptions ....................................... 42
Hydrogeology Consortium.................................. .. ......................... 42
MENTORED FIELD PROGRAM............................................................................... 43
MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM ........................................................................... 44
P ho sp hate ...................................................................................................... . 44
S to n e ....................................................................................................................... 4 4
S and and G ravel .............................................................................................. 44
H heavy M minerals ......................................................................................... ........ 44
P e a t ............................................................................................. .......................... 4 4
C la y ...................................................................................... ................. ........... 4 6
Crude Oil and Natural Gas .................................................. ........................ 46
OIL & GAS SECTION REGULATORY PROGRAM..................................... ............. 46
D killing and Production.................................................................................... 47
Geophysical Exploration .................................................................... 48
O offshore A activity .............................................................................................. 48
S tate W ate rs .......... .................................................................................... 48
Federal W aters......................................................... .............................. 49
O il & G as D ata ................................................................................. ............... 4 9
D atab ase ................................................................................................ . 49
M aps.............................................. ..................... ...... .............................. 50
W e b s ite ........................................................................................................ 5 0
PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM............................................................................ 50
S E M ap s .......................................................................................................... . 50
Earth Science W eek ................................ .......................... ............................. 50
RESEARCH LIBRARY PROGRAM .......................................................................... 51
Library S ervices................................................................................................ 51
Library Com puter Services ......................................................... .................. 52
Publication Distribution................................................. ................................ 52
STUDENT ASSISTANTSHIP PROGRAM........................... ................................... 52
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT COOPERATIVE EFFORTS.................................. 52
Northwest Florida Water Management District............................. .......... .. 52
South Florida Water Management District ....................................... ......... .. 53
Southwest Florida Water Management District ............................................. 53
Suwannee River Water Management District.................................. .......... .. 53
St. Johns River Water Management District .................................... ........ .. 53
Guidebook to the Correlation Criteria for Geophysical Well Logs........ 53

S P E C IA L P R O J E C T S .......................................... .......... .............................. ......................... 55
IN T R O D U C T IO N ............................................................................................................... 55
LAKE JACKSON DRAWDOWN ......................................................................... 55
NATIONAL GEOLOGIC MAP DATABASE................................................. 56
NAVY/ARA LYNN HAVEN PROJECT ...................................................................... 57
PANHANDLE OFFSHORE SEDIMENT INVESTIGATION............................................. 58
RYAN/HARLEY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE.......................................................................... 58
S PEC IA LC O LLECTIO N S ................................................................................................ 59




H;







EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION......................................................................... 61
A LL TER R A IN V EH IC LES .............................................. ......... ................................... 61
ALPHA SPECTROM ETER ............................... ........................ ... ....................... 61
AUTOMATED BATHYMETRIC SYSTEM...................... ......................... 61
BO AT STO RAG E FAC ILITY ..................................................... ....... ....................... 62
C A N O E S ............................................................. .............................. ........................... 62
DO PPLER FLO W M ETER ........................ ................................................................ 62
D R ILL R IG A D D ITIO N ......................................... ........ ............................................ 62
FIELD BLA D E R UNN ER ............................................................................................ 63
GROUND PENETRATING RADAR................................................................................ 63
PANAMA CITY BEACH COASTAL RESEARCH FACILITY...................................... 64
RESEARCH VESSEL GEOPROBE..................................................................... 64
SIEVE TECHNOLOGY UPGRADED....................................... .. ................... 64
SPECTRO PHO TO M ETER ............................ ........................................... ...................... 65
SUBAQUEOUS SURFACE SEDIMENT SAMPLER.................................. .......... ... 65
W AREHOUSE OFFICE SPACE....................... ..................................................... 66

P U B LIC A T IO N S .................................... .... ............ ......... ........................................... 67
IN T R O D U C T IO N ............ .............................................. ........................ .............. ........... 67
FG S PU B LIC ATIO N S ........................................................................... .................... 67
B ien n ial R e po rt............................................ ......... ......... .................................. 67
Florida Geology Forum .................................................... .............................. 67
Progress Reports .................................................................................... 67
M ap S series ....................................................................................................... . 68
O pen File M ap S series ................................................... ..................................... 68
O pe n F ile R e po rts ................................................................................................ 68
P o ste rs ........................................................................................................... . 72
Special Publications .......................................................... ............................ 72
Reports of Investigations ................................................... .......................... 77
B u lletin s ......................................................................................................... . 7 8
FG S W eb Site Applications ................................................................................ 79
PAPERS BY STAFF IN OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS.................................... ........... 79

PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES............................ ............ 93
PR ES ENTATIO N S ................................................................................. ...................... 93
BO OTHS AND DISPLAYS ........................................................................................... 95
MEETING, SYMPOSIA, CONFERENCES, WORKSHOPS, AND TRAINING
A T T E N D E D ....................................................................................................... . ......... 95
FIELD TRIPS CO N DUCTED ...................................................... .............................. 100

PERSO NNEL INFO RM ATIO N............................................................................................... 101
IN T R O D U C T IO N .............................................................................................................. 10 1
PERSO N N EL C HANG ES .............................................................................................. 101
FU LL TIM E EM PLO Y EES ......................................................................................... 102
RESEARC H ASSO CIATES ......................................................................................... 108
RESEA RC H ASSISTANTS ..................................................... .................................. 109
OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES........................................................................... 110




iii







A W A R D S .................. ........... ............................ ............................................................. . 11 1

IN MEMORIUM....................................... ............................................ ..... ..................... 113

FGS BUDGET SUMMARY .............................. .... ......................................................... 115








by
Walt Schmidt
State Geologist & Chief
Florida Geological Survey


The calendar years 2001 and 2002 have
been active and productive for the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS). As we enter the new
millennia many changes have occurred in our
world which impacts each and every one of us.
From terrorist organizations that attack innocent
civilians, to resulting international affairs and
economic impacts on nations, society and our
life styles have changed significantly during
these past two years. The State of Florida has
been and is continuing to feel the results of
these events, as the government deals with the
need for increased security in all government
affairs and public gatherings, tourism has been
drastically curtailed and the associated
economic downturn has hurt local businesses
and government services budgets. Our
relatively small corner of the world, has also felt
the impact of these national and international
events. We have had to curtail several
programs and equipment acquisitions due to
budget shortfalls from two perspectives. First,
the desire of our Governor to decrease the all
encompassing size and sheer volume of State
Government, by prioritizing and eliminating
selected services and associated staff; and
second, the decrease in revenues to the
Minerals Trust Fund (MTF) from various
minerals severance taxes which has resulted in
significant budget "hold-backs" from our
authorized budget to keep the MTF from being
depleted. In the first case, each agency in the
Executive Branch agencies under the Governor
have been asked to eliminate 5% of their
services per year for five years, resulting in a
25% cut in program service. Staff positions
associated with these services also would be
eliminated over this same time period. After
much internal self-assessment we determined
our Coastal Research Program would be
phased out in compliance with the Governor's
instructions. Fortunately for us, our program
cuts and associated staff were not eliminated
the first two years of this five year program. We


continue to work through the Department with
the proposed program cuts the next three
years. In addition, the MTF, is utilized to fund
the Florida Geological Survey and the Bureau
of Mine Reclamation. The percent of funding
being distributed to the MTF from the Mineral
Severance Taxes collected has not been
sufficient to cover the cost of these programs.
As a result the funding authorized by the
Legislature has not been fully utilized due to
state requirements that the Trust Fund cannot
overspend its capability. Our program has
had several hundred thousand dollars held
back to comply with this requirement. As we
prepare this Biennial Report, the Department
of Environmental Protection is proposing to
the Governor's Office legislation to change
the MTF distribution formula and to
consolidate trust funds. Should this proposal
pass the Florida Legislature, the MTF shortfall
problem should be solved at least for a few
years.

The FGS continues to function at the
Bureau level within the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. The State
Geologist serves in a second capacity as
Chief of the Survey. During these two years
we reorganized slightly, redefining and
renaming our Administrative Section. The
new name is the Administrative and Geologic
Data Management Section, more reflective of
the sections re-aligned job responsibilities.
This Section is Supervised by Ms. Jacqueline
M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist for
Administration, and section job functions
include: administrative coordination,
personnel, staff training, budget tracking for
base appropriations and numerous contracts
and grants, building facilities oversight,
educational outreach and coordination,
computer network and GIS data
management, and providing research library
services, publications distribution, and FGS
Employee Handbook updating. Our






Geological Investigations Section continues to
be supervised by Dr. Thomas M. Scott,
Assistant State Geologist for Programs, and the
Oil & Gas Section is supervised by Mr. David
Curry.

A second organizational change occurred
within the Geological Investigations Section. In
recognition of the growing amount of research
in hydrogeology at the FGS, as well as the
significance of water-related issues in Florida,
we formally established the Hydrogeology
Program. Dr. Jon Arthur has taken on the
management of this program. The purpose of
this program is to conduct hydrogeologic
research at the FGS in support of the need for
unbiased, scientific knowledge of Florida's
watersheds with a specific emphasis on aquifer
systems. This program has been involved with
many highly visible issues such as:
geochemical studies associated with aquifer
storage and recovery wells (ASR) as part of the
Everglades restoration plan; the Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) study;
underground injection wells (UIC) assessments;
the DEP Springs Task Force and the Springs
Initiative project to update and inventory
Florida's spring resources; delineation of
"Spring-Shed basins;" Karst aquifer flow
transport models research; and reconnaissance
for freshwater spring discharge on submerged
lands offshore, to only name a few. In 2001,
two additional hydrogeologist staff positions
were added to our program to further these
efforts. Dr. Rick Copeland and Mr. Tom
Greenhalgh joined our team in November and
December respectively. They came to us from
the Division of Water Resource Management
within DEP. The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA) project also brought on
additional professional staff, including Alan
Baker, Jim Cichon, Andrew Rudin, Shaun
Ferguson, Alex Wood, and Jeffery Thelen. For
the first time in memory, the FGS has had the
opportunity to "outsource" several projects to
assist with our mission. The Florida Legislature
authorized us to conduct hydrogeology
research and education outreach activities
through contracts with universities and the
private sector. These funds were appropriated
from the Water Quality Assurance Trust Fund.
In other news, FGS geologist Harley Means


was chosen by DEP senior management to
expand his duties to include training under the
current "Springs Coordinator" Jim Stevenson.
Jim will be retiring in mid 2003 and the
Department has been balancing the research,
regulatory, and land / management / planning
aspect of these activities from two different
divisions. Having the coordinator located at
the FGS will allow continuing DEP wide
coordination with the added benefit of the
supporting unbiased hydrogeology scientific
research expertise.

During this two year period the FGS was
visited by several scientists from countries
throughout the world to collaborate or study
local geoscience issues. In January of 2001,
we hosted five scientists from Oman who
were here to study Florida's karst terrains and
processes. Later in April of that year,
mechanical engineering students from the
Institute Universitaire de Technologie in Metz,
France spent time with us to learn about our
geologic sample coring and augering
program. These are examples of the depth
and breathe of outreach possible through our
FGS website. These scientists and students
contacted us through our "feedback" portion
of our web pages. Our website, during this
time has also undergone many changes and
upgrades. The site has much to offer and is
constantly changing, adding new information
and available resources daily. Two of the
most frequently used areas are the Data &
Maps and the Publications sections. You can
access County Geologic Maps, the State
Geologic Map, the Lithologic Well Cuttings &
Core Database, Sinkhole Database, and Oil &
Gas Maps and production reports. Hundreds
of our publications (including many out-of-
print volumes) are now available on-line. An
amazing amount of activity is seen on our
web site. For example, for one week in March
2002, we had 21,244 hits on the server
reported. There were 10,326 pages viewed
with 1,943 sessions served. Clearly, the
internet and digital web products have
increased our ability to serve the public and
interested professionals with increased
educational / outreach capabilities. Ms. Paula
Poison is our FGS webmaster among several
other duties. The FGS continued to promote






and participate in Earth Science Week outreach
activities again the second week of each
October.

In 2001, a consortium comprised of the
State Geological Surveys from Florida,
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
was established as a collaborative effort to
address common coastal geoscience issues.
This formal agreement permits the sharing of
coastal expertise and resources to efficiently
address coastal concerns and problems
common to the Gulf States. The official name
is the Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys
Consortium. The FGS also finalized a
Memorandum of Agreement between the Navy
Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, and the
FGS. This MOA provides a mechanism
whereby a working relationship between the
Navy and the FGS facilitates cooperative
efforts, and leverages mutual expertise in the
broad areas of coastal geology, engineering
and technology. This MOA also permits the
transfer of technology to the FGS. Dr. Ron
Hoenstine manages the Coastal Research
Program.

Also in 2001, of historical significance, the
FGS published a new Geologic Map of the
State of Florida. This map is the culmination of
over 36 years of new geological data collection,
and represents the combined efforts of
numerous professional geologists from our staff
and elsewhere. These efforts were coordinated
and championed by Dr. Tom Scott who is the
first author. Also, this map is the first to be
prepared in a digital format making this
information available to a larger user
community as a GIS data layer. Related to this
and other geologic mapping efforts, the FGS
continued to win annual funding from the
National Cooperative Geologic Mapping
Program (NCGMP) for our STATEMAP
proposed mapping projects. In addition, during
this two year period a new NCGMP /
Association of American State Geologists
(AASG) program, designed to provide mentored
field training for students interested in learning
geologic mapping techniques was initiated.
The FGS proposed training activities in
association with our STATEMAP projects and


won awards both years to fund students for
such summer training.

Other publications and contract
deliverables for the first time included
products prepared in CD ROM disc format.
We completed an investigation of the
Offshore Sand Resources of the Central-East
Coast of Florida, in cooperation with the U.S.
Department of the Interior Minerals
Management Service (MMS). This project
was a five-year effort which resulted in
compilation of an annotated bibliography of
previously conducted work in the area, a
baseline survey characterizing beach sand in
the vicinity, collecting more than 1,500 miles
of subsurface acoustic profile data, and the
acquisition and analysis of numerous bottom
grab samples and vibracores. All this
information is produced in a two CD ROM
format. In addition, we jointly organized and
sponsored with the Florida State University
and the Hydrogeology Consortium a
workshop which focused on "Developing
Blueprints for the Management and Protection
of Florida Springs." Under contract to us the
FSU team (Florida Resources and
Environmental Analysis Center) produced a
CD ROM that contains the workshop's
proceedings and recommendations from the
three panels which were the focus of the
discussions. Further evidence of our joining
the "digital world" of information availability, is
the fact that we have utilized our web site and
e-mail distribution lists to share our newsletter
the "Florida Geology Forum" and to solicit
input from our peer community and DEP
sister Divisions to assist with topical
hydrogeologic project "needs assessment"
and prioritization.

The Oil & Gas Section has seen a
decline in new applications for drilling and
geophysical seismic exploration permits,
however, activity is increasing drastically in
operating permit re-certifications and plugging
and/or abandonment as many oil wells and
fields approach the end of their viable life.
The first horizontal well was drilled by
ExxonMobil in the Jay Field in late 2001. Also
during this period the Section welcomed two
new Engineers. Dave Taylor, joined our staff






in June 2001 as our Geophysical Operations
Engineer and field operations inspections
supervisor, and Al Keaton, joined us in 2002 as
our Petroleum Engineer to conduct drilling
engineering and operations review. And as of
the end of 2002, the Oil & Gas Section was
working with a contractor to re-enter and plug
some older abandoned oil wells which our files
suggested modern plugging design could
increase groundwater resource protection.

In early 2002, the FGS acquired the R/V
GeoProbe, a 22 foot trailerable C-Dory that will
enable the FGS to respond to time controlled
coastal events in a rapid and efficient manner.
The new vessel has GPS integrated radar, and
is capable of performing side-scan and
conventional seismic data collection, in addition
to gathering current and sediment samples from
shallow and deep water. During the late
summer of the same year the FGS as part of
the cooperative effort with the Coastal Systems
Station of the US Navy, has gained access to a
Coastal Research Facility in Panama City
Beach. This involves a lease for use of "Beach
Site #1" which is a two story facility to be used
by the FGS Coastal Research Program as a
laboratory, coastal core repository and as a
staging area to conduct offshore research along
the Panhandle. In addition, we had built and
located behind the DEP Annex facility a large
metal shelter building to house equipment and
to function as a shelter for three research boats
& trailers. Also, as the year 2002 was coming
to a close, the Oil & Gas Section was relocated
to offices at the DEP Annex on Commonwealth
Blvd. This move gave the section staff much
more room to allow each professional staff their
own office. In addition, four staff from our
Springs Initiative field team were located in the
same office complex to allow easier access to
our field boats and associated equipment which
is stored behind the Annex. Our Core Driller
and his assistant also have been provided
office space at the Annex. Other staff will have
access to a lab facility across the hall from our
Core Sample Repository. This additional facility
and office complex has allowed other staff
housed at the main FGS location in the Gunter
Building to unfold into the vacated space,
thereby cutting down on the need to have some
staff doubled and tripled up in one office.


As was reported in our last Biennial
Report, in 1999 the Florida Legislature
passed a law instructing the Florida DEP and
Florida State University to prepare a report to
address the feasibility of creating a Florida
State Geoscience Research Center in
Tallahassee to co-locate several University /
Federal / State geoscience programs. The
initial authorization for planning and detailed
assessment was vetoed by the Governor in
2000. Nevertheless, the Florida State
University has continued to have discussions
during the last two years with the DEP Deputy
Secretaries office and the Director of the
Division of Resource Assessment and
Management on the possibility of the FGS
moving out of the Gunter Building, potentially
to facilities at Innovation Park.










The Florida Geological
Survey (FGS) is located on
the campus of the Florida
State University (FSU) in the
Herman W. Gunter Building,
adjacent to the university's
Department of Geological
Sciences. The FGS has a
staff of 66: 42 full-time,
permanent and 24 part-time
OPS employees.

Research facilities at
the FGS include a geological
research library, a sample
repository, and laboratories.
The library contains an
extensive collection of state


FGS Home Office, Gunter Building,
Tallahassee, FL (photo by Tom Scott).


and federal publications, periodicals, and
references. The sample repository holds
cores and well cutting samples from more
than 18,355 wells (both onshore and
offshore), as well as samples from
approximately 5,400 locales. Laboratory
facilities include a permeability lab equipped
with 44 falling-head permeameters; a
sedimentology lab containing diamond-blade
rock-saws, drill press corer, and core saw for
core processing, sieve shakers, ovens, and
balances; sample preparation equipment for
clay mineralogy, organic/carbonate content
and micro/nannofossil studies; and an alpha
spectrometer. Field equipment includes a
trailer-mounted auger rig, a Failing 1500 drill
rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted
Mobile Drill Rig with wire-line coring
capability, various pickup trucks and four-
wheel drive vehicles, and two research
vessels and six smaller boats used in coastal
research projects. In addition, the FGS
acquired its "GEOLAB" in 1998. The GEOLAB
is an aluminum step-van that has been
outfitted for mobile field and simple laboratory
work and can also be used for educational
demonstrations at environmental fairs and
schools. The FGS also has cooperative
agreements with FSU's Department of


FSU Campus,


Geological Sciences to use an x-ray
diffractometer, an x-ray fluorescence
spectrometer, and an atomic absorption
spectrometer.

FGS REORGANIZES

In May 2001, the FGS underwent a
significant reorganization. Prior to reorganization
the Survey consisted of three sections: Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology,
Geological Investigations, and Oil and Gas. The
reorganized structure consists of the Office of
the State Geologist which oversees three
sections: Administrative and Geological Data
Management, Geological Investigations, and Oil
and Gas. Mineral Resource and Environment
Geology functions, including the Coastal
Research Program, were reassigned to the
Geological Investigations Section.

FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL
OFFICE SPACE

In December, 2002, the majority of the
Oil and Gas Section and some members of the
Florida Springs Initiative Program moved to
office space in the Warehouse and Core Storage
Facility located behind the Florida Department of






Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Annex.
Both buildings are south and across the street
from the FDEP Douglas Building located just
off of Capitol Circle Northwest.

THIS BIENNIAL REPORT

Biennial reports have been
historically compiled by the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) to not only
chronicle its legacy but to inform the public
as to its activities. They also serve to insure
accountability of FGS activities to Florida
government and the pubic pursuant to FGS
mission goals prescribed by Chapter 377,
Florida Statutes.

Following this introduction, eleven
(11) sections provide information about our
program, in the following order.
Descriptions of the general organization of
the FGS is provided in FGS
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE.

Work conducted by the FGS either
on its own or in conjunction with other
agencies in the past two calendar years is
chronicled in the section entitled FGS
PROGRAMS, PROJECTS AND
COOPERATIVE EFFORTS.

Next, the SPECIAL PROJECTS
section describes those projects which were
not anticipated, but were important enough
to garner special attention.

FGS scientists, characteristic to their
professional bearing, strive to maintain
state-of-the-art status regarding field
support and measurement and laboratory
analytical equipment; new additions during
the biennial period are described in
EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES
ACQUISITION.

Florida Statute is quite specific about
the role of the FGS; specific to its mandate
is the dissemination of geologic information
forthcoming from investigation in published
products. These are listed and abstracted
in the PUBLICATIONS section.


In addition to written, published
products, the FGS is involved in in-house and
outside activities described in the
PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER
PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES section.

The PERSONNEL INFORMATION
section chronicles personnel changes during
the past two-year period, and provides short
biographies of FGS personnel.

Accolades received by our staff or the
Survey are described in the AWARDS
section.

IN MEMORIUM recognizes those
members of our staff who have moved on to a
higher calling.

Finally, a short, one-page tabulated
representation of FGS funding is provided in
the FGS BUDGET SUMMARY.











OFFICE OF THE STATE
GEOLOGIST

The State Geologist, carries a three-fold
responsibility: Chief of the Survey, State
Geologist, and Administrator of Oil and Gas
exploration and production operations
throughout the State. The Chief exercises
the general program leadership, direction,
management authority in planning,
scheduling and executing the programs of
the Survey. As State Geologist, he is the
point of contact representing the State of
Florida on geoscience inquiries from:
elected and appointed officials, government
agencies, industry, mining companies, oil &
gas companies, geologic and hydrogeologic
consultants, environmental consultants,
academia, land and mineral owners,
educators, students, and the public. The
responsibilities of the State Geologist and
the duties of the Florida Geological Survey
have been defined by the Florida
Legislature and are generally listed in
Section 377.075, Florida Statutes. With this
guidance and policy input from the
Department of Environmental Protection, Wal
the FGS has a broad mission. It is Chi
described as follows: Ball

The mission of the FGS is two fold:
First: to collect, interpret, disseminate,
store and maintain geologic & earth
science data, thereby contributing to
the responsible use and understanding
of Florida's natural resources; and
Second: to conserve the State of
Florida's oil and gas resources and
minimize environmental impacts from
exploration and production operations
through regulatory oversight using
permits and inspections.


The FGS is presently comprised of
three sections which are administered by the
State Geologist. This organizational structure
is shown in the organizational chart on the
following page. The sections include: the
Geological Investigations Section, the
Administrative and Geological Data


ter "Walt" Schmidt, State Geologist and
ef, Florida Geological Survey (photo by J. H.
sillie).
Management Section, and the Oil & Gas
Section. Each of these sections is managed
by a Section Administrator. In addition to the
overall administration of the FGS, the primary
responsibilities of the State Geologist include
the historical functions of acting as the chief
geoscientist for the State in various capacities
and needs, and overseeing the overall
production and quality of the geological
research produced by the staff. The State
Geologist is also ultimately responsible for
implementing the State's oil and gas
exploration and production regulations.


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ADMINISTRATIVE AND
GEOLOGICAL DATA
MANA GEMENT SECTION

The Survey's Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section
includes the Administrative Secretary to the
State Geologist, administrative support staff,
the building Custodian, the Survey Librarian,
the FGS Network Administrator, the
Geological Mapping and Analysis Staff, and
the Environmental Geology and Educational
Outreach staff.

This section is responsible for
administration (budget, department and
interagency liaison, etc.) and personnel
management (travel, leave, benefits, etc.),
Gunter Building maintenance and repair,
computer system management and network
administration, and contract and grant
tracking. This group's functions also include
graphics design, geological mapping and
map interpretation through GIS and CAD
analysis, geological research library services,
publication production and distribution,
geological education and public outreach, and
environmental geology research.

GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
SECTION

The Geological Investigations Section of
the Florida Geological Survey collects and
interprets surface and subsurface geologic data
to provide an understanding of Florida's three
dimensional geologic framework. This
knowledge is necessary to understand Florida's
ecosystems, watersheds, aquifer recharge and
protection, and effective environmental
remediation. Research conducted by the
Geologic Investigations Section includes
statewide geologic mapping, reinterpretation of
Florida's geomorphic features, aquifer-system
framework delineation, and research in
stratigraphy, geochemistry, karst, hydrogeology,
and paleontology. Other functions of the section
include maintenance of the statewide sinkhole
database (formerly managed by the Florida


Jacqueline "Jackie" M. Lloyd, Assistant
State Geologist for Adiminstration, and
Administrator of the Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section (photo
by J. H. Balsillie).
Sinkhole Research Institute), and coastal
geology and engineering geology research.

The Coastal Research Program
(CRP) is a subsection within the Geological
Investigations Section. This program, which
was initiated in 1990, has received significant
federal dollars from various federal agencies
as well as the state of Florida to investigate
geologic processes impacting Florida's
coastline and offshore sediments. These
studies include:

1) Conducting a geological
assessment of the Florida Big Bend Coastal
Wetlands. This ongoing study, which has
used more than $2,000,000 in cooperative
Federal Agreements (USGS), has collected
coastal data to be used by state and local
planners/officials in their formulation of
effective wetland preservation programs.
This data enables better prediction of
Florida's wetland systems response to
changes that are both natural (sea level
change) and human-induced (increasing
development in uplands watersheds)





























Thomas "Tom" M. Scott, Assistant Stat(
Geologist for Programs, and Administrator o
the Geological Investigations Section (photc
by J. H. Balsillie).

2) Conducting a multi-year quartz sand
search in the offshore area along Florida's
northeast Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts.
To date, this partnership program which has
received more than $2,000,000 in
cooperative Federal Agreements, has
identified significant new beach quality sand
deposits for Florida's eroded beaches. This
program is jointly funded by the US
Department of the Interior, Minerals
Management Service and the DEP/FGS.
Currently the State of Florida is the only state
that has won funding for these offshore sand
resource assessments. Federal Funding
limitations have forced the MMS to prioritize,
and Florida's program "won-out."

During 2001 an MOA was signed with
the Navy's Coastal Systems Laboratory
located in Panama City Beach. This
cooperative agreement provides a technology
transfer from the navy to the CRP to assist
with environmental / natural resource
inventory and systems assessment and offers
the navy CRP geoscience expertise in the


coastal zone. As a follow up the Navy
leased a facility to the FGS as a sediment
laboratory and core repository.

The Hydrogeology Program, a sub-
i section within the Geological Investigations
Section, is funded in part by Florida's Water
Management Districts and other state
agencies. The research focus includes
aquifer-system framework delineation, karst
hydrogeology, and hydrochemistry of aquifer
storage and recovery sites, surface water -
groundwater interaction, mineral-resource
assessment and mapping, geological
hazards and environmental studies. The
program is also involved at the national,
State, and local level with groundwater quality
issues and research programs. In 2001, this
program began a statewide model of aquifer
system contamination potential the Florida
Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA)
model.

f Under a legislative mandate of the
Florida Springs Initiative the Geological
Investigations Sections has and continues
to conduct an investigation designed to
identify Florida's freshwater springs, both
onshore and offshore, characterize spring
flow and water quality. Additionally, this
information will contribute to environmental
impact models and feasibility assessments of
diverting fresh or brackish spring water for
use by coastal communities facing severe
potable water shortages. This program is
funded with Federal and matching DEP/FGS
funds.

The Geological Investigations Section
administers the FGS Geologic Data Acquisition
Program. This program acquires geological
data and samples through auger and core-
drilling supporting existing FGS research, such
as the statewide mapping program. Several of
these coring programs support other DEP
programs such as the Ambient Groundwater
Monitoring program, Florida Parks, and U.S.
Geological Survey hydrogeology projects in
southwest Florida and the Everglades
Ecosystem Restoration. Geological
Investigations staff describe the cores and
cuttings archived in the FGS core repository.
The descriptions are entered into the FGS






computer lithologic database, which
presently contains nearly 5,750 entries.
Cores, cuttings, lithologic descriptions and
geophysical logs are an invaluable asset to
the earth science community. This
fundamental geologic data supports needs
of more than one third of the programs in
the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. The Geological Investigations
staff also act as consultants or co-
investigators to other local, state and federal
agencies.

OIL AND GAS SECTION
The Oil & Gas Section regulates
hydrocarbon exploration and production
within the state and state waters pursuant to
Chapter 377, Florida Statutes, and
implements Rules 62C-25 through 62C-30,
Florida Administrative Code. The Section's
primary responsibilities are conservation of
oil and gas resources, correlative rights
protection, maintenance of health and
human safety, and environmental protection
These concerns are addressed when permi
applications are reviewed and, if necessary
special permit conditions are attached to insure
adequate protection. The Section's main office
is located in Tallahassee and field offices are
located near producing fields in northwest (Jay
and southwest (Ft. Myers) Florida. The
Section's key activities include permittin(
geophysical, drilling, and transport operations
inspecting field operations, tracking activities b)
the use of production and other reporting(
forms, enforcing financial security)
requirements, and maintaining a database o
approximately 1,300 wells and 160 geophysica
surveys.


L. David "Dave" Curry, Administrator ot the
Oil and Gas Section (photo by J. H. Balsillie).







X IN FSPj=, I P AyiM


INTRODUCTION

The FGS has a number of programs
designed to meet the diverse demands and
requests required to carry out its mission.
These include: a coastal research program
developed to study the state's endangered
coastal wetlands, eroding beaches,
diminishing offshore sands suitable for beach
restoration; a hydrogeology program to
conduct ambient groundwater monitoring,
aquifer storage and recovery geochemical
studies, and investigations of groundwater
flow and modeling in a karst environment; a
state-wide drilling program to acquire cores
from around the state for purposes of
mapping and understanding the state's
stratigraphy; an ongoing State mapping
program; a newly legislated springs initiative
to find and investigate terrestrial and marine
springs, a sinkhole database program; a
mineral resources program, an oil and gas
regulatory program, and a research library
allowing users access to computerized
database searches along with traditional
library services. The FGS also has a
Geologic Sample Repository containing more
than 18,000 cores and cutting
samples preserved and catalogued
in a systematic fashion as well as a
large number of lithologic and
geophysical logs. A Public
Outreach Program was established
to communicate to the general
public findings and results of FGS
and FGS/Cooperative investigations L,
designed to protect and conserve
Florida's environment and natural
resources. The FGS has
established a student assistant
program in which undergraduate
and graduate students gain
valuable "hands on" experience.
COAS
This report chronicles the Balsil
activities of 18 FGS programs for from
the two-year biennial period 2001- n
2002. There programs include FGS


projects and cooperative efforts between
federal, State, and local entities.

COASTAL RESEARCH
PROGRAM

In 1991, the FGS organized an
informal Coastal Research Group (CRG)
within the Mineral Resource Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. In
2002, it was transferred to the Geological
Investigations Section as a program. The
Coastal Research Program is committed to
continuing fundamental research to improve
our understanding of Florida's coastal
ecosystems and environmental processes.
This research provides information that is
essential for planning, ecosystem
management, conservation, and protection of
Florida's valuable coastal and underwater
resources.

The FGS has acquired a number of
water craft including the 50' RV GeoQuest,
the 40' RV GeoSearch, a 24' shallow draft
Carolina skiffs and various other small craft.
The newest addition, a 22' C-Dory, is a fully
assT *.. ***


TAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: Jim Ladner, Jim
lie, and Ron Hoenstine procure a vibra core
Ochlockonee Bay, Florida (photo by Cliff
ickson).





























LUL I AL rIRne'cnIn rInuUanMIVI: running s
scan sonar from RV GeoQuest (staff photo).


enclosed trailerable vessel that permits a
quick state-wide response by the Coastal
Research Program to coastal issues in a near
real time manner. The two larger RV's are
capable of extended offshore investigations.

The FGS inventory of coastal field
equipment includes the following portable
instruments:

1. Side Scan Sonar.
2. An Acoustic Doppler Profiler for
measuring offshore spring flow.
3. A Geopulse 3.5 kHz subsurface
acoustic profiling system.
4. A seagoing vibro-core system
capable of operating in depths of 100'
of water.
5. A global positioning system (GPS)
with real-time differential (Starlink MRB-
2A radiobeacon receiver) for site
location, station keeping, and station
recovery.
6. A jet probe for determining
sediment thickness above bedrock.
7. A number of water quality loggers
for on-site measurement of salinity,


temperature, depth, pH,
conductivity, and turbidity.
8. Sediment Elevation Tables
(SETs) for measuring short-term
marsh accretion and response to
storm events.
9. A cryogenic coring device for
measuring marsh accretion
rates.
S10. Automated bathymetric,
water quality measurement
system.
11. Subaqueous surface
sediment sampler.
12. Field core cutting and
splitting table and field pack.

FGS laboratory facilities
used, operated, and/or maintained
by the Coastal Research Program
include the sedimentology lab-
ide oratory for size-analysis assess-
ments of sediments ranging in size
from granule to clay. The X-ray
diffractometer (XRD) laboratory
allows for mineralogical determine-ations.


UUAb I AL nt1-MAnLIn V UUAtMM: L.
J. Ladner conducts cryogenic probing
at a SET site (photo by Dan Phelps).








COASTAL RESEARCH
PROGRAM

Marine Research Vessels


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"- ------ - -------- --- = -%'



COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: 50-foot Sewart Sea Craft
RV GeoQuest (photo by Ted Kiper)
^ '- :


UUA I AL KtSitAKUMH PHUUHAM: 4U-TOOt
Key West RV GeoSearch (photo by Ted Kiper).


COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: 22-foot C-Dory
trailerable RV GeoProbe (photo by Jim Ladner).


COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: 24-foot North
Carolina Skiff research vessel (staff photo).


COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: Two 18-
foot Weld-Bilt Skiffs (photo by Jim Ladner).


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The alpha spectrometer laboratory
allows for age dating of geologic
samples and tracing groundwater
movement. The spectrophotometer
laboratory is used for water quality
assessments.

Gulf of Mexico
Sand Search Project

In preparation for future
geological investigations of existing
natural resources, the FGS initiated a
project to compile all known
information about characteristics of
subaqueous surface sediment off of
Florida's Gulf of Mexico coasts. The
work is organized into one short COAZ
introduction, one section on the Gulf vibra
Coast, three regional sections, and resou
13 county sections. The earliest
quantitative account on Florida Gulf of Mexico
sediments was published in 1942, after which
research slowly progressed until about the
1980s when it accelerated. The project
resulted in FGS Special Publication 48, a
253-page work containing over 100 maps,
illustrations, and tables, and over 560
references.

Florida Sea Level Rise Project

Rate of sea level change can be
gleaned from continuously monitoring tide
gauges on or near the open coast. Tide
information contains
variability including 2.50
2.25
setup due to 2.00
prevailing winds, 1.75
.1.50
steric considerations 1.25
(e.g., short-term 1 .
0.75
annual temperature | 0.50
changes and long- ] 0.25
= 0.00 -
term El Nino-La Nina -0.25o
temperature -0.509
-0.75
changes), seasonal .1.00
changes in fluvial -1.25
-1.50
input and El Nino La 1905 1915 1925
Nina related rainfall
fluctuations, An example of se.
deglaciation, storm gauge records at P4
tides and setup, etc.


3TAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: Deep water
coring in the search for offshore sand
irces (photo by Jim Ladner).

Such variability can, however, be largely
moderated by using monthly or yearly means
of measured hourly data. Work presented in
this project provides an update in the ensuing
20 years or so which requires attention since
record longevity is of significant importance.
Updated data for seven tide gauges are
available from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administrations (NOAA's)
website (http://co-ops.nos.noaa.qov/data res.
html).

Tide gauge records (i.e., heights)
cannot be compared between sites, since


1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
Year
a level rise during the past century from tide
ensacola, FL (image by J. H. Balsillie).






tidal datums vary from locality to locality.
However, one can fit a least squares
regression trend to a time series of MSL
(mean sea level) data to obtain a rate of
change for a site. This was accomplished for
13 Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico tide gauge
sites. Results can be compared from site-to-
site if one is interested in how gauge rates
might affect shorelines or, say, in the design
of beach nourishment projects. They cannot,
however, be compared if one is interested in
the true sea level component only, because
of vertical crustal movement. The problem is
that the "solid" crust to which the tide gauges
are anchored moves up and down at rates
that can be comparable to the rate of sea-
level change. Such being the case, the
"crustal noise" becomes the limiting factor in
a global estimate. If the crustal movement
could be independently measured, then the
global estimates of sea-level rise could be
vastly improved. For instance, where the
crust is subsiding, sea level rise will appear to
be accelerating; where the crust is emerging,
sea level rise will appear to be decelerating or
even to be falling.

Empirical studies of vertical crustal
movement pertaining to Florida were of
interest in the 1970's and 1980's. Little
definitive work on the subject has been
forthcoming for Florida in more recent years.
Published work of the 1970's and 1980's was
highly interpretative and at considerable


odds.

Existing true sea level rise vertical
crustal movement data for Florida is not
impressive regarding precision. Results
using such methodologies as GPS
applications have not been forthcoming for
Florida. This presentation has sought to
illustrate the true sea level rise vertical
crustal motion knowledge we have about
Florida, and to offer a different analytical
perspective on the subject. It is cautioned
that we know only of estimations regarding
the relationship between the two for Florida.
By exposing what we do know for Florida, it
becomes apparent just how much work is
required to determine acceptably precise
scientific results.

Offshore Springs Search Project
of the
Florida Springs Initiative

The Coastal Research Program
(CRP) is taking part in an FDEP/FGS
program to study offshore springs. Given its
marine watercraft and field measurement
instrumentation, the CRP is particularly suited
for involvement in such investigations. In
2002 Special Publication 47 was published
by the FGS which describes springs of the
Spring Creek swarm. For additional
information see the section on the FLORIDA
SPRINGS INITIATIVE.


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, .. W . . .. .
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.. .. '..:'^ ^ s4 s .... :!^ : :,-,:.- :.-*,-:.-,"^ ..:: "^ .."' ...* .* .'^ '^.i,.i^ '-,.




COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: Example of one of many spring
"boils" offshore of Spring Creek, FIL (photo by J. H. Balsillie)
".. X .. m........ .. ... :. ., ., ... ,. -.....
.4- ... .".:."..;.:..k ~ "' .. ..6 ~
., ..., ,. -. : -:..:..' ,..:.:.. .., ,,:., .... . : . .,... ,: 4
X ..:.-:. .,.. .. .. .. .. t :'...) .. ;. :...:-.-. .. x. w .:. .. ..: .' ..;

I r '- .*ici .U.
COATA RESARC PRORAM Exml n fmaysrn
"bois"e ofsoeo pigCreF poob .~ H.: Balsilie)V






Ongoing Applied
Sedimentologic Research

FGS sedimentology laboratory
scientists have had an historical interest in
pursuing activities insuring that standard
sedimentologic procedures are used in the
State of Florida. At the same time they are
interested in assessing new advancements in
technology. Certain misconceptions
concerning granulometric procedures that
have emerged over the past two decades
were addressed during the biennium.
Granulometric statistics, sieving versus
settling analytic methods, particle size
classification scales, composite versus suite
statistics, carbonate granulometic procedures
were addressed, with results published in the
Journal of Coastal Research in the Fall of
2002. Graphically determined statistical
measures (means, standard deviation,
skewness, kurtosis, etc.) were compared to
moment measures and striking conclusions
reached in a study published in FGS Open
File Report No. 84. In 2002, the FGS
sedimentology laboratory acquired new
technology for analyzing sediments. A
comprehensive comparative study was
initiated that, now in the review process, will
be published in 2003.

In the November 2002 issue of the
Journal of Sedimentary Research (JSR) J. H.
Balsillie and others published an article
entitled "Plotting Equations for Gaussian
Percentiles and a Spreadsheet Program for
Generating Probability Plots". The impetus
for the work was to find a method for
generating arithmetic probability paper using
a programming languagess. At about the
same time an EXCEL application entitled
"Analytic Granulometry Tools" was installed
on the FGS web site (http://www.dep.state
.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/analytic_gran_to
ols/analytic_gran.htm) which incorporated our
research results. Subsequently, Neil A. Wells
from the Geology Department of Kent State
University wrote a discussion about the
Balsillie and others JSR paper, noting it to be
an "impressive achievement" and "clearly
valuable". Balsillie and others have


COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: New
type of sieve shakers were successfully
tested in the FGS Sedimentology Lab
(photo by Tom Scott).

formulated a reply, and it and Wells' papers
are planned for publication in JSR this
coming November. Since installation of the
Analytic Granulmetry Tools application on the
FGS web site, it has had over 300 hits. In
addition, various communiques have been
received by the authors. B. A. Cheadle,
President of DarkMatter Energy Consulting
Corporation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada replied
"... with some interest as I have often
struggled with devising an appropriate
manner to trick EXCEL into faking a probit
scale for probability plots". M. J. Johnsson, a
coastal geologist with the California Coastal
Commission, congratulated the effort by
stating "... I am impressed with the wonderful
job you have done ... granplot certainly far
exceeds my humble spreadsheets in utility
and design". Professor Jorge Ledesma-
Vaczques, Chairman of the Geology
Department, Facultad de Ciencias Marinas,
Ensenada, Mexico teaches undergrad and
graduate sedimentology and was "... very
much interested in getting a copy of
GRANPLOT ..." for use by his students.






Sedimentation Elevation
Table (SET) Project


Florida Gulf Coast marshes along the
Big Bend are experiencing sea-level rise and
an insufficient sediment supply to maintain
marsh surface elevation. Local mean sea
level is rising at an approximate rate of 1.5 to
2.4 millimeters (mm) per year and the spring-
fed or controlled (dammed) rivers of the
Florida Gulf Coast do not provide sufficient
sediments to maintain long-term health of the
marshes. Marsh health is determined by
several factors; sediment supply, sea-level
rise, storm events, erosion rate of waves and
marsh subsidence. Over the last 10 years
the Florida Geological Survey's Coastal
Research Program, in cooperation with the
United States Geological Survey, installed
Sediment Elevation Tables (SET) at a
number of sites along the Florida Gulf Coast
(St. Joe Bay, Apalachicola River,
Ochlockonee River, St. Marks River, Aucilla
River, Rocky Creek, Cedar Key area and
Waccasassa River area) to measure
elevation changes of the marsh surface. SET
measurements were combined with feldspar
marker horizon measurements to quantify
changes in marsh topography. Due to the
sediment starved nature of these marshes (-
0.3 to -15.0 mm/year) and the inability to
keep pace with sea level rise, the Big Bend
coastal areas are at risk, documenting the
dynamic and mobile nature of coastal
environments.

The Coastal Program participated in a
joint study with the United States Geological
Survey, St. Petersburg, during the 2001-2002
period studying the response of marshes to
sea level rise. This was the end of a ten year
study and final report. The report will be
issued as an interactive report in 2003.

Storm/Hurricane
Damage Potential Project

A considerable amount of detailed
information on storms and hurricanes and their
resulting impacts upon landfall has been
compiled over the past 15 years. These data
have allowed for the development of detailed


UUA5 I AL HStAHUH I'HUUiHAM: J. L.
Ladner makes SET elevation
measurements to determine sea level rise
(photo by Ron Hoenstine).

and successful prediction methodologies.
However, there is also a need for generalized
or more simply applicable tools for predicting
coastal impacts from extreme meteorological
events. Two such pragmatic tools have been
developed in this project. In the first, mean and
maximum beach and coast erosion quantities
have been correlated to the Saffir-Simpson
hurricane damage potential scale, resulting in
an amended Saffir-Simpson scale. In addition,
two figures have been produced, one of which
relates storm surge, storm tide rise time and
erosion volume, and the other which relates
storm surge, forward speed of a storm or
hurricane and erosion quantity. These can be
used as nomographs, for instance, to assess
the erosion damage potential in real time as an
event is approaching the coast. The second
tool is based on the binomial probability
theorem. It allows one to assess, for instance,







Amended Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Damage Potential Scale (J. H. Balsillie).
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
S tr
Po v Peak Storm Qe avg Qe max
Central Wind Storm Damage Tide Average Maximum
Category Erosion Erosion
Category Pressure Speed Tide Potential Rise Erosion Erosion
(mb) (km/hr) Elevation Time (m 3me
(m MSL) (hr) (m3/M) (m3/m)
(m MSL) (hr)
1 >980 119-153 1.07-1.68 Minimal 3.25-5.5 3-9.5 6.3-20
2 965-979 154-178 1.68-2.60 Moderate 5.5-9 9.5-28 20-59
3 945-964 179-210 2.60-3.81 Extensive 9-13 28-70 59-148
4 920-944 211-249 3.81-5.49 Extreme 13-20 70-175 148-369
5 <920 >249 >5.49 Catastrophic >20 >175 >369
Columns (1) through (5) comprise the Saffir-Simpson hurricane damage potential scale. Columns
(6) through (8) have been added to represent potential beach and coast erosion effects.


encounter probabilities for known return
periods and encounter periods, and is of
valuable assistance in the design phase of
coastal projects. Results of this project were
published in Environmental Geosciences in
2002 by J. H. Balsillie.

Joint Coastal Research

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and the U. S.
Navy Coastal Systems Station, Coastal
Operations Institute)

During 2001, discussions were
conducted between the Naval Surface
Warfare Center, Coastal Systems Station, the
Coastal Operations Institute and the FGS
Coastal Research Program resulting in the
signing of a memorandum of agreement
between these three groups in July, 2001.


The purpose of this agreement is to provide a
mechanism whereby a working relationship
between the three participating organizations
is established to facilitate cooperative efforts,
and to leverage mutual expertise in the broad
areas of coastal science, engineering and
technology. Investigations involving common
needs of the state and federal agencies will be
carried out in Florida's near-shore and OCS
waters.

Offshore Sand Investigation

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and U. S.
Minerals Management Service)

The FGS Coastal Research Program
and the United States Minerals Management
Service Cooperative Investigation to locate
offshore sands suitable for beach restoration


COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: Panoramic view of Gulf of Mexico from the new
Coastal Research Facility on Panama City Beach (Navy Coastal Ops Institute
Dhotos).


























COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: Joe Donoghue


reviews real-time seismic records aboard re-
vessel GeoQuest (staff photo).

off of the central east coast of Florida was
completed during 2002. The central east
coast is severely affected by eroding
shorelines. As upland/nearshore sources of
sand suitable for beach restoration near
depletion, local governments are forced to
search further offshore for suitable sand
deposits.

This cooperative investigation
identified substantial new sand deposits.
These deposits, located offshore of Brevard,
Indian River, St Lucie, and Martin Counties,
represent a significant new source of sand
renourishment for area beaches that are
increasingly experiencing a depletion of
onshore and nearshore beach quality sands.
Presently, more than 50 miles of coastline
along Indian River, St Lucie and Martin
Counties are classified as critically eroded.

Results were published in the form of
interactive CDs. These user friendly CD's
include a summary report and detailed annual
reports in addition to a large amount of data in
a GIS/ArcView format. This will permit rapid
and comprehensive data queries to provide
essential information for assisting state and


local officials/planners in developing
strategies to cope with the area's
eroding beaches.

Hydrogeology of St. Joseph Bay
(Cooperative Effort: FGS,
Environmental Protection Agency,
U. S. Geological Survey, and
Florida State University
Department of Oceanography)

A study of St. Joseph Bay
was initiated in 1997 to characterize
the interaction between groundwater
and surface water in the bay and the
impact of such interaction on the
health and productivity of the entire
watershed. This assessment was
also to take land-use within the
watershed into account. The project,


searcn funded partially by an EPA grant and
the DEP/USGS Cooperative
Agreement, was conducted jointly by
scientists from the Coastal Research Program,
the USGS, and the FSU Department of
Oceanography.

Phase I of the project involved physical
characterization of the watershed including:

1. The system's water budget.
2. Water circulation within the Bay and
between the Bay and the Gulf of
Mexico.
3. Seismic profile of the Bay's bottom.
4. Water quality including salinity,
temperature, turbidity, pH, and
specific conductance.
5. Characterization of the Bay's
interaction with the surficial and
intermediate aquifers.
6. Quantification of fresh water flow.
7. Determination of the influence of
tidal action on the quality and
circulation of the Bay's water.

Findings of the first phase of the study
have been published as a report to EPA
entitled "Interaction of surface water, ground-
water and the geologic framework in
determining the health of three-dimensional
























LUAZ IAL 1-.NPcAnH I1n InUl-nAIVI: J. L. Laoa
Balsillie and Debra Harrington procure a vibr
St. Joseph's Bay, Gulf County (photo by C. Tr

coastal watersheds" by Rodney S. DeHan,
March 2000.

Phase II of the project was to
examine the impact of water quality changes
due to groundwater seepage on the vegetation
and biological communities of the Bay. Such
information would have served local and state
decision makers in designing better plans to
protect the Bay. Unfortunately efforts to renew
EPA's grant funding to conduct this phase of
the study were not successful.

Gulf of Mexico State Geological
Surveys Coastal Consortium

(Cooperative Effort: Florida Geological
Survey, Geological Survey of Alabama,
Mississippi Office of Geology, Texas and
Louisiana State Geological Surveys)

A memorandum of agreement was
signed by the State Geologists representing
the five states bordering the Gulf of Mexico
including Florida. Alabama, Mississippi,
Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 to form the Gulf
of Mexico State Geological Surveys
Consortium. This association was formed to
provide for joint cooperation in investigations
and scientific exchanges concerning earth
sciences (including geology, geochemistry,


geochronology, geophysical, and
geotechnical studies), on subjects
of mutual interest. This
cooperation strives to advance the
understanding of the Gulf of
Mexico onshore and offshore and
promote cooperation on regional
studies. An improved under-
S. standing of the geologic processes
impacting the Gulf of Mexico is
:_i essential for the formulation of
'J,,1-^; wise decisions regarding the use
and preservation of the region's
natural resources.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS
PROGRAM
ner, J. H. PROGRAM
a-core in
nimble The GIS capability of the
FGS consists of a general
support group of a full-time GIS Analyst, an
autocad analyst, and two part-time OPS
assistants and a GIS group of seven OPS
technicians specifically working on the FAVA
Hydrogeology project.

Tasks undertaken by the general
support group include: map production, GIS
programming, imagery manipulation support,
technical support to all users of GIS software
(Arcview 3.2a, Arcview 8, ArcGIS 8, ERDAS
Imagine and Surfer.) Other tasks include
software evaluation, Web technical support,
development and maintenance of GIS -
related information on the FGS Intranet,
installation and maintenance of GIS software,
scanning, digitizing, map series production
and maintenance, image processing,
interactive map development and
maintenance and development of GIS
databases and GIS tools.

Major accomplishments during the
time period of January 1, 2001 through
December 31, 2002 include: Revisions of the
Oil and Gas maps, production of maps for
the SWFWMD aquifer mapping project,
various maps supporting the Coastal
Research Program, helping complete the
Florida Central East Coast Sand Search
project maps and CD's, completion of the
State of Florida Geologic Map and CD,




























COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM:
Paula Poison, also our Web Mistress,
hard at work (photo by J. H. Balsillie).

production of the interactive sinkhole map for
the State of Florida on the FGS internet site,
completion of the FGS GIS Data Catalog,
installation of the FGS Arcview Net GIS,
undertaking the migration of current GIS
software to ArcGIS, completion of the State of
Florida Geologic 1:125,000 Map Series and
the acquisition of ArclMS software for
production of web-enabled map products.

CONTINUING EDUCATION
PROGRAM

The State of Florida continues to
maintain a unique program in which tuition is
waived for state employees enrolling in job-
related courses on a space-available basis. A
number of Survey staff have taken advantage
of this program, enrolling in various courses
related to their work. Staff also take
advantage of a variety of management and
professional skills workshops that are offered
as internal training opportunities by the
Department.


DATA FILES PROGRAM

Samples from wells which are stored
at the FGS Sample Repository are indexed
by accession number, county, and section,
township, and range location. Lithologic logs,
drillers logs, and information sheets which
correspond to these wells are filed by county
and accession number in a series of loose-
leaf binders. Information from these books is
gradually being transferred to the Survey's
computerized database which currently
contains data from approximately 5,750 wells.

A file of geophysical logs contains
information for approximately 4,850 wells.
Many of these wells have corresponding
lithologic samples available and are assigned
FGS accession numbers. Geophysical logs
represented include electric (normal, lateral,
SP), natural gamma, caliper, fluid resistivity
or conductivity, temperature, single point
resistivity, acoustic velocity, fluid velocity,
neutron (porosity), and gamma-gamma
(density). In addition, complete suites of
geophysical logs accompany most permitted
oil and gas wells.

Other FGS databases include: 1) an
oil and gas geophysical permit application
database, 2) an oil and gas well database, 3)
a Florida mineral producers list, 4) a partial
inventory of geologic samples (cores and
cuttings from over 18,355 wells), 5) an
inventory of sinkholes from the FGS and the
Florida Sinkhole Research Institute, and 6) an
inventory of geologic outcrop descriptions in
Florida.

DRILLING PROGRAM

The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. Very low topographic relief
characterizes the state and data obtained
from cores is essential to the understanding
of subsurface stratigraphy, hydrogeology and
hydrology.

The FGS operates three rigs; a Failing
1500, a Mobile Drill B-31 and a CME 75. The
Failing 1500 is deployed on a full time basis
and is operated by a licensed driller and an






assistant, and can obtain cores up to a 1,500
foot depth. The Mobile Drill and CME
auger/core rigs have been outfitted for
continuous coring in rock or unconsolidated
sediments. These two rigs are utilized for
shallow (about 230 feet) and intermediate
(about 850 feet) depth coring and are
deployed on an as needed basis. The CME-
75 was obtained from the DEP Site
Investigations Section as part of an intra-
agency cooperative agreement. This
agreement benefits both the FGS and the
Site Investigations Section: the drill rig, water
truck and trailer, along with associated drill
string components, were transferred to the
FGS, enhancing the FGS drilling capabilities.
In return, Site Investigations can use the rig
on a cooperative basis, if needed and if the
rig is not already committed.

During 2001-2002 the FGS drilling
program drilled 46 core holes in ten counties
in support of seven different projects. Core
holes ranged from 25 to 900 feet in depth for
a total of 5550 feet cored. Monitor wells were
constructed in twenty four of these core holes
in cooperation with Collier County, the
Northwest Florida, Suwannee River and St.
Johns River Water Management Districts,
Florida Department of Health and the
Department of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Watershed Management.

Manatee Springs Investigation

(Cooperative Effort: FGS, Florida
Department of Health, Suwanee River
Water Management District, and Florida
State University)

The Bureau of Onsite Sewage
Programs contracted with the FGS to
investigate four sites in and around Manatee
Springs State Park. Ten shallow core holes
and monitor wells were drilled in each of two
campgrounds within the park to investigate
the operation of septic systems in a karst
environment. Core samples were examined,
lithologic logs generated, formation picks
made and the logs were entered into the FGS
database. Hydraulic conductivity analysis
was also conducted on selected samples


Ti>'1


DRILLING PROGRAM: Drilling
"business end" of Mobile Drill B-31;
Ken Campbell, driller, assisted by J.
H. Balsillie and Eric Harrington
(photo by Tom Scott).

from each core. Manatee Springs State Park,
Suwannee River Water Management District
and Florida State University are also
cooperators.

Background Groundwater
Monitoring Program

(Cooperative Effort: FGS, FDEP Bureau of
Watershed Management, Northwest
Florida Water Management District, and
the South Walton Utilities Company)

The Bureau of Watershed
Management (BWM) contracted with the FGS
to investigate the surficial and intermediate
aquifer systems at three sites in Bay and
Walton Counties. Coreholes were drilled at
each of the sites for lithostratigraphic analysis
and for FGS database purposes. Lithologic
logs were generated for each core, formation






DRILLING PROGRAM:

FGS Drill Rigs


DRILLING PROGRAM: Mobile Drill B-31 rig drilling a core hole at
!f the south end of Brill Point Saddle, in the bed of Lake Jackson,
SLeon Co., during the last drawdown event (photo by Tom Scott).


1,400-foot hole in the Florida Keys (photo by
Scott).


DRILLING PROGRAM: Drilling requires
large quantities of water (photo by Ken
Campbell).


UHILLINU I'HUUHAM: Umt /t ariii rig wixn
mast down and ready to travel (Photo by J. H.
Balsillie).


DRILLING PROGRAM: Example of
core taken with the Mobile Drill rig
(photo by Tom Scott).


. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. - -- -- --






picks were made and the data entered into
the FGS computer database. Hydraulic
conductivity analysis was conducted on
selected samples utilizing falling head
permeameters. Surficial aquifer system
monitor wells were constructed at two sites
and an intermediate aquifer system monitor
well was constructed at the third site.

This lithologic data and the
background water quality information will be
useful for a variety of ecosystem
management decisions. The Northwest
Florida Water Management District and the
South Walton Utilities Company were
cooperators on this project.

Floridan Aquifer System
Investigation, Volusia County

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and St. Johns
River Water Management District, and
Volusia County)

This effort resulted in about 347 feet
of core representing the upper Floridan
aquifer system.

Upper Floridan
Aquifer Assessment

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and Collier
County)
In this cooperative agreement the
FGS agreed to drill three 1000-foot holes at
locations specified by Collier County to be
established as monitoring wells for
continuous aquifer monitoring and to obtain
core to determine hydro-stratigraphy. As of
December 2002, 1500 feet of core was
obtained. The project is continuing.

FLORIDA BOARD OF
PROFESSIONAL GEOLOGISTS

The 1987 Florida Legislature enacted
Chapter 492, Florida Statutes (FS), requiring
the licensing of Professional Geologists in
order to "safeguard the life, health, property,
and public well-being of its (Florida's)
citizens." Chapter 492, FS, also created the
Board of Professional Geologists which


consists of seven members and the State
Geologist, or his designee, serving as an ex
officio member. The designee for the
2001/2002 biennium was Dr. Tom Scott,
Assistant State Geologist for Programs with
the Florida Geological Survey.

FLORIDA SINKHOLE
DATABASE PROGRAM

The sinkhole database, returned to
the Florida Geological Survey by the
disbanded Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute, has undergone extensive updating
of its data. This includes data gathered from
state, regional, and county agencies, as well
as individuals. This data is currently stored in
Microsoft Excel and can be obtained by
contacting the FGS library. The sinkhole
reporting form and the database are located
on the internet for easy public access on the
FGS website at: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/
geology/gisdatamaps/index.htm#Sinkholes
and http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/forms/
sinkholereport/sinkreportform.htm.

The sinkhole database has had a
significant increase in data entries after
inquiries were made to gather the data from
state, regional, and county agencies. A map
of sinkhole types, development, and
distribution can be found http://www.dep.
state.fl.us/geology/publications/sinkholetype3.
pdf. In addition, the FGS handles requests
for sinkhole data and coordinates requests for
individual sinkhole inspections.

FLORIDA SPRINGS INITIATIVE

During 2001-2002, Florida's more
than 700 springs were given the spotlight.
DEP Secretary, David Struhs, directed the
formation of the Florida Springs Task Force in
September of 1999. The Task Force met on
a monthly basis thru September of 2000. The
Task Force consisted of sixteen scientists,
planners, regulators and private citizens who
compiled a report entitled: Florida's Springs,
Strategies for Protection and Restoration.
This report outlines a plan to help protect and
restore degrading water quality in Florida's
springs.





FLORIDA SINKHOLE
DATABASE PROGRAM

Some Florida Sinkholes


FLORIDA SINKHOLE DATABASE PROGRAM:
Lake Jackson, Leon Co., FL, drained in Sept. 1999
through Porter Hole Sink. It has half-filled in the
years since, but has drained several more times, FLORIDA SINKHOLE DATABASE PROGRAM:
the latest in late 2002 (photo by Tom Scott). Tom Scott prepares to explore Porter Hole in
Lake Jackson (photo by G. H. Means).


Si "



~.


W"; 8~

Fk~P


A:* ^ ,- ^ ':




FLORIDA SINKHOLE DATABASE
PROGRAM: Gypsum stack sinkhole in
south-central Florida (photo source
unknown).


FLORIDA SINKHOLE DATABASE PROC
Ocala Farm Sink (photo by Tom Scott).


FLORIDA SINKHOLE DATABASE PROGRAM:
Famous Winter Park sinkhole (photo by R.
Deuerling).


FLORIDA SINKHOLE DATA-
BASE PROGRAM: Sinkholes
and roads ... be aware (staff
photo).






The 2001 Florida
Legislature, at the request of
the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection,
funded the Florida Springs
Initiative which provided money
to study and catalog Florida's
precious springs. This money,
$2.5 million per year, has
funded numerous projects
aimed toward understanding
and protecting Florida's
abundant springs and the
groundwater that flows from
them.

The Florida Geological
Survey, in 1947, published
some of the first information FLORIDA
about Florida's springs in Ryan Mea
Ryan Mear
Bulletin 31, The Springs of Spring us
Spring usi
Florida. This publication was
updated in 1977 with newly
discovered springs and water quality data.
With funding from the Florida Springs
Initiative, the FGS is in the process of
updating this Bulletin. This latest update will
include some newly discovered springs,
descriptions, historical and pre-historical
information, as well as water quality data
compared to historical water quality data from
the previous publications in order to show
how the water quality of Florida's springs has
changed over time.

In preparation for the Bulletin 31
update, the FGS hired and trained field crews
to visit, describe, get GPS locations and
sample the water quality of the state's 33 first
magnitude springs. This data was assembled
and published in a record four months, in time
to be presented to the Florida Legislature in
February of 2002. This publication, entitled:
The First Magnitude Springs of Florida, FGS
Open-File Report 85, contains detailed maps,
descriptions, location information, historical
and pre-historical information as well as water
quality information about Florida's largest
springs.

Since the publication of OFR 85, field crews
have been visiting second, third and fourth


SPRINGS INITIATIVE: Rebecca Meegan and
is collect scientific information at Rock Bluff
ng a CRP water craft (photo by G. H. Means).

magnitude springs and recording data about
these springs. A selected group of second
magnitude springs was sampled for water
quality and the results will be available in
early 2003. FGS will continue gathering data
on Florida's springs and, provided the funding
continues, will publish the Bulletin 31 revision
in the summer of 2004.

The FGS also received funding from
the Florida Springs Initiative to publish a
poster depicting the hydrologic cycle and how
it relates to the protection of Florida's springs.
This poster, aimed at school children, was
designed to educate people about Florida's
fragile aquifers and how they function.
Paulette Bond was the author and did all of
the wonderful artwork for the poster.

The Florida Springs Initiative has
provided the FGS with further funding to
study nitrates found in Fanning Springs, a
first magnitude spring located in Levy County
within Fanning Spring State Park. This spring
has some of the highest nitrate levels of any
first magnitude spring, and the FGS has
proposed to: (1) delineate the spring's
recharge basin, (2) determine the sources of
nitrate to the groundwater within the basin





FLORIDA SPRINGS
INITIATIVE

Some Florida First Magnitude
Springs


I-LUHIUA SPHINUS INITIATIVE: A. Baker, J.
Cichon, G. H. Means, R. Meegan, and Tom Scott
sample water quality of Gainer Springs (photo by R.
Means).


FLORIDA SPRINGS INITIATIVE: R.
Meegan measures water quality
Grainer Springs, Bay County,
(photo by Tom Scott).


'" x. ,- .. -



FLORIDA SPRINGS INITIATIVE: G. H. Means, R.
Means and R. Meegan dive Alexander Springs
(photo by Tom Scott).


FLORIDA SPRINGS INITIATIVE: Tom
Scott skippers 18' WeldBilt on a Santa
Fe River springs exploration field trip
(photo by G. H. Means)






and their respective contributions to the
loading of nitrate, (3) determine the
groundwater travel times for the various
sources, and (4) determine the dilution rates
that occur between the nitrate sources and
the springs.

The Geological Investigations Section
initiated an investigation of offshore springs
during the FY 2002 to study the location,
hydrogeological, ecological, environmental
and economical significance of fresh-water
submarine springs in Florida's coastal waters
as a part of the Florida Springs Initiative. The
offshore springs investigation includes
scientists and support personnel from the
Coastal Research Program, Hydrogeology
Program, and the Springs Initiative. This
investigation involves an initial inventory of
thousands of such springs known, or believed
to be in existence on the Florida Platform. It
employs existing remote sensing data bases,
aerial photographs, aircraft with Forward
Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imaging capability,
published reports and maps, as well as local
and institutional memory to locate at first and
second magnitude offshore springs.
Conventional methods such as diving,
underwater photography, sidescan sonar,
and seismic profiling are being used to
ground truth the location of springs.
Additional studies will be conducted on
specific springs to determine hydrogeology,
flow dynamics, water quality and the degree
of dependence of the associated marine
ecosystem on the spring's flow and water
quality. A final phase of the study will
develop a conceptual model for assessing the
possible changes in the ecosystem, should
spring waters be extracted in large quantities
for commercial use as sources of domestic
water supply for coastal communities.

FLORIDA STATEMAP PROGRAM

(Cooperative Effort: FGS, U. S.
Geological Survey, Okaloosa-Walton
Community College)

The STATEMAP Program is a
cooperative project funded jointly by the FGS
and the National Cooperative Geologic


Mapping Program under the State Geologic
Mapping Component (STATEMAP). For each
of the last nine years, staff members from the
FGS have performed detailed geologic
mapping of 1:100,000 scale USGS
quadrangles and published the results as part
of the Open-File Map Series (OFMS).

In 2001-2002, FGS staff geologists
Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave
Paul, and Mabry Gaboardi, together with
John Bryan, a staff geologist with Okaloosa-
Walton Community College, produced a
geologic map, a surficial sediments map, and
several geologic cross sections for the
southern portion of the Crestview 1:100,000
Quadrangle. These maps and cross sections
are available through the FGS Open File Map
Series (OFMS-90).

In 2001-2002, FGS staff geologists
Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave
Paul, and Mabry Gaboardi, and John Bryan,
a staff geologist with Okaloosa-Walton
Community College, produced a similar set of
maps for the western portion of the 1:100,000
scale Marianna Quadrangle. The maps
included a bedrock geologic map, a map of
the surficial sediment types, and several
geologic cross sections. These maps and
cross sections are also available through the
FGS Open File Map Series (OFMS-91).

In September of 2002, the FGS began
working on production of a bedrock geologic
map, a surficial sediments map, and several
geologic cross sections for the eastern
portion of the 1:100,000 scale Marianna
Quadrangle. Field mapping began in
October, with a planned completion date of
September, 2003. The maps and cross
sections for this area will be available through
the FGS Open File Map Series beginning in
September of 2003.

After input and an October workshop with
the Florida Geological Mapping Advisory
Committee, the USGS 1:100,000 Gainesville
Quadrangle in north-central Florida was
selected for the next area to be mapped
under the STATEMAP program. If the
National STATEMAP Advisory Committee





FLORIDA STATEMAP PROGRAM


NW Florida Panhandle
Field Work


FLORIDA STATEMAP PROGRAM: Rick Green
in front of a fractured and burrowed exposure
of the Citronelle Formation, Washington
County (photo by W.L. Evans, III).


FLORIDA STATEMAP PROGRAM: Will Evans and
David Dulaney (landowner) investigate steam rising
from a cave-opening in Jackson County on a cold
February morning (photo by R. C. Green).


FLORIDA STATEMAP PROGRAM: STATEMAP
crew (Jon Bryan and Will Evans) visits FLORIDA STATEMAP PROGRAM: Paleo-sinkholes
Washington Blue springs to obtain rock exposed by limestone mining operation in Jackson
samples from bottom of spring (photo by R. County, FL (photo by R. C. Green).
C. Green).



FLORIDA STATEMAP PRO-
SGRAM: A paleo-stream
channel in Washington County,

. ., .. .. .and filled with sediments from
S""'the Citronelle Formation (photo
A . by R. C. Green).








approves the project, mapping will begin in
this area in September of 2003.


GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS



Statewide Geology

Mapping Project


For a number of years the staff of the
Florida Geological Survey has been involved


in updating the State of Florida geological
map. The previous edition was published by
the FGS as Map Series (MS) 18 in 1964 by
P. O. Vernon and H. S. Puri. The new map is
published as MS 146 and discussed in
greater detail by T. M. Scott in Open File
Report (OFR) 80.


Ge


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logic Map-


of the
State of Florida

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GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS: Updated Geologic Map of Florida gets published in 2001.


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GEOLOGIC SAMPLE
COLLECTIONS PROGRAM

The FGS maintains separate
collections of well and surface outcrop
samples. The well sample collection contains
more than 18,355 sets of samples from
exploration, water, and oil wells. Most wells
are represented by sets of drill cuttings. One
thousand and nine wells are represented by
continuous core or core samples (a total of
approximately 184,000 feet). The FGS,
USGS, Water Management Districts and
geologic consultants drill new core sample
sets and add them to the archives. The
sample repository facility occupies about
9,500 square feet, with 17,655 square feet of
shelf space.

A collection of approximately 5,750
outcrop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in
the Gunter Building. These samples are
cross-indexed by formation, lithology, county
and location. The collection is referred to as
the "M-Series." The M-Series is particularly
valuable given Florida's high
rate of growth and
development. Surface
exposures of critical
lithologies have become
inaccessible with the
continued proliferation of
roadways, shopping centers,
parking lots and high-rise
housing.

These sample
archives and the data base
they represent are utilized
by geologists at the FGS,
many other state, federal
and local governmental
agencies, universities (both
in and out of the state),
geological consultants, well
drillers, and the public. HYDROGEOL


HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM

The Florida Legislature authorized the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP) Florida Geological
Survey (FGS), in Fiscal Year 2001/2002, to
enhance the new FGS Hydrogeology
Program with funds from the Water Quality
Assurance Act trust fund. These funds are
largely applied to hydrogeologic research
activities through outsourcing to universities
and the private sector. Needs identified by
FDEP programs stressed that an improved
understanding of the interaction between
ground and surface water, especially in
Florida's unique karstic geology setting,
would be necessary for watershed resource
protection and management. Visit the FGS
Hydrogeology Program web site to learn
more about the FDEP hydrogeology research
needs assessment at:
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/programss
ections/hydrogeology.htm.


The
Hydrogeology


purpose of
Program is


the FGS
to conduct


OGY PROGRAM: Divers in a spring of the


Woodville Karst Plain using red dye (see light colored
plume in right-center of image) to determine conduit flow
characteristics (image from a video frame by Global
Underwater Explorers, Inc.).






Areas
Hydrogeology
include:


HYUHOGEOLOGY PHOUHAM: Grounawater ana surface
water has turned this rock into "limestone swiss cheese",
that was later exposed. What does the limestone beneath


your home, neighborhood, or town look
Arthur).

hydrogeologic research at the FGS in support
of the need for scientific knowledge of
Florida's watersheds with specific emphasis
on aquifer systems. Although it is a part of
the Geological Investigations Section, the
Hydrogeology Program is an FGS-wide
program that serves as a focal point through
which research efforts, expertise and physical
resources are coordinated. The program
facilitates communication and endeavors to
conduct cost-efficient research.


like (photo by J.


1) physical aquifer
characterization aquifer
system mapping (identify
permeable zones and
confining units), seismic
and structural
characterization of aquifer
system components,
identify relation between
geologic units and aquifer
systems through
generation of cross
sections and contour maps;
maintain hydraulic
conductivity database for
modeling; provide
framework knowledge for
improved aquifer storage
and recovery (ASR) and
injection well site designs
and source water
protection through
geophysical exploration;

2) surface water-ground-
water interaction investi-
gate ground-water
contribution to surface
water base flow as well as
seepage of groundwater in
coastal zones; quantify
surface water ground-
water interaction for use in
waste-load allocation
models;


3) hydrogeochemistry studies ASR water-
rock interaction, uranium and arsenic
mobilization studies, Everglades Restoration
research support, Florida springs and aquifer
system ambient geochemistry data collection
and interpretation;

4) geographic information system (data
dissemination and modeling) provide State-
wide hydrogeology coverages, interactive
data access for FGS wells (more than 17,800
records), aquifer framework data for use in


of the
Program






ground-water modeling and 3D
visualization, aquifer
vulnerability mapping;

5) hydrogeologic resources -
sinkhole characterization,
inventory and occurrence....
studies, archive cave maps,
locate and characterize
onshore and coastal fresh
water submarine springs,
evaluate submarine springs as
potential public water supplies
for Florida;

6) education and com-
munication staff is active in HYDROGE
FDEP committees and working of Tom
groups, liaison with Water preparing
Management Districts, other Florida to
local, state and federal Utermohle
agencies, including non-profit
scientific organizations, such as the
Hydrogeology Consortium; environmental/
earth science education; public com-
munication; publish and disseminate maps
and reports in a variety of media.


Several research
funded by the Hydrogeology
the 2001-2002 Fiscal Year:


projects were
Program during


1) Conduct studies utilizing remote sensing
to identify locations of ground-water
discharges into surface water. Aerial
thermography and boat-towed electric
resistivity surveys have been conducted to
identify ground water, either as base flow or
as point source discharge (springs), in both
the upland and submarine environments.
The survey included large segments of rivers,
lakes, estuaries, bays and offshore waters:
parts of the Suwannee River, the Chipola
River, the Fenholloway River, the Ortega
River, St. Joseph Bay, Spring Creek Springs
Group, Escambia Bay, several lakes in north
central Florida, and offshore tracts suspected
to contain hard bottoms, springs or sinkholes
southwest of the mouth of the Steinhatchee
River. Data reduction and interpretation is
ongoing.


OLOGY PROGRAM: An early morning photo
Greenhalgh, Jim Cichon, and Alan Baker
for an overflight off the Big Bend coast of
search for marine springs (photo by Lt. Frank
n).
2) Field confirmation of "hot spots:" ground-
truthing areas studied in 1) are being
conducted using the following techniques:
conductivity surveys, Doppler acoustic
profiling, seismic profiling, water-quality
assessment, side scan profiling, water-age
characterization, dye and isotopes tracing
and measurements of water volume
discharged using seepage meters. This field
work is ongoing.

3) Establishment of Florida karst centralized
database: Data specifically related to karst,
such as the locations and depths of
sinkholes, and the trends and dimensions of
caves, are currently not available in a
centralized digital database. This data is
essential to the accurate delineation of
watershed or springshed boundaries, as well
as to groundwater flow and fate and transport
modeling efforts in karst aquifers. A
framework for a database specific to karst in
Florida was developed in 2002 and is
currently being prepared to allow users to
input, store and retrieve karst-related data,
such as the FGS sinkhole database and 2D
and 3D cave maps. Spring-water quality is
also being considered as a component of the
database. This Internet-based database will
provide general educational information






about Florida karst geology when
it is linked to the web site given in
the introductory paragraph to this
program.

4) Special Projects: pilot sites
have been selected to
demonstrate new technology as it
applies to understanding the
relationship between land use and
ecological health. For example,
benthic foraminifera have been
used to assess foraminiferal
population response to natural
changes in salinity. We anticipate
this study will expand to include
more extensive water quality HYDRO
measurements in an effort to erme
permea
"finger print" sources of pollution to Balsilli
ecosystems. permea
rocks;
In addition to the research rocks;
simulta
outsourced by the Hydrogeology
Program, two significant outreach
and education activities pertaining to springs
were concluded during 2001-2002. These
activities provide resources regarding
sources, quality and dynamics of water flow
to and from springs. It is hoped that such
understanding, properly communicated to
stakeholders, will in turn help both the public
and decision makers in the conservation and
protection of these natural wonders.

1) Construction of educational models and
exhibits: Karst and hydrogeologic-cycle
concepts are presented in a series of posters
and a short video within the framework of a
"traveling kiosk." This display is intended to
be a resource for middle and high school
students, their teachers and the general
public to help them become aware of issues
associated with living in, managing and
protecting ecosystems dominated by karst
geology. Environmental stewardship with
respect to ground-water resources and
hydrogeology is an underlying theme of the
display.

2) A workshop titled "Blueprints for the
management and protection of Florida's
springs:" This two-day workshop, held in May


GEOLOGY PROGRAM: FGS falling-head
meter laboratory constructed by J. H.
e and Ken Campbell used to determine
ability (hydraulic conductivity) of Florida's
44 core samples can be tested
neously (photo by J. Arthur).

of 2002 in Ocala, was framed around three
invited panels of experts and a plenary
session. The workshop focused on both the
science and policies of managing and
protecting springs. The findings and
recommendations of the panels, including
significant input from workshop participants,
have been published as "workshop
proceedings" in a CD ROM format that is
available to the public. To obtain your copy,
visit the Hydrogeology Program pages at the
FGS web site (see introductory paragraph for
this program).

Several outreach and education
activities are underway for the 2003 Fiscal
Year.

Additional "in-house" hydrogeology-
related projects conducted during 2001-2002
include:

Aquifer storage and recovery
geochemical study (see following cooperative
effort).
Hydrogeologic framework mapping of
Southwest Florida (see following cooperative
effort).






























* ci,


HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM: FGS personnel
the STATEMAP program and the FAVA progr
a field tip in Washington County looking at
channel features in the Citronelle Form
personnel from left to right: Alex Wooc
Cichon, Dave Paul, John Phillips, Jon Bryan
Flores (photo by R. C. Green).

* Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment Project (see following
cooperative effort).
* Southwest Florida reference cross
sections (see following cooperative effort).
* South Florida geological database
development (see Cooperative Projects).
* Monitor well installation for DEP
Ambient Ground Water Quality Monitoring
Program (see following cooperative effort).

Staff and affiliates of the program
provide scientific and technical support to
local, state and federal agencies and
committees, including:


FDEP Division of Water
Resource Management (DWRM),
Underground Injection Control
Program.
FDEP Springs Task Force.
FDEP contouring project to
develop statewide seamless
contour coverage and digital
elevation model.
Four Aquifer Storage and
Recovery Project (ASR) Delivery
Teams, Comprehensive Everglades
Restoration Program (South Florida
Water Management District/US
Army Corps of Engineers).
ASR Issue Team A
^ working group of the South Florida
Ecosystem Restoration Task Force
Hydrogeology Consortium -
a group of interested professionals
from FDEP, industry, academia,
consulting firms, and government
agencies that have identified the
Need to develop ground-water
Models suitable for karst terrains on
the Florida Platform.
Northwest Florida
Legislative Natural Resource
I from Advisory Committee established
am on by the NW Florida delegation to
paleo- provide scientific basis for
nation; environmental legislation and
I, Jim policies.
,Fran US Geological Survey -
various cooperative projects.
S Department of Community
Affairs provide review of documents
assessing Development of Regional Impact
and Local Comprehensive Plans
amendments.
* National Water Quality Monitoring
Council chairing the Ground Water Focus
Group and representing the EPA Region IV
States on the Council.
* Florida Resource and Environmental
Analysis Center (FREAC; Florida State
University) cooperative agreements and
educational projects.
* US Office of Management and Budget
-Water Information Advisory Committee.


























Mat Mayo desc
rogeological M


The Hydrogeology Program allows the
FGS to continue to respond more completely
and in a more timely manner to the requests
for hydrogeologic data and interpretations.
Associated research allows for a more
complete understanding of Florida's
watersheds and will improve the FDEP's
ability to protect and conserve our state's
ground-water resources.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA)

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and FDEP
Division of Water Resources Management)

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA) is a developing model
that uses existing geographic information
system (GIS) data for the prediction of
vulnerability of Florida's major aquifer
systems to contamination. Model
development is currently in the preliminary
stages consisting of five countywide projects.
The overall intent of FAVA is to provide a tool
for environmental, regulatory and planning
professionals to better facilitate the protection
of Florida's ground-water resources. FAVA
differs from the Environmental Protection
Agency DRASTIC model in that the newer
technique is GIS-based and accounts for


..... Florida's karstic terrain.
.-. Current methods
S.employed in FAVA model
development include
SWeights of Evidence,
Fuzzy Logic and Travel
.: .'., Time method. While all
three methods yield
similar results in the lower
and higher ranges of
vulnerability, the mid-
ranges differ, as do
methods for model
validation. Weights of
Evidence quantifies
relationships between
spatial layers (evidential
themes) with actual
ribing samples contaminant occurrences
lapping Project (training points) in order to
assess a hypothesis.
Using these calculated
relationships, interactions are analyzed to
yield a data-driven predictive model.

The Fuzzy Logic numerical model is
implemented by utilizing the same spatial
layers as Weights of Evidence, but relies on
expert knowledge to approximate the relative
importance of each feature, similar to the
foundation for the DRASTIC model. Fuzzy
memberships are then combined using a
range of operators to calculate a knowledge-
driven predictive model.

Travel Time is the estimated time it
takes surface water to reach the saturated
zone of an aquifer. This estimate is calculated
by adding the time it takes for a unit of water
to migrate through the soil vadose zone, the
near surface vadose zone geology and the
confining unit (if present). The output is then
multiplied by a factor to account for karst-
feature density. Areas with short travel times
are classified as highly vulnerable in the
predictive FAVA model.

Key spatial layers of the FAVA model
include: land surface, soil drainage, thickness
of confining units, depth to water, and the
percentage of an area covered by karst
features.


for the Southwest Florida Hyd
(photo by J. Arthur).






Accuracy of the latter two ..*.-,
coverages ("percent karst
depression" and "depth to water")
is dependent upon the accuracy of
the digital elevation model (DEM)
on which they are based. The
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
Spatial Data Transfer Standard
7.5-minute DEM (30-meter
resolution) was initially considered
for use in the FAVA project.
USGS Fact Sheet 040-00 reports
that the 30-m DEM being
considered generally has a vertical
accuracy of 23 feet (7 m), with
approximately ten percent of the "
grid values having a vertical
accuracy between 26 and 49 feet HYDRO
(8 to 15 m). For the FAVA project, gates c
a more accurate DEM is required.
As such, the FDEP, with assistance from the
FGS, is constructing a new statewide DEM by
using ArcScan to produce contour vectors
from USGS 1:24000 topographic maps.
Once issues regarding these vectors are
addressed (e.g., edge-matching misaligned
and misattributed vectors, fixing incomplete
or cut depressions, etc.), and quality
assurance measures are followed, the new
DEM yields a vertical resolution equal to the
contour interval. As a quality assurance tool,
three-dimensional projections (using 3D
Analyst or ArcScene 8.1) are useful for
identifying problem areas with respect to
accuracy of the grid surface. For example,
the FDEP grid can be visually compared with
the USGS DEM to note discrepancies that
warrant further review. A similar application
can be applied for quality assurance of the
depth-to-water coverage. For the FAVA
project, depth-to-water is calculated using the
Sepulveda method Rather than modeling
this surface over the entire state, however,
physiographic provinces are used as tiles. In
Florida, many of these provinces reflect
differing hydrogeologic settings, thus lending
support to the concept of water-table
characterization on a provincial basis. In
addition to grid and table calculations as tools
to assess accuracy of the model, three-
dimensional visualization provides a first pass
evaluation of accuracy. For example,


)GEOLOGY PROGRAM: Dave Paul investi-
ore samples (photo by Jon Arthur).

problem areas exist where the depth-to-water
coverage exceeds land-surface elevation, yet
no surface-water bodies exist.

With a highly resolved and accurate
land surface DEM, many options exist for
generation of a grid coverage that
characterizes karst-feature distribution for use
within the FAVA model. Because the
FDEP/FGS DEM includes attributed
depressions as points and as closed
polygons, the topographic-depression
coverage can be calculated as: 1) polygons
(arcs); 2) percent depression per unit area; 3)
a point (or polygon) density grid using a
specified search radius; and 4) a point (or
polygon) density grid applying a "distance to"
buffer.

These methods are currently being evaluated
by FAVA project staff and members of the
technical advisory committee consisting of
representatives from Florida's water
management districts, DEP, USGS, FGS and
private consultants.






Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemical Study

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and
FDEP Division of Water Resources
Management)

Aquifer storage and recovery
(ASR) is a cost-effective, viable
solution to address drinking-water
shortages in Florida. ASR wells are
Class 5 injection wells regulated by
the Underground Injection Control
Program of the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. Twenty-six
ASR facilities are in operation in
Florida and more than 15 sites are
HYDF
under development. Some of the
and
sites include reclaimed water ASR
Fann
facilities, which are also cost-effective
solutions to local water shortages.

The Florida Aquifer Storage and
Recovery Geochemical Study is an ongoing
investigation by the Florida Geological Survey,
in cooperation with the Florida State University
Department of Geological Sciences, to
examine water-rock geochemical interactions
that take place during ASR cycles. Water-
quality variations and aquifer system
characteristics at four ASR facilities are the
focus of the current study. The Underground
Injection Control Program (FDEP Division of
Water Resource Management) provides funds
for this study.

Research completed during 2001-2002
confirms that understanding water-rock
geochemical interactions is important to the
continued success of ASR in Florida. Results
of this investigation indicate the following: 1)
chemical (including isotopic) variability exists
within groundwaters and carbonates of the
Floridan aquifer system; 2) this variability may
result in site-specific geochemical processes
affecting ASR wells and water quality; 3) as
oxygen-rich surface waters are injected into
the Floridan aquifer system, trace metals such
as arsenic (As), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn),
uranium (U) and perhaps nickel (Ni) are
mobilized (chemically leached) from the
carbonate rocks and withdrawn during
recovery; 4) the design of injection-storage-


-iwk


ROGEOLOGY PROGRAM: Tom Greenhalgh
Brandon Ashby evaluate topography of the
ing Springshed (photo by Jon Arthur).
recovery cycle tests and the location of
monitor wells are important aspects of
understanding these geochemical processes.
Of the nine cycle tests investigated to date, all
yield recovered samples that exceed the new
minimum contaminant level (MCL) for As (10
ug/l). Research on the source of As in the
Floridan aquifer system matrix, results of cycle
testing in different hydrogeological settings
and the effects of repeated cycles tests
continues.

Results of this research underscore
the need for continued research on the
geochemistry of ASR in Florida, especially in
consideration of the proposed 300 ASR wells
to be installed as part of the Comprehensive
Everglades Restoration Project. There exists
a need to improve our understanding of the
water-rock dynamics in different
hydrogeological settings in which ASR may be
applied.

Geologic Cross-Sections

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and Southwest
Florida Water Management District)


A cooperative
between the Regior
Monitoring Program
Southwest Florida


e program exists
ial Observation and
(ROMP) of the
Water Management






District (SWFWMD) and the FGS to construct
geologic cross sections throughout the 16-
county SWFWMD region. The purpose of the
project is to delineate the extent of
lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic units
within the District, thus providing knowledge
essential for the protection and management
of ground-water resources in southwest
Florida.


sections are taken from detailed descriptions
of ROMP wells. In areas where ROMP data
are not available, borehole data from the FGS
and USGS are utilized. Interim reports on
each project phase are either in preparation
or have been published. Thirty-three cross
sections have been reviewed and are
undergoing revision in light of new
information based on regional subsurface
mapping efforts (see below).


2 -' -' ...'.



,,..,^ '. ,. ,, = ,..-,w ^,,, ;e', ','- .:'.. ..',..,,,- ,.>,, iL ',. .i-^s-i
HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM: Photo of STATEMAP and FAVA personnel in
front of a paleo-channel in the Citronelle Formation, Washington Co., FL;
personnel from left to right: Jon Bryan, Alan Baker, Rick Green, Alex Wood,
John Phillips, Will Evans, Dave Paul, Jim Cichon, Ed Marks, Fran Flores, and Jon
Arthur (photo by R. C. Green).


The project is subdivided into three
phases: Phase I includes the southwest
region from Pinellas and Hillsborough to
Charlotte Counties. Phase II includes the
northwest region from Levy and Marion to
Pasco Counties. Phase III includes the
southeastern region, including Polk,
Highlands, Hardee and DeSoto Counties.

The cross sections illustrate detailed
lithology, regional lithostratigraphy of Eocene
through Pliocene formations, gamma-ray log
characteristics of these formations, and
aquifer systems within each study area. Most
of the data used to construct the cross


Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic
Framework Mapping

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and Southwest
Florida Water Management District)

The Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic
Framework Mapping Project is a cooperative
effort between the SWFWMD and the FGS
that began in 1995 with the development of a
database containing more than 5000 records
for wells located throughout the District. This
Microsoft Access database, known as
"FGSWells" facilitates selection of wells for
the mapping project. In 2000, the FGS


.Vr~-
,~5':5"~;j~'"






implemented the database statewide. The
"FGS_Wells" database has been expanded to
also contain Oil and Gas regulatory data, and
includes an interface with Arcview for well-
location verification.

The mapping component of the
project is producing 18 surface contour and
thickness maps representing the
lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic
framework of southwest Florida region.
Mapped geologic formations include the
Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation and
younger units; hydrogeologic units include
the mid-Floridan confining unit, the Floridan
aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer
system and confining unit, and the surficial
aquifer system.

As of December 2002, more than 1150
wells have been added to the database on
which the maps are based. Samples from
more than 60 percent of these wells have
been inspected to determine lithostratigraphic
contacts. Detailed lithologic descriptions have
been completed for approximately one-quarter
of these wells. Where gaps exist in the data
coverage for the maps, wells with geophysical
logs are included in the analysis.

The maps are generated from
contoured grid models using the Spatial
Analyst extension of ArcView GIS . Maps
have been completed for the entire
SWFWMD region, including a 10-mile wide
buffer around the District. Final contour maps
and 3D visualization of the units are useful for
protection, regulation, and assessment of
groundwater and solid earth resources, and
provide frameworks for ground-water flow
models and future geologic research. The
maps are in review and expected to be
published in late 2003 or early 2004, after
completion and review of an accompanying
written report. The final product will include
paper copy as well as an interactive web site.


Suwannee District
Springs Project

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and Suwannee
River Water Management District)

The Hydrogeology Program is working
cooperatively with the Suwannee River Water
Management District on several springs
issues. These include locating offshore
springs, delineation of springsheds for
Manatee and Fanning Springs and nutrient
impacts on spring water quality.

Subsurface Lithologic
Core/Cuttings Descriptions

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and South
Florida Water Management District)

South Florida is experiencing rapid
population growth and water management
practices must be predicated on an adequate
understanding of the lithologic units which
comprise aquifer systems. In 1992, the FGS
and the South Florida Water Management
District (SFWMD) began a cooperative project
in Collier, Lee, Glades, Martin, Okeechobee,
Osceola, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Broward and
Dade Counties to provide geologic information
in support of this need. Descriptions of
approximately 25,000 feet of lithologic
samples from cores and cuttings were entered
in the FGS Database for the SFWMD in 2001-
2002.

Hydrogeology Consortium

(Cooperative Effort: FGS, Florida State
University System, Governmental Units,
and Private Sectors)

Large areas of Florida are underlain
by karst geology, which is riddled with
conduits of differing diameters and
orientations resulting in aquifers
characterized by multi-porosity conditions.
Under such conditions the classical equations
(such as Darcy's Law) for depicting
groundwater flow and transport are no longer
operative. Karstic conditions also allow for
significant volumes of groundwater to flow






rapidly through watersheds with increased
potential for interaction with surface water.
Groundwater models based largely on
Darcy's Law and traditionally used in
homogeneous aquifers are not applicable
under karstic conditions. New approaches
must be developed to conceptualize flow and
transport in multi-porosity aquifers. Based on
such concepts; analytical and numerical
models could eventually be developed to
investigate and predict the fate and behavior
of natural and man-made contaminants in
ground water; thus the entire watershed.
Such information will be essential in making
the correct decisions in the protection, clean
up and/or management of watersheds.

To help in achieving this goal,
scientists from state and federal agencies, as
well as universities and the private sector, met
in November 1997 to initiate a cooperative
effort to address this problem. The group
established the Hydrogeology Consortium as
a semi-autonomous component of the Florida
Center for Environmental Studies, affiliated
with Florida Atlantic University. The
Consortium's mission is to "cooperatively
provide scientific knowledge applicable to
groundwater resource management and
protection." The Consortium held its first
organizational workshop in May 1998 when it
addressed administrative issues and
developed a "science plan" to identify and
achieve short and long-term objectives.

In the year 2000, the Consortium's
Steering Committee recommended to the
Board of Representatives that it was more
efficient for the Consortium to be affiliated
with the Florida State University. The Board
approved the recommendation and the
transfer was formalized by a Memorandum of
Understanding between the Consortium and
FSU which included the creation of a physical
presence of the Consortium in the facilities of
the Geophysical Fluids Dynamics Institute at
FSU.

Following the first organizational
workshop, the Consortium has successfully
held annual thematic workshops ranging from
modeling groundwater flow in karst to


attenuation and remediation of contaminants
in karstic settings. In 2002 the Consortium's
workshop, which was co-sponsored by the
FGS and held in Ocala, focused on
"developing blue prints for the management
and protection of Florida's springs". The
workshop revolved around three invited panels
of experts who discussed scientific and policy
issues related to springs and made
recommendation for specific actions steps to
be taken by governments as well as
concerned citizen groups. Proceedings of the
workshop were published in CD ROM format
and distributed to all of the 80 participants with
additional copies available at the FGS. Efforts
are underway to hold the 2003 workshop in
cooperation with the FGS's Hydrogeology
Program with special focus on the significance
of cave data in understanding ground water
flow and interaction with surface water in
karstic environments.

In addition to workshops, the
Consortium has sponsored regular seminars
on issues related to ground water flow in karst
and is currently attempting to establish an
electronic newsletter to strengthen
communication with and scientific exchange
among its members. The FGS continues to be
heavily involved in supporting the Consortium
as evidenced by the fact that the Consortium's
current chair and some of its officers are
scientists on the FGS's staff.

MENTORED FIELD PROGRAM

(Cooperative Effort: FGS and the
Association of American State Geologists)

Beginning in 1999, the FGS entered
into a cooperative agreement with the
Association of American State Geologists
(AASG) designed to provide mentored field
training for students interested in learning
geologic mapping techniques. The student
mentorship program provides funding for
students in the form of a $3,300 award. The
funds allow the FGS to hire students and
training them in various aspects of geologic
mapping in the state. In addition to several
days of "hands-on" field work in STATEMAP
designated field areas, students are trained in






the use of several computer programs and in
the description of cores and well cuttings from
the study area.

A mentored field training grant was
received in 2002 by John Phillips, a Florida
State University student majoring in geology.
Mr. Phillips was trained and assisted in field
mapping techniques by Richard Green and
William L. Evans III while they were working
on the 2001-2002 STATEMAP project. He
assisted in the preparation of the Crestview
quadrangle (completed in September of 2001
and available as FGS Open-File Map Series
(OFMS)-90) and the western portion of the
USGS 1:100,000 Marianna quadrangle
(available in December, 2002 as FGS OFMS
91. Upon completion of the program the
student provides a written report on their
mentored experience as well as an oral
presentation on the geology of the
STATEMAP study area to the FGS staff.

The FGS Springs Initiative also
mentored Kenji M. Butler as part of its springs
sampling effort in the summer of 2002. The
student accompanied the springs sampling
crew and learned techniques for water quality
sampling, measuring discharge, navigation
using GPS equipment, and other aspects of
springs field work. As a requirement of the
mentorship program, the student will give a
presentation to FGS staff on aspects of his
field work that were particularly interesting to
him. The mentorship program is an innovative
way to provide undergraduate students with
experience in a professional setting to aid in
preparing them for their future careers.

MINERAL RESOURCES
PROGRAM

For the year 2000 (the last year with
published data) the USGS ranked Florida as
fifth in the U.S. with an estimated non-fuel
mineral production value of $1.92 billion.
Following is a description of such mineral
resources.

Phosphate Florida supplies approximately
one-quarter of the world's phosphate needs


and three-quarters of US domestic needs.
Nearly all of the rock that is mined in Florida
is used to manufacture fertilizer which, in
turn, is used for agricultural purposes. What
is not used in the manufacture of fertilizer is
typically used in a number of products
including feed supplements, vitamins, soft
drinks, and toothpaste. In recent years
fertilizer exports from Florida have exceeded
a billion dollars in value, making it another
one of Florida's leading export commodities.

Stone Florida typically ranks in the top five
states nationally in both production and
consumption of crushed stone (limestone and
dolostone). Most of the stone that is mined in
Florida is used for road construction.
Limestone of high purity can undergo
calcination (heating) and, together with other
ingredients, be used to manufacture portland
and masonry cement. Florida ranks in the
top five states in production and consumption
of portland cement and is first in the
production and consumption of masonry
cement.

Sand and Gravel Florida ranks in the top
one-third of states in the country in sand and
gravel used or produced. Sand and gravel is
subdivided into construction and industrial
sand, the bulk of which is, in Florida,
construction grade.

Heavy Minerals mineral grains with specific
gravities generally in excess of 2.9. These
include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and leucoxene.
Ilmenite and rutile are primary ingredients in
the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments,
used in the manufacture of paint, varnish and
lacquers, plastics, and paper. Florida is the
top heavy mineral producer in the nation.

Peat an organic-rich accumulation of
decaying plant material. Although peat
departs from the inorganic definition of a
mineral, it is generally considered an
economic mineral. Florida ranks in the top
five states nationally in the production of
horticultural peat.









MINERAL RESOURCES
PROGRAM

Some of Florida's Mineral
Resources


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i-i


/ ."


MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM: Phosphate
slurrying operation, IMC Phosphate, Inc., Polk Co.,
FL (photo by Tom Scott).


MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM:
Here's what hardrock phosphate looks
like (specimen and photo by Tom Scott).


IINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM: A Fuller's
arth mining pit, Quincy, Gadsden Co., FL
)hoto by Tom Scott).


MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM: A limestone
mining operation, Carroll Construction Co, near
Lecanto, Citrus Co., FL (photo by Tom Scott).


L -v







MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM: A sand
mining operation, Florida Rock Industries,
Putnam Co., FL, (photo by Tom Scott).


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Clay Fuller's earth, common clay, and
kaolin are mined in a few locations in Florida.
Fuller's earth is typically used as an
absorbent material, while kaolin is used in the
manufacture of paper and refractories.
Common clay, mined in small quantities from
various locations throughout the state, is
used in the manufacture of brick, cement and
lightweight aggregate.

The state led the nation during 2000
in production of phosphate rock, titanium
concentrates, and peat. Florida tied for first
in masonry cement production, third in
production of fuller's earth and crushed stone,
fourth in magnesium compounds, and
seventh in Portland cement. Florida
continues to produce substantial quantities of
sand and gravel and ranks approximately
15th in sand and gravel used and produced
in 2000. (The USGS prepares state ranking
information every two years based upon
confidential data returned to them from
Florida mine operators.)

Crude Oil and Natural Gas are produced
from two primary oil field areas of Florida.
Production began in 1943 in south Florida
near Fort Myers, where the Cretaceous
Sunniland Formation yields oil from depths
between 11,000 and 13,000 feet. In
northwestern Florida, near Jay, oil has been
produced since 1970 from the Jurassic
Smackover Formation at depths between
14,000 and 17,000 feet. Production peaked
in the late 1970s at 48 million barrels of crude
oil and 52 billion cubic feet of natural gas per
year. For additional, detailed information see
the section on the Oil & Gas Regulatory
Program.

The Mineral Resource Program
maintains communication with the mineral
industry in Florida. The section publishes a
biennial status report related to industry
activity. The program is also responsible for
providing mineral resource assessments on
parcels of land that are targeted for purchase
by the state. These assessments are
completed on an as-needed basis. We are
continuing to provide geologic input into the
mineral lands transfer between the Federal


Bureau of Land Management and the state of
Florida.

Another aspect of our work with non-
fuel minerals involves the preparation of
county mineral resource maps. County
mineral resource investigations were initiated
to assist counties in the preparation of their
comprehensive land-use plans mandated by
the state legislature. They continue to be
valuable sources of information as county
planners periodically revise the
comprehensive plans. The goal of these
studies is to identify potential mineral
resource areas and present the results in a
format appropriate for use by Florida's
planning community. The major mineral
commodities are mapped as a guide to
resource location. The reports discuss the
county's geology and geomorphology, as well
as specific mineral commodities,
accompanied by maps and geologic cross-
sections depicting the near-surface
sediments.

OIL & GAS SECTION
REGULAR TORY PROGRAM

The Oil & Gas Section regulates
petroleum exploration and production within
the state and state waters pursuant to
Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and
implementing Rules 62C-25 to 62C-30,
Florida Administrative Code. The Section's
primary responsibilities are environmental
protection, conservation of oil and gas
resources, correlative rights protection, and
maintenance of health and human safety.
These concerns are addressed when permit
applications are reviewed and permit
conditions are enforced by field inspection.
The Section's main office is located in
Tallahassee and field offices are located near
producing fields in northwest (Jay) and south
(Ft. Myers) Florida. The Section's key
activities include permitting geophysical,
drilling, and transport operations, inspecting
field operations, tracking activities by the use
of production and other reporting forms,
enforcing financial security requirements, and
maintaining databases for well and
geophysical permits.



































OIL & GAS REGULATION: The business end
of an oil well pumping petroleum out of the
ground by the well head (staff photo).


Approximately 8.1 million
barrels of crude oil and 10.5 billion
cubic feet of natural gas were
produced in Florida during 2001
and 2002. During the last 2 years
the state's oil and gas production
rates have fallen by 17% and 19%
respectively. On December 31,
2002 the state's cumulative
production totals reached
approximately 588 million barrels of
oil and 621 billion cubic feet of gas.
In 1978, Florida's annual petroleum
production rate peaked at 48 million
barrels of oil and 52 billion cubic
feet of gas, which ranked Florida
8th among oil producing states.
Since 1945, the state has received
approximately 1370 drilling permit


applications, of which 309 wells were never
drilled, 715 were dry holes, and 346
became producers. The state currently has
51 producing wells operating within 9 active
oil and gas fields. One field with 25 wells is
currently shut in and eleven formerly
producing fields have been permanently
plugged and abandoned.

During the production decline over
the last 25 years, the Oil & Gas Section's
focus has gradually shifted from permitting
and inspecting drilling and geophysical
operations to regulation of well
maintenance, plugging/abandonment, site
restoration, and decommissioning of oil and
gas field facilities. Over the last 2 years, 17
wells were plugged and abandoned, two
were partially plugged, and 9 well sites
were restored. Approximately 75 of the
state's 205 permitted oil and gas wells are
currently inactive and may need to be
plugged and abandoned over the next
several years. Many of the existing
producing wells are approaching
profitability threshold as the statewide
water cut (percentage of brine mixed with
the produced crude oil) has climbed to
95%. Currently 63 of the state's 205
permitted wells are dedicated to re-injecting
brine that has been separated from


OIL & GAS REGULATION: Another type of well
head (staff photo).


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produced crude oil.


Drilling and Production

Southwest Florida: Collier
Resources Company, the major
mineral rights owner within the Big
Cypress National Preserve, traded
its mineral rights on 765,000 acres
slated for exploration among
several producing fields to the
Department of Interior in exchange
for $120 million in cash and federal
offshore lease credits. This move
has substantially reduced the
likelihood of near-term exploration
or development of new fields in
south Florida.


100%
90%
80%
70%
S60%
50%
> 40%
: 30%
20%


No new drilling permits were 10%
issued during 2001 and 2002, but o%
14 existing operating permits were
recertified. Although no wells were
drilled from new surface locations, Florid
three existing wells were extended and st
horizontally, and two of these were (botto
brought on line as producing wells. signifi
In March 2002 Calumet Florida,
Inc., primary operator in southwest Florida,
completed a program to plug and abandon 16
wells under an agreement with the Oil and
Gas Section. Fifty-nine wells were worked
over to perform down-hole maintenance and
secondary recovery techniques. Production
from the nine fields in the southwest Florida
dropped from approximately 3200 to 3000
barrels of oil per day. Oil and Gas staff at the
Fort Myers field office conducted 7432
inspections of wells and related facilities.

Northwest Florida: Jay field continued
to dominate state production with
approximately 69% of the state's total oil and
75% of the gas. Jay Field has now produced
412 million barrels of oil. One new horizontal
well was permitted and drilled within Jay field
during the fall of 2001. Initial production
testing on February 26, 2002 yielded 881
barrels of oil and 1.92 million cubic feet of gas
per day. The well's production has since
dropped to 419 barrels of oil and 1.52 million
cubic feet of gas per day. Jay field's operator,


__ __.I _
















_ _. ..I .... I _.. .. .
~ ~--


940 950 960 970 1980 1990 200


1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Year
a crude oil production since 1943 (top figure),
:ate wide water cut (water/oil ratio) since 1975
m figure), showing that as the water cut
cantly increased oil production decreased.

Exxon Mobil Corporation, considered these
production figures insufficient to justify drilling
additional horizontal wells that had been
planned. Petro Operating Company has shut
in all of its 27 wells in the Blackjack Creek
and McLellan Fields pending repair and
maintenance of the company's fluid
separation facilities. Oil & Gas staff at the Jay
field office conducted 1368 inspections of
wells and related facilities.

Geophysical Exploration

No geophysical surveys were
permitted nor were any conducted under
previous permits during 2001 and 2002.

Offshore Activity

State Waters: During October 2002 a circuit
court judge in Tallahassee ruled against the
claim by Coastal Petroleum Company,
leaseholder of offshore mineral acreage
extending from Apalachicola to Naples, that


1













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,_ .- .... ..- ... *- ,.:* i,- -. -.. ^C .,o--;
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OIL & GAS REGULATION: Recovering an oil
well drilled in the 1950's in Putnam Co., FL.
This well was investigated for replugging
because 1950's technology does not meet
today's standards (photos by David Taylor).


denial of a previous offshore drilling
application constituted an illegal taking of the
lease by the state. The company is expected
to appeal.


Federal Waters: In December 2001 the
Minerals Management Service accepted
$340 million in bids on 95 federal offshore
drilling lease blocks in a 1.5 million-acre
tract south of Alabama and Pensacola. The
area originally proposed for being
auctioned off encompassed 5.9 million
acres, but in response to Florida's
objections the federal government
collapsed the area open for bidding to a
smaller tract at least 100 miles from the
Florida coastline.

The federal government bought
back seven existing leases from Chevron,
Conoco, and Murphy Oil. The buyback is
also part of an agreement in principle
between the federal government and these
oil companies to settle a lawsuit initiated in
2000 in which these companies alleged
breach of drilling lease contract. An
additional provision of the agreement
stipulates that Chevron will withdraw its
production plans for a Destin Dome gas
field the company discovered in the 1980's.
The Department of Energy has estimated
reserves of 2.6 trillion cubic feet within this
gas field, an amount equal to more than
four times Florida's cumulative onshore gas
production to date.

On May 28, 2002 Duke Energy Gas
Transmission and Williams completed
construction of the Gulfstream Pipeline,
which crosses the Gulf of Mexico along a
581-mile path from south Alabama to
Tampa Bay. The 36-inch diameter pipeline
delivers 1.1 billion cubic feet of natural gas
per day, enough to generate electrical
power for 4.5 million central Florida homes.

Oil & Gas Data

Database: During 2001 and 2002 the
section's primary well permit database was
converted to a comprehensive system for
tracking regulatory deadlines, production,
bonding, core/cutting samples, well logs, and
well construction data. The new database will
track six times as many categories of
information. Oil & Gas Section staff also






expanded the geophysical permit database
by a factor of four.

Maps: In 2002 staff completed a 10-year
project to convert the section's well maps to
computer files. Wells on the new maps can
be viewed at any scale along with highways,
political boundaries, and topography from
USGS base maps. Wells can be located by
latitude/longitude coordinates, section-
township-range, or by permit number. Well
symbols indicate surface-hole location,
bottom-hole, well status, and even the
locations of permits for wells that were never
drilled.

Website: In 2002 the Oil & Gas Section's
website was expanded to allow the public to
download the oil and gas maps, well
database information, production data, and
the Prospector Package, which provides
browsers with instructions and materials for
applying for a permit to drill an oil and gas
well in Florida.

PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

SE Maps

During the late 1990's, the FGS
assisted Clemson University in development
of "Southeastern Maps and Aerial
Photographic Systems" (SE MAPS). This
National Science Foundation-funded
interdisciplinary science curriculum project is
centered on hands-on use of satellite and
airborne imagery, aerial photography,
topographic maps, and other special-purpose
cartographic products (e.g., anaglyph maps).
With classroom activities focusing on Florida
and seven other southeastern states, these
materials allow middle and high school
students to visualize geologic relationships
and relate them to other disciplines, including
mathematics, history, social science and
language arts. Student and teacher manuals
contain site-specific background information
and sets of 'hands-on' and 'minds-on'
interdisciplinary activities keyed to the
national and state science standards.


Among the Florida activities, the
Woodville Karst Plain study area features a
comparison of topographic maps with infrared
aerial photographs to identify karst features,
infer recharge and discharge of aquifers, and
examine land use, both historical and
modern. During the next year, the FGS will
work with the Florida Resources and
Environmental Analysis Center to convert the
Florida activities in SE MAPS to an Internet-
based resource for Florida students and
educators. Other media, such as newspaper
inserts, are also being considered. A
template will be designed to facilitate
expansion of Florida-specific study areas for
this new outgrowth of SE MAPS: FL MAPS.

Earth Science Week

The Florida Geological Survey
initiated three major activities in celebration
of Earth Science Week 2002. Dr. Walt
Schmidt, State Geologist, obtained a
proclamation from Governor Bush
designating the 2nd week of October 2002 as
Earth Science Week and emphasizing earth
science as it relates to issues of concern in
Florida including natural hazards, water
resources, and the environment among
others.

An Open House was held at the FGS.
It was advertised to the general public in the
local newspaper. The Open House target
audience, however, was the local home-
schooling community. The event was
"advertised" via e-mail. FGS staff were on
hand to talk about their work and programs.
We also parked one of our drill rigs behind
the building with a driller available to talk
about it. A variety of hands-on activities were
set up in the conference room and that room.
We knew from experience that families would
arrive with children of all ages so our
activities included coloring pages and
crayons that could be instructive for
elementary school students but could also
just be fun for very young children. We also
had Play Dough, plants, and shells so that
students could explore one way that fossils
are made (this was also good for very young
children). In addition, we set up 4 binocular






microscopes with well
cuttings and other
specimens. The hands-on
activities worked well. We
also introduced the Home
Schooling Community to our
publication series since a
copy of each of our
publications is free if
requested by a home
schooling parent for
educational use. Local
science teachers were
invited in an effort to make
them aware of our
publications (1 copy of any
publication is free if
requested on school
letterhead). We contacted
middle schools in our county
and offered talks on Florida
geology. Nine staff members
gave a total of 19 talks at 6
schools.


RESEARCH LIBRARY PROGRAM: Florida
Survey Library (photo by J. H. Balsillie).


RESEARCH LIBRARY PROGRAM

Section 377.075, Florida Statutes
states ... The State Geologist shall prepare
and publish Florida Geological Survey
reports, with necessary illustrations and
maps, which provide general and detailed
descriptions of the geology and earth
resources of this state, shall maintain a
comprehensive research library, open to the
public, of published and unpublished
geological information, and shall otherwise
disseminate geological information to the
citizens of this state.

The Research library is an integral
part of the Survey's research and regulatory
programs. In support of the information
needs of staff, students, and researchers
from the public sector, the library staff
provides access to basic research materials
including books, maps, state and federal
documents, photographs and periodicals.
Holdings total approximately 30,000 volumes.
Materials are collected on various aspects of
geology, including mining and mineral
resources, environmental geology,


hydrogeology and other related topics. The
library has one of the largest and oldest
geologic map collections in the state of
Florida with over 16,000 maps, including a
number of items dating from the 19th century.

Library Services

The library is used by the general
public, students, other government agencies,
and private consulting companies. While
circulation is restricted to Survey staff, and
the faculty of the Florida State University,
Department of Geological Sciences, the
library is open to the general public for
research. In addition, library materials are
available to libraries throughout the world via
the Interlibrary Loan system.

The library participates in a
nationwide Interlibrary Loan network through
which the staff has access to other special
and academic collections. The library
cooperates with other libraries through
various networking groups on the local, state,
and national level. The librarian participates
in the activities of the Panhandle Library






Access Network, and various other library
and geoscience cooperatives.

The library has a new automation
system and is currently beginning the long
project of barcoding all of the holdings to
enable more accurate records for circulation
and inventory. An assessment of all of the
collections is in progress to determine it's
value and usefulness to the mission of the
survey. Many documents from non-adjacent
states have been returned to those states, or
donated to libraries wishing to increase their
holdings in geological materials.

Library Computer Services

The Research Library currently has
access to the GEOREF database, as well as
more than 25 orthe major databases, through
the State Library. Many of these databases
are full-text, expanding our access to
periodical literature.

Publications Distribution

The library is responsible for providing
detailed information on the survey's 695
published documents and reports, and
oversees the distribution of all documents
currently in print. During 2001-2002 this
included approximately 1,000 requests for a
total of approximately 8,000 documents. In
addition to individual requests, publications
are distributed to 250 libraries, throughout
Florida, the U.S. and around the world, which
maintain depository collections of Florida
Geological Survey publications. FGS
publications are requested by students,
environmental consultants, government
agencies, libraries, schools, geologists
studying for professional licensure, and the
general public.

The List of Publications is also now
available online, with many of the survey's
publications in full text. Thanks go to the
Publication of Archival Library & Museum
Materials (PALMM) of the libraries of the
State University System's Division of
Colleges and Universities, for continuing to
scan in many of our publications. This allows


the public fast and free access to many titles.
The online version of the List of Publications
is:http://www8.myflorida.com/geology/publicat
ions/ listofpubs.html

STUDENT ASSISTANTSHIP
PROGRAM

The FGS sponsors an active student
assistantship program which is beneficial for
students and staff geologists. Qualified
graduate and undergraduate students in
geology obtain work experience in a
professional setting while staff geologists, in
turn, are assisted by knowledgeable and
motivated individuals. The assistantship
program was begun in 1974 and has since
run successfully, although from time-to-time
the number of participants has been small.

Currently, most students are
employed by contract and grant-funded
studies. These students conduct research
tasks while under the supervision of
professional geologists on the Survey staff.
As the program has developed, the FGS and
several Water Management Districts have
provided funding for assistants. Additional
funding sources include the U.S. Minerals
Management Service, the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection, the AASG, the
USGS, and the National Cooperative
Geologic Mapping Program.

WATER MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT COOPERATIVE
EFFORTS

Northwest Florida Water
Management District

The FGS and Northwest Florida Water
Management District routinely cooperate on
well description and data-gathering projects
within the District. During the years 2001-
2002, FGS staff worked with District
hydrologists on locating and sampling springs
within the NWFWMD. FGS and District
geologists investigated Holmes Creek and
documented a number of previously unknown
springs within this basin. Efforts are






continuing in locating and documenting
springs within the NWFWMD.

See also the section on the Drilling
Program.


South Florida Water
Management District


See the section on the Hydrogeology
Program.

Southwest Florida Water
Management District

See the section on the Hydrogeology
Program.


Guidebook to the Correlation
Criteria for Geophysical Well Logs

In 2001 the Guidebook to the
Correlation of Geophysical Well Logs within
the St. Johns River Water Management
District was published by the FGS in
cooperation with the SJRWMD as FGS
Special Publication No. 50. Wells within the
SJRWMD were selected which had both
sufficient geologic control and characteristic
geophysical log response to allow them to be
used as reference wells for correlation
purposes. Reference wells are presented in
the guidebook that provide examples of
typical geophysical log signatures correlated
to lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic
units.


Suwannee River Water
Management District


See the section on the Hydrogeology
Program.

St. Johns River Water
Management District

The cooperative program between the
St. Johns River Water Management District
(SJRWMD) and the Florida Geological
Survey advances the missions of both
agencies and continued throughout 2001-
2002. SJRWMD has continued to construct
monitoring wells as part of its District
Observation Well Network (DOWN) program.
Geologic samples obtained during
construction of these wells are essential for
improved understanding of local and regional
hydrogeologic conditions in the District.
Samples from the DOWN program, as well as
other previously undescribed samples on file
at the FGS, are inventoried, examined,
described and entered into an electronic
database for use by both the FGS and
SJRWMD.

See also the section on the Drilling
Program.










INTRODUCTION

From time-to-time certain issues arise
in addition to planned and budgeted activities,
to which the Florida Geological Survey is
asked to respond. Some of the more notable
examples are discussed in this section.

LAKE JACKSON DRAWDOWN

Lake Jackson, a closed basin karst
lake (there are no surface outflows), is an
approximately 4,000 acre body of water in
northwestern Leon County Florida, on the
northern side of Tallahassee. The lake has
been a valuable recreational resource for
northern Florida and southern Georgia, well
known for its bass fishing and water sports.

Rainfall in northern Florida during
1998 and 1999 (prior to the lake draining)
had been significantly below the normal
average. Lake Jackson's water level
declined steadily in response
to the precipitation deficit and
evaporation. The water level
in the southern portion of the
lake, south of Brill Point
Saddle, began to drop more
rapidly on September 13, ..,,,.
1999. By the evening of '
September 16, 1999, the
water level had declined
significantly and the rim of
Porter Hole Sink was
exposed. Sunrise on
September 17, 1999 brought
out thousands of
Tallahassee's curious
citizens ranging from babies
on their parent's backs to
senior citizens, some whom
had seen the lake drain LAKE JACK
before. Headlines in the to the north
Tallahassee Democrat the southeast
proclaimed the draining of


Lake Jackson once again. Radio and
television news crews began interviewing
scientists and onlookers to broadcast the
startling news "Lake Jackson has
disappeared." People waded through ankle
to calf deep mud to get a good view of the
sinkhole and the thundering cascade of water
entering it. More than one of the curious
found themselves up to their hips in mud in
one of the many buried sinkholes on the lake
bottom.

Inflow to the sinkhole generally
declined from mid-September until mid-
October when the flow ceased. In response
to rain events, however, flow periodically
resumed, filling the Porter Hole basin to well
above the opening of the sink. Following the
rains, water level in the basin declined over a
few days, exposing the sinkhole again. Once
the inflow ceased, FGS geologists and others
entered the sink to explore the sink system
(see sinkhole and cavity description section


SON: Aerial photo taken in May 2002. View is
vest showing excavated (light colored) area of
,t part of Lake Jackson (photo by Tom Scott).






for discussion).
While the southern portion of Lake
Jackson was nothing more than a series of
isolated ponds, the northern part remained a
broad, shallow lake (approximately 2,000
acres). In April 2000, as the drought
continued to dry up the remainder of the lake,
scientists noticed that the water level in the
northern portion of the lake was declining at
an increased rate. It was determined that
Lime Sink had opened and was slowly
draining the northern lake area. As the
northern portion of the lake became isolated
in the Lime Sink Basin, fish became
concentrated in the shrinking pond creating a
great fishing opportunity. By early May 2000,
only isolated ponds were left over the
northern Lake Jackson basin. Lime Sink
never drained completely.. It appeared that,
as the water level dropped, mud slumped into
the lower portion of the sink and effectively
plugged it.

Periodic rain events temporarily
flooded portions of the lake bottom. Often,
following an inch or two of rain in the Lake
Jackson drainage basin, the water level
within Porter Hole basin would rise to
approximately four to six feet above the
sinkhole mouth. In late September 2000,
Tropical Storm Helene delivered more than
eight inches of rain to parts of Leon County.
The water level in Porter Hole rose to more
than 14 feet above the sinkhole. In each
case of a rain event during the overall
drought, all the water in the Porter Hole basin
drained into the sinkhole and the sink and
associated subterranean cavities once again
became air filled.

The drought cycle that had gripped
northern Florida since late 1998 eased some
in mid to late 2001 although rainfall amounts
for both 2001 and 2002 remained below
normal. Rainfall filled the lake to a level of
approximately 81 feet above sea level in late
August 2001. At this time, the Porter Hole
basin has approximately 20 feet of water over
the sinkhole orifice. A FGS team utilized
SCUBA equipment to examine Porter Hole in
September 2001, obtaining water flow


measurements indicating approximately 12
cubic feet per second (cfs) of water inflowing
into the open hole. In December 2002 and
January 2003, in response to decreased
rainfall, Porter Hole once more became
visible. However, each time, several inches
of rain fell and refilled the basin. Water levels
have fluctuated in response to rainfall and the
inflow into Porter Hole. If the region's rainfall
remains at or above normal, Lake Jackson's
water level will continue to rise toward its
normal level even if Porter Hole continues to
accept water. If rainfall continues to be below
normal, the lake levels will remain depressed
and the Porter Hole may, once more, be
exposed.

During the period when the bed of the
lake was exposed some two million cubic
yards of material were excavated from an
extensive area of the southeastern part of the
lake. In addition, some material from Church
Cove, just off Highway 27 Landing, and the
exposed lake bed just north of Little Lake
Jackson was also excavated. In 2001, J. H.
Balsillie and Stephen Kish (FSU) surveyed the
southeastern excavation area. This data will
be used to update a bathymetric map of Lake
Jackson. Surveying of other excavated areas
is planned in 2003.

NATIONAL GEOLOGIC
MAP DATABASE

The Florida Geological Survey
participated in inputting FGS published
geologic maps into the National Geologic Map
Database. The National Geologic Map
Database is a project sponsored by the U.S.
Geological Survey's National Geologic
Mapping Program in cooperation with the
Association of American State Geologists. The
goal of the project is to establish a database of
all national and state produced geologic maps,
both paper and digital, and to provide keyword
and geographic searching capabilities for the
database. All published maps of the Florida
Geological Survey are now included in the
database. The National Geologic Map






Database may be
http://nqmdb.usgs.gov/.

NAVY/ARA LYNN
HA VEN PROJECT


accessed at: FDEP, Florida State University, the Town of
Lynn Haven, etc. In 2002, the FGS was asked


Within the town of
Lynn Haven, FL, lies a
petroleum tank farm owned
by the U. S. Air Force, but
operated by the U. S. Navy.
Fronting directly on North Bay
with docking facilities, the .
farm was used in refueling
ships during and since WWII.
It has subsequently been
determined by the Federal
Government to be surplus .
property. In order to make it
available for other, non-
military uses, it was
determined that because of its NAVY/ARA
military use, environmental (foreground)
assessments were required employee,
and clean-up measures location date
completed if necessary. A
major sub-contractor, Applied Research
Associates, Inc. (ARA), to the U. S. Navy,
Navy Coastal Systems Station, Panama City
was assigned the environmental assessment
task. Such activities have been coordinated by
and through such agencies as the U. S. Navy,


fj"-w ---


LYNN HAVEN PROJECT: J. H. Balsillie
takes bullet sample with help of ARA
James McClean (background) records GPS
a (photo by L. J. Ladner).


if it could participate using its expertise to
obtain grab samples, vibra cores, and
bathymetry in nearshore waters of the bay
surrounding the property.

Some 18 grab surface sediment
samples, eight (8) vibra cores, and
nearshore bathymetry were collected
S during three field trips for a total of six
field days. FGS participants were J.
H. Balsillie, L. J. Ladner, and J. A. R.
McClean. Cores were cut on site
using a field blade runner table
specially designed for the project.
Core material and grab samples
were, in part, analyzed on site by
ARA professionals.


NAVY/ARA LYNN HAVEN PROJECT: L. J. Ladner
running bathymetry (photo by J. H. Balsillie).


* :w .i\vw .. <






PANHANDLE OFFSHORE
SEDIMENT INVESTIGATION

In 2001, the FDEP Bureau of Beaches
and Wetland Resources subcontracted with
URS, Inc., Tallahassee, FL to conduct
sedimentologic and geologic studies off the
northwest panhandle Gulf coast of Florida. In
addition to representatives of the FGS
Department of Geoscience under the direction
of Joseph F. Donoghue and with cooperation
of J. H. Balsillie of FGS, provided pertinent
information and guidance as to acceptable
sedimentologic procedures to insure that the
best product possible was delivered to the
Bureau of Beaches and Wetland Resources.
These activities resulted in task-oriented, state-
of-the-art research products that were
published in outside refereed joumals and the
development of an FGS web site
sedimentology application.

RYAN/HARLEY
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE

The inundated Ryan/Harley :
archaeological site (8Je-1004),
discovered by Ryan and Harley
Means is located in a swamp forest i
dissected by channels of the spring-
fed Wacissa River. The Ryan-Harley
site is thought to represent an
undisturbed Middle Paleoindian site.
Based on artifact seriation and
chronological placement of
diagnostic Suwannee points and the
correlation to a regional event
stratigraphy, the site is relatively
placed in time from -10,900 14C BP
to -10,500 14C BP. Clovis-like
traits on the Suwannee points and
other stone tools from the
Ryan/Harley site suggest the
component may be on the early
developmental end of the Suwannee
time frame. Although the area of
test excavations was confined to a RYAN
relatively small 7 m2 area threatened Means
by erosion, we believe that it is of Ryan


sufficient importance to report because it
represents the first Suwannee point site with
good bone preservation discovered in the
southeastern U. S. Although discovered in
1996, the most extensive investigation of the
site occurred during the biennial period
covered by this report, by Ryan Means,
Harley Means and the State Archaeologist,
James S. Dunbar.

In 2002, unconsolidated sediment
samples were collected by Harley Means,
James Dunbar, and J. H. Balsillie from the
artifact-bearing horizon and from horizons
immediately above and below the artifact
horizon. They were analyzed using
granulometric techniques. Arithmetic
probability plots of the grain-size distributions
show that the sediments were originally
transported and deposited by fluvial
processes but not the artifact assemblage,
which was deposited subsequent to the sites
fluvial environment. Thus several lines of
evidence suggest that the artifact horizon
remains essentially intact, with little or no
post-depositional reworking.


/HARLEY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE: Harley
and Jim Dunbar take vibra cores (photo by
Means).
























RYAN/HARLEY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE: Ryan
Means and Jim Dunbar at the archaeological
Wasicca River site (photo by G. H. Means).


SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

The FGS Library houses the archives
of the Florida Sinkhole Research Institute.
This archive contains original records of field
research of sinkhole occurrences, county
maps of sinkhole locations, and copies of
publications of the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute. A listing of the field records
computer database has been published as
Florida Geological Survey, Open-File Report
58, and is available through the Publications
Office. The library also maintains a copy of
the computer database of sinkhole reports,
which is available on disk, or by ftp or e-mail
upon request.






f7j
I Cr-IMIJ I/Vr7
Z-JQ)U

Ad I ON A
,11,


ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES

Two all terrain vehicles (ATVs) and a
trailer were procured in 2001. Field
personnel wishing to use them have
undergone operational and safety training
and are certificated users. They have been
used in geological work by the Oil & Gas
Regulatory Program, in study of Lake
Jackson during the latest drawdown event,
and in field work for the STATEMAP
Program.

ALPHA SPECTROMETER

The Ortec Octete Plus Alpha
Spectrometer is a fully integrated control
platform operating eight internal alpha
spectrometers, automatic networking,
acquisition and analysis of the data using
Windows platform 32-bit software.
Applications include: 1. Dating Quaternary
deposits using uranium series disequilibrium
method. This method applied to deep sea
sediments, corals, calcite/aragonite mollusks,
speleothems, marine shells and peat up to
350,000 years. 2. Dating lake and coastal
marine sediments up to 150 years. 3. Tracing



i


w -r -,..-

Rick Green and Will Evans use ATV's in
Florida Panhandle field investigations for
the STATEMAP Program (photo by Will
Evans).

groundwater using uranium isotopes.

AUTOMA TED BA THYMETRIC
SYSTEM

As the result of work conducted with
the Navy/ARA, they donated to the FGS an
automatic digital bathymetric measurement


'p


All1
7>r,


Adel Dabous runs up to eight samples on
the newly acquired Alpha Spectrometer
(photo by J. H. Balsillie).


A A
James McClean operates automated
bathymetric mapping package aboard the 24-
foot Carolina Skiff in mapping the spring
swarm off of Spring Creek, FL (photo by J. H.
Balsillie).






system. Because it is mobile it can
be used on any of the FGS water
craft. It includes a Garmin GPSMap
168S combined depth finder and
differential GPS receiver, 200kHz
transom mount transducer with
temperature sensor, FUGAWI
marine bathymetric map package,
Delorme topographic map package,
and fully weather resistant Amrel
Rocky Patriot PIll laptop. In addition
to real time bathymetric mapping,
the system can record simultaneous New I
information for water temperature, of the
salinity, and other water quality Balsil
information.

BOAT STORAGE FACILITY

A boat storage building was
constructed on the FDEP Warehouse
grounds to house Coastal Research Program
trailerable water craft. It also has a sizable
storage room and cover so that the boats can
be worked on regardless of weather
conditions.

CANOES

Two canoes and a trolling motor were
purchased in 2002. They have been of
significant value in reaching field sites not
negotiable by larger FGS water craft. They
have been used by the staff in pursuing
missions of the Springs Initiative and
STATEMAP Program.

DOPPLER FLOW METER

A Sonteck 1500 kHz Acoustic Doppler
Velocimeter was acquired by the FGS
Coastal Research Program in 2001. It
measures ocean currents, vehicle speed over
ground, and altimetry all in one affordable
package. The Argonaut-DVL was developed
primarily for the underwater vehicle industry
because of their requirements for compact,
versatile, and affordable components capable
of withstanding full-ocean depths. The DVL's
compact size, low power draw (<0.5W) and
6000-m pressure rating make it the ideal


. .. --g . ...g~ a

)oat storage work area facility for water craft
Coastal Research Program (photo by J. H.
lie).

instrument for offshore exploration,
oceanographic studies, and specialized
military applications. It has been used to
measure flow conditions and other
information characterizing marine springs.

DRILL RIG ADDITION

The FGS has, for years, operated two
rigs; a Failing 1500 (maximum drilling depth
of about 1500 feet) and a Mobile Drill B-31
(maximum drilling depth of about 230 feet).
The Failing 1500 is deployed on a full time
basis and is operated by a licensed driller and
an assistant. The Mobile Drill auger/core rig
haa been outfitted for continuous coring in
rock or unconsolidated sediments and is
operated by a licensed driller and one or two
assistants.

In 2002, the FGS acquired a CME-75
drill rig from the DEP Site Investigations
Section as part of an intra-agency
cooperative agreement. This agreement
benefits both the FGS and the Site
Investigations Section: the drill rig, water
truck and trailer along with associated drill
string components were transferred to the
FGS. In return, Site Investigations can use
the rig on a cooperative basis, if needed and
if the rig is not already committed. The CME-
75 has a maximum drilling depth of about 850
feet, thereby enhancing the FGS drilling
capabilities.



























J. H. Balsillie operates
Runner for splitting cores,
the back of a pickup (photo


uiviM-/t arml rig (pnoto Dy uave vaul).



FIELD BLADE RUNNER

Terrestrial and marine vibra coring
techniques employed by the FGS to obtain
cores use 3" diameter aluminum core barrels
up to 30 feet in length. In other instances, 2
V2" to 4" PVC tubing is used to procure
shorter cores using a drop hammer.
Extrusion of cored material would result in
unwanted compaction that would compromise
stratigraphic relationships. Hence, cores are
cut open by two longitudinal cuts 180 apart
along the barrel. In 1995, J. H. Balsillie
designed a core splitting capability at the
FGS. It consists of a wheel-mounted carriage
to which a circular saw with a metal cutting
blade is mounted ... called the Blade Runner.
The carriage runs on a track on a Blade
Runner table to which the core barrel is
secured. The impetus for the development
was to insure a safe way in which to split
cores.


the Field Blade
in this case from
by Jim Ladner).


In 2002, as the result of field work
conducted by the FGS in cooperation with the
Navy/ARA (see the section on Special
Projects) a shortened, 4-foot Blade Runner
table was designed and constructed by J. H.
Balsillie, so that cores could be split in the
field or on FGS water craft.

GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

A Ramac Ground Penetrating Radar
(GPR) system, designed for backpack and
single operator use was purchased in 2002.
The unit includes the backpack mounted
control unit, unshielded electronics, six
battery packs, three battery chargers,
backpack, a PC holder frame, two sets of
fiber optic cables, data cable and software,
50 and 100 MHz antennas, and antenna
carrying handles. The antenna frequencies
were selected for optimal response in
Florida's geologic terrain. A lightweight Dell
laptop computer was purchased for field use
with this system. The unit will be used to
define subsurface lithology and to delineate
karst features.


5V i~~





















F
fa

Newly acquired Ground Penetrating
Radar, photo from Terraplus web site
(http://www.terraplus.com/gprdetails.
htm)


PANAMA CITY BEACH
COASTAL RESEARCH FACILITY

The U. S. Navy and the FGS through
its Coastal Research Program executed a
memorandum of agreement establishing a
working relationship to facilitate cooperative
efforts, and to leverage mutual expertise in the
broad areas of coastal science, engineering
and technology. This cooperation includes a
lease for occupation of the two-story facility of
Beach Site #1 located on Panama City Beach
directly fronting the Gulf of Mexico. The site
will be used by the FGS Coastal Research
Program as a laboratory, coastal core
repository, and as a staging area to conduct
offshore research along the northwestern
panhandle coast of Florida.

RESEARCH VESSEL
GEOPROBE

The FGS Coastal Research
Program acquired a 22-foot trailerable
C-Dory registered as the R/V GeoProbe
that will enable the FGS to respond to
time controlled coastal events in a rapid
and efficient manner. The vessel's size 22
fills a gap in boat capability. Principally,


3S Coastal Research Program's research
cility located on Panama City Beach (Coastal
operations System photo).
its air-conditioned cabin, and bimini covered
stern allow for the secure use of sensitive
electronic field research equipment. The
vessel, which has GPS integrated radar, is
used to perform side-scan and seismic
surveys and sediment sampling in both
shallow and deep water.

SIEVE TECHNOLOGY UPGRADED

The two recently acquired Meinzer II single
stack sieve shakers are configured to hold half-
height sieves in the same manner as for the
Rotap shakers. Other than that there is little
resemblance between the two. Meinzer II
shakers are fixed amplitude machines with
close to 0.0066 inches (2.0 mm) of horizontal
orbital throw, and 0.01 inches (3.0 mm) of
vertical throw. Vibrations are generated at 60
cylces per second. They weigh 36 Ibs (16 kg)
and have a 10-inch square (0.254-m square)


WOMEN&-
























FGS garage bay part of Sedimentology Laborator)
Meinzer II sieve shakers in the right foreground, I
cahinet in the r*ntur haeknrnmnrli nhntn hv T M .


footprint, and comfortably occupy a space 3 ft.
long by 2 ft. wide by 2.5 ft. high (0.9 m L x 0.6
m W x 0.8 m H). Hence, they occupy a
footprint area 60% smaller than that required
for the Rotap machines. Their most endearing
characteristic is that they are silent. They also
result in much less wear on the sieves. Since
they are so light weight they can be easily
moved into an air-conditioned environment to
control effects of humidity and sticky grain
problems, and can be used in the mobile FGS
Geolab or on any of the FGS marine research
vessels.


SPECTROPHO TOMETER

The DR-4000 Spectrophotometer is
used for water quality measurements. Inorganic
contaminants that can be measured include
Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Chromium,
Copper, Lead, Nitrate, Nickel, Selenium,
Aluminum, Iron, Manganese, Sulfate, and Zinc.

SUBAQUEOUS SURFACE
SEDIMENT SAMPLER

In 2001, J. H. Balsillie designed and built
a surface sediment sampling device that can
be simply operated in waist- to chest-deep


,:.:
:'::L


wading depths or from a surface
craft. Its origin grew from the
desire of not having to dive for
j'surf zone bottom sediments
during the winter when water
temperatures attain a highly
uncomfortable mid-50's degrees
Fahrenheit. The sampling device
is currently designed to allow
collection of unconsolidated
sediments from wading depths
or from a boat up to a water
depth of 20 feet. Sampling
logistics are eased from a water-
depth perspective, since the
with device is comprised of five-foot
ltp threaded sections.


cabinet in the center backnround Inhoto bv T M


~-~ -----~I The device has specific
merits. First, it can ameliorate or
mitigate the water temperature problem for the
sampling individual where total immersion
would be required. Second, it constitutes a
significantly quicker method for obtaining a
sample than using a diver. Third, it allows one
to obtain a sample from a boat in water that
one would not want to dive due to potential
pollution problems. Fourth, it much more nearly
samples a sedimentation unit. Fifth, it procures
a sample of a size specifically suited to sieving
analytical procedures.


Adel Dabous demonstrates the use of the
newly acquired Spectrophotometer (photo by
J. H. Balsillie).






located behind the DEP Annex, across the
street from the Douglas Building. The
Warehouse also houses the FGS Core
Storage Facility.


J. H. Balsillie with a 10-foot length (two
five-foot segments) of the bullet surface
sediment sampler (left) with an additional
five-foot segment of main barrel (right)
that can be threaded onto the top of the
10-foot length for sampling in a water
depth of 15 feet (photo by Steve Kish).

WAREHOUSE OFFICE SPACE

In the winter of 2002, the Oil and Gas
Regulatory program acquired new office
space in what is called the 'Warehouse"







fl ,E WA 0.M


INTRODUCTION

Section 377.075, Florida Statutes
states ... The State Geologist shall prepare
and publish Florida Geological Survey
reports, with necessary illustrations and
maps, which provide general and detailed
descriptions of the geology and earth
resources of this state, shall maintain a
comprehensive research library, open to the
public, of published and unpublished
geological information, and shall otherwise
disseminate geological information to the
citizens of this state.

In this section, we present an overview
of product deliverables and publications
prepared or published by the Florida
Geological Survey during the period January
1, 2001 through December 31, 2002. During
this period over 42 scientific documents were
published, resulting in over 1,550 pages of
written material, two CD's, and one new web
site.

FGS PUBLICATIONS

The following FGS reports were
published during the period from January
2001 through December 2002:

Biennial Report

SBR 21 Green, R. C., and Means, G. H.,
2001, Biennial Report 21; 1999-2000, 67 p.

This report summarizes the activities of
the Florida Geological Survey professional
staff during the two-year period 1999-2000.
Included within the report are activities in each
section, program and research summaries,
special projects, talks, papers, and
publications, personnel information, building
improvements, and the FGS budget for those
years.


Florida Geology Forum

The Florida Geology FORUM is
designed to reach a wide range of readers
interested in geology and natural resources of
Florida. Each issue includes current events
and activities at the FGS, as well as meeting
announcements and contributed articles from
other geoscience organizations and University
geology departments.

* March 2001, vol. 15, no. 1, edited by Paula
Poison and Frank Rupert.

* October 2001, vol. 15, no. 2, edited by
Paula Poison and Frank Rupert

* March 2002, vol. 16, no. 1, edited by Paula
Poison and Frank Rupert.

* October 2002, vol. 16, no. 2, edited by
Paula Poison.

* Schmidt, W., 2001, Still More Evidence of
the Need for Professional Geoscience Input,
Florida Geology Forum, Vol. 15, No. 1. p. 1-2.

* Schmidt, W., 2002, Facts, Myths,
Misconceptions, and Media Misrepresentations
About Global Warming, Florida Geology
Forum, Vol. 16, No. 1, p. 1-2.

* Schmidt, W., 2002, Measuring Geologic
Research Projects as Productive Outputs
Towards the Desired Outcome of Natural
Resource Conservation, Florida Geology
Forum, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 10-11.

Progress Reports

Freedenberg, H., Hoenstine, R, Dabous, A.
A., Cross, B., Willett, A., Lachance, M.,
Fischler, C., and Stern, J., 2000, A
geological investigation of the offshore areas
along Florida's central east coast year 4
annual progress report to the U. S. Minerals
Management Service, Contract Period






January 1, 1999 through May 30, 2000,
Cooperative Agreement No. 1435-0001-
30757

This is the 4th year annual report of a
multiyear FGS/MMS cooperative
investigation of the offshore along Florida's
central east coast. The area of investigation
detailed in this report comprises shallow
sediments in federal waters off Indian River,
St. Lucie and Martin Counties from three to
approximately ten miles seaward. Data
obtained, described, and utilized within the
report includes over 160 miles of sub-
bottom profiler lines, 43 offshore grab
samples and 15 approximately twenty foot
long offshore vibrocores. This report
provides an evaluation of potential offshore
sand resources in the study area available
for beach renourishment. Described in this
report are four previously unrecognized
potential accumulations of beach quality
sand containing reserves of 247.8, 123.9,
82.6 and 46.4 million cubic yards located in
federal waters. The report confirms, via an
analysis of the vibra coring data obtained,
that the highest quality sand accumulations
in the study area are associated with
topographic highs.

Map Series

* MS 146 T. M. Scott, T. M., Campbell, K.
M., Rupert, F. R., Arthur, J. D., Green, R. C.,
Means, G. H., Missimer, T. M., Lloyd, J. M.,
Yon, J. W., and Duncan, J. D., 2001,
Geologic map of the State of Florida.

See OFR 80 for a brief review of the
Florida Geological Map.

Open File Map Series

* OFMS 90 Green, R., Evans, W. L., Jr.,
Bryan, J. R., Paul, D., Scott, T. M.,
Camplbell, K. M., and Gaboardi, M. M.,
2001, Surficial and Bedrock Geology of the
Southern Portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000
Scale Crestview Quadrangle, Northwestern
Florida, 2 sheets.


This map series was jointly funded by
the FGS and the USGS under the STATEMAP
component of the National Cooperative
Geologic Mapping Program and consists of a
geologic map, a surficial sediments map, and
several geologic cross sections of the Southern
Portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 Scale
Crestview Quadrangle, Florida

* OFMS 91 Green, R., Evans, W. L., III,
Bryan, J. R., Paul, D, and Gaboardi, M. M.,
2002, Surficial and Bedrock Geology of the
Western Portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000
Scale Marianna Quadrangle, Northwestern
Florida, 2 sheets.

This map series was jointly funded by
the FGS and the USGS under the STATEMAP
component of the National Cooperative
Geologic Mapping Program and consists of a
geologic map, a surficial sediments map, and
several geologic cross sections of the Western
Portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 Scale
Marianna Quadrangle, South-Central Florida.

Open File Reports

* OFR 80 Scott, T. M., 2001, Text to
accompany the geologic map of Florida (MS
146), 29 p.

The Florida Platform lies on the south-
central part of the North American Plate,
extending to the southeast from the North
American continent separating the Gulf of
Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean. The Florida
Platform, as measured above the 300 foot (91
meter) isobath, spans more than 350 miles
(565 kilometers) at its greatest width and
extends southward more than 450 miles (725
kilometers) at its greatest length. The modern
Florida peninsula is the exposed part of the
platform and lies predominantly east of the
axis of the platform. Most of the State of
Florida lies on the Florida Platform; the
western panhandle is part of the Gulf Coastal
Plain.

The basement rocks of the Florida
Platform include Precambrian-Cambrian
igneous rocks, Ordovician-Devonian
sedimentary rocks, and Triassic-Jurassic






volcanic rocks. Florida's igneous and
sedimentary foundation separated from
what is now the African Plate when the
super-continent Pangea rifted apart in the
Triassic (pre-Middle Jurassic?) and sutured
to the North American craton.

A thick sequence of mid-Jurassic to
Holocene sediments (unlithified to well
lithified) lies unconformably upon the eroded
surface of the basement rocks. Carbonate
sedimentation predominated from mid-
Jurassic until at least mid-Oligocene on
most of the Florida Platform. In response to
renewed uplift and erosion in the
Appalachian highlands to the north and sea-
level fluctuations, siliciclastic sediments
began to encroach upon the carbonate-
depositing environments of the Florida
Platform. Deposition of siliciclastic-bearing
carbonates and siliciclastic sediments
predominated from mid-Oligocene to the
Holocene over much of the platform.
Numerous disconformities that formed in
response to nondeposition and erosion
resulting from sea-level fluctuations occur
within the stratigraphic section.

The oldest sediments exposed at the
modern land surface are Middle Eocene
carbonates of the Avon Park Formation
which crop out on the crest of the Ocala
Platform in west-central Florida. The
pattern of exposures of younger sediments
is obvious on the geologic map. Much of
the state is blanketed by Pliocene to
Holocene siliciclastic and siliciclastic-
bearing sediments that were deposited in
response to late Tertiary and Quaternary
sea-level fluctuations.

The characteristic landscape of
Florida is relatively to extremely flat. There
are few large, natural exposures and limited
smaller exposures that geologists can
investigate. The result is that geologists
must rely primarily on de-watered or dry pits
and quarries for exposures and must make
use of subsurface data in studying the
geology of Florida. Subsurface data, in the
form of well cuttings and cores, were utilized
extensively in the development of this map.


Formational tops recognized in the
subsurface have been extrapolated to the
surface where exposures are limited.

Much of Florida is covered by a
blanket of Pliocene to Holocene,
undifferentiated siliciclastics that range in
thickness from less than one foot to greater
than 100 feet. As a result, in developing the
criteria for producing this map, FGS
geologists decided to map the first
recognizable lithostratigraphic unit occurring
within 20 feet (6.1 meters) of the land surface.
In areas where highly karstic limestones
underlie the undifferentiated siliciclastics,
paleosinkholes may be infilled with
significantly thicker sequences of siliciclastics.
If the shallowest occurrences of the karstic
carbonates were 20 feet (6.1 meters) or less
below land surface, the carbonate
lithostratigraphic unit was mapped. If the
carbonates lie more than 20 feet (6.1 meters)
below land surface, an undifferentiated
siliciclastic unit was mapped.

Undifferentiated siliciclastic sediments
occur in significant thickness (>20 feet [6.1
meters]) over much of the Gulf Coastal
Lowlands and the eastern part of the Florida
peninsula. Where these sediments were
mapped, efforts were made to determine if
beach-ridge or dune topography was present
in order to subdivide the siliciclastic
sediments.

Lithostratigraphic terminology applied
in this mapping effort followed, with limited
changes, the lithostratigraphic framework
delineated for the Gulf Coast Region chart
from the Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of
North America Project (COSUNA) Although
some of the units depicted on the COSUNA
chart have a significant biostratigraphic basis,
the COSUNA chart represents the best effort
to date to provide an accurate stratigraphic
framework for the Florida Platform and
surrounding regions.






* OFR 81 Arthur, J. D., Lee, R. A., and Li,
L., 2001, Lithostratigraphic and Hydro-
stratigraphic Cross Sections through Levy-
Marion to Pasco Counties, Southwest
Florida, 31 p.

A cooperative program exists
between the Southwest Florida Water
Management District (SWFWMD) and the
Florida Geological Survey (FGS) to construct
geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections
throughout the 16 county SWFWMD region.
The purpose of this multi-year effort is to
delineate the extent of lithostratigraphic and
hydrostratigraphic units within the region to
aid in the management and protection of
ground-water resources. To systematically
accomplish these goals, the SWFWMD is
subdivided into four study areas. Interim
reports on each study area will be released
as FGS Open File Reports (OFR). This
report includes the following counties: Levy,
Marion, Citrus, Sumter, Hernando, Pasco
and Polk. Similar reports for the remainder
of the District are in preparation or have
been completed. In this report, eight west-
east cross sections and two north-south
cross sections through the study area are
presented and discussed. The west-east
cross sections spanning this region extend
inland from the coast an average of 48 miles.

Each cross-section characterizes
regional lithostratigraphy of Eocene through
Pliocene formations, formation-specific
gamma-ray log responses, and aquifer-
system delineation within each study area.
Most of the data used to construct the cross
sections were taken from wells drilled as part
of the SWFWMD Regional Observation and
Monitor-Well Program. In areas where
ROMP data were not available, borehole
data from the FGS and the United States
Geological Survey (USGS) were utilized.

* OFR 83 Arthur, J. D., Cowart, J. G., and
Dabous, A. A., 2001, Florida Aquifer Storage
and Recovery Geochemical Study: Year
Three Progess Report, 52 p.

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)
is a cost-effective, viable solution to address


drinking-water shortages in Florida. ASR wells
are Class 5 injection wells regulated by the
Underground Injection Control Program of the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. Six ASR facilities are in operation
in Florida and more than 25 additional sites
are under development. Some of the sites
include reclaimed water ASR facilities, which
are also cost effective solutions to local water
shortages. ASR is a proposed major
component of the Everglades restoration
plan, which calls for the installation of
approximately 300 ASR wells in the Lake
Okeechobee region within the next 20 years.

The Florida Aquifer Storage and
Recovery Geochemical Study is an ongoing
investigation by the Florida Geological
Survey, in cooperation with the Florida State
University Department of Geological
Sciences, to examine water-rock geochemical
interactions that take place during ASR
cycles. This report includes results from Year
Three of the study. Results from Years One
and Two are presented in review. Year Four
of the project is underway. Water-quality
variations and aquifer system characteristics
(including three injection zones) at two ASR
facilities, the Rome Avenue ASR
(Hillsborough County) and the Punta Gorda
ASR (Charlotte County), are the focus of the
current study.

Research presented herein confirms
that understanding water-rock geochemical
interactions is important to the continued
success of ASR in Florida. Results of this
investigation indicate the following: 1)
chemical (including isotopic) variability exists
within groundwaters and carbonates of the
Floridan aquifer system; 2) this variability may
result in site-specific geochemical processes
affecting ASR well performance (e.g.,
plugging) and water quality; and 3) as
oxygen-rich surface waters are injected into
the Floridan aquifer system, trace metals such
as arsenic (As), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn)
and uranium (U) are mobilized (chemically
leached) from the carbonate rocks and
withdrawn during recovery. With regard to the
third item, some of the periods of higher
metals concentrations in recovered waters are






short lived, depending on the duration of the
injection-storage-recovery cycle. It is
significant that mobilization of U and As into
recovered ASR waters has occurred within
all three of the aquifer-storage zones
investigated in this study. On the other
hand, it is important to emphasize that only
Fe and Mn concentrations (for relatively few
samples) have exceeded secondary
drinking water standards (i.e., maximum
contaminant levels MCL). With the
exception of one sample, As is not observed
to have exceeded the MCL.

The current MCL for As is 50 ug/l.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) has proposed to lower the MCL for
As to 5 ug/l (Federal Register, 2000). If the
As MCL is lowered, mobilization of metals
into injected and recovered waters may
become even more of an issue from both a
regulatory and human health perspective.
For example, more than 50% of the
recovery water samples analyzed in this
study would exceed the proposed MCL. The
EPA proposal is lower than the 10 ug/l MCL
established by the World Health
Organization. These results underscore the
need for further research on the
geochemistry of ASR in Florida. Ongoing
research at the Florida Geological Survey
will continue to evaluate the geochemical
effects of continued ASR cycling and further
characterize the lithology and geochemistry
of the Floridan aquifer system. Although the
observations reported herein concerning
water-quality changes during ASR are
significant, proper design of ASR facilities
(including installation of monitor wells), as
well as proper design and monitoring of
ASR cycles should be able to overcome any
human health concerns.

* OFR 84 Balsillie, J. H., Dabous, A. A.,
and Fischler, C. T., 2002, Moment Versus
Graphic Measures in Granulometry, 86 p.

Statistical measures such as the
mean, standard deviation, skewness, and
kurtosis are precisely calculated using the
method of moments. However, this method
requires considerable computational


resources that were not available during the
majority of the preceding century. There
resulted, therefore, the invention of abbreviated,
surrogate predictive equations that could be
expediently evaluated to provide
approximations (called graphic measures) of
respective moment measures. By the mid-
1980's computers had become common in the
work place, and by the mid-1990's to the
public-at-large. Most researchers have taken
advantage of the available computing power
and now employ the method of moments.
There are others, however, who continue to
endorse the use of graphic measures.

This work compares the two methods
using 333 marine sediment samples. It was
found that the means show approximate
agreement, with graphic means
underestimating the moment means by a
maximum of 0.6(p. All higher graphic measures,
however, are not successful in replicating
moment measures, the degree of disagreement
progressively increasing with the order of the
moment measure. Standard deviation
measures had a correlation of r2 = 0.6486, for
the skewness r2 = 0.0865, and for the kurtosis r2
= 0.0098. Average ratios between moment
measures and graphic measures become
increasingly worse as the degree of the
moment measure increases. We conclude,
therefore, that graphic measures are not good
approximations of moment measures, and their
use should be discontinued.

* OFR 85 Scott, T. M., Means, G. H., Means,
R. C., and Meegan, R. P., 2002, First
magnitude springs of Florida: Florida Geological
Survey, 138 p.

Mysterious, magical, even "awesome" -
springs elicit an emotional response from nearly
everyone who peers into the crystalline depths.
The cool, clear, azure waters of Florida's
springs have long been a focus of daily life
during the humid, hot months of the year. Many
Floridians have a lifetime of memories
surrounding our springs. Visit any spring during
the muggy months and you will find people of
all ages partaking of Nature's soothing remedy -
spring water! Marjory Stoneman Douglas, the
granddame of Florida environmentalists, stated






(writer/author) observed that "Springs add a
melody to the land."

Springs and spring runs have been a
focal point of life, from prehistoric times to the
present. Undoubtedly, the ancient issuing of
cool, fresh water attracted animals now long
absent from Florida's landscape. Many a diver
has recovered fossil remains from the state's
spring runs and wondered what the forest
must have looked like when the animals
roamed the spring-run lowlands.

Human artifacts, found in widespread
areas of the state, attest to the importance of
springs to Florida's earliest inhabitants. The
explorers of Florida, from Ponce de Leon to
John and William Bartram and others, often
mentioned the subterranean discharges of
fresh water that were scattered across central
and northern Florida. As colonists and settlers
began to inhabit Florida, springs continued to
be the focus of human activity, becoming
sites of missions, towns and steamboat
landings. Spring runs provided power for
gristmills. Baptisms were held in the clear,
cool waters and the springs often served as
water supplies for local residents. Today,
even bottled water producers are interested in
utilizing these waters. Some springs have
been valued for their purported therapeutic
effects and people flocked to them to soak in
the medicinal waters.

The recreational opportunities
provided by the state's springs are numerous.
Swimming, snorkeling, diving and canoeing
are among the most common activities
centering around Florida's springs. The
springs and spring runs are magnets for
wildlife and, subsequently, draw many
individuals and groups to view these animals
in their natural surroundings.

Spring water is a natural discharge
from the Floridan aquifer system, the state's
primary aquifer, and the springs provide a
"window" into the aquifer allowing for a
measure of the health of the aquifer.
Chemical and biological constituents that
enter the aquifer through recharge processes
may affect the water quality and flora and


fauna of springs and spring runs. As water
quality in the aquifer has declined, the flora and
fauna associated with the springs and cave
systems have been negatively affected. The
change in water quality is a direct result of
Florida's increased population (increased eight-
fold since 1940) and changed land use
patterns. These changes and subsequent
degradation of our springs have led to the
efforts to save and restore Florida's treasured
springs.

In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) published the first Springs of Florida
bulletin which documented the major and
important springs in the state. This was revised
in 1977, adding many springs previously
undocumented and many new water quality
analyses of the spring water. The Florida
Geological Survey's report on first magnitude
springs (this open-file report) is the initial step in
revising the Springs of Florida bulletin. Nearly
300 springs were known in 1977. In 2001, at
least 700 springs have been recognized in the
state and more are reported each year. To
date, 33 first order magnitude springs (>100
cubic feet per second 64.6 million gallons of
water per day) have been recognized in Florida,
more than any other state or country. Our
springs are a unique and invaluable natural
resource. A comprehensive understanding of
the spring systems will provide the basis for
their protection and wise use.

Posters

* Poster 8 Bond, P., 2002, Protecting Florida's
Springs.

Special Publications

* SP 47 Lane, E., 2002, Spring Creek
Submarine Springs Group, Wakulla County,
Florida, 34 p.

Submarine springs are offshore
discharges of groundwater. In Florida they are
associated with coastal karst areas. Submarine
karst springs and sinkholes on the Florida
Platform constitute integral parts of Florida's
hydrogeological regime. They are some of the
ultimate down-gradient discharge points for






fresh water from Florida's aquifers.
Knowledge of their location, hydrology, and
stratigraphy will add to an understanding of
the overall structure and extent of Florida's
aquifer systems. Conceivably, they may
represent supplementary sources for fresh
water supplies. In addition, they are micro-
environments for fish nurseries; manatees
use some of them; and some are known
archaeological sites. They are key elements
in the linked Earth systems among Florida's
environments and ecosystems: the uplands,
the coasts, and the continental shelf marine
realms.

The Florida Geological Survey is
gathering information on such karst features
as part of the ongoing Florida coastal
research programs. This report documents
the results of the first investigation, on the
Spring Creek Springs Group, Wakulla County,
Florida.

The Spring Creek Springs Group is
comprised of at least 13 submarine springs
situated in the mouth of Spring Creek and
adjacent Stuart Cove, along the Gulf of
Mexico coastline in Wakulla County, Florida.
Combined flow of the group is about 2,000
cubic feet per second. The springs are fed by
conduits, likely developed along fractures in
the underlying carbonates. Analysis of local
fracture trends suggests that one surface
water source for the spring flow is Lost Creek,
a stream captured by a sinkhole about six
miles northwest of the springs. Regional
groundwater of the Floridan aquifer system
also supplies a portion of the total spring flow.
Seismic surveys and depth-recorder profiles
were conducted across 12 of the springs.
The springs' cross-sectional profiles show
them to be cone-shaped sinks, typical of
springs developed in Florida karst. Water
chemistry data collected at nine of the springs
showed variation suggestive of mixing and
possibly differing surface and ground-water
sources for the springs. All the springs exhibit
pulsating flow, alternating surges of boiling
surface turbulence caused by rapidly
upwelling water, followed by relatively
quiescent flow. This suggests that the
complex conduit system supplying the springs


may be influenced by local recharge events and
by tidal stage.

* SP 48 Balsillie, J. H., and Clark, R. R.,
2001, Annotated and Illustrated Bibliography of
*Marine Subaqueous Sand Resources of
Florida's Gulf of Mexico, 253 p.

A significant number of investigations
have, over the years, been published or
otherwise reported concerning offshore
sediments of Florida's Gulf of Mexico. We have
attempted in this work to compile a
comprehensive treatment of the subject in a
regional, subregional, and county-by-county
basis for Florida's Gulf Coast. We have
endeavored to annotate publications and
reports to the extent that the user will have a
grasp of the information and area of
applicability of each included work. The user,
then, will have information from which they can
decide if it is proper or not to further consult
individual works for additional details.

This study has been undertaken to
identify what is known about potential sources
of sediment for beach restoration and
maintenance renourishment and, perhaps, for
other reasons for Florida's Gulf of Mexico
beaches. The process of identifying sediment
sources (borrow material) for beach restoration
and maintenance renourishment civil works
projects is one which requires multi-phase
treatment. These phases proceed from the
general to the specific.

One could expend considerable effort
compiling a complex and intricate flowchart
detailing the interactive steps required to
identify final selection of borrow material
resources. The process is indeed complex. A
cost-shared beach restoration civil works
project beginning with a local sponsor (i.e., city
or county), receiving (in Florida) State support
and, then, obtaining funding support from the
Federal Government has historically required a
time period exceeding ten years! A somewhat
simplified order of considerations includes:

1. Identify where beach restoration is
needed.
2. Identify borrow material site(s).






a. Have the site(s) been previously
used, and are resources available or
exhausted?
b. Are resources renewable or do we
need to readjust our management of
sand resources (e.g., inlet sinks)?
3. Given the existing current
economical constraints, is it feasible
to transport the borrow material to the
restoration site?
4. If transport is feasible, then:
a. Is the borrow material compatible
for replacement of the native beach
material? Is there, for instance, an
acceptably small volume of fines (i.e.,
fine-grained sediment, specifically silt
and clay)?
b. Does the borrow material have
overfill ratios and renourishment
factors which render it suitable for
placement within given economic
constraints?
5. Have cultural (e.g., antiquities) and
environmental issues been properly
adhered to? For instance, for one
environment issue, sea turtle nesting
can require annual or seasonal
windows in permissible placement
schedules. In turn this depends on
seasonal wave heights, lengths,
periods, and water depth conditions
which will critically affect dredging
equipment mobilization and operation.

These are all task-oriented issues
which predominately fall within the realm of
geological or earth science purview. There
are cases where information exists such as
cores yielding grain-size information for
purposes other than identifying potential
borrow material resources. Nevertheless
such information provides a clue for further
investigationss.

This report constitutes a first overview
of the subject and addresses only general
information related to items 1 and 2 above.
Item 1 can be treated in a straightforward
manner. In addressing item 2, there is no
practical value in considering those reaches
of Florida's Gulf Coast where beach
restoration activities will not be needed in the


foreseeable future. Such coastal reaches
include the Big Bend, Ten Thousand Islands,
Lower Everglades, and Distal Keys of the
Florida Keys (Figure 1). In part, these are
protected areas and, in part, do not have the
population and economic pressures to support
beach restoration activities. This is not true of
the Panhandle Coast, Lower Gulf Coast, and
Lower Florida Keys where storm damage
reduction recreational benefits provide a
demand for maintenance of beach resources. It
is these areas upon which this study focuses.

* SP 49 Missimer, T.M., and Scott, T.M.,
editors, 2001, Geology and Hydrogeology of
Lee County, Florida: Durward H. Boggess
Memorial Symposium, 229 p.

A special symposium on the geology
and hydrology of Lee County, Florida was
held in Fort Myers on November 18 and 19,
1999. This symposium was held as part of
the 9th Southwest Florida Water Resources
Conference. The conference was held in
honor of Durward H. Boggess, who made
significant contributions to the understanding
of the geology and hydrology of Lee County.

Durward H. Boggess was a
hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in
Fort Myers from 1966 to 1979. During this
time period, Lee County was one of the most
rapidly growing regions in the United States.
Little was known about the geology and the
aquifer system beneath the county, as
evidenced by the small number of
publications on this region by the Florida
Geological Survey. Durward H. Boggess
developed a geologic and hydrologic
database that allowed the development of
future water supplies to occur with a sound
scientific basis.

Most of the papers published in this
volume were presented at the conference and
a few others were added to make the volume
as complete as possible in terms of recent
knowledge on the geology and hydrology of
Lee County. The volume is organized with a
discussion of the contributions of Durward
Boggess, followed by a series of papers on
the geology of the county. Based on the






geologic framework, a series of papers
follows on the hydrogeology of the county.
Finally, some papers on the surface-water
hydrology and water quality of the county
complete the volume.

Lee County occurs in the geographic
middle of the southern part of the Florida
Platform. The geology of this region is
rather unique, because there is a
succession of carbonate sediments followed
by a complex mix of carbonate and
siliciclastic sediments (beginning in the
Oligocene). The geographic location of the
county and the mixing of the sediments
caused the aquifer system beneath the
county to be quite complex with numerous
different aquifers present. Over 12 aquifers
or major water-bearing zones occur beneath
any given area of the county. It is critical to
understand the geology and hydrology of
this area, because many of the aquifers are
or will be used for water supply. Also, the
deep aquifer system is used for the disposal
of liquid wastes, such as oil field brines,
concentrates from desalination plants, and
treated domestic wastewater.

It is extremely important that recent
information on the geology and hydrology of
this as well as other regions of Florida be
made available to environmental managers
and the general public in a timely manner.

* SP 49 Scott, T.M., and Missimer, T.M.,
2001, The Surficial Geology of Lee County
and the Caloosahatchee Basin: in
Missimer, T.M., and Scott, T.M., editors,
2001, Geology and Hydrogeology of Lee
County, Florida, Durwood H. Boggess
Memorial Symposium, Florida Geological
Ssurvey SP 49, p. 17-20.

Knowledge of the surficial geology is
a predecessor to developing an
understanding of the regional hydrogeology.
Surficial geologic mapping in Florida is
problematic because of the low relief and
sand cover. The mapping effort in Lee
County relied heavily on data from well
cuttings and cores due to the sparse
occurrence of pits, quarries and natural


outcrops. The authors have spent many years
visiting pits and quarries and working
subsurface samples to develop an
understanding of the regional geologic
framework. The accumulated database was
utilized to determine sand overburden
thickness and the underlying stratigraphic
units for creating the Lee County geological
map.

The geologic units mapped were the
Tertiary Tamiami Formation (Tt), Tertiary-
Quaternary shell units (Tqsu includes
Caloosahatchee, Bermont, and Fort
Thompson Formations of previous usage)
and Quaternary (Holocene) coastal and
estuarine sediments (Qh). Less than 20 feet
of undifferentiated sands occurred within the
map area.

* SP 50 Davis, J., Johnson, R., Boniol, D.,
and Rupert, F., 2001, Guidebook to the
Correlation of Geophysical Well Logs within the
St. Johns River Water Management District,
114 p.

The St. Johns River Water
Management District (SJRWMD) maintains a
database of over 2,500 wells that have
geophysical logs in digital format. The Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) also maintains a
database of lithologic descriptions of wells
throughout the State of Florida. Many of the
lithologic logs have geologic contacts
identified. Prior to this study, few of the
SJRWMD geophysical logs had been
correlated to the corresponding lithologic logs
or to neighboring wells. It was apparent to
geological staff at both agencies that such
correlations, along with identification of
distinct and recognizable log signatures for
the different lithologic units, would serve as
an extremely useful tool in subsurface
hydrogeological investigations within the
SJRWMD.

This guidebook identifies the
correlation of geophysical well logs (natural
gamma and electric logs) within the
SJRWMD. The correlations were
documented through a comprehensive review
of existing well log data and literature.






Typical natural gamma log signatures for
geologic units in the SJRWMD have been
recognized. Geophysical logs are
presented in cross sections and individual
figures to serve as reference logs for
correlation purposes. These reference logs
exhibit a characteristic log response that
can be identified in other logs. Additionally
there is sufficient lithologic data available to
identify specific geologic units.

This study includes the geophysical
log characterization and correlation for the
entire SJRWMD and encompasses all the
geological units commonly penetrated by
water wells. The major geologic units
considered in this report include the
following Cenozoic strata: Paleocene Cedar
Keys Formation; the Eocene Oldsmar
Formation, Avon Park Formation, and Ocala
Limestone; the Oligocene Suwannee
Limestone; the Miocene Hawthorn Group;
and the various Pliocene, Pleistocene, and
Holocene formations. These units are
discussed in detail in the Stratigraphy
section.

Reference logs are identified to
establish an objective standard for
geophysical correlations of spatially
separated well logs, much as a type section
is used as a geologic formation reference.
A reference log well has lithologies that
exhibit characteristic geophysical log
responses. Additionally, there is sufficient
information to identify a number of
formations in the well. Ideally, a reference
log would have cores or cuttings described
by a geologist and have a basic geophysical
log suite consisting of natural gamma,
normal electric and caliper logs.

Other wells may not have a lithologic
description but do have a geophysical log
which can be correlated to a reference log.
Such a well log is designated as a
correlated log. Since there is limited
lithologic data, fewer geologic units may be
identified in a correlated log. A database of
correlated logs is currently being developed
based on the reference logs identified in this
report. Primarily, reference logs were used


in the construction of a series of geological
cross sections (Appendix A). These cross
sections provide a reference framework for
correlation of logs from other sites throughout
the SJRWMD. Appendix B presents a table
with attributes of the reference logs that
identify which lithologic log was used for
geologic unit identification, geologic unit
boundaries, location, and other pertinent
information. The cross sections and tables do
not include geologic contacts for the Pliocene,
Pleistocene, and Holocene sediments. The
log response to individual units within these
post-Miocene sediments is too variable to
identify consistently recognizable log
signatures.

The guidebook is intended to be used
as a field tool during drilling and logging
operations, as well as to establish a
documented basis (metadata), for the
geologic units in the SJRWMD Geographic
Information System data sets. It will also
provide citizens and professionals with
interpretations of geophysical log response
(primarily natural gamma and electric normal
resistivity) correlated with stratigraphy and
lithology of the subsurface formations that can
be applied to both well site planning and
technical hydrological and geological
research.

* SP 51 DeHan, R., (compiler), 2002,
Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the
Management and Protection of Florida's Spring,
2002, Proceedings of Symposium held at Ocala
Florida, May 8-9, CD format only.

This CD contains the text of the
presentations of all the speakers involved in
three panels, their findings and
recommendations as well as introductory
remarks and luncheon presentations. It also
contains the wrap-up sessions and final
recommendations of workshop panelists and
participants.






Reports of Investigation

SRI 100 Williams, H., Cowart, J. B., and
Arthur, J. D., 2002, Florida Aquifer Storage
and Recovery Geochemical Study: Year One
and Year Two Progress Report, 131 p.

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is
a cost-effective, viable solution to address
drinking-water shortages in Florida. ASR wells
are Class 5 injection wells regulated by the
Underground Injection Control Program of the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. Six ASR facilities are in operation
in Florida and more than 25 more sites are
under development. Some of the sites include
reclaimed water ASR facilities, which are also
cost-effective solutions to local water
shortages. ASR is a proposed major
component of the Everglades restoration plan,
which calls for the installation of approximately
300 ASR wells in the Lake Okeechobee region
within the next 20 years.

The Florida Aquifer Storage and
Recovery Geochemical Study is an ongoing
investigation by the Florida Geological Survey,
in cooperation with the Florida State University
Department of Geological Sciences, to
examine water-rock geochemical interactions
that take place during ASR cycles. This report
includes results from Year Three of the study.
Results from Years One and Two have been
published. Year Four of the project is
underway. Water-quality variations and
aquifer system characteristics (including three
injection zones) at two ASR facilities, the
Rome Avenue ASR (Hillsborough County)
and the Punta Gorda ASR (Charlotte County),
are the focus of the current study.

Research presented herein confirms
that understanding water-rock geochemical
interactions is important to the continued
success of ASR in Florida. Results of this
investigation indicate the following: 1) chemical
(including isotopes) variability exists within
groundwaters and carbonates of the Floridan
aquifer system; 2) this variability may result in
site-specific geochemical processes affecting
ASR wells (and water quality); and 3) as
oxygen-rich surface waters are injected into


the Floridan aquifer system, trace metals such
as arsenic (As), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and
uranium (U) are mobilized (chemically leached)
from the carbonate rocks and withdrawn during
recovery. With regard to the third item, some of
the periods of higher-metals concentrations in
recovered waters are short-lived, depending on
the duration of the injection-storage-recovery
cycle. It is significant that mobilization of U and
As into recovered ASR waters has occurred
within all three of the aquifer-storage zones
investigated in this study. On the other hand, it
is important to emphasize that only Fe and Mn
concentrations (for relatively few samples) have
exceeded secondary drinking water standards
(i.e., maximum contaminant levels MCL). With
the exception of one perhaps anomalous
sample, As is not observed to have exceeded
the MCL.

The current MCL for As is 50 ug/l. The
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is
evaluating a proposal to lower the MCL for As
(for more information, see www.epa.gov/
OGWDW/ars/arsenic.html). If the As MCL is
lowered, mobilization of metals into injected
and recovered waters may become even more
of a issue from both a regulatory and human
health perspective. For example, if the revised
As MCL were set at 25 ug/l, 25% of the 95
samples analyzed in this study would exceed
the MCL. For reference, the As MCL
established by the World Health Organization
is 10 ug/l.

These results underscore the need for
further research on the geochemistry of ASR in
Florida. Ongoing research at the Florida
Geological Survey will continue to evaluate the
effects of continued ASR cycling and further
characterize the lithology and geochemistry of
the Floridan aquifer system. Although the
observations reported herein concerning
water-quality changes during ASR are
significant, proper design of ASR facilities, as
well as proper design and monitoring of ASR
cycles should be able to overcome any human
health concerns.






* RI 101 Hoenstine, R. W., Freedenberg,
H., Dabous, A. A., Cross, G., Fischler, C.,
and Lachance, M., 2002, Geologic
Investigation of the Offshore Areas Along
Florida's Central East Coast 1996-2002, CD
format only 2 CDs.

This is the culmination of a five year
FGS/MMS cooperative investigation of the
offshore along Florida's central east coast.
The area of investigation comprises shallow
sediments in federal waters off Brevard,
Indian River, St. Lucie and Martin Counties
from three to approximately ten miles
seaward and the sediments on the beaches
immediate adjacent to that area. Data
obtained, described, and utilized within the
report includes approximately 1200 miles of
sub-bottom profiler lines, 46 ten foot long
beach push cores, 38 offshore vibrocores and
87 offshore grab samples. This investigation
includes a characterization of the geologic
processes and parameters affecting the shore
and near-shore within the coastal area
studied as well as an evaluation of known and
potential offshore sand resources available
for beach renourishment. Described in this
study are extensive new beach-quality sand
deposits; a potential reserve of 424.5 million
cubic yards (mcy) off Brevard County, 110.2
mcy off Indian River County, 371.7 mcy off St.
Lucie County, 131.0 mcy off Martin County.
Of the potential reserves off St. Lucie County
more than 23 mcy were confirmed by a
program of site specific development
vibrocoring.

Bulletins

B 65 Missimer, T. M., 2002, Late Oligocene
to Pliocene Evolution of the Central Portion of
the South Florida Platform: Mixing of
Siliciclastic and Carbonate Sediments, 184 p.

Synchronous deposition of carbonate
and sificiclastic sediments occurred on the
South Florida Platform during the late
Oligocene to Early Pliocene, producing a
large number of complex mixed
carbonate/siliciclastic lithologies, some
perhaps unique to the region. All 14 defined
subfacies contain a mix of carbonate and


siliciclastic sediments along with phosphorite
grains. Only a small percentage of the
stratigraphic section contains sediments with a
solely carbonate or solely siliciclastic
composition. Transitions between subfacies are
both transitional and abrupt. The hypothesis
that carbonate and siliciclastic mixed sediment
sequences show mostly abrupt boundaries is
not supported.
Based on the interpretations of the
depositional environments for the 14 subfacies
found in the Hawthorn Group, the entire
stratigraphic section was deposited on a ramp
with a high percentage of the sediments
containing a carbonate mud component.
Homoclinal ramp deposits are characterized by
low, rather uniform slopes from shallow water
into the basin with continuous grading of
sediment types from nearshore sands to deep
water sands and muds. Many described ramp
deposits contain little or no mud in the open
inner or outer ramp subfacies such as the
eastern Florida ramp, the current west Florida
ramp, and other wave-dominated ramps, such
as southern Australia. Modern ramp deposits
bordering restricted water bodies, such as the
Arabian Gulf, do contain a belt of muddy open-
water inner and outer ramp deposits. Ancient
epeiric ramp deposits also produced
wackestone and mudstone deposits in the open
shelf area. Therefore, the southern Florida
ramp deposited during the late Oligocene to
early Pliocene was more similar to a restricted-
sea ramp than a wave-domninated ramp.
A new chronostratigraphy developed for
the upper Paleogene and Neogene sediments
on the central part of the South Florida
Platform. The ages of the sediments were
determined by the combined use of calcareous
nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera. diatoms,
strontium isotope stratigraphy, magnetostrati-
graphy, and carbon and oxygen isotope
variations. Based on these integrated dating
techniques, the following age constraints using
the Berggren and others time scale were placed
on the formations in this region: the Suwannee
limestone is constrained between 33.7(?) to
28.5 Ma, the Arcadia Formation of the
Hawthorn Group is constrained from between
26.5 to 12.4 Ma, the Peace River Formation of
the Hawthorn Group is constrained between






11(?) to 4.3 Ma, the Tamiami Formation is
constrained between 4.29 to 2.15 Ma, and the
Caloosahatchee Flormation is constrained
from 2.14 to 0.6 Ma.
Eleven third-order sea level events
were recognized in the stratigraphic record
between the Late Oligocene and Early
Pliocene. With the exception of the Early
Miocene sea-level events, the remaining
seven events corresponded closely in time
with the global sea level curve of Haq and
others. However, the depth of flooding on the
Florida Platform differed from the relative five
depths predicted by the Haq curve. During
the late Aquitaniam and Burdigalian, Haq
observed three third-order sea level events,
but four events were recorded in the cores
studied. It is hypothesized that two of the
events correlate to event 2.1 of Haq, which is
a revision of the global curve.


FGS Web Site Applications


* Balsillie, J. H., 2002, Analytic granulometry
tools: Florida Geological Survey Web site,
posted August 9, 2002 on http://www.dep.
state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/analytic_gra
n_tools/ analytic _gran.htm

Two-dimensional plotting tools can be
of invaluable assistance in analytical scientific
pursuits, and have been widely used in the
analysis and interpretation of sedimentologic
data. Arithmetic-arithmetic, logarithmic-
logarithmic, arithmetic-logarithmic (semi-
logarithmic), and other plotting media have
been used to display analytical results. The
use of arithmetic probability paper (APP),
however, has far more useful capabilities.
Natural data plotted on APP may, in many
applications, be made up of several straight-
line segments or components. These
segments are often attributable to some
identifiable natural cause or process such as
multiple transport agents, or multiple sediment
sources.

Most statistical computer applications
do not allow for the generation of APP plots,
because of apparent intractable nonlinearity of


the percentile (or probability) axis of the plot.
This problem has been solved by identifying an
equation(s) for determining plotting positions of
Gaussian percentiles (or probabilities), so that
APP plots can easily be computer generated.

Programmed EXCEL application
templates were made publicly available (by
clicking on the links provided), whereby a
complete granulometric analysis including data
listing, moment measure calculations, and
frequency and cumulative APP plots, is
automatically produced. The EXCEL application
includes two programmed workbooks, one for
sieved data (GRANPLOTS), and the other for
settling tube data (GRANPLOTT). There is a file
in each application entitled README that
provides information about how to use the
application. Note: The Excel application was
compiled using Microsoft Excel version 2002.


PAPERS BY STAFF

IN OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS


* Arthur, J.D., Cichon, J., Baker, A.,
Marquez, J., Rudin, A., and Wood, A., 2002,
Hydrogeologic mapping and aquifer
vulnerability modeling in Florida: 2D and 3D
data analysis and visualization, in: Thorleifson,
L.H., and Berg, R.C., (convenors), Three-
dimensional geological mapping for
groundwater applications; Workshop extended
abstracts, Denver, Colorado October 26,
2002, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File
1449, p. 1-4.

Data analysis and modeling within the
infrastructure of geographic information
systems (GIS) applications are invaluable
assets with respect to groundwater resource
management and protection. In Florida,
groundwater comprises more than 90% of
potable water resources, which are used by a
population of more than 16 million. With an
increase of more than 7000 residents per week,
demands on Florida's ground-water resources
continue to intensify in highly populated areas,
especially in the midst of a five-year drought.
Hydrogeologic research framed around






application of 2D and 3D software tools
allows simple and clear visual representation
of natural systems and processes that need
to be understood by environmental managers
and elected officials.

Two hydrogeology projects utilizing
such tools are underway at the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS). The first of these
projects, the Southwest Florida Subsurface
Mapping Project, is developing structure
contour and isopach maps for seven
lithostratigraphic units and four
hydrostratigraphic units over a 14,500 mi2
(37,500 km2) region based on geologic data
from more than 1,050 wells. The study area
includes a 10-mile wide buffer zone to help
address edge control issues. Lithologic
samples from most of these wells have been
inspected for lithostratigraphic and
hydrogeologic characteristics via binocular
microscope. Hydrologic and geophysical data
have also been interpreted to yield point
elevations. The goal of this mapping effort is
to deliver a highly resolved geologic
framework of southwest Florida for use in
water resource protection efforts. This
hydrogeologic framework will be delivered as
map sheets, an ArcView 3.2a (AV) project
and an interactive ArclMS Internet
application. The second project discussed
herein is the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA) project. FAVA is a
developing methodology using GIS as a tool
for predicting the relative contamination
potential of Florida's ground-water resources.
Current plans for delivery of this product
include map sheets and an ArcView 3.2a
project with a user interface to allow
adjustment of parameters. We envision this
vulnerability modeling effort to be
contaminant-specific and scalable.


* Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A.A., and Cowart,
J.B., 2002, Mobilization of arsenic and other
trace elements during aquifer storage and
recovery, southwest Florida, in: U.S.,
Geological Survey Artificial Recharge
Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento,
California, April 2-4, 2002: U.S. Geological
Survey Open File Report 02-89, p. 44-47.

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is
an effective method of injecting treated or
reclaimed water into confined, or semi-confined
permeable formations for later withdrawal as
needed. This technology is rapidly becoming
widely accepted to address water supply
shortages. In 1998, only six ASR facilities were
in operation in Florida. As of January 2002, 26
ASR facilities existed in Florida and 19 were
permitted for construction. More than 100 ASR
facilities are in operation worldwide. ASR not
only helps meet increasing demands for
drinking water, but it has several other
applications in industry, agriculture and
environmental restoration. A prime example of
the latter application is the role of ASR in the
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Project. Approximately 300 ASR wells are
proposed in South Florida to capture -1.7 billion
gallons per day and store the water in the
Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) until it is
needed.

Early operational testing of ASR wells in
Florida (early 1980's to mid 1990's) focused
primarily on engineering aspects to address
what was considered the bottom line: what
percentage of water can be recovered once it
has been injected into aquifer storage zones?
Although water quality monitoring accompanied
the testing of these wells, little attention was
paid to water-rock interactions that may occur
during ASR operation, unless those processes
affected the ability to store or recover water
(e.g., precipitation/plugging).

In 1995, leaching experiments
conducted by Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
staff demonstrated that not only does uranium
occur in appreciable amounts (>25 ppm) within
FAS limestones, but also more than 30% of the
uranium can be leached from the rocks under
oxidizing conditions in the laboratory. This is






especially significant relative to ASR in Florida
where the storage zone is the reduced FAS.
Source (i.e., surface) waters for ASR contain
more dissolved oxygen (DO) than native
ground water. Once these waters are
introduced into a reduced aquifer, selective
leaching and/or mineral dissolution may
release metals into the injected water.
Recognizing the implications of this research,
the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP) funded the Aquifer Storage
and Recovery Geochemistry project, which is
now in its fifth year at the FGS. Goals of this
project include:

Investigate water-rock interaction
processes that occur during ASR
Identify the source and
mechanism for mobility of trace
metals released into injected
waters during ASR in varying
hydrogeologic settings (e.g.,
microanalysis and sequential
extraction [leaching] experiments)
Evaluate the effect of repeated
ASR cycle testing and other ASR
practices (e.g., borehole
acidization) on water quality
Explore the application of U
isotopes to identify source waters
(injected, native and interstitial)
and mixing
Characterize the chemistry and
mineralogy of FAS carbonates
Provide the FDEP with scientific
knowledge on which to base
permitting decisions.

Currently, three ASR facilities comprise the
focus of our research: NW Hillsborough
County Reclaimed water ASR, Rome Avenue
ASR (Hillsborough County), and the Punta
Gorda ASR facility (Charlotte County).
Results of research on the latter two sites,
located more than 120 km apart, are
summarized in this paper.


* Baker, A.E., Cichon, J.R., Arthur, J.D., and
Raines, G.L., 2002, Florida aquifer vulnerability
assessment Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 346.

FAVA is a developing model intended to
use existing geographic information system
(GIS) data to predict the vulnerability of
Florida's major aquifer systems to
contamination. Model development is currently
in the preliminary stages consisting of five
countywide projects. The overall task of FAVA
is the development of a tool for environmental,
regulatory and planning professionals to assist
in the protection of Florida's ground-water
resources. Current methods employed in
model development include Weights of
Evidence and a Travel Time method. These
methods utilize the same spatial layers and
currently include: confining unit thickness, soil
permeability or drainage, and the percentage of
an area covered by karst features. While both
methods yield similar results for low and high
ranges of vulnerability, the mid-ranges differ, as
do validation procedures.
Weights of Evidence quantifies
relationships between spatial layers with actual
contaminant occurrences in order to support a
hypothesis. Using these calculated
relationships, interactions can be analyzed to
yield data-driven predictive models by
estimating the relative probability of aquifer
vulnerability.
The Travel Time method, explained in
its simplest form, is the estimated time it takes
for surface water to reach the top of the
saturated zone of an aquifer. By adding
together various GRID's representing
hydrologic information a travel time is
calculated. The output is then multiplied by a
factor to account for karst feature density.
Areas with shorter travel times would then be
classed as highly vulnerable as the predictive
FAVA.
A third possible option would be to
explore the use of a Fuzzy Logic model utilizing
those same hydrologic parameters. Like in the
DRASTIC model the spatial hydrologic
parameters will be estimated subjectively using
expert knowledge to approximate the relative
importance of each feature. These fuzzy






memberships can then be combined using a
range of operators to calculate a response.
* Baker, A.E., Cichon, J. R., Arthur, J. D.,
and Kher, S., 2002, Florida aquifer
vulnerability assessment (FA VA):
development of a vulnerability model for
Florida's aquifers: Florida Scientist, Program
Issue 66th Annual Meeting, Barry University,
Miami, FL, Florida Scientist V-65, Supplement
I, p. 47-48.
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA): Development of a
vulnerability model for Florida's aquifers.
FAVA is a developing methodology intended
to use existing geographic information system
(GIS) data to predict the vulnerability of
Florida's major aquifers to contamination.
Model development is currently in the
preliminary stages, consisting of small-scale
pilot mapping projects (Alachua, Hillsborough
and Polk counties) using Weights of
Evidence, which is a method for quantifying
the relationship of layers in the FAVA model.
The overall mission of the FAVA model is to
develop a tool that can be used by
environmental, regulatory and planning
professionals to facilitate protection of
Florida's ground-water resources, and thus
the health and safety of Florida's residents.

* Balsillie, J. H., 2002, Expedient
Assessments of Coastal Storm and Hurricane
Damge Potential: Environmental
Geosciences, v. 9, no. 3, p. 102-108.

A considerable amount of detailed
information on storms and hurricanes and
their resulting impacts upon landfall has been
compiled over the past 15 years. These data
have allowed for the development of detailed
and successful prediction methodologies.
However, there is also a need for generalized
or more simply applicable tools for predicting
coastal impacts from extreme meteorological
events. Two such pragmatic tools have been
presented. In the first, mean and maximum
beach and coast erosion quantities have been
correlated to the Saffir-Simpson hurricane
damage potential scale, resulting in an
amended Saffir-Simpson scale. In addition,
two figures have been produced, one of which


relates storm surge, storm tide rise time and
erosion volume, and the other which relates
storm surge, forward speed of a storm or
hurricane and erosion quantity. These can be
used as nomographs, for instance, to assess
the erosion damage potential in real time as an
event is approaching the coast. The second
tool is based on the binomial probability
theorem. It allows one to assess, for instance,
encounter probabilities for known return periods
and encounter periods, and is of valuable
assistance in the design phase of coastal
projects.

* Balsillie, J. H., Donoghue, J. F., Butler, K.
M., and Koch, J. L., 2002, Plotting Equation for
Gaussian Percentiles and a Spreadsheet
Program for Generating Probability Plots:
Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 72, no. 6,
p. 929-933.

Two-dimensional plotting tools can be of
invaluable assistance in analytical scientific
pursuits, and have been widely used in the
analysis and interpretation of sedimentologic
data. We consider, in this work, the use of
arithmetic probability paper (APP). Most
statistical computer applications do not allow for
the generation of APP plots, because of
apparent intractable nonlinearity of the percentile
(or probability) axis of the plot. We have solved
this problem by identifying an equation(s) for
determining plotting positions of Gaussian
percentiles (or probabilities), so that APP plots
can easily be computer generated. An EXCEL
example is presented, and a programmed,
simple-to-use EXCEL application template is
hereby made publicly available, whereby a
complete granulometric analysis including data
listing, moment measure calculations, and
frequency and cumulative APP plots, is
automatically produced.

* Balsillie, J. H., 2002, Red Flags on the
Beach: Part I11: Journal of Coastal Research, v.
18, no. 4, p. iii-vi.

In former works Tanner (1998)
discussed seven red flags, and Balsillie and
Tanner (2000) listed an additional six red flags,
where by "red flags" it was meant common
uncertainties or errors in coastal applications.






Though the list is still by no means complete
an additional seven items are discussed here.
They are:

Granulometric statistics an evaluation
problem.
Graphic measures versus moment
measures.
The mean equals the median?
Composite versus suite statistics.
Sieving versus settling.
Particle size classification scales.
Carbonate granulometry.

* Dabous, A.A., 2002, Lead-210
geochronology and trace metal geochemistry
of sediments cores from Lake Overstreet and
Upper Lake Lafayette, Leon County, Florida:
Environmental Geosciences, v. 9, no. 2, pp. 1-
15.

Sedimentation rates and
concentrations of major, trace, and rare earth
elements in sediment cores from Lake
Overstreet and Upper Lake Lafayette in Leon
County, Florida were investigated in this
study. The constant initial concentration
method of 210Pb dating was employed to
derive accumulation rates of 6.94 mm/yr for
the Lake Overstreet core and 5.58 mm/yr for
the Upper Lake Lafayette core. Historical
profiles of Upper Lake Lafayette for Pb, Zn, V,
Cr, Ni, U, Th, and Sc showed two maximum
enrichments during 1929 and 1997. These
represent two periods: (1) 1929-1983 where
enrichment decreased with time and (2) 1983-
1997 where enrichment increased with time.
In the Upper Lake Lafayette sediment core,
vertical trends in V, Cr, Ni, Pb, Th, and U are
similar to Rare Earth Elements, suggesting
co-migration and enrichment of these
elements during diagenesis. This also may be
attributed to their occurrences in heavy
minerals. Concentrations of these elements
and concentrations of As, Sb, P, and Y are
significantly enriched above crustal
abundances. The probable sources of these
elevated metal concentrations are heavy
minerals and phosphate of the Hawthorn
Group within the catchment basin. The
variations in concentrations of these elements
are most likely the result of the input of detrital


heavy minerals during different periods.
Comparing Upper lake Lafayette with polluted
lakes in Florida, indicates that the degrees of
enrichment for Al, Fe, P, V, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn, Ba,
and Pb are higher and for Ti, As, and Cu are
lower. In contrast, Lake Overstreet is
considered a pristine lake in Florida and the
results of the analysis showed that most of the
elements identified in their core sediments are
present in low concentrations. Wet deposition
from the drainage systems of the recharge area
is the probable source.
* Kish, S. A., Balsillie, J. H., and Milla, K.,
2001, A remote sensing and GIS study of long
term water mass balance of Lake Jackson,
Florida: Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, November 5-8, 2001.

* McClean, J. A. R., 2002. GIS Analysis of
Landsat 7 Thermal Data to Identify Submarine
Springs, in Breman, J. ed, Marine Geography:
GIS for the Oceans and Seas. Redlands, Calif.:
ESRI Press.

This paper investigates remotely sensed
thermal data to identify underwater springs.
The investigators are able to better plan and
organize field operations by narrowing the
potential survey areas. Using remote sensing
imagery and conventional cartography data
products, they are able to plan survey patterns
and calculate time and fuel budgets in
advance. This pilot project demonstrates how
GIS can help to reduce research expenses and
maximize efficient deployment of field survey
teams.

* McClean, J. A. R., 2001. A Review of
Submerged Stone Age Archaeological
Research in Florida: Nachrichtenblatt
Arbeitskreis Unterwasserarchaologie,
Commission fOr Unterwasserarchaologen in der
Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Band 8-2001, pp.
11-19.

This paper provides an overview of
underwater Stone Age archaeological
research in Florida, USA. The public is most
aware of Florida's shipwreck legacy as a
result of media sensationalism, however there
also exists a community of scholars dedicated
to prehistoric research in Florida. As in the






Baltic region, submerged sites have
provided excellent preservation of organic
materials. Research in Florida's submerged
past has a history extending back over one
hundred and fifty years utilizing surface
supplied diving technology to recover extinct
Pleistocene mammal remains from springs.
Recent and current projects are outlined in
this paper to raise awareness of the
development of high standards in the
"nascent" discipline: in Florida. A brief
description is also given of scientific diver
training available at the author's home
institution, Florida State University, in
Tallahassee Florida.

* Means, G. H., and Scott, T. M., 2002, The
Florida Springs Initiative Geology's role in
public policy. Geological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, Abstracts with
program, p. 73.

Florida has over 700 known springs,
more than any other state in the country.
They are a priceless resource, providing
recreation and enjoyment for Floridians.
Springs are also a window into the aquifer,
and can provide information about the overall
health of the aquifer, which supplies most of
the domestically used water in Florida. Water
quality in springs has become an increasingly
visible issue in Florida, and has prompted the
governor and legislature to fund the Florida
Springs Initiative. This initiative has brought
together numerous groups of people including
scientists, planners, legislators and the public
in an attempt to identify critical issues related
to springs and spring protection. The goal is
to create effective management plans that
can be implemented to ensure future
protection of Florida's springs.

The Florida Geological Survey's (FGS)
role in the Springs Initiative is to gather data
related to water quality, geology, and
geography, and publish the information. The
FGS, in 1947, published the first
comprehensive report on springs and spring
water quality (FGS Bulletin 31). That report
was updated in 1977, (Bulletin 31, Revised)
and our goal is to publish another updated
version by the end of 2004. This data is an


invaluable resource for scientists, planners and
persons interested in spring water quality and
how it has changed since 1947. By
documenting changes in the water quality of
Florida's precious springs over the past fifty
years, the FGS has been able to provide the
data needed to allow the state's policy makers
to make sound, scientifically based
management decisions.

* Meegan, R. P., Means, R. C., Means, G. H.,
and Scott, T. M., 2002, Water Quality Sampling
of Florida's First Magnitude Springs: FGS
Bulletin 31 Update: Florida Academy of Sciences
Annual Meeting Program Issue, v. 65,
supplement 1, p. 46-47.

The 2001 Florida Legislature funded the
Florida Springs Initiative to investigate springs in
the state. The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
conducted water quality sampling of the state's
first magnitude springs in response to the
legislative mandate. This study focused on the
33 known first order magnitude springs.
Seventeen springs, eight spring groups/systems,
seven river rises, and one karst window were
sampled for water quality from September
through November, 2001. Results from this
investigation of Florida's largest springs, which
are unique and treasured natural resources,
provide data for use by scientists, planners,
environmental managers and the citizens of
Florida. With further support from the
Legislature, the FGS will continue sampling
lower order magnitude springs and will publish a
revision of Bulletin 31, The Springs of Florida.

* Roberts, T. L., and Scott, T. M., 2002,
Karstification impacts on nitrate levels in the
Floridan aquifer system of Florida and the Castle
Hayne Limestone Aquifer of North Carolina:
Fourth Bald Head Island Conference on Coastal
Plains Geology, Wilmington, NC, November 16-
20, 2002

The carbonate aquifer systems of Florida
and the North Carolina Coastal Plain provide a
huge portion of the freshwater for potable and
irrigational use. As the number of residents in
these regions increase yearly, so does the
vulnerability of these groundwater resources to
potential NO, contamination from agricultural






and horticultural non-point sources. This is
due to annual rainfall trends, the relationship
between use and replenishment of these
aquifers, and to the areas' distinctive
hydrogeological framework.

The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) in
Florida occurs in parts of the Eocene,
Oligocene and Lower Miocene carbonates,
and provides the state with a majority of its
groundwater. Eocene sediments are
composed of carbonates with varying amounts
of dolostone and limestone, and the Oligocene
of carbonates with varying amounts of
limestone, dolostone, dolomitic limestone,
siliciclastics, and in some areas, silty to finely
sandy clays. The uppermost part of the FAS is
found in the Lower Miocene carbonates, which
consist of varying amounts of dolostone,
limestone, siliciclastics, and phosphate
nodules.

In North Carolina, the Castle Hayne
Limestone aquifer is found in the Cretaceous
Rocky Point Member of the Peedee Formation,
the Eocene Castle Hayne Formation and in the
Oligocene River Bend Formation. These units
comprise the single most productive aquifer in
the North Carolina Coastal Plain. The Rocky
Point Member varies from framework- to
matrix-supported sandy molluscan-mold
limestone to calcareous quartz sand. The
Castle Hayne Formation's lithology varies from
a basal phosphate pebble conglomerate, to
dense limestone, to coarse shell-rich zones.
The River Bend Formation disconformably
overlies the Castle Hayne, and is a sandy
carbonate that consists of soft silty to sandy
lime mud or lithified sandy molluscan-mold
limestone. Porosity and permeability varies
with rock type but is better in non-matrix-
supported lithologies that are often moldic.

Carbonates of the FAS and the Castle
Hayne aquifer can also have substantial
storage and very high permeabilities because
of solution channels or fractures. Karstic
features vary from shallow sinkholes to deep
caverns and may extend over large areas.
The karstification of the Eocene, Oligocene
and Lower Miocene units in Florida and the
North Carolina Coastal Plain has a direct


impact on their porosity and permeability, and
thus, the amount of recharge provided to the
groundwater system. Because karst features
allow direct transfer of surface waters into these
groundwater systems, NO, from anthroprogenic,
non-point sources is allowed direct infiltration
and can be detrimental to the quality of this
resource.

A number of investigations have shown that
there is local groundwater contamination
occurring in the FAS in intensely farmed areas
and in areas of heavy animal manure loading.
Recent data indicate increasing concentrations
of nutrients, such as NO,, in groundwater, spring
water, and private drinking water wells. These
findings have induced a major effort by a number
of state agencies to find nutrient management
solutions in order to improve these unwanted
conditions. These solutions include: increased
reclaimed water use for agriculture and golf
courses, funding for treatment plants and for
piping the reclaimed water to users, the requiring
of growers to manage irrigation practices,
conservation and water restrictions, consumptive
use permits, and public acceptance.

Similarly, studies in the North Carolina
Coastal Plain have shown that in areas with
heavy agriculture and areas with heavy loading
of animal manure and fertilizers there is localized
contamination of the Castle Hayne Limestone
aquifer. Because of the similarities in the
hydrogeological frameworks of these two
regions, investigations and means of
remediation conducted by agencies in the State
of Florida may be beneficial to the NO,
contamination problems occurring in North
Carolina Coastal Plain groundwater.

* Schmidt, Walter, 2001, Sinkholes in Florida,
in Geotimes, News Magazine of the Earth
Sciences, Published by the American
Geological Institute, May 2001, p. 18.

Landforms that are dominated by
terrains that have been shaped by dissolution of
the underlying rocks are called karstt terrains."
Typical features include sinkholes, caves,
disappearing streams, karst prairies,
underground drainage channels, natural
bridges, and springs. These features occur






because the underlying limestone dissolves
more easily than the surface rocks, which
leads to increased porosity and voids in the
subsurface. Karst terrains are common
throughout the United States in southern
Indiana, central Kentucky and Tennessee,
southern New Mexico, the Appalachian
Mountain Great Valley Limestone belt, and in
Florida.

Sinkholes are the most commonly
known karst feature and their surface
expression can cause significant impact to
building infrastructure, groundwater
resources, and waste disposal facilities.
Land-use planners at all levels need to be
familiar with sinkhole occurrence and
dynamics, from private citizens who build a
home to architects and engineers who design
and site buildings, bridges and highways, and
government officials who issue permits for
construction of landfills or other operations
that impact environmental or water resources.

In Florida our rapid population growth
and associated development and construction
of roads, houses, and other facilities along
with the increased need for safe disposal of
waste, increased demands on the state's
water resources, modified surface drainage
systems and increased storm water run-off, all
place continued stress on the natural
hydrogeologic system. The most common
natural sources of stress that may trigger the
formation of a sinkhole are fluctuations of
groundwater levels and or pressures resulting
from high rain events and flooding or the
opposite, severe drought with lowered water
levels. These conditions can be exacerbated
by societal manipulation of the natural system
by altering drainage patterns, pumping well
water, or the impact of construction activities.
The natural occurrence of sinkholes has
direct impact on structures causing economic
hardship and safety hazards. In addition,
sinkholes can function as conduits of
communication between surface water and
groundwater aquifer systems. With over 90%
of Florida's water supply coming from
groundwater aquifers, we must be aware and
recognize the potential for groundwater
contamination from surface pollutants through


breaches in the surface sediment layers via
sinkholes.

Sinkholes have been classified by
geologists based on their mode of development
and their overall geometry. Understanding
sinkhole dynamics is critical to detecting and
mitigating damages that may be occur.
Collapse sinkholes are those which occur
when the bridging material over a subsurface
cavern cannot support the overlying material.
The cover collapses into the cavern and a large
funnel-shaped depression results. Solution
sinkholes result from increased groundwater
flow into higher porosity zones within the rock,
typically due to fractures or joints within the
rock. Increase in slightly acidic surface water
into the subsurface continues the slow
dissolving of the rock matrix resulting in slow
subsidence at the surface as surface materials
fill the voids. Alluvial sinkholes is a term for
older sinkholes that have subsequently been
partially filled in with marine, wetland, or soil
sediments. These features in Florida, where
there is a shallow water table, typically are in
the form of shallow lakes, cypress "domes" and
wetlands. Raveling sinkholes result from a
deeper cavern having a thicker overburden
sediment calve into the void and piping upward
towards the surface. As the overlying material
or "plug" erodes into the cavern, the void
migrates vertically until the cover can no longer
be supported and then subsidence begins.

There are many different techniques
employed by geologists to search for
subsurface voids or caverns that may lead to
sinkholes on the surface. Identification of
sinkhole-prone areas should be a part of any
sound land-use plan or land-zoning ordinance
in these regions.

* Schmidt, Walter, 2001, Silver Springs,
Florida, USA, p. 137 141, in Springs and
Bottled Waters of the World, Ancient History,
Source, Occurrence, Quality and Use, P.E.
LaMoreaux and J.T. Tanner (Eds.), Published
by Springer-Verlag, 315 p.

Silver Springs, has long been
considered the largest freshwater spring in
Florida when considering the long-term average






discharge. The spring is a classic example of
discharge from the extensive Floridan aquifer
system which extends from southern Alabama
through Georgia into South Carolina, and
underlies all of Florida. The Springs have
been commercially developed since the late
1800's including the world famous glass
bottom boats.

* Scott, T. M., and Schmidt, W., 2002,
Water sustainability in Florida: Issues of
development, population and the environment
with special reference to the Everglades: in
Gerhard, L.C., Leahy, P.P., and Yannacone,
V.J., 2002, Sustainability of Energy and Water
through the 21st Century Proceedings of the
Arbor Day Farm Conference: Kansas
Geological Survey Special Publication, p.101-
108.

Florida is a water-rich state. The
geological framework, formed over millions of
years, created the aquifer systems upon
which man relies for water resources. It is
estimated that more than two quadrillion
gallons of fresh water are in the state's
aquifers. Approximately four trillion gallons of
water recharge the Floridan aquifer system
each year. Three trillion gallons are naturally
discharged annually, mostly via Florida's
more than 600 springs. One trillion gallons
per year are withdrawn by pumping. Surface
water discharge from the major rivers is more
than 14 trillion gallons per year. Many areas
of the state do not have the needed fresh
water supplies. Alternative supplies from
mineralized waters and subsurface storage of
excess water are being used.

The Florida Everglades are a vast
wetland in southern Florida. The Everglades
formed over thousands of years as a result of
fresh water sheet flow. Man has dramatically
altered the Everglades through attempts to
control water. The ecosystem was drastically
altered. Now, man is attempting to restore
the ecology of the Everglades. The
restoration requires a restructuring of water
policy and use in southern Florida. Congress
has passed legislation to provide funds for the
restoration.


Many water sustainability questions
arise. These include: 1) What is the level of
infrastructure development and population
growth that is supportable by the state's water
resources? 2) Should mineralized waters be
considered as part of a sustainable water
supply? 3) How much impact on the
environment is acceptable? 4) How do we
balance ecological sustainability with human
needs and economic growth?

* Scott, T. M., 2002, Notes on the Miocene
Series of the Upper Apalachicola River Valley.
Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip
Guidebook 42, p. 16-18.

Sediments of the Miocene Series have
been the focus of numerous investigations due
to their complex nature and widespread
occurrence in Florida. The Miocene sediments
consist of siliciclastics, carbonates and mixed
siliciclastic-carbonate lithologies with numerous
lateral and vertical facies changes. Exposures
are limited and most investigations dealt with
these sediments in the subsurface. These
sediments crop out or occur in the shallow
subsurface in the panhandle on the
northwestern flank of the Ocala Platform and
the flanks of the Chattahoochee "Anticline".

In the area of the field trip, the Miocene
units present include the Lower Miocene
Chattahoochee, St. Marks and Torreya
Formations and the Middle Miocene to Pliocene
Alum Bluff Group which includes the Chipola
and Jackson Bluff Formations.

The Chattahoochee Formation is
-exposed in portions of Jackson, Gadsden,
Liberty and Calhoun Counties, central
panhandle, on the southern flank of the
Chattahoochee "Anticline". The St. Marks
Formation is exposed in Leon and Wakulla
Counties. The Chattahoochee Formation is
predominantly a yellowish gray, poorly to
moderately indurated, fine-grained, often
fossiliferous (molds and casts), silty to finely
sandy dolostone. Siliciclastic beds and
limestones may be present. The St. Marks is a
white to yellowish gray, poorly to moderately
indurated, sandy, fossiliferous (molds and
casts) limestone (packstone to wackestone).






The Chattahoochee Formation grades
laterally across the Gulf Trough into the St.
Marks Formation through a broad transition
area. Cores in the Gulf Trough reveal the
transition. Northwest of the trough, the
section is predominantly Chattahoochee
lithology with limited beds of St. Marks
lithology. In the central portion of the trough,
in the subsurface, mixed St.
Marks/Chattahoochee lithologies comprise
the section. To the southeast, in Wakulla
County, the section is primarily the St. Marks
lithology. Both formations were deposited in
a shallow water, nearshore marine
environment. Beds containing abundant
intraclasts are common, indicating at least
sporadic high energy conditions. The
permeable Chattahoochee and St. Marks
Formations form the upper part of the FAS in
the central panhandle.

The Torreya Formation, Hawthorn
Group is exposed in Leon, Gadsden and
Wakulla Counties. The Sopchoppy Member
(limestone) occurs in Wakulla County and the
Dogtown Member (clay) occurs in Gadsden
County. The Torreya Formation is not known
to exist northwestern of the Gulf Trough, west
of the Apalachicola River valley. It was
deposited in shallow marine to peri-marine
environment within and on the southeastern
flank of the Gulf Trough. The Sopchoppy
Member was deposited in shallow water,
open marine setting as indicated by the
mollusks and echinoids found within the unit.
The Dogtown Member was deposited in a
peri-marine environment as indicated by the
occurrence of an abundance of palygorskite.
The abundance of siliciclastic sediments in
the Torreya Formation is part of the "flood" of
sand, silt, and clay shed from the Appalachian
Mountains that began extensive deposition on
the Florida Platform in the Miocene. Although
the lithostratigraphic relationship between the
Torreya (Hawthorn Group) and Chipola (basal
Alum Bluff Group) Formations is poorly
known, chronostratigraphically they overlap.
They suggest that the two formations may
intergrade, in which case, the Sopchoppy
Member may be equivalent with the Chipola
Formation.


The
intermediate
panhandle.
the Dogtown


Torreya Formation forms the
confining unit in the eastern
Fuller's earth clay is mined from
Member.


The Alum Bluff Group occurs
extensively in the central and western
panhandle. It is exposed along many rivers and
streams within this area. This group consists of
the Chipola Formation, the Oak Grove Sand,
the Shoal River Formation, the
Choctawhatchee Formation and the Jackson
Bluff Formation. FGS geologists recognize the
Chipola and Jackson Bluff as formations.
However, the remaining units are considered
biostratigraphic and are placed in the Alum Bluff
Group undifferentiated. The Alum Bluff Group
was deposited in environments ranging from
open marine shelf to pro-deltaic systems.

* Scott, T. M., and van Loon, T., 2001, Het
meer dat plotseling verdween: Mens &
wetenschap, v. 28, n.3, p. 175-177

An article on the disappearance of Lake
Jackson through Porter Hole Sink. Written in
Dutch.

* Scott, T. M., 2002, Florida's Springs in
Jeopardy. Geotimes, May 2002, v. 47, n. 5, p.
16-20.

Florida's population has exploded.
Between 1950 and 1990, the population more
than quadrupled, bringing dramatic increases in
water use and changes in land use. As a result,
the discharge amounts of springs and the
quality of their waters have experienced
documented changes. Citizens and scientists
alike have recognized the threat to this fragile
natural resource. Water from Florida's largest
springs is a natural discharge, primarily from
the Floridan aquifer system, the state's main
aquifer. The springs provide a window into the
aquifer, allowing us to assess its health the
water discharging from the spring vents comes
directly from the aquifer and has the same
chemical character as the groundwater.

Over the past several decades,
hydrogeologists have recognized a decline in
the water quality of many of Florida's springs






and thus a decline in the aquifer's water
quality. Rainfall provides the recharge to the
aquifer system. Chemical and biological
constituents that enter the aquifer through
recharge affect the spring water quality and
flora and fauna of springs and spring runs. As
water quality in the aquifer has declined over
many years, the flora and fauna associated
with the springs and aquatic cave systems
have also been negatively affected. In the
1998 Florida Water Atlas, Edward Fernald
and Elizabeth Purdom note that the change in
water quality is a direct result of Florida's
increased population and changed land use
patterns. The ways people use the land often
introduces contaminants into the waters that
recharge springs. As a result, only a limited
number of Florida's springs remain pristine.
Our studies show that of the 49 individual
vents sampled from the state's 33 largest
springs, 40 show water chemistry changes
from human influences.

* Scott, T. M., 2002, Water Sustainability in
Florida: Daytona Beach News Journal,
September 2002.

Florida is very fortunate in that it is a
water-rich state. Florida's aquifers, the
underground series of sediments that hold the
water, provide more than 90% of the drinking
water utilized in the state. Florida relies most
heavily on groundwater from the Floridan
aquifer system (FAS), although the
intermediate and surficial aquifer systems are
utilized in limited areas. The FAS is
composed of thousands of feet of limestone
and dolostone and is one of the most
productive aquifers in the world. Geologists
have estimated that more than two quadrillion
gallons of fresh water are in the FAS. This is
approximately one sixth of the volume of
water in all the Great Lakes. Approximately
four trillion gallons of water recharge the FAS
each normal rainfall year which is
approximately 0.2% of the total fresh water in
the FAS. Three trillion gallons are naturally
discharged annually, mostly via Florida's
more than 600 springs (0.15%). One trillion
gallons per year are withdrawn by pumping
(0.05%). It must be kept in mind that
groundwater is a renewable resource only if


natural discharge and pumped fluid do not
exceed the recharge. Once more water is
withdrawn than is entering the aquifers, the
groundwater is being "mined" and is no longer a
renewable resource.

Ground-water recharge relies on rainfall
to provide the water. During a normal rainfall
year when 50 or more inches of rains falls, only
a small portion of the rain actually recharges
the FAS. Some is lost to surface runoff and
part is lost by evapotransporation. In a "high"
recharge area only about 10 inches of the
rainfall recharges the FAS. Many areas have
lower recharge rates and large parts of the
state do not provide recharge to the FAS.
Recharge is drastically reduced during drought
cycles such as the state has had during the
past several years. The effect of this lowered
recharge can be seen in many of the state's
springs. Many of our largest springs have
reduced flows and some stopped flowing
altogether. This, coupled with increasing
demand for fresh water, places more pressure
on our valuable ground-water resources.

Available fresh groundwater is not
evenly distributed throughout the state. Many
of the major population centers are located
along the coasts where the fresh water supply
is quite limited. Inland, in some of the least
populated areas, there is an abundance of fresh
water. In central Florida, there is more than
2200 feet of fresh water in the rocks of the FAS.
Yet, at or near the coastlines, there is no fresh
water. In order to provide adequate supplies of
fresh water, alternative supplies from
mineralized (salty) waters and subsurface
storage of excess surface water are being
used.

Geologists are now being challenged to
better define the state's aquifer systems in
order to supply fresh water, to facilitate
subsurface storage and recovery of fresh water
(ASR), disposal of wastewater and the use of
mineralized waters. Among the issues facing
the scientists are: 1) the continuity of
confinement within the FAS will water injected
into one aquifer zone migrate into a shallower,
potable water zone? 2) the continuity of the
intermediate confining unit how well does this






unit seal the FAS? 3) how will the FAS be
affected by the injection of billions of gallons
of fresh water per day? 4) how does fresh
surface water react with aquifer materials to
affect water quality? 5) if untreated to
partially treated surface water is placed in the
FAS, what is the fate of bacteria, algae and
other organisms? These questions and
others must be answered in order to protect
the environment and aquifer systems while
providing the necessary water supply for
Florida's burgeoning population.

* Scott, T. M., 2001, Water Sustainability in
Florida Research, Policy and Geologists'
Responsibilities: Geological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, Abstracts with
Programs, p. 35.

Florida is a water-rich state. Florida
relies heavily on groundwater from the
Floridan aquifer system (FAS), although the
intermediate and surficial aquifer systems are
utilized in limited areas. It is estimated that
more than two quadrillion gallons of fresh
water are in the FAS. Approximately four
trillion gallons of water recharge the FAS
each year which is approximately 0.2% of the
total fresh water in the FAS. Three trillion
gallons are naturally discharged annually,
mostly via Florida's more than 600 springs
(0.15%). One trillion gallons per year are
withdrawn by pumping (0.05%). However,
available fresh groundwater is not evenly
distributed throughout the state. In order to
provide adequate supplies of fresh water,
alternative supplies from mineralized waters
and subsurface storage of excess surface
water are being used.

Geologists are now being challenged
to better define the state's aquifer systems in
order to supply fresh water, to facilitate
subsurface storage and recovery of fresh
water (ASR), disposal of wastewater and the
use of mineralized waters. Among the issues
facing our profession are: 1) the continuity of
confinement within the FAS. 2) the continuity
of the intermediate confining unit. 3) how will
the FAS be affected by the injection of billions
of gallons of fresh water per day? 4) how
does fresh surface water react with aquifer


materials to affect water quality? 5) if untreated
to partially treated surface water is placed in the
FAS, what is the fate of bacteria, algae and
other organisms? These questions and others
must be answered in order to protect the
environment and aquifer systems while
providing the necessary water supply for
Florida's burgeoning population. Geologists
have an important opportunity to provide input
into the policies being developed in relation to
the use and protection of Florida's water
resources.

* Scott, T. M., and Means, G. H., 2002,
Injecting geology into public policy through a
sinkhole: Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Denver, CO, Abstracts with program,
p. 103.

Lake Jackson, located in northern Leon
County, Florida, is a 4,000 acre karst basin lake
situated within a 27,000 acre closed drainage
basin. It is a popular bass fishing lake and
recreation area for local residents. Extensive
development has occurred around the lake in
the past 30 years and has had a detrimental
effect on the water quality. Runoff introduced
significant amounts of sediment to the basin.
Numerous sinkholes occur in the lakebed
linking the lake directly to the underlying
Floridan aquifer system. Historical records
indicate that the lake drains into sinks
approximately every 25 years. Drought
conditions during 1998 and 1999 caused the
water level within the lake and the aquifer to
drop, culminating in a spectacular drainage
event on September 16, 1999 where a large
portion of Lake Jackson disappeared down
Porter Hole Sink. Prior to the final drawdown,
Florida Geological Survey (FGS) geologists
examined the lake and determined that a sink
hole had opened in the southern lake area.
Geologists observed the last stages of the
lake's disappearance and began an
investigation of the sink. Subsurface
excursions eventually reach nearly 50 feet
below the lake bottom in small caves in the top
of the aquifer. The explorations afforded the
opportunity to take governmental officials and
employees, and citizens on a tour of the sink
hole and show them, up close and personally,
the connection between the lake and the