Biennial report


Material Information

Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Florida Geological Survey
The Survey
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:
1999-2000[21st report]


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltuf - AJG7269
oclc - 22342552
alephbibnum - 001754280
lccn - sn 90001622
issn - 1052-6536
System ID:

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    FGS organization
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    FGS programs
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Cooperative programs
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Presentations by staff to professional groups
        Page 48
    Additional professional activities
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Personnel information
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    In memorium
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    FGS budget summary
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Back Cover
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text

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Florida Geological Survey
903 W. Tennessee Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
(850) 488-9380 FAX: (850) 488-8086
The Florida Geological Survey is a bureau within the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, Division of Resource Assessment and

The mission of the FGS is two-fold: First, to collect, interpret, disseminate,
store and maintain geologic data, thereby contributing to the responsible use
and understanding of Florida's natural resources; and second, to conserve
the State of Florida's oil and gas resources and minimize environmental
impacts from exploration and production operations.

The Office of State Engineer and Geologist was created by the state
legislature in 1852. "General" Francis L. Dancy, an engineer, occupied this
position until 1855, when it was abolished. In 1880, Alabama State
Geologist Eugene Smith noted the presence of phosphoric acid in a sample
of Florida building stone. This discovery of potential commercial phosphate
commodities in Florida lead to the establishment in 1886 of a new State
Geologist position. Dr. John Kost, a medical doctor, was appointed to the
post by then governor E.A. Perry. The position was again abolished by the
legislature a year later. For the following two decades geological
explorations in the state were conducted by the USGS and private
companies. Legislative action to create a permanent Florida Geological
Survey was finally proposed in 1903 and passed in 1907. The Survey began
in 1907 with Dr. Elias Sellards as its first State Geologist. It was housed in
an unused committee room of the old Capitol building, left vacant by the
recently adjourned legislature. The Survey subsequently occupied four
other locations around Tallahassee before moving into its current offices on
the Florida State University campus.
Today the FGS is the state's primary earth system research and data
collection agency, providing information to other agencies, academic
researchers, planners, and the citizens of Florida.

* Provide information about Florida geology
* Publish, sell, and distribute geologic maps and reports
* Maintain geology databases and files
* Maintain geology library
* Maintain rock cuttings and core repository
* Map and describe bedrock and surficial geology
and mineral resources
* Maintain oil and gas drilling records
* Issue oil drilling permits and inspect oil wells

On the Cover:
Explorations of the sink and cave through which Lake Jackson,
Leon County, Florida, drained in 1999
(upper left photo by Tony Countryman, others by Tom Scott).

State Geologist and Chief (850) 488-4191
Walter Schmidt, Ph.D., PG.

Administration and Geological Data Management
(850) 488-9380
Jacqueline Lloyd, PG, Assistant State Geologist
Wanda Bissonnette, Administrative Assistant
Paulette Bond, PG, Research Geologist
Cindy Collier, Administrative Secretary
Ace Fairly, Network Administrator
Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Frank Rupert, PG, Research Geologist
Library and Publications Orders(850) 488-9380
Carol Armstrong, Librarian
GIS and Graphics Development (850) 488-9380
John Marquez, GIS Analyst
Paula Poison, CAD Analyst

Geologic Investigations Section (850) 488-9380
Thomas M. Scott, Ph.D., PG, Assistant State Geologist
Rebecca Kilpatrick, Secretary Specialist
Northwest Florida and Suwannee River Districts-
Harley Means and Frank Rupert, PG
St. Johns River District- Paulette A. Bond, PG
South Florida District- Rick Green, PG.
Southwest Florida District- Jonathan D. Arthur, Ph.D., PG.
Drilling Program- Kenneth M. Campbell, PG
Economic Minerals- Steven M. Spencer, PG
Coastal Research Group-
Ronald Hoenstine, Ph.D., PG, Director
James Balsillie, PG, Coastal Engineering Geologist
Henry Freedenberg, PG, Geologist
James Ladner, PG, Geologist
Hydrogeology Program-
Jonathan D. Arthur, Ph.D., PG, Supervisor
Rodney S. DeHan, Ph.D., Senior Scientist
Technical Staff (850) 488-9380
Craig Berninger, Driller
Eric Harrington, Lab Technician
Tom Keister, Driller's Assistant
Ted Kiper, Marine Captain
Frank Rush, Lab Technician
Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic

Oil and Gas Section (850) 487-2219
L. David Curry, PG, Administrator
Tallahassee Office
Karen Achille, Secretary
Edward Garrett, PG, Geologist
Carolyn Stringer, Special Projects Manager
Ft. Myers Field Office (813) 338-2362
Robert Caughey, PG, District Coordinator
Paul Attwood, PG, Petroleum Geologist
Jay Field Office (850) 675-6558
Edward Gambrell, District Coordinator
Tracy Phelps, Secretary


David B. Struhs, Secretary

Edwin J. Conklin, Director

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief



Richard C. Green, P.G. # 1776
Guy H. Means

Tallahassee, Florida

ISSN 1052-6536



June 2001

Governor Jeb Bush
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Dear Governor Bush:

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and Management,
Department of Environmental Protection, is publishing Biennial Report 21, 1999-2000, prepared by
the Survey's professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the FGS staff during this
two-year period. Research results are reported in the Survey's various publication series,
professional journals, presentations, and contract deliverables. Reports for this period are listed
here, along with a summary of extended services and other activities of the FGS.

Respectfully yours,

Walt Schmidt, Ph.D., P.G.
State Geologist and Chief


Foreword............................................................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................3
FG S Program Review ............................................................................................................................. 4
FG S Research Library Reviewed ................................................................................................... 4
Florida Geological Survey Oil & Gas Regulatory Program Undergoes Scrutiny in
Response to Allegations Made by the Public Employees for Environmental
Responsibility. .................................................................................................................................. 5
A Study of the Feasibility of Creating the Florida Geoscience Center........................................... 5
FG S O rganization................................................................................................................................................. 6
Adm inistration and Office of the State G eologist................................ ................ ........................... 6
FG S O organizational Chart ................................................................................................................ 7
Geological Investigations Section..................................................................................................... 8
Hydrogeology Program ....................................................................................................... 8
The FGS 1999-2000 Lake Jackson Sinkhole Investigation ............................................. 10
Mineral Resources Investigations and Environmental Geology Section.......................................... 11
Coastal Research G group .................................................................................................. 12
O il and Gas Section.............................................................................................................................. 13
Drilling and Production ..................................................................................................... 14
G eophysical Exploration ................................................................................................... 14
Offshore Drilling................................................................................................................. 14
O ld W ell Q question ............................................................................................................. 15
FG S Program s.................................................................................................................................................... 15
Drilling Program .................................................................................................................................... 15
Research Library................................................................................................................................... 16
Library Services....................................................................................................................... 16
Library Com puter Services ............................................................................................... 16
Publications Distribution.................................................................................................... 17
Special Projects .............................................................................................................................. 17
National G eologic M ap Database..................................................................................... 17
Special Collections.................................................................................................................. 17
Geologic Sam ple Collections ......................................................................................................... 17
Data Files ........................................................................................................................................ 18
Com puter System s ............................................................................................................................... 18
Public Education Initiatives.................................................................................................................. 18
SE M aps ............................................................................................................................ 18
Earth Science W eek.......................................................................................................... 19
FG S GeoLab ..................................................................................................................... 19
Student Assistantship Program ................................................. ................................................... 20
Continuing Education ..................................................................................................................... 20
Cooperative Program s ................................................................................................................................. 20
The Hydrogeology Consortium ...................................................................................................... 20
Florida Departm ent of Environm ental Protection ................................... .......................................21
Am bient G round W after M monitoring ................................................................................... 21
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study Program ............................................21
Division of Recreation and Parks State G eological Sites ..............................................................22
M iam i/Dade County ........................................................................................................................ 23
Florida Departm ent of Com m unity Affairs ...................................................................................... 23
Sinkhole Database Cooperation....................................................................................... 23
Florida Board of Professional Geologists ...................................................................................... 23
Association of Am erican State Geologists ..................................................................................... 24


Mentored Field Program .................................................................................................. 24
Leon County Academic Resource Center ..................................................................................... 24
Leon County Academic Resource Center (ARC) Mentorship Program ........................... 24
U.S. Geological Survey ..................................................................................................................24
Cooperative Investigations with the USGS and South Florida Water Management
District................................................................................................................. 24
A Geological Assessment of the Florida Big Bend Coastal W wetlands ............................... 25
Florida Bay Ecosystem History.........................................................................................25
The Hydrogeology of the Gray Limestone Aquifer in Southern Florida .............................. 25
Surficial and Bedrock Geology of the 1:100,000 Arcadia and Crestview
Quadrangles ..........................................................................................................25
Geochemical Sampling Program ...................................................................................... 26
Geochemical Database Compilation................................................... ........................... 26
Mineral Resource Data System Update for the State of Florida......................................... 27
U.S. Minerals Management Service .............................................................................................. 27
A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area Along Florida's Central East
Coast................................................................................................. .............27
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, U.S. Geological Survey, FSU Department of Oceanography........................... 27
Hydrogeology of St. Joseph Bay ...................................................................................... 27
Northwest Florida W ater Management District.................................. ............... ........................... 28
Suwannee River W after Management District................................................................................ 28
W ell Description Program .................................................................................................28
St. Johns River W after Management District.... .......................... ............................... ..................28
Guidebook to the Correlation Criteria for Geophysical W ell Logs..................................... 28
South Florida W after Management District..................................................................................... 29
Southwest Florida W ater Management District .................................................. ......................... 29
Geologic Cross Sections................................................................................................... 29
Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project......................................... 29
University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History.................................................................30
FGS Vertebrate and Macro-invertebrate Collections..........................................................30
Publications ...................................................................................................................................................... 30
FGS Publications ............................................................................................................................ 30
Biennial Report .................................................................................................................. 30
Florida Geology Forum .....................................................................................................30
Information Circular ..........................................................................................................30
Figure 1 Cross Section Locations in SW FW MD.............................................................31
Figure 2 Stratigraphic Column through SW FW MD ............................................... ......32
Figure 3 Three Dimensional Image of Strata in SW FW MD ........................................... 33
In-House Progress Reports ...............................................................................................34
Map Series .............................................................................................................................. 34
Open File Map Series ....................................................................................................... 34
Open File Reports ............................................................................................................. 34
Posters............................................................................................................................... 35
Special Publication............................................................................................................ 36
Papers by Staff in Outside Publications ......................................................................................... 38
Presentations by Staff to Professional Groups ........................................................................................... 47
Additional Professional Activities .................................................................................................................49
Symposia Attended......................................................................................................................... 49
Meetings, Conferences, W workshops, and Training Attended ............................................... ......50
Field Trips Conducted ..........................................................................................................................54
FGS Booths and Displays .............................................................................................................. 55
Personnel Information ..................................................................................................................................55
Personnel Changes .............................................................................................................................. 55
FGS Staff Information........................................................................................................................... 56
Permanent Full-time Staff ................................................................................................. 56

Tem porary Part-tim e Staff ................................................................................................ 60
Research Assistants......................................................................................... 60
Research Associates .......................................................................................... 62
OutsideResearch Associates .............................................................................. 62
Awards ................................................................................................................................................................ 62
In Mem orium ....................................................................................................................................................... 63
FGS Budget Sum m ary ....................................................................................................................................... 67



by Walt Schmidt,
State Geologist and Chief

Walt Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief

1999 and 2000 saw many significant
changes and activities here at the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS). The Survey remains a
Bureau in the Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP); however, in 1999 we were
assigned to the newly created Division of Resource
Assessment and Management (DRAM). This new
Division includes the Bureaus of Information
Systems, and Laboratories, the Mercury Program,
and the Office of Strategic Planning. Mr. Ed
Conklin has been appointed Division Director by
DEP Secretary David Struhs. Mr. Conklin had
previously been the Director of the Division of
Marine Resources, which was transferred to the
Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission by the
Legislature in 1999. Under the current
organization structure the DRAM is placed under
the Deputy Secretary for Planning & Management,
and Ms. Lisa Polak Edgar is that Deputy Secretary.

The FGS can trace its origin to the Office
of State Engineer and Geologist, established in
1853. In was not until 1907, however, that an
autonomous Florida Geological Survey was
established by the Florida Legislature. The FGS is
located in Tallahassee, the State Capitol of Florida,
in the Gunter Building, on the campus of Florida
State University next to the Department of
Geological Sciences. The Chief of the Survey
serves as the "State Geologist" and oversees the
Administrative, Geological Investigations, Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology, and Oil
and Gas Sections. Staff includes thirty-eight full-
time career service positions and approximately
twenty-five part-time research assistants. The
Survey maintains two oil and gas field offices; one
in Ft. Myers, and the other in Jay, Florida.
Funding is derived from the Minerals Trust Fund
and various contracts and grants.

The geologic staff is supported by
micropaleontology and sedimentation laboratories,
an environmental radioactive isotope lab, a
research library with over 100,000 items, a sample
repository with over 18,000 sets of well cuttings,
cores, and outcrop samples, a Failing 1500 coring
drill rig, two auger rigs, ten field vehicles, and six
research boats with various data-acquisition
equipment. In addition, for extended field stays
and educational outreach, we have an aluminum
mobile step-van, named the "GEOLAB."

In 1999, the Florida Legislature passed
into law Chapter 99-252, Section 15, Laws of
Florida. This law instructed the Florida State
University and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection to prepare a report to the
Speaker of the House of Representatives, the
President of the Senate, and the Governor; a
feasibility study regarding the creation of a Florida
Geoscience Research Center in Tallahassee. The
proposed center would consolidate seven of the
geoscience research programs now operating at
various locations around Tallahassee. These
programs are: the DEP's Florida Geological
Survey, the U.S.G.S. Water Resources Division
Florida District Office, the FSU Department of
Geosciences Coastal Research Laboratory, the
FSU Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute, the
FSU Beaches and Shores Resource Center, the
multi-agency Hydrogeology Consortium, and the
FSU/NSF Antarctic Marine Geology Research


Facility. The study was completed and submitted
as required in December of 1999 and it served as
the basis for legislation in the 2000 session. An
appropriation for $100,000 for more detailed
planning for the development of the Center was
passed by both houses of the legislature and sent to
the Governor. However, the Governor decided to
line item veto the appropriation. Further action on
this proposal is on hold.

In 1999 and 2000, responding to a recent
Legislative directive, the State Geologist
designated three locations as "State Geological
Sites." The directive instructs the State Geologist
to designate sites that are "of great and continuing
significance to the scientific study and public
understanding of the geological history of the
State. A plaque identifying the site is displayed
at the location, and a brief leaflet is prepared by
the Florida Geological Survey to summarize the
importance of what is exposed or visible at the site.
The first site so designated was the Windley Key
Fossil Reef State Geological Site. The designation
occurred at the dedication of the Alison Fahrer
Environmental Educational Center on January 23,
1999. The second site, is the Florida Caverns at
the State Park near Marianna, FL. This was
formally established on November 4, 2000 at the
Florida Caverns State Park 3d Annual Rural
Florida Life Festival. The third site established is
the Devil's Millhopper State Geological Site
located northwest of Gainesville, Florida.

Also in 1999, I was appointed to the
National Research Council's (NRC) Ocean Studies
Board (OSB). The Board functions under the
Commission of Geosciences, Environment, and
Resources of the NRC. The Ocean Studies Board
was established by the NRC to advise the federal
government and the nation on issues of ocean
science and policy. In addition to exercising
leadership within the ocean science community,
the Board undertakes studies at the request of
federal agencies, Congress, or other sponsors, or
upon its own initiative. Board appointments
historically have been from members of
distinguished academic institutions, however, the
leadership of the NRC determined they needed an
applied perspective from a State agency. Florida's
location between the Gulf of Mexico and the
Atlantic Ocean, our long and diverse coastal
environments, and the nearshore coastal geology
programs of the Florida Geological Survey greatly
interested the Commission leadership. This
recognition bodes well for the recent

accomplishments of the FGS and its involvement
with the DEP ecosystem management program
implementation. In May of 2000, the OSB in
conjunction with the Space Applications and
Commercialization Board held a workshop titled
"Moving Remote Sensing from Research to
Applications: Case Studies of the Knowledge
Transfer Process". I chaired the session titled
"Remote Sensing for Coastal Zone Science and

On September 16, 1999, much of the
central portion of Lake Jackson, a large lake on
Tallahassee's northern side, drained down an
eight-foot diameter sinkhole. Staff from the FGS
recognized the scientific opportunities associated
with the event and assembled a team to investigate
the geology of the Lake Jackson Porter Hole Sink,
the lake bottom and the surrounding area. Since
the timeframe that the sinkhole was accessible
could have been very short (weeks to months), the
team began the investigation as soon as conditions
and safety considerations permitted. Exploration
of the sinkhole and associated subsurface cavities
took place, as well as mapping of the lake bottom,
and six core holes were drilled on the lake bottom
to provide subsurface data for developing a
geologic history of the lake basin. The team
members had significant contact with the public as
a result of the community interest in the lake-
draining event. Staff conducted numerous
interviews with various media reporters, and
discussed the event and the area geology with DEP
and local government officials. Posters describing
the event with associated photos were placed at
seven kiosks at boat landings around the lake. A
detailed report to include maps of the sinkhole and
associated basins is being prepared. For their
efforts, the team was recognized with a Davis
Productivity Award, demonstrating their efficiency
in response, public education, and overall
workload success. In addition to the media
attention generated by Lake Jackson, a Japanese
Public Television station contacted the FGS for
help in developing a television documentary on the
phenomenon of fresh water discharge into the
marine environment. The Japanese crew, which
included photographers, divers, technicians, an
interpreter and a producer, were accompanied in
two FGS boats by FGS scientists to the Spring
Creek spring system.

We also responded to the allegations by
the Public Employees for Environmental
Responsibility group (PEER), alleging FGS


mismanagement and our failure to regulate the oil
industry. Secretary Struhs assigned the DEP
Inspector General and 15 full-time investigators to
look into the allegations. The Oil & Gas Section
Administrator and I agreed to be placed on
administrative leave for three weeks to insure that
the investigative process would have no
appearance of interference. After working full
time for five weeks, the investigators "could not
find anything to support the allegations."
Secretary Struhs released a statement saying "the
investigative team determined that at the present
time there is not a significant problem in any area
of the state that involves pollution or
contamination from oil industry production or
development." and that the allegations are
"completely unfounded." The Secretary further
stated, "the investigative team also took the extra
step of conducting an anonymous employee
climate survey. The results were reassuring as the
FGS employees ranked their bureau high. Our
employees feel free to openly express their
professional opinions. That is good, because I
expect nothing less from those working for DEP."
Another positive result of the investigation was a
detailed review of our administrative processes,
which resulted in the implementation of suggested
improvements. We received positive visibility
within the Department resulting from our high
marks on the review.

During the summer of 2000 the FGS
responded to the Division of Emergency
Management to provide technical backup related to
both the increased rate of sinkhole development
and reports of dry wells resulting from the ongoing
drought. FGS staff met with planners at the
Emergency Operations Center and participated in
biweekly conference calls that included water
management district personnel and other pertinent
agencies. Staff continues to update and maintain
the state sinkhole database in cooperation with the
statewide county emergency management

In April of 2000, we published the
Transactions from The Wakulla Springs Woodville
Karst Plain Symposium as FGS Special
Publication No. 46. This compilation of papers is
the result of the symposium held during the first
annual Earth Science Week celebration in October
1998. During the annual earth science week
activities in 2000. the FGS participated in the
Silver Springs Forever: A Community Alliance
activity. Exhibits displayed at the Springs

emphasized restoration and protection of the area.
Various displays introduced the geology of karst
areas and springs to the visitors as well as the
connection between surface and ground water on
the environment and the vulnerability of Florida's
ground water quality.

Also in 2000, the FGS underwent an
internal self-assessment. We created two teams to
review first our topical program emphasis and a
second to assess and track our various
administrative processes and make
recommendations for improvement. Both of these
teams created several sub-committees to address
specific program areas or processes. The result of
all the staffs hard work can be found in the
production of the first ever FGS Employee
Handbook. This is a companion to the DEP
Employee Handbook, and it incorporates
additional information specific to the Survey and
its mission, organization, policies and procedures.
The most significant program emphasis change
resulting from the review and assessment was the
establishment of a Hydrogeology Program to foster
further support for the Department's and water
management districts' need for ground water and
aquifer data.

The above touches on a few of the
highlights of FGS involvement during the last two
years. The many other activities, projects, and
associated professional participation are discussed
in more detail in the remainder of this report. The
overall need for geoscience data and it's
interpretation to assist the state with environmental
regulatory support, land-use and planning
decisions, natural resources conservation,
ecosystem understanding and management, water
resources protection and planning, and geologic
hazard mitigation, seems endless. The Florida
Geological Survey continues to increase our
capabilities and upgrade our outreach to better
serve the people of Florida.

Walt Schmidt
Florida State Geologist


The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) is
located on the campus of the Florida State
University (FSU) in the Herman W. Gunter
Building, adjacent to the university's Department of
Geological Sciences. The FGS has a staff of 73: 38


full-time, permanent and 25 part-time, temporary

FUS Offices, Gunter Building, lallanassee, IL
(photo by Tom Scott).

Research facilities at the FGS include a
geological research library, a sample repository, and
laboratories. The library contains an extensive
collection of state and federal publications,
periodicals, and references. The sample repository
holds cores and well cutting samples from more than
18,000 wells (both onshore and offshore), as well as
samples from approximately 5,400 outcrops.
Laboratory facilities include a permeability lab
equipped with 44 falling-head permeameters; a
sedimentology lab containing diamond-blade rock-
saws, drill press corer, and core saw for core
processing, Ro-Taps, ovens, and balances; sample
preparation equipment for clay mineralogy,
organic/carbonate content and micro/nannofossil
studies; and an alpha spectrometer. Field equipment
includes a trailer-mounted auger rig, a Failing 1500
drill rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted
Mobile Drill Rig with wire-line coring capability,
various pickup trucks and four-wheel drive vehicles,
and two research vessels and six smaller boats used
in coastal research projects. In addition, the FGS
acquired its "GEOLAB" in 1998. The GEOLAB is
an aluminum step-van that has been outfitted for
mobile field and simple laboratory work and can
also be used for educational demonstrations at
environmental fairs and schools.

The FGS also has cooperative agreements
with FSU's Department of Geological Sciences to
use an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray fluorescence
spectrometer, and an atomic absorption


During the year 2000, the FGS spent time
reassessing our topical program emphasis, and
mapping out our administrative processes to
maximize our efficiency and to insure
accountability. In addition, we will be
implementing "performance measures" for our
various geoscience research projects to incorporate
these into FGS outcome/output measures. As a
result of these efforts, the FGS will be revising its
organizational structure in 2001 and will be
completing the first Florida Geological Survey
Employee Handbook.

When finalized, the Florida Geological
Survey Employee Handbook will document and
codify FGS administrative processes and
procedures. It addresses telephone and
correspondence procedures, internal
communications, purchasing, travel, computer
system protocols, GIS/CAD policies and
procedures, database and digital map distribution,
safety, vehicle use, performance planning, library
services, lab scheduling, research proposal
guidelines, contract review procedures, manuscript
review procedures, budget processes, property
tracking, and media contact policy. It also includes
numerous flow charts mapping out the various
processes for different tasks. It will be a dynamic
handbook, distributed to each staff member in a
three-ring binder. This will allow each individual to
personalize the handbook based on the needs of each
unique staff position and to incorporate future
revisions. The handbook will also be digitally filed
on the FGS server for access and updates. It will
create a written and digital corporate memory of
FGS policy and procedures that historically have
been maintained in the memory of our experienced


In the fall of 2000, the DEP hired PKV
Management Consulting, Inc. to provide the
Department with a management study of the FGS
Research Library. This was in response to the
Governor's instructions to identify both 5% of
programs and budget for possible cuts, to total
25% after five consecutive years of such cuts. The
Department wished to consider what options are
available to increase the use of digital media and
automation to cut the cost of maintaining the FGS


Representatives from PKV interviewed
several staff from the FGS, university faculty, and
other agency representatives in compiling data to
prepare their report. In addition, they spent
considerable time with our Research Librarian to
ascertain her basic job functions and obligations,
and to understand the overall services provided by
the librarian and the associated facility. The
executive summary of their final report stated the
following: The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
library is currently well managed and a useful
resource to a wide customer base. After careful
analysis, however, there are opportunities to
improve the cost effectiveness of the library
operation while maintaining customer service.
These opportunities can be realized through
publishing FGS documents to the World Wide
Web, reducing the library collection, and
maintaining a modified librarian/research
assistance position within the FGS.

This outside and independent analysis
clearly coincides with our past and recent
proposals to upgrade our digital publishing
capabilities, and it recognizes the valuable and
diverse services of our library.


In August of 1999, a group known as
Public Employees for Environmental
Responsibility (PEER) issued a document that
alleged gross mismanagement in the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS). The paper directed
most of the allegations toward Chief and State
Geologist Dr. Walter Schmidt and Oil & Gas
Section Administrator Mr. David Curry. PEER
alleged that the FGS was responsible for "willful
subversion of the agency's mission to protect the
air, soil and water of Florida and specific
complaints regarding sixteen permits out of
approximately 1400.

These allegations were serious. If true,
the Department of Environmental Protection
(DEP) would be facing a major 'problem. The
DEP Secretary, Mr. David Struhs, directed the
Office of the Inspector General to immediately
conduct a detailed investigation.

Prior to the investigation, Dr. Schmidt
and Mr. Curry offered to be placed on
administrative leave for the duration of the process
to insure that the investigation would have no
appearance of interference. After the conclusion
of the intense investigation which took over a
month, Secretary Struhs announced "the
investigation team could not find anything to
support the allegations of criminal wrongdoing nor
collusion with industry. Moreover, the
investigative team determined that at the present
time there is not a significant problem in any area
of the State that involves pollution or
contamination from oil industry production or
development (as had been alleged)."

In addition to investigating PEER's
allegations, the Inspector General's office
conducted a thorough management review of the
FGS and Oil & Gas Section. The review identified
a number of areas in need of updating and
modernizing in its data systems to track and
retrieve information. The Secretary pledged to
support budget requests of the FGS to modernize
these capabilities. Another issue highlighted by
the management review was the need to consider
legislative proposals that would clarify legal
powers of the FGS and the need to address long-
term funding needs.

The investigative team also took the extra
step of conducting an anonymous employee
climate survey. Secretary Struhs stated the results
were reassuring. While the PEER report pointed
to feelings of coercion and fear of retribution, the
survey found a very different picture among our
employees at the FGS. From general management
practices to internal communications and
participation, FGS employees ranked their Bureau
high. Our employees feel free to openly express
their professional opinions. "That is good, because
I expect nothing less from those working for DEP,"
stated Struhs.


The 1999 Florida Legislature directed Florida
State University and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection to assess the feasibility
of creating a Florida Geoscience Research Center
in Tallahassee. The proposed center would
consolidate seven of the geoscience research


programs now operating at various locations
around Tallahassee. These programs are:

O Department of Environmental Protection's
(DEP) Florida Geological Survey,
0 U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources
Division, Florida District Office
O Florida State University (FSU) Geology
Department Coastal Research Laboratory,
L FSU Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute,
O FSU Beaches and Shores Resource Center,
O Hydrogeology Consortium, and
U FSU/NSF Antarctic Marine Geology Research

Over the years, these programs have made
significant contributions to the state, providing
applied research information regarding such issues
as water supplies, the geology of coastlines and wise
mineral management. But their potential has not
been tapped fully because they are geographically
separated and increasingly limited in operations by
the space they have available. Perhaps as important,
the state has not been able to take advantage of the
opportunities that would result from a concentration
of expertise and resources along the lines pioneered
by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and
the Brain Institute.

In order to consolidate and house the
programs listed above, a facility containing a total
of 61,150 square feet of heated space will be
required. This will accommodate 163 people and
their equipment. In addition, another 43,200
square feet of specialized space will be required
for sample repositories, sample lay out rooms, and
ancillary facilities. Five of the seven programs are
currently located at Florida State University. The
relocation and consolidation would release space
on campus and at the Department of
Environmental Protection. Notably, it would
completely free up the Gunter Building at FSU that
is owned and occupied by the Department of
Environmental Protection's Florida Geological

Based on a preliminary survey of available
sites, the best location for the Geoscience Center in
the Tallahassee area is a 12 acre parcel of land
owned by the Leon County Research and
Development Authority and located on Roberts
Road adjacent to Innovation Park. There are two
practical options for the development of the Center:
state financed acquisition, design and construction,

and long term lease of a privately constructed

With full state financing, initial land acquisition
and construction is anticipated to be as much as
$24.5 million. Under a long term lease arrangement,
annual rent payments are estimated at $2.4 million.
These costs can be offset to an extent by existing
rental payments and by the value of the released
space. Initial analysis suggests it is more cost
effective to purchase the new center than to lease. In
either case, direct costs cannot be fully offset and an
annual expenditure between $1.5 and $2.0 million
would be needed to occupy the center. However,
results of this preliminary analysis show the financial
costs to be reasonable even when the potential
benefits are restricted to only the physical assets
involved. The benefit/cost ratio improves
dramatically if the service benefits of the new
facility are included.

In view of these findings, it was recommended
that the Legislature appropriate $100,000 to
Florida State University for accomplishing, in
conjunction with the Department of Environmental
Protection, the preliminary planning necessary to
refine the Geoscience Research Center proposal.
The plan would include more precise cost
estimates, expand consideration of development
options, and more fully investigate financing
opportunities. This was authorized by the 2000
Florida Legislature, however the appropriation was
vetoed by Governor Bush.


The FGS is presently comprised of three
sections which are administered by the Office of
the State Geologist. The sections include: the
Geological Investigations Section, the Mineral
Resource Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section, and the Oil & Gas Section. Each
of these sections is managed by a Section
Administrator. The Survey's Administrative office
includes the State Geologist, his Administrative
Secretary, an Administrative Assistant, the
building Custodian, and the Survey Librarian.
Primary responsibilities of the section include the
historical functions of the State Geologist as the


0 z
;2 !.


chief geoscientist for the State in various capacities
and needs, and oversight of the overall production
and quality of the geological research produced by
the staff. Implementation of the oil and gas
exploration and production regulations are also
job obligations of the State Geologist. In addition,
all administrative (budget, Department interagency
liaison, etc.) and personnel (travel, leave
approvals, benefits, etc.) functions are also handled
through this office, as are contract and grant
tracking, maintenance and repair of the Gunter
Building, and coordination of the FGS Oil and Gas
field offices. Numerous special projects are also
coordinated or carried out by this section.


Citronelle Formation/Alum Bluff Group
Undifferentiated contact Walton County.
(Photo by: T. Scott)

The Geological Investigations Section
research projects cover a wide range of topics.
Section scientists are involved in numerous basic
and applied research projects designed to obtain
geological data to assist in growth planning,
resource management, and earth systems
understanding. A continuing effort to compile a
new geomorphic map is nearing completion. The
geomorphic map delineates landform distribution
throughout the state and aids in understanding the
processes that developed the state's land surface.
A new state geologic map will be published in
2001. The geologic map depicts geological unit
distribution throughout the state providing
important data for the environmental-decision
making process. This map provides first
approximation solutions to many environmental
and resource management related problems. The
two maps are powerful tools utilized in delineating
and understanding issues related to groundwater,

waste disposal, geological hazards and mineral
resources. Both of these map products will
become part of the Department's GIS database.

The Plio-Pleistocene sediments of
southern Florida, that form important aquifers, are
being investigated and mapped in cooperation with
the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Staff
geologists are collaborating with the USGS on an
ongoing investigation of Florida Bay, a sensitive
ecosystem that has changed significantly due to
societal influence. Ongoing cooperative research
with the State's water management districts is
delineating hydrostratigraphic and
lithostratigraphic units. An on-going investigation
is studying water-rock interactions during aquifer
storage and recovery activities. Other
investigations include mapping funded through the
National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Act
(STATEMAP), research on the Citronelle
Formation in the western Florida panhandle and
cooperation with State archeologists on the
investigation of Native American sites. The
Geologic Investigations Section staff also provides
needed data and expertise to the Coastal Research
Group and the Environmental Geology and
Mineral Resources Section.

The section also consults with other
government agencies because the knowledge of
regional and local geology of a given area is
fundamental in the evaluation of numerous
environmental problems. The Geological
Investigations Section responds to inquiries
regarding aquifer recharge and contamination,
geologic hazards, geologic mapping, Florida's
geologic history, and problems related to community
planning and development. The group prepares
detailed lithologic logs for wells that are on file at
the FGS. This information is added to the Survey's
computerized data base which currently contains
logs for approximately 5,000 wells. This data base
and the programs designed to manipulate it are
currently used by other governmental agencies and a
number of private firms.

Hydrogeology Program

The Hydrogeology Program was formed within
the FGS Geological Investigations section in late
2000. The purpose of this program is to conduct
hydrogeologic research at the FGS in support of
the need for unbiased, scientific knowledge of
Florida's watersheds with specific emphasis on
aquifer systems. The Program also has plans to


administer this type of research through
outsourcing. Although organizationally within
Geological Investigations, the Hydrogeology
Program is an FGS-wide program that will serve as
a focal point through which research efforts,
expertise and physical resources can be
coordinated. As such, the program will facilitate
communication and cost-efficient research. A few
current projects in the Hydrogeology Program

Aquifer storage and recovery geochemical
Hydrogeologic framework mapping of
Southwest Florida
Southwest Florida reference cross
South Florida geological database
Monitor well installation for DEP
Ambient Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program
Statewide aquifer hydraulic conductivity

Staff and affiliates of the program provide
scientific/technical support to local, state and
federal agencies and committees, including:

O FDEP Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas
Q FDEP Division of Water Resource
Management (DWRM), Underground
Injection Control Program
O FDEP Springs Task Force
" FDEP DWRM program map digitizing
l Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Delivery
Team, Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Program (South Florida Water Management
District/US Army Corps of Engineers)
L Jasper Mine Review Team,
FDEP/DWRM/Bureau of Mine Reclamation
O Silver Springs Forever multi-agency
Q Hydrogeology Consortium this is a group of
interested professionals from FDEP, industry,
academia, consulting firms, and government
agencies that have identified the need to
develop ground-water models suitable for karst
terrains on the Florida Platform
L Northwest Florida Legislative Natural Resource
Advisory Committee established by the NW
Florida delegation to provide scientific basis for
environmental legislation and policies

O Florida Natural Areas Inventory advisory
committee on aquifer recharge for Florida
Forever program assessments
0 US Geological Survey various cooperative
O Department of Community Affairs provide
review of documents assessing Development
Regional Impact and Local Comprehensive
Plans amendments
D National Water Quality Monitoring Council -
chairing the Ground Water Focus Group and
representing the EPA Region IV States on the
O Florida Resource and Environmental Analysis
Center (FREAC; Florida State University) -
cooperative agreements and educational
L US Office of Management and Budget -
Water Information Advisory Committee

Long-range focus research areas
Hydrogeology Program include:

of the

1) physical aquifer characterization aquifer
system mapping (identify permeable zones and
confining units), seismic and structural
characterization of aquifer system components,
identify relation between geologic units and
aquifer systems through generation of cross
sections and contour maps; maintain hydraulic
conductivity database for modeling; provide
framework knowledge for improved aquifer
storage and recovery (ASR) and injection well site
designs and source-water protection through
geophysical exploration;

2) surface water-groundwater interaction -
investigate ground-water contribution to surface
water base flow as well as seepage of groundwater
in coastal zones; quantify surface water ground-
water interaction for use in waste-load allocation
models (e.g., Total Maximum Daily Loads);

3) hydrogeochemistry studies ASR water-rock
interaction, uranium and arsenic mobilization
studies. Everglades Restoration research support.
Florida springs and aquifer system ambient
geochemistry data collection and interpretation;

4) geographic information system (data
dissemination and modeling) provide
Department-wide hydrogeology coverages,
interactive data access for FGS wells (more than
17,800 records), aquifer framework data for use in


ground-water modeling and 3D visualization,
aquifer vulnerability mapping;

5) hydrogeologic resources sinkhole
characterization, inventory and occurrence studies,
archive cave maps, locate and characterize onshore
and coastal fresh water submarine springs, evaluate
submarine springs as potential public water
supplies for coastal communities:

6) education and communication staff would be
active in FDEP committees and working groups,
liaison with Water Management Districts, other
local, state and federal agencies, including non-
profit scientific organizations, such as the
Hydrogeology Consortium; environmental/earth
science education; public communication; publish
and disseminate maps and reports in a variety of

With inception of this program, the FGS
will be able to respond more completely and in a
more timely manner to the requests for
hydrogeologic. mineral and natural resources data
and interpretations. This cost-effective, unbiased
research allows for a more complete understanding
of Florida's watersheds and will improve the
FDEP's ability to protect and conserve our state's
ground-water resources.

The FGS 1999-2000 Lake Jackson Sinkhole

On September 16, 1999, much of the
central portion of Lake Jackson, a large lake on
Tallahassee's northern side, drained down an eight
foot diameter sinkhole. The sinkhole opened in the
area of the lake known as Porter Hole Sink near
the end of Faulk Drive. The sink occurred in a
portion of the basin that is approximately 14 feet
below the average lake bottom. Thousands of
people came to the lake to witness the
phenomenon, often wading through the ankle (and
deeper) organic-rich mud for a better view. Due to
the danger of deep mud, in some places more than
five (5) feet deep, collapsing sediment slumps near
the sink and the inflowing streams, and falling into
the sink, DEP, in conjunction with other state and
local agencies temporarily suspended public access
then fenced off the sink and identified dangerous
areas. DEP employees posted warning and no
trespassing signs. Following these activities, the
sinkhole was reopened to the public.

Since the September 16, 1999 draining of
much of Lake Jackson into a sinkhole, a team of
scientists from DEP, NWFWMD and the private
sector have been investigating the geology of the
lake basin. Through exploration of the sinkhole,
drilling cores and examining of other sinkholes the
geologists are developing a better understanding of
the interaction of surface and ground water and
karst (sinkhole development) processes in the
Tallahassee region.

Historically, this area has varied between
wet prairie and a lake. Sinkholes in Lake Jackson
have opened and drained portions of the lake
approximately every 25 years since the late 1800s.
The 1999 event followed an extended drought that
had significantly lowered the water level. During
the months prior to 9/16, the lake level steadily
declined due to the ongoing drought. A significant
change in the rate of lake decline occurred on 9/13
when it appears that the sinkhole began taking
large quantities of water. By noon on 9/16, a large
area of central Lake Jackson had drained and deep
standing water remained only in the basin
surrounding the sink. Between noon and 6 PM, the
water level dropped 3-4 feet, concentrating fish in
the area of the sink. After 6 PM, as the water level
dropped rapidly, dozens of people engaged in a
"fishing frenzy", catching by hand and with nets
numerous large bass. By 7:30 PM, most of the
remaining water and fish disappeared down the

Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
geologists began investigating the sink once the
water level had dropped sufficiently to expose the
upper part of the active sink. FGS staff monitored
the slumping of sediment around the sink and
began to gather data on the size of the sink.
Sediment samples were collected from the exposed
walls of the stream channel and the sinkhole.
Northwest Florida Water Management District
hydrogeologists took flow measurements. Water
continued flowing into the sink at varying rates
based on rainfall and wind conditions. When
water flow into the sink was stopped, geologists
entered the sinkhole throat to gather sediment
samples and determine the morphology of the
throat. Utilizing ladders and safety ropes,
geologists descended into the open sink. The
scientists had to squeeze through a narrow opening
in a rock ledge 12 feet below the lip of the sink in
order to reach the bottom. At the bottom of the
hole, 26 feet below the sinkhole rim, geologists
found a small cavity that extended approximately


30 feet to the northwest. This cavity was blocked
by organic-rich sediments. Other partially to
completely blocked northwest to southeast trending
cavities were found. Water flow appeared to go to
the NW, E, and SE in the cavities.

Near-surface sediments eroding into the
sinkholes are washed into cavities within the
limestone of the upper Floridan aquifer system. In
Porter Hole Sink, exploration of the small passages
has shown many old cavities plugged with clayey
sediments. Since the first inspection of the
passages in October 1999, many of the older,
plugged cavities have opened as the result of water
washing into the sinkhole. The clayey sediments
were washed further into the aquifer system.

FGS geologists have developed a theory
of what has to happen for the sinkhole to naturally
plug and the lake return to its normal stage. In
order for the sinkhole to plug up, there will have to
be enough rainfall to bring the level of water in the
Floridan aquifer system up to where standing water
fills the lower part of the sink. Once this occurs,
sediments washing into the hole will be able to
settle out, plugging the sinkhole and associated
cavities. Then water will be able to begin filling
Lake Jackson once more:

The FGS drilled 5 core holes on the lake
bottom during January and February 2000. The
cores, ranging to 125 feet deep, revealed a complex
history of the lake basin. The karst development of
the lake basin proceeded by sinkhole formation and
erosion of near-surface sediments that lowered the
land surface elevation. Numerous sinkholes
coalesced to create the lake basin. As lake water
drained and near-surface sediments eroded into
sinkholes, a network of channels evolved. The
channels were subsequently buried by lake basin
sediments and were not visible on the bare lake

The draining of Lake Jackson provided a
unique opportunity to educate the public
concerning surface water and groundwater
interaction, and FGS staff constructed several
educational kiosks which were erected at various
landings around the lake. FGS geologists also
worked with many television and radio stations and
the Tallahassee Democrat newspaper. Buzz
Conover of WFSU -Radio created a number of
news broadcasts and a radio documentary on the
draining of the lake. A documentary Entitled
"Losing Ground" by Georgia Davis of WFSU-TV,

Florida Crossroads focused in on Lake Jackson.
Also, the Japanese equivalent of PBS, NHK,
visited the lake and taped for more than two hours
both underground and on the surface. TV-65 in
Tallahassee dedicated a half hour show, "Talk of
the Town", to the lake. In June 2000, the FGS was
a sponsor of the "Lake Jackson Bare Bottom 5K"
run walk. Nearly 350 people ran/walked in the

The monitoring of the lake basin and
sinkholes is continuing. The research team is
preparing a report on the 1999 Lake Jackson
Sinkhole Event.

Geologists Harley Means And Tom Scott
sampling in Porter Sink. (Photo: FGS Archives)


In 1998 (latest published data), the value of
nonfuel mineral production for Florida was
estimated by the USGS to be $1.96 billion. This
value is the highest nonfuel mineral value ever
recorded in Florida's history and continues the trend
that has been upward since 1994. In 1998, Florida
ranked fourth in the U.S. in production value. The
state continues to lead the nation in production of
phosphate rock, titanium concentrates, and peat.
Florida tied for first in masonry cement production,
third in production of fuller's earth and crushed
stone, fourth in magnesium compounds, and seventh
in portland cement. Florida continues to produce


substantial quantities of construction and industrial
sand and gravel. (The USGS prepares state ranking
information every two years based upon confidential
data returned to them from Florida mine operators.)

The Mineral Resource Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section (MRI&EG)
maintains communication with the mineral industry
in Florida. The section publishes a biennial status
report related to industry activity.

The section also provides mineral resource
assessments on specific land parcels that are targeted
for purchase by the state. These assessments are
completed on an as-needed basis. In a similar
manner the section provided assistance to the
Division of State Lands when they were
negotiating the purchase of the
Anderson/Columbia mine property in Columbia
County. In this particular case, staff aided in the
selection of a nationally recognized mineral
appraiser. Similarly, our assistance was called
upon during discussions related to the proposed
purchase of the adjoining Kirby Mine. We are
continuing to provide geologic input into the
mineral lands transfer between the Federal Bureau
of Land Management and the state of Florida. The
MRI&EG section is currently cooperating with the
Bureau of Mine Reclamation in a study "of the
effects of mining on the geology and hydrogeology
along and near the Ichetucknee Trace in Columbia
County, and the Alapaha River in Hamilton

Another aspect of the group's work with
non-fuel minerals involves the preparation of county
mineral resource maps. County mineral resource
investigations were initiated to assist counties in the
preparation of their comprehensive land-use plans
mandated by the state legislature. They continue to
be valuable sources of information as county
planners periodically revise the comprehensive
plans. The goal of these studies is to identify
potential mineral resource areas and present the
results in a format appropriate for use by Florida's
planning community. The major mineral
commodities are mapped as a guide to resource
location. The reports discuss the county's geology
and geomorphology, as well as specific mineral
commodities, accompanied by maps and geologic
cross-sections depicting the near-surface sediments.
Reports for Escambia and Jackson Counties were
published during the 1999/2000 biennium.

Nearly 650 new residents move to Florida
each day. This phenomenal population growth
stresses the state's environment and its resources.
Geologic information is essential for
environmentally responsible land-use planning and
resource and ecosystem management. Recognizing
this, the section began a series of special
environmental reports that target specific rapidly-
growing urban areas. These reports integrate
cultural, climatological, geological, and hydrological
data to illustrate the importance geology plays in
land-use planning. Graphics are used to present data
and geologic concepts in a format that can be readily
used by the lay-public, scientists, and planners.

The first two reports in this series cover the
cities of Ocala and Gainesville. A third report on
the Pensacola area is in preparation. Environmental
geology and hydrology are discussed, emphasizing
topics relating to water resources. The hydrologic
cycle, karst geology, surface water, and the
underlying aquifer systems are analyzed in detail,
establishing the relationships among them.
Recommendations for protection of these resources
through appropriate land-use planning are also

Over the years, the FGS has recognized the
need for a geologic educational and public outreach
program. Although all members of the FGS
professional staff participate in this program, it is
coordinated through the Minerals Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology sections.
Outreach activities include lectures and
presentations to school groups at all levels and civic
and professional organizations, participating in
science fair judging and school mentoring programs,
and publication of educational materials. Specific
educational projects are described in the Public
Education Initiatives section of this publication.

Coastal Research Group

In 1991, the FGS organized an informal
Coastal Research Group (CRG) within the Mineral
Resource Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. The Coastal Research Group is committed
to continuing fundamental research to improve our
understanding of Florida's coastal ecosystems and
processes. This research provides information that
is essential for planning, ecosystem management.
conservation, and protection of Florida's valuable
coastal resources.


During the 1999/2000 biennium, a
Memorandum of Understanding between the
Florida Geological Survey, the Geological Survey
of Alabama, and the Mississippi Office of Geology
resulted in the formation of "The Northeast Gulf of
Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium."
This entity was formed to provide the framework
for the three state coastal programs to cooperate in
joint investigations and scientific exchanges
concerning earth sciences (including geology,
geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, and
geotechnical studies), and other subjects of
common interest. This interest specifically focuses
on advancing the understanding of the northeast
Gulf of Mexico and promotes cooperation on
regional studies.

Initially, the Consortium will expand the
present Florida wetland estuarine investigation to
determine the relationship between coastal marsh
surface elevations and local changes in sea level to
a regional study involving coastal wetlands of all
three states. This includes the establishment of
Sediment Erosion Table (SET's) sites in selected
estuaries along the three state coastline. These
sites will be periodically monitored and the data
gathered will be shared among the three state
coastal programs.

Sne r o3 -oastal Kesearcn "roup Kesearcn
Vessel, the RV GeoSearch (photo by Ted Kiper).

During 2000, discussions have been
conducted between the U.S. Minerals Management
Service, the FGS of the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection and Florida State
University to form a Marine Coastal Institute. This
institute to be funded with federal and state dollars
would encompass a diversity of marine science

disciplines including marine geology, oceanography,
geochemistry and coastal engineering.
Investigations involving common needs of the state
and federal agencies would be carried out in
Florida's near-shore and OCS waters. A draft
proposal is currently being drawn up with an
intended startup date of October 2002.

The FGS has acquired a number of water
craft including the 50' RV GeoQuest, the 40' RV
GeoSearch, two- 24' shallow draft Carolina skiffs
and various other small craft. The two RV's are
capable of extended offshore investigations.

The FGS inventory of coastal field
equipment includes the following portable

1. Side Scan Sonar
2. An Acoustic Doppler Profiler for measuring
offshore spring flow.
3. A Geopulse 3.5 kHz subsurface acoustic
profiling system.
4. A seagoing vibro-core system capable of
operating in depths of 100' of water.
5. A global positioning system (GPS) with real-
time differential (Starlink MRB-2A
radiobeacon receiver) for site location,
station keeping, and station recovery.
6. A jet probe for determining sediment
thickness above bedrock.
7. A number of water quality loggers for on-site
measurement of salinity, temperature, depth,
pH, conductivity, and turbidity.
8. A Sediment Elevation Table (SET) for
measuring short-term marsh accretion and
response to storm events.
9. A cryogenic coring device for measuring
marsh accretion rates.


Approximately 9.8 million barrels of
crude oil and 13 billion cubic feet of natural gas
were produced in Florida during 1999 and 2000.
On December 31, 2000 the state's cumulative
production totals reached approximately 580
million barrels of oil and 610 billion cubic feet of
gas. In 1978, Florida's annual petroleum
production rate peaked at 48 million barrels of oil
and 52 billion cubic feet of gas, which ranked
Florida 8th among oil producing states. Since 1945,
the state has received approximately 1370 drilling
permit applications, of which 249 wells were never
drilled, 715 were dry holes, and 346 became

'ja A L~L~


producers. The state currently has 70 producing
wells operating within 10 active oil and gas fields.
Eleven formerly producing fields have been
permanently plugged and abandoned.

The Oil & Gas Section regulates
petroleum exploration and production within the
state and state waters pursuant to Chapter 377,
Florida Statutes and implementing Rules 62C-25 to
62C-30, Florida Administrative Code. The
Section's primary responsibilities are
environmental protection, conservation of oil and
gas resources, correlative rights protection, and
maintenance of health and human safety. These
concerns are addressed when permit applications
are reviewed and permit conditions are enforced by
field inspection. The Section's main office is
located in Tallahassee and field offices are located
near producing fields in northwest (Jay) and south
(Ft. Myers) Florida. The Section's key activities
include permitting geophysical, drilling, and
transport operations, inspecting field operations,
tracking activities by the use of production and
other reporting forms, enforcing financial security
requirements, and maintaining a database for
approximately 1,370 well permits and all
associated information.

Drilling and Production

Southwest Florida: Five drilling permit
applications were approved during 1999 and 2000.
All of these applications proposed horizontal
recompletions of existing producing wells in
southwest Florida's Sunniland Trend fields. Five
wells were drilled, of which one was abandoned,
one is being tested, one is still being drilled, and
two have been completed and brought on line as
producers. Permit 962A-2H in Bear Island Field
tested in April 2000 at 54 barrels of oil per day
(BOPD) and is currently producing approximately
30 BOPD. The best producing well in Florida is
Permit 1289-CH in Raccoon Point Field, which
tested in June 1999 at 1433 BOPD and is currently
producing approximately 800 BOPD. Both of
these new producers are owned by Calumet
Florida, Inc., which operates five of the eight fields
in southwest Florida.

Closures: The Sunniland pipeline was
shut down in 1997. Southwest Florida operators
have since resorted to trucking all their crude to
Port Everglades in Fort Lauderdale. During
October 2000 final plugging, abandonment, and

restoration work was completed at Townsend
Canal Field. This field produced 535,000 barrels
of oil from 1982 to 1999.

Northwest Florida: Petro Operating
Company assumed operatorship of Blackjack
Creek and McLellan Fields while Exxon continued
to operate Jay Field. No new wells were drilled in
the panhandle. Jay field continued to dominate
state production with approximately 70% of the
state's total oil and 90% of the gas. Jay Field has
now produced more 400 million barrels of oil.

Geophysical Exploration

No geophysical permits were applied for
or issued during 1999 and 2000, but from February
through May of 1999 Calumet Florida, Inc.
conducted a 3-D seismic survey in southwest
Florida near Raccoon Point Field under a permit
issued in 1997.

Offshore Drilling

State Waters: During 1998 the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, parent
agency of the FGS, denied one offshore drilling
application submitted in 1992 and 12 submitted in
1997 by Coastal Petroleum Company. During
January 1999, Coastal appealed the denials of the
1997 applications to a state administrative hearing
judge, who subsequently upheld the Department's
decision to deny permits for the 12 proposed wells
in the Gulf of Mexico. In October 1999, an
appellate court upheld the Department's denial of
the Coastal's drilling application submitted 1992.

Federal Waters: Chevron-Texaco's plan
for natural gas production in federal waters south
of Pensacola awaits a final decision by the U.S.
Department of Commerce and the Environmental
Protection Agency. The decision to issue a
production permit has experienced numerous
procedural delays since 1997 when Chevron
proposed producing up to 300 million cubic feet
per day of Norphlet sour gas of from 21 wells
operating from 15 platforms. In July 2000,
Chevron along with its partners, Conoco Inc. and
Murphy Exploration & Production Company, filed
a lawsuit against the federal government for breach
of drilling lease contracts. The Department of
Energy has estimated reserves of 2.6 trillion cubic
feet within this gas field, an amount equal to more
than four times Florida's cumulative onshore gas
production to date.


Old Well Question

In August of 1999, the Public Employees
for Environmental Responsibility alleged, among
other things, that old abandoned oil wells were
polluting Florida freshwater resources. Although
these old wells were plugged in accordance with the
rules of the day, they do not meet modern day
plugging standards and so have been a concern for
some time. After a thorough Inspector General's
investigation ruled out the possibility of gross
mismanagement, criminal wrongdoing and collusion
with industry, Secretary Struhs made these old wells
a focus area for the Department's formal
Environmental Problem Solving (EPS) program.
The Division of Resource Assessment and
Management formed an EPS Team from staff of the
FGS, Water Resource Management, Inspector
General's Office, the various Water Management
Districts, and the Division office. In addition, a
consultant from the Central District assisted the
Team as a facilitator. The Team met four times and
reviewed all available data and studies regarding the
alleged problem of old plugged and abandoned oil
test wells allowing saltwater to pollute overlying
freshwater aquifers, including the Woodward-Clyde
Report, which was an assessment of oil and gas
wells abandoned between 1943-1974 within the state
of Florida, as well as other file information. The
Team compiled a database that includes every well
plugged in Florida for which records were kept,
effectively extending the Woodward-Clyde database
timeline to present day. The Team's final meeting
was April 4, 2000 and, on August 14, 2000,
presented its findings to Division Management.

The Team found no evidence of ongoing
pollution caused by any of these abandoned wells
but it did find four shallow artesian wells and
recommended the Department plug them. In
addition, because potential pathways via other old
wells do exist, the Team determined that additional
information should be acquired and therefore
recommended that the Department re-enter a
representative well (Permit 222 in Collier County
near Immokalee was selected) and establish its
wellbore dynamics. Once established, the Team
will be in a much better position to make
judgements as to the risks posed by similar wells.
Division Management concurred and authorized
the FGS to make a Fiscal Year 2001 budget
request of $350,000 to investigate Permit 222 and
plug the four freshwater artesian wells.


A number of programs are critical to the
mission of the FGS. These programs benefit Survey
staff as well as other state and federal governmental
agencies, industrial representatives, consulting
groups, academic researchers, and interested
citizens. The Survey's drilling program acquires
cores from various locations around the state for in-
house projects as well as for cooperative projects.
The Geologic Sample Repository contains storage
space for core and cutting samples, allowing this
valuable information to be preserved and catalogued
in a systematic fashion. Lithologic and geophysical
logs are filed for ease of retrieval at the Gunter
Building in Tallahassee. The Survey's computer
system is used to handle the growing volume of
information associated with geological research and
oil and gas regulation. Currently, most FGS drafting
services are handled by computer. Public education
initiatives promote an informed citizenry that can
become partners in protecting and conserving
Florida's environment and natural resources. The
FGS's research library allows its users the advantage
of computerized database searches along with
traditional library services geared specifically to
geology. The FGS supervises an active student
assistant program in which qualified graduate and
undergraduate students assist staff members in
various on-going research programs. Continuing
education at the Survey, while limited by budget
constraints, offers staff advanced educational


The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. Very low topographic relief
characterizes the state and data obtained from cores
is essential to the understanding of subsurface
stratigraphy, hydrogeology and hydrology.

The FGS operates a Failing 1500 drill rig,
which is deployed on a full-time basis and is
operated by a licensed driller and one assistant.
During 1999 and 2000, 19 stratigraphic test holes
were drilled by the FGS core rig, all of which were
continuous cores ranging from 33 to 456 feet in
depth, for a total cored length of 2853 feet. Most of
these holes were converted to groundwater monitor
wells in cooperation with the South Florida Water
Management District and the U.S. Geological



If ~

Failing 1500 drill rig. (Photo by T. Scott)

The FGS also operates a truck mounted
Mobile Drill auger/core rig which has been outfitted
for continuous shallow wireline coring in rock or
unconsolidated sediments. Fifty-three stratigraphic
test holes were cored in 13 counties during 1999 and
2000. Depths of auger/core holes range from 34 to
125 feet for a total sampled depth of approximately
4,273 feet. Twenty of these holes were converted to
monitor wells in cooperation with the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection Ambient
Ground Water Quality Program and the Northwest
Florida and South Florida Water Management

Mobil Drill auger rig. (Photo by T. Scott)

The Research library is an integral part of
the Survey's research and regulatory programs. In
support of the information needs of staff, students,
and researchers from the public sector, the library
staff provides access to basic research materials
including books, maps, state and federal documents,
photographs and periodicals. Holdings total
approximately 40,000 volumes. Materials are
collected on various aspects of geology, including
mining and mineral resources, environmental
geology, hydrogeology and other related topics. The
library has one of the largest and oldest geologic
map collections in the state of Florida with over
16,000 maps, including a number of items dating
from the 19th century.

Library Services

The library is used by the general public,
students, other government agencies, and private
consulting companies. While circulation is
restricted to Survey staff, the personnel of other state
agencies and the Florida State University Geology
Department, the library is open to the general public
for research. In addition, library materials are
available to libraries throughout the United States
via the Interlibrary Loan system on a limited basis.

The library participates in a nationwide
Interlibrary Loan network through which the staff
has access to other special and academic collections.
The library cooperates with other libraries through
various networking groups on the local, state, and
national level. The librarian participates in the
activities of the Panhandle Library Access Network,
and the Geoscience Information Society.

Library Computer Services

The Research Library currently subscribes
to the GEOREF database on CD-ROM. GEOREF,
the CD-ROM version of the American Geological
Institute's geoscience database, contains over two
million records covering geology from 1785 to the
present. Through the State Library of Florida, the
library also has limited access to FirstSearch, a
bibliographic information system of the Online
Computer Library Center (OCLC), and to other
specialized databases available to Florida state


Publications Distribution

The library is responsible for providing
detailed information on the survey's 695 published
documents and reports, and oversees the distribution
of all documents currently in print. During 1999-
2000 this included approximately 1,250 requests for
a total of approximately 12,500 documents. In
addition to individual requests, publications are
distributed to 250 libraries around the world, which
maintain depository collections of Florida
Geological Survey publications. FGS Publications
are requested by students, environmental
consultants, government agencies, libraries, schools,
geologists studying for professional licensure, and
the general public.


National Geologic Map Database

The Florida Geological Survey participated
in inputting FGS published geologic maps into the
National Geologic Map Database. The National
Geologic Map Database is a project sponsored by
the U.S. Geological Survey's National Geologic
Mapping Program in cooperation with the
Association of American State Geologists. The goal
of the project is to establish a database of all national
and state produced geologic maps, both paper and
digital, and to provide keyword and geographic
searching capabilities for the database. All
published maps of the Florida Geological Survey are
now included in the database. The National
Geologic Map Database may be accessed at:

Special Collections

The FGS Library houses the archives of the
Florida Sinkhole Research Institute. This archive
contains original records of field research of
sinkhole occurrences, county maps of sinkhole
locations, and copies of publications of the Florida
Sinkhole Research Institute. A listing of the field
records computer database has been published as
Florida Geological Survey, Open-File Report 58,
and is available through the Publications Office.
The library also maintains a copy of the computer
database of sinkhole reports, and this is available on
disk, or by ftp or e-mail upon request.

The Survey also houses the archives of the
National Association for Cave Diving (NACD),

Florida chapter. NACD members have provided the
Survey with underwater cave survey maps, video
tapes of several cave conduit systems, and copies of
NACD publications. This collection is used by cave
divers and geologists to gain insight into the cave
network locations as well as the size, shape and
hydrogeology of subaqueous caves in Florida.


The FGS maintains separate collections of
well and surface outcrop samples. The well sample
collection contains more than 18,000 sets of samples
from research, water and oil wells. Most wells are
represented by sets of drill cuttings. One thousand
and nine wells are represented by continuous core or
core samples (a total of approximately 184,000 feet).
The FGS, USGS, Water Management Districts and
geologic consultants drill new core sample sets and
add them to the archives. The sample repository
facility occupies about 9,500 square feet, with
17,655 square feet of shelf space.

A collection of approximately 5,400
outcrop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in the
Gunter Building. These samples are cross-indexed
by formation, lithology, county and location. The
collection is referred to as the "M-Series." The M-
Series is particularly valuable given Florida's high
rate of growth and development. Surface exposures
of critical lithologies have become inaccessible with
the continued proliferation of roadways, shopping
centers, parking lots and high-rise housing.

These sample archives and the data base
they represent are utilized by geologists at the FGS,
many other state, federal and local governmental
agencies, universities (both in and out of the state)
and geological consultants.

The FGS vertebrate and macro-invertebrate
collections are now located at and curated by the
Florida Museum of Natural History, in Gainesville,
at the University of Florida. Both collections are
searchable via the Internet. The vertebrate
collection can be found at:
ub.asp, which is also linked to the FGS data archive
page (see computer systems below for description of
the FGS web page). The invertebrate collection is
located at:



Samples from wells which are stored at the
FGS Sample Repository are indexed by accession
number, county, and section, township, and range
location. Lithologic logs, drillers logs, and
information sheets which correspond to these wells
are filed by county and accession number in a series
of loose-leaf binders. Information from these books
is gradually being transferred to the Survey's
computerized data base which currently contains
data from approximately 5,000 wells.

A file of geophysical logs contains
information for approximately 4,850 wells. Many of
these wells have corresponding lithologic samples
available and are assigned FGS accession numbers.
Geophysical logs represented include electric
(normal, lateral, SP), natural gamma, caliper, fluid
resistivity or conductivity, temperature, single point
resistivity, acoustic velocity, fluid velocity, neutron
(porosity), and gamma-gamma (density). In addition,
complete suites of geophysical logs accompany most
permitted oil and gas wells.

Other FGS databases include: 1) an oil and
gas geophysical permit application database, 2) an
oil and gas well database, 3) a Florida mineral
producers list, 4) a partial inventory of geologic
samples (cores and cuttings from over 17,800 wells),
5) an inventory of sinkholes from the FGS and the
Florida Sinkhole Research Institute, and 6) an
inventory of geologic outcrop descriptions in


The initial thrust of modernizing the
hardware infrastructure of the Florida Geological
Survey (FGS) LAN has been completed. The
hardware issues addressed were the installation of
high capacity wiring drops for all offices,
connecting to high-speed, switched hubs, linked
with a fiber optic backbone. Remote links were
accommodated using an ATM fiber optic router
via the Tallahassee metropolitan area network. In
addition to the LAN infrastructure, more robust
computer workstations were purchased and
integrated software suite applications were
installed. Additional color printers and large
format color plotters were integrated into the FGS
LAN environment.

Refinement of existing data structures
were initiated with the goal of their information

being integrated into the Geographical Information
System (GIS). This integrated information, along
with other technical publication resources, is to be
migrated into the world-wide-web (WWW) to
provide greater public access.


Public outreach is identified within both
the FGS and the DEP mission. Informed citizenry
can become partners in protecting and conserving
Florida's environment and natural resources. FGS
outreach activities include lectures and presentations
to school groups at all levels and civic and
professional organizations, participating in science
fair judging and school mentoring programs, as well
as participation in specific educational initiatives
and publication of educational materials. Recent
projects include participation in SE MAPS, an
interdisciplinary science curriculum project and
various activities associated with Earth Science

SE Maps

The FGS continued its work on a new educational
initiative known as the Southeast Mapping and
Aerial Photographic Systems (SE MAPS) program

SE MAPS is an interdisciplinary science
curriculum project funded by the National Science
Foundation, through Clemson University Geology
Department, involving Florida and seven other
southeastern states. The integrated curriculum
includes earth science, math, language arts and
history. Students are given the opportunity to
discover the importance of maps and images,
including aerial photography, topographic maps,
satellite imagery, and other remotely sensed data.
These materials are used in a series of investigative
hands-on activities designed for middle and high
school students. Materials under final
development include a classroom set of large
laminated lithographs, two CD-ROMS, and a
Teaching Manual.

Florida has three study areas in the SE
MAPS program: a karst-related area in the eastern
panhandle; a land-use, mining, and tourism related
area in the central peninsula; and a land-use,
environmental-issues related area in south Florida.
Pilot testing of the products was completed during
the summer of 2000 at Leon High School,
Tallahassee, Florida. Several teachers attended the


three-day workshop and fieldtrip. Evaluations and
feedback from the teachers indicate the products
will be useful and are expected to meet curriculum
objectives. Additional pilot testing and final
production of products will be completed in 2001.

Earth Science Week

On Saturday, October 14, 2000, Earth
Science Week, as proclaimed by Florida Governor
Jeb Bush, was celebrated at Silver Springs (The
Attraction). The effort was spearheaded by Silver
Springs Forever: A Community Alliance. Silver
Springs Forever includes citizens, local
government agencies, state agencies, including the
FGS, water management districts and the USGS.
The goal of Silver Springs Forever is protection
and restoration of water resources that are vital to
Silver Springs.

Colorful signs sporting the Silver Springs
Forever logo directed Attraction visitors to the
yellow and white striped tent where various
exhibits and interactive activities introduced the
geology of karst areas and springs. Wes Skiles
exhibited spectacular photographs of karst conduits
and springs. St. Johns River Water Management
District volunteers and Department of
Environmental Protection's Central District Office
used Enviroscape models to demonstrate the
effects of land use on ground water and surface
water. On entering the tent visitors were
encouraged to place a colored dot showing the
location of their residence on a large map of the
Silver Springs Basin. FGS geologists used a large
poster-sized cross-section illustrating the
hydrogeology of Marion County and Silver
Springs to explain the vulnerability of Silver
Springs to pollution associated with various land
uses. Under the guidance of FGS geologists,
children used Play-Dough and various leaves and
shells to experiment with ways in which fossils are
formed and were able to compare their "fossils"
with fossils in cores supplied by Southwest Florida
Water Management District. Florida Defenders of
the Environment produced a self guided Walking
Tour of Silver Springs.

Several exhibits emphasized that
restoration and protection of springs can be
compatible with everyday landscape goals. Florida
Yards and Neighborhoods, the Home Assist Farm
Assist Program and Xeriscape techniques are
programs that emphasize environmentally friendly
land use. In addition, Audubon International Golf

Courses sent a representative who discussed
environmentally aware golf course design.

FGS GeoLab

In 1998, the FGS obtained a step-van as a
property transfer from the Division of Law
Enforcement. FGS staff designed, built and
installed lab cabinetry to conduct various
geological field activities such as sample

FGS GeoLab

GeoLab Interior

(Photos by: F. Rupert)

preparation and preliminary analyses. The van is
equipped for remote site location for overnight and
longer-term field work (generator, AC/heat, stove,
refrigerator) and can accommodate up to four
people. It has been fully fitted with AC/DC
circuitry which will accommodate computers. It is
anticipated that it also will be fitted with a
communication package. In addition, the van is
well suited for educational purposes, with built-in
display boards, VCR and monitor, and table space
suitable for map work as well as display areas.
With this equipment, the "GeoLab", is an
"ambassador on wheels" for the Survey.


During 1999-2000, the GeoLab was
utilized by staff geologists in the field. It provided
a base of operations for staff conducting field work
in the western panhandle. After gathering data
during the day, FGS staff could analyze and enter
data into computers using the GeoLab facility. It
also provided shelter from the elements while
doing field work in remote areas.


The FGS sponsors an active student
assistantship program which is beneficial for
students and staff geologists. Qualified graduate and
undergraduate students in geology obtain work
experience in a professional setting while staff
geologists, in turn, are assisted by knowledgeable
and motivated individuals. The assistantship
program was begun in 1974 and has run
successfully, with minor interruptions, since then.

Currently, most students are employed by
contract and grant-funded studies. These students
conduct research tasks while under the supervision
of professional geologists on the Survey staff. As the
program has developed, the FGS and several Water
Management Districts have provided funding for
assistants. Additional funding sources include the
U.S. Minerals Management Service, the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, the
AASG, the USGS, and the National Cooperative
Geologic Mapping Program.


The State of Florida continues to maintain a
unique program in which tuition is waived for state
employees enrolling in job-related courses on a
space-available basis. A number of Survey staff have
taken advantage of this program, enrolling in various
courses related to their work. Staff also take
advantage of a variety of management and
professional skills workshops that are offered as
internal training opportunities by the Department.


The FGS participates in cooperative
programs with federal agencies, other state agencies,
county agencies, and water management districts.
Such programs greatly benefit all participants and
the taxpayers of Florida by providing efficient staff
and equipment usage and obtaining maximum
results from participating agency budgets.


Large areas of Florida are underlain by
karst geology, which is riddled with conduits of
differing diameters and orientations resulting in
aquifers characterized by multi-porosity conditions.
Under such conditions the classical equations (such
as Darcy's Law) for depicting groundwater flow and
transport are no longer operative. Karstic conditions
also allow for significant volumes of groundwater to
flow rapidly through watersheds with increased
potential for interaction with surface water.
Groundwater models based largely on Darcy's Law
and traditionally used in homogeneous aquifers are
not applicable under karstic conditions. New
approaches must be developed to conceptualize flow
and transport in multi-porosity aquifers. Based on
such conceptual models, analytical and numerical
models could eventually be developed that could
accurately predict water flow in karstic aquifers. The
use of such models will be essential if the behavior
and ultimate fate of natural and man-made
contaminants on groundwater quality is to be
evaluated. Ground water quality data will in turn be
critical in making correct decisions in clean up
and/or management of watersheds.

To help in achieving this goal, scientists
from state and federal agencies, as well as
universities and the private sector, met in November
1997 to initiate a cooperative effort to address this
problem. The group established the Hydrogeology
Consortium as a semi-autonomous component of the
Florida Center for Environmental Studies, affiliated
with Florida Atlantic University. The Consortium's
mission is to "cooperatively provide scientific
knowledge applicable to groundwater resource
management and protection." The Consortium held
its first organizational workshop in May 1998 where
it addressed administrative issues and developed a
"science plan" to identify and achieve short and
long-term objectives. A second workshop was held
in the summer of 1999, which identified topics
necessary to begin a dialogue among scientists and
resource managers that may lead to achieving the
identified common objective.

In the year 2000, the Consortium's Steering
Committee recommended to the Board of
Representatives that it was more efficient for the
Consortium to be affiliated with the Florida State
University. The Board approved the
recommendation and the transfer was formalized by
a Memorandum of Understanding between the


Consortium and FSU which included the creation of
a physical presence of the Consortium in the
facilities of the Geophysical Fluids Dynamics
Institute at FSU.

In November of 2000, the Consortium held its
third technical workshop which dealt with the topic
"Approaches to attenuation and remediation of
contaminants in karstic settings".

Some seventy-five professionals in the fields
of hydrogeology, hazardous waste remediation and
engineering attended the workshop held in Orlando.

The FGS has been an active participant in
the creation of the Consortium and in the planning
and conduct of its various activities. The FGS
manned an exhibit at the Orlando workshop and is
planning to publish that workshop's proceedings.

While current membership in the Consortium
remain concentrated in Florida, efforts are underway
to expand it nationwide. Below is a sampling of the
150 individuals and member organizations
represented by scientists and resource managers
from universities, government agencies, and the
private sector:

Andreyev Engineering, Inc.
CH2M Hill, Inc.
City of Hollywood, Florida
ERM-South, Inc.
FAMU-FSU College of Engineering
Florida Atlantic University
Florida DEP
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Institute of Technology
Florida International University
Florida State University
Journal of Coastal Research
Karst Environmental Services, Inc.
Lampl-Herbert Consultants
Missimer International
Northwest Florida WMD
South Florida WMD
Southeast River Forecast Center,
National Weather Service
Southwest Florida WMD
St Johns River WMD
Subsurface Evaluations
Suwannee River WMD
Technos, Inc.
Tvndall AFB
University of Central Florida
University of Florida

University ofMiami
University of South Florida
US EPA Atlanta
USGS Altamonte Sprints, FL
USGS Miami, FL
USGS Tallahassee, FL
USGS Tampa, FL
Valdosta State University, GA
Woodward Clyde Consultants

Those interested in more information about
the Consortium, may contact Dr. Rodney S. DeHan
by phone at (850) 644-5625, Fax (850) 644-8972 or
visit the Consortium's Web site at:


Ambient Groundwater Monitoring Program

The Ambient Ground Water Monitoring
Section contracted with the FGS to investigate
shallow aquifer systems at 26 sites in 10 different
counties throughout the state during 1999 and 2000.
Core holes were drilled at each of the sites for litho-
stratigraphic analysis and for FGS database
purposes. Lithologic logs were generated for each
core, formation picks made and the data entered
onto the FGS computer database. Hydraulic
conductivity analysis (falling head permeameters)
was conducted on selected samples. Monitor wells
were constructed at 20 of the sites for the ambient
ground-water monitor network. This lithologic
information and the ambient groundwater quality
information will be useful for a variety of ecosystem
management decisions. The Northwest and South
Florida Water Management Districts, Cities of
Chattahoochee and Paxton, Tall Timbers Research
Station, Everglades National Park, Big Cypress
National Preserve, National Key Deer Refuge, St.
Vincent Island National Preserve, The Blackwater
River State Forest and five state Parks also
cooperated on these projects.

Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a
cost-effective, viable solution to address drinring-
water shortages in Florida. ASR wells are Class 5
injection wells regulated by the Underground
Injection Control Program of the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection. Six ASR
facilities are in operation in Florida and more than


25 more sites are under development. Some of the
sites include reclaimed water ASR facilities, which
are also cost-effective solutions to local water
shortages. ASR is a proposed major component of
the Everglades restoration plan, which calls for the
installation of approximately 300 ASR wells in the
Lake Okeechobee region within the next 20 years.

The Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemical Study is an ongoing investigation by
the Florida Geological Survey, in cooperation with
the Florida State University Department of
Geological Sciences, to examine water-rock
geochemical interactions that take place during ASR
cycles. Water-quality variations and aquifer system
characteristics (including three injection zones) at
two ASR facilities, the Rome Avenue ASR
(Hillsborough County) and the Punta Gorda ASR
(Charlotte County), are the focus of the current
study. The Underground Injection Control Program
(FDEP Division of Water Resource Management)
provides funds for this study.

Research completed during 1999-2000
confirms that understanding water-rock geochemical
interactions is important to the continued success of
ASR in Florida. Results of this investigation indicate
the following: 1) chemical (including isotopic)
variability exists within groundwaters and
carbonates of the Floridan aquifer system; 2) this
variability may result in site-specific geochemical
processes affecting ASR wells and water quality;
and 3) as oxygen-rich surface waters are injected
into the Floridan aquifer system, trace metals such as
arsenic (As), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and
uranium (U) are mobilized (chemically leached)
from the carbonate rocks and withdrawn during
recovery. With regard to the third item, some of the
periods of higher metals concentrations in recovered
waters are short-lived, depending on the duration of
the injection-storage-recovery cycle. It is significant
that mobilization of U and As into recovered ASR
waters has occurred within all three of the aquifer-
storage zones investigated in this study. On the other
hand, it is important to emphasize that only Fe and
Mn concentrations (for relatively few samples) have
exceeded secondary drinking water standards (i.e.,
maximum contaminant levels MCL). With the
exception of one perhaps anomalous sample, As is
not observed to have exceeded the MCL.

The current MCL for As is 50 ug/1. The
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing
a rule revision to lower the MCL for As to 10 ug/l
(for more information, see If the
As MCL is lowered, mobilization of metals into
injected and recovered waters may become even
more of a regulatory issue. Under the revised
standard, more than 25% of the 95 samples analyzed
in this study would exceed the MCL.

Results of this research underscore the
need for further research on the geochemistry of
ASR in Florida. Ongoing research at the Florida
Geological Survey will continue to evaluate water
quality changes during repeated ASR cycling and
further characterize the lithology and geochemistry
of the Floridan aquifer system.


The Florida Geological Survey is
designating State Geological Sites under the
auspices of Florida Statutes Section 377.075 4e.
Under the statute, "The state geologist, through the
Division of Technical Services(now DRAM), shall
designate areas as "state geological
sites".......which areas are determined to be of great
and continuing significance to the scientific study
and public understanding of the geological history
of this state." Sites around the State that have
specific geological significance have been
nominated by FGS staff and other interested
individuals. Five sites have been selected as State
Geological Sites including: Windley Key Fossil
Reef (Monroe County), Devil's Mill Hopper
(Alachua County), Ichetucknee Springs (Columbia
County), Alum Bluff (Liberty County) and Florida
Caverns (Jackson County). Geological leaflets
have been prepared for Windley Key Fossil Reef,
Florida Caverns and the Devil's Mill Hopper.

Windley Key Fossil Reef State
Geological Site was the first of the geological sites
designated under FS 377.075 and was dedicated in
January 1999. Florida Caverns was the second site
designated and was dedicated in October 2000. The
third site, the Devil's Millhopper, is a large sinkhole
located in west-central Alachua County, just
northwest of Gainesville. It will be formally
dedicated as a State Geologic Site sometime in
2001. Sediments and rock exposed in the walls of
the sinkhole include Pleistocene soils and sands at
the top covering siliciclastics from the Miocene
Hawthorn Group, which in turn overlie the Eocene
Ocala Limestone. This site is an important fossil
locality, yielding marine and terrestrial vertebrates.


Fossil corals exposed at Windley Key State
Geological Site. (Photo by T. Scott)


In September of 1998, Dade County
archaeologists uncovered a circular feature cut into
limestone bedrock on a construction site located at
the mouth of the Miami River in the heart of
downtown Miami. The feature consisted of some
24 rectangular holes along with numerous other
circular holes. Coincident with the circular
feature, a 1950's septic tank was also uncovered.
This called into question the antiquity of the
In an attempt to resolve the antiquity issue,
in May of 1999, Survey geologists Tom Scott and
Harley Means were asked to come down and see if
there was any geological evidence that might help
resolve this problem. Upon a brief inspection of
the site, Scott and Means determined that the site
pre-dated the septic system based on the
occurrence of laminated duracrusts observed in the
primary holes of the Circle. No such crusts were
found on any rock faces associated with the septic

Means and Scott reported their findings at
the 1999 annual meeting of the Geological Society
of America, which was held in Denver, Colorado.

Miami Circle site, Dade County. (Photo by: J.


Sinkhole Database Cooperation

After the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute lost its funding support, its computer
database and archive files were given to the FGS.
The survey has done extensive reformatting and
updating of the data in order to make it available to
the public and private sectors. Currently, the data is
stored in Microsoft Excel and can be obtained by
contacting the FGS Library. The FGS and the
Department of Community Affairs (DCA)
coordinated efforts to place a sinkhole reporting
form on the internet for easy public access. Digital
sinkhole reporting forms are presently found on the
FGS web site at:
tm and a slightly different version on the
Department of Community Affairs Web site at
LS/sinkrpt.htm. In the very near future a single form
will be located at a new web site at:
ortform.html. In addition, the FGS handles
requests for sinkhole data and coordinates requests
for individual sinkhole inspections.


The 1987 Florida Legislature enacted
Chapter 492, Florida Statutes (FS), requiring the
licensing of Professional Geologists in order to
"safeguard the life, health, property, and public well-
being of its (Florida's) citizens." Chapter 492, FS,
also created the Board of Professional Geologists


which consists of seven members and the State
Geologist, or his designee. serving as an ex officio
member. In addition to the State Geologist serving
as a member on this Board, several FGS staff
members serve as consultants to the Board's
Professional Geologists Examination Committee.


Mentored Field Program

The Florida Geological Survey received a
total of three grants for research assistantships for
mentored field training, funded by a competitive
grant awarded to the FGS by the Association of
American State Geologists, in 1999-2000. The first
grant focused on detailed mapping of karst features
in selected areas of the Woodville Karst Plain, a
geomorphic province located south of Tallahassee.
The area is characterized by water-filled sinks,
shallow dry sinkholes, natural bridges, extensive
subaqueous cavern systems and disappearing
streams. A Florida State University student, Ms.
Jackie Bone, hired for this project, mapped the
northern and western boundaries of the karst plain,
in addition to other- karst features, using
topographic maps. Field examination of the
features emphasized the complementary nature of
these techniques in areas of low relief. The two
carbonate units that control karst development in
the area were examined both in cores and outcrops.

The second mentored field training grant
was received in 1999 by Ms. Mabry M. Gaboardi,
a Florida State University student majoring in
geology. Ms. Gaboardi was trained and assisted in
field mapping techniques by Richard Green and
Harley Means while they were working on the
1999-2000 STATEMAP project involving
geologic mapping of the northern portion of the
USGS 1:100,000 scale Crestview quadrangle,
Northwest Florida.

The third grant for mentored field
training, which the FGS received under this
program in 2000, was received by Robert Dale
Frierson, a Florida State University student
majoring in Geology. Mr. Frierson was also
trained in field mapping techniques by Richard
Green and Guy Means while they were working on
a geologic map of the southern portion of the
USGS 1:100,000 scale Crestview quadrangle,

northwest Florida for the 2000-2001 STATEMAP


Leon County Academic Resource Center (ARC)
Mentorship Program
In Spring, 1999, the Florida Geological
Survey (FGS) sponsored four middle-school
students participating in the Leon County
Academic Resource Center (ARC) Mentorship
program. FGS staff involved in the program
include Dr. Jon Arthur, Amy Graves and Mabry

For three months, Janielle Thompson and
Karima Anderson were FGS "geologists-in-
training." With help from Mabry Gaboardi and Jon
Arthur, Janielle and Karima described rock and
sediment samples from a deep well. The data they
collected is being used in a regional subsurface
mapping project. The girls used a binocular
microscope to examine the samples, and they
identified fossils that give clues to Florida's
environment more than 40 million years ago. The
well samples they described were used in
development of a cross section. Both the map and
the cross section are important to the
understanding of water and mineral resources in
the central Florida Peninsula.

Two students, Rick Lollar and Creighton
Hall, developed educational pages that were added
to the FGS web site (
With guidance from Amy Graves, Frank Rupert
and Jon Arthur, Rick and Creighton scanned 35mm
slides of Florida geology and placed the images in
an on-line slide show using HTML programming
and the web publishing software Microsoft
Frontpage. The students also added an Outreach
section to the FGS web site. The first entry in the
Outreach section is a description of ARC
Mentorship activities at the FGS. This new
Outreach-Mentorship page includes digital photos
of the students and their sponsors.


Cooperative Investigations with the USGS and
South Florida Water Management District

During 1999 and 2000, the FGS drilled
cores in the western portion of the South Florida


Water Management District (SFWMD). Fifteen
cores were drilled for the "Gray Limestone"
project investigating the hydrogeologic framework
of the surficial aquifer system. Seven cores were
drilled to aid in the correlation of seismic data in
the Caloosahatchee River Basin. Many of the core
holes drilled for these projects were completed as
monitor wells. The lithologies in the cores were
described and formations determined then entered
into the FGS database

A Geological Assessment of the Florida Big Bend
Coastal Wetlands

The Coastal Research Group's first
research project, A Geological Assessment of the
Florida Big Bend Coastal Wetlands, was initiated in
July 1991 and continued through 2000. This project
is partially funded by the USGS. It focuses on
characterizing the wetland processes of the estuaries
of the Aucilla, the Steinhatchee, the St. Marks, and
the Ochlockonee Rivers. Comparison among these
four Big Bend estuaries will enable better prediction
of such natural systems' responses to changes that
are either natural (e.g., sea level change) or human-
induced (e.g., increasing development). Additional
comparison of response to sea level change will be
enhanced by the project's recent extension to
include measuring accretion and erosion of marsh
surfaces at additional sites along Florida's Big Bend,
Georgia's Cumberland Island, and South Carolina's
ACE Basin (the watershed formed by the Ashepoo,
Combahee and Edisto rivers). The wetland
assessment project will begin to concentrate on a
detailed analysis of several Florida Estuaries by
establishing sediment erosion table (SET) sites in
differing ecosystems in the estuarine/fluvial systems.
To date, data gathered suggests that the marsh
surface at several coastal wetland sites along
Florida's Big Bend are experiencing a decrease in
elevation due to local sea level rise.

Florida Bay Ecosystem History

FGS staff members, Dr. Tom Scott and
Harley Means continued assisting the USGS in the
investigation of the ecosystem history of Florida
Bay, part of the South Florida Ecosystem
Restoration Project. This project is utilizing fossil
mollusks, dinocysts, forams, pollens and sediment
lithology to determine the environments present
within the bay at a given time and location. Lead
isotope dating techniques provide reliable ages of
the sediments encountered. The project continues
to monitor the bay's ecosystem.

i'y ~1



L. Brewster-Wingard and T. Scott sampling in
Florida Bay. (Photo by: H. Means)

The Hydrogeology of the Gray Limestone
Aquifer in Southern Florida

This is a cooperative project with the
USGS. The FGS drilled cores for the project in
southern Florida which provided the lithologic
data on which this study was based. The cores
were described by the USGS and then coded and
entered into the well log system at the FGS. These
cores will eventually be deposited in the FGS core
warehouse facility where further study of them can
take place. The project culminated in a USGS
publication: Water-Resource Investigations Report

Surficial and Bedrock Geology of the USGS
1:100,000 Arcadia and Crestview Quadrangles

This cooperative project is funded jointly
by the FGS and the National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Program under the State Geologic
Mapping Component (STATEMAP).

In 1999, the FGS finished a three-year
project to produce geologic maps in south-central
Florida. The 1997 and 1998 mapping concentrated
on the USGS 1:100,000 Sarasota and Arcadia
quadrangles. In 1999, the FGS finished mapping the
Arcadia quadrangle and began working on the
northern portion of the USGS 1:100,000 Crestview

In 1998-1999, Richard Green, Ken
Campbell, Jon Arthur, Guy H. Means, Tom Scott,
and Mabry Gaboardi produced a bedrock geologic
map, a map of the surficial sediment types, and
several geologic cross sections for the western
portion of the USGS 1:100,000 scale Arcadia
Quadrangle. These maps and cross sections are


available through the FGS Open File Map Series

This last year (1999-2000), FGS staff
geologists Richard Green, Ken Campbell, Jon
Arthur, Guy H. Means, and Tom Scott, together
with John Bryan, a staff geologist with Okaloosa-
Walton Community College, produced a similar
set of maps for the northern portion of the
1:100,000 scale Crestview Quadrangle. The maps
included a bedrock geologic map, a map of the
surfical sediment types, and several geologic cross
sections. These maps and cross sections are also
available through the FGS Open File Map Series

In July of 2000, the FGS began working
on production of a bedrock geologic map, a
surficial sediments map, and several geologic cross
sections for the southern portion of the 1:100,000
scale Crestview Quadrangle. Field mapping began
in August, with a planned completion date of June,
2001. The maps and cross sections for this area
will be available through the FGS Open File Map
Series beginning in July of 2001.

FGS geologists examine outcrop in
STATEMAP field area. (Photo by: T. Scott)

After input and an October workshop with the
Florida Geological Mapping Advisory Committee,
the USGS 1:100,000 Marianna Quadrangle in
northwestern Florida was selected for the next area
to be mapped under the STATEMAP program.

Geochemical Sampling Program

In 1997/98, the FGS, collaborating with
the USGS Geologic Division, Region 10, began a
statewide systematic survey and elemental analyses
of stream-sediment and upland-sediment samples.

The field work included taking approximately
1600 samples using USGS sampling
methodologies and protocols. The statewide
sampling used a grid system of 10 kilometer square
cells (approximately 6 by 6 miles) based on the
UTM survey system. The field work was
coordinated and completed under the direction of
the FGS and its professionally licensed geological
staff. The elemental analyses and interpretation
are ongoing.

In 1999, the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) continued to cooperate with the USGS to
evaluate the role played by natural geochemical
processes in Florida. The 1999 efforts
concentrated on a smaller geographic region
centered around Tallahassee (approximately the St.
Marks watershed) and encompassing about 750
square miles. Staff collected sediments using the
Florida system of land survey as the basis for its
grid system with a section of land (one square
mile) as the basic sampling unit or cell. The USGS
Denver office continued coordinating the
geochemical analyses on a suite of 40 elements
from the collected samples. The products derived
from the project will include an atlas of maps and
reports describing the nature and distribution of the
sediment chemistry.

Results of both the statewide and the
regional survey will be useful for a variety of
applications including 1) evaluation of the possible
relationship between surficial sediment
geochemistry and anomalies observed in the
ambient groundwater monitoring data; 2)
determining geochemistry of the shallow aquifer
system; 3) providing pre-development and land-
use specific baseline information for elements of
concern; 4) analyzing the effects of sediment
chemistry on surface water quality, and ultimately,
the potential effect on shallow groundwater
quality; and 5) identifying areas with potential
mineral resources through trend analysis.

Geochemical Database Compilaton

Each fiscal year, the Florida Legislature
allocates funds within the FDEP budget to contract
cooperative projects with the USGS Water
Resource Division (WRD). Through this funding
source, the FGS contracted with the local USGS
WRD to compile the statewide geochemical
sediment data into a GIS-compatible digital
format. Pending sufficient funding, a compilation
of all current and historical hydrogeochemical data


by sample site for Florida will also be initiated.
This compilation may include, but is not limited to,
the following databases: STORET (EPA),

Mineral Resource Data System Update for the
State of Florida

The FGS continues to gather mineral
resource data as a part of its overall mission. The
data are included in our state-wide mineral resources
database and include the resource, the producers
name, production data, location information, and
environment and reclamation data.

During the 1999-2000 time frame new
records were added or updated. The database was
originally generated in and continues to be
maintained in, Microsoft's Excel spreadsheet
software. It is comprised of seven tables that are
linked with a Mineral Resource Data System
(MRDS) reference number. An ArcView GIS map
compliments the Florida mines database. The
MRDS database as well as the map are in digital
format and can be obtained by contacting the FGS


A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area
Along Florida's Central East Coast

The U.S Department of Interior Minerals
Management Service (MMS) and the FGS Coastal
Research Group completed a number of tasks for a
multi-year cooperative agreement to identify and
characterize offshore sands suitable for beach
restoration along the central east coast of Florida.
Tasks accomplished during Year 3 of this
agreement (1998-1999 federal fiscal year) under
FDEP contract FO- 679 and Year 4 of this
agreement (1999-2000 federal fiscal year) under
FDEP contract FO- 764 include:

* 746 line miles of subsurface acoustic profile
data were acquired, processed and interpreted.

* 35 (20-foot) offshore vibrocores were taken.
These were processed and described and
granulometric analyses performed.

* 70 bottom sediment samples were taken and

* To date several new large deposits of beach
quality sand have been identified.

* Data incorporated into two Annual Reports.

Water quality data is recorded with a continuous
data logger and later downloaded in the lab.


Hydrogeology of St. Joseph Bay

A study of St. Joseph Bay was initiated in
1997 to characterize the interaction between
groundwater and surface water in the bay and the
impact of such interaction on the health and
productivity of the entire watershed. This
assessment was also to take land-use within the
watershed into account. The project, funded
partially by an EPA grant and the DEP/USGS
Cooperative Agreement, was conducted jointly by
scientists from the CRG, the USGS, and the FSU
Department of Oceanography.

Phase I of the project involved physical
characterization of the watershed including:

1. The system's water budget.
2. Water circulation within the Bay and
between the Bay and the Gulf of
3. Seismic profile of the Bay's bottom.
4. Water quality including salinity,
temperature, turbidity, pH, and
specific conductance.
5. Characterization of the Bay's
interaction with the surficial and
intermediate aquifers.
6. Quantification of fresh water flow.


7. Determination of the influence of tidal
action on the quality and circulation of
the Bay's water.

Phase II of the project (pending additional
funding) was to examine the impact of water quality
changes due to groundwater seepage on the
vegetation and biological communities of the Bay.
This information was to be given to local and state
decision- makers for use in developing policies to
protect this coastal ecosystem.

Findings of the first phase of the study have
been published as a report to EPA entitled
"Interaction of surface water, ground water and the
geologic framework in determining the health of
three-dimensional coastal watersheds" by Rodney
S. DeHan, March 2000.


The FGS and Northwest Florida Water
Management District routinely cooperate on well
description and data-gathering projects within the
District. During the years 1999-2000, an FGS
research assistant supervised by our licensed PG's
described the lithology of two observation wells
drilled in Walton County as part of an on-going
District project. Printed lithologic logs were
provided to the District, and samples from the
studies were archived in the FGS sample repository.


Well Description Program

The FGS and the Suwannee River Water
Management District (SRWMD) have maintained a
successful and mutually beneficial working
relationship for nearly 25 years. During much of
this period, the SRWMD funded geology graduate
students to work as research assistants at the FGS,
describing well samples and cores and entering the
coded lithologic logs into the FGS database. This
arrangement has worked exceedingly well, resulting
in the addition of much new data on the geology of
the District to the databases of both agencies.

This final phase of this cooperative project
continued into 1999. During this period, previously
unworked deep oil test wells were described and
added to the FGS database. In addition, data from
the existing well file database was compiled to

construct preliminary isopach maps of the surficial
aquifer system and a top of the Avon Park
Formation map within the SRWMD.


The cooperative program between St.
Johns River Water Management District
(SJRWMD) and the Florida Geological Survey is in
keeping with the missions of both agencies and
continued throughout 1999-2000. SJRWMD has
developed a District Observation Well Network
(DOWN) program. Geologic samples obtained
during the emplacement of these wells provide site-
specific data which is vital in ascertaining local and,
eventually, regional hydrogeologic conditions
throughout the District. Samples from the DOWN
Program, as well as other previously undescribed
samples on file at the FGS, are inventoried,
examined, described and entered into an electronic
database for use by both the FGS and SJRWMD.

Guidebook to the Correlation Criteria for
Geophysical Well Logs

The SJRWMD currently maintains a
database of over 2300 wells that have geophysical
logs in digital format. The database is accessed
through the GeoSys/4G computer program, which
is used statewide by agencies for quick retrieval
and display of the logs. Interpretations can be
made from the logs to determine lithologic and
hydrostratigraphic boundaries as well as site
specific hydrogeologic conditions. Once the
elevation of the boundaries are determined, the
points can be used in a GIS framework to construct
structure contour maps, isopach maps, and three
dimensional views of the subsurface.

To make consistent interpretations of
geophysical well logs, it was necessary to identify
wells with sufficient geologic control to be used as
reference wells. In addition, identification of wells
within the SJRWMD that have sufficient geologic
control and exhibit a characteristic geophysical log
response to be used as reference wells for
correlation purposes was conducted. Wells
meeting these criteria were identified in the
GeoSys database, and a draft guidebook presenting
the reference wells that provide examples of
typical geophysical log signatures correlated to
lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic units was



South Florida is experiencing rapid
population growth and water management practices
must be predicated on an adequate understanding of
the lithologic units which comprise aquifer systems.
In 1992, the FGS and the South Florida Water
Management District (SFWMD) began a
cooperative project in Collier, Lee, Glades, Martin,
Okeechobee, Osceola, St. Lucie, Palm Beach,
Broward and Dade Counties to provide geologic
information in support of this need. Descriptions of
approximately 35,000 feet of lithologic samples
from cores and cuttings were entered in the FGS
Database for the SFWMD in 1999-2000.


Geologic Cross Sections

A cooperative program exists between the
Regional Observation and Monitoring Program
(ROMP) of the Southwest Florida Water
Management District (SWFWMD) and the FGS to
construct geologic cross sections throughout the
16-county SWFWMD region. The purpose of the
project is to delineate the extent of
lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic units
within the District, thus providing knowledge
essential for the protection and management of
ground-water resources in southwest Florida.

The project is subdivided into three
phases: Phase I includes the southwest region
from Pinellas and Hillsborough to Charlotte
Counties. Phase II includes the northwest region
from Levy and Marion to Pasco Counties. Phase
III includes the southeastern region, including
Polk, Highlands, Hardee and DeSoto Counties.

The cross sections illustrate detailed
lithology, regional lithostratigraphy of Eocene
through Pliocene formations, gamma-ray log
characteristics of these formations, and aquifer
systems within each study area. Most of the data
used to construct the cross sections are taken from
detailed descriptions of ROMP wells. In areas
where ROMP data are not available, borehole data
from the FGS and USGS are utilized. Interim
reports on each project phase are either in
preparation or have been published. Thirty-three
cross sections have been completed to date. Final
reports for the three phases of the project will be

completed in 2001. All cross sections, tables and
reports will also be available as digital files linked
within an Arcview project (.apr file). See figures 1
and 2.

Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework
Mapping Project

The Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic
Framework Mapping Project is a cooperative effort
between the SWFWMD and the FGS that began in
1995 with the development of a database
containing more than 5000 records for wells
located throughout the District. This Microsoft
Access database, known as "FGS Wells"
facilitates selection of wells for the mapping
project. In 2000, the FGS implemented the
database statewide.

The mapping component of the project is
producing 18 surface contour and thickness maps
representing the lithostratigraphic and
hydrostratigraphic framework of southwest Florida
region. Mapped geologic formations include the
Avon Park Formation and younger units;
hydrogeologic units include the mid-Floridan
confining unit, the Floridan aquifer system, the
intermediate aquifer system and confining unit, and
the surficial aquifer system.

As of December 2000, more than 250 wells
have been added to the database on which the maps
are based. Samples from more than 70 percent of
these wells have been inspected to determine
lithostratigraphic contacts and approximately one-
quarter of these wells have been lithologically
described for the project. Where gaps exist in the
data coverage for the maps, wells with geophysical
logs are included in the analysis.

The maps are generated from contoured
grid models using the Spatial Analyst extension of
ArcView GIS . Maps have been completed for
the southern two-thirds of the District. By 2002,
the northern third of the District will be completed,
as well as a 20-mile-wide buffer around the
District. Final contour maps and 3D visualization
of the units are useful for protection, regulation,
and assessment of groundwater and solid earth
resources, and provide frameworks for ground-
water flow models and future geologic research.
See figure 3.



FGS Vertebrate and Macro-invertebrate

Since its inception, the FGS has built and
maintained paleontologic collections to support its
basic research activities and to preserve a record of
the state's fossil heritage. These collections
include both vertebrate and invertebrate fossils,
and incorporate a number of type and figured
specimens. Due to budgetary constraints, funding
for staff and facilities to properly curate the
collections were typically lacking over the years.
In the early 1980's, the FGS vertebrate collection
was transferred to the Florida Museum of Natural
History (FLMNH) in Gainesville. The FLMNH
now oversees the collection in state-of-the-art
facilities, where it is updated regularly and
available to researchers. In 1993, the FGS
macroinvertebrate paleontology collection was also
sent to the FLMNH for curation. Museum staff are
cataloging and updating the collection, and will
return a reference set of invertebrate fossils,
labeled with current nomenclature and
stratigraphic associations, for use by FGS staff.

Both the vertebrate and macro-invertebrate
collections are searchable via the Internet. The
vertebrate collection can be found at
ub.asp which is also linked to the FGS data archive
page (see the computer systems section of this report
for a description of the FGS web page). The
invertebrate collection is located at



The following FGS reports were published during
1999 and 2000:

Biennial Report

* BR 20 Biennial Report 20; 1997-1998, by
Jacqueline Lloyd, 1999, 67 p.

This report summarizes the activities of
the Florida Geological Survey professional staff

during the two-year period 1997-98. Included
within the report are activities in each section,
program and research summaries, special projects,
talks, papers, and publications, personnel
information, building improvements, and the FGS
budget for those years.

Florida Geology Forum

The Florida Geology FORUM is designed
to reach a wide range of readers interested in
geology and natural resources of Florida. Each
issue includes current events and activities at the
FGS, as well as meeting announcements and
contributed articles from other organizations and
University geology departments.
* March 1999, vol. 13, no. 1, edited by C. Collier
* October 1999, vol. 13, no. 2, edited by C.
* March 2000, vol. 14, no. 1, edited by C. Collier
* September 2000, vol. 14, no. 2, edited by C.

Information Circular

* IC 112 The Industrial Minerals Industry
Directory of Florida, by Steven M. Spencer,
1999, 26p.

The intent of this publication is to list those
companies involved with the extraction of non-
energy related industrial minerals in Florida. The
figure on page vi is a generalized map showing the
principal mining localities in the State. Information
relating to oil and gas production in Florida can be
found in the Florida Geological Survey Information
Circular No. 111 (Lloyd, 1997). The shell deposits
listed under the Limestone category often are quartz
sands with shell in them. Therefore, the shell
deposits are not limestone in the classical sense.

This directory lists the name, address, and
location of each company under the commodity that
is mined. When possible, the complete location is
given as Township, Range, and Section. However,
the term "multiple," which occurs in the column
labeled Mine Name, denotes that a particular mine
encompasses several sections of land. The remark
"not available" indicated by N/A, is used when a
particular item was not obtained. Table 1 lists all the
abbreviations used in this text. Table 2 is a listing of
all commodities, by county. These commodities
may be mined or processed in the designated county.

prm ragr gznr_ rst
I I ". I -I

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-- - - - 7- --- 2

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S *, I l--i "

A 7o ^t .... --"~.. '

,I, -IN

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-- ... .- 271.

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L E ,*ANDS ****

_- - r-- 2

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LOCA/1ONS j -"
SPh I 0 -_____

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Figure 1. Cross section locations in SW Florida Water Management District.



K'.' WI>~lcc .,ff < Y C WIC,,

I -
1* li t-

') o o o !* g .:-r .: $ u o_^ nI
I Ih \ /s / h
1 i-i II I/

_. 31 \ _/l -" ', il a

F g 2 St g Ditit
Z c- s a a 2 P P P P a P 3 5 P 1 I P ( P 1 I P

Figure 2. Stratigraphic column through SW Florida Water Management District.





O .
Ai l

h drL


Figure 3. Three dimensional image of strata in SW Florida Water Management District.


The Florida Geological Survey has used
numerous sources in compiling the directory
including the Department of Environmental
Protection's Florida Geological Survey and
Bureau of Mine Reclamation; the Department of
Transportation's Bureau of Materials Research;
the U.S. Department of Labor's Mine Safety and
Health Administration. This office will appreciate
notification of any corrections, additions or
deletions for future editions. You may contact the
author at the Florida Geological Survey, 903 W.
Tennessee Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32304-
7700, (850) 488-9380, FAX (850) 488-8086, or e-

In-House Progress Reports

* Arthur, J.D., Cowart, J.C., and Dabous, A.,
2000, Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemical Study: 1999 Progress Report,
49 p.

* Williams, H., Arthur, J.D., and Cowart, J.C.,
1999, Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemical Study: 1997-98 Progress
Report, 132 p.

Map Series

* MS 144 Land Uses in the Ecosystem
Management Areas of Florida, 1999, by
Agustin A. Sepulveda. Scale 1:2,000,000.

Land-use maps are used by scientists,
environmentalists, and planners as a tool to
determine whether to preserve or develop the
land surface. Accurate and current land-use
maps are basic to understanding cultural changes
and to explaining temporal patterns of natural
phenomena and population within Florida.
Land-use maps are used in hydrologic studies to
identify and explain water-quality patterns in a
basin through statistical analysis. The density of
streams and percentage of wetland and open
water within the Ecosystem Management Areas
(EMA) of Florida may also be determined based
on land-use maps.

Open File Map Series

* OFMS 88 Surficial and Bedrock Geology
of the Eastern Portion of the U.S.G.S.
1:100,000 Scale Arcadia Quadrangle,
South-Central Florida, by R. Green, G.H.

Means, T. Scott, J. Arthur, and K. Campbell,
1999. 8 sheets

This map series was jointly funded by
the FGS and the USGS under the STATEMAP
component of the National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Program and consists of a geologic
map, a surficial sediments map, and several
geologic cross sections of the Eastern Portion of
the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 Scale Arcadia
Quadrangle, South-Central Florida.

OFMS 89 Surficial and Bedrock Geology
of the Northern Portion of the U.S.G.S.
1:100,000 Scale Crestview Quadrangle, by
G.H. Means, R. Green, J.R. Bryan, T.M.
Scott, K.M. Campbell, M.M. Gaboardi, and
J.D. Robertson, 2000. 2 sheets.

This map series was jointly funded by the
FGS and the USGS under the STATEMAP
component of the National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Program and consists of a geologic
map, a surficial sediments map, and several
geologic cross sections of the Northern Portion
of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 Scale Crestview
Quadrangle, Florida

Open File Reports

* OFR 74 Mineral Resources of Jackson
County, Florida, Steven M. Spencer and
Jacqueline M. Lloyd, 1999, Florida
Geological Survey Open File Report 74, 15

This report provides a general assessment
of the mineral resources of Jackson County. The
information is presented in a format useful to
planners and officials in their analyses of urban
and rural development. It is intended for land use
planning in areas such as zoning, permitting, road
construction, and landfill siting.

* OFR 75 Mineral Resources of Escambia
County, Florida, by S. Spencer, E. Lane and
R. Hoenstine, 1999. 14 p.

This report provides a general assessment
of the mineral resources of Escambia County. The
information is presented in a format useful to
planners and officials in their analyses of urban
and rural development. It is intended for land use


planning in areas such as zoning, permitting, road
construction, and landfill siting.

* OFR 78 Volumetric Beach and Coast
Erosion Due to Storm and Hurricane
Impact, by James H. Balsillie, 1999, 37 p.

Prior to the initial work of the author
during the early 1980s, methods to predict
nearshore, beach, and coastal erosion due to
storm and hurricane impact were based on
theoretical applications and estimation.
However, with the acquisition of actual field data
quantifying storm and hurricane erosive impacts,
it became clear that, in addition to the combined
storm tide (commonly termed the storm surge),
the length of time that an event has to erode the
beach and coast is a highly significant factor that
could be quantified (i.e., given two events each
producing identical storm tide hydrographs, the
slower moving event will result in greater beach
and coast erosion). Hence, based on actual field
data, the event longevity parameter (ELP) was
introduced (Balsillie, 1985c, 1986) which
incorporates both the combined storm tide and its
rise time, the latter of which can be computed
from the event forward speed.

Since the published work of the mid-
1980s, additional field data (a three-fold
increase) have become available to further verify
the ELP approach, and to introduce new
developments. It has, for instance, become
apparent that in addition to the design peak storm
tide elevation, the design erosion event requires
attention in many coastal engineering design
applications if they are to be successful. In fact,
aside from design soffit elevations which are
determined from the peak combined storm tide
elevation and superimposed storm waves
propagating upon the storm tide surface, it is the
design erosion event that quantifies the final
expression of all other impacts. Hence,
probability density functions are defined for both
erosion above mean sea level and peak storm tide
level. In addition, it has been found that the pre-
impact offshore bed slope can be used to indicate
the "efficiency" or "receptiveness" of the
offshore sediment sink to accept sand eroded
from the beach and/or coast (termed the offshore
sink efficiency parameter (OSEP).
Incorporation of the new data, and quantification
of the two additional developments and an
amended Saffir/Simpson hurricane damage

potential scale constitute the subject matter of
this paper.

* OFR 79 Sticky Grain Occurrences in
Sieving, by James H. Balsillie, William F.
Tanner, and Holly K. Williams, 1999, 16 p.

Observation of sand-sized grains of
predominantly quartz composition sticking to
sieves has led to the identification of five (5) type
conditions occurring during sieving. One type
condition constitutes non-problematic sieving,
one is related primarily to moisture problems,
and three to electrostatic influences.
Electrostatic influences have been noted to occur
when the relative humidity becomes less than
about 55% (Daeschner et al. 1959). Of the latter,
one is related to the post-sieving weighing
process, one has potential to seriously affect the
cumulative distribution, and the third does not
affect cumulative distribution results. While the
causes of electrostatic processes leading to sticky
grain occurrences have not been identified to the
extent that solutions have been forthcoming, a
manageable solution has been found for one of
the major sticky grain occurrences.


* The Disappearing Waters of Lake Jackson,
Rupert, F., 2000 (Front) and The 1999
Draining of Lake Jackson, Balsillie, J and
Polson, P., 2000 (Back), Florida Geological
Survey Poster (compiled by Rupert (1999)
and installed at seven kiosks around Lake

In late 1999, Lake Jackson, situated in
northern Tallahassee, drained into a sinkhole. The
event attracted much media attention. The FGS
was asked to prepare a public poster display for
seven exhibit kiosks located at boat landings
around Lake Jackson. A two-sided display was
designed using computer graphics, digital photos
and CAD. Display copies were then plotted out in
color for placement in the kiosks.

* Geologic History of Florida, compiled by
Lyle Hatchett, 2000, Florida Geological
Survey Poster.

This poster briefly summarizes the geologic
history of Florida. Each time period is
represented and relevant events that occurred


during that time period are listed. The geologic
timescale along with pictures are added to aid the
reader in understanding the events listed.
Corresponding geologic units are also

Special Publications

SSP 41 Shore-Breaking Wave Height
Transformation, by James H. Balsillie,
2000, p. 1-30.

As waves begin to shore-break, the wave
crest rapidly increases in height, reaching a
maximum at the shore-breaking position. This
phenomenon, termed alpha wave peaking, is
primarily dependent on the wave steepness:


1.0-0.4 In tanht 100 H
1 [ [ )}\

breaker position approximately 84% of the wave
crest lies above the DWL. The amount of the
wave that lies above the DWL during shore-
breaking may range from about 0.5 to 0.84.
Transformation of H'/H, where H is the local
wave height and H' is the amount of H lying
above the DWL during alpha wave peaking, may
be predicted by:
H' H ( d db 0.9
H' H- 4 tanh j 3 d 4db I
H Hb H Hb

where Hb' is the amount of Hb lying above the
DWL and the solutions for 03 and 04 are
developed in the text.

* SP 41 Wavelength and
During Shore-Breaking,
Balsillie, 2000. p. 31-40.

Wave Celerity
by James H.

where Hi is the mean incident wave height, T is
the wave period and Hb is the mean shore-
breaking wave height. For waves considered in
this work, Hb ranged from 1.04 to 2.39 times as
high as Hi. The relative depth of water, di /Hi ,
defining the point at which alpha wave peaking
begins (i.e., the initiation of the shore-breaking
process) is given by:

d_ d_ 7 r( H
H In tanh 65-
H; Hb 2 1 gT )

Transformation of H/Hi during alpha
peaking, where H is the local mean wave height,
is given by:

H Hb tanh ( d db )17
H- H H Hb

in which db is the water depth at shore-breaking,
d is the local water depth, and solutions for lI
and 42 are developed in the text.

Many coastal engineering design solutions
requiring consideration of wave activity can be
accomplished only if the crest elevation of the
design wave(s) is known relative to a design
water level (DWL). From analysis of field and
laboratory data, it is determined that at the shore-

Prediction of wave phase speed and, hence,
wavelength at shore-breaking has remained a
controversial issue. A basic representation of the
wave phase speed or wave celerity given by
Small Amplitude (Airy) Wave Theory is given

C=b -Lb= d
where cb is the wave celertiy, Lb is the
wavelength, T is the wave period, g is the
acceleration of gravity, and db is the water depth
at the shore-breaking position. Solitary Wave
Theory results in:

Cb L 1.29 gd

This study, based on empirical data found that:
Cb = '= 1.12 dg

Available field data (n = 47, where n is the
number of data sets each comprised of many
wave measurements) and laboratory data (n = 40
to 71), a family of relationships is derived for
predicting celerity and wavelength at shore-
breaking. Assuming approximate linear wave
speed attenuation, a method is derived for
prediction of wave speed during the shore-
breaking process


* SP 43 Seasonal Variation in Sandy Beach
Shoreline Position and Beach Width, by
James H. Balsillie, 1999, p. 1-28.

Annual cyclic fluctuations in beach
width due to seasonal variability of forcing
elements (e.g., wave energy) have been a subject
of concerted interest for decades. Seasonal
variability can be used to 1) identify and
evaluate the accuracy of historical, long-term
shoreline data interpretations, 2) aid in the
identification of the boundary of sovereign
versus private land ownership, and 3) predict
expected seasonal behavior of beach nourishment
projects, which should be a stated up-front
design anticipation.

In this paper, data representing monthly
averages are used to compare "winter" and
"summer" wave height and wave steepness as
they relate to seasonal shoreline shifts. Coupled
with astronomical tide conditions and beach
sediment size, two quantifying relationships are
proposed for predicting seasonal shift of
shoreline position (i.e., beach width).

S SP 43 Open-Ocean Water Level Datum
Planes: Use and Misuse in Coastal
Applications, by James H. Balsillie, 1999, p.

Swanson (1974) notes that tidal datum
planes "... are planes of reference derived from
the rise and fall of the oceanic tide". There are
numerous tidal datum planes. Commonly used
datums in the United States include the planes of
mean higher high water (MHHW), mean high
water (MHW), mean tide level (MTL), mean sea
level (MSL), mean low water (MLW), and mean
lower low water (MLLW). Each datum is
defined for a specific purpose or to help describe
some tidal phenomenon. For instance, MHW
high water datums have been specified by
cartographers in some states (e.g., Florida) as a
boundary of property ownership. Low water
datum planes have been used as a chart datum
because it is a conservative measure of water
depth and, hence, provides a factor of safety in
navigation. High water tidal stages have
historically been of importance because they
identified when sailors should report for duty
when "flood tide" conditions were favorable for
ocean-going craft to leave port, safely navigate
treacherous ebb tidal shoals, and put to sea. Not

only do tidal datum specifications vary
geographically based on local to regional
conditions for purposes of boundary delineation,
cartographic planes, design of coastal structures,
and land use designations, etc., but they have
changed historically as well. Moreover, given
ongoing technological advancements (e.g.,
computer-related capabilities including the
advent of the personal computer), how we
approach these data numerically is highly
important from a data management viewpoint.

* SP 44 Geological Assessment: The
Foundation of Understanding the "Bucket"
that Contains our Precious Water
Resources, by W. Schmidt and T. Scott,
1999, 42p.

Water supply and protection concerns
are not isolated issues only involving the study
and planning for surface and ground water
resources. To fully understand and protect our
precious, life sustaining water resources,
knowledge of the medium, which the water flows
through, and over must also be considered. The
geologic framework serves as the "bucket" that
contains the water, and it contributes dissolved
minerals and elements, which characterizes the
ambient water chemistry. Without a basic
understanding of the local and regional geology
which must include information on rock and
sediment lithology, stratigraphy, mineralogy and
several hydrogeologic parameters including
porosity and permeability interpretations ( not
just measurements) among other geologic
concerns, no real water resource planning or
protection plan can be successful. This includes
most of the issues identified in the Florida Water
Plan, 1995, including: links between land and
water planning, watershed basin protection,
source sustainable yields, availability of water
supply, quantity and location concerns,
contamination threats, potential property damage
from flood disasters, threatened ecosystems from
water related problems, and the cumulative
impacts of population growth including land-use
changes, increased ground water withdrawals,
and aquifer minimum flows and the levels of our
surface watercourses.

* SP 45 On the Breaking of Nearshore
Waves, by James H. Balsillie, 1999, p. 1-


This investigation considers data for 624
small laboratory shore-breaking waves, 16
prototype (large) laboratory wave tank shore-
breaking waves, and from 131 to 172 (depending
on the number of variables available for analysis)
field shore-breaking waves, for the determination
as to where shore-breaking occurs. The original,
formal definition of McCowan (1894) suggested
that nearshore waves are depth limited (i.e.,
related to water depth only). Subsequent
investigators, feeling the answer must be more
complicated have, in addition, included bed
slope, tan. b, equivalent wave steepness, Hb/(g
T2), the surf similarity parameter, 4, etc., in
endeavors to "refine" predictive power. Results
of this study, to a highly significant level,
however, confirm that nearshore waves are depth
limited. It was found that db = 1.277 Hb, where
db is the water depth at the shore-breaking
position and Hb is the average shore-breaking
wave height. This result is so closely related to
McCowan's original result of db = 1.28 Hb, that
McCowan's relationship remains as the standard
instrument for prediction.

* SP 45 Shore-Breaking Wave Energetics, by
James H. Balsillie, 1999, p. 157-183.

Wave energy at breaking is investigated
using "classical" theory (Airy), and empirically
replicated horizontally and vertically distorted
waves. The goal is to determine how wave
energy, is distributed across the wavelength, e.g.
wave crest energy versus wave trough energy.

The total energy contained in the Airy wave
crest at the shore-breaking position comprises
83% of the energy of the entire wave (i.e., across
its entire wavelength). Moreover, the wave crest
contains 5.0 times the energy of the wave trough.

Empirically evaluated distorted shore-
breaking waves occurring on a horizontal bed
resulted in wave crest energy densities close
(0.933) to the wave crest energy density for the
Airy shore-breakers, and 1.56 times the energy
density for the entire Airy wave (i.e., averaged
across its wavelength). Total wave crest energy
of the distorted shore-breakers is 83% of the
energy assessed across the wavelength for
distorted shore-breakers, and 5.0 times the
energy contained in the wave trough; both similar
to Airy results on a horizontal bed.

Empirically evaluated distorted shore-
breaking waves occurring on non-horizontal bed
slopes yield quite different outcomes. Distorted
wave crest total energy ranges from 83% to 93%
of the wavelength total energy, increasing with
an increase in the bed slope and surf similarity
parameter. Moreover, distorted total wave crest
energy ranges from 5.0 to 14.0 times the total
wave trough energy, increasing with increases in
bed slope and surf similarity parameter values!
Wave crest energy density is 14 times the wave
trough energy density, and independent of bed
slope! These results invoke significant questions
as to the veracity of determining energy density
across the wavelength.

* SP 46 The Wakulla Springs Woodville Karst
Plain Symposium Transactions, Walter
Schmidt, Jacqueline M. Lloyd, and Cindy
Collier, (eds.), 2000, October 9, 1998, Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication 46,
179 pp.

This publication contains the proceedings for
the Wakulla Springs Woodville Karst Plain
Symposium, held on October 9, 1998, in
Tallahassee, Florida. This conference brought
together professionals involved with natural
sciences, resource research, and land-use planning
on the Woodville Karst Plain, located between the
Cody Scarp and the Gulf of Mexico coast in the
big bend of north Florida. The abstracts and papers
contained in this publication demonstrate the
usefulness and need for multidisciplinary research
and expertise to address environmental concerns in
a karst terrain.


* Anderson, J.R., Arthur, J.D., and Wagner,
J.R., 2000, SE MAPS in Florida; Strategies
and currently developed geologic sites in the
Woodville Karst Plain, the Central
Peninsula and South Florida [abs.]:
Geological Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 32, n. 7, p. 349.

The Southeastern Maps and Aerial
Photographic Systems (SE MAPS) project in
Florida is part of an eight-state NSF-funded
curriculum project that uses satellite and airborne
imagery, aerial photography, topographic maps,
and other special-purpose cartographic products
(e.g., anaglyph maps). These materials allow


middle and high school students to visualize
geologic relationships and relate them to other
disciplines, including mathematics, history,
social science and language arts. Student and
teacher manuals contain site-specific background
information and sets of "hands-on" and "minds-
on" interdisciplinary activities keyed to the
national and state science standards. We have
begun a series of workshops to familiarize
teachers with these resources.

The Woodville Karst Plain study area
features a comparison of topographic maps with
infrared aerial photographs to identify karst
features, infer recharge and discharge of aquifers,
and examine land use, both historical and
modern. Several archeological sites are
included. The Florida Peninsula study area
highlights the contrasting land use exemplified
by such diverse features as Cape Canaveral, the
Disney Complex, the interior phosphate mining
area, and paleo-shoreline features such as Lake
Wales Ridge. Satellite images and topographic
maps enable students to relate these land uses to
the geologic framework of the peninsula. The
South Florida study area focuses on the unique
habitats of the Everglades, the Florida Keys, and
the impact of population pressure from the
Miami area, which threatens to overrun these
distinctive natural areas. Historic photos and
sketches are compared with modern infrared
aerial photographs to document changes in land
use through time.

Arthur, J.D., Cowart, J. and Dabous, A.,
2000, Arsenic and uranium mobilization
during aquifer storage and recovery in the
Floridan aquifer system [abs.]: Geological
Society of America Abstracts with Programs,
v. 32, n. 7, p. 356.

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an
effective method of injecting treated or reclaimed
water into permeable formations for later
withdrawal as needed. More than 135 ASR wells
are in operation worldwide. In Florida, 30 ASR
facilities have been constructed and more than 300
wells are proposed to meet the increasing demand
for drinking water and to help alleviate
environmental problems. Historically, ASR site
design has focused on aspects of water-volume
recovery. More recently, however, the
geochemical interaction between injected surface
water, native ground water and the aquifer rocks

has been studied, especially with respect to trace

At two sites in southwest Florida, As and
U concentrations in both injected and recovered
waters have been monitored. In every monitored
cycle test except one, recovered water contained at
least a five-fold increase in As and U, relative to
both injection water and native ground-water
concentrations. Maximum observed concentrations
of As and U approach 50 ug/1 and 8 ug/1,
respectively. Steps have been taken at these
facilities to ensure that all withdrawn waters meet
appropriate standards.

It is hypothesized that introduction of
surface water into the typically reduced Floridan
aquifer system leads to oxidation and dissolution
of finely disseminated As-bearing pyrite and/or
organic material. This geochemical process is
consistent with the concomitant increases in Fe
and Mn observed in the recovered ground water.
Uranium is thought to be mobilized from the
carbonate matrix and/or associated U-bearing
organic material in the ASR storage zone. Based
on reconnaissance sampling, maximum observed
concentrations of As and U in limestone samples
taken near two of these ASR wells equal 4 ppm
and 8 ppm, respectively. Water-rock geochemical
processes promoted by the introduction of surface
water must be considered in the proper design and
monitoring of ASR facilities.

* Balsillie, J. H., and Tanner, W. F., 1999,
Suite Versus Composite Statistics,
Sedimentary Geology, v. 125, p. 225-235.

Composite and suite statistics constitute two
statistically valid approaches for producing
statistical descriptive measures. These were
investigated for sample groups representing
probability distributions where, in addition, each
sample is a representative probability
distribution. Suite and composite means (first
moment measures) were found to be always
equivalent. Composite standard deviations
(second moment measures) are always larger
than suite standard deviations. Suite and
composite values for higher moment measures
have more complex relationships. Very seldom,
however, are they equivalent, and they normally
yield statistically significant different outcomes.

Multiple samples are preferable to single
samples (including composites) because they


permit the researcher to examine sample-to-
sample variability. These and other relationships
for suite and composite probability distribution
analyses were investigated and reported using
representative granulometic data.

S Balsillie, J. H.. and Tanner, W. F.. 1999,
Stepwise Regression in the Earth Sciences:
A Coastal Processes Example,
Environmental Geosciences, v. 6, p. 99-105.

The lack of information about stepwise
regression has led the authors to compile this
account because of its potential value in
addressing synergistically complex
environmental issues. Useful sources are
identified for investigators who may wish to
compile their own stepwise regression
application. Results using an example
application are provided. The example used to
demonstrate application of stepwise regression is
concerned with determining the best numerical
method to predict where nearshore waves shore-
break. The original definition proffered by
McCowan in 1894, suggested that nearshore
waves are water depth limited. Subsequent
investigators, however, feeling that the answer
must be more complicated, have included bed
slope, wave steepness considerations, the surf
similarity parameter, and other parameters to
"refine" predictive power. This study, however,
confirms to a highly significant level that
nearshore waves are depth limited. Statistical
results indicate that db = 1.277 Hb, where db is
the water depth at the shore-breaking position,
and Hb is the average shore-breaking wave
height. The result is so close to the McCowan
original result of db = 1.28 Hd, that McCowan's
relationship prevails as the standard instrument
for prediction.

* Balsillie. J. H.. and Tanner, W. F.,
2000, Red Flags on the Beach, Part II,
Journal of Coastal Research, v. 16, p.

In a former treatment Tanner (1998)
discussed seven red flags. By "red flags" it was
meant common uncertainties or errors in coastal
application. It was not thought at that time that
the list was complete, but in fact selected from a
longer list compiled over the years. Six
additional items were presented as follows:

1) Wave data description and definition.

2) Is the wave period really conserved?
3) The significant wave height putting it
in perspective.
4) Where or when does shore-breaking
5) Reassessment of wave energy content.
6) Misuse of tidal datum reference

Again, this does not constitute an exhaustive
list. Moreover, editorials by their very nature are
generalized. Certain issues are probably well
deserved of greater detail and justification; some
for which future in depth treatments are

* Bond, P. and Rolland, V. A.,
Geoarchaeological Approach to the Enigma
of Sponge-Spicule Bearing Pot Sherds of the
Lower St. Johns River Area, 2000,.,
Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Reno, NV, November, 2000.

The St. Johns Period (500 B.C. to 1200
A.D.) in Florida is characterized by pottery with
a distinctive chalky texture that results from the
presence of abundant fresh water sponge
spicules. Archaeologists have assumed that this
pottery was produced from deposits of clay
containing abundant spicules. Clay deposits
sufficiently rich in spicules and extensive enough
to account for the enormous number of vessels
have not been found. This study began as a
systematic search for spicule-bearing clays. Due
to very low relief and extensive development in
the study area we examined archived well and
outcrop samples located in close proximity to
midden-sites. This work failed to locate material
consistent with the nature and distribution of the

A 1944 study documented extensive fresh
water sponge populations in peninsular Florida,
while noting that muddy water or fine silt or
muck "smothered" sponges. This, coupled with
the mainly marine nature of clays in northeast
Florida, suggests that freshwater sponges were
deliberately added to clays as a tempering
material. Cultural addition of sponges to clay,
while counter to prevailing thought, is consistent
with the environmental requirements of sponges,
the predominance of marine clays in the study
area and the widespread geographic distribution
of St. Johns pottery in Florida.


* DeHan, R. S., 1999, Experience with
Establishing a Regional Monitoring
Council. Water Resources IMPACT- May,
1999 v. l,n. 3.

This article described the author's
experience in attempting to establish a water
quality monitoring council, in the Southeastern
United States, modeled after the national
Council. The article discussed the structure of
such a council and the benefits expected by the
participating States. It concluded by discussing
the difficulties encountered in getting eight States
with varying capabilities and resources to share
and exchange data for the purpose of better
protection and management of natural resources.

* Dunbar, J., Hemmings, A., Vojnovski, P.,
Stanton, B., Memory, M., Means, R., Means,
G.H,, and Mhilbachler, M., 1999, The
Ryan/Harley Site 8Je1004: A Suwannee
Point Site in the Wacissa River, North
Florida, Florida Bureau of Archaeology, 16

An important, actively eroding, prehistoric
site has been found submerged in the Wacissa
River in Jefferson County, North Florida. The
Ryan-Harley site was discovered and reported by
Ryan and Harley Means. The interpretation of
this site's significance is based on the inspection
of artifacts recovered by the Means brothers and
upon the results of the subsequent underwater
investigations at the site. As with any initial
inspection and interpretation of findings, this
effort should be considered to be in its initial
stages of interpretation. Nevertheless, this site
seems to have unusually good archaeological
potential and significance.

Recent investigations of the Ryan-Harley
site in the Wacissa River has revealed the
probable in situ remains of a Paleoindian
campsite of prolonged special use activity area.
Our present understanding of the site suggests it
most likely represents a Suwannee age
habitation. The site has produced Suwannee
points and uniface tools displaced by erosion as
well as a Suwannee point preform base,
numerous uniface tools and animal bone from
stratigraphic context. Animal bones from the
excavation include both extant Holocene and
extinct late Pleistocene species. Although most
of the bone is highly fragmentary and many
specimens display "green" fractures as opposed

to old bone breaks, a partially articulated
vertebral column was also found. The
significance of this site in terms of its potential
contribution to Southeastern Paleoindian
archaeology and its local placement among other
Paleoindian sites in the Lower Aucilla river basin
and its tributary, the Wacissa River are the
subject of this paper.

* Dunbar, J., Stanton, B., Memory, M.,
Means, H., Means, R., Hemmings, A., and
Mhilbachler, M., 1999, The Ryan/Harley
Site 8Jel004: A Suwannee Point Site in the
Wacissa River, North Florida, Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, abstract,
Bulletin 42.

Recent investigations of the Ryan/Harley site
in the Wacissa River have revealed the probable
in situ remains of a Paleoindian camp site. The
site has produced Suwannee points and uniface
tools displaced by erosion as well as a Suwannee
point base, numerous uniface tools and animal
bone from stratigraphic context. Animal bones
from the excavation include both extant
Holocene and extinct late Pleistocene species.
Although most of the bone is highly fragmentary,
a partially articulated vertebral column was
found. The significance of this site and its
placement among other Paleoindian sites in the
Lower Aucilla river basin and its tributary, the
Wacissa River will be discussed.

S Holm, C. S., Stern, J. C., Whitman, M. E.,
Doran, N. A., Kish, S. A., and Balsillie, J.
H., 2000, The Case of the Disappearing
Lake: a GIS Study of Lake Jackson, Leon
County, Florida, Geological Society of
America, 48th Annual Southeastern
Meeting, Charleston, SC.

Lake Jackson is a large (6 mi2) closed lake
basin seven miles northwest of Tallahassee,
Florida. During the 20th century the lake has
periodically undergone extensive reduction in
size. These drawdown events have been
interpreted to be the result of a combination of
drought conditions and drainage through open
sinkhole systems. The last such event occurred
in September of 1999. This initiated a GIS study
to better understand controls on such

Multiple sources of spatial and numerical
data were integrated to develop a model of the


behavior of the lake level in response to rainfall.
Vertical aerial photos and false color IR
orthophotos of Lake Jackson were converted to
rasterized images and georeferenced to the 7.5
minute DRG quadrangle. This allowed the
determination of the aerial extent of the lake at
different water levels. Field surveying methods
were used to create a profile describing the
geometry of the lake bed. This information was
combined with a previously published map of the
lake to create a hypsographic representation of
the lake bed. A model of volume and area versus
lake level elevation was generated.

Average annual rainfall over the past 100
year (59.6 ins/yr) and average evaporation values
(51 ins/yr) indicate a tight water budget between
lake input and output. DEM data showed that
the Lake Jackson watershed is not extensive,
draining only a small area relative to its areal
extent. Assuming the amount of rainfall controls
lake level, models relating lake volume to lake
level elevation can be tested against real rainfall

GIS methods may be used in this instance as
a predictive tool for determining a range of lake
levels. Knowledge of shoreline variation will
facilitate planning for recreational access,
wildlife management, property zoning, and
control of lake pollution.

Katz, B. G. and DeHan, R. S, 1998,
Interaction Between Ground Water and
Surface Water in the Suwannee River Basin,
Florida, Journal of the American Water
Resources Association. v. 33, n. 6, p. 1237-

Radon-222, oxygen-18 and deuterium
were used in demonstrating interaction between
ground water and surface water in the Suwannee
River Basin. Even though boundaries of
groundwater basins do not coincide with surface
water drainage subbasins, a significant degree of
mixing between surface and ground water was
observed and correlated with seasonal rainfall.
Water quality measurement indicated that mixing
of the two water media created conditions
favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by
denitrification reactions in the aquifer resulting in
a decrease in the amount of nutrients in the
Suwannee River.

* Katz, B.G and DeHan, R.S., 1999, The
Suwannee River Basin Pilot Study: Issues of
Watershed Management in Florida. USGS
Fact Sheet. FS-080-96

In this study the authors reported the findings of
a pilot study, funded by the National Water
Quality Monitoring Council, which asked several

1) Can boundaries be delineated for
surface and ground water basins and do
these boundaries change depending on
hydrologic conditions?
2) What does existing information tell
about the hydrochemical interaction
between ground and surface waters?
3) Can natural processes provide
remediation of elevated concentrations
of nitrate in the Upper Floridan Aquifer
during high and low flow conditions or
by mixing of surface and ground water?
4) Can a framework be developed in this
study for evaluating the interaction
between surface and ground water for
delineating watershed boundaries that
can be extrapolated to other watersheds
exhibiting similar hydrogeochemical

* Kish, S. A., Balsillie, J. H., Scott, T. M., and
Millia, K., 2000, La Nina-Related
Disappearance of a Major Lake in Northern
Florida a GIS Study of Lake Jackson, Leon
County, Florida: Summit 2000 Reno,
Nevada, 2000 Geological Society of
America, Annual Meeting.

Lake Jackson is a large (1600 ha), shallow
lake (< 4m) located 10 km northwest of
Tallahassee, Florida. The lake appears to be a
polje (a large, flat depression associated with
karst dissolution). It is drained by two sinks,
Porter Hole in the eastern portion of the lake, and
Lime Sink in the western part of the lake. Direct
precipitation (128 cm/yr) is the dominant source
of water input to the lake, plus some runoff from
the lake's watershed during major storm-related
rainfall events. Evaporation (about 116 cm/yr)
and leakage through the lake bottom are the only
mechanisms that regulate lake level. There
appears to be a very tight budget between inflow
and outflow mechanisms; this produces major
changes in lake level over short periods of time.
These changes include periodic loss of the lake


during drought conditions (1907-09, 1932-36,
1957, 1982, and 1999-2000), and major flooding
of the lake during periods of high rainfall (1947
and 1966). Two of the most recent lake
drawdowns (1957 and 1999-2000) can be
identified as being associated with regional La
Nina produced droughts.

Hydrometerologic controls of lake level
were evaluated using GIS techniques to
quantify parameters such as lake
hypsometry, volume versus lake level,
distribution of karst-related features, and
variation in the permeability of the lake bed.
A new hypsometric map of the lake has been
produced using aerial photos of the lake
taken at different lake elevation stages,
combined with ground-based leveling and
GPS surveying. Remote sensing imaging of
the lake at different water levels was used to
evaluate vegetation-related
evapotranspiration controls on the lake's
water budget. Preliminary evaluation of
variations in lake level, rainfall, and
evaporation suggest that sinkhole-related
drainage is a very important factor in
regulating the lake's surface elevation.

* Means, G.H., and Scott, T.M., 1999, The
Miami Circle: A Geologic Interpretation of
an Engineering Problem, abstract, The
Geological Society of America 1999 Annual
Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, v. 31, n.

At the mouth of the Miami River in
downtown Miami, Florida, a routine,
preconstruction archaeological survey unearthed
a rather unique feature in the late Pleistocene
Miami Limestone, oolite facies. A circular
feature, referred to as the Miami Circle, 11.6
meters in diameter consisting of 24 rectangular,
carved holes existed beneath approximately one
meter of organic-rich sediment. The site also had
numerous 10 to 15 centimeter circular holes that
appeared to have been drilled in the limestone.
Irregular karst depressions were common.
Scientists investigating the site debated the origin
of the feature.

A 1950's vintage apartment complex had
occupied the site. The complex was raised to
make way for a two building, high rise complex.
A septic tank that serviced the apartments was
constructed within the circle with the outflow end

coincident with the circle. Some scientists
believed the pattern of holes to be a part of the
septic tank system while others held the opinion
that this was a prehistoric Indian site. This raised
the question of the site's antiquity. Florida
Geological Survey geologists were called in to
help resolve the issue. The geologists concluded
from the development of duracrusts within
carved features, tool marks and other evidence,
that the circle predated modern times and was not
a part to the septic tank system. This
multidisciplinary approach shows how
Geological Survey geologists can interact with
engineers, lawyers and archaeologists to resolve
complicated issues.

* Patton, D. J. and DeHan, R. S., 1998, Water
Issues: Global, National, State, and
Ecosystems, in Fernald, E. A. and Perdum,
E. D. (editors), Water Resource Atlas of
Florida, Institute of Science and Public
Affairs, Tallahassee, Florida, Florida State
University, p. 1-14.

This Chapter of the Water Atlas of
Florida provides an introduction to current water
resource issues and concerns at the global and
national levels. The chapter points out the
threats facing the long term availability and
quality of water on the planet, and the necessity
of taking action to avoid repetition of past
mistakes and resource mismanagement. At the
national level, the chapter discusses current
efforts in the United States to treat water as a
critical component of larger watersheds and
ecosystems, the maintenance of which is essential
to this country's healthy economy and

* Rolland, V.P. and Bond, P., The Search for
Spiculate Clays near Aboriginal Sites in the
Lower St. Johns River Area, 2000, 52"d
Annual Meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, Fort Myers, FL,
May, 2000.

The identification of St. Johns cultural
occupations is based largely on the presence of
ceramic vessels with pastes containing abundant
microscopic silicate rods. These rods, commonly
referred to as sponge spicules, represent the
structural remains of freshwater sponges: Class
Demospongiae, Family Spongillidae. While
many thousands of spiculate St. Johns sherds


have been recovered, no raw spiculate clay
sources have been located. The focus of our
study has been to explore this contradiction and
to consider a possible alternative hypothesis-
that the presence of spicules in St. Johns vessels
was cultural decision involving the purposeful
addition of sponges as tempering material. To
establish the locations of clay or spiculate
material in the lower St. Johns area, we examined
138 samples of poorly consolidated sediments
curated by the Florida Geological Survey. This
paper will review the characteristics of clay
sources from this region, discuss various
spiculate bearing sediments, and the physical
requirements necessary for the construction of
viable ceramic vessels.

Rupert, F. R., 1999, The Geology of the
Tampa Bay Area, Florida, with special
reference to some classic paleontological
sites: Florida Paleontological Newsletter, v.
16, n. 2, p 5-7.

The Tampa Bay area of Florida's west
coast is part of a broad, gently-terraced plain
known as the Coastal Lowlands. This region was
flooded by high-standing seas several times
during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 1.8 million
to about 10,000 years ago).

Much is still unknown about the age and
geologic history of Tampa Bay. Ancestral
streams of the Hillsborough, Alafia, and Manatee
Rivers likely cut deep valleys in the older strata
underlying the area as they sought equilibria with
the much-lowered sea levels during glacial times.
During interglacial periods, the rising Gulf
waters would have filled the incised stream
valleys, forming the large estuarine embayment
now known as Tampa Bay. As a result of the
Bay Area's close association with the sea, the
predominant surface sediment is relict marine
quartz sand. The sand was originally carried
southward from the eroding Appalachian
mountains into Florida, as long ago as the Early
Miocene, by rivers and long-shore marine
currents. Later they were reworked and
deposited by the waves and currents in the
Pleistocene and Holocene seas. Much of the
Pinellas peninsula, which encloses Tampa Bay,
probably developed as a marine sand spit shaped
by southward flowing littoral currents.

The surficial sands obscure the more
interesting older geological units. This report
address units within a depth of about 500 feet
below land surface. The deepest is the Oligocene
(about 30 million years ago) Suwannee
Limestone. The Suwannee is a pale white to
cream colored marine, skeletal limestone and
dolostone. It is a unit of the Floridan aquifer
system, an important source of potable water.
The Suwannee Limestone occurs only in the
subsurface locally. However, it rises gently to
the surface in a northward direction, and is
exposed in limerock quarries north of Tampa.

Immediately overlying the Suwannee
Limestone is the Late Oligocene to Early
Pliocene Hawthorn Group. The Hawthorn Group
statewide is a lithologically diverse unit,
consisting of interbedded quartz sand, clay and
carbonates, and nearly always characterized by
the presence of phosphate. It has been
commercially mined in Florida for many years
for its Fullers Earth clay deposits and both
hardrock and softrock phosphate deposits. The
Hawthorn Group sediments have been a fabulous
source of vertebrate fossils. It is locally
comprised of several geologic subunits, the
Arcadia Formation, the Tampa Member of the
Arcadia Formation, and the Peace River

The Tampa Member is a subdivision of
the Arcadia Formation. It underlies most of the
region, rising to the shallow subsurface in the
Tampa area. The Tampa Member is comprised
principally of sandy, clayey, phosphatic
limestone and dolostone. Siliceous beds are
present locally in the updip portions. The Ballast
Point area of Tampa is a well-known collecting
site for silicified (agatized) Miocene corals and
molluscs and chert boulders. The type area of
the Tampa Member is around northern Tampa
Bay, at Ballast Point and Six Mile Creek.
However, many of the classical outcrops have
been obliterated by urban development.

Overlying the Tampa Member is the
Arcadia Formation, a unit also composed of
sandy, clayey, phosphatic limestone and
dolostone. It occurs only in the subsurface in the
Tampa Bay area, but in some areas lies at depths
of only about 20 feet deep.

The Late Miocene to Early Pliocene
Peace River Formation is principally restricted to


the eastern portion of the Tampa Bay area.
Lithologically it is comprised of light gray to
olive gray, interbedded quartz sands, clays and
carbonates. Perhaps its greatest significance is
its economic and fossil content. The Peace River
Formation east of Tampa contains the famous
Bone Valley Member, historically a source of
Miocene and Pliocene vertebrate fossil material
as well as economic quantities of commercial
phosphate deposits.

Blanketing the Hawthorn Group
sediments and forming the surficial deposits
throughout the Tampa Bay area are a series of
undifferentiated sands and sandy shell beds, with
some minor carbonates. These deposits typically
include sediments historically assigned to the
Plio-Pleistocene Caloosahatchee Formation, the
Pleistocene Bermont and Ft. Thompson
Formations, the Pinecrest beds, as well as
undifferentiated Holocene sediments. They are
principally marine in origin but may contain
lenses of freshwater deposits representing
lowstands of sea level. The high-standing seas of
the late Tertiary and Pleistocene transported,
deposited, and then reworked quartz sands,
forming a veneer of these sediments throughout
the region. Fossil molluscs thrived in the shallow
seas, as evidenced by the abundant shell deposits
observable at Fossil Park in St. Petersburg, the
Leisey Pits, as well as in many digging and
dredging operations in the bay area. During
emergent periods, Pleistocene vertebrates
roamed the local landscape. Their bones too
become part of the fascinating paleontologic
history of the region, and are commonly
associated with freshwater sediments.
Discoveries at Seminole Field, the St. Petersburg
Times site, and the Leisey Pits attest to their
diversity and abundance.

Schmidt, Walt, 1999, Mineral Resource
Experts Must Get Involved, p. 1, in The
Florida Limerock & Aggregate Institute
Newsletter, Vol. 2, Issue 1, April 1999.

A brief commentary on the need for
competent minerals and solid-earth resources
information for informed long-range planning in
Florida. State-wide land-use planning and
development depends on the availability of
differing mineral resources to sustain and
promote economically viable infrastructure. The
various professionals involved with and
knowledgeable about Florida's solid-earth

economic minerals need to reach out to
government officials and the public to educate
and inform them on the universal need for these

* Scott, T.M., and Missmer, T.M., 1999, The
surficial geology of Lee County and the
Caloosahatchee Basin: Ninth annual
southwest Florida water resources
conference, Ft. Myers, FL

The geology of Lee County and the
Caloosahatchee Basin has been mapped by
Florida Geological Survey geologists. Mapping
methods are discussed and the specifics of the
geological framework are discussed.

* Scott, T.M., 1999, The Florida Geological
Survey: Research data for environmental
and engineering problems, Abstracts,
Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Denver, CO, Program P-104.

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
has, for many years, provided invaluable data
pertaining to a number of environmental and
engineering problems confronting the State.
Many of these research projects directly resulted
from data inquiries originating from the
governmental and private sectors.
Environmental and engineering problems in
Florida generally revolve around ground-water
issues and geohazards such as radon and
sinkholes. FGS projects addressing these issues
include: 1- Ground-water geochemistry in
relation to aquifer storage and recovery; 2- the
distribution of uranium isotopes in organic
sediments; 3- Sinkhole occurrence and
distribution; and 4- Hydrostratigraphic
framework of the Floridan aquifer system in
relation to deep well injection of treated effluent
and other wastes.

An investigation of the Oligocene to
Pliocene Hawthorn Group in Florida, conducted
by the FGS during the 1980s, provided
significant data concerning the distribution and
composition of this unit. The Hawthorn Group is
important from an environmental standpoint
since it is the major aquiclude above the Floridan
aquifer system in much of the state and, in a
limited area, forms the intermediate aquifer
system. From an engineering perspective, the
Hawthorn Group is important due to its radon
hazard potential and its potentially unstable


foundation characteristics. The data resulting
from the FGS investigation has aided in the
development of ground-water and construction

* Scott, T.M., 2000, The influence of the Bald
Head Island Conferences on the geological
research in Florida: Abstracts with
programs, Southeastern Section Geological
Society of America Annual Meeting,
Charleston, SC, p. A-72.

During the thirteen years since the First
Bald Head Island Conference, significant
advances in the understanding of Florida's
Cenozoic stratigraphic sequence have occurred.
In particular, investigations of the late Paleogene
and Neogene section in southern peninsular
Florida utilizing paleontology, strontium
isotopes, magnetostratigraphy and
lithostratigraphic analyses have provided a more
accurate timeframe for the deposition of the
Suwannee Limestone and the Hawthorn Group,
Arcadia and Peace River Formations.
Previously, the Suwannee Limestone was
postulated to have been deposited throughout the
Oligocene in southern Florida. It is now
recognized that Suwannee deposition was limited
to the Early Oligocene. The Arcadia Formation,
Hawthorn Group, deposition was described as
ranging from the very latest Oligocene or earliest
Miocene to the beginning of the Middle
Miocene. Research has documented that the
Arcadia Formation was deposited from the mid
Oligocene to early Late Miocene. The Peace
River Formation, Hawthorn Group, depositional
timeframe is recognized as extending from the
mid Middle Miocene into the Early Pliocene.
The ages of the Tamiami and Caloosahatchee
Formations are now better understood. These
investigations have delineated the sequence
stratigraphy of these units, recognizing numerous
erosional episodes and depositional hiatuses.

Much has been accomplished since the
initial conference in 1986. However, a lot of
research remains to be done. The Bald Head
Island Conferences helped to focus research
projects toward specific needs in the coastal
plain. Additional conferences are needed to
further these efforts.

* Scott, T.M, 2000, Sinkholes, Groundwater,
Disappearing Lakes: Lake Jackson, Leon
County, Florida A Positive Public

Education Experience, Geological Society of
America Abstracts with Program, v. 32, no.
7, p. A-292.

Lake Jackson, a 4000 acre karst basin
lake north of Tallahassee, Leon County, Florida,
partially drained into Porter Hole sinkhole during
September 1999. In early 2000, the remainder of
the lake disappeared into the Floridan aquifer
system through Lime Sink, one mile west of Porter
Hole. The loss of Lake Jackson through these
sinkholes provided an excellent opportunity to
educate the public concerning karst geology,
groundwater-surface water interaction,
hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system and
geomorphology. Information was communicated
to the public through discussions on site, lectures to
civic groups and homeowners' associations, TV
news reports, talk shows, PBS and NPR
documentaries and display posters at boat landings
(former). A unique approach to educating the
public came through the running of the Lake
Jackson Bare Bottom 5K Run/Walk. At the event,
the Florida Geological Survey and the Northwest
Florida Water Management District set up
displays, handed out educational materials and
fielded questions. The most important factor in
educating the public is utilizing terminology that
nonscientists understand.

* Scott, T.M., and Schmidt, W., 2000,Water
Sustainability: Geological Perspectives on
the Everglades Water Supply Problem: Pre-
conference Papers, Kansas Geological Survey
Open-file Report 2000-51, p. 69-80.

'There are no other Everglades in the
World. They are, they have always been, one of
the unique regions of the earth, remote, never
wholly known. Nothing anywhere else is like
them: their vast glittering openness, wider than
the enormous visible round of the horizon, the
racing free saltiness and sweetness of their
massive winds, under the dazzling blue heights of
space" (Marjory Stoneman Douglas, The River
of Grass, 1947).

The Everglades are indeed unique. It is
a landscape typified by the perception of flatness
and, yet, contains amazing beauty. The diversity
of its flora and fauna, the dense entanglement of
the tree islands and mangrove forests, the blue-
green hues of Florida Bay have attracted
explorers and scientists alike. The vast organic-
rich wetland sediments caught the attention of


agricultural interests which ultimately had
dramatic effects upon the 'Glades. More
recently, the suburban expansion of Florida's
southeastern coastal cites has invaded the realm
of the alligator. Our society's desire to control
nature and annex the Everglades for agricultural
activities and flood control created a severe
water problem, altering the character of the
region. Now, in order to save the Everglades and
provide for a burgeoning population, water
resources must be considered in a new light.

The Everglades, Florida Bay, Big
Cypress Swamp, Lake Okeechobee and the
Kissimmee River system have attracted national
attention as the result of man's alteration of the
environment. The issue has become highly
political and many local, State and Federal
agencies are addressing the issues of water
resources and the restoration of the region. It is
not only a State issue but, because the Everglades
is a national treasure, it is also a Federal issue.

Weedman, S.D., Paillet, F.L., Edwards, L.E.,
Simmons, K.R., Scott, T.M., Wardlaw, B.R.,
Reese, R.S., and Blair, J.L., 1999,
Lithostratigraphy,geophysics, biostratigraphy
and strotium-isotope stratigraphy of the
surficial aquifer system of eastern Collier
County and northern Monroe County,
Florida, U.S. Geological Survey Open-file
Report 99-0432.

In 1997, ten cores were drilled in
eastern Collier County and northern Monroe
County, within the limits of the Big Cypress
National Preserve. These cores represent a
continuation of the study of seven cores in
western Collier County begun in 1996 and
reported in Weedman and others (1997) and
Edwards and others (1998). This joint U.S.
Geological Survey and Florida Geological
Survey project is designed to acquire subsurface
geologic and hydrologic data in southwest
Florida to extend current ground-water models,
thereby expanding the utility of these models for
land and water management. In this report we
describe the lithostratigraphy, geophysical
logging, sedimentological analysis, dinocyst
biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope
stratigraphy of these ten cores.

The three geophysical logs (natural
gamma-ray, induction conductivity, and neutron
porosity) assumed to be related to formation

lithology and water quality show that a number
of clay-rich zones are present in all of the
boreholes, and that pore-water conductivity
increases with depth. The clay-rich zones are
confirmed by visual examination of core material
and sedimentological analysis.

The relative transmissivity calculated at
10-foot-thick intervals shows that in six of the
boreholes, high values are associated with the
shallow aquifer in the 0-40 ft interval. Two of the
boreholes (the most northerly and the most
easterly) showed relatively higher values of
transmissivity in permeable zones at or somewhat
below 100 ft in depth. Core geology and logs
indicate that the deeper aquifers are not more
permeable than similar deeper zones in the other
boreholes, but rather that the shallow aquifer
appears to be less permeable in these two

The Arcadia (?) Formation was only
penetrated in the deepest core where it is late
Miocene in age. The Peace River Formation was
penetrated in all but the two westernmost cores.
It yields a late Miocene age, based on both
dinocysts and strontium-isotope stratigraphy. The
top is an irregular surface. Age and stratigraphic
relations suggest that the upper part of the Peace
River and lower part of the unnamed formation
are at least partially equivalent laterally.

The unnamed formation was recovered
in every core. It is thinnest in the northernmost
core and thickest to the west. Ages calculated
from strontium isotopes range from 6.9 to 4.6
million years ago (late Miocene to early
Pliocene). The top of the unnamed formation is
deepest to the north and it becomes shallower to
the southwest.

The Tamiami Formation also was
recovered in every core and consistently yields
early Pliocene ages; it yields late Pliocene ages
near the top in two cores. The age and lateral
relations strongly suggest that the lower part of
the Tamiami Formation and the upper part of the
unnamed formation are lateral facies of each
The Fort Thompson (?) Formation, Miami
Limestone, and undifferentiated siliciclastic
sediments and limestone at the very top of the
cores were not dated.



* Subsurface mapping in Southwest Florida
using ArcView GIS, Department of
Geological Sciences, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, March, 1999.

* Geology of Florida's phosphate deposits,
Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, by
Jon Arthur, September, 1999.

* Geology of Florida, Florida Park Service
Interpretive Training Program, by Jon Arthur,
November, 1999.

* Florida Water Issues, Sealey Elementary
School, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur,
April, 2000.

* Florida's Geology Unearthed, League of
Environmental Educators in Florida, by Jon
Arthur, April, 2000.

* Florida's Fragile Underground Rivers,
Westminister Oaks, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon
Arthur, May, 2000.

* Ground Penetrating Radar. An informal
presentation for staff of the FGS in order to
acquaint them the GPR unit proposed for
purchase by the FGS, Tallahassee, FL, by
Paulette Bond, January, 2000.

* The Relationship of Sinkhole Development
to the Ongoing Drought in Florida. An
informal presentation to staff of the
Department of Emergency Management,
Tallahassee, FL, by Paulette Bond, June,

* Using Natural Isotopes in Mapping
Interaction between Surface and Ground
water in a Coastal Watershed. Presentation
at he GWPC's Technical Conference, Austin
Texas, by Rodney DeHan, August 1999.

* Interaction Between Ground and Surface
water in Coastal Settings. Presentation to
the St. Joseph Bay Committee, Gulf County,
Fl., by Rodney DeHan, Sept.1999.

* Groundwater Interaction with Surface Water
in Determining the Safe Operation of Septic
Systems: Research proposal presented to the
NW Fl. Legislative Environmental Advisory
Committee. Pensacola, FL., by Rodney
DeHan, November 2000.

* Cooperative Programs Between the Florida
Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological
Survey Coastal and Marine Geology
Program, presented to the National Research
Council, Ocean Studies Board Committee to
Review the USGS Coastal and Marine
Geology Program, St. Petersburg, FL by
Walter Schmidt, February, 1999.

* The Florida Geological Survey Program for
1999 and 2000, presented to the American
Water Resources Association, Florida
Section Meeting, Havana, FL, by Walter
Schmidt, March, 1999.

* The 1999 Legislative Proposals of the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Presented to the American Water
Resources Association, Florida Section
Meeting, Havana, FL., by Walter Schmidt,
March, 1999.

* Geological Mapping in Florida, Department
of Geology, University of South Florida,
Tampa, FL., by T. Scott, 1999.

* Florida Bay Research and New STATEMAP
Projects, Quarterly Ambient Monitoring
Meeting, by T. Scott, 1999.

* Geological Mapping by the FGS,
Department of Geology Florida State
University, Tallahassee, FL., by T. Scott,

* The Miami Circle, FGS Brown Bag Lecture,
Tallahassee, FL., by T. Scott and G.H.
Means, 1999.

* Lake Jackson Sinkhole, FGS Brown Bag
Lecture, Tallahassee, FL., by T. Scott,

* Lake Jackson Investigation, Department of
Geology Florida State University,
Tallahassee, FL., by T. Scott, 1999.


* The New Florida Geologic Map, Fourteenth
Annual Society of Mining Engineers
Regional Phosphate Conference, Lakeland,
FL, by T. Scott, 1999.

* Lake Jackson and Lake Lafayette, Leon
County Commission, Tallahassee, FL., by T.
Scott, 1999.

* The Draining of Lake Jackson, Lake Jackson
Homeowners Association, Tallahassee, FL.,
by T. Scott. 1999.

* The Florida Geological Survey, Geology of
Florida Class, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL., by T. Scott, 1999.

* Coquina Geology, Distribution, Quarrying
Practices, Coquina Conservation and
Preservation Symposium, St. Augustine, FL.,
by T. Scott, 2000.

* The Disappearance of Lake Jackson in
Tallahassee, Florida Ground Water
Association and Trade Show, Orlando, FL.,
by T. Scott, 2000.

* Discussion of the New
Hydrostratigraphic Chart, Florida
Water Association and Trade
Orlando, FL., by T. Scott, 2000.


* Lake Jackson's Disappearence Will It
Return?, Northside Rotary Club,
Tallahassee, FL., by T. Scott, 2000.

* Talk of the Town, TV 65, Lake Jackson and
the Sinkholes, by T. Scott, 2000.

* Southeastern Geological Society Lecture on
Lake Jackson, Tallahassee, FL., by T. Scott,

* Panhandle Geological Society Lecture on
Porter Hole, Lake Jackson, Tallahassee, FL.,
by T. Scott, 2000.

* Lecture to DEP/CAMA on Lake Jackson,
Tallahassee, FL., by T. Scott, 2000.

* Update on Lake Jackson, to the Lake
Jackson Homeowners Annual Ice Cream
Social, by T. Scott, 2000.

* Lake Jackson: Disappearing Lake, Positive
Educational Experience, Florida Association
of Professional Geologists, Tallahassee, FL.,
by T. Scott, 2000.

* What's Happening at Lake Jackson,
Tallahassee Optimist Club, Tallahassee, FL.,
by T. Scott, 2000.

* The Florida Geological Survey, Geology of
Florida Class, University of Florida
Department of Geology, Tampa, FL., by T.
Scott, 2000.

* FGS/USGS Collaborative Geochemical
Sampling Project Arsenic Task Force
Meeting, February 1999, by Steve Spencer.

* FGS/USGS Collaborative Geochemical
Sampling Project, DEP, February 1999, by
Steve Spencer.

* Florida Karst, FSU/FAMU School of
Engineering, November 2000, by Steve
Spencer, 2000.



National Academy of Sciences, Ocean Studies
Board Committee to Review the USGS
Coastal and Marine Geology Program
meeting, St. Petersburg, FL, February 23rd, 1999.
The State Geologist Dr. Walt Schmidt and Dr.
Ron Hoenstine were asked to brief the committee
on cooperative programs between the Florida
Geological Survey and the USGS Coastal and
Marine Geology Programs

National Academy of Sciences workshop titled
Moving Remote Sensing from Research to
Applications: Case Studies of the Knowledge
Transfer Process, at the Academy Auditorium in
Washington, D.C., May3-4, 2000. The workshop
was co-sponsored by the Academy's Space
Applications and Commercialization Board
and the Ocean Studies Board (OSB). Florida
State Geologist, Dr. Walt Schmidt, a current
member of the OSB, was an organizer and panel
moderator of one of the sessions. The session,
titled: Remote Sensing for Coastal Zone Science
and Applications, was well received and


generated excellent discussions from the invited
panelists. The Boards expect to publish
transactions from the workshop in early 2001.

National Academy of Sciences, Committee on
Restoration of the Greater Everglades
Ecosystem (CROGEE) workshop titled
"Aquifer Storage and Recovery Workshop",
Miami, FL, October 19th, 2000. State Geologist
Dr. Walt Schmidt was asked to participate as an
invited panelist to discuss the regional subsurface
geology of south Florida. The committees report
is expected to be published in 2001.

The Coquina Resources of Florida's East
Coast, Coquina Conservation and Preservation
Symposium, St. Augustine, FL, attended by Dr.
Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist

Spanish explorers settled on the eastern
coast of Florida in the 1500s where they built a
settlement and a fort utilizing local building
materials. The most important local building
material was the native "rock" of the St.
Augustine area- coquina. Were the Spanish
aware of the presence of the coquina when the
site was selected or was it a fortuitous
occurrence? Because the Spanish colonists
extensively utilized the coquina, it could be
referred to as Florida's most historically
significant building material.

Coquina is a poorly indurated
(cemented) rock composed of a mixture of quartz
sand and mollusk shells. The percentages of
quartz sand and shell vary widely, ranging
between nearly pure sand to completely shell.
The mollusk shells are both whole and
fragmented. Some of the shells are quite abraded
indicating transport or movement by waves and
currents prior to deposition. The primary fossil
mollusk in the coquina along Florida's eastern
coast is a small pelecypod (clam) Donax sp.
Other mollusks are present including oysters and
the large gastropod (snail) Busvcon sp.

Coquina deposits occur primarily along
the eastern coast of peninsular Florida. This
coquina is named the Anastasia Formation after
Anastasia Island where the Spanish quarried the
poorly indurated rock to construct the Castillo de
San Marcos in St. Augustine (Sellards, 1912).
The Anastasia Formation occurs from just north
of St. Augustine in St. Johns County, to southern
Palm Beach County. The Anastasia Formation

and associated sand form part of the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge, a Pleistocene barrier island chain
that extends from Duval County to Dade County.
Other coquina deposits are found in the state but
occur only in limited areas.

A number of individuals attending the
Coquina Preservation Symposium were quite
interested in stabilizing disintegrating coquina
utilized in historical structures. Although there
does not appear to be any geological literature
reporting on coquina stabilization or restoration
techniques, there may be methods to investigate.
One suggestion was the stabilization and
hardening of the coquina through the use of non-
water soluble glue. Another interesting
discussion revolved around the hardening of
weathered coquina by precipitating calcite from
solution. It would be most interesting to attempt
this by submerging coquina in a hot,
supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. As
the solution cools, the calcite may be deposited,
essentially re-cementing the rock.


January 1999

DEP Administrative Workshop, Daytona Beach,

Dedication of Windley Key Quarry State
Geological Site, Monroe County, FL.

Ambient Groundwater Quality Meeting,
Islamorada, FL

February 1999

Board of Professional Geologists Workshop and
General Meeting of the Board, Tallahassee, FL.

USGS Briefing on Coastal Marine Geology
Program, St. Petersburg, FL.

Conducting Effective Meetings, by Corporate
Institutional Advancement, Inc.

Planning for Successful Meetings, by Meeting
Makers, Inc.

State Agency Resource Providers Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.


DEP Library Committee Meeting, Tallahassee,

Advanced Supervisory Lab: Developing
Performance Through Motivation and Feedback,
by Florida DEP, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, Florida.

Bridging the Gaps in Florida Environmental
Education Conference, River Ranch, Florida.

March 1999

Performance Based Budgeting Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

April 1999

Oil & Gas Administrative Rules Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.

Earth Day Display at the Capitol Building,
Tallahassee, FL.

Copyright Law in the Age of Technology
Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

DEP Purchasing Card Training, Tallahassee, FL.

May 1999

Ambient Groundwater Quality Meeting, Cedar
Key, Florida.

Monitoring Well and Water Supply Well Design
and Construction Using Drilling and Direct Push
Methods. Field Instructor Monitor Well
Construction, Tallahassee, FL.

Board of Professional Geologists Meeting,
Tallahassee. FL.

AASG USGS Digital Mapping Techniques
Conference, Madison, Wisconsin.

June 1999

Annual Meeting of the Association of American
State Geologists, Fairbanks, Alaska.

AL-MS-FL joint NE Gulf of Mexico State
Geological Surveys Consortium Planning
Meeting, Mobile, AL.

Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission
Mid-Year Meeting, Jackson Hole, WY.

National Groundwater Association Southeastern
Focus Conference, Tampa, Florida.

Web Search Engines Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

SE MAPS Workshop, Clemson, South Carolina.

July 1999

Finding Common Ground Florida Biotic
Information Consortium Workshop, Tallahassee,

August 1999

NRC Ocean Studies Board, Woodshole, Mass.

September 1999

Florida Board of Professional Geologists,
Tampa, FL.

Oil & Gas Administrative Rules Hearing,
Tallahassee, FL.

Live Call-in Family Forum PBS Radio Show on
Florida Fossils and Dinosaurs.

Florida Springs Task Force Meeting, Wakulla
Springs, FL.

October 1999

Association of American State Geologists
Meeting at GSA, Denver, CO.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists,
Tampa, FL.

Silver Springs Working Group, Ocala, FL

FDEP GIS Workshop, Tallahassee, Florida.

November 1999

Ninth Annual Southwest Florida Water
Resources Conference, Ft. Myers, FL.

NRC Ocean Studies Board, Washington, D.C.

Arsenic Task Force Meeting; Tallahassee, FL


Florida Springs Task Force Meeting, Oleno State

December 1999

Lake Jackson Cleanup Committee Meetings,
Tallahassee. FL.

February 2000

AL-MS-FL Joint NE Gulf of Mexico State
Geological Surveys Consortium Meeting,
Mobile, AL.

North American Coastal Alliance Annual
Meeting, New Orleans, LA. Included Field Trip
to Off-shore Gas Drilling and Gas Production
Platforms in Mobile Bay, Alabama; Field Trip to
Site of Coalbed Methane Fracturing in Black
Warrior Basin in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama.

Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission
Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA. Included
Field Trip to Tour the Marine Spill Response
Corporation Facilities in Ft. Jackson, LA.

Florida Springs Task Force Meeting, White
Springs, FL.

January 2000

Florida Board of Professional Geologists Board
Meeting, Florida Association of Professional
Geologists Reception and Annual Meeting,
Hydrostratigraphic Forum, FGWA Conference.

Seminar of Desktop Publishing; Tallahassee, FL

Meeting with Florida Department of Business
and Professional Regulation Secretary and Senior
Staff to Discuss Issues Associated with
Regulation of Professional Geologists,
Tallahassee, FL.

Okaloosa County Demonstration of Ground-
Penetrating Radar, Crestview, Florida.

Professional Geologists Board Meeting,
Kissimmee, Florida.

Florida Association of Professional Geologists
Meeting, Kissimmee, Florida.

Interests and Needs Related to the Development
of Freshwater Sediment Quality Guidelines for
the State of Florida, Tallahassee, FL

Florida Springs Task Force Meeting, Poe
Springs, FL.

Briefing for DEP Secretary on the Status of
Environmental Problem Solving Focus Areas.
This Involved Review of Our Oil & Gas Process
Review Assessment.

NRC Ocean Studies Board Meeting, Irvine, CA.

Basic Book Repair Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Association of Professional Geologists
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Silver Springs Forever Workgroup Meeting,
Silver Springs, FL.

State Coordination of Environmental Education,
Tallahassee, Florida

Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL.

Lake Jackson Cleanup Tallahassee, FL.

March 2000

Florida Association of Professional Geologists
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Mineral Management Service Briefing on the
Proposed Lease Sale 181 for the Eastern Gulf of
Mexico, Pensacola, FL.

Silver Springs Public Awareness & Education
Meeting, Ocala, FL.

Meeting with Jack Banning, Florida Limerock
and Aggregate Institute, Tallahassee, FL.

State Coordination of Environmental Education,
Tallahassee, Florida

Silver Springs Working Group, Ocala, FL

Florida Springs Task Force Meeting, Hornsby
Springs, FL.

Geological Society of America, Southeastern
Section, Charleston, South Carolina.


April 2000

Silver Springs Forever Meeting, Silver Springs,

Public Service Training, Carr Building,
Tallahassee, FL.

QuickBooks 99 Indroduction, by CompUSA,
Tallahassee, FL.

Dealing with Angry People Class, Tallahassee,

League of Environmental Educators in Florida,
Wakulla, Florida.

May 2000

Chair Session in the NRC Ocean Studies Board
Workshop on the Applications of Remote
Sensing and the Coastal Zone, Washington, D.C.

SE MAPS Leon County Schools Workshop,
Tallahassee, Florida.

US Army Corps of Engineers South Florida
Water Management District Aquifer Storage and
Recovery Workshop, Jacksonville, Florida.

State Coordination of Environmental Education,
Tallahassee, Florida

Basic Supervisory Training, Carr Building,
Tallahassee, FL.

Basic Supervisory Training Part II, Carr
Building, Tallahassee, FL.

State Agency Resource Providers Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists,
Tallahassee, FL.

June 2000

National Safety Council First Aid and CPR,
Tallahassee, FL.

FGS/ Florida Natural Areas Inventory Program
Staff Meeting to Assist with Mapping of Aquifer
Recharge Areas, Tallahassee, FL.

Silver Springs Working Group, Ocala, FL

Florida Springs Task Force Meeting, Wakulla
Springs, FL.

July 2000

Florida Board of Professional Geologists Board
Meeting and FAPG Meeting: Gainesville, FL.

Silver Springs Forever Meeting: Ocala. FL.

Meeting of NRC Ocean Studies Board,
Woodshole, Mass.

FGS/ DEP Division of Water Resources
Management Meeting to Discuss Joint
Groundwater Programs, Tallahassee, FL.

August 2000

DEP Course: Interviewing and Selection,
Tallahassee, FL.

Basic Supervisory Training, Part I Management
Skills, Tallahassee, FL.

NE Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys
(Fl, AL, MS) Consortium Meeting to Discuss
Activities, Mobile, AL.

DEP Secretary Environmental Problem Solving
Focus Review, Tallahassee, FL.

State Library Services to State Agencies Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

DEP Boat Training, Tallahassee and Panacea,

Meeting with DEP Assistant Secretary Green to
Provide Professional Review and
Recommendations Regarding Tallahassee,
Phillips Road Sinkhole Interpretations,
Tallahassee, FL.

September 2000

Managing Multiple Priorities Seminar, Carr
Building, Tallahassee, FL.

FGS Outreach Meeting with Chris Pendelton,
Brogan Museum. Tallahassee, FL..


Ground Water Protection Council Annual
Meeting, Ft. Walton, FL.

Online Course by State of Oregon: HazChem

Division of Water Resources Management Annual
Workshop, FDEP, St. Petersburg, Florida.

DEP Secretary Environmental Problem Solving
Focus Review. Update on Old Oil Wells in Need
of Plugging Assessment, Tallahassee, FL.

Girl Scout Challenge 2000; Tallahassee, FL

Florida Springs Task Force Meeting, Silver
Springs, FL.

October 2000

Florida Conference on Water Management,
Orlando, Florida.

American Institute of Professional Geologists
Annual Meeting, Lakeland, Florida.

Energy and Water Sustainability Conference,
Nebraska City, Nebraska.

Earth Science Week Exhibit: Prepared Materials
and Attended. Silver Springs, FL.

Meeting with Beaches and Coastal Systems,
Tallahassee, FL.

Hazardous Materials Training (On line);
Tallahassee, FL

Senior Managers Meeting, Ramada Inn,
Tallahassee, FL.

Workshop Titled "Regional Science Issues
including Hydrostratigraphy and Hydrogeologic
Interpretations" to the National Academy of
Sciences, Committee on Restoration of the
Greater Everglades Ecosystem (CROGEE),
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Workshop.
Miami, FL.

Professional Geologists Board Meeting and
Florida Association of Professional Geologists
Meeting: Tallahassee, FL.

Meeting with Staff and Director of DEP Office
of Beaches and Coastal Systems, to Discuss
Common Issues and Planning, Tallahassee, FL.

State Coordination of Environmental Education,
Tallahassee, Florida

Leadership, Strategic Planning & Ethics, by Dr.
Perry Smith.

November 2000

Geological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Reno, Nevada.

Meeting with DEP Director of Education and
Information to Discuss FGS Education and
Outreach Plan, Tallahassee, FL.

Hydrogeology Consortium, Orlando, Florida.

Rural Florida Life Festival at Florida Caverns
State Park to Present the Plaque Designating the
Park as a "State Geologic Site.", Marianna, FL.

Florida Paleontological Society Annual Meeting,
Gainesville, Florida.

How to Organize Your Time, Work and Papers
Seminar, Carr Building, Tallahassee, FL.

Basic Supervisory Training, Part II Policies and
Procedures, Tallahassee, FL.

Practical Methods in Applied Contaminant
Geochemistry: From Characterization to
Remediation, Tallahassee, FL.

Contract Manager Training, DEP, Tallahassee,

December 2000

Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission
Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX.


Time in a Bottle North Florida's Karst Plain,
Academic Resource Center, by Jon Arthur,
November, 1999.

Field trip to Windley Key Quarry, 1999, by T.
Scott, Quarterly Ambient Monitoring Meeting.


Springs and Sinkholes in the Tallahassee Region,
SE MAPS Summer Workshop, by Jon Arthur,
May, 2000.

Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip to
Lake Jackson, 2000, by T. Scott, Tallahassee,

Panhandle Geological Society field trip to Porter
Hole, Lake Jackson, 2000, by T. Scott,
Tallahassee, FL.

Lake Jackson, Porter Hole Field Trip, 2000 by T.
Scott, University of South Florida Geology


Earth Day at the Capital, Tallahassee, FL. April

Florida Springs Conference, February 9, 2000.

Earth Day Display, Tallahassee Community
College, Tallahassee, FL. April 19, 2000.



Personnel changes for this biennial
period began in April 1999 with the hiring of Ms.
Angela Richardson as the Geological
Investigations Section Secretary Specialist who
replaced Mr. LaMarr Mitchell who left us in
January of 1999. Angela was a very valuable
employee, but on October 6, 2000 moved on to a
better paying job with the City of Tallahassee.

Ms. Rebecca Kilpatrick was hired in
December of 2000 to fill the Secretary Specialist
position that was vacated by Angela Richardson.

Mr. Charles Logan filled the
Professional Engineer II Position in November of
1999 replacing Mr. James LeBar. Mr. Logan
came to us with a wide range of expertise in the
Oil and Gas related field. Charles has also
moved on (Sept. 2000) to begin his own business
based in Houston, Texas.

On January 31, 2000 Mr. Ed Lane
joined the ranks of "Retirement" from the Florida
Geological Survey with 27 years of dedicated

service to the FGS and the State of Florida. He
and his wife Mary have moved to Delaware
where he is pursuing his new found hobby, golf.

Mr. Richard Green joined the FGS staff
in December of 1999. Rick has been employed
with the Survey in an OPS status for over 14
years and has a vast knowledge of Florida's
geology. He has been the principal investigator
on the USGS/FGS STATEMAP program since

Mrs. Sandie Ray who had been at the
FGS for 27 years left us in April 2000, going to
another Division within DEP.

In October of 2000 our Librarian Ms.
Deborah Mekeel left the FGS to go on to bigger
and better things with the Department of
State/Library Services.

In July 2000 Mr. Harley Means filled
our Geologist II position. Harley had been with
the FGS in an OPS capacity for 5 years prior to
his full time employment.

Mr. Joel Duncan left us in September
1999 to move to Colorado to take a position with
Southwestern Production Company. Joel had
been with FGS for 9 years.

Other personnel changes that have
occurred at the FGS as listed below:

Eric Harrington replaced Milton
Schoest as driller's assistant. In July
2000, Eric moved into another ET II
position from the Driller's Assistant
position. He gained experience while
working as the driller's assistant.

Ms. Karen Achille joined the Florida
Geological Survey September 19, 2000
as the half-time secretary for the Oil &
Gas Section. Karen has been an
outstanding addition to the FGS Staff.

Ted Kiper's Marine Captain position
was reclassified to an Engineer I

Our GIS Analyst Amy Graves left us in
May 2000 to follow her husband to his
new job in Miami.


In July 2000, Mr. John Marquez took
Amy's position as our GIS Analyst.

We had several promotions that took
place in July 2000. They are as follows:

Jonathan Arthur and Ronald Hoenstine
were promoted to Professional Geologist

Paulette Bond and Frank Rupert were
promoted to Professional Geologist II's.

Kenneth Campbell was changed from a
Professional Geologist Supervisor to a
Professional Geologist III.


Permanent Full -Time Staff

Karen E. Achille, Secretary Specialist, Oil and
Gas Section. AA, AS Criminal Justice, Brevard
Community College (1979) BS Criminology
Florida State University (1982)

Jonathan D. Arthur, Professional Geologist
Supervisor, Hydrogeology Program, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1982); Ph.D., Florida State
University (1994). Research interests:
hydrogeology, geochemistry and environmental
education. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Member: Statewide Council on
Environmental Education, FDEP Aquifer
Vulnerability Mapping Committee; courtesy
faculty appointment, Department of Geological
Sciences, Florida State University; aquifer
storage and recovery Project Development Team
(Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan) and
Board of Representatives, Hydrogeology
Consortium. Professional memberships: Florida
Association of Professional Geologists,
Southeastern Geological Society, Geological
Society of America, and American Geological
Institute. 1996 FGS Employee of the Year;
1997 Governor's Environmental Education
Award for "Florida's Geology Unearthed," New
York Festivals, 1997 Finalist for Non-Broadcast
Film and Video for production of "Florida's
Geology Unearthed," April 1997 DEP Employee
of the Month; 1997 DEP Sustained Exemplary
Performance Award, 1999 FGS Team Extra
Effort Award.

Paul Attwood, Petroleum Geologist, Oil and Gas
Section, Ft. Myers field office. BS, Denison
University (1974); MS, University of Kansas
(1981). Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists; President, Everglades
Geological Society.

James Balsillie, Coastal Engineering Geologist,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, Portland
State University (1970). Research interests:
coastal geology and coastal engineering. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Florida Association of Professional
Geologists, Florida Shore and Beach Preservation
Association. 1998 FGS Employee of the Year,
2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis
Productivity Award.

Wanda Bissonnette, Administrative Assistant,
Administrative Section, 24 years of service with
DEP, Memberships: ASPCA and World Wildlife

Paulette Bond, Research Geologist, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, West Virginia
University (1971); MS, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (1974). Research
interests: low temperature geochemistry, karst
geology and environmental geology. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Member: Silver
Springs Working Group. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America,
Florida Association of Professional Geologists,
and Southeastern Geological Society.

Kenneth M. Campbell. Professional Geologist
III, Geologic Investigations Section. BS Old
Dominion University, 1975, MS Florida State
University, 1979. Geologic Interests: Cenozoic
stratigraphy, sedimentation and coastal processes.
Licensed Professional Geologist. State of Florida.
Licensed Florida Water Well Contractor.
Professional Memberships: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists. 1996 FGS Team Extra
Effort Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award, 2000 FGS Employee of the Year, 2000
Davis Productivity Award.

Robert S. Caughey, Petroleum Geologist, Ft.
Myers Oil and Gas Field Office. BS, University of
Arizona (1976). Research interests: Cenozoic
stratigraphy and hydrogeology, and "boulder
zone" of south Florida. Licensed professional


geologist (Florida). Professional memberships:
Society of Mining Engineers, Division of
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical
Engineers, Association of Exploration
Geochemists, National Association of Geology
Teachers, American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Southeastern Geological
Society, Miami Geological Society, Everglades
Geological Society, and New Mexico Geological
Society. 1997 FGS Employee of the Year.

Cynthia A. Collier, Administrative Secretary,
Administrative Section. AAS, Tallahassee
Community (1975).

Lawrence D. Curry, Environmental
Administrator, Oil and Gas Section. BS,
University of South Florida (1973). Licensed
professional geologist (Florida).

Rodney S. DeHan, Senior Research Scientist,
Administrative Section. DVM, University of
Edinburgh (1966); MS, University of Kansas
(1969); Ph.D., Florida State University (1973).
Research interests: Hydrogeology and ground-
water protection. Member: Congressional Office
of Technology Assessment; Environmental Law
Institute Panel; the Advisory Committee on Water
Information; the Conservation Foundation Panel
for National Groundwater Policy Forum; the
National Water Quality Monitoring Panel; various
EPA and USGS panels instrumental in developing
the Wellhead Protection Program, the National
Groundwater Strategy, the Pesticides in
Groundwater Strategy, and Contingency Planning
for Public Water Supplies; EPA-USGS
Workgroup on Hydrogeologic Mapping Needs for
Ground Water Protection and Management;
Advisory Council on National Water Quality
Assessment; Federal Interagency Steering
Committee; Executive Committee of the National
Monitoring Council; Chairman of the Work
Group on Interaction of Watershed Components;
Advisory Committee on Water Information.
Professional Memberships: Groundwater
Protection Research Foundation (President),
Hydrogeology Consortium (Vice Chair), Ground
Water Work Group (Executive Board and Co-
Chairman), Association of State and Interstate
Water Pollution Control Administrators; American
Water Works Association; American Society of
Clinical Pathologists; American Society of
Microbiologists; Florida Association of Water
Quality Control, American Society of Cell

Joel G. Duncan, Sedimentary Geologist,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, University
of Alabama (1977). PhD, Florida State University
(1998). Research interests: Paleozoic and
Mesozoic stratigraphy, sandstone and carbonate
petrology, basin analysis, tectonics, and structural
geology. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Professional membership: American
Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Jesse A. Fairley, Jr., Systems Project Analyst,
Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of West Florida (1977).

Henry Freedenberg, Geologist, Mineral
Resources Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section. BA, State University of New
York at New Paltz (1974); MA, State University
of New York at Buffalo (1976). Research
interests: coastal processes, environmental
geology, petroleum geology, carbonate petrology.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: National Water Well

Ed Gambrell, Environmental Specialist III, Jay
Oil and Gas Field Office. BS, Engineering,
Mississippi State University (1960).

Ed Garrett, Petroleum Geologist, Tallahassee Oil
and Gas Office. BS, Florida State University
(1983). Research interests: Environmental effects
of offshore drilling; regulatory computer
applications. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Professional membership: Florida
Association of Professional Geologists.

Amy M. Graves, GIS Analyst & Webmaster.
BA, University of Texas at Austin (1997).
Research interests: coastal geology, resource
management, spatial analysis, web design.
Member of DEP GIS Workshop Committee.

Richard C. Green, Professional Geologist I,
Geological Investigations Section. B.S. in
geology, Florida State University (1986); M.S.
in geology, Florida State University (1993).
Research Interests: Uranium /Thorium
geochemistry, environmental hydrogeology, and
stratigraphy. Principal Investigator, USGS
STATEMAP Program. 1997 FGS Extra Effort


Don L. Hargrove, Electrical Engineer,
Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office. Engineering
degree candidate at Florida State
University/Florida A & M University.
Geophysical permits, field observer coordinator.
1997 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Extra
Effort Award.

Debra J. Harrington, Laboratory Technician II,
Geological Investigations Section. BS,
University of Maryland College Park (1995).
Research interests: hydrogeology,
sedimentation, fate and transport of trace metals
and low temperature geochemistry. Professional
memberships: Phi Kappa Phi National Honor
Society. 1998 FGS Extra Effort Award.

Eric P. Harrington, Engineer Technician II,
Geological Investigations Section, 2000 FGS
Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis
Productivity Award.

Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian, Administrative

Ronald W. Hoenstine, Coastal Geologist,
Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of Florida (1967); MS, University of Florida
(1974); PhD, Florida State University (1982).
Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal geology
and environmental geology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Member: Installation
Restoration Environmental Cleanup Advisory
Committee, Jacksonville Naval Air Station. 1995
FGS Employee of the Year.

Evelyn Jordan, Secretary, Oil and Gas Section,
Jay Field Office.

Ted B. Kiper, Marine Captain, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. AA, Tallahassee Community College
(1976); BS, Florida State University (1988); MS,
Florida State University (1993). U.S. Coast Guard
licensed Captain.

Lucien James Ladner, Coastal Geologist,
Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of Southern Mississippi (1970). Research
interests: hydrogeology, environmental and coastal
geology. Licensed professional geologist (Florida),
1997 FGS Extra Effort Award.

Burke Edward Lane, Environmental Geologist,
Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of Delaware (1966); MS, Pennsylvania State
University (1968). Research interests:
hydrogeology, environmental geology and karst.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Member: Solid Waste Management Advisory
Committee (State of Florida), and DEP Strategic
Educational Committee. 1997 FGS Individual
Extra Effort Award, Co-recipient of the GSA John
C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental
Geology, 1999.

James LeBar, Petroleum Engineer, Tallahassee
Oil and Gas Office. BS, Geological Engineering,
Michigan Technological University (1978).
Research Interests: Petroleum engineering and
geology, environmental engineering and
hydrogeology, and downhole logging
technologies. Professional Memberships: Society
of Petroleum Engineers and National Water Well
Association. Licensed Professional Engineer

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
for Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology. BS, Florida Atlantic
University (1976); MS, University of Chicago
(1979). Research interests: environmental geology
and computer management. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Member: Silver Springs
Forever Working Group, Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America,
American Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Southeastern Geological Society
(Secretary/Treasurer, 1984), Computer Oriented
Geological Society, and Florida Association of
Professional Geologists (Vice President-1999;
President-2000), 1995 DEP Extra Effort Award,
2000 FGS Extra Effort Award.

John Marquez, GIS Programmer Analyst,
Webmaster and Cartographer, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. Professional Land Surveyor, Florida
PSM#4921, Masters in Social Work, Florida
State University.

Guy Harlan Means, Geologist II, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1996), MS Candidate, Florida State
University. Research Interests: Cenozoic
stratigraphy, molluscan and vertebrate
paleontology, Florida prehistoric underwater


archaeology. Professional memberships:
Southeastern Geological Society, Florida
Paleontological Society, Florida Archaeological
Society. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award,
1998 FGS Extra Effort Award, 1999 DEP Team
Performance Award, 2000 Davis Productivity
Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award.

Deborah E. Mekeel, Librarian Specialist. B.A.,
Bridgewater College, 1982, M.L.S. Florida State
University, 1993. Specialization: Cataloging.
Professional memberships: Geoscience
Information Society (AGI); Special Libraries
Association, Florida and Caribbean Chapter, Solo
Librarians Division, Environment and Resource
Management Division, Geography and Maps
Division; Beta Phi Mu, 1999 FGS Employee of
the Year.

Tracy Phelps, Secretary Specialist, Jay Oil and
Gas Field Office.

Paula Poison, CAD Analyst and Cartographer,
Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. Training in
graphic arts and drafting, Virginia
Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA;
Tidewater Community College, Virginia Beach,
VA; John Tyler Community College, Richmond,
VA. Research interests: computer
graphics/illustrations using AutoCAD and other
related software and 3D animation. Paula is also
employed by The High Magnetic Field
Laboratory as a Graphic Artist where she is
creating 3D models of microscopes for their

Sandra Ray, Administrative Assistant,
Administrative Section. AA, Chipola Junior
College (1970). March 1986 DNR Employee of
the Month.

Frank R. Rupert, Paleontologist, Mineral
Resources Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section, BS, Florida Atlantic University
(1976); MS, Florida State University (1980).
Research Interests: Cenozoic micropaleontology
and biostratigraphy and environmental
hydrogeology. Member, DEP Wakulla Springs
Water Quality Working Group. Ichetucknee
Springs Water Quality Technical Advisory
Committee. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Professional memberships: Florida
Academy of Science; Florida Paleontological
Society. Past President, Board Member, and

Newsletter Editor, Florida Paleontological Society.
1988 FGS Employee of the Year, July 1989 DEP
Employee of the Month, Co-recipient GSA John
C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental
Geology, October, 1999, 2000 FGS Team Extra
Effort Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award.

Franklin R. Rush, Jr., Laboratory Technician III,
Geological Investigations Section. 1992 FGS
Employee of the Year.

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief of
the Florida Geological Survey. AS, Florida
Institute of Technology (1970); BA, University
of South Florida (1972); MS, Florida State
University (1977); PhD, Florida State University
(1983). Research interests: Cenozoic
Stratigraphy, hydrogeology, environmental
geology, paleogeography, petroleum geology,
economic geology, geology and public policy.
Licensed professional geologist in Florida,
Alabama, Pennsylvania, North Carolina
(inactive), and South Carolina (inactive).
Professional memberships: Geological Society of
America (Fellow), Southeastern Geological
Society (Past President), American Institute of
Professional Geologists (Member, CPG), Florida
Board of Professional Geologists (Legislative
appointment, Past Chair), Governor's Outer
Continental Shelf Advisory Committee
(Member), Association of American State
Geologists (Member and Past President, current
Chair of Coastal Processes Committee),
Southeast Petroleum Technology Transfer
Council (Advisory Committee Member),
American Association for the Advancement of
Science (Member), Society for Sedimentary
Geology (Member), Ground Water Protection
Council (Member), Florida Association of
Professional Geologists (Founding Member),
Florida Academy of Sciences (Past Chair of
Geology/Hydrology Section), Big Cypress
Swamp Advisory Committee (Legislative
Appointment and Chair), National Research
Council Oceans Studies Board (Member).
Adjunct Professor, Florida State University
Department of Geological Sciences, DEP
Division of Resource Assessment and
Management Environmental Problem Solving
issue review committee, 1996 FGS Declaration
of Leadership and Excellence Award, 1998-99
Outstanding Guidance and Leadership as the
Chairman of the Florida Board of Professional
Geologists Award.


Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist for
Geological Investigations. BA, University of
South Florida (1971); MS, Eastern Kentucky
University (1973); PhD, Florida State University
(1986). Research interests: Cenozoic
lithostratigraphy, geologic history, and
hydrogeology. Member of the Florida Board of
Professional Geologists. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida), Certified Professional
Geologist (American Institute of Professional
Geologists). Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America, Southeastern
Geological Society (Past-President, 1978 and
1990-92), Society of Sedimentary Geology (Past
President, Southeastern Section, 1996-97), Florida
Academy of Sciences, Florida Section of the
American Institute of Professional Geologists
(Past-President, 1985-86), Florida Association of
Professional Geologists (Vice President and Board
Member 1996), Research Associate, University of
South Florida Courtesy faculty appointment,
Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State
University, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award,
2000 Davis Productivity Award.

Steven M. Spencer, Economic Geologist, Mineral
Resources Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section. BS, Florida State University
(1981). Research interests: economic geology,
environmental geology, and coastal geology.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida), January
1992 DEP Employee of the Month Award,
1994/95 DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance

Carolyn Stringer, Special Projects Manager,
Oil & Gas Section. BS, University of Alabama
(1970). One Florida Coordinator for FGS and
One Florida Coordinator Alternate for DRAM.

Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic, Mineral
Resources Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section. Certified Yamaha Motors and
Honda Marine Corporation Outboard Mechanic,
U.S. Coast Guard licensed Captain, FAA Airframe
and Powerplant License, PADI Certified Open
Water Diver and First Aid Medic, 2000 FGS Extra
Effort Award.

Jim Trindell, Driller, Geological Investigations
Section. Formal training in Environmental
Sciences, Stockton State College (Ponoma, NJ),
U.S. Coast Guard licensed Captain, U.S. Coast
Guard 100-ton Master Certification.

Temporary Part Time Staff

Research Assistants:

Alan E. Baker, Geological Investigations
Section. B.S. in Geology, December 1994,
Florida State University. Research Interests:
water resource protection, environmental
geology, geochemistry and GIS analysis.

Craig Berninger, Geological
Section. Area of specialization:
and coring, Florida licensed
Contractor. Research interests:
Professional Memberships:
Paleontological Society.

well drilling
Water Well

Susanne Broderick, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Worcester State College (1998); BS,
Florida State University (2001); MS candidate,
Florida State University. Research interests:
Antarctic paleoclimatology and sedimentology.
Professional Memberships: Golden Key National
Honor Society, Florida State University
Geological Society: Treasurer, 2000, American
Meteorological Society Student Chapter,
Geological Society of America

James R. Cichon, Geological Investigations
Section. B.S. Geology: Florida Atlantic
University (1998), B.A. Chemistry: Florida
Atlantic University (1998), B.S. Mathematics
Education: Florida State University (1991).
Research Interests: environmental geology, water
resources, groundwater modeling.

Brian J. Cross, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section, BS Geology, Furman University (1997);
BA Political Science, Furman University (1998);
MS candidate Florida State University. Research
Interests: coastal processes and coastal policy.

Adel Dabous, Mineral Resources Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. BS,
Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt (1968);
MS, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
(1973); Ph.D., Florida State University (1981).
Research interests: geochemistry, mineralogy,
coastal geology. Director of the FSU U/Th Isotope
Geochemistry Laboratory. Licensed Professional
Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships:
Geochemical Society of America, Geological
Society of Egypt, Geological Society of America,
and Mineralogical Society of Egypt.


Cindy Fischler, Geological Investigations
Section. AS, Science, Thomas Nelson
Community College; BS candidate Florida State
University. Research interests: coastal geology,
sedimentology, carbonate petrology.

Robert Dale Frierson, Geological
Investigations Section, BS candidate Florida
State University, Geology. Awarded the AASG
Mentoring Grant and assisted with production of
the 2000-2001 STATEMAP Project. Research
Interests: structural geology, 2000 FGS Team
Extra Effort Award.

Mabry M. Gaboardi, Geological Investigations
Section. BA: Spanish, Florida State University
(1999). BS: Geology, Florida State University
(1999). MS Candidate Florida State University.
Recipient of AASG Mentorship grant 1999.
Research Interests: environmental geology and

Katie M. Hacht, Geological Investigations
Section. B.S., Geology, Florida State University
(2000). FSU Geological Society: President,
1999-2000. Research Interests: structural
geology, litostratigraphy.

Cliff Hendrickson, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, Florida State University (1994);
MS, Florida State University (1997). Research
interests: environmental and coastal geology and

Michelle Lachance, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS candidate (Geology and Civil
Engineering), Florida State University. Research
interests: geotechnics and rheology.
Professional memberships: FSU Geological
Society, Society of Physics Students, American
Society of Civil Engineers, Circle K
International, and FSU Student Senate.

Edward H. Marks, Geological Investigations
Sections. Dual BS candidate Florida State
University, Geology, Environmental Science
(2001). Research Interests: sedimentology,
stratigraphy, environmental geology.

Spencer P. Mitchell, Geological Investigations
and Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Sections. BA, Florida

State University (1994); MS candidate Florida
State University (1999). Research interests:
geochemistry and economic mineralogy.

Michael O. O'Sullivan, Research Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, Mercer
University (1994). Research interests:
hydrogeology, estuarine sedimentation, 2"Pb
dating, 1999 FGS Extra Effort Team Award.

David T. Paul, Geological Investigations
Section, B.S. Geology, Florida State University
1999. Research Assistant on USGS STATEMAP
Program, Lake Jackson Drilling, Caloosahatchee
Basin Core Cooperative Project with USGS.
Research Interests: structural geology.

Michelle M. Ponchak, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Florida State University (1998).
Research interests: Florida Cenozoic
stratigraphy, environmental geology, mapping
techniques. FSU Geological Society: Vice
President, 1997-98; President, Fall 1998.

Christopher P. Smith, Geological Investigations
Section. BS candidate, Florida State University.
FSU Geological Society: President, 1998-99.

Jennifer Stalvey, Geological Investigations
Section. BA, Florida State University (1991),
graduate course work in Geography, Florida State
University (1995 and 1996), MS candidate,
Florida A & M University. Research Interests:
AutoCAD cartography, well drilling and coring,
environmental pollution. 1996 FGS Team Extra
Effort Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award.

Natalie Sudman, Geological Investigations
Section. MFA, University of Oregon.

Holly B. Tulpin, Geological Investigations
Section. BA: University of Texas (1981),
expected BS: Florida State University (2001).
Research interests: geophysics, environmental
geology. Professional memberships: Geological
Society of America, Phi Kappa Phi National
Honor Society.

Chris Werner, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, University of Pittsburgh (1996); MS
candidate, Florida State University. Research
interests: karst hydrogeology.


Alan Willett. Mineral Resources Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. BS,
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (1987);
BS, Georgia Southwestern University (1996);
MS candidate, Florida State University. Research
interests: hydrogeology, coastal and
environmental geology. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America.

Research Associates:

William L. Evans II, Professional Geologist I,
Geological Investigations Section. Dual BS,
Zoology and Biology, University of Central
Florida (1979); MS, Geology, Florida State
University (1996). Research Interests:
hydrogeology, lake hydrology, aquifer storage
and recovery system geochemistry,
environmental geology, stratigraphy and heavy
mineral deposition. Licensed Professional
Geologist (Florida). Florida Association of
Professional Geologist Board of Directors (1997-
98). Co-Investigator, USGS STATEMAP

Richard A. Johnson, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, University of Florida (1971); MS,
University of Florida (1974). Research interests:
Cenozoic stratigraphy and lithology. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America
and American Association for the Advancement
of Science.

Outside Research Associates:

Vicente Quinones-Aponte (USGS)
Christine Bates (Big Cypress National Preserve).
Don Boniol (SJRWMD)
Dr. Lynn Brewster-Wingard (USGS)
Ron Ceryak (SRWMD)
Randy Chambers (Alachua County)
Nolan Col (SJRWMD)
Dr. Rick Copeland (DEP)
Tony Countryman (NWFWMD)
Dr. Jim Cowart (FSU)
Jeff Davis (SJRWMD)
Eric Dehaven (SWFWMD).
Dr. Joe Donoghue (FSU)
Dr. Lucy Edwards (USGS)
Kendall Fountain (UF)
Robin Hallbourg (Alachua County)
Jeff Herr (SFWMD)
Chris Langevin (USGS)
Jody Lee (SJRWMD)

Carole Maddox (SFWMD)
Gary Maddox (DEP)
Dr. Katherine Milla (FAMU)
Carole Milliman (SFWMD)
Ed Oaksford (USGS)
John Passehl (USGS)
Thomas Pratt (NWFWMD)
Ron Reese (USGS)
Dr. Suzanne Weedman (USGS)


Ed Lane and Frank Rupert were co-
recipients of the Geological Society of America's
1999 John C. Frye Memorial Award in
Environmental Geology. The award was given
for their FGS poster titled "Earth Systems: The
Foundation of Florida's Ecosystems". This
award is presented annually for outstanding
environmental geology publications produced by
the Geological Society of America and the State
Geological Surveys.

Walter Schmidt received the "Award
for Outstanding Guidance and Leadership as the
Chairman of the Florida Board of Professional
Geologists 1998-1999" presented by the Board,
May 9, 2000.

Librarian Deborah Mekeel was the
1999 recipient of the FGS Employee of the Year
Award. Ms. Mekeel enthusiastically improved
and modernized the FGS library for nine years
while also serving as a central information
dispatcher for the Survey.

The 1999 Team Extra Effort Award
went to the Southwest Florida Subsurface
Mapping Team, which consisted of: Patty
Casey, Mabry Gaboardi, Amy Graves, Mike
O'Sullivan, and Chris Werner. This group
collected data, organized it into databases, and
produced 18 subsurface maps (structure contour
and isopach) encompassing an area of eight

The 2000 Employee of the Year Award
went to Ken Campbell, who is notorious for
getting the maximum yield out of the Survey's
drilling program, which he supervises. For 23
years Mr. Campbell has motivated field crews,
maintained drilling equipment, authored
numerous publications, administered grants, and
served as a mining regulator.


Three Extra Effort Awards were given
to individuals in 2000. Jackie Lloyd added more
administrative duties to her existing overload as
head of the Mineral Resource Investigation and
Environmental Geology Section. Wade
Stringer, Marine mechanic for the Coastal
Program, takes care of several research vessels as
if they were part of his family. Don Hargrove
maintains the Oil & Gas Section's database,
supervises geophysical field inspectors, and
routinely volunteers to help the other sections in
the field.

A Team Extra Effort Award was given
to a group that took advantage of Lake Jackson
being drained by a sinkhole in 1999. Tom Scott,
Ken Campbell, Jim Balsillie, Harley Means,
Eric Harrington, Dale Frierson, Frank
Rupert, and Jennifer Stalvey seized the
opportunity to collect research data, explore the
sinkholes, construct maps, and conduct public
education while the lake was empty.

FGS Lake Jackson Sinkhole Investigation Team
Wins 2000 Davis Productivity Award

The FGS Lake Jackson Sinkhole
Investigation Team consisting of: Tom Scott,
Harley Means, Frank Rupert, Jim Balsillie,
Ken Campbell, Eric Harrington, and Jennifer
Stalvey, were recently recognized with a Davis
Productivity Award. The group, recognizing the
scientific opportunities associated with this event
which occurred in September 1999, assembled
the team to investigate the geology of the Lake
Jackson Porter Hole Sink, the lake bottom and
the surrounding area. Since the timeframe that
the sinkhole was accessible could have been very
short (weeks to months), the team began the
investigation as soon as conditions and safety
considerations permitted. Exploration of the
sinkhole and associated cavities took place as
soon as water inflow ceased. Six core holes were
drilled on the lake bottom to provide subsurface
data for developing a geologic history of the lake


Dr.William Francis Tanner, Jr.
(1917 2000)

Dr. William "Bill" Francis Tanner, Jr., a
native of Milledgeville, Georgia, had resided in
Tallahassee, Florida since 1954. He is survived
by his wife Julia (Rigby) Tanner, three children,
William F. III, Bruce R., Julianne (Talley), and
seven grandchildren. Ben Tanner, a grandson,
studying at the University of Maine has
intentions to follow in his grandfather's footsteps.

W. F. Tanner received his BA in
geology from Baylor University in 1937, his MA
from Texas Technical College in 1939, and his
PhD in geology from the University of Oklahoma
in 1953. He worked as an assistant geologist at
Baylor University from 1935 to 1937 and at
Texas Tech from 1937 to 1939, was the oil editor
at the Amarillo Times from 1939 to 1941 and
from 1945 to 1946, with the outbreak of WWII
he joined the U. S. Navy and was trained as a
meteorologist serving with the Navy's
meteorological team in Britain where he
remained until Allied victory of the European
campaign, assistant professor of geology and
journalism at Oklahoma Baptist University from
1946 to 1951, special instructor at the University
of Oklahoma from 1951 to 1954, and a geologist
with Shell Oil Company in 1954. He came to
Florida State University in 1954 where he served
as visiting lecturer in geology from 1954 to 1956,
Associate Professor from 1956 to 1974, and as
Regents Professor in Geology from 1974 until he
retired in 1994. Even after retiring, he continued
to teach at Florida State University as Regents
Professor Emeritus, a task to which he was
devoted throughout his career, and one in which
he had the reputation for being organized, fair,
thorough, thought-provoking, and inspiring. In
1997, while continuing his association with the
Department of Geological Sciences at Florida
State University, he joined the staff of the Florida
Geological Survey as resident Visiting Senior
Research Scientist where he remained conducting
research until his death.

Bill Tanner was a Fellow with the
American Association for the Advancement of
Science (AAAS), Geological Society of America
(GSA), Society of Economic Paleontologists and


Mineralogists (SEPM), International Association
of Sedimentology (IAS), and the American
Geophysical Union (AGU). He was chairman of
the 1963 SEPM interdisciplinary Inter-Society
Grain Size Study Committee which established
sedimentologic standards that today remain the
basis for granulometry. He was not content with
merely describing characteristics of sediments,
but with discovering the forces (e.g., eolian and
hydraulic) which define the transporting
mechanisms and depositional conditions. These
he applied to ancient sedimentologic deposits,
often contrasting with existing description of
their actual geologic history. His transpo-
depositional discoveries were based on a data
base of some 11,000 sediment samples analyzed
over the years. He thereby developed a
concerted interest in complicated wave and
current coastal and fluvial processes, and also
correlated such considerations to Holocene sea
level changes from beach ridge granulometric
results. He was particularly proud of William F.
Tanner on Environmental Clastic Granulometry,
a 1995 compilation published by the Florida
Geological Survey. Sedimentology, as shall be
evident, was but one teaching and research
interest. He was the recipient of a multitude of
lecturing accolades. From 1972 to 1990 he
organized, hosted and published nine Symposia
on Coastal Sedimentology totaling some 2,500
pages of research results, and founded and was
Editor-in-Chief of Coastal Research, a quarterly
mini-journal, from 1962 until his eyesight was
impaired in 1998. Even with such impairment he
continued to conduct research. On October 19,
1999 he suffered a stroke and was confined to
bed under hospital care. Even so he continued
dictating work for publication during his last
several months. He is listed in World Who's Who
in Science and American Men and Women of

During his 62-year professional career
he taught courses including sedimentology,
stratigraphy, field methods and field camp,
structural geology, aerial photographic
interpretation, modeling theory, coastal geology,
glaciology and climate change, subsurface
geological methods, and was proficiently
conversant in German and Spanish and translated
from Greek, Russian, and French to English. He
supervised and was mentor to over 50 Masters
and Doctoral students, amassed over 400
professional publications, and was an
accomplished computer programmer assembling

analytical tools and numerical models. His
research interests overwhelm even the
accomplished professional.

W. F. Tanner conducted and published
research on wide variety of subjects including:
aerial photographic interpretation general
applications, strike and dip, sinkholes; geology
and archaeology and the bible Noah's Flood,
Exodus from Egypt, Indian mounds, etc.;
climatology atmospheric change, glaciology,
Holocene sea level changes, hurricanes, Little Ice
Age, morphologic changes, wave climates;
coastal geology ABC numerical model, ancient
shorelines and wave environments, beach ridges
and beach ridge plains, beachrock, barrier
islands, breaking waves, cheniers, coastal
classification, corals, equilibrium profiles,
dating, erosion, gravel beaches, hurricane
impacts, inlets, lagoons, Langmuir cells, littoral
cells, long-term beach changes and mapping
shorelines, offshore wave characteristics, origin
of the Gulf of Mexico, perched barriers, ripple
marks, Sabellarids, SCUBA field methods, sea
level rise, sediment transport, springs, storm
ridges, the surf break, terraces, transverse bars,
wave refraction, wave energy, zero-energy
coasts, etc.;drilling subsurface methods and oil
prospects; fluvial geology bed roughness,
friction factors, equilibrium profiles, helicoidal
flow, hydrology, oxbows, spiral flow, etc.;
hydrology Froude and Reynolds number
studies, Langmuir circulation, micro-velocity
meter, spiral and surge flow, shear velocity, etc.;
geological teaching methods; glaciology causes,
climate change, moraines, post-glacial
emergence, etc.;geomorphology and
paleogeography hydraulics, lagoons, reefs,
seamounts, slope retreat, terraces, etc.;
sedimentology analytical methods, bed load
transport, composite statistics, cross-bedding,
deltas, dunes, eolian ripple marks and deposits,
facies changes, filtering, fluvial sediments,
granulometry, heavy minerals, gravels, lacustrine
environments, pediments, moment measures,
ripple marks, sieving vs settling, sorting, splitting
error, suite statistics, truncation, etc.; soils;
planetary geology; stratigraphy, formation and
lithologic studies many field studies,
desilicification, gypsom, limestone, sandstone,
unconsolidated sediments, time record, etc.
structural geology and tectonics continental
drift, crushed pebbles and conglomerates,
diapirs, deep sea trenches, earthquakes, faulting,
geosynclines, geothermal exploration, grabens,


island arcs, plasticity, rheology, strike and dip,
synclines, tension, etc. His studies were
conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado,
Florida, Georgia, Michigan, Montana, New
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming, Argentina,
Australia, Canada, England, Germany, Mexico,
Saudi Arabia, The Netherlands, Asia, and many
ocean basins.

Richard Alan Johnson (1949-2000)

Many in the Florida geological
community were shocked to learn of the sudden
death of Richard Johnson in May, 2000. During
his career, Richard worked at three state
agencies, with his later years at the FGS.
Through the years he gained many friends in the
well logging and Florida stratigraphy circles.

Richard was born on December 9h,
1949, in Scranton, Pennsylvania. His father John
operated a TV repair service there for several
years before moving to Philadelphia to attend
college in electrical engineering. At the start of
the U.S. space race in the early sixties, his father
got a job offer from McDonnell Douglas in
Florida. The family moved to Cocoa Beach,
Florida, where Richard attended Cocoa Beach
High School. His father worked on many of the
projects leading up to the Apollo flights to the
moon. Richard often recalled watching rocket
blastoffs at nearby Cape Canaveral from the front
yard of their home. Growing up so close to
America's space flight center cultivated in
Richard an interest in model rocketry, a hobby he
pursued into adulthood.

Richard attended the University of
Florida in Gainesville. He started his college
career as a mathematics major. Not long into his
studies he discovered geology, and was hooked.
Richard went on to earn his Bachelor's degree in
1971 and Master's degree in 1974 from the
University of Florida. He worked on conodonts
as his master's thesis project.

In June of 1974 Richard accepted a job
with the Florida Department of Natural
Resources, Bureau of Water Resources, in
Tallahassee. Here Richard worked conducting
geophysical logging of water wells statewide.
This was Richard's introduction to the subsurface
geology of Florida, and the job required
recognition of the formations encountered during
well drilling.

A year later, in October of 1975,
Richard took a job with the St. Johns River
Water Management Disrtict, in Palatka, Florida.
He functioned as a geologist and geophysical
logger at the district for nearly ten years. During
this time he gained extensive expertise in the
stratigraphy of northeastern Florida as well as
geophysical logging techniques. Richard and his
logging van were a familiar sight at water and
monitoring wells throughout the District. In
addition to his field duties at the District, he
authored several technical publications on the
hydrogeology and geology of the St. Johns
District. His interest in Florida geology extended
beyond his daily work, and it was not
uncommon for him to spend his free time visiting
outcrops around the state, collecting samples and
describing the lithology.

By the mid 1980's, Richard's career
interests centered on stratigraphy. When a
District Geologist position opened at the Florida
Geological Survey in 1985, he eagerly applied,
and was hired. Richard served as Northwest
District Geologist for the FGS. During his tenure
at the Survey, he authored publications on
geologic exposures in Florida, shallow
stratigraphic test cores on file at the FGS, and the
Miami Limestone. He developed the use of
hand-held scintillometers to construct gamma-ray
profiles of outcrop sections, and reported on his
work in several FGS Open File Reports.

Richard took early retirement from the
FGS in June of 1990, looking forward to
independently pursuing his stratigraphic
research. For the next seven years he traveled
the state, collecting data, describing samples, and
producing a series of privately-published
volumes on the stratigraphy of Florida. In 1997,
Richard returned to the FGS part-time to work on
a special project in conjunction with the St. Johns
River Water Management District. The project
suited him well as it focused on correlating
gamma logs and stratigraphy in the District. He
also described and interpreted a number of new
monitor well samples from the District. Richard
coauthored the project's publication, titled
"Guidebook to the Correlation of Geophysical
Well Logs within the St. Johns River Water
Management District." This work will be
dedicated to him upon its publication in 2001.


Richard is survived by his sister Linda
and mother Arlene. His untimely death saddened
all who knew him, and he is missed by those who
worked with him. A special student scholarship
fund in his name has been set up at the University
of Florida Geology Department, in Gainesville.

Dr. Charles H. Tootle, P.E.

In May 2000, Dr. Charles H. Tootle passed
away. Dr. Tootle retired from the Florida
Geological Survey on December 30, 1994, after
serving the State for 23 years. Dr. Tootle first
reported to work with the former Department of
Natural Resources on December 3, 1971. He
was assigned to the Jay District Office as an Oil
and Gas Engineer during the Jay Field drilling

In 1975, Dr. Tootle transferred to Tallahassee
to serve as an advisor to the Oil and Gas Section
of the Florida Geological Survey. Dr. Tootle
founded and served as the first Chairman of the
Florida Panhandle Section of the National
Association of Corrosion Engineers. In 1985, he
was awarded the association's Distinguished
Service Award for Outstanding Contributions.
Dr. Tootle was also a Navy Veteran and
previously worked for Louisiana Tech
University. He will be missed by all.

Steve R. Windham, (1931-2000)

Steve Windham passed away in Tallahassee,
Florida on September 30, 2000. He was born on
November 28th, 1931. Steve was a long-standing
fixture at the Florida Geological Survey having
been associated with the agency for 39 years.
Steve graduated from Birmingham Southern
College with BS in Geology in 1954. He
subsequently completed his Master's in Geology
at Emory University in Atlanta. From 1957
through 1961 Steve worked on his Ph.D. at
Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, La.
Steve joined the staff of the Florida Geological
Survey as a Micropaleontologist and Carbonate
Hydrogeologist in 1961. In 1972 he was
promoted to Assistant Bureau Chief of the
Survey to then Chief Charles (Bud) W. Hendry.
During his years as Asst. Chief, Steve handled
administrative, personnel, contracts and grants,
budget and some legislative issues for the
Survey. Steve was an easy to talk to manager
and all staff could easily sit down and discuss

their problems with him. In 1982 he became the
Chief of the Bureau when Mr. Hendry moved up
to Division Director within the Department of
Natural Resources. Steve held the Chiefs
position until 1985 when he accepted an
Administrator position in the Bureau of Mine
Reclamation (a sister bureau within the
Department, which Steve was partially
responsible for creating). In Reclamation Steve
continued with the development of several
programs he had begun at the FGS, namely the
Non-Mandatory Reclamation program and
technical support for other mining reclamation
programs that continue today. After Steve retired
he continued to enjoy his life long passion of
golfing by working part-time at the Florida State
University Golf Course. He also later worked on
a part-time basis with the Bureau of Mine
Reclamation assisting with various technical
reviews and helping them organize their library.
Steve was a Licensed Professional Geologist in

Steve is remembered as a dedicated and hard
working member of the FGS team. Over the
years he spent many extra hours responding to
late hour requests from legislative committees
and other department budget staff. The public
and the conservation of our natural resources in
Florida are clearly better off because of Steve's
efforts over his long career. His wife Martha,
and two children, Stevie and Carol survive Steve.
He is missed by all who knew him.



During FY99/00 and FY00/01, funding was from the Grants and Donations Trust Fund (G&DTF), and the
Minerals Trust Fund (MTF). The summary is as follows:

FY 99/00
Salaries and Benefits $20,927 $1,592,369 $1,613,296
Other Personal Services 469,207 14,326 483,533
Expenses 875,135 308,979 1,184,114
Operating Capital Outlay 30,000 151,147 181,147
Total $1,395,269 $2,066,821 $3,462,090

FY 00/01
Salaries and Benefits $ 0 $1,826,697 $1,826,697
Other Personal Services 479,207 14,326 493,533
Expenses 800,135 309,335 1,109,470
Operating Capital Outlay 60,000 133,425 193,425
Total $1,339,342 $2,283,783 $3,623,125

Agency FY99/00 FY00/01
Association of American State Geologists X X
Continental Shelf Associates X X
Florida Department of Environmental Protection X X
Northwest Florida Water Management District X X
St. Johns River Water Management District X X
South Florida Water Management District X X
Southwest Florida Water Management District X X
U. S. Geological Survey X X
U. S. Minerals Management Service X X



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