Biennial report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher:
The Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date:
Frequency:
biennial
regular
Edition:
1997-1998[20th report]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltuf - AJG7269
oclc - 22342552
alephbibnum - 001754280
lccn - sn 90001622
issn - 1052-6536
System ID:
UF00000224:00007

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
    FGS organization
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    FGS programs
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Cooperative programs
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Publications
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Presentations by staff to professional groups
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Additional professional activities
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Personnel information
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Awards
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    FGS budget summary
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Back Cover
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text


















'I


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Biennial Report 20

1997-1998


QE
99
.A22
20
1997/1998








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AT A GLANCE


Florida Geological Survey
903 W. Tennessee Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
(850) 488-9380 FAX: (850) 488-8086
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geo
The Florida Geological Survey is a bureau within the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Technical
Services.

Mission
The mission of the FGS is two-fold: First, to collect, interpret,
disseminate, store and maintain geologic data, thereby
contributing to the responsible use and understanding of
Florida's natural resources; and second, to conserve the State of
Florida's oil and gas resources and minimize environmental
impacts from exploration and production operations.

History
The Office of State Engineer and Geologist was created by the
state legislature in 1852. "General" Francis L. Dancy, an
engineer, occupied this position until 1855, when it was
abolished. In 1880, Alabama State Geologist Eugene Smith
noted the presence of phosphoric acid in a sample of Florida
building stone This discovery of potential commercial
phosphate commodities m Florida lead to the establishment in
1886 of a new State Geologist position. Dr. John Kost, a
medical doctor, was appointed to the post by then governor E.A.
Perry The position was again abolished by the legislature a
year later. For the following two decades geological
explorations in the state were conducted by the USGS and
pnvate companies. Legislative action to create a permanent
Flonda Geological Survey was finally proposed in 1903 and
passed in 1907. The Survey began in 1907 with Dr. Elias
Sellards as its first State Geologist. It was housed in an unused
committee room of the old Capitol building, left vacant by the
recently adjourned legislature. The Survey subsequently
occupied four other locations around Tallahassee before moving
into its current offices on the Florida State University campus.
Today the FGS is the state's primary earth system research and
data collection agency, providing information to other agencies,
academic researchers, planners, and the citizens of Florida.

Services
* Provide information about Florida geology
* Publish, sell, and distribute geologic maps and reports
* Maintain geology databases and files
* Maintain geology library
* Maintain rock cuttings and core repository
* Map and describe bedrock and surficial geology
and mineral resources
* Maintain oil and gas drilling records
* Issue oil drilling permits and inspect oil wells


On the Cover:
Wakulla Springs Earth Science Fair, October 10, 1998. Top:
FGS GEOLAB; Bottom: FGS Auger Rig. Photos by Walt
Schmidt.


Personnel
State Geologist and Chief (850) 488-4191
Walter Schmidt, Ph.D., PG.

Administration (850) 488-4191
Sandra Ray, Administrative Assistant
Cindy Collier, Administrative Secretary
Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Library and Publications Orders (850) 488-9380
Deborah Mekeel, Librarian

Geologic Investigations Section (850) 488-9380
Thomas M. Scott, Ph.D., PG, Assistant State Geologist
LaMarr Mitchell, Secretary Specialist
Northwest Florida and Suwannee River Districts-
Frank R. Rupert, PG
St. Johns River District- Paulette A. Bond, PG
South Florida District- Joel G. Duncan, Ph.D., PG.
Southwest Florida District- Jonathan D. Arthur, Ph.D., PG.
Drilling Program- Kenneth M. Campbell, PG
Coastal Engineering Geology- James Balsillie, PG
Geologic Mapping & Stratigraphy- Rick Green, PG

Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section
(850) 488-9380
Jacqueline Lloyd, PG, Assistant State Geologist
Economic Minerals- Steven M. Spencer, PG
Environmental and Karst Geology- B. Edward Lane, PG
Hydrogeology- Rodney S. DeHan, Ph.D.
Coastal Research Group-
Ronald Hoenstine, Ph.D., PG, Manager
Henry Freedenberg, PG, Geologist
James Ladner, PG, Geologist

Oil and Gas Section (850) 487-2219
L. David Curry, PG, Administrator
Tallahassee Office
Edward Garrett, PG, Geologist
Don Hargrove, Engineer
James LeBar, PE, Engineer
Carolyn Stringer, Special Projects Manager
Ft. Myers Field Office (813) 338-2362
Robert Caughey, PG, District Coordinator
Paul Attwood, PG, Petroleum Geologist
Jay Field Office (850) 675-6558
Edward Gambrell, District Coordinator
Evelyn Jordan, Secretary Specialist


GIS and Graphics Development
Amy Graves, GIS Analyst
Paula Poison, CAD Analyst


(850) 488-9380


Technical Staff (850) 488-9380
Ace Fairley, Network Administrator
Jim Trindell, Driller
Milton Schouest, Driller's Assistant
Ted Kiper, Marine Captain
Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic
Debra Harrington, Lab Technician
Frank Rush, Lab Technician










STATE OF FLORIDA


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
David B. Struhs, Secretary


DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL SERVICES


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief


BIENNIAL REPORT 20
1997-1998

By

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, P.G. #74







Tallahassee, Florida
1999

ISSN 1052-6536





UNIVERSITY O FLo-nDA BRARIE








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
April 1999







Governor Jeb Bush
Florida Department if Environmental Protection
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Dear Governor Bush:

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Administration and Technical
Services, Department of Environmental Protection, is publishing Biennial Report 20, 1997-
1998, prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of
the FGS staff during this two-year period. Research results are reported in the Survey's
various publication series, professional journals, presentations, and contract deliverables.
Reports for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other
activities of the FGS.

Respectfully yours,






Walt Schmidt, Ph.D., P.G.
State Geologist and Chief









TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

Fo re w o rd ........ .......................................................................................................... ............ 1
Intro d u ctio n ................................................................. ................................ .............. ..... .. 4
FGS Organization ................................. ................................................................. .............. 4
Administration and Office of the State Geologist ........................................... ............ 4
Geological Investigations Section ...... .......... ...................... .......... .. 6
Mineral Resources Investigations and Environmental Geology Section ............................... 7
Coastal Research Group ................................................................................ 8
Oil and Gas Section................................................................... .................................. 9
Drilling and Production ............................................................................... 10
Geophysical Exploration.............................................................................. 10
Field Developments...................................................... ................................. 10
Offshore Activity ..................................................................................... 10
FG S Program s ................................................................................................................... 10
D killing Prog ram ......... ............................................... ............................. ............. ...... 1 1
Research Library ........................................................................ .............................. 11
Library Services ................................................................... .................. 11
Library Computer Services ........................................................................... 12
Publications Distribution .............................................................................. 12
Special Projects ...................................................... ................................... 12
Special Collections ................................................. ....... ................... ............ 12
Geologic Sample Collections ................................................................................... 13
D ata Files .............................................................................................................. 13
Computer Systems ........................................................................................... 14
Public Education Initiatives ..................................................................................... 14
Earth Systems: the Foundation of Florida's Ecosystems.......................... .......... 14
SE Maps..................................... ............................................................... 15
Earth Science Week ...................................................................... ........... 15
FGS GEOLAB ................................................................................................. 15
Student Assistantship Program................................................................................... 16
Continuing Education ............................................................................................. 16
C cooperative Program s ............................................................................................................ 17
The Hydrogeology Consortium................................................................................. 17
Florida Department of Environmental Protection......................................................... 17
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study.......................................... 17
Ambient Ground Water Monitoring Program ....................................................... 18
Division of Recreation and Parks State Geological Sites....................................... 19
Florida Department of Community Affairs ................................................................. 19
Sinkhole Database Cooperation .................................................................... 19
Florida Department of State, Florida State Archives ....................................... ............ 19
Digital Archiving of the FGS Historic Photo Collection ......................................... 19
Florida Board of Professional Geologists.................................................................... 20
U.S. Geological Survey ................................................................................................ 20
A Geological Assessment of the Florida Big Bend Coastal Wetlands....................... 20
Groundwater Flow to Biscayne Bay................................................................... 20
Florida Bay Ecosystem History...................................................................... 21
The Hydrogeology of the Surficial Aquifer System in Collier County, Florida............ 21
Surficial and bedrock geology of the 1:100,000 Sarasota and Arcadia
Q uad rang les................................................................. ....................... 2 1
Geochemical Sampling Program................................................................ .. 22








Geochemical Database Compilation............................................................... 22
Mineral Resource Data System Update for the State of Florida ............................ 22
U.S. Minerals Management Service.......................................................................... 23
A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area Along Florida's Central East
C o ast ................................................................................ .............. .. 2 3
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, U.S. Geological Survey, FSU Department of Oceanography ................ 23
Hydrogeology of St. Joseph Bay................................................................... 23
Northwest Florida Water Management District........................................................... 24
Suwannee River Water Management District................................................................. 24
Well Description Program............................................................................. 24
St. Johns River Water Management District .................................................................. 24
Guidebook to the Correlation Criteria for Geophysical Well Logs .......................... 24
South Florida Water Management District ................................................................... 25
Southwest Florida Water Management District ............................................ ........ ... 25
Geologic Cross Sections ............................................................................. 25
Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project ............................ 25
University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History ............................................. ... 26
FGS Vertebrate and Macro-invertebrate Collections............................. ........... 26
P u b licatio n s .................................................................................. ...................... ............. 2 6
FGS Publications...................................................................................................... 26
Biennial Report ........................................................................................... 26
Florida Geology Forum................................................................................. 26
Information Circular .................................................................................... 27
M ap S eries.... ...................................................................... .............................. 2 7
Open File Maps ............................................................................................ 28
Open File Reports ....................................................................................... 29
Report of Investigation ................................................................................ 30
Special Publication ................................................................. ...... ....... .......... 31
Papers by Staff in Outside Publications..................................................................... 32
Presentations by Staff to Professional Groups............. ............................................................. 46
Additional Professional Activities......................................................................................... 51
Symposia Attended................................................................................................ 51
Meetings, Conferences, Workshops, and Training Attended ............................................. 52
Field Trips Conducted ................................................................................................ 55
FGS Booths and Displays......................................................................................... .. 55
Personnel Inform action ............................................................................................................ 56
Personnel Changes................................................................................................. 56
FGS Staff Information ............................................................................................ 57
Permanent Full-time Staff ................................................. ....................... 57
Temporary Part-time Staff............................................................................ 62
Research Assistants....................................................................... 62
Research Associates ..................................................... ................. 64
Outside Research Associates .......................................................... 64
Awards.............................................................................................. 64
FGS Budget Summary ........................................................................................................ 67











iv






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


FOREWORD
by Walt Schmidt,
State Geologist and Chief


IP~~.- -

Walt Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief

1997 and 1998 were extremely
successful and active years for the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS). The Survey
continues as a Bureau within the
Department of Environmental Protection
(DEP), assigned to the Division of Technical
Services. Mr. Nevin Smith, DEP's Executive
Services Director, who the State Geologist
reported directly to, resigned during this
biennium. This position was not replaced
by the Department, resulting in the FGS
being directly under the DEP Secretary.

In early 1997, the FGS participated
in the multi-agency activity directed at
restoring the Everglades watershed and the
Florida Bay. This ecosystem has received a
great amount of attention from several
Federal, State, and local agencies, as well
as conservation groups and the public at
large. Initial efforts were directed at "re-
engineering" the surface drainage to
address system changes resulting from


urbanization, agriculture, and various water
impoundments and channelization projects
that were built over the years. The FGS, in
cooperation with several partners, had
begun a stratigraphic core drilling program
in the region about 20 years ago to gather
information on general subsurface
stratigraphy, hydrogeologic aquifer data,
and overall historical geology. Much work
still needs to be done. However, the
consensus of other agencies is that
subsurface/surface water interaction is not
a significant component of the water
budget in the area, and as a result, the FGS
core drilling proposal to map the aquifers
has not been supported. We have also
cooperated with various researchers in
collecting data to study the recent history
of Florida Bay. This has included
geochemical, paleontological, lithostrati-
graphic, and hydrogeologic interpretations.

Also in 1997, the Florida
Legislature passed a bill that became
Florida Law 97-49. That law requires the
DEP to recommend a reasonable surety to
the Administration Commission for all oil
and gas drilling applications in coastal
waters. The amount is to be based on
projected cleanup costs and natural
resources damages resulting from a
maximum oil spill under adverse
hydrographic and atmospheric conditions
that would tend to transport spilled oil into
environmentally sensitive areas. This law
became a significant part of a permit denial
challenge by Coastal Petroleum Co. for a
well proposed off of St. George Island in
Florida State Waters.

During 1997, the U.S. Congress
reauthorized the National Cooperative
Geologic Mapping Act. As President of the
Association of American State Geologists
(AASG), Florida State Geologist Dr. Walt
Schmidt provided testimony to
Congressional Committees in support of the
passage. Dr. Schmidt also met with
numerous members of Congress to discuss
the benefits of detailed geologic mapping
for the public. On March 18, 1998, the
AASG hosted a reception at the Rayburn
House Office Building in Washington, DC to
display the STATEMAP products resulting






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


from the program. Florida was represented
by Dr. Schmidt. He displayed the USGS
1:100,000 Sarasota Quadrangle geologic
map, with accompanying text and cross-
sections prepared by FGS professional
staff. The FGS has been successful in
winning grants from the STATEMAP
component of this acts' funding each year.

During 1997, the Oil and Gas
Section initiated an agreement with the
DEP's Bureau of Submerged Lands and
Environmental Resources to allow seismic
companies to submit a single Oil and Gas
Geophysical Permit application to conduct
seismic surveys. Staff assessment of the
high level of departmental presence
maintained during seismic surveys
determined that one permit could address
the needs of both permitting programs.
The applicants will be spared the time,
effort, cost, and confusion of working with
multiple agencies to obtain dual permits.

Also during 1997, the FGS entered
into a cooperative agreement with the
Geologic Division of the USGS to conduct a
systematic statewide geochemical survey
of both stream and upland sediment
samples. This project represented a never
before done effort to compile a statewide
geochemical database of the solid-earth
framework. Approximately 1,500 sampling
cells, measuring 10 x 10 kilometers were
established. Information gained from this
study will be useful for a variety of
applications including: evaluating the role
played by natural geochemical processes in
producing anomalies observed in the
ambient groundwater monitoring data;
determining aquifer vulnerability; providing
pre-development and land-use specific
baseline information; analyzing the effects
of sediment chemistry on surface water
quality; and identifying areas with potential
mineral resources through trend analysis.

In 1998, several events again
provided opportunity for the FGS to be
recognized. After nearly a decade of data
collection, the revised State Geologic Map
was released for peer review and presented
at several professional forums for feedback.
In conjunction with this new product, a


revised State Geormorphic Map is also
being completed. Both of these maps will
be published at a 1:750,000 scale with
text, as well as being incorporated into the
DEP GIS data library as digital products.

In a continuing effort to make our
data and information more available to the
public and interested researchers, the FGS
worked with the Florida State Archives
(under the Florida Department of State) to
scan the historical photograph collection of
the FGS. This project provides two great
benefits. First, it helps preserve this
valuable collection. Staff at the Archives
photo lab created a safety negative of each
image, which is on file at their offices.
Second, the collection becomes more
accessible to various researchers. Due to
the fragility of the originals, the collection
has not been able to be used to its fullest
potential in the past. The collection can
now be searched and browsed from the
desktop, and images easily downloaded.
The Archives also has the facilities to
produce copies for those needing an
original print instead of a downloaded
image.

During this biennium, the geology
educational video project prepared by the
FGS, titled: Florida's Geology Unearthed
was recognized for its achievement. The
video project received the 1997 Governor's
Environmental Education Award in the
Communications category, it received the
"Award of Distinction" from the National
Communicator Awards program, and in
1998 it was recognized as a finalist in the
International Non-Broadcast Media Awards
program of the New York Festivals.

The FGS also was a primary
instigator in the creation of the
Hydrogeology Consortium during this two
year period. This group of scientists was
established to cooperatively provide
scientific knowledge applicable to
groundwater resource management and
protection. Members of the consortium
include scientists from the USGS, FGS,
DEP, all five water management districts,
several universities and colleges, and
several private consultants.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


In October of 1998, the first Earth
Science Week was held. The American
Geological Institute coordinated activities
throughout the country. In Florida,
Governor Chiles signed a proclamation
designating October 11 17, 1998, as
"Earth Science Week in Florida." As a kick-
off to Earth Science Week the FGS, in
conjunction with some other agencies,
sponsored three events to inform and
educate the public and various
professionals of the importance of
understanding Florida's geology and its
dynamic earth systems. On Friday,
October 9th, at the Florida State
University Turnbull Conference Center, the
Wakulla Springs Karst Plain Symposium
was held. During this meeting 35 papers
were presented on many aspects of the
areas groundwater, surface water,
stratigraphy, historical geology, land-use,
conservation practices, archeology,
biology, botany, and other ecosystem
indicators. On Saturday, October 10th at
Wakulla Springs State Park we held a
"Wakulla Springs Earth Science Fair." The
fair attracted over 1,200 visitors to view
the many exhibits and participate in field
trips to karst features of the coastal plain
south of Tallahassee. The FGS had
numerous exhibits displayed including: six
poster display boards with numerous
projects described, our auger rig set up for
hollow stem core recovery, and our newly
outfitted and refurbished "GEOLAB" (an
aluminum step-van, designed for fieldwork
and educational display see the cover
photo). On Monday, October 12th the FGS
held an Open House at the Herman Gunter
Building, our headquarters in Tallahassee.
These three activities were well received
and provided visibility and increased
awareness for geosciences in Florida.
Earth Science Week is planned as an
annual event, the second full week of
October henceforth.

After years of promoting and
communicating our needs to the
Department, the FGS in 1998 received a
significant budget enhancement from the
Florida Legislature. The DEP deserves
much credit in supporting our request to
the Legislature and in recognizing the


geoscience needs of the state. We
received substantial funding to replace
worn-out vehicles, to repair and maintain
the Gunter Building, to replace and acquire
expensive lab, computer, and field
equipment, and we received five new
positions. The new positions have been
utilized to add support staff to our team.
We added a marine captain, a marine
mechanic, two GIS / CAD professionals,
and one laboratory technician. Also during
this biennium, we acquired two research
vessels through innovative cooperative
agreements with our research partners.
These include the 40- foot RV GeoSearch,
and the 50-foot RV GeoQuest. Our
Coastal Research Group is the fastest
growing program within the FGS, reflecting
the significance of Florida's coastal zone to
our state's environment and associated
economic engine. Our overall outside
contracts and grants from numerous
cooperators has now grown to over
$700,000 per year.

Finally, also in 1998, the FGS,
working with the Florida Department of
Community Affairs, placed on their web
site the Florida Geological Survey's sinkhole
reporting form. This convenient internet
access, now allows each county
emergency coordinator, as well as any
member of the public to submit recent
sinkhole activity to the FGS sinkhole
database.

Many other FGS projects, reports,
publications, and other activities are
reported on in the following pages. The
extended services of the FGS, and the
overall usefulness of our information seems
endless. We have tried to capture the wide
depth and breadth of our involvement in
supporting the wise use and understanding
of Florida's natural resources.
Walt Schmidt
Florida State Geologist






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
is located on the campus of the Florida State
University (FSU) in the Herman W. Gunter
Building, adjacent to the university's
Geology Department. The FGS has a staff
of 67: 38 full-time, permanent and 29 part-
time, temporary employees.


FGS Offices, Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL
(photo by Tom Scott).

Research facilities at the FGS include
a geological research library, a sample
repository, and laboratories. The library
contains an extensive collection of state and
federal publications, periodicals, and
references. The sample repository holds
cores and well cutting samples from more
than 17,800 wells (both onshore and
offshore), as well as samples from
approximately 5,100 outcrops. Laboratory
facilities include a permeability lab equipped
with 44 falling-head permeameters; a
sedimentology lab containing diamond-blade
rock-saws, drill press corer, and core saw
for core processing, Ro-Taps, ovens, and
balances; sample preparation equipment for
clay mineralogy, organic/carbonate content
and micro/nannofossil studies; and an alpha
spectrometer. Field equipment includes a
trailer-mounted auger rig, a Failing 1500 drill
rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted
Mobile Drill Rig with wire-line coring
capability, various pickup trucks and four-
wheel drive vehicles, and two research
vessels and five smaller boats used in
coastal research projects. In addition, the
FGS acquired its "GEOLAB" in 1998. The
GEOLAB is an aluminum step-van that has
been outfitted for mobile field and simple
laboratory work and can also be used for


educational demonstrations at environmental
fairs and schools.

The FGS also has cooperative
agreements with FSU's Geology Department
to use an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray
fluorescence spectrometer, and an atomic
absorption spectrometer.

FGS ORGANIZATION


ADMINISTRATION AND OFFICE OF THE
STATE GEOLOGIST
The FGS is comprised of three
sections which are administered by the
Office of the State Geologist. The sections
include: the Geological Investigations
Section, the Mineral Resource
Investigations. and Environmental Geology
Section, and the Oil & Gas Section. Each of
these sections is managed by a Section
Administrator.

The Survey's Administrative office
includes the State Geologist, his
Administrative Secretary, an Administrative
Assistant, the building Custodian, and the
Survey Librarian. Primary responsibilities of
the section includes the historical functions
of the State Geologist in being the chief
geoscientist for the State in various
capacities and needs, and overseeing the
overall production and quality of the
geological research produced by the staff.
Ultimate responsibility for implementation
for the oil and gas exploration and
production regulations are also part of the
job obligations of the State Geologist. In
addition, all administrative (budget,
Department interagency liaison, etc.) and
personnel (travel, leave approvals, benefits,
etc.) functions are also handled through
this office, as are contract and grant
tracking, maintenance and repair of the
Gunter Building, and coordination of the
FGS Oil and Gas field offices. Numerous
special projects are also coordinated or
carried out by this section.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
is located on the campus of the Florida State
University (FSU) in the Herman W. Gunter
Building, adjacent to the university's
Geology Department. The FGS has a staff
of 67: 38 full-time, permanent and 29 part-
time, temporary employees.


FGS Offices, Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL
(photo by Tom Scott).

Research facilities at the FGS include
a geological research library, a sample
repository, and laboratories. The library
contains an extensive collection of state and
federal publications, periodicals, and
references. The sample repository holds
cores and well cutting samples from more
than 17,800 wells (both onshore and
offshore), as well as samples from
approximately 5,100 outcrops. Laboratory
facilities include a permeability lab equipped
with 44 falling-head permeameters; a
sedimentology lab containing diamond-blade
rock-saws, drill press corer, and core saw
for core processing, Ro-Taps, ovens, and
balances; sample preparation equipment for
clay mineralogy, organic/carbonate content
and micro/nannofossil studies; and an alpha
spectrometer. Field equipment includes a
trailer-mounted auger rig, a Failing 1500 drill
rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted
Mobile Drill Rig with wire-line coring
capability, various pickup trucks and four-
wheel drive vehicles, and two research
vessels and five smaller boats used in
coastal research projects. In addition, the
FGS acquired its "GEOLAB" in 1998. The
GEOLAB is an aluminum step-van that has
been outfitted for mobile field and simple
laboratory work and can also be used for


educational demonstrations at environmental
fairs and schools.

The FGS also has cooperative
agreements with FSU's Geology Department
to use an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray
fluorescence spectrometer, and an atomic
absorption spectrometer.

FGS ORGANIZATION


ADMINISTRATION AND OFFICE OF THE
STATE GEOLOGIST
The FGS is comprised of three
sections which are administered by the
Office of the State Geologist. The sections
include: the Geological Investigations
Section, the Mineral Resource
Investigations. and Environmental Geology
Section, and the Oil & Gas Section. Each of
these sections is managed by a Section
Administrator.

The Survey's Administrative office
includes the State Geologist, his
Administrative Secretary, an Administrative
Assistant, the building Custodian, and the
Survey Librarian. Primary responsibilities of
the section includes the historical functions
of the State Geologist in being the chief
geoscientist for the State in various
capacities and needs, and overseeing the
overall production and quality of the
geological research produced by the staff.
Ultimate responsibility for implementation
for the oil and gas exploration and
production regulations are also part of the
job obligations of the State Geologist. In
addition, all administrative (budget,
Department interagency liaison, etc.) and
personnel (travel, leave approvals, benefits,
etc.) functions are also handled through
this office, as are contract and grant
tracking, maintenance and repair of the
Gunter Building, and coordination of the
FGS Oil and Gas field offices. Numerous
special projects are also coordinated or
carried out by this section.








BIENNIAL REPORT 20


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
(AS OF DECEMBER 1998)


Oil & Gas


Field Office

Dist Coord.
(Caughey)

Geologist
(Attwood)

Secretary
(Vacant)


Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology
Section






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


---


Pleistocene Anastasia Formation beachrock at House of Refuge, Martin
Coujnfr (nt n h, tb roan Brninrn r\


GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

The Geological Investigations
Section research projects cover a wide
range of topics from both onshore and
offshore regions. A continuing effort to
compile new state geologic and geomorphic
maps is nearing completion. The geologic
map depicts geological unit distribution
throughout the state providing important
data for the environmental-decision making
process. This map provides first
approximation solutions to many
environmental and resource management
related problems. The geomorphic map
delineates landform distribution throughout
the state and aids in understanding the
processes that developed the state's land
surface. The two maps are powerful tools
utilized in delineating and understanding
issues related to groundwater, waste
disposal, geological hazards and mineral
resources. Both of these map products will
become part of the Department's GIS
database.

Geological Investigations Section
scientists are involved in numerous basic
and applied research projects designed to
obtain geological data to assist in growth
planning, resource management, and earth


systems understanding.
The Plio-Pleistocene
sediments of southern
Florida, that form
important aquifers, are
being investigated and
mapped in cooperation
with the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS). Staff
geologists are collabor-
ting with the USGS on
an ongoing investigation
of Florida Bay, a
sensitive ecosystem that
has changed signifi-
cantly due to man's
influence. An investiga-
tion of the geologic
history of the deep
subsurface Paleozoic


and Mesozoic sediments
of northern peninsula Florida is underway in
order to better understand the potential
petroleum source and reservoir rocks.
Ongoing cooperative research with the
State's water management districts is
delineating aquifer and lithostratigraphic
units. Other investigations include water-
rock interactions during aquifer storage and
recovery activities, research on the state's
extensive caves, and mapping funded
through the National Cooperative Geologic
Mapping Act (STATEMAP). The Geologic
Investigations Section staff also provides
needed data and expertise to the Coastal
Research Group and the Environmental
Geology and Mineral Resources Section.

The section also consults with other
government agencies because the
knowledge of regional and local geology of a
given area is fundamental in the evaluation
of numerous environmental problems. The
Geological Investigations Section responds
to inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and
contamination, geologic hazards, geologic
mapping, Florida's geologic history. and
problems related to community planning and
development. The group prepares detailed
lithologic logs for wells that are on file at the
FGS. This information is added to the
Survey's computerized data base which
currently contains logs for approximately






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


4,650 wells. This data base and the
programs designed to manipulate it are
currently used by other governmental
agencies and a number of private firms.

MINERAL RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

Preliminary data from the USGS
indicate that Florida ranked fifth in the
nation in total nonfuel mineral production in
1998. The estimated total value increased
from $1.83 billion in 1997 to $1.96 billion
last year. Florida was the only producer of
rutile and staurolite. It remained first in the
production of phosphate rock, peat, and
ilmenite; second in masonry cement; third
in fuller's earth; fourth in crushed stone
and magnesium compounds; and seventh in
portland cement. (Personal communica-
tion, Arnie Tanner, USGS, 2-99)

The Mineral Resource Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section
maintains communication with the mineral
industry in Florida and publishes biennial
status reports related to industry activity.
The section also provides mineral resource
assessments on specific land parcels to the
Department's Division of State Lands on an
as-needed basis.

Another aspect of the group's work
with non-fuel minerals involves the
preparation of county mineral resource
maps. County mineral resource
investigations were initiated to assist
counties in the preparation of their
comprehensive land-use plans mandated by
the state legislature. They continue to be
valuable sources of information as county
planners periodically revise the
comprehensive plans. The goal of these
studies is to identify potential mineral
resource areas and present the results in a
format appropriate for use by Florida's
planning community.. The major mineral
commodities are mapped as a guide to
resource location. The reports discuss the
county's geology and geomorphology, as
well as specific mineral commodities,
accompanied by maps and geologic cross-
sections depicting the near-surface


sediments. Reports for Escambia and
Jackson Counties are the latest to be
compiled.

Nearly 650 new residents move to
Florida each day. This phenomenal
population growth stresses the state's
environment and its resources. Geologic
information is essential for environmentally
responsible land-use planning and resource
and ecosystem management. Recognizing
this, the section began a series of special
environmental reports that target specific
rapidly-growing urban areas. These reports
integrate cultural, climatological, geological,
and hydrological data to illustrate the
importance geology plays in land-use
planning. Graphics are used to present data
and geologic concepts in a format that can
be readily used by the lay-public, scientists,
and planners.

The first two reports in this series
cover the cities of Ocala and Gainesville. A
third report on the Pensacola area is in
preparation. Environmental geology and
hydrology are discussed, emphasizing topics
relating to water resources. The hydrologic
cycle, karst geology, surface water, and the
underlying aquifer systems are analyzed in
detail, establishing the relationships among
them. Recommendations for protection of
these resources through appropriate land-use
planning are also presented.

The section is also involved at the
national, state, and local level with
groundwater quality issues, policies, and
research projects. This involvement is
primarily through the section's Senior
Research Scientist, Rodney DeHan. During
the 1997/98 biennium, Dr. DeHan: 1)
chaired the committee that planned and
published the proceedings for the National
Water Quality Monitoring Conference (Reno,
NV, July 1998); 2) was elected chair of the
Ground Water Focus Group of the National
Monitoring Council and developed a two-
year work plan for that group and will
supervise and participate in the
implementation of the plan; 3) was elected
co-chair of the Underground Injection
Practices Research Foundation, a research
and development arm of the National






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ground Water Protection Council; 4) was
invited to participate on a panel to review
the USGS NAWQA project, Water Quality in
the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plan, 1992-
1996; 5) represents the southeastern states
on the national committee which is drafting
a report to Congress on the status of
groundwater quality and availability in the
United States; and 6) participated in
founding and co-chairing the Hydrogeology
Consortium, a Florida-based team of
scientists interested in modeling
groundwater flow in karst settings. In
1998, the Consortium held its first meeting
in Live Oak, Florida. Dr. DeHan is currently
studying the interaction between ground and
surface water in a coastal watershed (St.
Joseph Bay) with the objective of
quantifying the effect of the interaction on
the long term health and sustainability of the
watershed. He is also organizing an effort
to develop a fact sheet on the role of the
geologic framework in determining the
health of ecosystems.

Over the years, the FGS has
recognized the need for a geologic
educational and public outreach program.
Although all members of the FGS
professional staff participate in this
program, it is coordinated through this
section. Outreach activities include lectures
and presentations to school groups at all
levels and civic and professional
organizations, participating in science fair
judging and school mentoring programs, and
publication of educational materials.
Specific educational projects are described in
the Public Education Initiatives section of
this publication.

After the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute lost its funding support, its
computer database and archive files were
returned to the FGS. This section has done
extensive reformatting and updating of the
data, in order to make it available to the
public and private sectors. Currently, the
data is stored in Microsoft Excel and can be
obtained by contacting the FGS Library. The
FGS and Department of Community Affairs
(DCA) coordinated efforts to place the
sinkhole reporting form on the DCA Web site
(http://www.state.fl.us/comaff/DEM/BPR/EM


TOOLS/sinkrpt.htm). An index to the
sinkhole database was published in 1994
and will be updated periodically. In addition,
the section handles requests for sinkhole
data and coordinates requests for individual
sinkhole inspections.

COASTAL RESEARCH GROUP

In 1991, the FGS organized an
informal Coastal Research Group (CRG)
within the Mineral Resource Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. The
Coastal Research Group is committed to
continuing fundamental research to improve
our understanding of Florida's coastal
ecosystems and processes. This research
will provide information that is essential for
planning, ecosystem management,
conservation, and protection of Florida's
valuable coastal resources.


The CRG's
projects continued to
and 1998. At present,
FGS staff consists


responsibilities and
expand during 1997
the research group's
of four licensed


Professional Geologists and one Senior
Research Scientist who serve as principal
investigators: Dr. Ron Hoenstine, Jim
Balsillie, Dr. Rodney Dehan, Henry
Freedenberg, and Jim Ladner. The principal
investigators have 119 years combined
experience in Florida geology, coastal
processes, and marine ecosystems.
Additionally, two new full time positions
(Marine Captain I, Ted Kiper, and Marine
Mechanic, Wade Stringer) were added by
the Florida legislature in 1998. Other
contributing FGS staff include geologists
Jacqueline Lloyd, Ed Lane, Steve Spencer,
and Ken Campbell.

In addition, the CRG staff
collaborates with Dr. Joe Donoghue, a
professor of coastal processes/marine
geology in FSU's Geology Department. The
Geology Department provides access to field
sampling equipment and analytical
instrumentation for sedimentology and
geochemistry. The collaboration between
the CRG and FSU provides opportunities for
directed graduate research studies funded
through employment on the CRG research
grants. Five graduate students from FSU's






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Geology Department and one from FSU's
Oceanography Department are currently
employed as research assistants on various
CRG coastal projects. The CRG has
cooperated similarly with the University of
Florida, the University of South Florida, the
Florida Institute of Technology, and the
Florida Institute of Oceanography.


The FGS Coastal Research Group Research Vessel, the RV


GeoSearch (photo by Ted Kiper).


Boats in the CRG inventory include a
13.5-foot Boston Whaler, and a 24-foot
Carolina Skiff with a power winch for
shallow water sediment sampling. For
deeper water and heavy-duty sediment
sampling the CRG uses the FGS RV
GeoQuest, a 50-foot research vessel with
diesel powered twin 8V71 Detroit engines.
This boat has a 4-ton-capacity hydraulic
winch, significant storage space, berthing,
and a cabin specifically designed for
conducting seismic and sidescan
investigations. The FGS also has the 39-foot
RV GeoSearch powered by twin VT6 turbo
charged Cummins diesels. This research
vessel has berthing for four and is designed
for extended operations.

FGS/CRG field equipment includes
the following portable instruments:

1. A global positioning system (GPS) with
real-time differential (Starlink MRB-2A
radiobeacon receiver) for site location,
station keeping, and station recovery.
2. Several Remote Water Quality Loggers
for on-site measurement of salinity,


temperature, depth, pH, conductivity,
and turbidity.
3. A Go-Devil outboard motor designed to
traverse shallow marsh and estuarine
systems.
4. An electric, portable, vibracore system.
5. A receiver for FGS's Geopulse seismic
profiler.
6. A recorder for FGS's
Geopulse seismic profiler.
7. A video camera to provide
a visual record of on-site
data.
8. A computer graphics plotter
(for digital graphics input,
as well as publication and
presentation output).
9. A vibracorer designed for
coring in water depths up
to 160 feet.


OIL AND GAS SECTION

The Oil & Gas Section


regulates hydrocarbon explora-
tion and production within the state and
state waters pursuant to Chapter 377,
Florida Statutes and implementing Rules
62C-25 through 62C-30, Florida Admini-
strative Code. The Section's primary
responsibilities are conservation of oil and
gas resources, correlative rights protection,
maintenance of health and human safety,
and environmental protection. These
concerns are addressed when permit
applications are reviewed and permit
conditions are enforced by field inspection.
The Section's main office is located in
Tallahassee and field offices are located
near producing fields in northwest (Jay)
and southwest (Ft. Myers) Florida. Six
fields are productive from the Lower
Cretaceous Sunniland Formation in
southwest Florida; three are productive from
the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation
and Norphlet Sandstone in the western
panhandle of Florida. The Section's key
activities include permitting geophysical,
drilling, and transport operations, inspecting
field operations, tracking activities by the
use of production and other reporting
forms, enforcing financial security
requirements, and maintaining a database






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of approximately 1,300 wells and 160
geophysical surveys.

DRILLING AND PRODUCTION

Florida's oil and gas operators
embraced horizontal drilling during the
1997-98 period. In 1997, Calumet Florida,
Inc., a division of Houston-based Plains
Resources, was issued five drilling permits
for horizontal completions in Southwest
Florida's Sunniland Trend. No other Florida
operators applied for drilling permits in
1997. Applications for three drilling
permits were submitted during 1998 for
horizontal recompletions of existing
producing wells in Sunniland Trend fields.

Six wells were drilled during 1997-
98, and five Operating Permits, which
allow each well to be produced for five
years, were issued. No new drilling was
conducted in the panhandle's Jay Trend,
but Exxon's Jay Field continued to
dominate state production with 59% of the
state's total oil and 86% of the gas. Jay
Field has now produced approximately 400
million barrels of oil.

GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

Two geophysical permits were
issued in 1997, none in 1998. Calumet
was granted a 3-D seismic permit in
southwest Florida and at the end of 1998
was preparing to begin field work. Coastal
Petroleum Company was granted a permit
for a gravity and magnetic survey in the
Gulf of Mexico, but did not act on the
permit before it expired.

FIELD DEVELOPMENTS

New field rules were promulgated
for two fields. The Blackjack Creek field
rules were modified to allow for
commingling of production from the
Smackover and Norphlet formations. The
Sunoco-Felda Field was reunitized by new
field rules. Final plugging, abandonment,
and restoration work was completed at Mt.
Carmel and Coldwater Creek fields in
northwest Florida, and at Pepper Hammock
field in southwest Florida. Three other


fields in southwest Florida have been shut-
in indefinitely. Townsend Canal Field is
likely to be plugged and abandoned.
Sunniland and Sunoco Felda Fields may be
candidates for horizontal workovers if crude
oil prices rebound soon.

OFFSHORE ACTIVITY

In 1997 the State of Florida
imposed a $4.3 billion bond requirement on
a pending offshore drilling permit
application submitted by Coastal Petroleum
Company in 1992. Although the company
responded with a court challenge, the
application was ultimately denied in 1998.
The company submitted 12 applications in
1997 for drilling on their state leases off
the Gulf coast. Although these incomplete
applications were subsequently denied,
Coastal has appealed these denials. At the
close of 1998, Coastal had submitted four
additional incomplete applications for
drilling south of St. George and Dog
Islands.

Chevron submitted plans to state
and federal agencies in 1997 for producing
Norphlet sour gas in the Destin Dome area
in federal waters south of Pensacola. In
1998 Chevron's production permit
application was suspended by at least one
year while an environmental assessment is
completed and federal agencies consider
Florida's assertion that Chevron's plans are
inconsistent with the state's Coastal Zone
Management Plan. Chevron expects to
produce up to 300 million cubic feet per
day from 21 wells operating from 15
platforms for 20 years.

FGS PROGRAMS

A number of programs are critical to
the mission of the FGS. These programs
benefit Survey staff as well as other state
and federal governmental agencies,
industrial representatives, consulting groups,
academic researchers, and interested
citizens. The Survey's drilling program
acquires cores from various locations around
the state for in-house projects as well as for
cooperative projects. The Geologic Sample






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Repository contains storage space for core
and cutting samples, allowing this valuable
information to be preserved and catalogued
in a systematic fashion. Lithologic and
geophysical logs are filed for ease of
retrieval at the Gunter Building in
Tallahassee. The Survey's computer system
is used to handle the growing volume of
information associated with geological
research and oil and gas regulation.
Currently, most FGS drafting services are
handled by computer. Public education
initiatives promote an informed citizenry that
can become partners in protecting and
conserving Florida's environment and natural
resources. The FGS's research library allows
its users the advantage of computerized
database searches along with traditional
library services geared specifically to
geology. The FGS supervises an active
student assistant program in which qualified
graduate and undergraduate students assist
staff members in various on-going research
programs. Continuing education at the
Survey, while limited by budget constraints,
offers staff advanced educational
opportunities.

DRILLING PROGRAM

The FGS maintains an active
scientific drilling program. The state is
characterized by very low topographic relief
and data obtained from cores is essential to
understanding subsurface stratigraphy,
hydrogeology and hydrology.

The FGS operates a Failing 1500
rotary drill rig which is deployed on a full-
time basis and is operated by a licensed
driller and one assistant. During 1997 and
1998, 23 stratigraphic test holes were
drilled by the FGS core rig, 17 of which
were continuous cores ranging from 100 to
827 feet in depth, for a total cored length of
3100 feet. Twenty two of these holes were
converted to aquifer monitoring wells in
cooperation with the South Florida Water
Management District and the USGS.

The FGS operates a truck mounted
Mobile Drill auger/core rig which has been
outfitted for continuous shallow wireline
coring in rock or unconsolidated sediments.


Fifty-one stratigraphic test holes were drilled
in 23 counties during 1997 and 1998.
Depths of auger/core holes range from 32 to
106 feet for a total sampled depth of
approximately 3,037 feet. Thirty-one of
these holes were converted to monitor wells
as part of an ongoing cooperative
hydrogeologic aquifer assessment program
with the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection Ambient Ground
Water Quality Program, the Alachua County
Department of Environmental Protection,
and the Northwest, St. Johns River,
Southwest and South Florida Water
Management Districts.

RESEARCH LIBRARY

The FGS Research Library is an
integral part of the Survey's research and
regulatory programs. In support of the
information needs of staff, students, and
researchers from the public sector, the
library staff provides access to basic
research materials including books, maps,
state and federal documents, photographs
and periodicals. Holdings total
approximately 40,000 volumes. Materials
are collected on various aspects of geology,
including mining and mineral resources,
environmental geology, hydrogeology and
other related topics. The library has one of
the largest and oldest geologic map
collections in the state of Florida with over
16,000 maps, including a number of items
dating from the 19th century.

LIBRARY SERVICES

The library is used by the general
public, students, other government
agencies, and private consulting companies.
While circulation is restricted to Survey
staff, the personnel of other state agencies
and the FSU Geology Department, the library
is open to the general public for research. In
addition, library materials are available to
libraries throughout the United States via the
Interlibrary Loan system on a limited basis.

The library participates in a
nationwide Interlibrary Loan network through
which the staff has access to other special
and academic collections. The library






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


cooperates with other libraries through
various networking groups on the local,
state, and national level. The librarian
participates in the activities of the Panhandle
Library Access Network, and the Geoscience
Information Society.

LIBRARY COMPUTER SERVICES

The Research Library currently
subscribes to the GEOREF database on CD-
ROM. GEOREF, the CD-ROM version of the
American Geological Institute's geoscience
database, contains over two million records
covering geology from 1785 to the present.
Through the State Library of Florida, the
library also has limited access to FirstSearch,
a bibliographic information system of OCLC
(On-line Computer Library Center).

PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTION

The library is responsible for
providing detailed information on the
survey's 662 published documents and
reports, and oversees the distribution of all
documents currently in print. During 1997-
98 this included 1,898 requests for a total
of 10,343 documents. In addition to
individual requests, publications are
distributed to 250 libraries around the world,
which maintain depository collections of
Florida Geological Survey publications. FGS
Publications are requested by students,
environmental consultants, government
agencies, libraries, schools, geologists
studying for professional licensure, and the
general public.

SPECIAL PROJECTS

Beginning in 1997 and continuing
into 1998, the Library worked with the
staff from the Florida Department of State,
Florida State Archives to scan the Library's
historic photo collection, and mount it on
the Archives WWW site. That collection is
now accessible through the Archives web
site at http://www.dos.state.fl.us/fpcl.

The Library's photo collection
contains approximately 2500 images in the
form of negatives, prints, and lantern
slides. Some of the photos date back to the


early 1900's. The images in the collection
record much of the natural environment of
the state, and were taken during field trips,
mine and oil field site inspections and other
investigations since shortly after the Survey
was established in 1907. The collection
contains images of geologic formations,
fossils, mining operations, oil wells,
vegetation, beaches, and other natural
features of Florida.

The photo project proceeded with
two goals in mind. The first was the
preservation of this valuable collection.
Many of the original photos are
deteriorating due to age, and the chemical
processes involved in photography. Staff
at the Archives photo lab created safety
negatives of each image, and these will
remain on file in the Archives photo
collection.

The second goal was to make the
collection more easily accessible to
geologists, other science professionals,
avocational researchers, and the casual
browser. Due to the fragility of the
originals, the collection has not been able
to be used to its fullest potential in the
past. The collection can now be searched
or browsed from the desktop, and images
easily downloaded. The Archives also has
the facility to produce copies of the original
photos from their negatives, for those
needing an original print instead of a
downloaded image.

SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

The FGS Library houses the archives
of the Florida Sinkhole Research Institute.
This archive contains original records of field
research of sinkhole occurrences, county
maps of sinkhole locations, and copies of
publications of the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute. A listing of the field records
computer database has been published as
Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report
58, and is available through the Publications
Office. The library also maintains a copy of
the computer database of sinkhole reports,
and this is available on disk, or by ftp or e-
mail upon request.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


The Survey also houses the archives
of the National Association for Cave Diving
(NACD), Florida chapter. NACD members
have provided the Survey with underwater
cave survey maps, video tapes of several
cave conduit systems, and copies of NACD
publications. This collection is used by cave
divers and geologists to gain insight into the
cave network locations as well as the size,
shape and hydrogeology of subaqueous
caves in Florida.

GEOLOGIC SAMPLE COLLECTIONS

The FGS maintains separate
collections of well and surface outcrop
samples. The well sample collection
contains approximately 17,800 sets of
samples from stratigraphic core tests, as
well as water and oil wells. Most wells are
represented by sets of drill cuttings. Eight
hundred and seventy eight wells are
represented by continuous core or core
samples (a total of approximately 179,000
feet). New core sample sets added to the
archives were drilled by the FGS, Water
Management Districts and geologic
consultants. The sample repository facility
occupies about 9,500 square feet, with
17,655 square feet of shelf space.

A collection of approximately 5,100
outcrop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in
the Gunter Building. These samples are
cross indexed by formation, lithology,
county and location. The collection is
referred to as the "M-Series." The M-Series
is particularly valuable given Florida's high
rate of growth and development. Surface
exposures of critical lithologies have become
inaccessible with the continued proliferation
of roadways, shopping centers, parking lots
and high-rise housing. These sample
archives and the data base they represent
are utilized by geologists at the FGS, many
other state, federal and local governmental
agencies, universities (both in and out of the
state) and geological consultants.

The FGS vertebrate and macro-
invertebrate collections are now located at
and curated by the Florida Museum of
Natural History, in Gainesville, at the


University of Florida. Both collections are
searchable via the Internet. The vertebrate
collection can be found at
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/scripts/dbs/VP_FG
S_pub.asp, which is also linked to the FGS
data archive page (see computer systems
below for description of the FGS web page).
The invertebrate collection is located at
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/scripts/dbs/IPtype
_pub.asp.


DATA FILES


Samples from wells which are stored
at the FGS Sample Repository are indexed
by accession number, county, and section,
township, and range location. Lithologic
logs, drillers logs, and information sheets
which correspond to these wells are filed by
county and accession number in a series of
loose-leaf binders. Information from these
books is gradually being transferred to the
Survey's computerized data base which
currently contains data from approximately
4,650 wells.

A file of geophysical logs contains
information for approximately 4,850 wells.
Many of these wells have corresponding
lithologic samples available and are assigned
FGS accession numbers. Geophysical logs
represented include electric (normal, lateral,
SP), natural gamma, caliper, fluid resistivity
or conductivity, temperature, single point
resistivity, acoustic velocity, fluid velocity,
neutron (porosity), and gamma-gamma
(density). In addition, complete suites of
geophysical logs accompany most permitted
oil and gas wells.

Other FGS databases include: 1) an
oil and gas geophysical permit application
database, 2) an oil and gas well database, 3)
a Florida mineral producers list, 4) a partial
inventory of geologic samples (cores and
cuttings from over 17,000 wells), 5) an
inventory of sinkholes from the FGS and the
Florida Sinkhole Research Institute, and 6)
an inventory of geologic outcrop
descriptions in Florida.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer systems at the FGS are
used primarily for word processing, database
management, geographic information
systems (GIS) and computer-aided design
(CAD) in support of various geologic data
collection and research programs.
Significant advances have been made in the
FGS network infrastructure during 1997-98.
The FGS network has undergone wiring
upgrades and recently brought a new server
on-line, replacing the 486/33Mhz computer
that has been the primary server since 1993.
The new server is a Pentium 11/400Mhz
system with 128MB RAM and 36GB of hard
drive space (duplexed). During the last
quarter of 1998, nine computers (mostly
486-class systems) were replaced by
Pentium 11/350Mhz computers in a
continuing effort to upgrade existing staff
resources and improve database
management, CAD, GIS and graphics
capabilities.

Recent upgrades to the internal
network have been made to isolate GIS
network traffic and improve overall system
performance. This was accomplished
through the rewiring of several offices and
installation of a new hub that negotiates
100 million instructions per second (MIPS).
GIS hardware improvements include the
addition of a Sun Microsystems Ultra2
workstation, two HDS x-terminals and an
HP DesignJet 750C plotter. With
assistance of the GIS section of the DEP
Bureau of Information Systems, the FGS
has a fully functional GIS program utilizing
Environmental Systems Research Institute
(ESRI) software such as Arclnfo and
ArcView. Moreover, the DEP GIS map
library can now be accessed through GIS
software and the Tallahassee Municipal
Area network via a fiber optics
10MB/second connection.

In 1998, three full-time FGS
positions were funded to provide increased
technical support for computer systems and
related FGS programs. The positions, which
include a Systems Project Analyst, a
Computer Programmer Analyst, and an


Environmental Scientist I bring a strong level
of expertise in network administration, CAD
and GIS to existing FGS programs.

FGS computer services include the
maintenance of a World Wide Web site
(http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geo). The site
provides access to the FORUM newsletter,
a List of FGS publications (including links to
on-line publications), the lithologic
database, program and research
information, educational information and
much more.

PUBLIC EDUCATION INITIATIVES

Public outreach is identified within
both the FGS and the DEP mission.
Informed citizenry can become partners in
protecting and conserving Florida's
environment and natural resources. FGS
outreach activities include lectures and
presentations to school groups at all levels
and civic and professional organizations,
participating in science fair judging and
school mentoring programs, as well as
participation in specific educational
initiatives and publication of educational
materials. Recent projects include 1) the
publication of a new educational poster,
Earth systems: the foundation of Florida's
ecosystems; 2) participation in SE MAPS, an
interdisciplinary science curriculum project;
3) various activities associated with Earth
Science Week; and 4) acquisition and
outfitting of the FGS GEOLAB for
educational demonstrations, as well as field
research.

EARTH SYSTEMS: THE FOUNDATION OF
FLORIDA'S ECOSYSTEMS

Earth systems: the foundation of
Florida's ecosystems, a new educational
poster, was completed in 1996 and printed
for distribution in 1997. The poster includes
maps, block diagrams, and text which
describe and illustrate the importance of
geology and geomorphology in shaping
ecosystems. The poster demonstrates the
interaction of the solid earth aspects of earth
systems (geology), the atmospheric aspects
(meteorology), and the aqueous aspects






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


(hydrogeology and hydrology) in forming
specific ecosystems.

SE MAPS

The FGS began working on a new
educational initiative during 1998, known
as the SE MAPS program. SE MAPS is an
interdisciplinary science curriculum project
funded by the National Science Foundation,
through Clemson University Geology
Department, involving Florida and seven
other southeastern states. Teaching
materials being developed focus on maps
and images, including aerial photography,
satellite imagery, topographic and special-
purpose maps, and other remotely sensed
data. These materials are integrated into a
series of investigative hands-on activities
designed for middle school students.
Materials currently under development
include a classroom set of large laminated
lithographs, two CD-ROMS, and a Teaching
Manual. Florida has three study areas: a
karst-related area in the eastern panhandle;
a land-use, mining, and tourism related area
in the central peninsula; and a land-use,
environmentally related area in south
Florida. Pilot testing of products is
scheduled for 1999.

EARTH SCIENCE WEEK

The first annual Earth Science
Week (October 11-17, 1998), sponsored
by the American Geological Institute, was
proclaimed by Florida Governor Lawton
Chiles. In an effort spearheaded by State
Geologist Walt Schmidt, the Florida
Geological Survey kicked off the
celebration in Florida with production of an
Earth Science Week poster and events
aimed at heightening awareness of the
earth sciences and their connection to
environmental concerns and water quality
issues. Three events were planned in order
to target various groups which are
impacted by the earth sciences.

On Friday, October 9, the FGS and
a number of cooperating governmental
agencies, along with the Florida
Association of Professional Geologists,
sponsored the Wakulla Springs Karst Plain


Symposium. This interdisciplinary,
technical symposium included presentations
by geologists, hydrologists, biologists, and
archaeologists, as well as representatives
of engineering and land-use planning
communities. The symposium was held at
the FSU Turnbull Conference Center. The
diverse technical presentations emphasized
research directed toward an increased
understanding of the Woodville Karst Plain
environment.

On Saturday, October 10, the FGS
and Wakulla Springs State Park cohosted
the Wakulla Springs Earth Science Fair.
The fair featured video presentations
highlighting Florida geology and
hydrogeology, as well as geoscience
careers. A computer lab and various
interactive demonstrations focused on
aspects of the local ecosystem. The FGS
featured its GEOLAB, auger rig, and a
coastal research vessel. The Department
of Environmental Protection, Northwest
Florida Water Management District, United
States Geological Survey, City of
Tallahassee, Leon and Wakulla Counties
also provided outdoor exhibits. Field trips
to local sinkholes and springs led by FGS
staff departed throughout the day. The
Wakulla Springs Earth Science Fair was
attended by approximately 1200 people.

The FGS also held an open house,
Monday October 12, at Survey
headquarters on the FSU Campus for the
local earth science community. Geoscience
professionals and students from FSU
dropped in for refreshments and
discussions of programs and issues of
interest to everyone concerned with
geoscience and its future.

FGS GEOLAB

In 1998, the FGS obtained a step-
van as a property transfer from the Division
of Law Enforcement. FGS staff designed,
built and installed lab cabinetry to conduct
various geological field activities such as
sample preparation and preliminary
analyses. The van is equipped for remote






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FGS GEOLAB


GEOLAB Interior
(Photos by Frank Rupert)


site location for overnight and longer-term
field work (generator, AC/heat, stove,
refrigerator) and can accommodate up to
four people. It has been fully fitted with
AC/DC circuitry which will accommodate
computers. It is anticipated that it also will
be fitted with a communication package.
In addition, the van is well suited for
educational purposes, with built-in display
boards, VCR and monitor, and table space
suitable for map work as well as display
areas. With this equipment, the
"GEOLAB", is an "ambassador on wheels"
for the Survey. The GEOLAB, outfitted
with typical working displays and
educational stations, was well received at
the Port St. Joe Scallop Festival
(September 5, 1998), the Wakulla Springs
Earth Science Fair (October 10, 1998), the
DEP Environmental Education Fair/United
Way Campaign (October 29, 1998), as well
as open houses for the FGS (October 12,
1998) and the FSU Geology Department
(October 16-17, 1998).

STUDENT ASSISTANTSHIP PROGRAM

The FGS sponsors an active student
assistantship program which is beneficial for
students and staff geologists. Qualified


graduate and undergraduate students in
geology obtain work experience in a
professional setting while staff geologists, in
turn, are assisted by knowledgeable and
motivated individuals. The assistantship
program was begun in 1974 and has run
successfully, with minor interruptions, since
then.

Currently, most students are
employed by contract and grant-funded
studies. These students conduct research
tasks while under the supervision of
professional geologists on the Survey staff.
As the program has developed, the FGS and
several Water Management Districts have
provided funding for assistants. Additional
funding sources include the U.S. Minerals
Management Service, the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, the
USGS, and the National Cooperative
Geologic Mapping Program.

CONTINUING EDUCATION

The State of Florida continues to
maintain a unique program in which tuition is
waived for state employees enrolling in job-
related courses on a space-available basis. A
number of Survey staff have taken
advantage of this program, enrolling in
various courses related to their work. Staff
also take advantage of a variety of
management and professional skills
workshops that are offered as internal
training opportunities by the Department.
Staff participated in DEP workshops on
Ecosystem Management, while some taught
geological portions of the classes. One staff
member attended a short course entitled
"Design and Creation of State-of-the-Art
Interactive, Multimedia CD-ROMS for Use in
Teaching Geology" sponsored by the
Geological Society of America. Two staff
members attended ESRI-certified
Introduction to ArcView classes. Another
three attended project-related training
provided by the USGS on geochemical
sediment sampling protocol. Three members
of the Coastal Research Group enrolled in a
small-engine repair course at Lively
Vocational/Technical School, enabling them
to handle emergency repairs in the field.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS

The FGS participates in cooperative
programs with federal agencies, other state
agencies, county agencies, and water
management districts. Such programs
greatly benefit all participants and the
taxpayers of Florida by providing efficient
staff and equipment usage and obtaining
maximum results from participating agency
budgets.

THE HYDROGEOLOGY CONSORTIUM

Large areas of Florida are underlain
by karst geology, which is riddled with
conduits that allow significant volumes of
groundwater to flow rapidly through
watersheds with increased potential for
interaction with surface water. Working
groundwater models are needed to depict
flow and assess the impact of natural and
man-made contaminants on groundwater
quality. Traditional groundwater models
cannot be accurately applied in karst areas.

Scientists from state and federal
agencies, as well as universities and the
private sector, met in November 1997 to
initiate a cooperative effort to address this
problem. The group established the
Hydrogeology Consortium as a semi-
autonomous component of the Florida
Center for Environmental Studies, affiliated
with Florida Atlantic University. The
Consortium plans to "cooperatively provide
scientific knowledge applicable to
groundwater resource management and
protection." The Consortium held its first
workshop in May 1998 where it addressed
administrative issues and developed a
science plan to identify and achieve short
and long term objectives. A second
workshop is planned for the summer of
1999 to begin the development of
conceptual and numerical models capable of
depicting water flow in multi-porosity
aquifers.

Current membership in the
Consortium is focused in Florida and
includes over 100 scientists and resource


managers from universities, government
agencies, and the private sector:

Andreyev Engineering, Inc.
CH2M Hill, Inc.
City of Hollywood, Florida
ERM-South, Inc.
FAMU-FSU College of Engineering
Florida Atlantic University
Florida DEP
Florida Geological Survey
Florida Institute of Technology
Florida International University
Florida State University
Journal of Coastal Research
Karst Environmental Services, Inc.
Lampl-Herbert Consultants
Missimer International
Northwest Florida WMD
South Florida WMD
Southeast River Forecast Center,
National Weather Service
Southwest Florida WMD
St Johns River WMD
Subsurface Evaluations
Suwannee River WMD
Technos, Inc.
TyndallAFB
University of Central Florida
University of Florida
University of Miami
University of South Florida
University of Valdosta, GA
US EPA Atlanta
USGS Altamonte Sprints, FL
USGS Miami, FL
USGS Tallahassee, FL
USGS Tampa, FL
Woodward Clyde Consultants

For those interested in more
information about the Consortium, their Web
address is http://hc.gfdi.fsu.edu.

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

AQUIFER STORAGE AND RECOVERY
GEOCHEMICAL STUDY

In December, 1998, the Florida
Geological Survey, in cooperation with the
DEP Division of Water Facilities and the
FSU Geology Department completed a two-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


year investigation of water-rock chemical
interaction during the aquifer storage and
recovery (ASR) process. Surface waters
injected underground may have chemical
and physical characteristics quite dissimilar
to the native waters they displace. The
rocks comprising the aquifer matrix have
attained their present chemical and physical
state partly as a result of interactions with
the native groundwaters (and vice versa).
The investigation demonstrates that
introduction of surface waters with
different characteristics than native aquifer
waters changes the previous naturally
occurring rock-water interactions.

A major concern for stored waters
is the entrainment of various naturally
occurring radioactive nuclides. In Florida,
Eocene through Miocene carbonate rocks
often have zones displaying considerable
radioactivity. This is most apparent in
borehole geophysical logs that reveal
multiple zones of high gamma-ray activity
coincident with layers rich in clay, organic,
phosphate or dolomite. Uranium-series
elements and some trace metals are often
associated with these zones. Surface
waters injected into deeper aquifer systems
have the capability of dissolving some of
the aquifer rock, which can mobilize the
uranium-series elements into the
groundwater.

The ASR geochemical study
measures the native Floridan aquifer
system waters, the waters being injected,
the waters withdrawn after storage, and
appropriate rock samples of the aquifer
matrix in the area. Geochemical analyses
include uranium concentration and the
radioactivity ratio of 234U to 23U, strontium
concentration, "Sr/8Sr, field conductivity,
temperature, pH, major ions (Na, Mg, Ca,
CI, SO4, and HCO3) and trace metals (As,
Ba, Cd, Mn, K, Na, Sr, and Zn).

Results indicate that both the
uranium concentration and 34U/238U vary
during the injection and recovery process.
Due to mobilization of U from the rocks, U
concentrations increase from background
levels of < 2 mg/I to as high as 7.26
0.27 mg/I. (Note: Although no maximum


contaminant level (MCL) exists for U, based
on the MCL for gross alpha, the U levels
would fall within MCL limits.) Changes in
234U/238U reflect the history of U decay at
grain surfaces including mechanisms such
as rock dissolution and leaching during
exposure to injected oxygen-rich surface
waters. As surface waters are injected into
the aquifer system, mixing of the two
waters is reflected in most trace metal
concentration variations. One exception,
arsenic (As), indicated leaching or
dissolution from the aquifer matrix, thus
entraining As into the groundwater.
Although a 30-fold increase in As is
observed, concentrations do not exceed
the current MCL. Strontium analyses
confirm that aquifer waters have been in
contact with Eocene rocks, however, the
data were not as useful as anticipated
regarding mixing and dissolution
calculations.

Renewal of this project began on
December 15, 1998 and will be completed
in one year. The purpose of this phase is
to investigate temporal variations in
geochemistry with additional ASR cycling.
Will Evans, UIC Project Manager, initiated
the financial support for the ASR project.
Principal investigators include Dr. Jon
Arthur (FGS Project Manager) and Holly
Williams, FGS, and Dr. Jim Cowart, FSU
Department of Geology. Cooperating
agencies include the City of Tampa Water
Department, the DEP Southwest District
office, the Florida State University, the
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory,
and CH2M Hill.

AMBIENT GROUND WATER MONITORING
PROGRAM

The Ambient Ground Water
Monitoring Section (Bureau of Drinking
Water and Ground Water Resources,
Division of Water Facilities) contracted with
the FGS to investigate shallow aquifer
systems at 39 sites in 19 counties
throughout the state during 1997 and 1998.
Core holes were drilled at each of the sites
for lithostratigraphic analysis and for FGS
database purposes. Lithologic logs were
generated for each core, formation picks






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


made and the data entered onto the FGS
computer data base. Hydraulic conductivity
analysis (falling head permeameters) was
conducted on selected samples. Monitor
wells were constructed at 31 of the sites
for the ambient ground-water monitor
network. This lithologic information and the
ambient groundwater quality information will
be useful for a variety of ecosystem
management decisions. The Northwest,
Southwest and South Florida Water
Management Districts and Alachua County
also cooperated on these projects.

DIVISION OF RECREATION AND PARKS
STATE GEOLOGICAL SITES

The Florida Geological Survey is
designating State Geological Sites under
the auspices of Florida Statutes Section
377.075 4e. Under the statute, "The state
geologist, through the Division of Technical
Services, shall designate areas as "state
geological sites".......which areas are
determined to be of great and continuing
significance to the scientific study and
public understanding of the geological
history of this state." Sites around the
State that have specific geological
significance have been nominated by FGS
staff and other interested individuals. Five
sites have been selected as State
Geological Sites including: Windley Key
Fossil Reef (Monroe County), Devil's Mill
Hopper (Alachua County), Ichetucknee
Springs (Columbia County), Alum Bluff
(Liberty County) and Florida Caverns
(Jackson County). Geological leaflets are
being prepared for each of these sites.

Windley Key Fossil Reef State
Geological Site will be the first of the
geological sites designated under FS
377.075 and will be dedicated in January
1999. The formal designation of the other
sites will follow later in 1999.

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY
AFFAIRS

SINKHOLE DATABASE COOPERATION

After the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute lost its funding support, its


computer database and archive files were
returned to the FGS. The FGS has done
extensive reformatting and updating of the
data, in order to make it available to the
public and private sectors. Currently, the
data is stored in Microsoft Excel and can be
obtained by contacting the FGS Library. The
FGS and Department of Community Affairs
(DCA) coordinated efforts to place the
sinkhole reporting form on the DCA Web site
(http://www.state.fl.us/comaff/DEM/BPR/EM
TOOLS/sinkrpt.htm). An index to the
sinkhole database was published in 1994
and will be updated periodically. In addition,
the FGS handles requests for sinkhole data
and coordinates requests for individual
sinkhole inspections.

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
FLORIDA STATE ARCHIVES

DIGITAL ARCHIVING OF THE FGS HISTORIC
PHOTO COLLECTION

Beginning in 1997 and continuing
into 1998, the Library worked with the
staff from the Florida Department of State,
Florida State Archives to scan the Library's
historic photo collection, and make it
available on the Archives WWW site at
http://www.dos.state.fl.us/fpc/.

The Library's photo collection
contains approximately 2500 images in the
form of negatives, prints, and lantern
slides. Some of the photos date back to the
early 1900's. The images in the collection
record much of the natural environment of
the state, and were taken during field trips,
mine and oil field site inspections and other
investigations since shortly after the Survey
was established in 1907. The collection
contains images of geologic formations,
fossils, mining operations, oil wells,
vegetation, beaches, and other natural
features of Florida.

The photo project proceeded with
two goals in mind. The first was the
preservation of this valuable collection.
Many of the original photos are
deteriorating due to age, and the chemical
processes involved in photography. Staff
at the Archives photo lab created safety







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


negatives of each image, and these will
remain on file in the Archives photo
collection.

The second goal was to make the
collection more easily accessible to
geologists, other science professionals,
avocational researchers, and the casual
browser. Due to the fragility of the
originals, the collection has not been able
to be used to its fullest potential in the
past. The collection can now be searched
or browsed from the desktop, and images
easily downloaded. The Archives also has
the facility to produce copies of the original
photos from their negatives, for those
needing an original print instead of a
downloaded image.

FLORIDA BOARD OF PROFESSIONAL
GEOLOGISTS

The 1987 Florida Legislature enacted
Chapter 492, Florida Statutes (FS), requiring
the licensing of Professional Geologists in
order to "safeguard the life, health, property,
and public well-being of its (Florida's)
citizens." Chapter 492, FS, also created the
Board of Professional Geologists which
consists of seven members, one of these
being the State Geologist, serving as an ex
officio member. In addition to the State
Geologist serving as a member on this
Board, several FGS staff members serve as
consultants to the Board's Professional
Geologists Examination Committee.

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

A GEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE
FLORIDA BIG BEND COASTAL WETLANDS

The Coastal Research Group's first
research project, A Geological Assessment
of the Florida Big Bend Coastal Wetlands,
was initiated in July 1991 and continued
through 1998. This project is partially
funded by the USGS. It focuses on
characterizing the wetland processes of the
estuaries of the Aucilla, the Steinhatchee,
the St. Marks, and the Ochlockonee rivers.
Comparison among these four Big Bend
estuaries will enable better prediction of
such natural systems' responses to changes


that are either natural (e.g., sea level
change) or human-induced (e.g., increasing
development). Additional comparison of
response to sea level change will be
enhanced by the project's recent extension
to include measuring accretion and erosion
of marsh surfaces at additional sites along
Florida's Big Bend, Georgia's Cumberland
Island, and South Carolina's ACE Basin (the
watershed formed by the Ashepoo,
Combahee and Edisto rivers).


Sediment Erosion Table (SET) for measuring
short-term marsh accretion and response to
storm events (photo by Ted Borg, South Carolina
Department of Natural Resources).

GROUND-WATER FLOW TO BISCAYNE BAY

This cooperative project is funded
jointly by the FGS and the USGS. The
driving force for this project is the recent
priority given the south Florida area by both
state and federal agencies. The study area
includes portions of eastern Dade County
and Biscayne Bay. The FGS drilled six
coreholes, and constructed 12 monitor
wells, produced the lithologic logs and made
formation picks. Hydraulic conductivity






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


testing was conducted on selected samples.
The USGS drilled coreholes in the offshore
portion of the study area (Biscayne Bay) and
conducted the hydrologic analyses.

FLORIDA BAY ECOSYSTEM HISTORY

FGS staff members, Dr. Tom Scott
and Harley Means are assisting the USGS
in the investigation of the ecosystem
history of Florida Bay, part of the South
Florida Ecosystem Restoration Project. This
project is utilizing fossil mollusks,
dinocysts, forams, pollens and sediment
lithology to determine the environments
present within the bay at a given time and
location. Lead isotope dating techniques
provide reliable ages of the sediments
encountered. The project will run for five
years.


THE HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE SURFICIAL
AQUIFER SYSTEM IN COLLIER COUNTY,
FLORIDA

This is a cooperative project with
the USGS. FGS geologists are describing
cores, determining formational breaks and
analyzing permeabilities in order to
characterize the surficial aquifer system.
Ten cores, averaging 200 feet deep, were
drilled and lithologic descriptions completed
during 1997-98. USGS Open File Reports
are being completed for this research.

SURFICIAL AND BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF
THE USGS 1:100,000 SARASOTA AND
ARCADIA QUADRANGLES

This cooperative project is funded
jointly by the FGS and the National
Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program
under the State Geologic Mapping
Component (STATEMAP). In 1996, the
FGS began a three-year project to produce
geologic maps in south-central Florida. The
1997 and 1998 mapping concentrated on
the USGS 1:100,000 Sarasota and Arcadia
quadrangles. This area includes the west
coastal urban area including Sarasota,
Florida in Sarasota and Manatee Counties
and extends eastward to cover southern
Hardee County, all of DeSoto County, the


northernmost portion of Charlotte County,
most of Highlands County and parts of
Glades and Okeechobee Counties. This
area, especially along the west coast, is
experiencing rapid population growth and
faces significant water resource
management issues.

In 1996-1997, Richard Green, Ken
Campbell, Jon Arthur, Guy H. Means, and
Tom Scott produced a bedrock geologic
map, a map of the surficial sediment types,
and several geologic cross sections for the
western portion of the USGS 1:100,000
scale Sarasota Quadrangle. These maps
and cross sections are available through the
FGS Open File Map Series (OFMS-86).

This last year (1997-98), FGS staff
geologists Richard Green, Ken Campbell,
Jon Arthur, Guy H. Means, and Tom Scott
produced a similar set of maps for the
eastern portion of the 1:100,000 scale
Sarasota Quadrangle and the western
portion of the 1:100,000 scale Arcadia
Quadrangle. The maps included a bedrock
geologic map, a map of the surfical
sediment types, and several geologic cross
sections. These maps and cross sections
are also available through the FGS Open
File Map Series (OFMS-87).

In July of 1998, the FGS began
working on production of a bedrock
geologic map, a surficial sediments map,
and several geologic cross sections for the
eastern portion of the 1:100,000 scale
Arcadia Quadrangle. Field mapping began
in August, with a planned completion date
of June, 1999. The maps and cross
sections for this area will be available
through the FGS Open File Map Series
beginning in July of 1999.

After input and an October
workshop with the Florida Geological
Mapping Advisory Committee, the USGS
1:100,000 Crestview Quadrangle in
northwestern Florida was selected for the
next area to be mapped under the
STATEMAP program.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOCHEMICAL SAMPLING PROGRAM

In 1997/98, the FGS,
collaborating with the USGS Geologic
Division, Region 10, began a statewide
systematic survey and elemental
analyses of stream-sediment and
upland-sediment samples. The field
work included taking approximately
1600 samples using USGS sampling
methodologies and protocols. The
statewide sampling used a grid system
of 10 kilometer square cells
(approximately 6 by 6 miles) based on
the UTM survey system. The field work
was coordinated and completed under


the direction
professionally
The elemental
are ongoing.


of the FGS and its
licensed geological staff.
analyses and interpretation


In 1998/99, the Florida Geological
Survey (FGS) continued to cooperate with
the USGS to evaluate the role played by
natural geochemical processes in Florida.
The 1998/99 efforts are concentrating on a
smaller geographic region centered around
Tallahassee (approximately the St. Marks
watershed) and encompassing about 750
square miles. Staff are collecting
sediments using the Florida system of land
survey as the basis for its grid system with
a section of land (one square mile) as the
basic sampling unit or cell. The USGS
Denver office will continue coordinating the
geochemical analyses on a suite of 40
elements from the collected samples. The
products derived from the project will
include an atlas of maps and reports
describing the nature and distribution of the
sediment chemistry.

Results of both the statewide and
the regional survey will be useful for a
variety of applications including 1)
evaluating the role played by natural
geochemical processes in producing
anomalies observed in the ambient
groundwater monitoring data; 2)
determining aquifer vulnerability; 3)
providing pre-development and land-use
specific baseline information for elements
of concern; 4) analyzing the effects of
sediment chemistry on surface water


FGS Research Assistant, Spencer Mitchell, collecting
upland sediment sample for statewide systematic
survey. Kennedy Space Center "Rocket Garden" in
background (photo by Nikki Strong).


quality, and ultimately, the potential effect
on groundwater quality; and 5) identifying
areas with potential mineral resources
through trend analysis.

GEOCHEMICAL DATABASE COMPILATION

Each fiscal year, the Florida
legislature allocates funds within the DEP
budget to contract cooperative projects
with the USGS Water Resource Division
(WRD). Through this funding source, the
FGS has contracted with the local USGS
WRD to compile the statewide geochemical
sediment data into a GIS-compatible digital
format. Pending sufficient funding, a
compilation of all current and historical
hydrogeochemical data by sample site for
Florida will also be initiated. This
compilation may include, but is not limited
to, the following databases: STORET (EPA),
NAWQA (USGS), and GWIS (DEP).

MINERAL RESOURCE DATA SYSTEM
UPDATE FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA

The FGS includes the acquisition of
mineral resource data as a part of its overall
mission. Because of this, the FGS has
focused attention on expanding our state-
wide mineral resources database to include
all mined resources, the producers,
production data, location information, and
environment and reclamation data.

During the 1997-98 time frame an
additional 300 records were added to an
existing database thus bringing the total






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


number of records to approximately 670.
The new enlarged database, which was
generated using Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet software, is comprised of
seven tables that are linked with a Mineral
Resource Data System (MRDS) reference
number. A map of Florida showing the
MRDS sites was generated using ArcView
GIS software.

The MRDS database as well as the
map are in digital format and can be
obtained by contacting the FGS library.
This project was partially funded by the
USGS.

U.S. MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE

A GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE
OFFSHORE AREA ALONG FLORIDA'S
CENTRAL EAST COAST

A U.S. Minerals Management
Service (MMS) supported study, A
Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area
Along Florida's Central East Coast, is a
multi-year study designed to characterize the
geologic processes and parameters affecting
the shore and nearshore coastal areas of
Florida's central eastern Atlantic coast, as
well as evaluate known and potential
offshore sand resources for beach
renourishment. Similar nearshore
investigations by the FGS (1985-1992) have
examined the sand and heavy mineral
resources off the Gulf Coast of northwest
Florida, off Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic
coast, north of Cape Canaveral to the
Florida-Georgia state line, and off southeast
Florida from Ft. Pierce to Miami.


Water quality data is recorded with a continuous
data logger and later downloaded in the lab.


U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION AGENCY,

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION,

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF OCEANOGRAPHY

HYDROGEOLOGY OF ST. JOSEPH BAY

A study of St. Joseph Bay was
initiated in 1997 to characterize the
interaction between groundwater and
surface water in the bay and the impact of
such interaction on the health and
productivity of the entire watershed. This
assessment will also take land-use within
the watershed into account. The project,
funded partially by an EPA grant and the
DEP/USGS Cooperative Agreement, is being
conducted jointly by scientists from the
CRG, the USGS, and the FSU Department of
Oceanography.

Phase I of the project will involve
physical characterization of the watershed
including:

1. The system's water budget.
2. Water circulation within the Bay
and between the Bay and the
Gulf of Mexico.
3. Seismic profile of the Bay's
bottom.
4. Water quality including salinity,
temperature, turbidity, pH, and
specific conductance.
5. Characterization of the Bay's
interaction with the surficial and
intermediate aquifers.
6. Quantification of fresh water
flow.
7. Determination of the influence of
tidal action on the quality and
circulation of the Bay's water.

Phase II of the project (pending
additional funding) will examine the impact
of water quality changes due to
groundwater seepage on the vegetation and
biological communities of the Bay. This
information will be given to local and state






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


decision makers for use in developing
policies to protect this coastal ecosystem.

NORTHWEST FLORIDA WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

The FGS and Northwest Florida
Water Management District routinely
cooperate on well description and data-
gathering projects within the District.
During the years 1997-98, FGS research
assistants described the lithology of a lower
Floridan aquifer system well drilled in
Okaloosa County as part of an on-going
District project. A printed lithologic log was
provided to the District, and samples from
the studies were archived in the FGS sample
repository.

SUWANNEE RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT

WELL DESCRIPTION PROGRAM

The FGS and the Suwannee River
Water Management District (SRWMD) have
maintained a successful and mutually
beneficial working relationship for nearly 25
years. During much of this period, the
SRWMD funded geology graduate students
to work as research assistants at the FGS,
describing well samples and cores and
entering the coded lithologic logs into the
FGS database. This arrangement has
worked exceedingly well, resulting in the
addition of much new data on the geology
of the District to the databases of both
agencies.

This cooperative project continued
through the years 1997-98. During this
period, previously unworked deep oil test
wells were described and added to the FGS
database. In addition, data from the existing
well file database was compiled to construct
preliminary isopach maps of the surficial
aquifer system within the SRWMD. A new
contract to continue the well description
work and develop a top of rock of Avon
Park Formation map was signed in early
October of 1998.


ST. JOHNS RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT

The cooperative program between
St. Johns River Water Management District
(SJRWMD) and the Florida Geological
Survey is in keeping with the missions of
both agencies. SJRWMD has developed a
District Observation Well Network (DOWN)
program. Geologic samples obtained during
the emplacement of these wells provide site-
specific data which is vital in ascertaining
local and, eventually, regional hydrogeologic
conditions. Samples from the DOWN
Program, as well as other previously
undescribed samples on file at the FGS, are
inventoried, examined, described and
entered into an electronic database for use
by both the FGS and SJRWMD.

GUIDEBOOK TO THE CORRELATION
CRITERIA FOR GEOPHYSICAL WELL LOGS

The SJRWMD currently maintains a
database of over 2300 wells that have
geophysical logs in digital format. The
database is accessed through the
GeoSys/4G computer program, which is
used statewide by agencies for quick
retrieval and display of the logs.
Interpretations can be made from the logs
to determine lithologic and
hydrostratigraphic boundaries as well as
site specific hydrogeologic conditions.
Once the elevation of the boundaries are
determined, the points can be used to
construct structure contour maps, isopach
maps, and three dimensional views of the
subsurface.

To make consistent interpretations
of geophysical well logs, it is necessary to
identify wells with sufficient geologic
control to be used as reference wells. An
18-month cooperative agreement between
the SJRWMD and the Florida Geological
Survey was initiated in the Fall of 1997 for
the purpose of identifying wells within the
SJRWMD that have sufficient geologic
control and exhibit a characteristic
geophysical log response to be used as
reference wells for correlation purposes.
Wells meeting these criteria are being
identified in the GeoSys database, and a








BIENNIAL REPORT 20


guidebook will be published presenting the
reference wells that provide examples of
typical geophysical log signatures
correlated to lithostratigraphic and
hydrostratigraphic units.

SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT
DISTRICT

South Florida is experiencing rapid
population growth and water management
practices must be predicated on an
adequate understanding of the lithologic
units which comprise aquifer systems. In
1992, the FGS and the South Florida Water
Management District (SFWMD) began a
cooperative project in Collier, Lee, Glades,
Martin, Okeechobee, Osceola, St. Lucie,
Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties to
provide geologic information in support of
this need. Descriptions of 63,000 feet of
lithologic samples from cores and cuttings
were entered in the FGS Database for the
SFWMD in 1997-98.

SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTIONS

A cooperative program exists
between the Regional Observation and
Monitoring Program (ROMP) of the
Southwest Florida Water Management
District (SWFWMD) and the FGS to
construct geologic cross sections
throughout the 16-county SWFWMD
region. The purpose of the project is to
delineate the extent of lithostratigraphic
and hydrostratigraphic units within the
District, thus providing knowledge essential
for the protection and management of
ground-water resources in southwest
Florida.

The project is subdivided into three
phases: Phase I includes the southwest
region from Pinellas and Hillsborough to
Charlotte Counties. Phase II includes the
northwest region from Levy and Marion to
Pasco Counties. Phase III includes the
southeastern region, including Polk,
Highlands, Hardee and DeSoto Counties.


Detailed lithology, regional
lithostratigraphy of Eocene through
Pliocene formations, gamma-ray log
characteristics of these formations, and
aquifer-system delineations within each
study area are the primary focus of the
cross sections. Most of the data used to
construct the cross sections are taken from
detailed descriptions of ROMP wells. In
areas where ROMP data are not available,
borehole data from the FGS and USGS are
utilized. Interim reports on each project
phase are either in preparation or have
been published. Thirty-three cross sections
have been completed to date. Final reports
for the three phases of the project will be
completed in 1999.

SOUTHWEST FLORIDA HYDROGEOLOGIC
FRAMEWORK MAPPING PROJECT

August 1998 marked completion of
Phase One of the Southwest Florida
Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project,
which is a cooperative effort between the
Southwest Florida Water Management
District (SWFWMD) and the FGS. Over a
16-month period, samples and geophysical
logs from more than 275 wells were
analyzed and added to a GIS database.
From this database, eighteen maps were
produced depicting the lithostratigraphic
and hydrostratigraphic framework of a
3,000 square mile region that includes
parts of Charlotte, DeSoto, Hardee,
Manatee and Sarasota counties. Mapped
geologic formations include the Avon Park
Formation and younger units; hydrogeologic
units include the mid-Floridan confining
unit, the Floridan aquifer system, the
intermediate aquifer system and confining
unit, and the surficial aquifer system.

The maps were generated from
contoured grid models using the Spatial
Analyst extension of ArcView GIS. Three
additional mapping phases are planned to
continue this research throughout the
SWFWMD region. Phase Two is underway
and is anticipated to be complete in Fall
1999 and includes parts of Hardee,
Hillsborough, Manatee, Polk and Highlands
counties. Final contour maps and 3D
visualization of the units are useful for






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


protection, regulation, and assessment of
groundwater and solid earth resources, and
provide frameworks for ground-water flow
models and future geologic research.

Interpolation methods used for
creating these surface and thickness maps
were presented at the Second Annual
Digital Mapping Techniques conference in
Champaign, Illinois (May 1998). The
Association of American State Geologists
and the USGS sponsor the conference each
year. Conference proceedings include a
paper by Dr. Jon Arthur and Bill Pollock
titled "Use of ArcView GIS for Geologic
Surface Modeling Preliminary Results from
Subsurface Mapping in Southwest Florida. "
The paper describes model accuracy and
sensitivity analyses of various interpolation
methods using the top of the Suwannee
Limestone as an example.

An extension to ArcView, 3D
Analyst, allows a third dimension to be
added to visualization of the geologic
framework in the study area. Grid models
representing subsurface stratigraphy can be
stacked, rotated and analyzed in a "3D"
graphical setting. The results and
potential applications of this procedure
were presented at the 1998 Annual DEP
GIS Workshop in a poster titled:
"Hydrologic framework of Southwest
Florida: 2D and 3D models of the bucket
that holds the water."

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

FGS VERTEBRATE AND MACRO-
INVERTEBRATE COLLECTIONS

Since its inception, the FGS has
built and maintained paleontologic
collections to support its basic research
activities and to preserve a record of the
state's fossil heritage. These collections
include both vertebrate and invertebrate
fossils, and incorporate a number of type
and figured specimens. Due to budgetary
constraints, funding for staff and facilities
to properly curate the collections were
typically lacking over the years. In the
early 1980's, the FGS vertebrate collection


was transferred to the Florida Museum of
Natural History (FLMNH) in Gainesville.
The FLMNH now oversees the collection in
state-of-the-art facilities, where it is
updated regularly and available to
researchers. In 1993, the FGS
macroinvertebrate paleontology collection
was also sent to the FLMNH for curation.
Museum staff are cataloging and updating
the collection, and will return a reference
set of invertebrate fossils, labeled with
current nomenclature and stratigraphic
associations, for use by FGS staff.

Both the vertebrate and macro-
invertebrate collections are searchable via
the Internet. The vertebrate collection can
be found at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/
scripts/dbs/VP_FGS_pub.asp which is also
linked to the FGS data archive page (see the
computer systems section of this report for
a description of the FGS web page). The
invertebrate collection is located at
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/scripts/dbs/IPtype
_pub.asp.

PUBLICATIONS

FGS PUBLICATIONS


The following FGS reports
published during 1997 and 1998:


were


BIENNIAL REPORT

* BR 19 Biennial Report 19; 1995-1996,
by Frank Rupert, 1997, 43 p.

This report summarizes the
activities of the Florida Geological Survey
professional staff during the two-year
period 1995-96. Included within the report
are activities in each section, program and
research summaries, special projects, talks,
papers, and publications,- personnel
information, building improvements, and
the FGS budget for those years.

FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM

The Florida Geology FORUM is
designed to reach a wide range of readers
interested in geology and natural resources






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


of Florida. Each issue includes current
events and activities at the FGS, as well as
meeting announcements and contributed
articles from other organizations and Florida
University System geology departments.

* March 1997, vol. 11, no. 1, edited by C.
Collier
* October 1997, vol. 11, no. 2, edited by
C. Collier
* March 1998, vol. 12, no. 1, edited by C.
Collier
* September 1998, vol. 12, no. 2, edited
by C. Collier

INFORMATION CIRCULAR

* IC 111 1994 and 1995 Florida
Petroleum Production and Exploration,
by J. M. Lloyd, 1997, 62 p.

Florida oil production began to
decline in 1979 and generally has continued
to do so; however, production increased by
eight percent from 1993 to 1994.
Production then declined by six percent
during 1995. Two of the south Florida oil
fields (Sunoco Felda and Sunniland) are
nearing the end of their production history.
The last reported production from Sunniland
field was in 1991 and the last reported
production from Sunoco Felda field was in
1992.

Exploration activity during 1994 and
1995 was very limited. There were no
exploratory wells drilled, however, one well
which was completed in 1993 is included in
this report because the completion report
was received in 1994. This Santa Rosa
County well was plugged and abandoned as
a dry hole.

Geophysical exploration during 1994
and 1995 covered only 22.5 miles of
seismic lines in the Florida panhandle, 20.3
miles of seismic lines in south Florida, and
102 miles of gravity survey in south Florida.
In addition to this completed geophysical
exploration, a permit application was
pending for an extensive offshore seismic,
gravity, and magnetic survey. A similar area
was covered by an approved permit during
1992-93 but the permit expired with only


minimal magnetic exploration having been
conducted. This exploration would
potentially explore a dense grid off Florida's
Gulf coast extending from offshore of
Apalachicola, Franklin County to offshore of
Naples, Collier County.

One exploratory well was being
drilled in federal waters off Florida at the
close of 1995. This well will be the fourth
drilled in the Destin Dome area by Chevron.
Two of the previously drilled wells were
classified by the federal government as
producible Norphlet gas discoveries.

A summary of offshore exploratory
drilling is included in this report, as well as
descriptions of each of Florida's 22 oil fields.
The descriptions include discovery data,
geologic information, and production totals.

MAP SERIES

MS 140 Potentiometric Surface of the
Upper Floridan Aquifer in Florida, May
and June, 1995, by G. L. Mahon, A. A.
Sepulveda, and A. F. Choquette, 1997.
Scale 1:2,027,520.

Abstract extracted from Map Series
Introduction: This report is the sixth in a
series describing the potentiometric surface
of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida,
specifically defining the potentiometric
surface of the highly permeable Upper
Floridan aquifer. This surface is based on
water levels from more than 1,725 wells
measured in either May or June 1995. The
report also includes a map of changes in
water levels between 1990 and 1995 and
hydrographs from five wells with long-term
records.

* MS 141 Freshwater Withdrawals and
Water-Use Trends in Florida, 1990, by
R. L. Marella, 1997. Scale 1:2,027,520.

This map report depicts 1990
freshwater withdrawn, in millions of gallons
per day, for each county in Florida. Smaller
inset maps depict principal aquifers and
1990 withdrawals, withdrawals from
surface vs. groundwater, location of
hydrologic units and surface and ground-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


water withdrawals within these units. The
accompanying text describes population
growth and increase in freshwater
withdrawals, water withdrawals by source
and water-use trends.


* MS 142 Low Flow i
by A. F. Choquette,
J. W. Grubbs,
1:2,027,520.


Florida Streams,
P. Rumenik, and
1997. Scale


Abstract extracted from Map Series
Introduction: Streams provide substantial
quantities of water for dilution of waste
discharge, agricultural irrigation, artificial
recharge to aquifers, and commercial- and
public-water supply. Knowledge of low-flow
conditions is essential for many of these
applications. Low-flow data also provide
information regarding Florida ground-water
resources, including water-table elevations,
the chemical composition of groundwater,
and areas of ground-water discharge and
recharge.

The purpose of this report is to
present a general description of low flow in
Florida streams, to summarize methods
currently used to estimate low-flow
magnitude and frequency, and to describe
factors causing geographic variations in low
flow.

* MS 143 Irrigated Crop Acreage and
Water Withdrawals in Florida, 1990, by
R. L. Marella, 1997. Scale 1:2,027,520.

Agriculture in Florida depends
heavily on the availability of adequate water
resources. Water demands for agricultural
irrigation needs accounted for one-half of
the State's total freshwater use in 1990.
This map report includes irrigated acreage
for 1989-92 by crop type. Inset maps and
charts also indicate monthly-, surface-, and
ground-water withdrawals for agriculture,
total acres irrigated for 1954-92, and crop
acreage by type for 1970-92.


OPEN FILE MAPS

OFMS 83/01-07 Surficial and Bedrock
Geology of the Eastern Portion of the
USGS 1:100,000 Scale Homestead
Quadrangle, Florida, by R. Green, K.
Campbell, and T. Scott, 1995.

This map series includes a bedrock
geologic map, a surficial sediments map and
five geologic cross-sections for the eastern
portion of the USGS 1:100,000 scale
Homestead quadrangle, Florida.

OFMS 83/08-12 Surficial and Bedrock
Geology of the Western Portion of the
USGS 1:100,000 Scale Homestead
quadrangle, Florida, By R. Green, K.
Campbell, and T. Scott, 1996.

This map series includes a bedrock
geologic map, a surficial sediments map and
three geologic cross-sections for the western
portion of the USGS 1:100,000 scale
Homestead quadrangle, Florida.

* OFMS 86 Surficial and Bedrock Geology
of the Western Portion of the USGS
1:100,000 Scale Sarasota Quadrangle,
Florida, by R. Green, T. Scott, K.
Campbell, J. Arthur, and, G. Means,
1997.

This map series includes a bedrock
geologic map, a surficial sediments map and
six geologic cross-sections for the western
portion of the USGS 1:100,000 scale
Sarasota quadrangle, Florida.


* OFMS 87 Surficial and Bedrock
Geology of the Eastern Portion of the
USGS 1:100,000 Scale Sarasota
Quadrangle, and the Western Portion of
the USGS 1:100,000 Scale Arcadia
Quadrangle, Florida, by R. Green, T.
Scott, K. Campbell, and G. Means,
1998.

This map series includes a bedrock
geologic map, a surficial sediments map and
six geologic cross-sections for the eastern
portion of the USGS 1:100,000 scale
Sarasota quadrangle, Florida, and the






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


western portion of the USGS 1:100,000
scale Arcadia quadrangle, Florida.


OPEN FILE REPORTS


* OFR 71 Economic Geology of the Heavy
Minerals Placer Deposits in Northeastern
Florida, by H. Elsner, 1997, 137 p.

Heavy mineral players have been
mined in northeastern Florida for several
decades. Although decreasing in
importance, Florida still has a considerable
share in the world production of ilmenite,
rutile, zircon, and monazite. This report
describes the geologic history and economic
comparison of the Florida's significant heavy
mineral deposits.

* OFR 72 Geologic and Geotechnical
Assessment for the Evaluation of
Sinkhole Claims, (reprinted from
Insurance Study of Sinkholes, Chapter V
and VI, 1992), 1997, 40 p.

Report cover letter by Walt Schmidt,
State Geologist and Chief, FGS:

"The 1992 Florida Legislature mandated
that a study of sinkhole insurance issues
be conducted. The study was
completed by the Florida State
University Center for Insurance
Research, under the direction of the
Florida Department of Insurance. The
report, Insurance Study of Sinkholes,
was submitted to the Department in
December of 1992 and subsequently to
the appropriate Legislative Committees.

Two chapters of that report are
reproduced here in response to interest
from governmental agencies, the public,
and the professional community.
Chapter V, deals with "Claims
Standards." It was determined during
the course of the study that a listing of
typical standards used by Professional
Geologists or Professional Geotechnical
Engineers was needed to offer guidance
regarding what a competent geological
assessment of a site should consider to
determine if karst processes are
responsible for observed features.


Chapter V is titled: "Examination of the
Establishment of Minimum Standards for
the Evaluation of Sinkhole Claims."

Chapter VI addresses the States
need for an ongoing research resource to
understand and characterize sinkhole
occurrences and to create a central
clearinghouse for the collection of
sinkhole data and for its dissemination to
the public. The Chapter titled: "Need
for an Ongoing Research Resource"
includes input from four state university
geology departments and the Florida
Geological Survey.

The reproduction of these chapters
here is intended to better make available
the results of the "Sinkhole Standards
Summit" which was organized by the
authors and attended by geologic
experts from throughout the state. Their
resulting consensus is presented in
Chapter V of the report."

OFR 73 Open-Ocean Water Level Datum
Planes for Monumented Coasts of
Florida, by J. H. Balsillie, J. G. Carlen,
and T. M. Watters, 1998, 92 p.

Water level datum planes considered
in the U.S. are mean lower low water
(MLLW), mean low water (MLW), mean sea
level (MSL), mean high water (MHW), and
mean higher high water (MHHW). The
number of tide gauges along ocean-fronting
coasts for our shores is not large. Linear
interpolation between gauges became the
norm for determining datum planes. The
result was found to introduce considerable
error because of lack of consideration of
variation in shoreline physiography and,
hence, correlation with natural littoral
processes. An nh order polynomial
numerical methodology was found which
resulted in much more successful prediction
of the datums.

Water level datums have been
devised out of necessity for navigation
purposes. These purposes differ, however,
from other needs of the marine scientist and
engineer. Most of the coast of Florida has
been monumented at 1000-foot alongshore






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


distances for which MLW, MLLW, MSL,
MHW, and MHHW datums have been
determined using the above method. The
resulting listings of datums (referenced to
NGVD) allows one to transform datums to
any other datum. The usefulness of the
vertical datums for scientific purposes is one
that has many applications that should be
obvious to the field investigator.

*OFR 76 Annotated Bibliography of
Mercury Studies Related to the
Environment and Geologic Setting of
Florida, by P. A. Bond, 56 p.

This bibliography contains
annotated references which were chosen to
elucidate geological aspects of the
occurrence of mercury in Florida. Evidence
suggests that some mercury was
incorporated into Florida's geologic
materials when they were formed.
Additional evidence suggests that
anthropogenic activities have released
mercury which has subsequently become
concentrated in certain naturally occurring
geologic materials. References selected for
inclusion in this bibliography fall into six
groups which include the geologic and
tectonic setting of Florida, geologic and
tectonic settings of known mercury
deposits, natural background values for
mercury in various rocks, soils, and surficial
materials, mercury and organic sediments,
mercury in lakes, rivers and groundwater,
and mercury in estuarine and nearshore
marine environments.

REPORT OF INVESTIGATION

RI 99 Reappraisal of the Geology and
Hydrogeology of Gilchrist County,
Florida, with Emphasis on the Wacas-
sassa Flats, by N. Col, F. R. Rupert, M.
Enright, and G. Horvath, 1997, 76 p.

Gilchrist County is an inland
county, situated in northwestern peninsular
Florida. It is bounded by the Suwannee
River on the west, the Santa Fe River on
the north, and by Alachua and Levy
Counties to the east and south,
respectively. Gilchrist County has a humid,
subtropical climate. Average annual


temperatures are 82 degrees F in the
summer and 58 degrees F in the winter.
Rainfall averaged 61.78 inches for the 18
years between 1976 and 1993.
Agriculture and silvaculture are the primary
industries.

The Waccasassa Flats is a
geomorphic subprovince of the broad Gulf
Coastal Lowlands. It occupies
approximately 102 square miles, extending
from the Santa Fe River in north central
Gilchrist County southward to the vicinity
of Trenton, then southeastward,
terminating in north-central Levy County.
As its name implies, the area comprising
the Flats is generally flat-lying and
characterized by gentle sand hills, pine
flatwoods, wetlands, cypress ponds, and
small scattered lakes. The near-surface
geology consists of undifferentiated
Pleistocene-Holocene sands, clayey sands,
and clays resting on Eocene carbonates of
the Ocala Limestone and Avon Park
Formation. The undifferentiated unit is
generally less than 50-feet thick over most
of the Flats. Clays within the
undifferentiated sediments form local
perched ponds and lakes.

In an effort to better understand
this unique hydrogeologic region, a series
of 16 study well sites were selected,
drilled, and monitor wells installed as part
of the state's Ground-water Quality
Monitoring Program. Well cores and
cuttings obtained during drilling were
described lithologically and analyzed for
hydraulic conductivity and grain size. The
wells drilled during this study were used in
conjunction with existing Ambient Ground-
water wells in Gilchrist County to construct
a series of five cross sections across the
Flats. Water level and quality data
obtained from the wells through 1993 are
summarized in the text and appendices.

There are two aquifer systems in
Gilchrist County. The Floridan aquifer
system (FAS) which underlies the entire
county is the primary ground-water
resource accounting for 99% of the
permitted water use in the county. A
limited Surficial aquifer system (SAS)






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


occurs only in the Waccasassa Flats (Flats)
where agriculture accounts for more than
99% of the permitted water use. The
Waccasassa Flats as mapped using GIS is a
102 square mile mosaic of sand hills, pine
flatwoods, wetlands, cypress ponds and
small scattered lakes. In the Flats
unconsolidated sediments both support a
Surficial aquifer system and serve as a
semiconfining unit for the underlying FAS.
In general, hydraulic conductivity appears
to decrease in the SAS (from 1.74 ft./day
to very low or no permeability) with depth.
The SAS water table ranges from at or near
land surface to 15 feet below land surface.
Fluctuations in the SAS during the study
period ranged from three to seven feet. The
primary drinking water standard for
turbidity was exceeded in eight of ten SAS
samples; and all SAS samples had pH
values below the minimum standard of 6.5.
SAS water quality may be characterized as
low in pH, dissolved solids and specific
conductance.

In Gilchrist County the largest
ground-water fluctuations in the FAS occur
along the outer margin of the Waccasassa
Flats, near rivers and where an unconfined
FAS is overlain by an appreciable thickness
of unconsolidated sediments. The FAS in
Gilchrist County is karstic both east and
west of the Flats as well as along its
margins. In the Flats cavities were
encountered near the top of rock during
well construction drilling, while low rock
permeabilities were reported with depth.
Ground-water level data show that at most
sites where the surficial and FAS are
monitored there is one foot or less
difference between the SAS water table
and the potentiometric surface of the FAS.
The greatest difference recorded between
the SAS water table and the potentiometric
surface of the FAS was 3.49 feet. The
relatively small difference in elevation
between the SAS water table and the
potentiometric surface of the FAS, the
mirror fluctuation patterns, the reversal of
the hydraulic gradient in some wells, and
water quality data, underscore the
significance of hydraulic communication
between aquifers. FAS water quality is


alkaline with high specific conductance and
high dissolved solids.

In the FAS, primary ground-water
drinking water standards were only
exceeded for turbidity. Recharge potential
in the Waccasassa Flats is low. The
ground-water mounding in the Flats results
from a high water table in the semi-
confining SAS and low aquifer
permeabilities in the FAS as estimated from
field observations and lithologic logs.
Recharge potential increases along the
edge of the Flats where the semi-confining
overburden is thin or breached. Where the
FAS is unconfined in the county recharge
potential is high. FAS ground-water
discharges primarily to the 16 known
springs or spring groups which outcrop in
the river corridors along the northern and
western boundaries of the county.
Gilchrist County is hydrologically divided
into the Suwannee River, Santa Fe River,
and the Waccasassa River surface water
basins. There are numerous small lakes
and wet prairies perched in poorly drained
soils on the Waccasassa Flats. Most of the
lakes are perched along the margins of the
Flats. These lakes are generally shallow,
acidic, dark colored water bodies with low
dissolved solids content.

SPECIAL PUBLICATION

* SP 42 The Florida Geological Survey: An
Illustrated Chronicle and Brief History, by
E. Lane, 1998, 70 p.

This publication describes, through
extensive archival illustrations and text, the
history of the FGS, from its establishment in
1907 to the present (1998). Emphasis is on
older photographic history of the FGS,
including both office and field conditions,
and the early history of mineral resource
discovery and development in Florida.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PAPERS BY STAFF IN OUTSIDE
PUBLICATIONS

SArthur, J. D., 1997, Earth Science
Education and Environmental
Stewardship a Video Entitled:
"Florida's Geology Unearthed,"
Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 6,
p. A-388.

An understanding of Florida's solid
earth, such as aquifers, geologic history
and framework, energy and mineral
resources, and geologic processes and
hazards is essential toward effective,
holistic environmental education. However,
a very limited number of Florida-specific
earth-science education materials exist. To
address this concern, a video entitled
Florida's Geology Unearthed has been
produced, along with an accompanying
Educator's Guide. The 60 minute
classroom video uses a contemporary
videographic approach intended for the
target 8th- and 9th-grade student audience.
A broadcast version for general public
education is also available. Goals and
objectives of the video include: 1)
demonstrate why geology is important
regarding infrastructure demands due to
Florida's population growth; 2) describe
Florida's unique geologic history, how it
relates to geologic processes and hazards,
and how it has shaped the land surface of
present-day Florida; 3) establish the
importance of geology to the understanding
of Florida's ecosystems; 4) compliment
existing education Sunshine State
Standards; and 5) instill personal
awareness and responsibility for Florida's
renewable and non-renewable solid-earth
resources. An advisory committee of local
environmental educators contributed to
improving effectiveness of the video in the
classroom. A second advisory committee
consisting of licensed professional
geologists contributed toward technical
accuracy.

* Arthur, J. D., 1997, Digital Mapping
Projects at the Florida Geological
Survey, in Soller, D. (editor),
Proceedings of a workshop on digital


mapping techniques: Methods for
geologic map data capture,
management and publication: U.S.
Geological Survey Open File Report 97-
269, p. 57-59.

Arthur, J. D., 1997, Florida In Depth:
Florida Living Magazine, Gainesville,
Florida, North Florida Publishing Co., v.
17, issue 8, p. 70-71.

Arthur, J. D. and Kelley, M., 1997,
Subsurface Geological Mapping in
Southwest Florida a G/S approach,
[Abstract], Florida Scientist, v. 60,
Supplement 1, p. 28.

The Florida Geological Survey and
the Southwest Florida Water Management
District have entered into a cooperative
effort to generate detailed subsurface
geological maps of the southwest Florida
region. Over a three-year period, structure
contour and isopach maps will be
constructed for all regionally identifiable
units above and including the top of the
Eocene Avon Park Limestone
(lithostratigraphic) and the middle confining
unit of the Floridan aquifer system
(hydrostratigraphic). Control points will be
selected utilizing a recently developed GIS
database that includes more than 4000
boreholes in the region for which samples
(cores or cuttings) and/or geophysical logs
exist. A control-point density of one
borehole per ten square miles is targeted.
Map generation and contouring will be
completed using GIS software. Final
editing will include structural and
stratigraphic interpretation. These maps will
be useful for ecosystem management,
resource permitting, rules enforcement,
conceptual frameworks for ground-water
flow models, and baseline geologic and
hydrogeologic research.

* Arthur, J. D. and Pollock, W. H., 1998,
Use of ArcView GIS for Geologic
Surface Modeling Preliminary Results
from Sub-surface Mapping in
Southwest Florida: in: Soller, D., ed.,
Proceedings of the Second Annual
Workshop on Digital Mapping
Techniques: Methods for Geologic Map






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Data Capture, Management and
Publication: U.S. Geological Survey
Open File Report 98-487, p. 73-78.

* Arthur, J. D. and Pollock, W. H., 1998,
Hydrogeologic Framework of
Southwest Florida: 2D and 3D Models
of the "Bucket that Holds the Water,"
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection GIS Workshop, October 14-
15, 1998, Tallahassee, Florida.

The Florida Geological Survey and
the Southwest Florida Water Management
District are working together to produce
subsurface geologic maps of the southwest
Florida region. Over a four year period,
structure contour and isopach (thickness)
maps are being constructed for all
regionally identifiable units, including
geologic formations above the Eocene
Avon Park Formation, and hydrogeologic
units above the middle confining unit of the
Floridan aquifer system. Phase One of the
project is complete and includes the
following counties: Manatee, Hardee,
Sarasota, DeSoto and Charlotte.

Geologic samples and geophysical
data from more than 250 wells have been
evaluated and entered into the mapping
database. Using the Spatial Analyst and
3D Analyst extensions of ArcView GIS,
three data interpolation methods (triangular
irregular network, inverse distance
weighted and spline) are considered for
surface modeling of the units. The affect
of grid cell size, interpolation method and
other variables (e.g., weight parameters,
nearest neighbors, etc.) are evaluated to
determine the most accurate and
geologically reasonable representation of
the subsurface units. The maps and 3D
visualization of the geologic/hydrogeologic
units are useful toward protection,
regulation, and assessment of ground
water and solid earth resources, rules
enforcement, injection well design, and
provide frameworks for ground-water flow
models and geologic research.

* Balsillie, J. H., 1997, Wave-Normal
Shore-Breaking Energy Distribution,
Coastal Research, v. 12, no. 6, p. 7-12.


Classical wave theory persists in
calculating and applying wave energy and
wave energy density over the wavelength.
These works demonstrate that it may be
more realistic and appropriate to determine
energy of the wave crests and wave troughs
separately because the wave crests contain
far more energy than the troughs. The
ramifications of this research in marine
geology and coastal engineering applications
may be highly significant, for instance in
littoral sediment transport mechanics and
wave impact loading.

SBalsillie, J. H., and Tanner, W. F., 1997,
Suite Versus Composite Statistics, 46th
Annual Southeastern Section, Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 29, no. 3, p. 3.

Consideration of multiple sediment
samples are far superior to single samples
when investigating sedimentary
environments. Suite statistics are
determined by averaging moment measures
describing each sample (e.g., mean,
standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis,
etc.). Composite statistics are determined
as if one physically mixes all samples
together; physical mixing is impossible but
can be precisely done numerically. Moment
measures are then determined for the
composite sample. Both methods are viable
statistical procedures and have specific
applications. However, results for higher
moment measures (e.g., standard deviation,
skewness, kurtosis, etc.) may significantly
differ for the two methods, an outcome of
which most researchers are not aware.

S Balsillie, J. H., Tanner, W. F., and
Williams, H. K., 1997, Sticky Grain
Occurrences in Sieving, 46th Annual
Southeastern Section, Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 29, no. 3, p. 3.

Ro-Tap sieving techniques employed
by the Florida Geological Survey
sedimentology laboratory were found,
because of the high humidity environment of
Florida, to result in influences that resulted
in sand-sized grains sticking to one another
or to sieves. Five types of sticky conditions






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


were identified. One condition is problem
free, one is related to moisture, and three to
electrostatic charges. Of the latter one is
related to the post-sieving weighing process,
one has potential to seriously affect the
cumulative distribution, and the third does
not affect the cumulative distribution results.
For the electrostatic problems manageable
solutions were found.

*Bond, P. A., Uranium Accumulation and
Mobility in Some Florida Wetlands,
Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 6,
p. A-247.

The role of organic material in
controlling the distribution of uranium in the
subtropical Florida environment was
examined using isotopic disequilibrium
techniques. Dissolved uranium (on the
order of parts per billion) is ubiquitous in
Florida waters and useful as a natural
tracer. It has its origin mainly in the
carbonate fluorapatites of the Hawthorn
Group. Since organic deposits are
genetically related to their associated
ground and surface waters, uranium is
sequestered in those deposits.

The behavior of uranium and
thorium in aquifer systems is well
understood. Uranium is soluble under
oxidizing conditions. 4U is preferentially
concentrated (with respect to its parent
2U) in natural waters due to the process
of alpha-recoil. Thorium is insoluble in
natural waters. Consideration of the ratios
of 234U/238U and 20Th/23U for ore samples
has been used to indicate proximity and
evolutionary stage of secondary uranium
deposits.

Application of these methods to
organic accumulations yields ambiguous
results, suggesting that additional factors
are reflected in disequilibrium signatures.
Thorium may enter associated with
particulate or colloid phases. Uranium
activity ratios in organic matter must
reflect, in part, equilibration with the
waters in which they accumulate. 234U
may be less likely to enter a mobile fluid
phase via recoil in an organic-rich


environment. When taken in combination
with hydrogeologic constraints, uranium
series disequilibrium systematics provide
additional insight into the complexity of
the interaction between metals and organic
deposits in the natural environment.

Brewster-Wingard, G. L., Scott, T. M.,
Edwards, L. E., Weedman, S. D., and
Simmons, K. R., 1997, Reinterpretation
of the Peninsular Florida Oligocene: An
Integrated Stratigraphic Approach,
Sedimentary Geology, v. 108, p. 207-
228.

A very thick (>300 m) nearly
continuous Oligocene section exists in
southern peninsular Florida, as revealed by
lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic (mollusks
and dinocysts), chronostratigraphic (Sr
isotopes) and petrographic analyses of
twelve cores and two quarries. The
Oligocene deposits in the subsurface of
southern Florida are the thickest
documented in the southeastern US, and
they also may represent the most complete
record of Oligocene deposition in this region.
No major unconformities within the
Oligocene section are detected in the
southern portion of the peninsula; hiatuses
at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, the early
Oligocene-late Oligocene boundary, and the
late Oligocene-Miocene boundary, are of
limited duration if they exist at all. No
significant disconformity is recognized
between the Suwannee Limestone and the
Arcadia Formation in southern Florida.
However, on the east coast of Florida a
hiatus of more than 12 m.y., spanning from
at least the middle of the early Oligocene to
early Miocene is present. The Suwannee
Limestone was deposited during the early
Oligocene. The top of the Suwannee
Limestone appears to be diachronous across
the platform. The "Suwannee" Limestone,
previously identified incorrectly as a late
Oligocene unit, is herein documented to be
early Oligocene and is encompassed in the
lower Oligocene Suwannee Limestone. An
unnamed limestone, found on the east coast
of the peninsula is at least in part,
correlative with the Suwannee Limestone.
The Arcadia Formation, basal Hawthorn






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Group, accounts for a large portion of the
Oligocene deposition in southern and central
Florida, spanning the interval from the
middle of the early Oligocene to at least the
early Miocene. Comparisons of the
depositional patterns, and the distribution of
dolomite and phosphate within the
Suwannee Limestone and the Arcadia
Formation, suggest fluctuating sea levels
and that the paleo-Gulf Stream played a role
in determining the nature and extent of
Oligocene deposition in peninsular Florida.

*Cowart, J. B., Williams, H. K. and
Arthur, J. D., 1998, Mobilization of U
Isotopes by the Introduction of Surface
Waters into a Carbonate Aquifer:
Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, no. 7,
p. A-86.

At a site in Tampa, Florida, city
drinking water has been injected into a
carbonate aquifer containing waters having
low dissolved oxygen. Approximately 60 m
from the injection well, an observation well
open to the injection zone has been utilized
to obtain samples of water during the
injection process. The injection rate was
one million gallons per day for a period of
176 days starting in December 1997. The
injection period studied was the third time
(cycle) that the oxygenated city water had
been injected into this zone. On the first
day of the present cycle, before any of the
newly injected water could have reached it,
the observation well had U= 1.47+/-
.02Lg/l and 234U/238U alpha activity ratio
("AR")=0.97+/-.02, values which
represent the water remaining after the end
of withdrawal during the previous (second)
cycle. The well oxygenated city water
(U= > 0.1ig/l; AR>1.00) mobilized U
associated with the aquifer matrix to as
high as 7.26+/-0.27 1ig/1 (with
AR=0.76+/-.02). For the first 14 weeks
of injection, samples were collected weekly
and analyzed for U isotopes. In all cases, U
was much greater in concentration and
lower in AR (ie. < 1.00) than the injected
water or the water remaining from the
previous cycle of withdrawal of injected
water. Comparison of the present U


isotopic analyses with those obtained
during the previous withdrawal cycle
suggests that the withdrawal water
contains U which in part emanated from
small, semi-isolated pores in which ARs
with ultra-low (ie. <0.05) values were
generated. (The ultra-low ARs are the
result of alpha recoil isotope fractionation
from a thin coating of U on the grain
surface.) In contrast, the water reaching
the observation well probably flowed
mainly along larger conduits in the
limestone. It is thought that the isotope
fractionation mechanism mentioned above
can account for all situations in which
dissolved U has a deficiency of 234U.

Cowart, J. B., Williams, H. K., and
Arthur,' J. D., 1997, Low 234U38U
Activity Ratios and Increased U
Concentrations in Waters Injected into
a Shallow Aquifer in Florida, Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 29, no. 6, p. A-261.

U concentrations and 234U/238U
alpha activity ratios (AR) were determined
for waters associated with an Aquifer
Storage and Recovery test at Tampa,
Florida wherein city drinking water is
injected into an aquifer to be stored and
then later recovered for use. The injected
waters had U concentration ~0.5 pig/I and
AR ~0.9. The native waters in this
marginally reduced aquifer had U
concentration ~4.5 ig/l and AR -0.95. The
earliest recovered injection water had U
concentration -1.25 and AR -0.50. With
time, the U concentration and AR of the
recovered injection waters increased in
concentration and AR, approaching the
values of the native aquifer waters. The U
isotope behavior caused by the injection of
oxic waters into this aquifer can be
explained by a mechanism whereby U
located near the surface of aquifer matrix
material has become deficient in 234U by
alpha recoil under reducing conditions and
is then mobilized as the injected water
oxidizes the U+4 to U+6, a more mobile
valence state of U. This mechanism can be
used to explain the widespread low ARs
found in many karstic regions of Florida






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


where sinkholes provide the site for oxic
water input.

*Cunningham, K., McNeill, D., Guertin,
L., Ciesielski, P., Scott, T. M., and de
Verteuil, L., 1998 New Tertiary
Stratigraphy for the Florida Keys and
Southern Peninsula of Florida,
Geological Society of America Bulletin,
v. 110, p. 231-258

Seven lithologic formations, ranging
in age from Oligocene to Pleistocene, were
recently penetrated by core holes in
southernmost Florida. From bottom to top,
they are the early Oligocene Suwannee
Limestone; late-early Oligocene-to-Miocene
Peace River Formation, basal Hawthorn
Group; late Miocene Peace River Formation,
upper Hawthorn Group; newly proposed
late Miocene-to-Pliocene Long Key and
Stock Island Formations; and Pleistocene
Key Largo and Miami Limestones. The
rocks of the Suwannee Limestone form a
third-order sequence. Although the entire
thickness was not penetrated, 96 m of
Suwannee core from one well contains at
least 50 vertically stacked, exposure-
capped limestone cycles presumably related
to rapid eustatic fluctuations while
experiencing tropical to subtropical
conditions. The Arcadia Formation is a
composite sequence containing four high-
frequency sequences composed of multiple
vertically stacked carbonate cycles. Most
cycles do not show evidence of subaerial
exposure and were deposited under more
temperate conditions, relative to the
Suwannee Limestone. The Arcadia
Formation in southernmost Florida is
bounded by regional unconformities
representing third-order sequence
boundaries. Post-Arcadia transgression
produced a major backstepping of sediment
accumulation above the upper sequence
boundary of the Arcadia Formation. The
Peace River Formation, composed of
diatomaceous mudstones, has been
identified only beneath the Florida
peninsula and is not present beneath the
Florida Keys. Deposition occurred during
marine transgressive to high-stand
conditions and a local phosphatization
event (recorded in northeast Florida). The


transgression is possibly related to a global
rise in sea level, which resulted in
upwelling of relatively cooler, relatively
nutrient-rich water masses onto the Florida
Platform.

It is proposed that the absence of
Peace River sediments beneath the Keys is
due to sediment bypass of the upper
surface of the Arcadia, a result of sediment
sweeping by an ancestral Florida current.
During the late Miocene to Pliocene in the
Florida Keys, siliciclastics of the Long Key
Formation and fine-grained carbonates of
the Stock Island Formation prograded
toward the southern edge of the Florida
Platform and downlapped onto the regional
unconformity at the top of the Arcadia.
Shallow-marine Pleistocene limestones (Key
Largo and Miami Limestones), deposited
during tropical to subtropical conditions,
drape over accretionary successions of the
Long Key and Stock Island Formations.

Duncan, J. G., Evans, W. L., III, Taylor,
K. L., 1997, Subsurface Geologic
Analysis of the Lower Floridan Aquifer
System in East-Central Florida, 46th
Annual Southeastern Section, Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 29, no. 3, p. A-15.

Permeable strata of the lower
Floridan aquifer system in east-central
Florida is utilized for liquid waste disposal
purposes by means of injection wells.
Ground-water chemical data from monitor
wells at several injection sites have trends
that suggest the presence and/or lateral
continuity of suitable confining rock above
the injection zone is questionable. A study
detailing the geologic framework of the
lower Floridan aquifer system was
conducted using a combination of
subsurface geological data that included
borehole lithologic-samples, geophysical
logs and borehole videos.

The lower Floridan aquifer system is
characterized by Paleocene to Middle
Eocene, interbedded limestones and
dolostones which dip gently to the east
southeast. Several marker horizons within
the Floridan aquifer system were identified






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


on gamma-ray and sonic logs that
facilitated stratigraphic correlation and
structure mapping. A glauconite marker bed
in limestone at the top of the Lower
Eocene/Oldsmar Formation is lithologically
distinctive in cores and well cuttings and
has a characteristic gamma-ray signature
that is laterally continuous across the study
area. Several lines of evidence suggest the
possibility of faulting in Brevard County.

The "Boulder Zone" is the primary
injection horizon and consists of highly
fractured and cavernous dolostones.
Above the Boulder Zone, there are layers of
carbonates that have confining qualities.
Geophysical logs, lithologic samples and
borehole videos from the injection wells
indicate that numerous fractures exist
throughout the lower Floridan aquifer
system including the confining strata.

Duncan, J. G., and Lundberg, N.,
1997, Re-evaluation of the Suwannee
Terrane (FL)/Gondwana (West Africa)
Correlation based on New Detailed
Paleozoic Lithostratigraphy from the
North Florida Basin, Geological Society
of America Abstracts with Programs, v.
29, no. 6, p. A-379.

The Suwannee Terrane (ST) in
southeasternmost North America formed
part of the continental shelf of the lapetus
Ocean/Gondwanan passive margin along
what is present-day northwest Africa
during the Early Paleozoic. The Lower
Paleozoic sedimentary succession of the ST
has been correlated with the Bove Basin of
Guinea in northwest Africa based on
paleogeographic reconstructions. A refined
and detailed stratigraphic sequence for the
Paleozoic of the ST/North Florida Basin
(NFB) constructed utilizing new,
unpublished deep-borehole data allows
more precise correlation with other Early
Paleozoic Gondwanan and peri-Gondwanan
basins.

The basal Lower Paleozoic
sequence (Cambrian/Ordovician?) of the
NFB consists of continental feldspathic and
lithic sandstones. Overlying the continental
deposits are Lower to Middle Ordovician


marine micaceous shales and sandstones
that are in part fossiliferous. The
uppermost Ordovician consists of thick,
unfossiliferous quartz arenite of terrestrial
origin. Black shale of Late Silurian to Early
Devonian age unconformably overlies the
terrestrial sandstone. Middle Devonian
shales and sandstones of mixed terrestrial
and near-shore marine origin overlie the
black shales.

Lower to Middle Ordovician marine
strata of the ST are continental-shelf
deposits, whereas in the cratonic Bove
Basin the entire pre-Upper Ordovician
Paleozoic section is continental.
Subsequent stratigraphic similarities
between the two areas are not evident until
the Late Silurian, when a widespread
marine transgression deposited black shales
in both the Bove Basin and the ST/NFB as
well as across most of the northwest
African portion of Gondwana.

Thus pre-Pangean paleogeographic
reconstructions that place the ST adjacent
to the Bove Basin, although permitted by,
are not supported by Lower Paleozoic
stratigraphic correlation. The tectonic
setting of the NFB is likely most correlative
with other lapetan continental-shelf
sequences of northwest Gondwana and
with more outboard peri-Gondwanan
terranes.

Duncan, J. G., 1998, Geologic History
of an Accreted Terrane: Paleozoic
Stratigraphy of the North Florida Basin,
Suwannee Terrane, Ph.D. Dissertation,
Tallahassee, Florida, Florida State Uni-
versity Department of Geology, 258 p.

The Suwannee Terrane in
southeastern North America formed part of
the continental shelf of the lapetus
Ocean/Gondwanan passive margin, along
what is present-day northwest Africa,
during the Early Paleozoic. The Paleozoic
sedimentary succession of the Suwannee
Terrane, called the North Florida Basin,
begins at the base with continental
feldspathic and lithic-rich sandstones of the
Cambro-Ordovician Pumpkin Swamp
Formation. Feldspathic sandstone of the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Cambro-Ordovician Cooks Hammock
Formation overlies the Pumpkin Swamp.
Above the Cooks Hammock, the Ordovician
Cherry Lake Formation comprises a lower
quartz-arenite facies and an upper
feldspathic sandstone/shale sequence with
interbedded oolitic ironstone. Black shale
and quartz arenite of Smith Formation
(Middle Ordovician) overlie the Cherry Lake.
Black shale of the Upper Silurian to Lower
Devonian San Pedro Bay Shale
unconformably overlies the Smith
Formation. Middle Devonian siliciclastic
strata of mixed continental and marine
origin presumably overlie the San Pedro Bay
Shale.

Abundant volcanic detritus and
plagioclase in Pumpkin Swamp (Qt52F13L35)
and lower Cooks Hammock (Qt61F39L 0;
P/F= 0.76) sandstones record the initial
dissection of the Pan African magmatic arc.
Volcanic rocks of the North Florida Volcanic
Series formed a likely source for the volcanic
detritus, whereas plagioclase-rich sands
were likely derived from the Osceola
"granite." The quartz arenite facies of the
Cherry Lake represents the first major influx
of detritus from the craton interior.
Feldspathic sandstone of the uppermost
Cherry Lake (Qt82F18Lo) indicates that
basement was uplifted again during back-arc
rifting of Avalonia from Gondwana. Quartz
arenite of the Smith Formation indicates that
a second major influx of sand from the
craton interior reached the North Florida
Basin in the Middle Ordovician.
Volcaniclastic sandstone of the Middle
Devonian sequence reflects a magmatic arc
provenance and Acadian tectonism in the
Suwannee Terrane.

The stratigraphic linkage of the
Suwannee Terrane with Gondwana is best
demonstrated by correlation with Lower
Paleozoic sequences in the Anti Atlas
Mountains of Morocco and with the Avalon
Terrane of Newfoundland, where
stratigraphic units closely parallel those of
the Suwannee Terrane in terms of lithology,
succession, and age. Stratigraphic
correlation with Cambro-Ordovician units of
the Bove Basin in Guinea, West Africa, is


much less precise because of the continental
character of the African deposits.

*Edwards, L. E., Weedman, S. D., Sim-
mons, K. R., Scott, T. M., Brewster-
Wingard, G. L., and Ishman, S., 1998,
Lithostratigraphy, Petrography, Bio-
stratigraphy and Strontium-Isotope
Stratigraphy of the Surficial Aquifer
System, Western Collier County,
Florida, U.S. Geological Survey Open
File Report 98-205, 79 p.

In 1996, seven cores were
recovered in western Collier County,
southwestern Florida, to acquire subsurface
geologic and hydrologic data to support
ground-water modeling efforts. This report
presents the lithostratigraphy, X-ray
diffraction analyses, petrography,
biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope
stratigraphy of these cores. The oldest unit
encountered in the study cores is an
unnamed formation that is late Miocene.
At least four depositional sequences are
present within this formation. Calculated
age of the formation, based on strontium-
isotope stratigraphy, ranges from 9.5 to
5.7 Ma (million years ago). An
unconformity within this formation that
represents a hiatus of at least two million
years is indicated in the Old Pump Road
core. In two cores, Collier-Seminole and
Old Pump Road, the uppermost sediments
of the unnamed formation are not dated by
strontium isotopes, and, based on the
fossils present, these sediments could be
as young as Pliocene. In another core
(Fakahatchee Strand Ranger Station), the
upper part of the unnamed formation is
dated by mollusks as Pliocene. The
Tamiami Formation overlies the unnamed
formation throughout the study area and is
represented by the Ochopee Limestone
Member. The unit is Pliocene and probably
includes the interval of time near the
early/late Pliocene boundary. Strontium-
isotope analysis indicates an early Pliocene
age (calculated ages range from 5.1 to 3.5
Ma), but the margin of error includes the
latest Miocene and the late Pliocene. The
dinocyst assemblages in the Ochopee
typically are not age-diagnostic, but, near
the base of the unit in the Collier-Seminole,






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Jones Grade, and Fakahatchee Strand
State Forest cores, they indicate an age of
late Miocene or Pliocene. The molluscan
assemblages indicate a Pliocene age for the
Ochopee, and a distinctive assemblage of
Carditimera arata ? and Chione cortinaria ?
in several of the cores specifically indicates
an age near the early/late Pliocene
boundary. Undifferentiated sands overlie
the Pliocene limestones in two cores in the
southern part of the study area. Artificial
fill occurs at the top of most of the cores.
The hydrologic confining units penetrated
by these cores are different in different
parts of the study area. To the west, a
hard tightly cemented dolostone forms the
first major confining unit below the water
table. In the eastern part of the study area,
confinement is more difficult to determine.
A tightly cemented sandstone, much
younger than the dolostones to the west
and probably not laterally connected to
them, forms a slight confining unit in one
core. Thick zones of poorly sorted muddy
unconsolidated sands form a slight
confining unit in other cores; these
probably are not correlative to either the
sandstone or the dolostones to the west.
The age and sedimentologic observations
suggest a complex compartmentalization of
the surficial aquifer system in southwestern
Florida. The calibrations of dinocyst and
molluscan occurrences with strontium-
isotope stratigraphy allows us to expand
and document the reported ranges of many
taxa.

Franke, O. L., DeHan, R. S., Cleaves, E.
T., Job, C. A., Anzzolin, A. R., Wilber,
W. G., Lapham, W. W., 1998,
Conceptual Frameworks for Ground
Water Quality Monitoring, Denver, CO,
Intergovernmental Task Force for
Monitoring Water Quality, August
1997, 94 p.

Goals and objectives of ground
water quality monitoring in the United
States were discussed and evaluated along
with the various approaches being followed
for achieving these goals. Monitoring
parameters and analytical methods were
described and correlated with goals and
objectives sought by monitoring programs.


This publication was provided to assist
water resource managers in designing
ambient and regulatory monitoring
programs on local, regional, and national
levels.

* Katz, B. G. and DeHan, R. S, 1998,
Interaction Between Ground Water and
Surface Water in the Suwannee River
Basin, Florida, Journal of the American
Water Resources Association. v. 33, no
6, p. 1237-1254.

Radon-222, oxygen-18 and
deuterium were used in demonstrating
interaction between ground water and
surface water in the Suwannee River Basin.
Even though boundaries of groundwater
basins do not coincide with surface water
drainage subbasins, a significant degree of
mixing between surface and ground water
was observed and correlated with seasonal
rainfall. Water quality measurement
indicated that mixing of the two water
media created conditions favorable for the
natural reduction of nitrate by
denitrification reactions in the aquifer
resulting in a decrease in the amount of
nutrients in the Suwannee River.

SPatton, D. J. and DeHan, R. S., 1998,
Water Issues: Global, National, State,
and Ecosystems, in Fernald, E. A. and
Perdum, E. D. (editors), Water Resource
Atlas of Florida, Institute of Science
and Public Affairs, Tallahassee, Florida,
Florida State University, p. 1-14.

This Chapter of the Water Atlas of
Florida provides an introduction to current
water resource issues and concerns at the
global and national levels. The chapter
points out the threats facing the long term
availability and quality of water on the
planet, and the necessity of taking action
to avoid repetition of past mistakes and
resource mismanagement. At the national
level, the chapter discusses current efforts
in the United States to treat water as a
critical component of larger watersheds and
ecosystems, the maintenance of which is
essential to this country's healthy economy
and environment.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


* Rupert, F. and Arthur, J. D., 1997,
Geology and Geomorphology, in:
Coultas, C. L. and Hsieh, Y., (editors).,
Ecology and Management of Tidal
Marshes A model from the Gulf of
Mexico, Delray Beach, Florida, St. Lucie
Press, p. 35 52.

Schmidt, W., 1997, Solid Earth
Science: The Foundation of Ecosystem
Management and Defendable
Environmental Regulations, 46th
Annual Southeastern Section Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 29, no. 3, p. 67.

The solid earth serves as the bucket
for our fresh water drinking aquifers, it
supplies all the materials used by our
society to feed our population, it provides
shelter and transportation, and it provides
all other life sustaining goods and the
energy for the services we need. It also
serves as the framework for all the varied
and unique environments on the face of the
earth, and it is the reason for the varying
ecosystems and associated biologic
assemblages.

The lithology of the geologic
framework and the associated geologic
structures, affect both physical and
chemical characteristics of all ecosystems.
These parameters include: the context for
landscape development, local
hydrogeology, soil chemistry, availability of
nutrients, acidity, oxidation-reduction
potential, and metal contents. Various
socioeconomic issues and potential
environmental risks associated with land-
use planning or management schemes and
environmental regulation, must incorporate
this basic understanding or they will be
seriously and fundamentally flawed.
Ecosystem management, natural resources
conservation and management, and
environmental regulatory programs cannot
be carried out without a fundamental
geologic database as a foundation.

This symposium shall demonstrate
many ways in which our geoscience
"choir" can go forth and "preach" the
geological message.


* Schmidt, W., 1997, Geomorphology
and Physiography of Florida, in,
Randazzo, A. F. and Jones, D. S.
(editors), The Geology of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida, University Press of
Florida, p. 1-12.

Schmidt, W., 1997, Geologic Mapping
to Support Water Resources Needs and
Ecosystems Understanding, Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 29, no. 6, p. A-424.

Mapping the geologic materials of
the surface and subsurface has numerous
benefactors other than the typical
exploration for economic minerals generally
thought of by the non-geological
community. In Florida, our geologic
mapping programs incorporate subsurface
information such as well-cuttings,
stratigraphic core tests, auger samples,
wire-line logs, and other information to
characterize and correlate subsurface
lithologic units. This information is
fundamental to successful ground water
planning, protection, and remediation.
Florida obtains about 95% of its drinking
water from wells both municipal and
private, and ground water dynamics can
only be understood with a basic and
detailed understanding of the aquifer
materials which hold and transport our
precious drinking water. Further, Florida's
land-use and land planning decisions
regarding the conservation of various
natural ecosystems must also be based on
an understanding of the geologic
foundation of our environments.
Geologists today must communicate the
many societal benefits of their work to the
public, elected officials, and planners. Our
continued life style and survival depend on
it.

* Schmidt, W., 1998, Solid Earth
Geoscience: The Foundation of
Successful Environmental Regulations,
Natural Resources Conservation, and
Ecosystem Management, (Abstracts),
Tallahassee, Florida, Department of
Environmental Protection Senior
Management Retreat, July 16, 1998.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Science in public policy has rarely
been so needed as it is in today's complex
political forum. Society demands resources
to maintain a standard of living
commensurate with people's expectations
and a suitable level of environmental quality
is inherent to this demand. Tradeoffs are
inevitably made between the activities that
provide energy, minerals, timber, food,
fresh water, and recreation, and the need
and desire to preserve ecosystem services
and conserve our environment. The Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) strives to present
unbiased solid earth geoscience
interpretations to support informed
decisions by government agencies,
industry, consultants, and the public.
Without a basic understanding of the local
and regional geology which must include
information on rock and sediment lithology,
stratigraphy, mineralogy, geochemistry, and
several hydrogeologic parameters including
porosity and permeability interpretations
(not just measurements) among other
geologic concerns, no environmental
regulatory program, no land management or
planning program, and no state-wide or
water shed ecosystem management
program can be successful. I will briefly
review the difficulty of communicating this
to the lay public, the approach the FGS has
devised to achieve success, and some of
the indicators of success we have seen in
recent years.

* Schmidt, W., 1998, Stratigraphic and
Hydrogeologic Units in Florida, in:
Fernald, E. A. and Purdum, E. D.
(editors), Chapter 3, Groundwater,
Water Resources Atlas of Florida,
Institute of Science and Public Affairs,
Tallahassee, Florida, Florida State
University, p.40-44.

* Schmidt, W., 1998, Employment in the
Geosciences: State Geological Surveys,
in: Guide to Geoscience Departments in
the United States & Canada, 6th
Edition, 1998-99, Alexandria, Virginia,
American Geological Institute, p. xxxv-
xxxvii.


* Scott, T. M., 1997,
Holocene History of


Miocene to
Florida, in:


Randazzo, A. F. and Jones, D. S.
(editors), The Geology of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida, University Press of
Florida, p. 57-68.

* Scott, T. M., 1998, The New State of
Florida Geologic Map: Introduction of
the Draft Digital Map, 47th Annual
Southeastern Section, Geological
Society of America Abstracts with
Programs, v. 30, no. 4, p. A-57.

The interpretation of Florida's near-
surface geologic framework has undergone
revisions since the last geological map of
Florida published by the Florida Geological
Survey (FGS) (Vernon and Puri, 1964, scale
of 1:2,000,000). Brooks (1982)
independently published an interpretation of
the state's geology at a scale of
1:500,000. During the last ten years, the
FGS has been preparing a revised version
of the State geologic map incorporating
these new concepts. The draft map (scale
1:750,000), text and cross sections are
presented for discussion and debate.

The near-surface geology of Florida
was compiled from field work,
interpretation of core borings and well
cuttings, and in-house data. Each county
was initially mapped utilizing 1:24,000
scale topographic maps. This data was
transferred to Department of Transportation
(DOT) county maps. Digital files were
created from the DOT county maps utilizing
AutoCAD and published in the Florida
Geological Survey's Open File Map Series.
Subsequently, the individual county files
were merged to create a master file for the
State using Arclnfo. The state coverage
was brought into ArcView for editing
purposes. Publication of the statewide
map will be at a scale of 1:750,000.

SScott, T. M., Means, G. H., and
Brewster-Wingard, G. L., 1997,
Progress Report on Sediment Analyses
at Selected Faunal Monitoring Sites in
North-central and Northeastern Florida
Bay, U.S. Geological Survey Open File
Report 97-534, 50 p.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Bay is a shallow, subtropical
lagoon at the southern tip of the Florida
peninsula. The 2200 km2, triangular-
shaped area is the site of modern carbonate
sediment formation and deposition. The
intricate ecosystem of the bay has
undergone significant changes as the result
of natural influences and human
intervention. The purpose of this study is
to investigate carbonate sediment
characteristics and distribution in
conjunction with faunal and floral
distribution to determine the substrate
preferences of the associated biota. The
modern data provide the proxy to
understand down-core distributions of
sediments, fauna and flora to document
ecosystem changes in the bay.

Selected sediment samples
collected during 1996 from 18 sites in the
northeastern and central bay were analyzed
for insoluble residues, organic content,
total carbonate, and percent of silt and clay
sized particles. Insoluble residues range
from 0.8% of the sediment in a shell lag to
11.5% with an average of 5.1%. Organic
content ranged from a minimum of 1.43%
of the sediment to 18.05% with an
average of 7.6%. The total carbonate
content ranged from 72.56% to 97.81%,
averaging 87.98%. The percent silt and
clay sized particles ranged from 13.75% to
63.62% for the samples analyzed. The
insoluble residue content shows a general
trend of decreasing insoluble residues from
the northeastern bay toward the
southwest. Organic content is variable
throughout the bay and does not show a
regional trend. Several sites show higher
organic content in the samples collected in
February as compared to those collected in
July.

Lithologic examination indicated
that, in addition to the carbonate mud (less
than 63pm), sample components included
whole and fragmented mollusks,
foraminifers, bryozoans, ostracods, and
organic matter. The insoluble residues
consisted of quartz sand and silt, clays and
siliceous fossils. A component of the
insoluble residues may be dust derived from


Africa and transported to southern Florida
by the prevailing winds.


Tanner, W. F., Balsillie, J. H., and
Williams, H. K., 1998, Origins of Florida
Panhandle Terrace Sands: [Abstract],
American Association of Petroleum
Geologists Bulletin, v. 82, no. 9, p.
1792-1793.

Five new sand sample suites have
been studied from the marine terrace system
in and near Tallahassee, Fla. The 3 main
terraces, at about 35, 50 and 80 meters,
were sampled earlier; the new suites were
obtained at 20-50 meters. Part of the
earliest work, based on widely spaced
samples, is shown not to be as useful as
more recent study, during which each suite
of samples was collected from a small area,
probably representing a single depositional
agency.

The basic procedure was
granulometric analysis, using "suite
statistics" methodology, which gives better
results than work with individual samples.
In addition, distinctive, diagnostic and
reliable features appear in some instances on
the probability plots of individual samples.

The general results include the
following: (1,2) Two Capital Circle localities,
at 22-25 m elevation: unusually small grains
(0.11 mm) representing first a river and a
beach, and then later settling from water;
(3) Fairview School locale, at about 25 m
elevation: dune; (4) Campground Pond Road
locality at about 37 m elevation: a river not
far away; (5) Ocala Road site, at about 50
m: beach; plus the 80-m, 50-m and 35-m
terraces, each indicating a beach plus wind
work. The wave energy level for the beach
localities was low-to-moderate, as is
observed today in the northeastern Gulf of
Mexico.

The sands from the 35-50-80 m
terraces show clearly: gradual fining of the
mean grain size and gradual worsening of
the sorting (standard deviation becomes
larger), as time passed.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


* Tanner, W. F., Balsillie, J. H., and
Williams, H. K., 1998, Origins of Florida
Panhandle Terrace Sands: Transactions
of the Gulf Coast Association of
Geological Societies, v. 48, p. 431-438.

Five new sand sample suites have
been collected and analyzed from the high
marine terrace system in and near
Tallahassee, Fla. The three main terraces,
with present key elevations of about 35, 50
and 80 meters, had been sampled
previously. The five new suites were
obtained from 20-50 meters. Part of the
earliest work, based on widely spaced
samples, is shown not to be as useful as
more recent work (each suite of samples
was collected from a rather small area,
probably representing a single depositional
agency, rather than a mix). The key
procedure was granulometric analysis,
following strictly-defined methods, including
the use of "suite statistics."

Results: (1,2) Two Capital Circle
sites, 22-25 m elevation: Fine sand,
representing an earlier river, then a beach,
then later settling from water in a coastal
location; (3) Fairview School locale, at about
25 m elevation: dune; (4) Campground
Pond Road locality at about 37 m: a river
not far away; (5) Ocala Road locality, at
about 50 m: beach.

The 80-m, 50-m and 35-m terrace
represent beaches plus wind work, with
faint evidence for prior river transport. The
wave energy level for the beach localities
was low-to-moderate. The sands from these
three terraces show clear changes with time
(gradual fining of grain size, gradual
worsening of sorting).

* Trimble, C. A., 1997, Cation Exchange
Capacity and Normalization of Trace
Metal Concentrations in Bottom
Sediments of the Steinhatchee River
Estuary, Florida, Masters Thesis,
Tallahassee, Florida, Florida State
University Department of Geology, 200
p.

The Steinhatchee River estuary is a
small, relatively pristine bay located on the


Florida Big Bend coastline. Sedimentary
accretion rates within the estuarine system
vary from 1-4mm/yr and are consistent
with rates determined for other estuaries in
the Gulf of Mexico system. Samples were
collected from 31 locations in the
Steinhatchee River estuary representing
four sedimentary lithofacies: clay- and
organic-rich sands, organic-rich sands,
quartz sands, and oyster bioherms. All
samples collected were analyzed for major-
and trace-element content, texture, total
organic matter, clay mineralogy, and cation
exchange capacity. These data provide a
benchmark for comparison of future metal-
concentration data measurements.

The facies sampled in the study
may be distinguished from one another on
the basis of a variety of chemical and
physical factors. Facies 1, clay- and
organic-rich sands, are best characterized
by higher Al, Fe, and K concentrations than
the other three facies. The second facies,
organic-rich sands, are similar to the first
group in that they contain more metals
(exclusive of Ca and Mn) than the
remaining two facies; however, they
contain substantially less Al, Fe and K than
facies 1. The third facies, quartz sands, is
clearly distinguished from all others by
extremely low organic matter content, and
by the predominance of sand. Finally, the
fourth facies, oyster bioherms, contains
substantially greater amounts of Ca than
any of the others sampled.

The variety of chemical and
physical factors which affect the capability
of a sediment to concentrate trace metals
complicates the interpretation of these
data. Thus the ability to distinguish
anthropogenic from naturally occurring
concentrations of many metals in
sediments is uncertain. Most workers
address this problem by "normalizing" the
concentration of the metal of interest.
Normalization of element concentrations
assumes a correlation between either
geochemical or sedimentological
characteristics and the element of interest.

Granulometric normalization of
metal concentration against total weight






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


percent fines (<2 to 62.5jim)
demonstrated that weight percent fines
correlate well with most metals evaluated.
Geochemical methods tested include
normalization against reference elements
(Al, Fe, and C) and normalization against
sediment organic-matter content. The
highest correlations are achieved when
trace metals are normalized with respect to
Al. Finally, a new geochemical method,
normalization against cation exchange
capacity (CEC), is compared to existing
accepted normalization procedures.
Normalization to CEC works well for most
trace and major metals measured; however,
present practices of normalization against
weight percent Al or weight percent fines
are generally superior.

Two dissolution/extraction methods
are compared and evaluated: partial
digestion by aqua regia (AR), and total
digestion by HF plus aqua regia (TD). An
aqua-regia leach is either as reliable, or
more reliable for most metals (based on
correlation coefficients), than total
digestion using HF plus aqua regia. In
addition, minimum detection limits for
metal concentrations in the aqua regia-
leached samples are lower than detection
limits for the totally digested samples for all
but six metals: Al, Fe, K, Na, V and Ti.

Data normalization indicates that
nearly all metal concentrations plot within
99% confidence limits of their expected
values. Exceptions include Pb, which
appears to be significantly elevated in a
few samples taken in the organic-rich sand
facies of the salt marsh. Mercury values
are also elevated with respect to the
expected concentrations in three locations.
Potassium and P also appear slightly
elevated in several of the marsh facies
samples. This finding may be due to the
presence of nutrient loading from the river
communities of Jena and Steinhatchee, or
due to application of these elements in
fertilizer to reduce moisture stress to
planted pine acreage within the watershed.
The present status of the estuary suggests
that metal levels in the estuary indicate


little contamination from anthropogenic
sources.

Trimble, C. A., Hoenstine, R. W.,
Highley, A. B., Donoghue, J. F., and
Ragland, P. C., 1997, Baseline
Investigation of Estuarine Sediment
Metals for the Steinhatchee River Area
of the Florida Big Bend, Environmental
Geosciences, v. 4, no. 2, p. 95-130.

This Florida Geological Survey/U.S.
Department of Interior, Minerals
Management Service Cooperative study
provides baseline data for major and trace
metal concentrations in the Steinhatchee
River Estuary. The study provides a
benchmark for comparison with future
metal concentration measurements.

The Steinhatchee River Estuary is a
small, relatively pristine bay located on the
Big Bend coastline. Sedimentary accretion
rates within the estuarine system range
from 1.41 to 4.13 mm/yr and are
consistent with rates determined for other
estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico system. In
this study, 79 samples were collected from
66 locations representing four sedimentary
lithofacies, including quartz sands, organic-
rich sands, clay-rich organic, and oyster
bioherms. All samples were analyzed for
major and trace metal content, texture,
total organic matter, and clay mineralogy.
Normalization of element
concentrations assumes a linear
relationship between either geochemical or
sedimentological characteristics and the
element of interest. Granulometric
normalization of metal concentration
against total weight percent fines (<62.5
pm) was evaluated. Geochemical methods
tested include normalization against
reference elements (aluminum, iron, and
carbon) and normalization against sediment
organic matter content.

The best correlations were found
when trace metals were normalized with
respect to aluminum. Data normalization
indicated that nearly all metal
concentrations were within 95%
confidence limits of the expected value. In






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


general, the metal levels observed in the
estuary indicate little significant
contamination from anthropogenic sources.
Exceptions include lead levels that
appeared to be significantly elevated in a
few samples taken in the organic-rich sand
facies of the salt marsh. Mercury values
were also elevated with respect to the
expected trends in three locations.
Potassium and phosphorus may be slightly
elevated in several of the marsh facies
samples. Possible explanations include
nutrient loading from nearby communities
and application of these elements in
fertilizer to reduce moisture stress to pines
seedlings within the watershed.

Trimble, C. A., Hoenstine, R. W.,
Highley, A. B., Donoghue, J. F., and
Ragland, P. C., 1998, Baseline
Sediment Trace-Metals Investigation:
Steinhatchee River Estuary, Florida
Northeast Gulf of Mexico, in
Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium
on Studies Related to Continental
Margins, U.S. Minerals Management
Service and the Bureau of Economic
Geology, the University of Texas at
Austin, p. 80-87.


This Florida Geological Survey/U.S.
Department of Interior, Minerals
Management Service Cooperative Study
provides baseline data for major and trace
metal concentrations in the sediments of
the Steinhatchee River Estuary. These data
are intended to provide a benchmark for
comparison with future metal concentration
data measurements.

The Steinhatchee River estuary is a
relatively pristine bay located within the Big
Bend Wildlife Management Area on the
North Central Florida Gulf of Mexico
coastline. The river flows 55 kilometers
through woodlands and planted pines
before emptying into the Gulf at Deadman
Harbor. Water quality in the estuary is
excellent at present. There is minimal
development within the watershed. The
estuary is part of an extensive system of
marshes which formed along the Florida


Gulf coast during the Holocene marine
transgression. Sediment accretion rate
measurements range from 1.4 mm/yr to
4.1 mm/yr based on lead-210
measurements.

Seventy-nine short cores were
collected from 66 sample locations,
representing four lithofacies: clay- and
organic-rich sands, organic-rich sands,
clean quartz sands and oyster bioherms.
Samples were analyzed for texture, total
organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen,
clay mineralogy and major and trace metal
content. Following these analyses, metal
concentrations were normalized against
geochemical reference elements (aluminum
and iron), and against total weight percent
organic matter. Metals were also
normalized granulometrically against total
weight percent fines (<0.062 mm).

Concentrations were determined by
inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission
spectrometry (ICP-AES) for all metals
except mercury. Mercury concentrations
were determined by cold-flameless atomic
absorption spectrometry (AAS).
Granulometric measurements were made by
sieve and pipette analyses. Organic matter
was determined by two methods: weight
loss on ignition and elemental analysis (by
Carlo-Erba Furnace) of carbon and nitrogen.
X-ray diffraction was used to determine
clay mineralogy.

Trace metal concentrations were
best correlated when normalized with
respect to sediment aluminum
concentrations. Normalizations indicate
that most major and trace metal
concentrations fall within 95% prediction
limits of the expected value. This finding
suggests that little significant metal
contamination occurred within this system
prior to 1994 sediment sampling.
Exceptions include lead, mercury, copper,
zinc, potassium and phosphorous. Lead
and mercury are elements which generally
enter this watershed through atmospheric
deposition; thus, anomalous levels of these
metals are not necessarily associated with
activities within the watershed of the
Steinhatchee River estuary. Anomalous






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


concentrations of other metals such as
zinc, copper and phosphorous probably do
originate within the Steinhatchee
watershed. Copper failed to correlate well
with any geochemical or granulometric
normalizer, and this condition was not
limited to a single facies or area within the
estuary. This finding may indicate copper
contamination in the system. Increased
zinc and copper levels may be attributed to
marine paints. Phosphorus levels also
appeared to be elevated in a few locations
in the two marsh facies sampled. This may
be due to nutrient loading from two small
communities, Jena and Steinhatchee, or
from the application of this element in
fertilizer to reduce moisture stress to young
planted pines on tree farms within the
watershed.

Weedman, S. D., Paillet, F., Means, G.
H., Scott, T. M., 1997, Lithology and
Geophysics of the Surficial Aquifer
System in Western Collier County,
Florida, U.S. Geological Survey Open
File Report 97-436, 167 p.

Seven coreholes (about 200 ft
deep) were drilled in western Collier County
into the surficial aquifer system. Coreholes
were logged with natural gamma-ray,
induction, resistivity, neutron, caliper,
temperature, spontaneous potential,
televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter logs,
where feasible. Cores have been described
and sampled for thin sections, XRD
analysis, and Sr dating of shells, and for
mollusk, foraminifer, ostracode, pollen, and
dinoflagellate cyst content.

After coreholes were completed
with fully screened plastic casing, flow
profiles under ambient and steady injection
conditions were used to identify flow paths
within the aquifer system and infer
locations of confining units. Flowmeter
data indicate that permeability is the
highest in the rocks under the caprock,
from a depth range of about 30 to 50 ft;
that zone is characterized by estimated
permeability's of > 1000 ft/day.

Preliminary lithologic analysis of
cores indicates that the surficial aquifer


system comprises a mixed carbonate-
siliciclastic deposit of an unnamed
carbonate and siliciclastic unit at the base
which is overlain by the Tamiami Formation
and younger units. The most permeable
portion of the aquifer system occurs from
30 to 50 ft deep, in highly leached, moldic
and sandy limestones. Locally, tightly
cemented beds and poorly sorted sands
confine these porous units. The surficial
aquifer system is compartmentalized into
aquifers of increasingly more saline (with
depth) ground water by thin (<1m)
horizons of tightly cemented limestone,
dolostone, and (or) sandstone, and by
thicker (>3m) zones of poorly sorted,
unconsolidated siliciclastics.

The current model for the surficial
aquifer system comprises the lower
Tamiami aquifer that is separated by a
semi-confining unit from the overlying
water-table aquifer. The base of the
surficial system is generally considered to
be the low permeability clays of the
Hawthorn Group, however, the Hawthorn
Group was not recognized in any of the
cores drilled for this study. In general, the
results of this study support the current
model however, some areas appear more
complexly compartmentalized than the
simple two aquifer system.

PRESENTATIONS BY
STAFF TO
PROFESSIONAL GROUPS

*"Florida's Geology Unearthed"
Educational Video Project, by J. Arthur:

1. State Committee on
Environmental Education,
Deland, Florida, March 13,
1997.
2. Florida Association of Science
Supervisors, Cape Canaveral,
Florida, May 7, 1997.
3. Office of the Governor,
Environmental Affairs,
Tallahassee, Florida, June 24,
1997.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


4. Florida Association of Science
Teachers, Panama City, Florida,
October 17, 1997.
5. Geological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City,
Utah, October 21, 1997.
6. Florida Association of Science
Teachers, Tampa, Florida,
October 17, 1998.

* Digital Mapping Projects at the Florida
Geological Survey, 1997, by J. Arthur,
USGS/AASG Digital Mapping
Techniques conference, Lawrence, KS,
June 1997.

* Use of ArcView GIS for Geologic
Surface Modeling Preliminary Results
from Sub-surface Mapping in
Southwest Florida, by J. Arthur, 1998,
USGS/ AASG Digital Mapping
Techniques Conference, Champaign/
Urbana, IL, May 1998.

* Subsurface Geological Mapping in
Southwest Florida a GIS Approach,
1997, by J. Arthur and M. Kelley,
Florida Academy of Science, Punta
Gorda, FL, March 1997.

* Hydrogeologic Framework of South-
west Florida: 20 and 3D Models of the
"Bucket that Holds the Water," 1998,
by J. Arthur, and W. Pollock, Florida
Department of Environmental Protection
GIS Workshop, Tallahassee, Florida,
October 1998.

* "Introduction to ArcView GIS," 1998,
by J. Arthur, four-part workshop
presented to FGS staff, Tallahassee,
Florida, January-February, 1998.

* Florida Coastal Sediments Research,
1997, by J. Balsillie, Florida Geological
Survey Brown Bag Presentation,
Tallahassee, FL, June 1997.

* Suite Versus Composite Statistics,
1997, by J. Balsillie and W. Tanner,
46th Annual Southeastern Section
Meeting, Geological Society of America,
Auburn, AL, March 1997.


* Sticky Grain Occurrences in Sieving,
1997, by J. Balsillie, W. Tanner, and H.
Williams, 46th Annual Southeastern
Section Meeting, Geological Society of
America, Auburn, AL, March 1997.

* Uranium Accumulation and Mobility in
Some Florida Wetlands, 1997, by P.
Bond, Geological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT,
October 1997.

* Uranium in Some Florida Organic
Deposits, 1998, by P. Bond, Ground
Water Association Technical
Symposium, Orlando, FL, January
1998.

* Geology of the Mosquito Lagoon Area,
1998, by P. Bond, Mosquito Lagoon
Coordination Meeting, Titusville, FL,
April 1998.

* Geology, Hydrology and Monitor Wells,
1997, by K. Campbell, Mebane Middle
School 8th Grade Classes, Alachua, FL,
February 1997.

* Ambient Groundwater Monitoring
Drilling Program, 1997, by K. Campbell,
Florida Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL, July
1997.
* Geomorphology and Extent of the
Offshore Woodville Karst Plain,
Norheastern Gulf of Mexico, NW
Florida, USA, 1998, by Z. Chen, J.
Donoghue, R. Hoenstine, F. Rupert, S.
Spencer, L. Ladner, E. Lane, and M.
Faught, Wakulla Karst Plain
Symposium, Tallahassee, FL, October
1998.

* Uranium and Strontium Isotope
Character of Waters in the Wakulla
Karst Plain, 1998, by J. Cowart, J.
Osmond, A. Dabous, H. Cao, and T.
Miller, Wakulla Karst Plain Symposium,
Tallahassee, FL, October 1998.

* Low 234U/238U Activity Ratios and
Increased U Concentrations in Waters
Injected into a Shallow Aquifer in
Florida, 1997, by J. Cowart, H.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Williams, and J. Arthur, Geological
Society of America Annual Meeting,
Salt Lake City, UT, October 1997.

Mobilization of U Isotopes by the
Introduction of Surface Waters into a
Carbonate Aquifer, 1998, by J.
Cowart, H. Williams, and J. Arthur,
Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, October
1998.

Florida Oil and Gas Spacing Rules and
Correlative Rights Protection, 1997, by
D. Curry, Florida Geological Survey
Brown Bag Presentation, Tallahassee,
FL, May 1997.

Groundwater/Surfacewater Interaction,
St. Joseph Bay, 1998, by R. DeHan,
Florida Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL, January
1998.

* Hydrogeology Consortium, 1998, by R.
DeHan, Florida Geological Survey
Brown Bag Presentation, Tallahassee,
FL, June 1998.

* Sedimentary Petrofacies Succession of
Lower Paleozoic Rocks in the North
Florida Basin, 1998, by J. Duncan,
Florida Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, February 1998.

* Subcrop Trends and Structural Geology
of the Suwannee Terrane, 1998, by J.
Duncan, Florida Geological Survey
Brown Bag Presentation, February
1998.

* Subsurface Geologic Analysis of the
Lower Floridan Aquifer System in East-
Central Florida, 1997, by J. Duncan,
W. Evans, III, and K. Taylor, 46th
Annual Southeastern Section Meeting,
Geological Society of America, Auburn,
AL, March 1997.

* Re-evaluation of the Suwannee Terrane
(FL)/Gondwana (West Africa)
Correlation based on New Detailed
Paleozoic Lithostratigraphy from the
North Florida Basin, 1997, by J.


Duncan and N. Lundberg, Geological
Society of America Annual Meeting,
Salt Lake City, UT, October 1997.

Conceptual Frameworks for Ground
Water Quality Monitoring, 1998, by O.
Franke, R. DeHan, E. Cleaves, C. Job,
A. Anzzolin, W. Wilber, W. Lapham,
Intergovernmental Task Force for
Monitoring Water Quality, Denver, CO,
August 1997.

Florida Central East Coast Seismic
Studies, 1997, by H. Freedenberg,
Florida Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL,
September 1997.

Update, Florida Central East Coast
Seismic Studies, 1998, by H.
Freedenberg, Florida Geological Survey
Brown Bag Presentation, Tallahassee,
FL, November 1998.

* South Carolina Sediment Erosion Table
Studies, 1997, by R. Hoenstine, Florida
Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL, October
1997.

* Overview of Jacksonville Installation
Restoration Advisory Board Activities,
1997, by R. Hoenstine, Florida
Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL, March
1997.

* A Geological Investigation of
Sedimentation and Accretion Rates of
Marine Coastal Wetlands within
Apalachee Bay, 1998, by L. Ladner, R.
Hoenstine, A. Dabous, and D.
Harrington, Wakulla Karst Plain
Symposium, Tallahassee, FL, October
1998.

* Southeast Maps Educational Program,
1997 and 1998, by E. Lane, Florida
Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL, August
1997 and September 1998.

* Florida Sinkholes and Other Karst
Phenomena, 1998, by E. Lane, Florida






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Dam Safety Conference '98, Tampa,
FL, January 1998.

* The Spring Creek Submarine Springs
Group, Wakulla County, Florida, 1998,
by E. Lane, Wakulla Karst Plain
Symposium, Tallahassee, FL, October
1998.

* Kissengen Springs: Correlation of Well
Casing Failure with Cessation of Flow,
1998, by J. LeBar, Florida Geological
Survey Brown Bag Presentation,
Tallahassee, FL, May 1997.

* Field Safety, 1998, by G. Means and C.
Berninger, Florida Geological Survey
Brown Bag Presentation, Tallahassee,
FL, July 1998.

* Regional and Local Geologic Setting of
the Woodville Karst Plain, 1998, by F.
Rupert, Wakulla Karst Plain
Symposium, Tallahassee, FL, October
1998.

* Geoscience Components of Earth
Systems Understanding, 1997-1998,
by W. Schmidt, numerous
presentations to DEP Ecosystem
Management Training classes,
Tallahassee, FL.

* The Need for Subusrface Geologic
Data, 1997, by W. Schmidt, presented
to (1) South Florida Ecosystem
Restoration Task Force Working Group
Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, January
1997, and (2) Senate Agricultural
Committee, Tallahassee, FL, February
1997.

* Florida Geologic History, Stratigraphy,
Hydrogeology, and Geologic Hazards,
1997, by W. Schmidt, FSU Geology
Department graduate course,
Tallahassee, FL, January 1997.

* "Florida's Geology Unearthed"
Educational Video Project, 1997, by W.
Schmidt, DEP Secretary and Senior
Staff Meeting, Tallahassee, FL, January
1997.


* The Florida Everglades and the Need for
Subsurface Geologic Data, 1997, by W.
Schmidt, Florida Groundwater
Association Meeting, Orlando, FL,
January 1997.

* Solid Earth Science: The Foundation of
Ecosystem Management and
Defendable Environmental Regulations,
1997, by W. Schmidt, 46th Annual
Southeastern Section Meeting,
Geological Society of America, Auburn,
AL, March 1997.

* Coastal Petroleum Permit Applications
for Twelve Offshore Exploration Wells,
1997, by W. Schmidt, Florida Cabinet
Aides Meeting, Tallahassee, FL, April
1997.

* Coastal Petroleum Permit Applications
for Twelve Offshore Exploration Wells,
1997, by W. Schmidt, Florida Cabinet
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL, April 1997.

* Availability and Use of Geologic Data,
1997, by W. Schmidt, DEP Data
Inventory Group Meeting, Tallahassee,
FL, April 1997.

* The Need for Earth Systems
Understanding in the University of
Florida Wildlife Ecology & Conservation
Program, 1997, by W. Schmidt,
presented to the University of Florida
Department of Wildlife Ecology and
Conservation, Gainesville, FL, May
1997.

* FGS Communications, 1997, by W.
Schmidt, DEP Executive Staff Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL, August 1997.

* Florida Geologic History, Stratigraphy,
Hydrogeology, and Geologic Hazards,
1997, by W. Schmidt, FSU Department
of Geology Geohazards Graduate Class,
Tallahassee, FL, September 1997.

* Common Activities of Professional
Geologists, 1997, by W. Schmidt,
Department of Business and
Professional Regulation, Division of






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Investigations Meeting, Orlando, FL,
September 1997.

SGeologic Mapping to Support Water
Resources Needs and Ecosystems
Understanding, 1997, by W. Schmidt,
presented by P. Bond, Geological
Society of America Annual Meeting,
Salt Lake City, UT, October 1997.

* Formation of Sinkholes in Florida in
Relation to the Proposed RO Plant for
Pinellas County, 1997, by W. Schmidt,
Public Town Meeting, Clearwater, FL,
December 1997.


* Science in Support of Public
1998, by W. Schmidt,
Geological Survey Brown
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL,
1998.


Policy,
Florida
Bag
March


* Science in Support of Public Policy:
Uncertainty, Models, Political
Correctness, Public Media Sound Bites,
and Bias, 1998, by Walt Schmidt,
Annual Meeting, Florida Section of the
American Water Resources Association,
Wakulla Springs, FL, March 1998.

* FGS Communications, 1998, by W.
Schmidt, DEP Executive Staff Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL, July 1998.

* Florida Geologic History, Stratigraphy,
Hydrogeology, and Geologic Hazards,
1997, by W. Schmidt, FSU Department
of Geology Geohazards Graduate Class,
Tallahassee, FL, August 1998.

* Professional Geology Practices, 1998,
by W. Schmidt, Department of Business
and Professional Regulation, Division of
Investigations Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale,
FL, September 1998.

* Earth Systems Understanding: The
Foundation of Environmental Regulatory
Support, Land-Use Planning Decisions,
Natural Resources Conservation, and
the Basis of Ecosystem Management,
1998, by W. Schmidt, Wakulla Springs
Karst Plain Symposium, Tallahassee,
October 1998.


* Programs of the Florida Geological
Survey, 1998, by W. Schmidt, FSU
Department of Geology Fall Colloquim
Series, Tallahassee, FL, November
1998.

Oligocene to Pleistocene Research at
the Florida Geological Survey, 1997, by
T. Scott, USF Department of Geology,
Tampa, FL, January 1997.

Research at the Florida Geological
Survey, 1997, by T. Scott, Eastern
Kentucky University, Richmond, KY,
April 1997.

The Florida Geological Survey, 1997,
by T. Scott, UF Department of
Geology, Geology of Florida Class,
Gainesville, FL, December 1997.

* Pliocene Coarse Sand in South Florida,
1997, by T. Scott, Florida Geological
Survey Brown Bag Presentation,
Tallahassee, FL, December 1997.
* Overview of the Geology of Florida,
1998, by T. Scott, FSU Department of
Geology, Geology of Florida Seminar,
Tallahassee, FL, January 1998.

* The New State of Florida Geologic
Map: Introduction of the Draft Digital
Map, 1998, by T. Scott, 47th Annual
Southeastern Section Meeting,
Geological Society of America,
Charleston, WV, March 1998.

* New State Geological Map, 1998, by T.
Scott, Southeastern Geological Society
Meeting, Tampa, FL, April 1998.

* The Anastasia Formation of Florida's
East Coast, 1998, by T. Scott, Florida
Paleontological Society Meeting, St.
Augustine, FL, May 1998.

* The New Geologic and Geomorphic
Maps of Florida, 1998, by T. Scott,
American Institute of Professional
Geologists, Tampa, FL, July 1998.

* The New Geologic and Geomorphic
Maps of Florida, 1998, by T. Scott,
DEP, Tampa, FL, July 1998.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


* The Florida Geological Survey:
Research Projects and The New
Geologic and Geomorphic Maps of
Florida, 1998, by T. Scott, Everglades
Geological Society, Ft. Myers, FL,
September 1998.

* Overview of the Geology of Florida,
1998, by T. Scott, FSU Department of
Geology, Geology of Florida Seminar,
Tallahassee, FL, September 1998.

* The Florida Geological Survey:
Research Projects and the New
Geologic and Geomorphic Maps of
Florida, 1998, by T. Scott, UF
Department of Geology, Gainesville, FL,
September 1998.

* The New Geologic and Geomorphic
Maps of Florida, 1998, by T. Scott,
DEP Ambient Ground Water Monitoring
Section, Tallahassee, FL, October
1998.

* The New, Digital Geologic Map of
Florida, by T. Scott, Florida Department
of Environmental Protection GIS
Workshop, Tallahassee, Florida,
October 1998.

* The Florida Geological Survey:
Research and Data Repository, 1998,
by T. Scott, UF Department of
Geology, Geology of Florida Class,
Gainesville, FL, December 1998.

* Statewide Sediment Geochemistry
Sampling Program and USGS Mineral
Resource Data System (MRDS) Project,
1997, by S. Spencer, Florida Geological
Survey Brown Bag Presentation,
Tallahassee, FL, November 1997.

* Origins of Florida Panhandle Terrace
Sands, 1998, by W. Tanner, J. Balsillie,
and H. Williams, Gulf Coast Association
of Geological Societies Annual Meeting,
Corpus Christi, TX, October 1998.

* Baseline Sediment Trace-Metals
Investigation: Steinhatchee River
Estuary, Florida Northeast Gulf of
Mexico, 1998, by C. Trimble, R.


Hoenstine, A. Highley, J. Donoghue,
and P. Ragland, Fourth Symposium on
Studies Related to Continental Margins,
U.S. Minerals Management Service and
the Bureau of Economic Geology, the
University of Texas at Austin, Corpus
Christi, TX, November 1997.

* The Current Status of the "River of
Sand": Fact or Fiction, 1997, by B.
Wardlaw, S. Weedman, and T. Scott,
Poster Session, South Florida
Ecosystem Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale,
FL, August 1997.

* Geologic Framework of the Surficial
Aquifer System in Southwest Florida,
1997, by S. Weedman, L. Edwards, K.
Simmons, G. Brewster-Wingard, S.
Ishman, S. Wardlaw, T. Scott, and F.
Paillet, Poster Session, South Florida
Ecosystem Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale,
FL, August 1997.

* Groundwater Flow Pattern Analysis
from Cave Exploration in the Woodville
Karst Plain, Florida, 1998, by C.
Werner, Wakulla Springs Karst Plain
Symposium, Tallahassee, October
1998.

* Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemical Study, Southwest Florida,
1998, by H. Williams, Florida
Geological Survey Brown Bag
Presentation, Tallahassee, FL, October
1998.

ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL
ACTIVITIES

SYMPOSIA ATTENDED

"Solid Earth Science: The Foundation of
Ecosystem Management and Defendable
Environmental Regulations" Symposia;
organized, convened and chaired by W.
Schmidt; 46th Annual Southeastern Section
Meeting, Geological Society of America,
Auburn, AL, March 1997.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


USGS/AASG Digital Mapping Techniques
Conference in Lawrence, KS, June 2-5,
1997.

Performance Based Budgeting Symposia,
Office of the Governor, Tallahassee, FL,
August 1997.

South Florida Ecosystem Symposium, Ft.
Lauderdale, FL, August 25-27, 1997.

Fourth Symposium on Studies Related to
Continental Margins, Corpus Christi, TX,
November 16-19, 1997.

USGS/AASG Digital Mapping Techniques
Conference, Champaign/Urbana, IL, May
27-30, 1998.

Wakulla Springs Karst Plain Symposium,
Tallahassee, FL, October 9, 1998.

MEETINGS, CONFERENCES, WORKSHOPS,
AND TRAINING ATTENDED

January 1997

Florida Geographic Information Advisory
Council Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Trust
Fund Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration
Science Subgroup Meeting, Miami, FL.

DEP Bureau of Information Systems and
FGS Meeting regarding FGS GIS Data
Conversion, Tallahassee, FL.

February 1997

Public Hearing on Proposed Oil and Gas
Drilling Application, Jay, FL.

DEP Data Inventory Group Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meetings, Tallahassee, FL.

USGS/DEP Cooperative Projects Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.


USGS/FGS Geochemical Sampling Project
Planning Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Ambient Water Quality Monitoring Program
Quarterly Meeting, Crystal River, FL.

Ground-water Monitoring Well Design and
Construction Course, Crystal River, FL.

State Agency Resource Providers Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

University of Miami Coarse Sand Workshop,
Miami, FL.

March 1997

46th Annual Southeastern Section Meeting,
Geological Society of America, Auburn, AL.

Florida Academy of Science Annual
Meeting, Punta Gorda, FL.
Department of Business and Professional
Regulation, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists Test Committee Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

DEP Meeting Concerning Groundwater
Research Needs in the Florida Keys,
Tallahassee, FL.

Association of American State Geologists
Liaison Committee Meetings, Washington,
D.C.

USGS Mapping Division, Topographic
Mapping Workshop, Reston, VA.

City of Naples Coastal Erosion Meeting,
Naples, FL.


DEP Performance Based
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.


Budgeting


USGS/DEP Cooperative Projects Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

FGS Archives Management Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

FGS Computer Workstation Protocol
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


August 1997


Copyright Law in the Age of Technology
Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

Ground Water Protection Council Meeting
Regarding Florida's Application for Class II
Wells Primacy to EPA, Tallahassee, FL.

DEP Ecosystem Monitoring Core Group
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

DEP Ecosystem Management Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.


How to Manage Multiple Projects, Meet
Deadlines, and Achieve Objectives, DEP,
Tallahassee, FL.

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Trust
Fund Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

DCA/Local Government Coastal Zone
Issues Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

September 1997


Administrative Hearing Regarding Coastal
June 1997 Petroleum Offshore Drilling Applications.


DEP Awards Ceremony, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Board of Professional Geologist
Meeting.

DEP Lake Hancock Coring Project Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

Association of American State Geologists
Annual Meeting, Breckenridge, CO.

DEP Ecosystem Management Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.

FGS and DEP Bureau of Beaches and
Coastal Systems Cooperative Projects
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

July 1997

State Agency Resource Providers Meeting
and HTML Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.
USGS/Southeastern Region State Surveys
Field Protocol Meeting for Geochemical
Sediment Sampling, Auburn, AL.

Meeting with DEP Division of Water
Facilities Regarding Delegation of Authority
in Oil and Gas Geophysical Permitting,
Tallahassee, FL.

FGS/Division of Beaches and Coastal
Systems Common Programs, Tallahassee,
FL.

Geographic Information Advisory Council
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.


October 1997

Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.
Sequence Architecture and Stacking
Patterns in the Cretaceous Foreland Basin,
Utah: Tectonism versus Eustacy, Geological
Society of America Field Course, UT.

November 1997

Department of Business and Professional
Regulation, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists Test Committee Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

December 1997

State Agency Resource Providers Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.
Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Resources and Environmental
Analysis Center Meeting Regarding Revised
Florida Water Atlas, Tallahassee, FL.

January 1998


Governor's B
Regarding F(
Tallahassee, FL.

February 1998


budget Office
3S Budget


Meeting
Request,


Library Services and Technology Act
Grantwriting Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.


April 1997






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DEP Geographic Information Coordinating
Committee Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Geographic Information Coordinating
Council Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Hydrogeology Consortium Organizational
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

March 1998

47th Annual Southeastern Section Meeting,
Geological Society of America, Charleston,
WV.

Association of American State Geologists
Spring Liaison Meetings, Washington, D.C.
USGS/Eastern State Geological Surveys
Annual Cluster Meeting, Washington, D.C.

Congressional STATEMAP Reception,
Washington, D.C.

DEP Stress and Communication Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.

April 1998

Mosquito Lagoon Coordination Meeting,
Titusville, FL.

Southeastern Geological Society Meeting,
Tampa, FL.

May 1998

American Association of Petroleum
Geologists Annual National Meeting, Salt
Lake City, UT.

Cabinet Aides Meeting Regarding Coastal
Petroleum Final Agency Order, Tallahassee,
FL.

Cabinet Meeting Regarding Coastal
Petroleum Final Agency Order from
Administration Commission on Surety
Amount, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Institute of Phosphate Research
Staff Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.


USGS Sampling Protocol and Planning
Meeting for Geochemical Sediment
Sampling, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Geographic Information Advisory
Council Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Florida Paleontological Society Meeting, St.
Augustine, FL.

June 1998

Department of Business and Professional
Regulation, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists Exam Committee Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.
Association of American State Geologists
Annual Meeting, Portland, ME.

Florida Resources and Environmental
Analysis Center Meeting Regarding Revised
Florida Water Atlas, Tallahassee, FL.

Governor's Staff Meeting Regarding Signing
Proclamation Designating Earth Science
Week, Tallahassee, FL.

State Agency Resource Providers Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

Aucilla River Prehistory Project Meeting,
Aucilla, FL.

July 1998


Total Quality
Tallahassee, FL.


Leadership Workshop,


DEP Executive Staff Meeting, Tallahassee,


DEP Senior
Tallahassee, FL.


Management


Retreat,


Public Hearing on Class II Injection Wells
Primacy, Tallahassee, FL.

American Institute of Professional Geologists
Meeting, Tampa, FL.






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


August 1998

Intergovernmental Task Force for
Monitoring Water Quality Meeting, Denver,
CO.

Total Quality Leadership Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.


FGS, FSU Government Affairs,
Arts and Sciences Meeting
University Interest in Gunter
Tallahassee, FL.


and FSU
regarding
Building,


September 1998

Geology Board Probable Cause Panel
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

Earth Science Week Information Meeting
with Wakulla County Schools,
Crawfordville, FL.

Earth Science Week Information Meeting
with Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

Everglades Geological Society Meeting, Ft.
Myers, FL.

October 1998

Earth Science Week Interview with Channel
6, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Geologic Mapping Advisory
Committee for STATEMAP Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.
FGS, Alabama Geological Survey
Cooperative Projects Meeting, Tallahassee,
FL.

Design and Creation of State-of-the-Art
Interactive, Multimedia CD-ROMS for use in
Teaching Geology, Geological Society of
America, Toronto, Ontario.

Florida Department of Environmental
Protection GIS Workshop, Tallahassee,
Florida.

Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Toronto, Ontario.


Gulf Coast Association of Geological
Societies Annual Meeting, Corpus Christi,
TX.

November 1998

Paleofest98, Florida Museum of Natural
History, Gainesville, FL.

December 1998

FGS-Sponsored Oil and Gas Rules
Development Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meetings, Orlando, FL.


FGS/DMS Gunter Building
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.


Renovations


FGS/lndian River County Coastal Erosion
Cooperative Studies Meeting, Tallahassee,
FL.

FIELD TRIPS CONDUCTED

Florida Bay: Field trip co-led by T. Scott for
USGS Administrators, February 22, 1997.

The Central Florida Phosphate District,
Eocene Oligocene Limestone Pits, and
Plio-Pleistocene Shell Pits: FSU Geology of
Florida Seminar Field Trip: T. Scott, March
20-22, 1998.

Hillsborough River: Southeastern Geological
Society Field Trip: T. Scott, April 18,
1998.

Wakulla Springs Earth Science Fair Field
Trips: Six field trips to area karst features;
Field trip coordinator and guidebook author:
Paulette Bond; Field trip leaders: J. Arthur,
P. Bond, J. Lloyd, G. Means, W. Schmidt,
and T. Scott; Wakulla Springs, Florida,
October 10, 1998.

FGS BOOTH AND DISPLAYS

Scallop Festival, Port St. Joe, FL,
September 5, 1998.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Wakulla
Wakulla
Springs,


Springs Earth Science Fair,
Springs State Park, Wakulla
FL, October 10, 1998.


FGS Earth Science Week "Kickoff" Open
House, Tallahassee, FL, October 12, 1998.

FSU Geology Department 45th Anniversary
Open House, Tallahassee, FL, October 16-
17, 1998.

DEP Environmental Education Fair/United
Way Campaign, Tallahassee, FL, October
29, 1998.

Paleofest98, Florida Museum of Natural
History, Gainesville, FL, November 21st,
1998.

PERSONNEL INFORMATION

PERSONNEL CHANGES

Personnel changes for this biennial
period began when Jim Jones, Network
Administrator for the FGS, retired on
January 30, 1998 after 23 years of
service. Jim's record speaks for itself--he
was awarded a 1993 Davis Productivity
Award and was named the FGS 1993
Employee of the Year. Jim received these
awards because he increased productivity,
through innovative AutoCAD programming,
in the FGS mapping program. During his
career, Jim oversaw the transition from
100% hand-drafting to 100% computer
drafting, formed the Tallahassee AutoCAD
User's Group, and set up the first FGS
computer system network. We appreciate
Jim's accomplishments over the years and
wish him the best in his retirement.

With Jim's retirement, the FGS
made the management decision to formally
reclass his position as an Engineer III to a
Systems Project Administrator and define a
position for network administration and
computer systems management for the
FGS. Jesse "Ace" Fairley was hired in
March 1998 to fill this position. Ace
comes to the FGS with extensive
experience working within the
Department's Bureau of Beaches and


Coastal Systems (BBCS). Ace began work
with the BBCS Information Systems
Section in 1986 where he designed,
implemented and maintained their network
and computer systems. Ace's formal
training includes receiving an AA degree in
engineering from the University of North
Carolina (Wilmington, NC) and a BS in
Systems Science from the University of
West Florida (Pensacola, Florida).

Another personnel change at the
FGS came when Milton Schoest replaced
Rodger VanLandingham as driller's
assistant. Milton comes to the FGS with
more than 16 years of drilling experience
and post secondary degrees in related fields
(AS, Nicholls State University, Petroleum
Safety Technology and Engineering
Technology, Thibodaux, LA, 1980 and
1975; State of Louisiana Industrial Engines
Certification, Jefferson Parish Trade
School, Harvey, LA, 1966).

Personnel changes at the FGS
continued with the receipt of five new
positions from the 1998 State legislature,
including a Laboratory Technician III, Staff
Assistant, Marine Captain, Marine
Mechanic, and GIS (Geographic Information
Systems) Analyst. These positions were
filled during the last quarter of 1998 with a
combination of internal changes and new
hires. The internal changes resulted in new
hires for the existing FGS Laboratory
Technician II and CAD (Computer Aided
Design) Analyst positions.

The FGS 1992 Employee of the
Year, Frank Rush, was promoted from
Laboratory Technician II to fill the new
Laboratory Technician III position. Frank
has served the FGS for ten years with an
excellent work record. The Lab Technician
II position was then filled by promoting
OPS employee, Debra Harrington. Debra's
excellence was not only recognized by this
promotion, but also by recognition with a
1998 FGS Individual Extra Effort Award.
Details concerning this award are discussed
in the Awards section of this publication.
These two positions are responsible for
processing all well cutting and core
samples received by the FGS, maintaining






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


the FGS Sample Repository and Sample
Preparation Laboratory, and coordinating
and preparing samples for staff and visitor
review. The additional position will also
allow the FGS to begin computerizing the
sample and well data that has traditionally
been maintained in paper copy. This is
planned to eventually serve as more than
an archival record, but also as a query and
information retrieval system.

The new Staff Assistant position
was also filled by promotion, recognizing
another FGS outstanding employee,
Carolyn Stringer. Carolyn was formerly a
half-time secretary with the FGS Oil and
Gas Section. Carolyn originally came to the
FGS with more than eight years of
experience in managerial and clerical work.
In the three years she has been with the
FGS, Carolyn more than proved herself as a
capable and self-motivated employee, often
performing work equivalent to the Oil and
Gas Section engineer and professional
geologist. In her new position as Staff
Assistant, Carolyn will act as the Oil and
Gas Section liaison with the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency with
regard to the Class II Primacy Program (this
program oversees Class II injection wells),
maintain Oil and Gas Section files, prepare
permits and handle associated fees, assist
with data conversion, data entry and
legislative budget requests. An
advertisement is currently being prepared
for the vacant half-time secretary position.

The Marine Captain I and Marine
Mechanic will work primarily with the
Coastal Research Group, significantly
enhancing the ability of the FGS to carry
out ongoing coastal programs involving
offshore sand searches and bottom
characterization as well as prospective new
offshore spring and coral studies. The
Marine Captain position was filled by Ted
Kiper who transferred from his previous
position as Engineer I at the FGS. Ted has
an extensive background in boating and
shipboard handling. In addition to having a
U.S. Coast Guard captain's license, Ted is
an instructor at FSU, where he teaches a
sailing course. His primary tasks are
operating FGS's 50' RV GeoQuest and 40'


RV GeoSearch and directing research
vessel renovations, repairs, maintenance,
equipment design, and installations at sea
and in port.

The Marine Mechanic Position was
filled by Wade Stringer, who comes to the
FGS from the private sector, where he
worked and was certified on all types of
gas and diesel inboard and outboard
motors. Wade performs maintenance and
repairs on the diesel engines of both FGS
RV's as well as field and lab equipment,
drill rigs, and shore support and ship
equipment at sea and in port.

Following Ted Kiper's transfer, the
Engineer I position was reclassed to CAD
Analyst. Paula Poison, who filled this new
position, received training in both Graphic
Arts and Drafting from Virginia Common-
wealth University (Richmond, VA), Tide-
water Community College (Virginia Beach,
VA), and John Tyler Community College
(Richmond, VA). Paula has more than
twelve years CAD experience, including
extensive use of AutoCAD, cartography,
and interest in 3D graphics and animation
design. Paula recently attended DEP'S
ESRI-certified ArcView training.

The FGS welcomes Amy Graves as
the new GIS Analyst. Amy received her BA
in Geography from the University of Texas
at Austin in 1997. She comes to the FGS
from the Department's Bureau of Beaches
and Coastal Systems where she
participated in creating and maintaining a
coastal GIS work plan for the State of
Florida. Amy also created and maintained
that Bureau's Web site and will be active in
improving and maintaining the FGS Web
site. We anticipate that Amy and Paula will
work together as a team to implement and
improve GIS and CAD programs for the
FGS.

FGS STAFF INFORMATION

PERMANENT FULL TIME STAFF


Jonathan D. Arthur,
Geological Investigations
Florida State University


Hydrogeologist,
Section. BS,
(1982); Ph.D.,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida State University (1994). Research
interests: hydrogeology environmental
education, and geochemistry. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Consultant
to the Florida Board of Professional
Geologists, Professional Geology
Examination Committee. FDEP involvement:
Subcommittee on Aquifer Vulnerability
Mapping in Florida, Recharge Protection
Committee, Statewide Monitoring Program
Core Group; Co-coordinator, Southeast
Maps and Aerial Photographic Systems
Project-Florida Region; Courtesy Faculty
Appointment, Dept. of Geology, Florida
State University; Chairman,
Geology/Hydrology session, Florida
Academy of Sciences Annual Meeting,
1997; Florida representative, USGS
National Geologic Mapping Database,
1998. Professional memberships: Florida
Association of Professional Geologists,
Southeastern Geological Society,
Geological Society of America, and
American Geological Institute. 1996 FGS
Employee of the Year; 1997 Governor's
Environmental Education Award for
"Florida's Geology Unearthed;" New York
Festivals, 1997 Finalist for Non-Broadcast
Film and Video for production of "Florida's
Geology Unearthed;" April 1997 DEP
Employee of the Month; 1997 DEP
Sustained Exemplary Performance Award.

Paul Attwood, Petroleum Geologist, Oil and
Gas Section, Ft. Myers field office. BS,
Denison University (1974); MS, University of
Kansas (1981). Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists; President,
Everglades Geological Society.

James Balsillie, Coastal Engineering
Geologist, Geological Investigations Section.
BS, Portland State University (1970).
Research interests: coastal geology and
coastal engineering. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists, Florida Shore and
Beach Preservation Association. 1998 FGS
Employee of the Year.


Paulette Bond, Research Geologist,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, West
Virginia University (1971); MS, University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1974).
Research interests: low temperature
geochemistry, karst geology and
environmental geology. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Consultant
to the Florida Board of Professional
Geologists, Professional Geology
Examination Committee. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of
America, Florida Association of Professional
Geologists, and Southeastern Geological
Society.

Kenneth M. Campbell, Professional Geologist
Supervisor, Geologic Investigations Section.
BS Old Dominion University, 1975, MS
Florida State University, 1979. Research
interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy,
sedimentation and coastal processes.
Licensed professional geologist, (Florida).
Licensed Florida Water Well Contractor.
Consultant to the Florida Board of
Professional Geologists, Professional
Geology Examination Committee. Member
Florida Association of Professional
Geologists. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award.

Robert S. Caughey, Petroleum Geologist, Ft.
Myers Oil and Gas Field Office. BS,
University of Arizona (1976). Research
interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and
hydrogeology, and "boulder zone" of south
Florida. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Professional memberships:
Society of Mining Engineers, Division of
American Institute of Mining and
Metallurgical Engineers; Association of
Exploration Geochemists, National
Association of Geology Teachers, American
Association for the Advancement of
Science, Southeastern Geological Society,
Miami Geological Society, Everglades
Geological Society, and New Mexico
Geological Society. 1997 FGS Employee of
the Year.

Cynthia A. "Cindy" Collier, Administrative
Secretary, Administrative Section. AAS,
Tallahassee Community (1975).






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


Lawrence D. Curry, Environmental
Administrator, Oil and Gas Section. BS,
University of South Florida (1973). Licensed
professional geologist (Florida).

Rodney S. DeHan, Senior Research
Scientist, Mineral Resources Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. DVM,
University of Edinburgh (1966); MS,
University of Kansas (1969); Ph.D., Florida
State University (1973). Research interests:
Hydrogeology and ground-water protection.
Member: Congressional Office of
Technology assessment; Environmental Law
Institute Panel; The Advisory Committee on
Water Information; The Conservation
Foundation Panel for National Groundwater
Policy Forum; The National Water Quality
Monitoring Panel; various EPA and USGS
panels instrumental in developing the
Wellhead protection Program, The National
Groundwater Strategy, The Pesticides in
Groundwater Strategy, and Contingency
Planning for Public Water Supplies; The EPA-
USGS Workgroup on Hydrogeologic Mapping
Needs for Ground Water Protection and
Management; The Advisory Council on
National Water Quality Assessment; The
Federal Interagency Steering Committee;
and the Executive Committee of the National
Monitoring Council; and Co-Chairman of the
Ground Water Focus Group. Professional
Memberships: President, Groundwater
Protection Council; Executive Board and Co-
Chairman of the Ground Water Work Group,
Association of State and Interstate Water
Pollution Control Administrators; American
Water Works Association; American Society
of Clinical Pathologists; American Society of
Microbiologists; The Florida Association of
Water Quality Control, and the American
Society of Cell Biology.

Joel G. Duncan, Sedimentary Geologist,
Geological Investigations Section. BS,
University of Alabama (1977). PhD, Florida
State University (1998). Research interests:
Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy,
sandstone and carbonate petrology; basin
analysis, tectonics, and structural geology.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Professional membership: American
Association of Petroleum Geologists.


Jesse A. Fairley, Jr., Systems Project
Analyst, Mineral Resources Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. BS,
University of West Florida (1977).

Henry Freedenberg, Geologist, Mineral
Resources Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section. BA, State University of
New York (1974); MA, State University of
New York at Buffalo (1976). Research
interests: coastal processes, environmental
geology, petroleum geology, carbonate
petrology. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Professional memberships:
National Water Well Association.

Ed Gambrell, Environmental Specialist III, Jay
Oil and Gas Field Office. BS, Engineering,
Mississippi State University (1960).

Ed Garrett, Petroleum Geologist, Tallahassee
Oil and Gas Office. BS, Florida State
University (1983). Research interests:
Environmental effects of offshore drilling;
regulatory computer applications. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Professional
membership: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists.

Amy M. Graves, GIS Analyst & Webmaster.
BA, University of Texas at Austin (1997).
Research interests: coastal geology,
resource management, spatial analysis,
web design. Member of DEP GIS
Workshop Committee.

Don L. Hargrove, Petroleum Engineer,
Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office. Engineering
degree candidate at Florida State
University/Florida A & M University.
Geophysical permits, field observer
coordinator. 1997 FGS Individual Extra
Effort Award.

Debra J. Harrington, Laboratory Technician
II, Geological Investigations Section. BS,
University of Maryland College Park (1995).
Research interests: hydrogeology,
sedimentation, fate and transport of trace
metals and low temperature geochemistry.
Professional memberships: Phi Kappa Phi
National Honor Society. 1998 FGS
Individual Extra Effort Award.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian, Administrative
Section.

Ronald W. Hoenstine, Coastal Geologist,
Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. BS,
University of Florida (1967); MS, University
of Florida (1974); PhD, Florida State
University (1982). Research interests:
hydrogeology, coastal geology and
environmental geology. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Member:
Installation Restoration Environmental
Cleanup Advisory Committee, Jacksonville
Naval Air Station. 1995 FGS Employee of
the Year.

Evelyn Jordan, Secretary, Oil and Gas
Section, Jay Field Office.

Ted B. Kiper, Marine Captain, Mineral
Resources Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section. AA, Tallahassee
Community College (1976); BS, Florida
State University (1988); MS, Florida State
University (1993). U.S. Coast Guard
licensed Captain.

Lucien James "Jim" Ladner, Coastal
Geologist, Mineral Resources Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. BS,
University of Southern Mississippi (1970).
Research interests: hydrogeology,
environmental and coastal geology. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). 1997 FGS
Individual Extra Effort Award.

Burke Edward "Ed" Lane, Environmental
Geologist, Mineral Resources Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section. BS,
University of Delaware (1966); MS,
Pennsylvania State University (1968).
Research interests: hydrogeology,
environmental geology and karst. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Member:
Solid Waste Management Advisory
Committee (State of Florida), and DEP
Strategic Educational Committee. 1997 FGS
Individual Extra Effort Award.

James LeBar, Petroleum Engineer,
Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office. BS,
Geological Engineering, Michigan
Technological University (1978). Research


Interests: Petroleum engineering and
geology, environmental engineering and
hydrogeology, and downhole logging
technologies. Professional Memberships:
Society of Petroleum Engineers and National
Water Well Association. Licensed
Professional Engineer (Florida).

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State
Geologist for Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology.
BS, Florida Atlantic University (1976); MS,
University of Chicago (1979). Research
interests: environmental geology and
computer management. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Geological Society of
America, American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, Southeastern Geological Society,
Computer Oriented Geological Society, and
Florida Association of Professional
Geologists (current Vice Chair).

Deborah E. Mekeel, Librarian Specialist. BA,
Bridgewater College, 1982; MLS, Florida
State University, 1993. Specialization:
Cataloging. Professional memberships:
Geoscience Information Society (AGI);
Special Libraries Association, Florida and
Caribbean Chapter, Solo Librarians Division,
Environment and Resource Management
Division, Geography and Maps Division; Beta
Phi Mu. 1998 External Appreciation Award,
DEP Basin Planning and Management
Section.

LaMarr Mitchell, Secretary, Geological
Investigations Section. Chief Information
Manager, U.S. Air Force, 1988-1995.

Paula Poison, CAD Analyst and
Cartographer, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. Training in graphic arts and
drafting, Virginia Commonwealth
University, Richmond, VA; Tidewater
Community College, Virginia Beach, VA;
John Tyler Community College, Richmond,
VA. Research interests: computer
graphics/illustrations using AutoCAD and
other related software and 3D animation.

Sandra Ray, Administrative Assistant,
Administrative Section. AA, Chipola Junior






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


College (1970). March 1986 DNR Employee
of the Month.

Frank R. Rupert, Paleontologist, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida Atlantic
University (1976); MS, Florida State
University (1980). Research Interests:
Cenozoic micropaleontology and
biostratigraphy and environmental
hydrogeology. Member, DEP Wakulla
Springs Water Quality Working Group,
Ichetucknee Springs Water Quality Technical
Advisory Committee. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Florida Academy of Science;
Florida Paleontological Society. Past
President and Newsletter Editor, Florida
Paleontological Society. 1988 FGS
Employee of the Year, July 1989 DEP
Employee of the Month.

Franklin R. "Frank" Rush, Jr., Laboratory
Technician Ill, Geological Investigations
Section. 1992 FGS Employee of the Year.

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief
of the Florida Geological Survey. AS,
Florida Institute of Technology (1970); BA,
University of South Florida (1972); MS,
Florida State University (1977); PhD,
Florida State University (1983). Research
interests: Cenozoic Stratigraphy,
hydrogeology, environmental geology,
paleogeography, petroleum geology,
economic geology, geology and public
policy. Licensed professional geologist in
Florida, Alabama, Pennsylvania, North
Carolina (inactive), and South Carolina
(inactive). Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America (Fellow),
Southeastern Geological Society (Past
President), American Institute of
Professional Geologists (Member, CPG,
current member of National Ethics
Committee), Florida Board of Professional
Geologists (Legislative appointment, current
Chair), Governor's Outer Continental Shelf
Advisory Committee (Member), Association
of American State Geologists (Member and
Past President, current Chair of
Environmental Affairs Committee),
Southeast Petroleum Technology Transfer
Council (Advisory Committee Member),
American Association for the Advancement


of Science (Member), Society for
Sedimentary Geology (Member), Ground
Water Protection Council (Member), Florida
Association of Professional Geologists
(Founding Member), Florida Academy of
Sciences (Past Chair of Geology/Hydrology
Section), Big Cypress Swamp Advisory
Committee (Legislative Appointment and
Chair). Adjunct Professor, Florida State
University Department of Geological
Sciences. 1996 FGS Declaration of
Leadership and Excellence Award.

Milton Schoest, Driller's Assistant,
Geological Investigations Section. AS,
Nicholls State University, Petroleum Safety
Technology and Engineering Technology,
Thibodaux, LA (1980 and 1975); State of
Louisiana Industrial Engines Certification,
Jefferson Parish Trade School, Harvey, LA
(1966).

Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist
for Geological Investigations. BA, University
of South Florida (1971); MS, Eastern
Kentucky University (1973); PhD, Florida
State University (1986). Research interests:
Cenozoic lithostratigraphy, geologic history,
and hydrogeology. Consultant to the Florida
Board of Professional Geologists,
Professional Geology Examination
Committee. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida), Certified Professional Geologist
(American Institute of Professional
Geologists). Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America, Southeastern
Geological Society (Past-President, 1978
and 1990-92), Society of Sedimentary
Geology (Past President, Southeastern
Section, 1996-97), Florida Academy of
Sciences, Sigma Xi, Florida Section of the
American Institute of Professional Geologists
(Past-President, 1985-86), Florida
Association of Professional Geologists (Vice
President and Board Member 1996),
Research Associate, University of South
Florida.

Steven M. Spencer, Economic Geologist,
Mineral Resources Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, Florida
State University (1981). Research interests:
economic geology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). January 1992 DEP






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Employee of the Month, 1994/95 DEP
Sustained Exemplary Performance Award.

Carolyn Stringer, Special Projects Manager,
Oil and Gas Section. BS, University of
Alabama (1970).

Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic, Mineral
Resources Investigations and Environmental
Geology Section. Certified Yamaha Motors
and Honda Marine Corporation Outboard
Mechanic, U.S. Coast Guard licensed
Captain, FAA Airframe and Powerplant
License, PADI Certified Open Water Diver
and First Aid Medic.

Jim Trindell, Driller, Geological Investigations
Section. Formal training in Environmental
Sciences, Stockton State College (Ponoma,
NJ), U.S. Coast Guard licensed Captain,
U.S. Coast Guard 100-ton Master
Certification.

TEMPORARY PART TIME STAFF

Research Assistants:

James E. Arney, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, University of Nebraska at
Lincoln (1997); MS candidate, Florida State
University. Research interest: calcareous
nannofossils.

Clinton I. Barineau, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1995); MS candidate, Florida
State University. Research interests:
structural geology and fault kinematics.

Craig Berninger, Geological Investigations
Section. Area of specialization: well
drilling and coring. Research interests:
paleontology. Professional Memberships:
Florida Paleontological Society.

Jacqueline D. Bone, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS honors candidate, Florida
State University. Research interests:
environmental hydrogeology, coastal
geology and water resource management.
Recipient of American Association of
Petroleum Geologists 1998 Scholarship
Award. Professional memberships:


Geological Society of America and
American Association of Petroleum
Geologists.

Patricia Casey, Geological Investigations
Section. BA English (1983), BS Geology
(1997) Florida Atlantic University.
Research interests: paleontology.

Zi-Qiang Chen, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, Geological Institute of Xian
City, China (1982); MS, Dartmouth (1989);
MA, College of William and Mary (1992).

Brian J. Cross, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section, BS Geology, Furman University
(1997); BA Political Science, Furman
University (1998); MS candidate Florida
State University. Research Interests:
coastal processes and coastal policy.

Adel Dabous, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, Alexandria University,
Alexandria, Egypt (1968); MS, Alexandria
University, Alexandria, Egypt (1973); Ph.D.,
Florida State University (1981). Research
interests: Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Coastal
Geology. Director of the FSU U/Th Isotope
Geochemistry Laboratory. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Geochemical Society of
America, Geological Society of Egypt,
Geological Society of America, and
Mineralogical Society of Egypt.

Cindy Fischler, Geological Investigations
Section. AS, Science, Thomas Nelson
Community College; BS candidate Florida
State University. Research interests:
coastal geology, sedimentology, carbonate
petrology.

Cliff Hendrickson, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, Florida State University
(1994); MS, Florida State University
(1997). Research interests: environmental
and coastal geology and hydrogeology.

Lance Johnson, Geological Investigations
Section. BA, Vanderbuilt (1994); MS






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


candidate, Florida State University.
Research interests: structural geology,
carbonate petrology.

Michelle Lachance, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS candidate (Geology and Civil
Engineering), Florida State University.
Research interests: geotechnics and
rheology. Professional memberships: FSU
Geological Society, Society of Physics
Students, American Society of Civil
Engineers, Circle K International, and FSU
Student Senate.

Diedre A. Lloyd, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Florida State University
(1996), MS candidate, Florida State
University. Research interests: hydro-
geology.

Guy H. "Harley" Means, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1996). Research interests:
Molluscan paleontology. Professional
memberships: Florida Paleontological
Society. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort
Award, 1998 FGS Individual Extra Effort
Award.

Spencer P. Mitchell, Geological Investi-
gations and Mineral Resources Investi-
gations and Environmental Geology
Sections. BA, Florida State University
(1994); MS candidate Florida State
University (1999). Research interests:
geochemistry and economic mineralogy.

Stephen L. Palmes, Geological Investiga-
tions Section. BS, Old Dominion University
(1990), MS, Wright State University
(1992), Ph.D., Florida State University
(1998). Research Interests: stratigraphy,
structural geology. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of
America, American Association of
Petroleum Geologists, Sigma Xi.

William H. Pollock, Geological
Investigations Section. BA, Auburn
University (1994), MS, Auburn University
(1996). Research Interests: GIS
development and analysis, hydrogeology.


Michelle M. "Mikki" Ponchak, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1998). Research interests:
Florida Cenozoic stratigraphy,
environmental geology, mapping
techniques. FSU Geological Society: Vice
president, 1997-98; President, Fall 1998.

Christine M. Rutkowski, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, College of William and Mary
(1994); MS, Florida State University
(1998). Research interests: chemical
oceanography, hydrology, groundwater -
surface water interaction in the coastal
environment.

Christopher P. Smith, Geological
Investigations Section. BS candidate,
Florida State University. FSU Geological
Society: President, 1998-99.

Jennifer Stalvey, Geological Investigations
Section. BA, Florida State University (1991),
graduate course work in Geography, Florida
State University (1995 and 1996), MS
candidate, Florida A & M University. Areas
of specialization include AutoCAD
cartography and well drilling and coring.
1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award.

Nikki Strong, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Hebrew University,
Jerusalem, Israel (1994); MS candidate,
Florida State University.

Daniel Vanderipe, Geological Investigations
Section. AA, Manatee Community College,
Bradenton, FL (1996); BS candidate, Florida
State University.

William R. Waite, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Geography, University of
South Alabama (1996), BS, Geology,
University of South Alabama (1996), MS
candidate, Florida State University.
Research interests: stratigraphy, structure
and tectonic evolution of the western Blue
Ridge, southern Appalachians.

Chris Werner, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, University of Pittsburgh
(1996); MS candidate, Florida State






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


University. Research interests: karst
hydrogeology.

Alan Willett, Mineral Resources
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, University of Tennessee at
Chattanooga (1987); BS, Georgia
Southwestern University (1996); MS
candidate, Florida State University.
Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal
and environmental geology. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of
America.

Holly K. Williams, Geological Investigations
Section, BS, Florida State University
(1996); MS candidate, Florida State
University. Research interests: water-rock
geochemistry in aquifer storage and
recovery programs, radioisotope geology,
uranium geochemistry, groundwater, and
Florida stratigraphy. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of
America, American Association of
Petroleum Geologists, American
Geophysical Union.

Research Associates:

Richard C. Green, Professional Geologist II,
Geological Investigations Section. BS,
Florida State University (1986); MS,
Florida State University (1993). Research
Interests: Uranium /Thorium geochemistry,
environmental hydrogeology, and
stratigraphy. Licensed Professional
Geologist (Florida). Principal Investigator,
USGS STATEMAP Program.

Richard A. Johnson, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, University of
Florida (1971); MS, University of Florida
(1974). Research interests: Cenozoic
stratigraphy and lithology. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: Geological
Society of America and American
Association for the Advancement of
Science.

Outside Research Associates:

Vicente Quinones-Aponte (USGS)
Dr. Lynn Brewster-Wingard (USGS)


Ron Ceryak (SRWMD)
Randy Chambers (Alachua County)
Nolan Col (SJRWMD)
Rick Copeland (DEP)
Tony Countryman (NWFWMD)
Dr. Jim Cowart (FSU)
Eric Dehaven (SWFWMD).
Dr. Joe Donoghue (FSU)
Dr. Lucy Edwards (USGS)
Will Evans III (DEP)
Kendall Fountain (UF)
Robin Hallbourg (Alachua County)
Jeff Herr (SFWMD)
Chris Langevin (USGS)
Jody Lee (SJRWMD)
Gary Maddox (DEP)
Katherine Milla (NWFWMD)
Carole Milliman (SFWMD)
Ed Oaksford (USGS)
John Passehl (USGS)
Thomas Pratt (NWFWMD)
Ron Reese (USGS)
Suzanne Weedman (USGS)


AWARDS

The recipient of the 1997 FGS
Employee of the Year Award was Robert
(Bob) Caughey. Recognized for his
dedication and loyalty, Bob is the District
Administrator of the Oil & Gas Section's Ft.
Myers Field Office. An outstanding
professional, Bob is on 24-hour call and it is
not uncommon for him to work seven days
a week, especially when oil companies are
cleaning up drilling pads, removing tank
batteries and flow lines, or setting casing
strings and plugging. Bob enthusiastically
participated in the geochemical sampling
project and willingly offers technical
assistance and guidance to industry and
other governmental agencies.

There were four 1997 FGS Extra
Effort Awards recipients. Don Hargrove
was recognized for his contribution to the
Survey's work production and morale. His
outstanding work ethic and attitude as
exhibited in his participation in the
geochemical sampling project and
willingness to put in overtime under
strenuous field conditions is an example to
everyone. Jim Ladner was recognized as






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


an ambassador of goodwill through his
willingness to participate in extra activities
and public events. His effective and
enjoyable presentations reflect his
knowledge and expertise and serve to
promote the FGS. Ed Lane was recognized
for his extra efforts in representing the FGS
on several educational committees and
contributions to the Survey through the
many publications and posters with which
he has been involved. Rick Green was
recognized for his outstanding management
and work products for the USGS/FGS
cooperative STATEMAP projects. Rick is
also one of the FGS' experts on Florida
surficial geology, geologic mapping with
AutoCAD, and using the Well Log Data
Base System. His willingness to assist and
train others in these areas are quite
beneficial to the FGS.

The 1998 FGS Employee of the
Year Award recipient was James (Jim)
Balsillie. A coastal engineering geologist,
Jim was honored as an outstanding
professional for his productivity and his
many contributions to the Survey. In
addition to his regular work schedule he
worked extensively on outfitting the
GEOLAB, was involved with the FGS Open
House and FSU Open House, participated in
makeovers of two FGS labs and was
instrumental in finding office space for Dr.
William Tanner and his extensive coastal
research collection.

1998 Extra Effort Awards were
given to two employees. Debra Harrington
was recognized for her accomplishments as
an OPS employee in the Coastal Research
Group for reorganizing safety and field
equipment, setting up spreadsheets to
track equipment use and maintenance,
reorganizing one of the computer rooms
and preparation of displays for the FGS
Earth Science Week Open House. She was
also recognized for her work as a new full-
time staff member of the Geologic
Investigations Section for her amazing
cleanup and reorganization of the sample
processing labs and adjoining rooms.
Harley Means, an OPS member of the
Geologic Investigations Section, was


recognized for his outstanding contributions
to the FGS through his willingness,
cooperation and work ethic. In addition to
being heavily involved in the STATEMAP
project, Harley willingly trains other Survey
employees in the correct procedures. On
his own time he worked with the State
Archaeologist in surveying the underwater
archaeology of the Aucilla River which led
to the discovery of a Paleo-lndian site. His
"above and beyond" attitude is contagious.

DEP's Division of Water Facilities
awarded Deborah Mekeel, FGS Librarian
Specialist, an External Appreciation
Recognition for assisting the Basin Planning
and Management Section in producing
several river basin assessment documents.

"Florida's Geology Unearthed," the
educational video produced by the FGS has
been recognized once again for its
achievement. Last year, the video received
an "Award of Distinction" from the National
Communicator Awards and was the winner
of the 1997 Governor's Environmental
Education Awards in the Communications
category.

At the New York Marriott Marquis
on January 16, 1998, "Florida's Geology
Unearthed" was recognized as a Finalist in
the International Non-Broadcast Media
Awards of the New York Festivals. The
New York Festivals has honored excellence
in worldwide media communications for 39
years. The Board of Judges and Advisors
comprise a "Who's Who" among the
world's leaders in communications. More
than 1,100 entries were submitted for
these awards, including applicants from 39
countries. Finalists and medalists were
selected for 120 categories. Medalists at
the awards ceremony include National
Geographic, Dick Clark Productions, Walt
Disney Television, Chevron, and
Nickelodeon. The FGS, as well as the local
production company, Diane Wilkins
Productions, are proud to be Finalists of the
prestigious New York Festivals awards for
development of "Florida's Geology
Unearthed."







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


If you have any
questions about "Florida's
Geology Unearthed," contact
Jon Arthur (Producer) or
Deborah Mekeel (Distribution
Coordinator) at the FGS
850/488-9380.

The Florida Geologi-
cal Survey Geochemistry
Survey Team received a
1998 Davis Productivity
Work Unit Award. This team
made it possible for the state
to acquire over $100,000
worth of valuable geochemi-
cal analyses at no cost to the
state. This accomplishment
began with an agreement


between the FGS and the
United States Geological Survey (USGS) to
conduct a systematic, statewide
geochemical survey of both stream and
upland sediment samples.

The sampling was set to begin in
October 1997 and had to be completed by
mid-March 1998 to meet a deadline
imposed by the USGS contract with the
geochemical lab. The state of Florida was
divided into a grid including over 1500 cells
to be sampled, some in triplicate for
statistical purposes. Sampling this grid in
the short time allowed seemed initially to
be a daunting task. The FGS accepted the
challenge and put together a volunteer
team made up of 27 FGS staff members.
Staff from all sections of the FGS
participated, many of whom had no field
work or travel within their ordinary job
duties. The initial savings resulting from
this team effort was over $100,000 in the
cost of the chemical analyses. The ongoing
cost savings is immeasurable as this data is
used in a variety of environmental
applications. The overall outcome and
benefit to the current and future citizens of
the state of Florida will be improved
protection of our environment and Florida's
valuable natural resources.


Harley Means demonstrates the hazards ot sampling for the
statewide, systematic, geochemical survey (that's an alligator
hanging onto his boot!).


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
SEDIMENT GEOCHEMISTRY SURVEY TEAM

Administrative Section
Cindy Collier Administrative Secretary
Geologic Investigations Section
Jim Balsillie Coastal Geologist
Craig Berninger Research Assistant
Paulette Bond Research Geologist
Ken Campbell Sedimentologist
Rick Green Stratigrapher
Ted Kiper Marine Captain
Harley Means Research Assistant
Frank Rupert Paleontologist
Tom Scott Assistant State Geologist
Jennifer Stalvey Research Assistant
Mineral Resources & Environmental Geology Section
Zi-Quaig Chen Research Assistant
Rodney DeHan Senior Research Scientist
Henry Freedenberg Environmental Geologist
Cliff Hendrickson Research Assistant
Ron Hoenstine Coastal Geologist
Jim Ladner Coastal Geologist
Ed Lane Environmental Geologist
Jackie Lloyd Assistant State Geologist
Spencer Mitchell Research Assistant
Steve Spencer Economic Geologist
Nikki Strong Research Assistant
Candy Trimble Research Assistant
Oil & Gas Section
Paul Attwood Asst. District Coordinator
Bob Caughey Environmental Program
Administrator
Don Hargrove Engineer
Carolyn Stringer Special Projects Manager






BIENNIAL REPORT 20


FGS BUDGET SUMMARY

During FY96/97 and FY97/98, funding was from the Grants and Donations Trust Fund
(G&DTF), the Minerals Trust Fund (MTF), and the Nonmandatory Land Reclamation Trust
Fund (NMLRTF). The summary is as follows:

FY 96/97
Fund G&DTF MTF NMLRTF TOTAL
Salaries and Benefits $ 99,013 $1,002,291 $ 317,563 $1,418,867
Other Personal Services 374,926 14,326 0 389,252
Expenses 92,357 151,364 68,250 311,971
Operating Capital Outlay 0 25,222 0 25,222
TOTAL $566,296 $1,193,203 $385,813 $2,145,312

FY 97/98
Fund G&DTF MTF NMLRTF TOTAL
Salaries and Benefits $ 0 $1,087,677 $ 379,592 $1,467,269
Other Personal Services 374,926 14,326 0 389,252
Expenses 92,357 158,864 68,250 319,471
Operating Capital Outlay 30,000 25,222 0 55,222
TOTAL $497,283 $1,286,089 $447,842 $2,231,214


AGENCIES CONTRIBUTING TO THE GRANTS AND DONATIONS TRUST FUND
Agency FY96/97 FY97/98
Northwest Florida Water Management District X X
St. Johns River Water Management District X X
South Florida Water Management District X X
Suwannee River Water Management District X X
Southwest Florida Water Management District X X
U.S. Geological Survey X X
U.S. Minerals Management Service X X
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency X
Florida Department of Environmental Protection X X
Florida Advisory Council on Environmental Education X
Alachua County X
University of Miami X





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
11 IIIIIIIII IBU II I l l IIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIllll Iilili
3 1262 07168 9698
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET qE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700

ADMINISTRATIVE SECTION .2.
Walter Schmidt, Chief and State Geologist
Cindy Collier, Administrative Secretary Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Deborah Mekeel, Librarian Sandra Ray, Administrative Assistant jqqjj7/q19

GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION
Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist
James Arney, Research Assistant Diedre Lloyd, Research Assistant
Jon Arthur, Petrologist Harley Means, Research Assistant
Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist LaMarr Mitchell, Secretary Specialist
Clint Barineau, Research Assistant Steve Palmes, Research Assistant
Craig Berninger, Research Assistant Bill Pollock, Research Assistant
Paulette Bond, Research Geologist Michelle Ponchak, Research Assistant
Ken Campbell, Sedimentologist Frank Rupert, Paleontologist
Patricia Casey, Research Assistant Frank Rush, Lab Technician
Jim Cowart, Research Associate Christopher Smith, Research Assistant
Joel Duncan, Sedimentary Petrologist Milton Schouest, Assistant Driller
Cindy Fischler, Research Assistant Jennifer Stalvey, Research Assistant
Rick Green, Stratigrapher Jim Trindell, Driller
Debra Harrington, Lab Technician Daniel Vanderipe, Research Assistant
Lance Johnson, Research Assistant Bill Waite, Research Assistant
Richard Johnson, Senior Research Associate Chris Werner, Research Assistant
Holly Williams, Research Assistant

MINERAL RESOURCES
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION
Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
Jackie Bone, Research Assistant Ted Kiper, Marine Captain
Zi-Qiang Chen, Research Assistant Michelle Lachance, Research Assistant
Brian Cross, Research Assistant Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist
Adel Dabous, Research Assistant Ed Lane, Environmental Geologist
Rodney DeHan, Senior Research Scientist Spencer Mitchell, Research Assistant
Joe Donoghue, Research Associate Paula Poison, CAD Analyst
Ace Fairley, Network Administrator Christine Rutkowski, Research Assistant
Henry Freedenberg, Env. Geologist Steve Spencer, Economic Geologist
Amy Graves, GIS Analyst Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic
Cliff Hendrickson, Research Assistant Nikki Strong, Research Assistant
Ron Hoenstine, Coastal Geologist Alan Willett, Research Assistant

OIL AND GAS SECTION
David Curry, Environmental Program Administrator
Paul Attwood, Asst. District Coordinator Don Hargrove, Engineer
Robert Caughey, District Coordinator Evelyn Jordan, Secretary Specialist
Ed Gambrell, District Coordinator Jim LeBar, Professional Engineer
Ed Garrett, Geologist Carolyn Stringer, Staff Assistant







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
LOCATION MAP


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