Biennial report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher:
The Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date:
Frequency:
biennial
regular
Edition:
1995-1996[19th report]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltuf - AJG7269
oclc - 22342552
alephbibnum - 001754280
lccn - sn 90001622
issn - 1052-6536
System ID:
UF00000224:00006

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Research and regulatory programs
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Additional programs
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Cooperative programs
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Special projects
        Page 18
    Physical plant and scientific laboratory upgrades
        Page 19
    Publications
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Papers by staff in outside publications
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Talks by staff members to professional groups
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Additional professional activities
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Personnel information
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Budget summary
        Page 39
    Appendix: Abstracts for selected presentations, publications, and projects
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Back Cover
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text







Florida Geological Survey
Biennial Report 19








Florida Geological Survey at a Glance


Affiliation

The Florida Geological Survey is a bureau within the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
Division of Technical Services.

Mission

The mission of the FGS is twofold: First, to collect,
interpret, disseminate, store and maintain geologic
data, thereby contributing to the responsible use and
understanding of Florida's natural resources; and
second, to conserve the State of Florida's oil and gas
resources and minimize environmental impacts from
exploration and production operations.

History

The Office of State Engineer and Geologist was created
by the state legislature in 1852. "General" Francis L.
Dancy, an engineer, occupied this position until 1855,
when it was abolished. In 1880, Alabama State
Geologist Eugene Smith noted the presence of
phosphoric acid in a sample of Flbrida building stone.
This discovery of potential commercial phosphate
commodities in Florida led to the establishment in 1886
of a new State Geologist position. Dr. John Kost, a
medical doctor, was appointed to the post by then
Governor E.A. Perry. The position was again abolished
by the legislature a year later. For the following two
decades geological explorations in the state were
conducted by the USGS and private companies.
Legislative action to create a permanent Florida
Geological Survey was finally proposed in 1903 and
passed in 1907. The Survey began in 1907 with Dr.
Elias Sellards as its first State Geologist. It was housed
in an unused committee room of the old Capitol
building, left vacant by the recently adjourned
legislature. The Survey subsequently occupied four
other locations around Tallahassee before moving into
its current offices in the Herman Gunter Building on the
Florida State University campus.
Today the FGS is the state's primary earth system
research and data collection agency, providing
information to other agencies, academic researchers,
planners, and the citizens of Florida.

Services
* Provide information about Florida geology
* Publish and distribute geologic maps and reports
* Maintain geology databases and files
* Maintain geology library
* Maintain rock cuttings and core repository
* Map and describe bedrock and surficial geology
and mineral resources
* Maintain oil and gas drilling records
* Issue oil drilling permits and inspect oil wells


Main Offices
Florida Geological Survey
903 West Tennessee Street
Tallahassee, FL 32304-7700
(850) 488-9380 FAX (850) 488-8086

Staff Contacts
State Geologist and Chief (850) 488-4191
Walter Schmidt, PG, Ph.D.

Geologic Investigations Section (850) 488-9380
Thomas M. Scott, PG, Ph.D., Assistant State Geologist
Northwest Florida and Suwannee River Districts
Frank R. Rupert, PG
St. Johns River District
Paulette A. Bond, PG
South Florida District
Joel G. Duncan, PG
Southwest Florida District
Jonathan D. Arthur, PG, Ph.D.
Drilling Program
Kenneth M. Campbell, PG
Coastal Engineering Geology
James H. Balsillie, PG

Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section (850) 488-9380
Jacqueline M. Lloyd, PG, Assistant State Geologist
Economic Minerals
Steven M. Spencer, PG
Environmental and Karst Geology
B. Edward Lane, PG
Hydrogeology
Rodney S. DeHan, Ph.D.
Coastal Geology Program
Ronald W. Hoenstine, PG, Ph.D., Director
Henry Freedenberg, PG, Geologist
L. James Ladner, PG, Geologist

Oil and Gas Section (850) 487-2219
L. David Curry, PG, Administrator
Tallahassee Office
Edward W. Garrett, PG, Geologist
Don L. Hargrove, Engineer
James D. LeBar, PE, Engineer
Ft. Myers Field Office (813) 338-2362
Robert S. Caughey, PG, District Coordinator
Paul J. Attwood, PG, Petroleum Geologist
Jay Field Office (850) 675-6558
W. Edward Gambrell, District Coordinator

Library and Publications Orders (850) 488-9380
Deborah E. Mekeel, Librarian


Cover: In 1997, the Florida Geological Survey enters its 90th year of service to the citizens of Florida. Pictured on the cover are
selected photographs from the Survey's historical archives. Trom top across, L to R: Drs. Sellards, Harper, and Herman Gunter
camping at Aspalaga Bluff, on the Apalachicola River, March 1909; Recovery of the Wakulla Mastodon, 1930; Early FGS field
vehicle, 1924; Survey Museum in the Old Capitol Building, 1925; Drs. Vernon, Stubbs, and Gunter exploring Holmes Creek
outcrops, May, 1940; Posing with bones of Wakulla Mastodon at Wakulla Spring, 1930; Dr. Gunter showing assembled Wakulla
Mastodon skeleton in FGS museum, 1949.







STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Virginia B. Wetherell, Secretary




cLOG



OR DA




DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
Nevin G. Smith, Director



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief





BIENNIAL REPORT 19
1995-1996

By
Frank R. Rupert





Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee
1997


ISSN: 1052-6536






qq

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
June 1997




Governor Lawton Chiles
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Tallahassee, Florida 32301


Dear Governor Chiles:

The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Administrative and Technical Services, Department of
Environmental Protection, is publishing Biennial Report 19, 1995-1996, prepared by the Survey's
professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the professional staff during this two-
year period. Research results are usually reported in the Survey's various publication series.
Reports for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other
activities of the Survey.



Respectfully yours,


Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief


61a~b^^


~a~s~







TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Forew ord .................................. ...... ......... ..................... .. .... ...................1
Introduction .................................................................................................
Research and Regulatory Program s ...................................................................... .................... 3
Geological Investigations Section .............................................. .. .. .................... 3
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section ...................................................5
O il and G as Section ........................ ............... .. .. ...................................................... 6
A additional Program s ............................................................. .. .. .. .............. ....... ...... .... .......... 8
D killing Program ......................... ... .............. ... ......... ......... ............. ............ 8
R research Library ...................... ... ... ....... .. .. .. ..... ...... .. ................... ................. 9
Library Services ........................ .. .... .. ... .... .. .... . ........ .... ...... ......... 9
Publications Distribution ............................................................................ .. 10
S special Projects................................... ............ ........ ...................... 10
Special Collections ........................ ... .. ................................... ....... 10
Geologic sam ple Collections.................................................. ................................... 10
Data Files ............... ..................... ............... .................. .. ....... .................. 11
Com puter Services ................................................................. .......... ..................... 11
Student Assistantship Program .......................................................................... 1 2
C continuing Education .............. ................... ... .... ...... .. ............. .......... ..... ............ 12
Cooperative Programs ... ................................................... . 12
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Ambient Ground Water Monitoring Program.............................................. 12
Bureau of Water Resource Protection
Aquifer System Vulnerability Mapping............................................. 13
Division of Water Facilities and Florida State University
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study ........................................ 13
Coastal Research Group .................................. ..... ......... .. .................... 14
Coastal Research Group Projects ................... .......... ... .......... ...... ................. 14
Northwest Florida W ater Management District ............................................ ........... 15
Suwannee River W ater Management District .............................................. ............ 15
Geology and hydrogeology of the upper carbonate unit of the intermediate
aquifer system in Bradford and Union Counties .............................................. 15
W ell description program ......................................................... ................ .. 15
South Florida Water Management District and University of Miami
Southern Florida Core Drilling Project ................................. ........................ .. 16
St. Johns River Water Management District
District Observation W ell Network (DOW N) ............................... .................... 16
Southwest Florida Water Management District
Geologic Cross Sections................................ ............ .. ......................... 16
Geographic Inform ation System Database ................................ .................. .. 17
U.S. Geological Survey
Florida Bay Ecosystem History ..................................................................... 17
The Hydrogeology of the Surficial aquifer system in Collier County, Florida .......... 17
The Oligocene to Pliocene Subsurface Stratigraphy of Southern Florida.................. 17
Surficial and bedrock geology of the 1:100,000 Homestead quadrangle................ 17
National Water Quality Assessment (NAQUA): Summary of the geology and
hydrogeology of the Little River Basin, Suwannee County ........................ 18
Special Projects ................... ............................................................................... 18
Florida Geology Education Video Project............................ .. ....................... 18
Physical Plant and Scientific Laboratory Upgrades ...................................................... .. 19
iii







Publication ns ................................................. .... .. ... ................................................. 19
Biennial Report ............... ........... ... ............ .... ............. ........... ......... .. 19
Florida G eology Forum ................................................................................ .. 20
Inform ation C ircular ........ ................... ....... .... ... .... ....... .................. ................. 20
O pen File Reports ...................................................... . ................... .........20
Special Publications ...................................................... ..... .. .................. 20
Papers by staff in outside publications ............................................................................ 20
Talks by staff to professional groups.................... ....................... ... .. ................... ... 27
Additional Professional Activities ............................................. ............. ..................29
Sym posia .................................................................................. ... ................... 29
Meetings, Conferences, Workshops, and Training..........................................................29
Fieldtrips ........................... ...... . .................. .. ........... .. .................. 32
Booths and Displays .......................................................... ......... ...... ..................... 32
Personnel Inform action ........................................................... .....................32
Personnel Changes ...................................... ....... .. . ... ............. ..... 32
Professional Staff ............... ..... ...... .................. .. ........ .. .. ............... ... .. ... 32
Clerical and Technical Staff ............................................. .......... .......... .............. 35
R research A ssistants.............................................................................. .................... 3 6
Research A associates .................................................... .................... ..................... 37
Outside Research Associates ......... ................... .................................................... 37
Aw yards ........................ ............. ...... .. .. .. ........ ..... .. .. .. ...................... ......... ........ 37
Budget S um m ary ............................ .. ......... ....... ....... .. .... .............................39
F G S B u d g et ........................................................................................... ........................... 3 9
Appendix: Abstracts for selected presentations, publications, and projects .................................40


Florida's rocky coast Pleistocene Anastasia Formation beachrock at Hutcheson Island, St. Lucie County.
(photo by Tom Scott)
iv





FOREWORD

The biennial years 1995 and 1996 were
again very busy and rewarding for the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS). The Survey has
now settled into its place in the recently
reorganized Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP). The FGS continues to be
administratively within the Division of
Administrative and Technical Services. One
change since two years ago is that the
position of Deputy Director of Technical
Services has been deleted by the Department.
The Survey Chief now reports directly to the
Executive Services Director. Other
organizational aspects of the Survey's
structure remain unchanged.

During the 1996 Legislative Session
several significant actions occurred which
directly impact the workings of the FGS.
First and most significant, was the passage of
a revision to Chapter 377.075 Florida
Statutes (as Chapter 96-323, Laws of Florida)
which is the law defining and authorizing the
Florida Geological Survey. The amended
wording provides greater clarity and
specifically defines the "State Geologist"
position as the director of the Florida
Geological Survey (which heretofore was only
defined by a job description within the
Department of Environmental Protection) and
requires the director to be a Florida licensed
geologist. The FGS is directed to conduct
field and laboratory investigations and to
consider scientific, educational and economic
questions related to the geology and
hydrology of the state. It is further directed
to maintain a comprehensive research library
and statewide repository for well cuttings,
cores and related surface and subsurface
samples and data. The FGS is also
designated to act as a clearinghouse for other
agencies funded by the state that propose
revisions of geologic interpretations and
nomenclature. Further, new language
requires the FGS to collect and maintain data
on the economic mineral industry of the state
and to designate "state geological sites" or
"state invertebrate paleontological sites" for
those areas determined to be of great and
continuing significance to the scientific study
and public understanding of the geologic
history of the state.

A second important part of that bill dealt
with Oil & Gas related issues. These
included: a statutory definition of the Big
Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee;


authority to issue permits for the injection and
recovery of any natural gas for temporary
storage in subsurface reservoirs; horizontal
well completions and associated spacing
adjustments; and allowing for geographical
positioning system (GPS) coordinates to be
used for drilling unit control. In the same act,
Chapter 211, F.S. was also revised to provide
short-term tax abatement for selected oil and
gas production.

In other actions passed by the
Legislature, numerous trust funds were
eliminated by consolidation or redefinition.
Included in this action was the elimination of
the Petroleum Exploration and Production
Bond Trust Fund (PEPBTF). The functions
and overall purpose of the PEPBTF however,
continue within the Minerals Trust Fund
(MTF). The MTF is the source of funding for
the FGS and the Bureau of Mine Reclamation.
Funds are derived from a percentage of
severance taxes collected from selected
economic mineral production throughout the
state.

During the last two years the FGS has
continued its productive and efficient
relationship with several other state and
federal agencies to provide applied
geoscience assistance to contribute to the
solving of today's environmental problems.
We now have contracts or cooperative
working agreements with twelve different
agencies or programs to supply geoscience
interpretations or to assist with geologic and
hydrogeologic field data collection. These
contracts totaled over $511,000.00 at the
end of 1996, an all- time high for the FGS.
The FGS typically assigns a professional
geologist on staff as a principal investigator
(PI) on a project, and uses the additional
contract funds to hire geology graduate
students, support field travel and or lab work.
The cooperative relationship we have with
the Florida State University Geology
Department to share laboratory equipment,
research facilities, faculty expertise, and
utilize the graduate student population as a
"work study program," clearly provides an
efficient cost/benefit to the public and
taxpayer. In recent years, graduate students
and faculty from the University of Florida, the
University of South Florida, and the University
of Miami have also been involved in various
research projects. The Survey has re-
emphasized the educational component of our
mandate during these last two years.





Recently completed is the Florida Geology
Educational Video Project, titled: Florida's
Geology Unearthed. This project, funded
jointly by the FGS and the Florida Advisory
Council on Environmental Education, includes
a one hour video (broken down into five
segments with built-in breaks), selected FGS
educational publications, and an "Educator's
Guide" with learning activities to assist middle
school teachers with teaching the material
and to expand on the main themes. The
project is designed to inform and stimulate
students in a variety of topics related to earth
sciences, natural resources, environments and
ecosystems. Another educational project
recently completed is a poster displaying and
describing "Earth Systems" as the foundation
of Florida's environment and ecosystem
understanding. Survey staff have also
participated in Department-wide workshops
to teach the concepts of Ecosystem
Management for the 4400 staff of the DEP.
Over thirty lectures teaching the fundamental
nature of understanding that the solid-earth is
the foundation of our environments have
been given.

Members of the FGS have also been
involved in making significant contributions
on the national scene as well as within the
state. Walt Schmidt served as the President
of the Association of American State
Geologists (AASG) during the 1995-96 fiscal
year. In that capacity he was an invited
participant in the AGI/U.S. Department of the
Interior, Societies President's Workshop to
make recommendations to Congress and the
Secretary of the Interior regarding the merger
of the National Biological Service into the
U.S. Geological Survey. He also served on
the Peer Review Panel of the STATEMAP
component of the National Geologic Mapping
Program in 19.96. In addition, Dr. Schmidt
represented Florida at the joint AASG/USGS
Workshop on Domestic Mineral Statistics, and
authored testimony in support of the
reauthorization of the National Geologic
Mapping Act of 1992 (H.R. 3198), to the
U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee
on Energy and Minerals Resources. Dr.
Rodney DeHan was elected President of the
Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC),
and also has been representing Florida on the
Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring
Water Quality (ITFM). Dr. Thomas Scott
served as president of the Southeastern
Section of the Society for Sedimentary
Geology (SEPM).


Research projects during the 1995-96
biennium have again been dominated by
hydrogeologic studies. In conjunction with
the various Water Management Districts
several aquifer characterization studies have
been initiated. Staff have also been involved
with some of the many projects underway by
both state and federal agencies to better
understand the Everglades and Florida Bay
environments. This basic system
understanding is a precursor to the eventual
conservation of the ecosystem of the entire
area.

Several physical-plant laboratory
upgrades have also occurred during the last
two years. One of two bays in the basement
of the Gunter Building has been converted to
a core preparation, description, and
sedimentological preparation facility. A core
cutter has been designed and built, a drill
press corer has been constructed, and a new
state-of-the-art balance has been acquired.
The FGS permeability lab added 24 new
falling head permeameters bringing the total
to 44. During the 1995-96 fiscal years the
Survey had its staff computer stations
networked into the main DEP system. Word-
processing and database software was
converted to Microsoft Office products. The
FGS now has access to, and is accessible
through the Internet with all staff now having
e-mail addresses. The FGS world wide web
homepage has recently been completed and is
now up and running. Information on the
Survey programs, data archives, newsletters,
List of Publications, selected reports, and
other information is now hot linked to the
homepage.

The staff of the Florida Geological Survey
continue to perform in an outstanding,
professional way. We are very fortunate to
have a dedicated staff with such low turn-
over, which develops important corporate
memory and state specific experience.
Walt Schmidt


Dr. Walter Schmidt, State Geologist





INTRODUCTION

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) is
located on the campus of the Florida State
University (FSU) in the Gunter Building,
adjacent to the university's Geology
Department. The FGS has a staff of 56: 18
professional geologists, one senior research
scientist, 16 research assistants, four research
associates, four engineers, one environmental
specialist, a professional driller and drilling
assistant, an administrative assistant, a
librarian, and support staff.


The FGS Offices, Gunter Building, Tallahassee.

Research facilities at the FGS include a
geological research library, a sample repository,
and laboratories. The library contains an
extensive collection of state and federal
publications, periodicals, and references. The
sample repository holds cores and well cutting
samples from more than 17,000 wells (both
onshore and offshore). Laboratory facilities
include a permeability lab equipped with 44
falling-head permeameters; a sedimentology
lab containing diamond rock-saws, drill press
corer, and core saw for core processing, Ro-
Taps, ovens, and balances; sample preparation
equipment for clay mineralogy, organic
/carbonate content and micro/nannofossil
studies; and an ETEC Scanning Electron
Microscope with a Kevex semi-quantitative
probe. Field equipment includes a trailer-
mounted auger rig, a Failing 1500 drill rig for
continuous diamond coring, a truck-mounted
Mobile Drill Rig with wire-line coring capability,
various pickup trucks and four-wheel drive
vehicles, and three boats used in coastal
research projects.


The FGS also has cooperative agreements
with FSU's Geology Department to use an x-
ray diffractometer, an x-ray fluorescence
spectrometer, an atomic absorption spectro-
meter, and an alpha spectrometer.

RESEARCH
AND REGULATORY PROGRAMS

GEOLOGICAL
INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

The -Geological Investigations Section is
involved in a wide range of research covering
both onshore and offshore areas of Florida.
New statewide geologic and geomorphic maps
are in preparation. The geologic map depicts
the distribution of geological units throughout
the state and provides an invaluable aid in the
environmental decision-making process. Such
a map provides first approximation solutions to
numerous environmental and management
related problems. The geomorphic map
delineates the distribution of landforms across
the state. These two types of maps provide
powerful tools in defining problems relating to
ground water, waste disposal, geological
hazards, and mineral resources.

Geologists in the Geological Investigations
Section are also involved in various applied and
basic research projects designed to acquire
geologic data useful to intelligent growth
planning and effective resource management.
The Plio-Pleistocene sediments in southern
Florida, important as aquifers and as the
foundation for the burgeoning growth in that
area, are being investigated and mapped in
cooperation with the United States Geological
Survey (USGS). Staff geologists are
collaborating with the USGS on the
investigation of the Everglades and Florida Bay,
both sensitive ecosystems whose underlying
geology has played a significant role in their
development. Studies of the geological history
of the deep subsurface Paleozoic and Mesozoic
rocks in northern peninsular Florida and the
panhandle are also underway in order to better
understand the state's petroleum reservoir
rocks. Additional studies currently in process
include the geochemistry of peat in Florida,
research on the state's extensive caves, and
the study of geology of Taylor County. The
Geologic Investigations section staff also





INTRODUCTION

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) is
located on the campus of the Florida State
University (FSU) in the Gunter Building,
adjacent to the university's Geology
Department. The FGS has a staff of 56: 18
professional geologists, one senior research
scientist, 16 research assistants, four research
associates, four engineers, one environmental
specialist, a professional driller and drilling
assistant, an administrative assistant, a
librarian, and support staff.


The FGS Offices, Gunter Building, Tallahassee.

Research facilities at the FGS include a
geological research library, a sample repository,
and laboratories. The library contains an
extensive collection of state and federal
publications, periodicals, and references. The
sample repository holds cores and well cutting
samples from more than 17,000 wells (both
onshore and offshore). Laboratory facilities
include a permeability lab equipped with 44
falling-head permeameters; a sedimentology
lab containing diamond rock-saws, drill press
corer, and core saw for core processing, Ro-
Taps, ovens, and balances; sample preparation
equipment for clay mineralogy, organic
/carbonate content and micro/nannofossil
studies; and an ETEC Scanning Electron
Microscope with a Kevex semi-quantitative
probe. Field equipment includes a trailer-
mounted auger rig, a Failing 1500 drill rig for
continuous diamond coring, a truck-mounted
Mobile Drill Rig with wire-line coring capability,
various pickup trucks and four-wheel drive
vehicles, and three boats used in coastal
research projects.


The FGS also has cooperative agreements
with FSU's Geology Department to use an x-
ray diffractometer, an x-ray fluorescence
spectrometer, an atomic absorption spectro-
meter, and an alpha spectrometer.

RESEARCH
AND REGULATORY PROGRAMS

GEOLOGICAL
INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

The -Geological Investigations Section is
involved in a wide range of research covering
both onshore and offshore areas of Florida.
New statewide geologic and geomorphic maps
are in preparation. The geologic map depicts
the distribution of geological units throughout
the state and provides an invaluable aid in the
environmental decision-making process. Such
a map provides first approximation solutions to
numerous environmental and management
related problems. The geomorphic map
delineates the distribution of landforms across
the state. These two types of maps provide
powerful tools in defining problems relating to
ground water, waste disposal, geological
hazards, and mineral resources.

Geologists in the Geological Investigations
Section are also involved in various applied and
basic research projects designed to acquire
geologic data useful to intelligent growth
planning and effective resource management.
The Plio-Pleistocene sediments in southern
Florida, important as aquifers and as the
foundation for the burgeoning growth in that
area, are being investigated and mapped in
cooperation with the United States Geological
Survey (USGS). Staff geologists are
collaborating with the USGS on the
investigation of the Everglades and Florida Bay,
both sensitive ecosystems whose underlying
geology has played a significant role in their
development. Studies of the geological history
of the deep subsurface Paleozoic and Mesozoic
rocks in northern peninsular Florida and the
panhandle are also underway in order to better
understand the state's petroleum reservoir
rocks. Additional studies currently in process
include the geochemistry of peat in Florida,
research on the state's extensive caves, and
the study of geology of Taylor County. The
Geologic Investigations section staff also








Florida Geological Survey

Functional Organizational Chart
F.G.S. Organization as of December, 1996


Oil & Gas
Section

Administrator
(Curry)


Secretary
(Stringer)

Geologist
(Garrett)


Pet. Eng.
(LaBar)

Engineer
(Hargrove)


Ft. Myers Jay
Field Office Field Office

Dist. Coor. Dist. Coor.
(Coughey) I (Gombrell)

Secretary Secretar
(Mac Farlon) (Jordan)

Geologist
(Atltood)


Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology
Section

Asst. State Geologist
(Lloyd)

Senlor R..earch Env. Geol.
Sclenlt -- (Ladner)
(DeHan)

Env. Geol. Env. Geol.
(Freedenberg) (Lane)

Env. Geol. Econ. Geol.
(Hoenstlne) (Spencer)

Research Research
Associates Assistants
(Dabous) (Chen)
(Donoghue) (Hendrickson)
(Highley) (Kher)
(Trimble)
(Williams)





provides needed data and expertise to the
Coastal Research Group and the Environmental
Geology and Mineral Resources section.

The section also consults with other
government agencies since the knowledge of
regional and local geology of a given area is
fundamental in the evaluation of numerous
environmental problems. Geological
Investigations responds to inquiries regarding
aquifer recharge and contamination, geologic
hazards, geologic mapping, and problems
related to community planning and
development. The group prepares detailed
lithologic logs for wells that are on file with the
FGS. This information is added to the
Survey's computerized data base which
currently contains logs for approximately
4,000 wells. This data base and the programs
designed to manipulate it are currently used by
other governmental agencies and a number of
private firms.

MINERAL RESOURCES
and
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

Florida ranks first in the nation in the
production of phosphate rock and ninth,
nationally, in non-fuel mineral value. The
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology
Section maintains communication with the
mineral industry in Florida and publishes
biennial status reports related to industry
activity. The section also provides mineral
resource assessments on specific land parcels
to the Department's Division of State Lands on
an as-needed basis.

Petroleum is produced from a total of 12
oil fields in Florida. Seven fields are productive
from the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland
Formation in southern Florida; five are
productive from the Upper Jurassic Smackover
Formation and Norphlet Sandstone in the
western panhandle of Florida. The Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology Section
prepares biennial reports on Florida's petroleum
production and exploration. The biennial report
covering 1994 and 1995 was completed in
1996.
Another aspect of the group's work with
non-fuel minerals involves the preparation of
county mineral resource maps. County mineral


resource investigations were initiated to assist
counties in the preparation of this component
of the comprehensive land-use plans mandated
by the state legislature. The goal of these
studies is to identify potential mineral resource
areas and present the results in a format
appropriate for use by Florida's planning
community. The results are published as
1:125,000 scale maps with supporting text
and figures. The maps present the major
mineral commodities for use as a guide to
resource location. The supporting text
discusses the county's geology and
geomorphology as well as specific mineral
commodities accompanied by inset maps and
geologic cross-sections depicting the near-
surface sediments. A total of 19 of these
county investigations have been completed
and two additional reports are in preparation
for Escambia and Jackson Counties.

Nearly 900 new residents move to Florida
each day. This phenomenal population growth
stresses the state's environment and its
resources. Geologic information is essential for
environmentally responsible land-use planning
and resource and ecosystem management.
Recognizing this, the section began a series of
special environmental reports that target
specific rapidly-growing urban areas. These
reports integrate cultural, climatological,
geological, and hydrological data to illustrate
the importance geology plays in land-use
planning. Graphics are used to present data
and geologic concepts in a format that can be
readily used by the lay-public, scientists, and
planners.

The first two reports in this recent series
cover the cities of Ocala and Gainesville. A
third report on the Pensacola area is in
preparation. Environmental geology and
hydrology are discussed, emphasizing topics
relating to water resources. The hydrologic
cycle, karst geology, surface water, and the
underlying aquifer systems are analyzed in
detail, establishing the relationships among
them. Recommendations for protection of
these resources through appropriate land-use
planning are also presented.

Over the years, the FGS has recognized
the need for a geologic educational and public
outreach program. Although all members of





the FGS professional staff participate in this
program, it is coordinated through this section.
Outreach activities include lectures and
presentations to school groups at all levels and
civic and professional organizations,
participating in science fair judging and school
mentoring programs, and publication of
educational materials.

Production of a new educational poster,
Earth systems: the foundation of Florida's
ecosystems, was completed in 1996 in
cooperation with the FGS Geologic
Investigations Section. The poster includes
maps, block diagrams, and text which describe
and illustrate the importance of geology and
geomorphology in shaping ecosystems. The
poster demonstrates the interaction of the solid
earth aspects of earth systems (geology), the
atmospheric aspects .(meteorology), and the
aqueous aspects (hydrogeology and hydrology)
in forming specific ecosystems. The section
also assisted in the production of the Florida
Geology Education Video which is described in
more detail in the Special Projects section of
this publication.

After the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute lost its funding support, its computer
database and archive files were transferred to
the FGS. This section has done extensive
reformatting and updating of the data, in order
to make it available to the public and private
sectors. An index to the sinkhole database was
published in 1994 and will be updated
periodically. In addition, the section handles
requests for sinkhole data and coordinates
requests for individual sinkhole inspections.

In 1991, the FGS organized an informal
Coastal Research Group (CRG) under the aegis
of the Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section. This was in response to the
long standing recognition of the need to
establish a marine and coastal geology
program which would generate resource maps
of offshore areas, as well as submerged lands
(bays and estuaries). Investigations of
geological processes affecting coastal
environments and ecosystems would be
included in such a program. These studies
would complement the state's ongoing efforts
to control coastal erosion and manage fragile
coastal environments. This program is


discussed in further detail in the Cooperative
Programs section of this publication.


Coastal Group geologists Brad Highley and Zi-Qiang
Chen taking a shallow beach sediment core
(photo by H. Freedenberg)


OIL and GAS SECTION

The Oil & Gas Section regulates
hydrocarbon exploration and production in
Florida and within state waters pursuant to
Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and
implementing Rules 62C-25 through 30,
Florida Administrative Code. The Section's
primary responsibilities are conservation of oil
and gas resources, correlative rights
protection, maintenance of health 9jd human
safety, and environmental protection. These
concerns are addressed when permit
applications are reviewed and permit
conditions are enforced by field inspection.

The section's main office is located in
Tallahassee and field offices are located near
producing fields in northwest (Jay) and south
(Ft. Myers) Florida. The section's key
activities include permitting geophysical,
drilling, and transport operations, inspecting
field activities, tracking activities by the use
of production and other reporting forms,








Florida's Oil Fields









SCALE
0 10 20 MILES
S 10 20 30 KILOMETERS

-N-
EXPLANATION 1

( A IVE OIL FIELD
0 INACTIVE OIL FIELD


LOCATIONS


SOUTH FLORIDA
OIL FIELDS


NORTH FLORIDA OIL FIELDS


SOUTH FLORIDA OIL FIELDS

J. Lloyd 1997





enforcing financial security requirements, and
maintaining a database of approximately
1,300 wells.

Eight drilling permits were issued in
1995-96 for wells in south Florida. One of
these wells, Permit No.1289, drilled by
Calumet Florida, Inc., at the Raccoon Point
Field, became the state's first new producer
since 1988. This well is currently producing
3,000 barrels per day, which is approximately
20% of the state's total crude oil production.
Calumet drilled a dry hole at the Townsend
Canal field and a horizontal well at the West
Felda Field which is likely to become a
producer. Calumet conducted one
conventional seismic survey in 1995 and
applied for 3-D seismic permit in the Raccoon
Point area in 1996. Two additional horizontal
well applications were submitted by Calumet
at the end of 1996.

DeSoto Oil and Gas, Inc. received a
permit for drilling in Santa Rosa County in
April, 1996. This well has not yet been
drilled.

Coastal Petroleum Company's application
for drilling in state waters off St. George
Island has been in court since being denied by
the Governor and Cabinet in 1993. At the end
of 1996 the application was still pending a
final court decision. Coastal submitted two
offshore geophysical applications during
1995-96, but has not yet received a permit.
In federal waters south of Pensacola, Chevron
completed a 40 million cubic ft/day gas well
in the Norphlet Sandstone in April 1996. The
company announced plans to construct
production facilities and a pipeline which will
deliver the gas to existing refineries in Mobile.
By the end of 1996 Chevron, Amoco, and
OEDC Exploration and Production had applied
to the federal Minerals Management Service
for numerous drilling and production permits.

Modification of the West Felda Field
Rules was approved on July 18, 1996. This
modification allowed for additional wells
which will drain the reservoir more efficiently.

On March 24, 1996, the Oil & Gas
Section adopted new rules which reflect the


Governor's recent directive to streamline all
rules.
ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS

A number of additional programs are
critical to the mission of the FGS. These
programs benefit Survey staff as well as other
state and federal governmental agencies,
industrial representatives, consulting groups,
academic researchers, and interested citizens.
The Survey's drilling program acquires cores
from various locations around the state for in-
house projects as well as for cooperative
projects. The Geologic Sample Repository
contains storage space for core and cutting
samples, allowing this valuable information to
be preserved and catalogued in a systematic
fashion. Lithologic and geophysical logs are
filed for ease of retrieval at the Gunter Building
in Tallahassee. The Survey's computer system
is used to handle the growing volume of
information associated with geological research
and oil and gas regulation. Currently, most
FGS drafting services are handled by
computer. The FGS's research library allows
its users the advantage of computerized
database searches along with traditional library
services geared specifically to geology. The
FGS supervises an active student assistant
program in which qualified graduate and
undergraduate students assist staff members
in various on-going research programs.
Continuing education at the Survey, while
offering staff some advanced educational
opportunities, has suffered from budget
cutbacks.

DRILLING PROGRAM

The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. The state is characterized by
very low topographic relief and data obtained
from cores is essential to the understanding of
subsurface stratigraphy, hydrogeology and
hydrology.

The FGS operates a Failing 1500 drill rig
which is deployed on a full-time basis and is
operated by a licensed driller and one
assistant. During 1995 and 1996, 30
stratigraphic test holes were drilled by the FGS
core rig, 15 of which were continuous cores
ranging from 54 to 628 feet in depth, for a





RESEARCH LIBRARY


rW


FGS drill rig (photo by Tom Scott)


total drilled length of 3,828 feet (2,826 feet
cored). Fifteen of these holes were converted
to monitor wells in cooperation with the
Suwannee River and South Florida Water
Management Districts and the U.S. Geological
Survey.

The FGS operates a truck mounted Mobile
Drill auger/core rig which has been outfitted for
continuous shallow wireline coring in rock or
unconsolidated sediments. Sixty-seven
stratigraphic test holes, 59 of which were
cored, were drilled in 13 counties during 1995
and 1996. Depths of auger/core holes range
from 19 to 95 feet for a total sampled depth of
approximately 3,375 feet. Thirty-five of these
holes were converted to monitor wells in
cooperation with the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection Ambient Ground
Water Quality Program and the Alachua
County Department of Environmental
Protection, the U.S. Geological Survey and the
Northwest, Suwannee River, Southwest and
South Florida Water Management Districts.


The research library is an integral part of
the Survey's research and regulatory programs.
In support of the information needs of staff,
students, and researchers from the public
sector, the library provides access to basic
research materials including books, maps, state
and federal documents, photographs and
periodicals. Holdings total approximately
40,000 volumes. Materials are collected on
various aspects of geology, including mining
and mineral resources, environmental geology,
hydrogeology and other related topics. The
library has one of the largest and oldest
geologic map collections in the state of Florida
with over 16,000 maps, including a number of
items dating from the 19th century.

LIBRARY SERVICES

The library is used by the general public,
students, other government agencies, and
private consulting companies. While
circulation is restricted to Survey staff, the
personnel of other state agencies and the
Florida State University Geology Department,
the library is open to the general public for
research. In addition, library materials are
available to libraries throughout the United
States via the Interlibrary Loan system on a
limited basis.

The library participates in a nationwide
Interlibrary Loan network through which the
staff has access to other special and academic
collections. The library cooperates with other
libraries through various networking groups on
the local, state, and national level. The librarian
participates in the activities of the Panhandle
Library Access Network, and the Geoscience
Information Society.

In 1996, a committee was formed to
study library services within the Survey's
parent agency, the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. This committee is
working to standardize library services within
the Department, and to provide the remote
offices better access to needed research
materials.

The Research Library currently subscribes
to the GEOREF database on CD-ROM.





GEOREF, the digital version of the American
Geological Institute's geoscience database,
contains almost two million records covering
geology from 1785 to the present. In addition,
the library now has full Internet access through
the DEP network and is able to access the
online catalogs of the State University System
of Florida (LUIS), the State Library of Florida
(LION), and many other sources of information
available online. These enhancements in
computer services allow library staff to expand
the access of researchers to relevant material.

PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTION

The library is responsible for providing
detailed information on the survey's 636
published documents and reports, and
oversees the distribution of all documents
currently in print. During 1995-1996 this
included over 2,293 requests for 22,965
documents. In addition, publications are
distributed to 250 depository libraries around
the world, which maintain collections of Florida
Geological Survey publications. Many of the
FGS publications are used as study materials
by geologists studying for the Florida
Professional Geologist Licensing Exam which is
given twice a year. The library is active in
providing these publications and other
information to those studying for the exam.

SPECIAL PROJECTS

The library worked in a cooperative
project with the Panhandle Library Access
Network to begin retrospective conversion
reconn) of library cataloging records to machine
readable format. This is the first step in the
automation of the library which will lead to an
online public access catalog, and
computerizing the technical activities of the
library (e.g., cataloging, circulation, serials
management). The recon project is being
funded by PLAN, with the technical work
being done by AutoGraphics, Inc.

SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

The FGS Library houses the archives of
the Florida Sinkhole Research Institute. This
archive contains original records of field
research of sinkhole occurrences, county maps
of sinkhole locations, and copies of


publications of the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute. A listing of the field records
computer database has been published as
Florida Geological Survey, Open-File Report 58,
and is available through the Publications
Office.

The Survey also houses the archives of
the National Association for Cave Diving
(NACD), Florida chapter. NACD members have
provided the Survey with underwater cave
survey maps, video tapes of several cave
conduit systems, and NACD publications. This
collection is used by cave divers and geologists
to gain insight into the cave network locations
as well as the size, shape and hydrogeology of
subaqueous caves in Florida.


GEOLOGIC SAMPLE COLLECTIONS

The FGS maintains separate collections of
well and surface outcrop samples. The well
sample collection contains approximately
17,500 sets of samples from research wells as
well as water and oil wells. Most wells are
represented by sets of drill cuttings. Eight
hundred and ten wells are represented by
continuous core or core samples (a total of
approximately 173,000 feet). New core
sample sets added to the archives were drilled
by the FGS, Water Management Districts and
geologic consultants. The sample repository
facility occupies about 9,500 square feet, with
17,655 square feet of shelf space.

A collection of approximately 4,900
outcrop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in
the Gunter Building. These samples are cross
indexed by formation, lithology, county and
location. The collection is referred to as the
"M-Series." The M-Series is particularly
valuable given Florida's high rate of growth
and development. Surface exposures of
critical lithologies have become inaccessible
with the continued proliferation of roadways,
shopping centers, parking lots and high-rise
housing. These sample archives and the data
base they represent are utilized by geologists
at the FGS, many other state, federal and local
governmental agencies, universities (both in
and out of the state) and geological
consultants.





The FGS vertebrate and macro-
invertebrate collections are now located at and
curated by the Florida Museum of Natural
History, in Gainesville, at the University of
Florida. Both collections will be searchable via
the Internet.

DATA FILES

Samples from wells which are stored at
the FGS Sample Repository are indexed by
accession number, county, and section,
township, and range location. Lithologic logs,
drillers logs, and information sheets which
correspond to these wells are filed by county
and accession number in a series of loose-leaf
binders. Information from these books is
gradually being transferred to the Survey's
computerized data base which currently
contains data from approximately 4,000 wells.

A file of geophysical logs contains
information for approximately 4,800 wells.
Many of these wells have corresponding
lithologic samples available and are assigned
FGS accession numbers. Geophysical logs
represented include electric (normal, lateral,
SP), natural gamma, caliper, fluid resistivity or
conductivity, temperature, single point
resistivity, acoustic velocity, fluid velocity,
neutron (porosity), and gamma-gamma
(density). In addition, complete suites of
geophysical logs accompany most permitted oil
and gas wells.

COMPUTER SERVICES

Computer systems at the FGS have been
used primarily for word processing, database
management, information resources and
computer-aided design in support of various
data collection and research programs.
Installation of a local area network (LAN) at
the FGS, however, has substantially improved
data security, management, storage and
accessibility. In 1995, the FGS LAN was
connected to the DEP user group through the
Tallahassee Municipal Area Network (TMAN).
This connectivity facilitates department-wide e-
mail, use of shared hardware peripherals (i.e.,
plotters and scanners), software and other DEP
LANs. Moreover, it provides the FGS staff
with access to the Internet and it makes FGS
databases more accessible to the Department


of Environmental Protection (DEP), as well as
other state, local and federal agencies and the
general public.

In addition to the lithologic database,
other FGS databases include: 1) an oil and gas
geophysical permit application database, 2) an
oil and gas well database, 3) Florida mineral
producers list, 4) partial inventory of geologic
samples (cores and cuttings from over 17,000
wells), 5) inventory of sinkholes from the
Florida Sinkhole Research Institute, and 6)
inventory of geologic outcrop descriptions in
Florida. Digital maps include county base
maps, geologic maps, a statewide geomorphic
map, location maps for cores and oil and gas
wells, and a map of active mines in Florida.

The FGS library is able to access the
online catalogs of the State University System
of Florida (LUIS) and the State Library of
Florida (LION) through the Internet and through
direct dial-up. This allows library staff to
expand the access of researchers to relevant
material.

The FGS is now part of Internet on-line
resources with a gopher site and a World
Wide Web (WEB) home page. These
resources provide access to a variety of FGS
data and other geologic information.

Information about the FGS and its
programs and more than 4,000 lithologic logs
are available from the FGS gopher and WEB
sites, both of which reside on the Department
of Environmental Protection (DEP) server. The
gopher can be reached by typing
"gopher:\\gopher.dep.state.fl.us". From this
menu, select "Department of Environmental
Protection," then choose "DEP Florida
Geological Survey." Files containing the FGS
lithologic database are found here, including a
decoding program and user manual. GeoSys,
Inc. has provided the program, which is
freeware and allows the user to view and
print the lithologic data. An ASCII-file version
of the entire FGS List of Publications is also
located at this gopher site. In addition, this
gopher site also provides access to geologic
maps for each county.





For WEB Browsers, the DEP home page
is also an informative stop. This page
(http://www.dep.state.fl.us), provides links to
several DEP agencies, including the FGS. The
FGS home page may be reached at
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geo. The site
contains digital FGS data, such as lithologic
well data, the Open File Map Series geologic
maps, program information and educational
resources.


STUDENT ASSISTANTSHIP PROGRAM

The FGS sponsors an active student
assistantship program which is beneficial for
students and staff geologists. Qualified
graduate and undergraduate students in
geology obtain work experience in a
professional setting while staff geologists, in
turn, are assisted by knowledgeable and
motivated individuals. The assistantship
program was begun in 1974 and has run
successfully, with minor interruptions, since
then.

Currently, most students are employed by
contract and grant-funded studies. These
students conduct research tasks while under
the supervision of professional geologists on
the Survey staff. As the program has
developed, the FGS and several Water
Management Districts have provided funding
for assistants. Additional funding sources
include the U.S. Minerals Management Service,
the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, and the U.S. Geological Survey.



CONTINUING EDUCATION

Opportunities for continuing education
available to staff at the FGS remained few in
1995-1996 as a result of budgetary cutbacks.
The State of Florida continues to maintain a
unique program in which tuition is waived for
state employees enrolling in job-related courses
on a space-available basis. A number of Survey


staff have taken advantage of this program,
enrolling in various courses related to their
work. Most of the staff members participated
in DEP workshops on Ecosystem Management,
with several members teaching geological
portions of the classes. Several attended a
special in-house course on Clastic
Sedimentology. Others completed outside
training in using geographic information
systems.



COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS

The FGS participates in cooperative
programs with federal agencies, other state
agencies, county agencies, and water
management districts. Such programs greatly
benefit all participants and the taxpayers of
Florida by providing efficient staff and
equipment usage and obtaining maximum
results from ever-dwindling budget dollars.

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION

AMBIENT GROUND WATER MONITORING
PROGRAM

The Ambient Ground Water Monitoring
Section contracted with the FGS to
investigate shallow aquifer systems at 32 sites
in 16 different counties throughout the state
during 1995 and 1996. Core holes were
drilled at each of the sites for lithostratigraphic
analysis and for FGS database purposes.
Lithologic logs were generated for each core,
formation picks made and the data entered
onto the FGS computer data base. Monitor
wells were constructed at 29 of the sites for
the ambient ground-water monitor network.
This lithologic information and the ambient
ground-water quality information will be useful
for a variety of ecosystem management
decisions. The Northwest, Southwest and
South Florida Water Management Districts and
Alachua County also cooperated on these
projects.





BUREAU OF WATER RESOURCE PROTECTION

AQUIFER SYSTEM VULNERABILITY
MAPPING

The Bureau of Water Resource Protection
entered into an agreement with the FGS to
complete the digitizing, editing and formatting
of county maps and data entry for aquifer-
system vulnerability mapping in preparation for
future work in publishing and inputting this
information into the Department's Geographic
Information System (GIS) map library. The
aquifer-system vulnerability data and maps
were developed using DRASTIC, a mapping
system developed jointly by the U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency and the
National Water Well Association. DRASTIC is
an acronym for seven hydrogeological
parameters that are combined to estimate
aquifer-system vulnerability to pollution. The
seven parameters are: depth to recharge, net
recharge, aquifer media, soil media,
topography, impact of vadose zone, and
hydraulic conductivity. A numerical score for
each parameter is assigned to each map
polygon. The score for each parameter within
each polygon is then multiplied by a
weighting factor. The seven parameters are
overlain and the weighted scores are summed
for each polygon to create a composite
DRASTIC aquifer-system vulnerability map.
Higher scores indicate higher relative pollution
potential. These maps indicate overall relative
aquifer-system vulnerability and are an
invaluable tool in land-use planning and
resource and ecosystem management.


DIVISION OF WATER FACILITIES
and
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

AQUIFER STORAGE AND RECOVERY (ASR)
GEOCHEMICAL STUDY

In December, 1996, the Florida
Geological Survey, the FDEP Division of
Water Facilities and the Department of
Geology at Florida State University entered
into a two-year cooperative agreement to
study the effect of the aquifer matrix on
surface waters stored underground and the
effect on the aquifer matrix by the stored
waters. This investigation will provide


valuable knowledge regarding the proper
development and monitoring of ASR facilities.
Surface waters injected underground
may have chemical and physical
characteristics quite dissimilar to the native
waters they displace. The rocks comprising
the aquifer matrix have attained their present
chemical and physical state partly as a result
of interactions with the native ground waters.
The introduction of waters with different
characteristics may change the previous
naturally occurring rock-water interactions.

A major concern for stored waters is the
entrainment of various naturally occurring
radioactive nuclides. In Florida, Eocene
through Miocene carbonate rocks often have
zones displaying considerable radioactivity.
This is most apparent in borehole geophysical
logs that reveal multiple zones of high
gamma-ray activity coincident with layers rich
in clay, organic, phosphate or dolomite.
Uranium-series elements are often associated
with these zones. Surface waters injected
into deeper aquifer systems have the
capability of dissolving some of the aquifer
rock, which can mobilize the uranium-series
elements into the ground water.

A recent Florida Geological Survey study
(Open File Report 61) in Hillsborough County
demonstrates that up to 32 percent of the
uranium in Floridan aquifer system rocks can
be leached when exposed to oxidizing
conditions in the laboratory. This further
underscores the need to investigate the
effects of pumping oxygen-rich surface
waters into the aquifer. Analysis of both rock
and water samples is necessary to track the
source and mobility of uranium.

The ASR geochemical study will measure
the native Floridan aquifer waters, the waters
being injected, the waters withdrawn after
storage, and appropriate rock samples of the
aquifer matrix in the area. The nature of
particulate matter in the injected water will
also be considered. The analyses to be
carried out will be uranium concentration and
the radioactivity ratio of 234U/238U, strontium
concentration, 8Sr/86Sr, field conductivity,
temperature, and pH, and major ion analysis
(Na, Mg, Ca, CI, SO4, and HCO3).





The uranium concentration and uranium
isotope alpha activity ratio analyses will be
done by alpha spectrometry. The strontium
concentration will be done by atomic
absorption, and the strontium isotope
analyses will be done using mass
spectrometric means. Laboratory facilities at
the Florida State University (FSU) Department
of Geology will be used during the
investigation.

COASTAL RESEARCH GROUP

In 1991 an informal Coastal Research
Group (CRG) was organized at the FGS. The
Coastal Research Group is committed to
continuing fundamental research to improve
our understanding of Florida's coastal
ecosystems and processes. This research will
provide information that is essential for
planning, ecosystem management,
conservation, and protection of Florida's
valuable coastal resources.

From modest beginnings the CRG's
responsibilities and projects expanded
considerably during 1995 and 1996. At
present, the research group's FGS staff
consists of four licensed Professional
Geologists who serve as principal investigators:
Dr. Ron Hoenstine, Jim Balsillie, Henry
Freedenberg, and Jim Ladner. The principal
investigators have 86 years combined
experience in Florida geology, coastal
processes, and marine ecosystems. Other
contributing FGS staff include geologists
Jacqueline Lloyd, Ed Lane, Steve Spencer, and
Ken Campbell. Engineering, maintenance, and
navigation expertise is provided by Ted Kiper,
an FGS staff engineer with a U.S. Coast Guard
Captain's certification.

In addition, the CRG staff collaborates
with Dr. Joe Donoghue, a professor of coastal
processes/marine geology in FSU's Geology
Department. The Geology Department and the
FSU Marine Laboratory provide access to field
sampling equipment and research vessels, as
well as analytical instrumentation for
sedimentology and geochemistry. The
collaboration between the CRG and FSU
provides opportunities for directed graduate
research studies funded through employment
on the CRG research grants. Six graduate


students from FSU's Geology Department are
currently employed as research assistants on
various CRG coastal projects. In the past, the
CRG has cooperated similarly with University
of Florida, University of South Florida, Florida
Institute of Technology, and the Florida
Institute of Oceanography.

Boats in the CRG inventory include a
13.5-foot Boston Whaler, and a 24-foot jet-
drive Carolina Skiff with a power winch for
shallow water sediment sampling. For deeper
water and heavy-duty sediment sampling the
CRG uses the FGS RV Coastal Probe, a 30-
foot, diesel powered, shallow draft, research
vessel. This boat has a 2-ton-capacity
hydraulic winch, a hydraulic clam-shell grab
sampler, significant storage space, and a
completely enclosed pilot house.

FGS/CRG field equipment includes the
following portable instruments acquired during
this biennium:

1. A global positioning system (GPS) with real-
time differential (Starlink MRB-2A radiobeacon
receiver) for site location, station keeping, and
station recovery.
2. A Hydrolab Remote Water Quality Logger
for on-site measurement of salinity,
temperature, depth, pH, conductivity, and
turbidity.
3. A Go-Devil outboard motor designed to
traverse shallow marsh and estuarine systems.
4. An electric portable vibracore system.
5. A receiver for FGS's Geopulse seismic
profiler.
6. A recorder for FGS's Geopulse seismic
profiler.
7. A video camera to provide a visual record
of on-site data.
8. A 35hp jet drive outboard for the 13.5
foot Boston Whaler.
9. A computer graphics plotter (for digital
graphics input, as well as publication and
presentation output) .

COASTAL RESEARCH GROUP PROJECTS

The CRG's first research project, A
Geological Assessment of the Florida Big Bend
Coastal Wetlands, was initiated in July 1991
and continued through 1996. This project is
partially funded by the U.S. Geological Survey.





It focuses on characterizing the wetlands
processes of the estuaries of the Aucilla, the
Steinhatchee, the St. Marks, and the'
Ochlockonee Rivers. The final comparison
among these four Big Bend estuaries will
enable better prediction of such natural
systems' responses to changes that are either
natural (e.g., sea level change) or human-
induced (e.g., increasing development).

The CRG also completed an environmental
project partially funded by the U.S. Minerals
Management Service (MMS): Baseline
Investigation of Estuarine Sediment Metals for
the Steinhatchee River Area of the Florida Big
Bend. This was a baseline program to identify
concentrations of metals within sediment
facies of the Steinhatchee River estuary.
Sediment metals-enrichment were related to
basin land use where possible.

A second MMS-supported study is MMS-
2, A Geological Investigation of the Offshore
Area Along Florida's Central East Coast. This
multi-year study is designed to characterize the
geologic processes and parameters affecting
the shore and nearshore coastal areas of
Florida's central eastern Atlantic coast, as well
as evaluate known and potential offshore sand
resources for beach renourishment. Similar
nearshore investigations by the FGS (1985-
1992) have examined the sand and heavy
mineral resources off the Gulf Coast of
northwest Florida, off Cape Canaveral on the
Atlantic coast, north of Cape Canaveral to the
Florida-Georgia state line, and off southeast
Florida from Ft. Pierce to Miami.

In 1996, the CRG completed an EPA
sponsored project to conduct an inventory of
Florida Gulf of Mexico investigations of
offshore sand resources. The purpose of this
inventory was to establish a database for
future identification of offshore sands suitable
for beach renourishment.

NORTHWEST FLORIDA
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

During the years 1995-1996, the FGS
provided technical assistance to several
hydrogeological studies carried out by the
NWFWMD. Under short-term contracts, FGS
research assistants described the lithology of


wells drilled for the Corry Field assessment, the
Jackson County Karst Hydrogeologic Unit
Assessment, and local studies in Bay and
Washington Counties. Printed lithologic logs
and digitized columnar sections were provided
to the District, and samples from the studies
were archived in the FGS sample repository.

SUWANNEE RIVER
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE
UPPER CARBONATE UNIT OF THE
INTERMEDIATE AQUIFER SYSTEM
IN BRADFORD AND UNION
COUNTIES, FLORIDA

The FGS and the Suwannee River Water
Management District cooperated in this study
in Bradford and Union Counties. The FGS
drilled 19 sites, collecting continuous core or
cuttings samples for lithologic and stratigraphic
analysis, collecting split spoon samples for
hydraulic conductivity analysis and
constructing monitor wells at selected sites.
One site includes an eight-inch well for aquifer
testing. Each test hole will penetrate into the
upper carbonate unit of the intermediate
aquifer system. This unit is the primary source
of potable water in the study area. Eight of the
sites were located around the perimeter of
Lake Samson to determine the relationship of
the lake to the aquifer.

WELL DESCRIPTION PROGRAM

The FGS and the Suwannee River Water
Management District (SRWMD) have
maintained a successful and mutually
beneficial working relationship for nearly 20
years. During much of this period, the
SRWMD funded geology graduate students to
work as research assistants at the FGS,
describing well samples and cores and entering
the coded lithologic logs into the FGS
database. This arrangement has worked
exceedingly well, resulting in the addition of
much new data on the geology of the District
to the databases of both agencies.

This cooperative project continued
through the years 1995-1996. During this
period, over 100 previously unworked wells
were described and added to the FGS





database. In addition, data from the existing
well file database was compiled to construct
preliminary isopach maps of the surficial
aquifer system within the SRWMD. A new
contract to continue the well description and
surficial aquifer delineation projects was signed
in early October of 1996.


In addition to a variety of other tasks,
FGS research assistant Tom Miller describes
the lithology of well cuttings.
(photo by F. Rupert)



SOUTH FLORIDA
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
and
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI

SOUTHERN FLORIDA CORE
DRILLING PROJECT

The FGS, South Florida Water
Management District (SFWMD), and the
University of Miami are cooperating on this
project. Three deep cores had been drilled by
the end of 1994, two of which were converted
to monitor/observation wells for the SFWMD.
The remaining well in this project is located
within the Everglades National Park and has a
total depth of 648 feet. A shallow monitor well
was constructed at this site. A fifth is currently
being drilled near Sunniland, Collier County.
Interpretation of these cores will significantly
increase the information available on the
subsurface framework of the Florida Keys and
the formation of the Keys. This project is also
being expanded to study the Pliocene coarse
sands under southern Florida and their
potential effect as a nutrient conduit to Florida
Bay.


ST. JOHNS RIVER WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

DISTRICT OBSERVATION WELL NETWORK
(DOWN)

A cooperative program was developed
between St. Johns River Water Management
District (SJRWMD) and the Florida Geological
Survey in keeping with the missions of both
agencies. SJRWMD is developing a District
Observation Well Network (DOWN) program.
Geologic samples obtained during the
emplacement of these wells provide site-
specific data which is vital in ascertaining local
and, eventually, regional hydrogeologic
conditions. Samples from the DOWN Program
as well as other previously undescribed
samples on file at the FGS will be inventoried,
examined, described and entered into an
electronic database for use by both the FGS
and SJRWMD.


SOUTHWEST FLORIDA
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTIONS

An on-going cooperative program was
established in 1991 between the Southwest
Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD)
and the FGS to construct geologic cross
sections throughout the 16-county SWFWMD
region. The purpose of the project is to
delineate the extent of lithostratigraphic and
hydrostratigraphic units within the Southwest
Florida Water Management District
(SWFWMD), thus providing knowledge
essential for the protection and management
of ground-water resources in southwest
Florida.

The project is subdivided into three
phases: Phase I includes the southwest region
from Pinellas and Hillsborough to Charlotte
Counties. Phase II includes the northwest
region from Levy and Marion to Pasco
Counties. Phase III includes the southeastern
region, including Polk, Highlands, Hardee and
DeSoto Counties.

Detailed lithology, regional
lithostratigraphy of Eocene through Miocene





formations, gamma-ray log characteristics of
these formations and aquifer-system
delineations within each study area are the
primary focus of the cross sections. Most of
the data used to construct the cross sections
are taken from detailed descriptions of wells
drilled as part of the SWFWMD Regional
Observation and Monitoring Program (ROMP).
In areas where ROMP data are not available,
borehole data from the FGS and U.S. Geo-
logical Survey are utilized. Interim reports on
each project phase are either in preparation or
have been published. Twenty-one cross
sections have been completed to date. A final
report on the geologic framework of southwest
Florida is planned and will be facilitated by
further cooperative programs with the
SWFWMD.


GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
DATABASE

Through a cooperative agreement
between the FGS and the Southwest Florida
Water Management District (SWFWMD), more
than 4,800 borehole records have been
entered into a computer database and
subsequently imported into Arclnfo. Each of
these records contains up to 88 parameters,
identifying well location information (including
location accuracy), type and availability of
geological data and samples, well construction
information, well use, and other pertinent
information. As a result of this effort,
information on all wells in FGS files for which
geologic samples or geophysical logs exist is
easily accessed. This new GIS coverage
provides an invaluable resource to many
aspects of hydrogeologic and geologic
research, ground-water management and
protection and data evaluation/dissemination.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

FLORIDA BAY ECOSYSTEM HISTORY

FGS staff member Dr. Tom Scott is
assisting the USGS in the investigation of the
ecosystem history of Florida Bay, part of the
South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Project.
This project is utilizing fossil mollusks,


dinocysts, forams, pollens and sediment
lithology to determine the environments
present within the bay at a given time and
location. Lead isotope dating techniques
provide reliable ages of the sediments
encountered. The project will run five years.

THE HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE SURFICIAL
AQUIFER SYSTEM IN COLLIER COUNTY,
FLORIDA

This is a cooperative project with the
USGS. FGS geologists are describing cores,
determining formational breaks and analyzing
permeabilities in order to characterize the
surficial aquifer system. Seven cores,
averaging 200 feet deep, were drilled and
lithologic descriptions completed during
1996.


THE OLIGOCENE TO PLIOCENE SUBSURFACE
STRATIGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA

An ongoing cooperative project with the
USGS was initiated in 1994 to investigate the
subsurface stratigraphy of southern Florida.
To date this investigation has produced some
interesting results utilizing a multidisciplinary
approach to study the strata. The most
notable result was the determination that the
Arcadia Formation, Hawthorn Group, began
deposition in the late Early Oligocene and
continued, in some areas, through the Early
Miocene. This investigation documented the
existence of the thickest and best preserved
record of Oligocene deposition in the Atlantic
and Gulf coastal plains.

SURFICIAL AND BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF THE
U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 HOMESTEAD
QUADRANGLE

This cooperative project is funded jointly
by the FGS and the USGS under the State
Geologic Mapping Program (STATEMAP)
established by the National Geologic Mapping
Act. The driving force for mapping in this area
is the recent priority given the south Florida
area by both state and federal agencies. The





study area includes parts of the Everglades,
Florida Bay and the Florida Keys.


Geological Investigations section geologists field
mapping by helicopter, Florida Everglades (photo
by Tom Scott).


The mapping of the Homestead
Quadrangle is a two-year effort which started
late in 1994 with the eastern half of the
quadrangle, concluding with the western part
in 1996. Twenty coreholes were drilled for
this project. Numerous shallow push cores of
surficial sediments and hand samples were
collected. Surficial sediment maps, bedrock
geology maps and cross sections of the
shallow subsurface were produced.

In August of 1996, the FGS began
working on the 1996-1997 STATEMAP
project. This FGS/USGS funded project will
produce a bedrock geologic map, a surficial
sediments map, and several geologic cross
sections for the western two-thirds of the
1:100,000 scale Sarasota Quadrangle. Field
mapping for this project began in November,
with a planned completion date of August,
1997.


NATIONAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT
(NAQUA)

SUMMARY OF THE GEOLOGY AND
HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE LITTLE RIVER
BASIN, SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA

This cooperative study by the FGS and
the USGS National Water Quality Assessment


(NAQUA) program investigated the geology
and hydrogeology of the Little River basin, a
karst drainage basin. The FGS drilled fifteen
test holes into the Ocala Limestone (upper
Floridan aquifer system) and collected core or
well cutting samples for lithologic and
stratigraphic analysis. Split spoon samples
were collected from selected zones for
hydraulic conductivity analysis. A monitor well
was installed in each test hole for water quality
sampling and to facilitate investigation of the
interaction of surface and ground water.


SPECIAL PROJECTS

FLORIDA GEOLOGY EDUCATION VIDEO
PROJECT

In 1995, the FGS received funding from
the Florida Advisory Council on Environmental
Education to produce a classroom video on
Florida geology. The Florida Geology
Educational Video (FGEV) project, developed in
conjunction with Diane Wilkins Productions
and staff of the Florida Geological Survey,
fulfills the need for Florida-specific geological
education materials for use in the classroom
and for general public information. The video,
entitled Florida's Geology Unearthed, utilizes
an enthusiastic and contemporary videographic
approach to capture the target 8th- and 9th-
grade student audience. The classroom
version of the video includes a 58-page
Educator's Guide and supplemental written
materials all contained in an attractive
notebook. A second version of the video
(57.5 minutes) is intended for general public
education through broadcasting via Florida
Public Television or its affiliates.

Seven hundred and fifty classroom
versions of FGEV are being distributed to
Florida's 72 school districts, as well as local,
community college and state libraries, state
departments, museums, DOE Regional Service
Projects and professional teaching
organizations. Five broadcast copies will be
marketed and distributed to selected public
television stations within the state.





PHYSICAL PLANT AND SCIENTIFIC
LABORATORY UPGRADES

During the biennium 1995-1996, a
number of improvements to the FGS
laboratories and the overall physical plant
were carried out. These include both space
renovation and equipment upgrades.

FGS Storage Facility: An existing
foundation "footprint" previously housing an
old air conditioning/heating facility has been
converted to an 18-foot by 12-foot "on-site"
out-building for additional storage along the
west side of the Gunter Building. This, in
turn, has allowed for more efficient use of
space and has allowed for FGS laboratory
upgrades.

Core Preparation Bay: One of two
garage bays in the basement of the Gunter
Building has been converted to a core
preparation/description, rock cutting, and
sedimentological preparation facility.

Ro-Tap Box: A 3'(w) x 6'(1) x 5'(h) box,
housing 2 rotating/tapping sedimentologic
analytical devices (one of which staff has re-
built) has been installed in the core
preparation bay. The insulated box has been
successful in eliminating potentially harmful
decibel levels that the machines produce.

Core Cutter: A safety-conscious core-
cutting device and station has been designed,
installed, and is in use in the core preparation
bay. The lay-out table station and saw (the
latter known as the Blade Runner) allows for
splitting of PVC and aluminum core barrels up
to 5" in diameter.

Drill Press Corer: A drill press mounted,
water-cooled coring device has also been
constructed in the core preparation bay. The
device allows for obtaining small, cylindrical
cores of rock/core samples for detailed mass
density, permeability, transmissibility, and
related analyses.

Top Loading Balance: A new state-of-
the-art balance has been acquired for the
sedimentological laboratory. This sensitive
scientific device will measure mass (weight)
of up to 810 grams (28.4 ounces or 1.77


Ibs). It rounds off to an astounding 0.001
grams. In addition, a "stilling box" has been
constructed to eliminate effects of local
drafts. It will accommodate introduced
physical dimensions of objects to be weighed
of 17"(w)x17"(1)x14"(h). The balance is fully
configured to communicate with the proper
computer interface.

Permeameter Laboratory: The Falling-
Head Permeameter (FHP) laboratory has been
rebuilt and upgraded from 20 to 44 units.
FHP analyses are time-consuming, requiring a
one-month analytical period for completion.
These analyses are commonly part of studies
undertaken in the FGS' various cooperative
contracts and grants. The FGS FHP lab has
become the most comprehensive such
laboratory in the State. A 3-tier analytical
schedule has been adopted to determine
transmissivity of samples, which has
enhanced the efficiency of the laboratory. In
addition, computer related automation for
data recording and analysis is under
consideration for the future.





,


FGS permeameter laboratory


PUBLICATIONS

Despite severe budget cutbacks,
production of printed reports in the FGS
publication series continued in the years 1995-
1996.


Biennial Report

BR 18 Biennial Report 18, 1993-1994, by Ed
Lane, 1995, 42 p.





PHYSICAL PLANT AND SCIENTIFIC
LABORATORY UPGRADES

During the biennium 1995-1996, a
number of improvements to the FGS
laboratories and the overall physical plant
were carried out. These include both space
renovation and equipment upgrades.

FGS Storage Facility: An existing
foundation "footprint" previously housing an
old air conditioning/heating facility has been
converted to an 18-foot by 12-foot "on-site"
out-building for additional storage along the
west side of the Gunter Building. This, in
turn, has allowed for more efficient use of
space and has allowed for FGS laboratory
upgrades.

Core Preparation Bay: One of two
garage bays in the basement of the Gunter
Building has been converted to a core
preparation/description, rock cutting, and
sedimentological preparation facility.

Ro-Tap Box: A 3'(w) x 6'(1) x 5'(h) box,
housing 2 rotating/tapping sedimentologic
analytical devices (one of which staff has re-
built) has been installed in the core
preparation bay. The insulated box has been
successful in eliminating potentially harmful
decibel levels that the machines produce.

Core Cutter: A safety-conscious core-
cutting device and station has been designed,
installed, and is in use in the core preparation
bay. The lay-out table station and saw (the
latter known as the Blade Runner) allows for
splitting of PVC and aluminum core barrels up
to 5" in diameter.

Drill Press Corer: A drill press mounted,
water-cooled coring device has also been
constructed in the core preparation bay. The
device allows for obtaining small, cylindrical
cores of rock/core samples for detailed mass
density, permeability, transmissibility, and
related analyses.

Top Loading Balance: A new state-of-
the-art balance has been acquired for the
sedimentological laboratory. This sensitive
scientific device will measure mass (weight)
of up to 810 grams (28.4 ounces or 1.77


Ibs). It rounds off to an astounding 0.001
grams. In addition, a "stilling box" has been
constructed to eliminate effects of local
drafts. It will accommodate introduced
physical dimensions of objects to be weighed
of 17"(w)x17"(1)x14"(h). The balance is fully
configured to communicate with the proper
computer interface.

Permeameter Laboratory: The Falling-
Head Permeameter (FHP) laboratory has been
rebuilt and upgraded from 20 to 44 units.
FHP analyses are time-consuming, requiring a
one-month analytical period for completion.
These analyses are commonly part of studies
undertaken in the FGS' various cooperative
contracts and grants. The FGS FHP lab has
become the most comprehensive such
laboratory in the State. A 3-tier analytical
schedule has been adopted to determine
transmissivity of samples, which has
enhanced the efficiency of the laboratory. In
addition, computer related automation for
data recording and analysis is under
consideration for the future.





,


FGS permeameter laboratory


PUBLICATIONS

Despite severe budget cutbacks,
production of printed reports in the FGS
publication series continued in the years 1995-
1996.


Biennial Report

BR 18 Biennial Report 18, 1993-1994, by Ed
Lane, 1995, 42 p.






Florida Geology FORUM

March 1995, v. 9, n. 1, edited by C. Collier

October 1995, v. 9, n. 2, edited by C. Collier

March 1996, v. 10, n. 1, edited by C. Collier

October 1996, v. 10, n. 2, edited by C. Collier

Information Circular

IC 87 List of Publications, 1996 edition,
compiled and edited by D. E. Mekeel, 70 p.

Open File Reports

OFR 61 Lithostratigraphic and Hydrostrati-
graphic Cross Sections Through Pinellas and
Hillsborough Counties, Southwest Florida, by
R. Green, J. D. Arthur, and D. DeWitt, 1995,
26 p., 6 plates.

OFR 62 Core Drilling and Analysis: City of
Sarasota, Downtown Well Field (revised), by K.
M. Campbell, T. M. Scott, and R. C. Green.
1995, 16 p.

OFR 64 Microfossil Sample Preparation and
Techniques, by R. W. Hoenstine, 1996, 20
p., 9 fig.

OFR 67 Topographic Maps: Useful Tools for
the Florida Fossil Hunter, by F. R. Rupert,
1995, 11 p.

OFR 69 A Geological Investigation of the
Offshore Area Along Florida's Central East
Coast: Year 1, by H. Freedenberg, R.
Hoenstine, Z. Chen and H. Williams, 1995, 97
p.

OFR 70 The Geomorphology and Geology of
Taylor County, Florida, by F. R. Rupert, 1996,
7 p.

Special Publications

SP 39 Bibliography and Index of Graduate
Theses and Dissertations on Florida Geology
Through 1991 Including Selected Abstracts,
compiled by A. N. Jordan and D. E. Mekeel,
1995, 298 p.


SP 40
Clastic
Balsillie,
142 p.


William F. Tanner on Environmental
Granulometry, compiled by J. H.
Chief editor: W. F. Tanner, 1995,


PAPERS BY STAFF IN
OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS

1995

Bibliography of Materials Produced by or on
File at the FGS for Selected Florida National
Parks, by J. M. Lloyd and D. E. Mekeel,
1995, American Association of State
Geologists-National Park Service cooperative
agreement: unpublished report/database.

This is a Paradox database containing a
bibliography of materials produced by or on
file at the FGS for the following Florida
national parks: Big Cypress National Preserve,
Biscayne National Park, Canaveral National
Seashore, Castillo de San Marcos National
Monument, Everglades National Park, Fort
Caroline National Memorial, Fort Jefferson
National Monument, Fort Matanzas National
Monument, Gulf Islands National Seashore,
and Timucuan Ecological and Historic
Preserve. Entries include published and
unpublished reports, file and computer data,
field guides, maps, contract deliverables, and
theses and dissertations and items which
apply to specific parks, as well as items
which cover regions surrounding a particular
park.

Cation Exchange Capacity And Normalization
Of Trace Metal Concentrations In Sediments
Of The Steinhatchee River Estuary, North-
Central Florida, by C. A. Trimble, P. C.
Ragland, J. F. Donoghue, R. W. Hoenstine,
and A. B. Highley, 1995, Southeastern
Section, Geological Society of America,
Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, n. 2, p. 93.

The Steinhatchee River Estuary is a small
relatively pristine bay located on the
northwest Florida Gulf of Mexico coast.
Sedimentary accretion rates within the
system vary 1.4-4.1mm/yr based on Pb-210.
Samples collected from 31 locations,
representing four sedimentary lithofacies,






Florida Geology FORUM

March 1995, v. 9, n. 1, edited by C. Collier

October 1995, v. 9, n. 2, edited by C. Collier

March 1996, v. 10, n. 1, edited by C. Collier

October 1996, v. 10, n. 2, edited by C. Collier

Information Circular

IC 87 List of Publications, 1996 edition,
compiled and edited by D. E. Mekeel, 70 p.

Open File Reports

OFR 61 Lithostratigraphic and Hydrostrati-
graphic Cross Sections Through Pinellas and
Hillsborough Counties, Southwest Florida, by
R. Green, J. D. Arthur, and D. DeWitt, 1995,
26 p., 6 plates.

OFR 62 Core Drilling and Analysis: City of
Sarasota, Downtown Well Field (revised), by K.
M. Campbell, T. M. Scott, and R. C. Green.
1995, 16 p.

OFR 64 Microfossil Sample Preparation and
Techniques, by R. W. Hoenstine, 1996, 20
p., 9 fig.

OFR 67 Topographic Maps: Useful Tools for
the Florida Fossil Hunter, by F. R. Rupert,
1995, 11 p.

OFR 69 A Geological Investigation of the
Offshore Area Along Florida's Central East
Coast: Year 1, by H. Freedenberg, R.
Hoenstine, Z. Chen and H. Williams, 1995, 97
p.

OFR 70 The Geomorphology and Geology of
Taylor County, Florida, by F. R. Rupert, 1996,
7 p.

Special Publications

SP 39 Bibliography and Index of Graduate
Theses and Dissertations on Florida Geology
Through 1991 Including Selected Abstracts,
compiled by A. N. Jordan and D. E. Mekeel,
1995, 298 p.


SP 40
Clastic
Balsillie,
142 p.


William F. Tanner on Environmental
Granulometry, compiled by J. H.
Chief editor: W. F. Tanner, 1995,


PAPERS BY STAFF IN
OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS

1995

Bibliography of Materials Produced by or on
File at the FGS for Selected Florida National
Parks, by J. M. Lloyd and D. E. Mekeel,
1995, American Association of State
Geologists-National Park Service cooperative
agreement: unpublished report/database.

This is a Paradox database containing a
bibliography of materials produced by or on
file at the FGS for the following Florida
national parks: Big Cypress National Preserve,
Biscayne National Park, Canaveral National
Seashore, Castillo de San Marcos National
Monument, Everglades National Park, Fort
Caroline National Memorial, Fort Jefferson
National Monument, Fort Matanzas National
Monument, Gulf Islands National Seashore,
and Timucuan Ecological and Historic
Preserve. Entries include published and
unpublished reports, file and computer data,
field guides, maps, contract deliverables, and
theses and dissertations and items which
apply to specific parks, as well as items
which cover regions surrounding a particular
park.

Cation Exchange Capacity And Normalization
Of Trace Metal Concentrations In Sediments
Of The Steinhatchee River Estuary, North-
Central Florida, by C. A. Trimble, P. C.
Ragland, J. F. Donoghue, R. W. Hoenstine,
and A. B. Highley, 1995, Southeastern
Section, Geological Society of America,
Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, n. 2, p. 93.

The Steinhatchee River Estuary is a small
relatively pristine bay located on the
northwest Florida Gulf of Mexico coast.
Sedimentary accretion rates within the
system vary 1.4-4.1mm/yr based on Pb-210.
Samples collected from 31 locations,
representing four sedimentary lithofacies,





were analyzed for major and trace element
content (ICP-AES), texture, total organic
matter, clay mineralogy, and cation exchange
capacity. Cation exchange capacity was
determined by calcium exchange and
weighting of excess salts. Two ICP
extraction methods were evaluated: partial,
aqua regia digestion and total, hydrofluoric
acid digestion. The chemical and physical
factors affecting the ability of a sediment to
concentrate trace metals introduce
uncertainty in distinguishing anthropogenic
from naturally-occurring concentrations of
many metals. The standard practice of
normalization of metal concentrations
assumes a linear relationship between either
geochemical or sedimentological
characteristics and the metal. The following
standard methods were evaluated:
granulometric normalization of metal
concentrations against total weight % fines;
geochemical normalization against reference
elements (Al, Fe, and C); and normalization to
sediment organic matter content. A new
geochemical method, normalization against
cation exchange capacity, was compared
with accepted procedures. The best
correlations were found when trace metals
were normalized with respect to Al. Aqua
regia, partial leach was as reliable, for most
metals, as total digestion. Normalized data
indicated little evidence of significant
contamination in this system. Exceptions
included lead levels, which appeared to be
significantly elevated in a few areas of the
salt marsh. Mercury values were also
elevated with respect to the expected trends
in three locations. Potassium and
phosphorous also appeared slightly elevated
in several of the marsh samples. This may be
due to the presence of nutrient loading from
local communities, or application of these
elements in fertilizer.

Facies, Fossils and Time A Discussion of the
Litho- and Biostratigraphic Problems in the
Plio-Pleistocene Sediments of Southern
Florida, by T. M. Scott, and G. L. Wingard,
1995, in: T. M. Scott, compiler, Stratigraphy
and Paleontology of the Plio-Pleistocene Shell
Beds, Southwestern Florida: Southeastern
Geological Society Guidebook 35,
unpaginated.


Florida's Plio-Pleistocene sediments
contain one of the world's most spectacular
and diverse fossil mollusk assemblages. The
beds exposed in the APAC and Quality
Aggregates pits are reported to contain over
1,000 species of fossil mollusks. The quality
and quantity of preservation in these deposits
has attracted the attention of professional and
amateur paleontologists alike for over a
century. Paleontologists have amassed vast
fossil collections from an extremely limited
number of exposures primarily located in
southwestern Florida. Despite this extreme
focus, however, there is only limited basic
understanding of the age, stratigraphic position
and depositional history of these beds.
Numerous factors have played a role in
preventing a valid litho- and biostratigraphic
framework from being developed. Principal
among these is the paucity of vertical sections
where sedimentologic and biologic sequences
can be studied. The few vertical sections that
do exist are temporary exposures found in
quarries, canals and construction sites; the
short-lived nature of such localities makes
them less than ideal for establishing type
sections. Many type sections established by
earlier workers for the named Plio-Pleistocene
units are no longer available for study. The
paucity of accessible exposures has led many
paleontologists to collect fossils from spoil
piles, not in situ.

Stratigraphic analysis has been further
encumbered by the interfingering and
overlapping nature of diverse depositional
facies. The discontinuous nature of many of
the identified shell beds makes it difficult to
trace units laterally or vertically. In addition,
most of the depositional units are very thin;
the entire Quaternary section is less than 30
feet thick in southwestern Florida. In many
surficial exposures, once fossiliferous
sediments contain only molds and casts of
fossils or the fossils have been destroyed
altogether. This effectively limits the biologic
information available for interpretation. Often
sedimentologic changes, including the
recognition of disconformities, between
faunally-derived units are insufficient to
separate the sediment packages into
formational units. These factors have resulted
in the application of lithostratigraphic names to





units defined on the basis of the fossils,
essentially a biostratigraphic unit.

Geology and Geomorphology of Okaloosa
County, Florida, by W. Schmidt, 1995, in;
U.S.D.A., Natural Resource Conservation
Service, Soil Survey of Okaloosa County,
Florida, p. 3-6.

Late Paleogene and Neogene Sea Level
History of the Southern Florida Platform and
Phosphatic Sediment Deposition, [abs] by T.
M. Missimer and T. M. Scott, 1995, Society
for -Sedimentary Geology (SEPM) Annual
Meeting, St. Petersburg, Florida, August
1995.

Eleven third-order sea level events were
recognized from sequences within the
stratigraphic record beneath the central part
of the Southern Florida Platform between 3.4
and 35 Ma based on seismic reflection data,
sequence stratigraphic analysis of cores, and
detailed chronostratigraphic analysis. The
major sequences found within the
stratigraphic section are separated by a
number of major hiatuses. The most
significant hiatuses correspond to the
following global sea level events: mid-
Pliocene (0.1 to 0.2 million years missing),
Late Miocene (2.5 to 3 million years missing),
Middle Miocene (2.5 to 3 million years
missing), Oligocene-Miocene boundary (2 to
2.5 million years missing), and mid-Oligocene
(2 million years missing).

The sea level curve for the Southern
Florida Platform corresponds closely to the
global sea level curve with the exception of
the Early Miocene between about 20 and 23
Ma. Three significant sea level events
occurred in that time frame with outer ramp
to restricted subfacies stacking patterns
indicative of major changes in eustatic sea
levels. There are no corresponding closely
time-spaced events shown on the Haq curve
for this time period.

Based on the relative sea level data for
the Southern Florida Platform and


composition of the sediments,
phosphogenesis began in the Late Oligocene
at about 28 Ma. The episode of maximum
phosphate deposition occurred between 20
and 23 Ma, which does not correspond to the
period of maximum flooding, dated between
about 14 and 17 Ma.

Metal Analyses In Sediments Of The
Steinhatchee River Estuary, North-Central
Florida, by C. A. Trimble, P. C. Ragland, J.
Donoghue, A. B. Highley, and R. W.
Hoenstine, March, 1995, Southeastern
Section, Geological Society of America,
Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, n. 2, p. 93.

The Steinhatchee River Estuary is a
small, relatively pristine bay located on the
Florida Big Bend coast. The Steinhatchee
River is part of a unique, sediment-starved
and karst-controlled watershed. The river
flows across north Florida for approximately
55 kilometers through woodlands, wetlands
and tree farms prior to entering the Gulf of
Mexico.

Sedimentation rates in the bay,
determined by lead-210, are quite low,
ranging from about 1.4mm/yr in intertidal
marshes to about 4.1mm/yr in subtidal areas.
Sediment organic matter content ranges from
less than 1% in the open estuary to greater
than 50% in the organic-rich salt marsh
sediments.

A set of 66 short cores was collected
from four different sedimentary environments.
These samples were analyzed for major and
trace metal content, texture, mineralogy and
total organic matter. Presently used methods
of metal data analysis and normalization were
examined for the purpose of determining
which normalization technique is most robust
and universally applicable. Metal data were
normalized against several reference
elements, including aluminum and carbon.
Normalization against total fines, clay content
and total organic matter was also examined.
Two sediment digestion techniques were
compared: aqua regia leaching and HF





digestion. Preliminary data indicate that both
digestion methods provide similar
normalization results.

Open-System Behavior in Karst-Related
Wetlands in Florida, by P. A. Bond and J. K.
Osmond, 1995, Geological Society of
America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, n.
6, p. A-307.

Ongoing hydrogeologic processes
associated with wetlands in Florida have been
examined using uranium series isotopes. The
wetlands studied here are located in isolated
karst-related depressions in central peninsular
Florida. In both study areas ground water is
mainly associated with the Floridan aquifer
system and is under artesian conditions.
Radiocarbon dates from other studies indicate
that peats from the eastern site (Brevard Co.)
were deposited between approximately
11,000 and 5,000 years before present.
Organic matter from the western site (Polk
Co.) could not be dated using the radiocarbon
method.

Vertical sequences of samples have been
analyzed for uranium and thorium. Uranium
in Florida is mainly associated with the
phosphate-bearing mineral carbonate
fluorapatite, and is transported via oxidizing
ground waters. The concentration of uranium
in organic matter and disequilibrium within
the uranium-series isotopes suggests that
these deposits are subject to open-system
behavior.

This work suggests that these wetland
deposits interact with the local ground-water
regime and modify it by removal of dissolved
metals. Preliminary results indicate that
uranium may exhibit some vertical movement
within the deposit. Although the wetland
deposits considered here are by no means
modern, they continue to be active
geochemical elements in their current
hydrogeological setting.

Phosphate Deposition in the Oligocene:
Implications for Southern Florida [abs], by T.
Scott, G. L. Wingard, L. E. Edwards, and S.
D. Weedman, 1995, Society for Sedimentary
Geology (SEPM) Annual Meeting, St.
Petersburg, Florida, August 1995.


The base of the Arcadia Formation,
Hawthorn Group, marks the deepest
occurrence of phosphate in southern Florida.
Recent age determinations using 87Sr/8Sr of
unaltered skeletal grains, dinocysts and
mollusks indicate that Hawthorn deposition
began at different times in different parts of
the Florida Platform. Although the base of the
Hawthorn has been traditionally placed at or
near the base of the Miocene, our studies
show that the age is latest early or earliest late
Oligocene in southwestern Florida in the South
Venice core in Sarasota County and earliest
early Oligocene in eastern Florida in the Phred
#1 core in Indian River County. Pelletal
phosphate grains occur throughout the
Hawthorn Group in concentrations ranging
from a trace to more than 30 percent. Most
phosphate grains occur with detrital quartz
sand and appear to have been remobilized from
the area in which they formed. Therefore age
determinations on the sediments that host the
phosphate grains indicate the age of their final
deposition and can only suggest a minimum
age for phosphogenesis of 31 million years.

Diagenetic studies of the Arcadia
Formation reveal significant leaching. In the
upper 70 m, dolomite rhombs have hollow
centers, skeletal grains are extensively leached
and phosphate grains commonly are pitted to
partially dissolved. Consequently, phosphate
grains would be inappropriate for 8Sr/86Sr age
determinations of phosphogenesis.

Our studies reveal that the age of the
base of the lithologically defined Hawthorn
Group is nonsynchronous. Thus, on the Florida
Platform, the shift from the carbonate-
dominated sedimentation to phosphatic,
siliciclastic-dominated sedimentation was more
complex than previously envisioned.

Preliminary Analysis of Integrated
Stratigraphic Data from the Phred #7
Corehole, Indian River County, Florida, by S.
D. Weedman, T. M. Scott, L. E. Edwards, G.
L. Wingard and J. C. Libarkin, 1995, U.S.
Geological Survey Open File Report 95-824,
63p.

The lithostratigraphic sequence
penetrated by the Phred #1 corehole in Indian
River County, Florida, was analyzed utilizing





an integrated stratigraphic approach. The
core encountered sediments ranging from
Upper Eocene to Holocene. The analyses
included Sr isotopes, mollusks, dinocysts,
mineralogy, and diagenesis. The data
gathered is part of an ongoing project to
better define the Cenozoic strata of southern
Florida.

Sedimentary Characteristics Of Central Florida
East Coast Sands, by H. Freedenberg, Z.
Chen, and R. W. Hoenstine, 1995, First SEPM
Congress on Sedimentary Geology, Programs
and Abstracts, v. 1, p. 56.

Onshore sampling along the central east
coast of Florida has locally revealed a distinct
transgressive sedimentary sequence. The
sampling program included the collection of
15 pushtube cores and two vibracores. More
than 100 granulometric analyses have been
performed on splits obtained from these cores
and organic rich sediments have been
prepared for radiocarbon dating.

Results of the sampling program
demonstrate several regional trends: 1)
Carbonate content of the beach sands
increases to the south. 2) In many areas, the
beach sediment is comprised of two distinct
populations, a fine grained, subangular to
rounded siliciclastic fraction and a medium to
gravel sized, rounded to subangular carbonate
fraction. 3) The carbonate fraction consists
exclusively of biogenic debris. 4) The
siliciclastic sediments show evidence of
transport while the biogenic sediments are
locally formed.

All fieldwork was accomplished by the
Florida Geological Survey in a cooperative
effort with the United States Minerals
Management Service. This work was
performed as part of a multi-year study
designed to locate and characterize sands
suitable for beach nourishment along the
central east coast of Florida. Future phases of
this study will integrate the onshore data with
a new offshore sampling program.


Siliciclastic Facies Belt Formation and the
Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene Partial
Drowning of the Southern Florida Platform,
[abs.], by T. M. Missimer, and T. M. Scott,
1995, Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting Program, p. 112.

A series of siliciclastic shoreline deposits
began to penetrate onto the Southern Florida
Platform during the deposition of the Early
Oligocene age Suwannee Limestone. These
siliciclastic sediments were composed of fine
to very fine quartz sands deposited in belts
running parallel to the margin of the platform.
The influx and mixing of these siliciclastic
sediments did not affect the continued
deposition of carbonate sediments on the
platform because the sediments did not
contain significant quantities of mud and the
major siliciclastic sediment influx occurred
during minor regressive, eustatic sea level
events affecting primarily the platform
margins.

Beginning in Late Oligocene time, the
frequency and volume of siliciclastic sediment
influx onto the Southern Florida Platform
began to cause the drowning of the eastern
margin of the platform. The eastern margin
of the platform receded from the current
geographic margin position westward a
distance of about 110 to 130 km. In the
central part of the platform about 185 m of
mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment
was deposited from the Late Oligocene to the
Middle Miocene (Chattian to Serravallian)
compared to a maximum of about 20 m of
mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment
along the eastern margin of the platform.

Subsequent influx of predominantly
siliciclastic sediment with some carbonates
terminated the growth of the platform and
infilled the drowned part of the platform to
produce the approximate geometry observed
today. The influx of siliciclastic sediments
occurred primarily in Late Miocene and Early
Pliocene time, first as a series of southward
prograding shoreline deposits with primarily
mud deposition on the shelf to the east and





later as a southward prograding deltaic
sediment complex.

Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Plio-
Pleistocene Shell Beds, Southwestern Florida:
Compiled by T. M. Scott, 1995, Southeastern
Geological Society Guidebook 35,
unpaginated.

This field trip guidebook discusses the
problems inherent in the current way that
many geologists view the Plio-Pleistocene
shell beds in southern Florida. Alternative
methods of understanding these beds are
discussed.

Stratigraphic Variability In Confining Materials
Overlying The Floridan Aquifer System in a
Regional and Local (sublake) Geologic
Framework: Lake Wales Ridge, Central Florida
[abs], by J. D. Arthur, A. Tihansky, and R.
DeWitt, 1995, First SEPM Congress on
Sedimentary Geology, Abstracts and
Programs, v. 1, p. 26.

Seismic-reflection profiles from four lakes
within the Lake Wales Ridge in Polk and
Highlands Counties, Florida, provide local
detail within the regional hydrogeologic
framework as described by litho- and
hydrostratigraphic cross sections. These
cross sections provide proximal geologic
control and identify relationships between
geologic formations and aquifer-system units.

Clays of the Peace River Formation
(Hawthorn Group) comprise the bulk of the
confining beds within the intermediate aquifer
system/confining unit, which separates the
surficial aquifer system from the Floridan
aquifer system. These confining beds are
less than 10 feet thick in the northern part of
the study area and thicken southward, where
they become interbedded with more
permeable carbonates of the Peace River and
underlying Arcadia Formations.

In general, reflectors observed in the
sublake seismic data are of two types: 1) a
discontinuous, irregular surface, and 2) a
more continuous, concordant package that
may be flat-lying or undulatory, exhibiting
sags and/or draping structures. The
discontinuous reflectors appear to correlate


with the uppermost occurrence of carbonate,
whereas the sagging structures appear to
correlate with clayey confining units of the
Peace River Formation. Seismic profiles
suggest a relation between bathymetry and
reflector type. Generally, deeper parts of the
lakes are underlain by the deeper, irregular
reflectors; the draping and sagging reflectors
are observed beneath shallower parts of the
lakes. These relations between bathymetry
and reflectors suggest that confining units
have controlled syn- to post-depositional
(Neogene and younger) karstification and
local ground-water recharge. Localized
breaches within the confining units may
contribute to greater hydraulic connection
between the surficial, intermediate and
Floridan aquifer systems.

Testimony Submitted to the Committee on
Business & Professional Regulation, Florida
House of Representatives, in Support of the
Regulation of Professional Geologists, by W.
Schmidt, 1995.

1996

A Summary of the Geology of Baker County,
Florida, by P. A. Bond, 1996, in, Watts, W.,
1996, Soil Survey of Baker County, Florida:
U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural
Resources Conservation Service, p. 4-10.

The geomorphology, stratigraphy,
hydrogeology and mineral resources of Baker
County were summarized in relation to each
other for inclusion in the detailed soil survey
for this county.

Employment in the Geosciences: State
Geological Surveys, by W. Schmidt, 1996, in:
Guide to Geoscience Departments in the
United States & Canada, 4th Edition, 1996-
97, published by the American Geological
Institute, p. xxxiv-xxxvi.

It's In Our Hands, by W. Schmidt, 1996,
Florida Geology Forum, v. 10, n. 2.

On the Correlation (?) Between The Dean
Formation (Great Smoky Group) and the
Shields Formation (Walden Creek Group),
Western Blue Ridge, Southern Appalachians,
by S. L. Palmes, 1996, Southeastern Section,





Geological Society of America, Abstracts with
Programs, v. 28, n. 2., p. 40.

The stratigraphic succession of the
Ocoee Supergroup has traditionally been
broken into the basal Snowbird Group
(overlying Grenvillian basement), the Great
Smoky Group and the Walden Creek Group.
The Dean Formation (DF) is the uppermost
unit of the Great Smoky Group and the
Shields Formation (SF) overlies the Licklog
and is overlain by the Wilhite and Sandsuck
Formations of the Walden Creek Group. A
stratigraphic correlation between the SF and
the DF recently proposed by Carter and
others offers an innovative but radical
departure from the traditional stratigraphic
succession. The significant differences in
overall lithology and clast population between
conglomerates of the DF and SF indicate that
either these rocks cannot be correlated, or
that the provenance differed significantly
across the intervening Copperhill anticline.
Other significant differences between these
units include bedding thicknesses, grain sizes,
types of primary structures, and position in
stratigraphic succession. Additionally, a
correlation between DF and SF requires the
Wilhite and Sandsuck Formations to be
correlative with the Nantahala and Brasstown
Formations of the Murphy belt, further
requiring the Licklog Formation to be
correlative with equivalents of the Ammons,
Boyd Gap, or Hothouse Formations. Until
these issues can be satisfactorily resolved,
the correlation between the DF and SF should
be viewed as one of several significantly
different working hypothesis relative to
correlation of units in the Walden Creek
Group.

Paleontology and Lithostratigraphy:
Applications to Hydrogeological and
Environmental Problems in Southern Florida,
by T. M. Scott and G. L. Brewster-Wingard,
1996 [abs.]: Southeastern Section, Geological
Society of America Abstracts with Programs,
v. 28, n. 2, p. 43.

A number of environmental issues are
currently of great concern in southern Florida.
Among these are the quantity, quality and
distribution of water, waste disposal, and the
occurrence of cover subsidence karst


features. The surficial aquifer system
provides water for many urban areas. Waste
disposal occurs on top of and within the
surficial aquifer system. The surficial aquifer
system is developed in the Pliocene-
Pleistocene siliciclastics, carbonates and shell
beds that encompass the Tamiami Formation
and the Caloosahatchee, Bermont and Fort
Thompson faunal units. Difficulties in
recognizing the position and age of the
sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer
system arise from the use of fossil mollusks
to determine "formational" units. It has been
proposed that the Caloosahatchee, Bermont
and Fort Thompson faunal units (often
referred to as formations) be placed in the
informal Okeechobee lithologic unit.

The determination of biostratigraphic
zones and depositional environments, using
paleontologic data, provides information on
the distribution and interfingering
relationships of lithofacies. Paleontologic
data coupled with lithostratigraphic data
identifies the position within the aquifer
system and aides in the identification of
aquifer characteristics. In addition, these
data can serve as a predictive tool in
determining flow direction, water quality and
water quantity. Depositional environment
data can assist in determining the aquifer
system pollution susceptibility and aid in
locating waste management sites.
Depositional environment data also aides in
delineating areas where cover subsidence
karst features caused by dissolution of shells
may be a hazard. The use of paleontologic
and lithologic data provides a valuable tool to
aid in the protection and responsible use of
resources in southern Florida.

The Hawthorn Group: A Historical Perspective,
by T. M. Scott and G. L. Wingard, 1996,
[abs.], Florida Scientist, v. 59, p. 24.

The phosphatic siliciclastics and
carbonates of the Hawthorn Group have been
investigated for more than a century. The
Hawthorn is widespread in the State forming
the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.
It is economically important due to the
occurrence of phosphate and fuller's earth.

Until the 1980's, the Hawthorn Group





was considered to be Middle Miocene. In the
1980's, the age of the Hawthorn was
recognized to range from latest Oligocene or
earliest Miocene to earliest Pliocene. Current
biostratigraphic investigations have extended
the range from late Early Oligocene to Early
Pliocene. Future research will continue to
investigate the depositional patterns, facies
relationships, and biostratigraphy of the
Hawthorn Group.

Uranium Series Disequilibrium in Florida
Wetland Deposits [abs.], by P. A. Bond and J.
K. Osmond, 1996, Geological Society of
America Abstracts with Programs, v. 28, n.
7, p. A-409.

The interaction of dissolved metals with
organic deposits in the shallow geologic
environment of Florida has been examined
using U-series disequilibrium techniques. This
interaction is environmentally significant since
the organic deposits are related to wetlands.
These areas are continually pressured by the
relentless development which accompanies
Florida's extraordinary population growth.
Although the botanical and zoological aspects
of wetlands have been extensively
documented, their geochemical significance is
poorly understood.

The redox-related solubility behavior of U
and Th, coupled with alpha-recoil induced
fractionation between U-234 and parent U-
238, are especially useful tools in Florida's
hydrogeological environment. Carbonate
fluorapatite from the widespread Hawthorn
Group acts as a source of uranium, which
may then be leached and transported by
oxidizing ground waters. Isotopic evidence
suggests that organic deposits function as
geochemical sinks while simultaneously
exhibiting open system behavior.

The distribution of uranium and thorium
isotopes in vertical suites of samples from
organic deposits in several hydrogeologic
settings have been examined. Results of this
work indicate that, locally, on an ongoing
basis, and to a variable extent, organic
deposits function as geochemical sinks in
Florida. It is suggested that in sensitive


hydrogeologic settings, the geochemical
significance of an individual wetland should
be considered along with botanical,
zoological, and hydrological aspects when
policy is decided.

Testimony in Support of the Reauthorization
of the National Geologic Mapping Act of
1992 (H.R. 3198), by W. Schmidt, 1996,
Written testimony submitted on behalf of the
Association of American State Geologists to
the U.S. House of Representatives
Subcommittee on Energy and Minerals
Resources, 4/23/96.


The Florida Geological Survey's Environmental
Geology Programs, by J. M. Lloyd, 1996,
Environmental Geology, vol. 27, p. 71-72.

An understanding of Florida's environment
has become a major focal point of public
policy. There is an increased public awareness
of the fragility and importance of the
environment, its relationship to the state's
economy, and its effect on the quality of life
and health. Recognizing this, the Florida
Geological Survey established the Office of
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology
in 1985. The section's staff conducts applied
geologic research in the areas of mineral
resources and environmental geology.
Environmental geology research includes two
main program areas. Florida's phenomenal
population growth places unusual stress on the
environment; thus, one program area focuses
on the hydrogeology and environmental
geology of specific high-growth urban areas.
In addition, Florida beaches and coasts are a
major economic draw for the state's tourist
industry; thus, the other program area focuses
on coastal sedimentology and processes.


TALKS BY STAFF
TO
PROFESSIONAL GROUPS

An Examination of Uranium Series
Disequilibrium in Selected Organic Deposits in
Florida, 1995, P. A. Bond: presented to Florida
State University Graduate Research Seminar
Group.





Earth Science as the Foundation of
Ecosystem Management, 1995, W. Schmidt:
presented to the Environmental Studies
Department, University of West Florida,
Pensacola, FL.

Florida Geology and Earth Systems
Understanding as the Foundation to
Environmental Awareness, 1995, W.
Schmidt: presented to the Governor's
Environmental Policy Office Director and
Staff, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida's Geological Formations and Their
Relationship to Water Supply and Aquifers,
1995, W. Schmidt: presented to the Florida
Senate Committee on Water Policy,
Tallahassee, FL.

Geologic Insights Into Assessing
Environmental Hazards, 1995-96, W.
Schmidt: Team Lecturer, Graduate Course at
Florida State University Geology Department.

Geological Assessment: The Foundation of
Environmental Management, Emphasis
Groundwater, 1995, W. Schmidt: presented
at the Annual Meeting of the Florida
Groundwater Association, Technical
Symposium, Orlando, FL.

Geology of Florida, 1995, J. Arthur: presented
to the Governor's Environmental Policy Office
Director and Staff.

Introduction to Total Quality Leadership (TQL),
1995, J. M. Lloyd: ten lectures presented to
DEP offices at Apalachicola and Tallahassee.

Lineaments in Florida, 1995, F. Rupert:
presented to the staff of the Florida Geological
Survey.

Open-System Behavior in Karst-Related
Wetlands in Florida, 1995, P. A. Bond:
presented to the Annual Meeting of the
Geological Society of America, New Orleans,
LA.

Relationship of Florida's Shallow Subsurface
Geology to Vegetation, 1995, T. Scott:
presented to the Florida Native Plant Society,
Tallahassee.


Sedimentological Characteristics of an Artificial
Substrate for Least Tern Nesting Areas, 1995,
P. A. Bond: presented to the staff of the
Florida Geological Survey.

The Contributions Professional Geologists
Make to Protecting the Public Health and
Welfare, 1995, W. Schmidt: presented to the
Committee on Business & Professional
Regulation, Florida House of Representatives.

The Geology of Florida and the Florida
Geological Survey, 1995, T. Scott: presented
to the Geology of Florida class, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

The Geology of Peninsular Florida, 1995, T.
Scott: presented to the Panhandle Geological
Society, Pensacola.

Wakulla County Geology and Hydrogeology,
1995, T. Scott: presented to the Wakulla
County Planning Commission and the County
Commissioners, Crawfordville.

Current Issues Update & Proposed
Legislation, 1996, W. Schmidt: presented to
the Annual Meeting of the Florida Association
of Professional Geologists, Altamonte
Springs.

Database Applications for Oil and Gas
Regulations, 1996, E. Garrett: presented to the
Petroleum Technology Transfer Council,
Eastern Gulf Regional Workshop Meeting,
Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Florida Karst, 1996, E. Lane: presented to the
National Water Well Association Annual
Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Programs of the Florida Geological Survey:
Science, Applied Science, Geopolitics, and
the Survival of Earth Science in Government,
1996, W. Schmidt: presented to the
Rosenstiel School at the University of Miami.

Remediation of a Phosphogypsum Stack
Sinkhole, Polk County, 1996, J. Arthur:
presented to the staff of the Florida Geological
Survey .





Solid Earth Science: The Foundation of
Ecosystem Management and Defendable
Environmental Regulations, 1996, W.
Schmidt: presented to the Miami Geological
Society.

The Invisible Menace: Groundwater
Contamination by Toxic Pollution, 1996, J.
Arthur: presented to the Department of
Geology, Florida State University.

Karst Drainage Problems in Northern Florida,
1996, F. Rupert: presented to the staff of the
Florida Geological Survey.

Oligocene of Southern Florida: New
Interpretations, 1996, T. Scott: presented to
the staff of the Florida Geological Survey.

The FGS and Its Current Projects, 1996, T.
Scott: presented to the Geology of Florida
Class, University of Florida, Gainesville.

The Southern Florida Initiative: FGS and USGS
Cooperative Investigations of the Geology of
Southern Florida, 1996, T. Scott: presented to
the Florida Association of Professional
Geologists 1st Annual Meeting, Orlando.

What is an Ecosystem?, 1996, W. Schmidt:
Lecture presented as part of the DEP
Workshops to teach Ecosystem Management
Concepts to Dept. Staff. (approximately 25
lectures presented).

Uranium Series Disequilibrium in Florida
Wetland Deposits, 1996, P. A. Bond:
presented to the Annual Meeting of the
Geological Society of America, Denver, CO.


ADDITIONAL
PROFESSIONAL
ACTIVITIES


Symposia


Southeastern Section Geological Society of
America, Knoxville, TN, April, 1995.


Florida Academy of Sciences Annual Meeting,
Melbourne, FL, March, 1995.

SEPM mid-year meeting, St. Petersburg, FL,
August, 1995.

Geological Society of America Annual Meeting,
New Orleans, LA, November, 1995.

SEPM Congress on Sedimentary Geology, St.
Petersburg Beach, FL, November, 1995.

Southeastern Section GSA, Jackson, MS,
March, 1996.

Geological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Denver CO, October, 1996.


Meetings, Conferences, Workshops, and
Training

January, 1995

Federal Project Review of Everglades
Research Projects, Miami, FL.

Ecology Technical Advisory Committee
Meeting (TAC), Tallahassee, FL.

Coastal Petroleum Public Hearing,
Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Ground Water Association Annual
Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Florida Shore and Beach Preservation
Association Meeting, St. Petersburg, FL.

February, 1995

Field Briefing for the Florida House of
Representatives Natural Resources
Committee, Wakulla Co.

Ecology TAC, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists Board
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.


Ecology TAC, Tallahassee, FL.

Ecology TAC, Tallahassee, FL.






W.F. Tanner Course on Clastic Sedimentology
and Granulometry, Tallahassee, FL.

April, 1995

Geology Board Meetings, Tallahassee, FL.

AASG Federal / Congressional Liaison
Meetings, Washington D.C.

USGS-AASG Eastern Cluster Meeting, New
Harmony, IL

May, 1995

Wakulla County Commissioners Meeting,
Crawfordville, FL.

Putnam County, DEP Reality Check Public
Workshop, Palatka, FL.

Realty Check Workshops Training,
Tallahassee, FL.

June, 1995

AASG Annual Meeting, Reno, NV.

Geology Board Meetings, Orlando, FL.

July, 1995

Leadership Assessment Review, Tallahassee,
FL.

August, 1995

Ecology TAC, Tallahassee, FL.

Strategic Planning, Tallahassee, FL.

Process Analysis Improvement, Tallahassee,
FL.

September, 1995

Florida Independent Petroleum Producers
Association Annual Meeting, Pensacola, FL.


AASG Federal / Congressional Liaison
Meetings, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Minerals Management Service Panel
Discussion on offshore oil drilling, Panama
City, FL.

October, 1995

Florida Geologic Mapping Advisory
Committee, Tallahassee, FL.

AIPG Florida Section, Annual Meeting,
Lakeland, FL.

Florida Bay Science Conference, Gainesville,
FL.

Government Technology Conference,
Tallahassee, FL.

Impact of Florida Career Class Reforms,
Tallahassee, FL.

Problem Solving Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

November, 1995

Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Geology Board Meetings, Tallahassee, FL.

Institute for Environmental Education Media
Interface Workshop at GSA, New Orleans,
LA.

Introduction to Teamwork, Tallahassee, FL.

Southern Florida Core Workshop, University
of Miami, Miami, FL.

Teamlinks and MS Word Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.

Windows 95 Upgrade Training, Tallahassee,
FL.

Using the Internet seminar, Tallahassee, FL.





December, 1995

Florida Water Atlas Revision Team meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

January, 1996

Numerous meetings of the Geology Technical
Advisory Committee for the Geology
Education Video Project Florida Geology
Unearthed, Tallahassee, FL.

DEP Jacksonville District Meeting regarding
Ichetucknee Springs Mining, Jacksonville, FL.

Florida Shore and Beach Preservation
Association Meeting, St. Petersburg, FL.

February, 1996

AGI / USGS / NBS merger workshop,
Washington, D.C.

Performance Based Budgeting Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.

National Conference on Beach Preservation
Technology, Tampa, FL.

March, 1996

AASG Federal / Congressional Liasion
Meetings, Washington, D.C.

April, 1996

Oil and Gas Public Hearing, Ft. Myers, FL.

Florida Water Atlas revision team meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.


May, 1996

Coastal Petroleum Offshore Drilling Court
Case, Tallahassee, FL.

U.S.G.S. South Florida Ecosystem History
Program Review Meeting, Reston, VA.


June, 1996

AASG Annual Meeting, Charlottesville, VA.

Geology Board Meetings, Tallahassee, FL.

DEP Geographic Information Systems
Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

July, 1996

Ecosystem Management Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.

Southeast Maps Project training workshop,
Clemson University, Clemson, SC.

U.S.G.S. National Water Quality Assessment
(NAQWA) Program Meeting, Palm Beach, FL.

August, 1996

Performance Based Budgeting Workshop,
Tallahassee, FL.

South Florida Ecosystem Initiative Meeting,
Palm Beach, FL.

September, 1996

AASG Federal / Congressional Liaison
Meetings, Washington, D.C.

Legislative Training, Tallahassee, FL

Legislative Information and Internet Access
Training, Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1996

USGS Geochemistry Workshop, Denver, CO.

November, 1996

FAPG Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Paleofest96, Florida Museum of Natural
History, Gainesville, FL

December, 1996

Florida Bay Science Conference, Key Largo,
FL.





STATEMAP Peer Review Panel, Washington,
D.C.

Fieldtrips

T. Scott and L. Brewster-Wingard,
Southeastern Geological Society Annual Field
Trip Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Plio-
Pleistocene Shell Beds, Southwestern Florida,
April 1995.

T. Scott, Rock Hill field trip for the Florida
Native Plant Society, May 1995.

T. Scott, assisted with SEPM Phosphorites
Field trip, August 1995.

Booths and Displays

FGS exhibit at Killearn Lakes Elementary
School Earth Day Celebration, Tallahassee,
April 1995.

FGS exhibit at the Anniversary Celebration of
the Florida State Parks System, MacClay
State Gardens, Tallahassee, October 1995.

FGS exhibit at the Geological Society of
America, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA,
November 1995.

FGS Earth Day Exhibit, MacClay State
Gardens, Tallahassee, April 1996.

FGS booth at Paleofest96, Florida Museum of
Natural History, Gainesville, November 1996.


PERSONNEL INFORMATION

Personnel Changes

John Morrill, Drilling Coordinator for the
Survey for many years, Darlene LaSalde,
Secretary in the Tallahassee office, Cynthia
Cook, Petroleum Geologist, and Joan Gruber,
Secretary, (both in the Ft. Myers office) left
service with the FGS during the 1995-1996
biennium. Jim Trindell was promoted to Drilling
Coordinator, replacing John Morrill.

Several new employees were welcomed
aboard. Roger Van Landingham replaced Jim


Trindell as Driller's Assistant; Paul Attwood
replaced Cynthia Cook as Petroleum Geologist
and Victoria Mac Farlan replaced Joan Gruber
as Secretary in the Ft. Myers Office; Jim
LeBar joined the Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office
as a Petroleum Engineer, and Carolyn Stringer
started as secretary in the same office. Dr.
Rodney DeHan transferred to the Survey as a
Senior Research Scientist, and Lamarr Mitchell
replaced Darlene LaSalde as secretary at the
Tallahassee office.


Professional Staff

Jonathan D. Arthur, Petrologist, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1982); PhD, Florida State
University (1994). Research interests:
geochemistry, igneous petrology, and
hydrogeology. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Member Phosphogypsum-stack
sinkhole Technical Advisory Committee, Exam
Committee, Florida Dept. of Professional
Regulation, Subcommittee on Aquifer
Vulnerability Mapping in Florida, Recharge
Protection Committee, Statewide Monitoring
Program Core Group, Co-coordinator,
Southeast Maps and Aerial Photographic
Systems Project-Florida Region, Courtesy
Faculty Appointment, Dept. of Geology, Florida
State University. Professional memberships:
Southeastern Geological Society, Geological
Society of America, and Sigma Xi.

Paul Attwood, Petroleum Geologist, Oil and
Gas Section, Ft. Myers field office. BS,
Denison University (1974); MS, University of
Kansas (1977). Licensed professional
geologist (Florida).

James Balsillie, Coastal Engineering Geologist,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, Portland
State University (1970). Research interests:
coastal geology and coastal engineering.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: Florida Association
of Professional Geologists, Florida Shore and
Beach Preservation Association.

Paulette Bond, Geochemist, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, West Virginia
University (1971); MS, University of North





Carolina at Chapel Hill (1974); PhD candidate,
Florida State University. Research interests:
low temperature geochemistry and
environmental geology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Consultant to Florida Board
of Professional Geologists, Geology
Examination Committee. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America
and Southeastern Geological Society.

Kenneth M. Campbell, Sedimentologist,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, Old
Dominion University (1975); MS, Florida State
University (1979). Research Interests:
Cenozoic stratigraphy, sedimentation and
coastal processes. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida), Licensed Florida Water
Well Contractor. Consultant to the Florida
Board of Professional Geologists, Professional
Geology Test Committee. Team recipient,
1996 FGS Extra Effort Award. Professional
membership: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists.

Robert S. Caughey, Petroleum Geologist, Ft.
Myers Oil and Gas Field Office. BS, University
of Arizona (1976). Research interests:
Cenozoic stratigraphy and hydrogeology, and
"boulder zone" of south Florida. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Society of Mining Engineers,
Division of American Institute of Mining and
Metallurgical Engineers; Association of
Exploration Geochemists, National Association
of Geology Teachers, American Association for
the Advancement of Science, Southeastern
Geological Society, and New Mexico
Geological Society.

Lawrence D. Curry, Environmental
Administrator, Oil and Gas Section. BS,
University of South Florida (1973). Licensed
professional geologist (Florida).

Rodney S. DeHan, Senior Research Scientist,
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology
Section. DVM, University of Edinburgh (1966);
MS, University of Kansas (1969); Ph.D.,
Florida State University (1973). Research
interests: Hydrogeology and ground-water
protection. Member: Congressional Office of
Technology assessment; Environmental Law
Institute Panel; The Conservation Foundation


Panel for National Groundwater Policy Forum;
Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring
(ITFM), various EPA and USGS panels
instrumental in developing the Wellhead
protection Program, The National Groundwater
Strategy, The Pesticides in Groundwater
Strategy, and Contingency Planning for Public
Water Supplies; The EPA-USGS Workgroup on
Hydrogeologic Mapping Needs for Ground
Water Protection and Management; The
Advisory Council on National Water Quality
Assessment; The Federal Interagency Steering
Committee; and the Executive Committee of
the ITFM and Co-Chairman of the Ground
Water Focus Group. Professional
Memberships: President Elect, Groundwater
Protection Council; Executive Board and Co-
Chairman of the Ground Water Work Group,
Association of State and Interstate Water
Pollution Control Administrators; American
Water Works Association; American Society of
Clinical Pathologists; American Society of
Microbiologists; The Florida Association of
Water Quality Control, and the American
Society of Cell Biology.

Joel G. Duncan, Sedimentary Geologist,
Geological Investigations Section. BS,
University of Alabama (1977). PhD candidate
Florida State University. Research interests:
Carbonate petrology; tectonics, and basin
analysis. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida).

Henry Freedenberg, Geologist, Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology Section.
BA, State University of New York (1974); MA,
State University of New York at Buffalo
(1976). Research interests: coastal processes,
environmental geology, petroleum geology,
carbonate petrology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Professional memberships:
National Water Well Association.

Ed Gambrell, Environmental Specialist III, Jay
Oil and Gas Field Office. BS, Engineering,
Mississippi State University (1960).

Ed Garrett, Petroleum Geologist, Tallahassee
Oil and Gas Office. BS, Florida State
University (1983). Research interests:
Environmental effects of offshore drilling;





regulatory computer applications. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Professional
membership: Florida Association of
Professional Geologists.

Don L. Hargrove, Petroleum Engineer,
Tallahassee Oil and Gas Office. Engineering
degree candidate at Florida State
University/Florida A & M University.
Geophysical permits, field observer
coordinator.

Ronald W. Hoenstine, Coastal Geologist,
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, University of Florida (1967); MS,
University of Florida (1974); PhD, Florida State
University (1982). Research interests:
hydrogeology, coastal geology and
environmental geology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Member: Installation
Restoration Environmental Cleanup Advisory
Committee, Jacksonville Naval Air Station.

James P. Jones, Cartographer, Geological
Investigations Section. Founder of Tallahassee
area AutoCAD users group.

Ted B. Kiper, Cartographer, Geologic
Investigations Section. AA, Tallahassee
Community College (1976); BS, Florida State
University (1988); MS, Florida State University
(1993). U.S. Coast Guard licensed Captain.

Lucien James "Jim" Ladner, Coastal Geologist,
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, University of Southern
Mississippi (1970). Research interests:
hydrogeology, environmental and coastal
geology. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida).

Burke Edward "Ed" Lane, Environmental
Geologist, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of Delaware (1966); MS, Pennsylvania State
University (1968). Research interests:
hydrogeology, environmental geology and
karst. Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Member: Solid Waste Management Advisory
Committee (State of Florida), and DEP
Strategic Educational Committee.


James LeBar, Petroleum Engineer, Tallahassee
Oil and Gas Office. BS, Geological
Engineering, Michigan Technological University
(1978). Research Interests: Petroleum
engineering and geology, environmental
engineering and hydrogeology, and downhole
logging technologies. Professional
Memberships: Society of Petroleum Engineers
and National Water Well Association. Licensed
Professional Engineer (Florida).

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
for Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology. BS, Florida Atlantic University
(1976); MS, University of Chicago (1979).
Research interests: environmental geology and
computer management. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America, American
Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Southeastern Geological Society, Computer
Oriented Geological Society, and Florida
Association of Professional Geologists. FGS
Representative, Florida DEP Information
Resource Management Committee; Member,
Florida DEP Ecosystem Management-Data
Management/Geographic Information Systems
Subcommittee; and Member, Florida DEP's
Division of Technical Services GIS Group.

Deborah E. Mekeel, Librarian. BA, Bridgewater
College (1982); MLS, Florida State University
(1993). Specialization: Cataloging. Pro-
fessional memberships: Geoscience Infor-
mation Society, American Library Association,
Association for Library Collections and
Technical Services, ALA Map and Geography
Round Table, North Florida Library Association,
and Beta Phi Mu.

Frank R. Rupert, Paleontologist, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida Atlantic
University (1976); MS, Florida State University
(1980). Research Interests: Cenozoic
micropaleontology and biostratigraphy and
environmental hydrogeology. Member, DEP
Wakulla Springs Water Quality Working Group,
Ichetucknee Springs Water Quality Technical
Advisory Committee. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Professional memberships:
Society of Economic Paleontologists and
Mineralogists, Florida Academy of Science,
Florida Paleontological Society. Past President
and Newsletter Editor, Florida Paleontological
Society.





Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief,
Florida Geological Survey. BA, University of
South Florida (1972); MS, Florida State
University (1977); PhD, Florida State
University (1983). Research interests:
Cenozoic stratigraphy, hydrogeology,
environmental geology, and paleogeography.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida,
Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina, and
Pennsylvania). Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America (elected Fellow,
1995), Agency Representative, Member of the
Southeastern Section Committee on Geology
and Public Policy, 1989-97, Florida Coordinator
for the Second Century Fund Membership
Campaign, 1995-1996, National Geology and
Public Policy Committee; Past President,
Southeastern Geological Society; American
Institute of Professional Geologists, CPG 1982-
present; Legislative appointment, Florida Board
of Professional Geologists, 1987-present;
Member, Governor's Outer Continental Shelf
Advisory Committee, Association of American
State Geologists, member 1985-present,
Federal Liaison Committee, 1995 and 1996,
Executive Committee, 1995 and 1996,
President-Elect, 1994-1995, President, 1995-
1996, Peer Review Panel Member of the
STATEMAP component of the National
Geologic Mapping Program, 1996; American
Geological Institute, participant in the AGI/U.S.
Department of the Interior Societies President's
Workshop to make recommendations to
Congress and the Secretary of the Interior
regarding the merger of the National Biological
Service and the USGS, 1996; Ecology
Technical Advisory Committee, Florida
Comparison of Environmental Risks Project;
FDEP Statewide Monitoring Program Core
Group; Advisory Committee Member,
Petroleum Technology Transfer Council;
Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM);
Ground Water Protection Council; Founding
Member, Florida Association of Professional
Geologists; Florida Academy of Sciences;
Adjunct Professor, Florida State University
Geology Department; Chairman of the Big
Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee.


Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist
for Geological Investigations. BA, University of
South Florida (1971); MS, Eastern Kentucky
University (1973); PhD, Florida State
University (1986). Research interests:
Cenozoic lithostratigraphy, geologic history,
and hydrogeology. Consultant to the Florida
Board of Professional Geologists, Geology
Examination Committee. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America,
Southeastern Geological Society, Society of
Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Florida Academy
of Sciences, Sigma Xi. Past-President
Southeastern Geological Society, 1978 and
1990-92; Past-President Florida Section of the
American Institute of Professional Geologists,
1985-86. President, Southeastern Section of
the SEPM, 1996-97. Vice President and Board
Member, Florida Association of Professional
Geologists, 1996. Research Associate,
University of South Florida. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Certified
Professional Geologist, American Institute of
Professional Geologists.

Steven M. Spencer, Economic Geologist,
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, Florida State University (1981).
Research interests: economic geology.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).


Clerical and Technical Staff

Cynthia A. "Cindy" Collier, Administrative
Secretary. AAS, Tallahassee Community
College (1975).

Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian.

Evelyn Jordan, Secretary, Jay Field Office.

Victoria MacFarlan, Secretary, Ft. Myers Field
Office. BS, Florida State University (1993).

LaMarr Mitchell, Secretary. Chief Information
Manager, U.S. Air Force, 1988-1995.

Sandra "Sandie" Ray, Administrative Assistant.
AA, Chipola Junior College (1970).





Franklin R. "Frank" Rush, Jr., Laboratory
Technician.

Carolyn Stringer, Secretary. BS, University of
Alabama (1970).

Research Assistants

Martin G. Balinski, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, College of William and Mary,
(1992), MS, University of South Carolina
(1994). Research interests: structural
geology.

Clinton 1. Barineau, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Florida State University (1995).
MS candidate, Florida State University.
Research interests: structural geology and
fault kinematics. Professional activities:
Geologic mapping for. the USGS in
conjunction with the Alabama Geological
Survey for the EdMap Project (1996).

Jennifer Branch, Geological Investigations
Section, BA, Florida State University (1991),
graduate course work in Geography, Florida
State University (1995 and 1996). Areas of
specialization include AutoCad cartography and
well drilling and coring. Team recipient 1996
FGS Extra Effort Team award.

Zi-Quiang Chen, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology Section. BS,
Geological Institute of Xian City, China (1982);
MS, Dartmouth (1989); MA, College of William
and Mary (1992).

Mark S. Groszos, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Eastern Illinois (1978); Ph.D.,
Florida State University (1996). Research
interests: tectonic studies, metamorphic and
igneous terranes, and economic mineralogy.
Professional memberships: GSA, SME, Sigma
Xi.

Cliff Hendrickson, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, Florida
State University (1994); MS candidate Florida
State University (1997). Research interests:
environmental and coastal geology and
hydrogeology.

Jillian Alexis Howell, Geological Investigations
Section, BS, Geology, Florida State University,


1995. Research interests: hydrogeology,
sedimentology, and environmental geology.
Team recipient, 1996 Extra Effort Award.

Dennis A. Jensen, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Florida State University (1995).
Research interests: Groundwater
geochemistry. Team recipient, 1996 Extra
Effort Award.

Lance Johnson, Geological Investigations
Section. BA, Vanderbilt (1994); MS
candidate, Florida State University. Research
interests: structural geology, carbonate
petrology.

Suvrat Kher, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geolgy Section. MS, University
of Pune, India (1988); Ph.D., Florida State
University (1996). Research interests:
carbonate sedimentology, low temperature
geochemisitry, remote sensing, and GIS.
Professional memberships: GSA, SEPM.


Li Li, Geological Investigations Section, BS,
Nanjing University (P. R. China) (1983); MS,
Nanjing University (P.R. China) (1986); Ph.D.,
Florida State University (1996). Research
Interests: structural geology, tectonics.
Member: GSA, AAPG, AGI.

Guy H. "Harley" Means, Geologic
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1996). Research interests:
molluscan paleontology. Professional
memberships: Florida Paleontological Society.
Team recipient, 1996 Extra Effort Award.

Thomas Miller, Geological Investigations
Section. BA, Birmingham-Southern College
(1990), MS candidate, Florida State
University. Research interests: chemical
evolution of natural groundwaters.

Stephen L. Palmes, Geological Investigations
Section, BS, Old Dominion University (1990),
MS, Wright State University (1992), PhD
candidate, Florida State University. Research
interests: stratigraphy, structure and tectonic
evolution of the western Blue Ridge, southern
Appalachians. Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America, American





Association of Petroleum Geologists, Sigma
Xi.

Candace A. Trimble, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology Section, BS Soil
Science and Agronomy, Florida A&M
University (1978); BS, Florida State University
(1993); MS candidate Florida State
University. Research interests: low-
temperature geochemistry, coastal processes
and environmental geology. Recipient 1996
FGS Extra Effort Award. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America,
Florida Academy of Sciences.

William R. Waite, Geological Investigations
Section, BS, Geography, University of South
Alabama (1996), BS, Geology, University of
South Alabama (1996), MS candidate, Florida
State University. Research interests:
stratigraphy, structure and tectonic evolution
of the western Blue Ridge, southern
Appalachians.

Holly K. Williams, Geological Investigations
Section, BS, Geology, Florida State University
(1996); MS candidate, Florida State
University. Research interests: aquifer
storage and recovery, radioactive isotope
geology, groundwater, and Florida
stratigraphy. Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America, American
Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Research Associates

Adel Dabous, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, Alexandria
University, Alexandria, Egypt (1968); MS,
Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
(1973); Ph.D., Florida State University (1981).
Research interests: Geochemistry, Mineralogy,
Coastal Geology. Director of the FSU U/Th
Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory. Licensed
Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Geochemical Society of
America, Geological Society of Egypt,
Geological Society of America, and
Mineralogical Society of Egypt.

Richard C. Green, Geological Investigations
Section. BS, Florida State University (1986);


MS, Florida State University (1994). Research
interests: uranium/thorium geochemistry and
environmental hydrogeology. Project geologist,
USGS STATEMAP project.

A. Bradley Highley, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, Eastern
Kentucky University (1991); MS, Florida State
University (1995), Research interests: coastal
geology, sedimentation in salt marshes and
estuaries of the Big Bend coast, and beach
restoration of Florida's east-central coast.

Outside Research Associates

Vicente Quinones-Aponte (USGS)
Lynn Barr (USGS)
Marion Berndt (USGS)
Ron Ceryak (SRWMD)
Nolan Col (SJRWMD)
Rick Copeland (DEP)
Christy Crandall (USGS)
Dr. Richard Davis (Univ. South Florida)
Eric Dehaven (SWFWMD).
Dave DeWitt (SWFWMD)
Dr. Joe Donoghue (Florida State University)
Dr. Lucy Edwards (USGS)
Will Evans III (DEP)
Robin Hallbourg (Alachua County)
Jeff Herr (SFWMD)
Freddy James (Everglades National Park)
Katherine Milla (NWFWMD)
Ed Oaksford (USGS)
Thomas Pratt (NWFWMD)
Suzanne Weedman (USGS)
Dr. Lynn Brewster-Wingard (USGS)

AWARDS

Dr. Walt Schmidt was awarded the 1995
Hero Of Industry Award by the Florida Section
of the American Institute of Professional
Geologists. Walt received the award at the
Tenth Annual Regional Phosphate Conference,
held in October at Lakeland, Florida.
Two FGS staff members received
Departmental awards for their work effort and
performance in 1995. Jacqueline Lloyd
received an Extra Effort Award for her work
with the Total Quality Leadership program.
Steve Spencer was awarded a Sustained
Exemplary Performance Award for his
outstanding work record.





The 1995 FGS Employee of the Year
Award was presented to Ronald W. Hoenstine.
Ron was recognized for his outstanding efforts
in forming, organizing, and obtaining grant
funding for the Coastal Research Group. Ron's
efforts resulted in two new full time positions
and much-needed research equipment for the
FGS.

The FGS Staff also presented Walt
Schmidt with a Declaration of Leadership and
Administrative Excellence Award in January,
1996. This plaque recognizes and salutes
Walt's outstandingly successful efforts in
keeping the FGS a valuable and viable agency
during the ongoing budget cuts currently in
vogue with the Legislature. Walt was also
presented with a special Resolution From The
Association Of American State Geologists To
President Walter Schmidt, in June, 1996. This
award was presented in recognition of his
productive and skillful leadership as President
of the AASG.

Thomas Scott was recognized by the
Department of Geology, Eastern Kentucky
University, (EKU) as the recipient of the 1996
Donald C. Haney Outstanding Alumnus Award.


Tom received his MS in Geology from EKU in
1973, and was Dr. Haney's first graduate
student. Dr. Haney is the current State
Geologist of Kentucky.

Steve Spencer received a 1996
Appreciation Award from the Division of State
Lands for his extensive assistance with mineral
appraisals on state-owned lands. Jon Arthur
was the recipient of the 1996 FGS Employee
of the Year award. Jon was cited for
coordinating the Florida Geology Education
Video Project, which produced the video
Florida's Geology Unearthed.

Two new award categories were
presented for the first time in 1996. Candice
Trimble was presented with the first FGS Extra
Effort Award for her outstanding work ethic
and cooperative spirit. Also awarded was a
new Extra Effort Team Award, going this year
to the FGS field auger rig team. Team
members include the supervisor, Ken Campbell,
and crew members Jennifer Branch, Alexis
Howell, Dennis Jensen, and Harley Means. The
auger team has been responsible for obtaining
much new data statewide for the Ambient
Groundwater Project, while meeting a rigorous
schedule of deadlines both in the field and
office.


Florida's most spectacular geologic exposure at Alum Bluff on the east bank of the Apalachicola River,
two miles north of Bristol, Liberty County (photo by Tom Scott).







BUDGET SUMMARY


During FY 1994/95, the FGS was funded
primarily from General Revenue. Some
positions concerned with minerals and related
resource issues were funded by the
Nonmandatory Land Reclamation
Administration Trust Fund. One Engineer III
position in the Oil and Gas Section was
funded from the Petroleum Exploration and
Production Bond Trust Fund.

During FY 1995/96, the General Revenue
funding and Petroleum Exploration and
Production Bond Trust Fund was transferred
to the Minerals Trust Fund; Nonmandatory
Land Reclamation Administration Trust Fund


remained the same.

The requested budget is reviewed by the
Division of Administrative and Technical
Services and the Secretary's Office of the
Department of Environmental Protection
before being presented to the Governor. Upon
approval, the budget request is submitted to
the Florida House of Representatives and the
Florida Senate for review by their budget
committees.

The appropriations listed below include
all funding, including outside contracts.


FGS BUDGET


Salaries and Benefits

Other Personal Services

Expenses

Operating Capital Outlay


TOTAL


1994-1995

1,346,022

159,919

304,571

65,360

$1,875,872


1995-1996

1,383,305

184,588

311,971

23,390

$1,903,254






APPENDIX

ABSTRACTS FOR SELECTED
PRESENTATIONS, PUBLICATIONS
AND PROJECTS

Information Circular 111 1994 and 1995
Florida Petroleum Production and Exploration,
by J. M. Lloyd.

Florida oil production began to decline in
1979 and generally has continued to do so;
however, production increased by eight
percent from 1993 to 1994. Production then
declined by six percent during 1995. Two of
the south Florida oil fields (Sunoco Felda, and
Sunniland) are nearing the end of their
production history. The last reported
production from Sunniland field was in 1991
and the last reported production from Sunoco
Felda was in 1992.

Exploration activity during 1994 and
1995 was very limited. There were no
exploratory wells drilled, however, one well
which was completed in 1993 is included in
this report because the completion report was
received in 1994. This Santa Rosa County well
was plugged and abandoned as a dry hole.
Geophysical exploration during 1994 and 1995
covered only 22.5 miles of seismic lines in the
Florida panhandle, 20.3 miles of seismic lines
in south Florida, and 102 miles of gravity
survey in south Florida. In addition to this
completed geophysical exploration, a permit
application was pending for an extensive
offshore seismic, gravity, and magnetic survey.
A similar area was covered by an approved
permit during 1992/93 but the permit expired
without any exploration having been
conducted. This exploration would potentially
explore a dense grid off Florida's Gulf coast
extending from offshore of Apalachicola,
Franklin County to offshore of Naples, Collier
County.

One exploratory well was being drilled
in federal waters off Florida at the close of
1995. This well will be the fourth drilled in the
Destin Dome area by Chevron. Two of the
previously drilled wells were classified by the
federal government as producible Norphlet gas
discoveries. A summary of offshore exploratory


drilling is included in this report, as well as
descriptions of each of Florida's 22 oil fields.
The descriptions include discovery data,
geologic information, and production totals.

Open File Report 61 Lithostratigraphic and
Hydrostratigraphic Cross Sections Through
Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties, Florida,
1995, by R. Green, J. Arthur, and D. DeWitt.

In cooperation with the Southwest
Florida Water Management District
(SWFWMD), the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) utilized detailed well sample
descriptions, gamma logs, and hydrologic data
to construct a series of six geologic cross
sections through the District. Topographic
profiles are included on each section to
facilitate comparison of surface morphologies
with subsurface stratigraphy. Delineation of
formational boundaries is based on inspection
of available borehole samples (cores and/or
cuttings) by geologists from the SWFWMD and
FGS. Hatching patterns are used on the
hydrostratigraphic columns to show the three
aquifer systems present in the study area.

Open File Report 62 Core Drilling and Analysis:
City of Sarasota, Downtown Well Field,
Revised, by K. M. Campbell, T. M. Scott and
R. C. Green.

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), in
cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) and the city of Sarasota, drilled and
analyzed a deep core hole located at the
Sarasota Downtown Well Field (SDWF). The
investigation focused on the Neogene and
Paleogene lithostratigraphy and the Floridan
aquifer system. The corehole was drilled into
the top of the Middle Eocene Avon Park
Formation and terminated at a total depth of
1,101 feet below land surface (bls). A four-
inch diameter monitor well was constructed
after coring was completed with a monitor
zone from 353 to 590 feet.

The core obtained in this study is
cataloged as well W-16999 and is stored in
the FGS core repository. A lithologic
description for the core was generated utilizing
a binocular microscope. The description was
recorded in the standard FGS format and






entered into the FGS data base. A
stratigraphic column was also generated from
the lithologic log.

The SDWF draws water from both the
intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems. The
intermediate aquifer system and confining units
consist of Neogene and Paleogene Hawthorn
Group sediments. The Floridan aquifer system
is composed of latest Paleogene sediments of
the Hawthorn Group, and Paleogene sediments
of the Suwannee and Ocala Limestones and
the Avon Park Formation.

Open File Report 64 Microfossil Sample
Preparation and Techniques, 1996, by Ron
Hoenstine.

Sample preparation procedures for a
diversity of microscopic fossils including
calcareous nannoplankton (coccoliths),
diatoms, foraminifera, and ostracods are
presented in this report. This includes
techniques for concentrating specific
microfossil groups for investigation.


Open File Report 67 Topographic Maps,
Useful Tools for the Florida Fossil Hunter,
1995, by Frank R. Rupert.

One of the more useful maps for the
avocational and professional paleontologist
alike is the topographic map. Topographic
maps show the locations and form of hills,
valleys, streams, and other natural features as
well as many manmade landmarks.

The entire state of Florida has been
mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 7.5
minute topographic quadrangles. One
thousand and thirty-seven 7.5 minute maps
are required to cover the state. A handy
index showing the locations and names of all
1,037 quadrangle maps covering the state is
printed by the United States Geological
Survey.

Earlier topographic maps, generally dating
from prior to 1940, were based on 15 minute
quadrangles. These covered an area
equivalent to four of the 7.5 minute maps, and
had a scale of 1:62,500. The larger, modern
7.5 minute maps generally provide better


detail, although the older maps can often be
used to document historical changes in land
features or urban sprawl.

In many regions of Florida, topographic
maps may prove extremely useful to the
avocational paleontologist in search of
fossiliferous exposures. They are an aid in
locating mines, quarries, sinks, and incised
streams, all features which might expose
otherwise buried fossiliferous strata. This
report includes several examples of how
topographic maps may be used by fossil
hunters in different parts of Florida.

Open File Report 69 A Geological
Investigation Of The Offshore Area Along
Florida's Central East Coast, 1995, by H.
Freedenberg, R. Hoenstine, Z. Chen, and H.
Williams.

This report documents a literature
review, data search and findings of the Year
1 cooperative agreement between the United
States Minerals Management Service (MMS)
and the Florida Geological Survey (FGS). The
purpose of this agreement is to identify and
characterize offshore sands suitable for
potential beach restoration along the central
east coast of Florida. Southern Brevard,
Indian River, St. Lucie and Martin Counties
are included in this study. Year 1 tasks
include contacting local organizations to
provide a history of previous work done in the
study area, conducting a thorough literature
search to document past work done in the
area of investigation, collecting representative
onshore push cores and vibracores to
characterize existing beach sediment, and
determining existing zones of maximum
erosion/accretion based on the literature
search and local interviews.

This report, which serves as a Year 1
annual report for this MMS cooperative
agreement, consists of an introduction and
summary, annotated bibliography and coastal
atlas. Selected photographs of field activities
are also included. A map indicating proposed
seismic coverage for future phases of this
study was prepared as part of the coastal
atlas. Grain size distribution summaries are
included in the lithologic log and
granulometrics section.






In the course of preparing this report,
more than 160 reprints and professional
publications were examined to document
work previously done in the study area. Of
these publications, 40 were considered
Historical Background and Regional Summary
papers, 42 documents concerned Sediment
and Wave Mechanics, six papers were
concerned with Breakwater and Groin Design,
71 papers were case history oriented Beach
and Inlet Studies and nine papers discussed
Field Procedures and Techniques.

Fifteen PVC push cores and two
aluminum vibracores were also collected as a
part of this investigation. Fourteen of these
cores were collected at arbitrarily chosen
locations throughout the study area. The
fifteenth core was collected at a control
location on Cape Canaveral in northern
Brevard County. Two hundred and nineteen
samples were extracted from these cores for
granulometric analysis. A subgroup of forty-
nine granulometric samples was chosen for
digestion in hydrochloric acid. These samples
were also analyzed to determine size
distribution of the carbonate grains. Median
grain size for the entire sample population
was found to be 0.433mm (1.2f). Median
size of the carbonate grains was determined
to be 0.602mm (0.73f) and median silica
grain size was 0.366mm (1.45f). The
carbonate grains were locally formed and
primarily biogenic in origin (shell fragments
and coral debris) while the silica grains
showed evidence of longshore transport.
Overall sample grain size and silica grain size
distributions were found to approximate log-
normality while the carbonate grain size
distribution was, in many cases, bimodal.
Bimodality of the carbonate grains can be
attributed to distinctive populations of coarse
shell fragments and finer grained abrasion
products. Carbonate abundance in the
digested sample was highly variable ranging
between 18.80 and 83.52 %. In general,
carbonate abundance in beach sand increases
as one moves southward along Florida's east
coast. An Appendix showing the results of
grain size distribution analyses has been
included in this report.
A coastal atlas was prepared for the
study area (Part III of this report). This atlas
includes information on bathymetry,


information on previous geophysical surveys,
location of previously collected grab samples,
push cores and vibracores. Areas of eroding
shoreline are also shown along with
information on known hardbottom areas
(where available). Aerial photography was
used in developing these data (photo
inventories are maintained at the Bureau of
Beaches and Coastal Systems of the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection and
at the Florida Department of Transportation).
A preliminary coverage grid has been
developed for future offshore acoustic
profiling work.

Findings of this investigation indicate
that the largest concentrations of offshore
sand suitable for beach nourishment are
found on shoals paralleling the coastline.
While past generic assessments of these
resources have been made, detailed studies
are needed in order to characterize these
sands. In view of the ever-increasing need
for renourishment sand, it is important that
these resources be delineated as soon as
practical.

Open File Report 70 The Geomorphology and
Geology of Taylor County, Florida, 1996, by
Frank R. Rupert.

Designed primarily as a general overview
of the geology of Taylor County, Florida, this
report provides information on the
geomorphology, Middle Eocene to Recent
stratigraphy, ground-water aquifer units, and
mineral resource commodities in the county.
The landforms and shallow stratigraphy are
illustrated in a geomorphic map and two
geologic cross sections.

Special Publication 40 William F. Tanner on
Environmental Clastic Granulometry, 1995,
compiled by James H. Balsillie.

This work presents, describes, and
discusses sedimentologic field sampling,
sample analysis, data reduction, numerical
and statistical analytical methods, and
interpretive tools for granulometric endeavors.
Determination of agents of transportation and
deposition form the focal issue of the work.
Applications and methods contained in the






publication represent over 45 years of applied
research on the part of W. F. Tanner.

FLORIDA GEOLOGY EDUCATION VIDEO
PROJECT

The solid earth is a fundamental and
critical component of Florida's ecosystems:
we need to know about earth materials
because we live on them and depend on them.
Geology affects our lives and economy. An
understanding of Florida's solid earth, such as
ecosystems, aquifers, geologic history and
framework, energy and mineral resources, and
geologic processes and hazards is essential
toward effective, holistic environmental
education.

The Florida Geology Educational Video
(FGEV) project, developed by Dr. Jon Arthur,
Diane Wilkins Productions and staff of the
Florida Geological Survey fulfills the need for
Florida-specific geological education materials
for use in the classroom and for general public
information. The video, entitled Florida's
Geology Unearthed, utilizes an enthusiastic and
contemporary videographic approach to
capture the target eighth- and ninth-grade
student audience. The classroom version of
the video includes a 58-page Educator's Guide
(Lane and Rupert, 1996) and supplemental
written materials all contained in an
attractive notebook. A second version of the
video (57.5 minutes) is intended for general
public education through broadcasting via
Florida Public Television or its affiliates.

Seven hundred and fifty classroom
versions of FGEV are being distributed to
Florida's 72 school districts, as well as to local,
community college and state libraries, state
departments, museums, DOE Regional Service
Projects and professional teaching
organizations. Five broadcast copies will be
marketed and distributed to selected public
television stations within the state.

Goals and objectives of the FGEV project
include: 1) demonstrate why geology is
important regarding infrastructure demands
due to Florida's population growth; 2) describe
Florida's unique geologic history, how it relates
to geologic processes and hazards, and how it


has shaped the land surface of present-day
Florida; 3) establish the importance of geology
to the understanding of Florida's ecosystems;
4) complement existing state-wide education
curriculum standards as described in Science
For All Students and the Sunshine State
Standards (Florida Department of Education):
the Educator's Guide will help implement the
FGEV project into classroom curricula, where
classroom discussion is fostered through video
stops and suggested Learning Activities in the
Guide; and 5) instill personal awareness of and
responsibility for Florida's renewable and non-
renewable solid-earth resources by clarifying
the relationship between the depletion of these
resources and Florida's economy.

An advisory committee of local
environmental educators, including eighth and
ninth grade teachers, has contributed to the
effective implementation of the FGEV into the
classroom. Technical accuracy of the FGEV
project has been enhanced by a second
advisory committee consisting of licensed
professional geologists from throughout the
state.

Measurable effectiveness of the FGEV
project has been determined through pre- and
post-viewing tests and comment forms
distributed to classroom field-test sites. Initial
test results and feedback have been very
positive. Long-term benefits of the FGEV
project can be inferred from the value of
education: with a better understanding of
geology through the FGEV program, viewers
may be in a position some day to make an
informed decision about managing or
protecting Florida's natural resources.










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700



ADMINISTRATIVE SECTION

Walter Schmidt, Chief and State Geologist
Cindy Collier, Administrative Secretary Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Deborah Mekeel, Librarian Sandie Ray, Admin. Asst.

GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist
Jon Arthur, Petrologist Lance Johnson, Research Assistant
Martin Balinsky, Research Assistant Jim Jones, Cartographer
Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist Ted Kiper, Cartographer
Clint Barineau, Research Assistant Li Li, Research Assistant
Paulette Bond, Geochemist Harley Means, Research Assistant
Jennifer Branch, Research Assistant Tom Miller, Research Assistant
Ken Campbell, Sedimentologist LaMarr Mitchell, Secretary Specialist
Joel Duncan, Sedimentary Petrologist Stephen Palmes, Research Assistant
Rick Green, Research Associate Frank Rupert, Paleontologist
Mark Groszos, Research Assistant Frank Rush, Lab Technician
Alexis Howell, Research Assistant Jim Trindell, Driller
Dennis Jensen, Research Assistant Rodger VanLandingham, Asst. Driller
Bill Waite, Research Assistant


MINERAL RESOURCES
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
Zi-Qiang Chen, Research Assistant Ron Hoenstine, Coastal Geologist
Adel Dabous, Research Associate Suvrat Kher, Research Assistant
Rodney DeHan, Sr. Research Scientist Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist
Henry Freedenberg, Env. Geologist Ed Lane, Environmental Geologist
Cliff Hendrickson, Research Assistant Steve Spencer, Economic Geologist
Brad Highley, Research Associate Candy Trimble, Research Assistant
Holly Williams, Research Assistant

OIL AND GAS SECTION

L. David Curry, Environmental Program Administrator
Paul Attwood, Asst. Dist. Coordinator Don Hargrove, Engineer
Robert Caughey, District Coordinator Evelyn Jordan, Sec. Specialist
Ed Gambrell, District Coordinator Jim LeBar, Professional Engineer
Ed Garrett, Geologist Victoria MacFarlan, Sec. Specialist
Carolyn Stringer, Secretary Specialist







Florida Geological Survey
Location Map


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


SCALE
0 mile 1


'I