Biennial report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher:
The Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date:
Frequency:
biennial
regular
Edition:
1993-1994[18th report]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltuf - AJG7269
oclc - 22342552
alephbibnum - 001754280
lccn - sn 90001622
issn - 1052-6536
System ID:
UF00000224:00005

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Foreword
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Research and regulatory programs
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Additional programs
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Cooperative programs
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Publications
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Talks by staff members to professional groups
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Additional professional activities
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Personnel information
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Tribute to Richard Howard
        Page 37
    Budget summary
        Page 38
    Appendix: Abstracts for selected presentations and publications
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Back Cover
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

BIENNIAL REPORT 18

1993 1994


1994
Department of Environmental Protection
Division of Technical Services
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1983
Department of Natural Resources
Division of Resource Management
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1971
Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1933
Board of Conservation
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


1907
FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1886
STATE GEOLOGIST'S OFFICE


1853
OFFICE OF STATE ENGINEER and GEOLOGIST


QE
99
.A22
1993/94









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Virginia B. Wetherell, Secretary




ECTI0LOGIC











DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
Mimi Drew, Director of Technical Services



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief





BIENNIAL REPORT 18
1993 1994

By
Ed Lane






Published for the


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee
1995


ISSN: 1052-6536


F.. F ~







Letter of Transmittal


Florida Geological Survey
March 1995


Governor Lawton Chiles
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Tallahassee, Florida 32301


Dear Governor Chiles:

The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Administrative and Technical Services, Department of
Environmental Protection, is publishing Biennial Report 18, 1993-1994, prepared by the Survey's
professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the professional staff during this two-year
period. Research results are usually reported in the Survey's various publication series. Reports for this
period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other activities of the Survey.



Respectfully yours,




Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief








TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Forew ord ..................................................................... 1
Introduction ................................................................... 2
Research and regulatory programs ................................................. 3
Geological Investigations Section ............................................. 3
Mineral Resources Investigations and Environmental Geology Section ................. 3
O il and Gas Section ....................................................... 5
Additional program s ............................................................. 6
D killing program .......................................................... 6
Research library .......................................................... 6
Library services .................................................... 6
Publications distribution .............................................. 7
Special projects .................................................... 7
Special collections .................................................. 7
Geologic sam ple collections ................................................. 7
D ata files ............................................................... 8
Com puter services ........................................................ 8
Student assistantship program ............................................... 9
Continuing education ...................................................... 9
Cooperative program s .......................................................... 10
Coastal Research Group .................................................. 10
Coastal Research Group projects ...................................... 11
Florida radon research program ............................................. 12
Department of Environmental Protection ....................................... 12
Apalachicola National Forest area ambient ground-water project ............... 12
Division of Recreation and Parks San Felasco Hammock State Preserve
project .................................................... 12
Division of Recreation and Parks Nesting substrate project .................. 12
Suwannee River Water Management District .................................... 12
W ell description program ............................................ 12
Geology and hydrogeology of the upper carbonate unit of the intermediate
aquifer system in Bradford and Union Counties .................. .. 13
South Florida Water Management District ...................................... 13
Uthologic units of aquifer systems ..................................... 13
University of Miami: Florida Keys core drilling project ....................... 13
St. Johns River Water Management District .................................... 13
District Observation Well Network (DOWN) ............................... 13
Southwest Florida Water Management District ........................... . .... 14
US Geological Survey .................................................... 14
Sarasota County intermediate aquifer system core drilling and analysis ......... 14
City of Sarasota Downtown Well Field ................................... 14
Collier and Monroe Counties data collection ....................... . . ... 14
Surficial bedrock geology of the eastern half of the Homestead
1:100,000 quadrangle ........................................ 14
Summary of the geology and hydrogeology of the Little River Basin,
Suwannee County ........................................... 15
Publications .................................................................. 15
B bulletin ............................................................... 15
Special Publications ...................................................... 15
Information Circulars ..................................................... 16









M ap Series ............................................................ 16
Poster ................................................................ 16
O pen File Reports .......................................................16
Open File M ap Series .....................................................16
Biennial Report .........................................................18
The Florida Geology Forum ................................................18
Papers by staff in outside publications ........................................ 18
Poster presentation ...................................................... 27
Talks by staff to professional groups ............................................... 28
Additional professional activities ...................................................30
Sym posia ..............................................................30
Meetings, Conferences, and Workshops ....................................... 30
Fieldtrips ..............................................................32
Personnel inform action ..........................................................32
Personnel changes ......................................................32
Professional staff ........................................................33
Clerical and technical staff .................................................35
Research assistants ...................................................... 36
Research associates .....................................................36
Aw ards ...............................................................36
Tribute to Richard Howard .......................................................37
Budget Sum m ary ..............................................................38
FG S Budget ..................................................................38
Appendix: Abstracts for selected presentations and publications ........................ . 39






























iv












Florida Geological Survey

Functional Organizational Chart
This chart reflects the organization of the F.G.S. as of December, 1994

GOVERNOR
I
Dept. of Environmental Protection
Secretary
(Wetherell)
I
Div. of Admin. & Tech. Services
Director
(Smith)

Technical Services
Deputy Director
(Drew)
I
Florida Geological Survey

Chief and State Geologist
(Schmidt)


Oil & Gas
Section
I
Administrator
(Curry)


._ Pet. Eng.
(Tootle)

Engineer
(Hargrove)


Ft. Myers Jay
Field Office Field Office
Dist. Color. Dist. Coor.
(Caughey) (Gambrell)

Secretary Secretary
(Gruber) (Jordan)

Geologist
(Cook)


Geological Investigations
Section
Asst. State Geologist
(Scott)

Secretary Petrologist
(Losolde) (Arthur)


Core Driller
(Morrll) -

Driller Asst.
(TrLndell)

Engineer I
(Jones)

Cartographer
(Kiper) |-

2 Research
Associates

10 Research
Assistants


GSed Wologist'





So. etrologist.


(R'pr)ntoilistL


FiTe7 )schT1


Mineral Resource Investigations
and Environmental Geology
Section

Asst. State Geologist
(Lloyd)

Env. Geol. Env. Geol.
(Lane) (Hoenstlne)

Env. Gaol._ con. Gol.I
(Ladner) (Spencer)

4 Research Env. G"ol.
Assistants (Freedenberg)


Geologist
(Garrett)










FOREWORD

The years 1993 and 1994 have been
significant ones in the history of the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS). These years have
seen the legislative consolidation of the
Department of Natural Resources (DNR) with the
Department of Environmental Regulation to
create a larger Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP). This organizational revision
also changed the hierarchical management of the
department. The new organizational chart,
relative to the FGS, is shown on page v. The
past DNR was under the Governor and Cabinet,
which served as the department's Executive
Board, and the agency head was an Executive
Director. The new department is directly under
the Governor, with the agency head designated
a Secretary and serving at the pleasure of the
Governor, after confirmation by the Florida
Senate. This departmental consolidation has
resulted in various divisions and bureaus being
reorganized. The FGS, which had been part of
DNR's Division of Resource Management,
became a bureau within DEP's Division of
Administrative and Technical Services. This
division is headed by an Executive Services
Director, who, in turn, directs two Deputy
Directors, one of which is Deputy Director of
Technical Services, which is the subdivision
where the FGS now resides.

Over the past decade the FGS has been
primarily funded by the Florida Legislature out of
the general revenue fund. This often has proven
to be unfortunate because of recurring budget
shortfalls, resulting in program funding cuts.
However, the FGS has managed to persevere
with a core of general revenue funding
supplemented by contracts and grants from other
agencies in need of geoscience interpretations.
The 1994 legislature passed the Minerals Trust
Fund Bill which will fund the FGS and the Bureau
of Mine Reclamation in their entirety beginning
July 1995; this should make future appropriations
more stable and dependable.

Contracts and grants have grown in
number and amount in recent years, from one
contract 10 years ago to an average of 10 per
year, now. Over the last two years, the FGS


averaged $200,000 per year for all grants
combined. These contract deliverables have had
great effect on the Survey's visibility, output,
public service product, and interagency
partnerships. There are currently pending an
additional $1,000,000 in grants and state
matches planned for fiscal year 1995-96. These
projects have planned lifetimes of five
years.These successes clearly demonstrate the
need for applied geoscience information to be
used by governmental agencies in support of
public needs.

The FGS program has added important
facilities and capabilities during the last two
years. The Survey obtained two research boats
and much new marine geoscience field
equipment; the laboratory facilities were
upgraded and prepared for upcoming projects;
geologic maps of each county and oil and gas
well coverage maps have been produced with
upgraded AutoCAD computer graphics; and the
truck-mounted auger drilling equipment was
refitted to collect hollow-stem core samples.

In April 1993, the FGS was co-host for
the Southeastern Section of the Geological
Society of America's annual meeting in
Tallahassee, in conjunction with Florida State
University's Geology Department. Over 500
geologists from throughout the southeastern
United States attended. The six chapters of the
Oil and Gas regulatory rules have been
extensively revised, in response to statutory
modifications and the legislature's Joint
Administrative Procedures Committee concerns.
A STATEMAP component of the National
Geologic Mapping Program was funded for
geologic mapping in south Florida, and the U.S.
Minerals Management Service and the
Environmental Protection Agency have solicited
grant proposals from the FGS for near-shore
bottom mapping and resource assessment.

Further budget reductions are proposed
by the 1995 legislature. Hopefully, these
reductions will not weaken the Florida Geological
Survey's role as a major geoscience component
of the Department of Environmental Protection's
ecosystem management principles, which







include: effectively managing state lands,
carrying out defendable environmental regulatory
programs, exploring sustainable development,
and mitigation of natural and man-made geologic
hazards.

INTRODUCTION

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) is
located on the campus of the Florida State
University (FSU) in the Gunter Building, adjacent
to the university's Geology Department. The
FGS has a staff of 42: 16 professional
geologists, 10 research assistants, three
engineers, two environmental specialists, a
professional driller and drilling assistant, two
cartographers, a librarian, and support staff.

Research facilities at the FGS include a
geological research library, a sample repository,
and laboratories. The library contains an
extensive collection of state and federal
publications, periodicals, and references. The
sample repository holds cores and well cutting


samples from more than 17,000 wells (both
onshore and offshore). Laboratory facilities
include a permeability lab equipped with 20
falling-head permeameters; a sedimentology lab
containing diamond rock-saws for core
processing, ro-taps, ovens, and balances;
sample preparation equipment for clay
mineralogy, organic/carbonate content and
micro/nannofossil studies; and an ETEC
Scanning Electron Microscope with a Kevex
semi-quantitative probe. Field equipment
includes a trailer-mounted auger rig, a Failing
1500 drill rig for continuous diamond coring, a
truck-mounted Mobile Drill Rig with wire-line
coring capability, various pickup trucks and four-
wheel drive vehicles, and three boats used in
coastal research projects.

The FGS also has cooperative
agreements with FSU's Geology Department to
use an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray
fluorescence spectrometer, an atomic absorption
spectrometer, and an alpha spectrometer.








RESEARCH
AND REGULATORY PROGRAMS


GEOLOGICAL
INVESTIGATIONS SECTION


The Geological Investigations Section is
involved in a wide range of research covering
both onshore and offshore areas of Florida. New
statewide geologic and geomorphic maps are in
preparation. A geologic map depicts the
distribution of geological units throughout the
state and provides an invaluable aid in the
environmental decision-making process. Such a
map provides first approximation solutions to
numerous environmental and management
related problems. A geomorphic map delineates
the distribution of landforms across the state.
These two types of maps provide powerful tools
in defining problems relating to ground water,
waste disposal, geological hazards, and mineral
resources.

Geologists in the Geological
Investigations Section are currently involved in
applied and basic research projects. The Plio-
Pleistocene sediments in southern Florida are
being investigated. Geological mapping in
southern Florida is being undertaken by staff
geologists in cooperation with the United States
Geological Survey (USGS). Staff geologists are
collaborating with the USGS with the
investigation of the Everglades and Florida Bay.
Studies of the geological history of the deep
subsurface Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in
northern peninsular Florida and the panhandle
are also conducted by the Geological
Investigations Section. The geologic framework
of the lower Floridan aquifer system in
southeastern Florida is also being studied.

The section also consults with other
government agencies since the regional and
local geology of a given area are fundamental in
the evaluation of numerous environmental
problems. Geological Investigations responds to
inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and
contamination, geologic hazards, geologic
mapping, and problems related to community


planning and development. The group prepares
detailed lithologic logs for wells which are on file
with the FGS. This information is added to the
Survey's computerized data base which currently
contains logs for approximately 3,600 wells. This
data base and the programs designed to
manipulate it are currently used by other
governmental agencies and a number of private
firms.

MINERAL RESOURCE INVESTIGATIONS
and
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

Florida ranks first in the nation in the
production of phosphate rock and fifth, nationally,
in sales of minerals. The Mineral Resource
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section maintains communication with the
mineral industry in Florida and publishes biennial
status reports related to industry activity.

Petroleum is produced from a total of 18
oil fields in Florida. Ten fields are productive
from the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland Formation
in south Florida; eight are productive from the
Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation and
Norphlet Sandstone in the western panhandle of
Florida. The Mineral Resource Investigations
and Environmental Geology Section prepares
biennial reports on Florida's petroleum
production and exploration activities. The
biennial report covering 1992 and 1993 was
completed in 1994.

Another aspect of the section's work with
non-fuel minerals involves the preparation of
county mineral resource maps. County mineral
resource investigations were initiated to assist
counties in the preparation of this aspect of the
comprehensive land-use plans mandated by the
state legislature. The goal of these studies is to
identify potential mineral resource areas and
present the results in a format appropriate for
use by Florida's planning community. The results
are published as 1:125,000 scale maps with
supporting text and figures. The maps present
the major mineral commodities for use as a
guide to resource location. The supporting text
discusses the county's geology and
geomorphology as well as specific mineral







commodities, with accompanying inset maps and
geologic cross-sections depicting the near-
surface sediments. A total of 19 of these county
investigations have been completed; three of
these, Hamilton, Suwannee, and Columbia
Counties, were mapped and published during
1993-1994.

Nearly 900 new residents move to
Florida every day. This phenomenal population
growth stresses the state's environment and its
resources. Geologic information is essential for
environmentally responsible land-use planning
and resource and ecosystem management.
Recognizing this, the section began a series of
special environmental reports that target specific
rapidly-growing urban areas. These reports
integrate cultural, climatological, geological, and
hydrological data to demonstrate the role of
geology in land-use planning. Graphics are used
to present data and geologic concepts in a
format that can be readily used by the lay-public,
scientists, and planners. These documents are
also conceived as an aid in water management
and public policy decision-making.

The first two reports in this series were
published during 1991-1992 covering the cities of
Ocala and Gainesville. A third report on the
Pensacola area is in preparation. Environmental
geology and hydrology for the cities are


discussed, emphasizing topics related to water
resources. The hydrologic cycle, karst geology,
surface water, and underlying aquifer systems
are analyzed in detail, clarifying the relationships
among them. Recommendations for protection of
these resources through appropriate land-use
planning are also presented.

After the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute (FSRI) lost its funding support, its
computer database was transferred to the FGS.
This section has done extensive reformatting and
updating of these data, in order to make it
available to the public and private sectors. This
section now handles requests for sinkhole data.

For several years the FGS has
recognized the need to establish a marine and
coastal geology program which would generate
resource maps of offshore areas, as well as
submerged lands (bays and estuaries).
Investigations of geological processes affecting
coastal environments and ecosystems would also
be included in such a program. These studies
would complement the state's ongoing efforts to
control coastal erosion and manage fragile
coastal environments. In 1991 the FGS
organized an informal Coastal Research Group
(CRG), under the aegis of the Mineral Resource
Investigations and Environmental Geology
Section. This program is discussed in detail in
the "Cooperative Programs" section, below.


Li.


Beach erosion and property losses from weather or shoreline processes
illustrate the need for coastal research. FGS photo.








separator plants in the Jay area.


The Oil and Gas Section regulates
hydrocarbon exploration and production in
Florida and within state waters pursuant to
Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and implementing
Rules 62C-25 through 30, Florida Administrative
Code. The Section's primary responsibilities are
conservation of oil and gas resources, correlative
rights protection, maintenance of health and
human safety, and environmental protection.
These concerns are addressed when permit
applications are reviewed and permit conditions
are enforced by field inspection. The section's
main office is located in Tallahassee and field
offices are located near producing fields in
northwest (Jay) and south (Ft. Myers) Florida.
The section's key activities include permitting
geophysical, drilling, and transport operations,
inspecting operating wells and geophysical field
activities, tracking activities by the use of
production and other reporting forms, enforcing
financial security requirements, and maintaining
a database on approximately 1,300 wells.

Five permit applications for offshore
drilling in the Gulf of Mexico were denied by the
Governor and Cabinet in 1993. Four of the
applications were denied on the basis of
incompleteness. The other application, which
sought a permit for drilling near St. George
Island, was denied because the applicant was
unable to post sufficient financial surety. The
applicant is currently appealing the denial and
surety requirement.

Two permits for drilling in Santa Rosa
County were issued in 1993. One was a wildcat
which was plugged and abandoned as a dry hole
in 1993. The other well, drilled in late 1994 in
the Mt. Carmel field, had a show of oil and may
become the first new producer since 1988. A
new operator, Forcenergy, Inc., bought the Mt.
Carmel Field in 1994.

No new wells were drilled in south
Florida, but Exxon's south Florida fields were
bought out in 1993 by Calumet Florida, Inc.,
which is preparing to revive the fields by drilling
numerous development wells. Other major field
activities included dismantling of three large


Three geophysical permits were issued
in 1993-1994. A 22.5-mile, 3-D seismic survey
was conducted in southern Santa Rosa County.
A minor amount of gravity data was collected in
the Gulf of Mexico as allowed by an offshore
geophysical permit. And a 102-mile gravity
survey was conducted in Highlands County.

The Oil and Gas Section adopted
revisions to the Oil and Gas Rules, Chapters
16C-25 through 30 (redesignated 62C-25 through
30 in November 1994), Florida Administrative
Code, which were previously modified and
adopted on June 5, 1989. The revisions reflected
changes to the statutes made during the 1989
and 1991 legislative sessions and input received
at public workshops held October 1990 and
March 1992. The revised rules became effective
in May 1993.

In response to concern for potential
contamination of potable aquifers by oil test wells
that were abandoned prior to the development of
improved plugging methods in the early 1970's,
the FGS commissioned an environmental
consultant to consider the feasibility of
remediation of these abandoned wells. After
examining all of the records associated with
these wells and inspecting some of the wells
directly, the consultant recommended that
remedial work could actually do more harm than
good.

The Big Cypress Swamp Advisory
Committee is an ad hoc committee set up by the
Governor and Cabinet to inspect drill sites and
access routes in the Big Cypress Swamp of
south Florida. The Committee recommends any
necessary changes resulting from environmental
concerns in order to mitigate oil and gas related
impacts in sensitive areas of the Big Cypress
Swamp drainage basin The Committee is
chaired by the State Geologist and meets
quarterly if there are sites to be inspected.
During 1993 and 1994 the committee did not
meet or conduct field inspections because the
FGS received no applications for permits in
areas considered by committee members to be
environmentally sensitive or controversial.


OIL and GAS SECTION








ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS

A number of additional programs are
critical to the mission of the FGS. These
programs benefit Survey staff as well as other
state and federal governmental agencies,
industrial representatives, consulting groups,
academic researchers, and interested citizens.
The Survey's drilling program acquires cores
from various locations around the state for in-
house projects as well as for cooperative
projects. The Geologic Sample Repository
contains storage space for core and cutting
samples, allowing this valuable information to be
preserved and catalogued in a systematic
fashion. Lithologic and geophysical logs are filed
for ease of retrieval at the Gunter Building in
Tallahassee. The Survey's computer system is
used to handle the growing volume of information
associated with geological research and oil and
gas regulation. Currently, most FGS drafting
services are handled by computer. FGS's
research library allows its users the advantage of
computerized database searches along with
traditional library services geared specifically to
geology. FGS supervises an active student
assistant program in which qualified graduate
and undergraduate students assist staff members
in various on-going research programs.
Continuing education at the Survey, while
offering staff some advanced educational
opportunities, has suffered from continuing
budget cutbacks.


DRILLING PROGRAM

The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. The state is characterized by
very low topographic relief and data obtained
from cores is essential to the understanding of
subsurface stratigraphy, hydrogeology and
hydrology. The FGS Failing 1500 drill rig is
deployed on a full-time basis and is operated by
a fully licensed driller and one assistant. During
1993 and 1994, five deep cores were drilled by
the FGS, ranging from 574 to 1,401 feet in
depth, for a total cored length of 5,184 feet.
Three of these core holes were converted to
monitor wells in cooperation with the South and
Southwest Florida Water Management Districts.


Two auger rigs, one truck mounted, the
other trailer mounted are available for staff use.
Both auger rigs are capable of hollow stem
augering, while the truck mounted rig has been
outfitted for continuous shallow wireline coring.
Thirty-four auger holes were drilled in 6 counties
during 1993 and 1994. Depths of auger holes
range from 3 to 59 feet for a total sampled length
of approximately 1,045 feet. Twelve of these
holes were converted to monitor wells in
cooperation with the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection Ambient Ground Water
Quality Program and the Alachua County
Department of Environmental Protection.

RESEARCH LIBRARY

The research library is an integral part of
the Survey's research and regulatory programs.
In support of the information needs of staff,
students, and researchers from the public sector,
the library provides access to basic research
materials including books, maps, state and
federal documents, photographs and periodicals.
Holdings total approximately 40,000 volumes.
Materials are collected on various aspects of
geology, including mining and mineral resources,
environmental geology, hydrogeology and other
related topics. The library has one of the largest
and oldest geologic map collections in the state
of Florida with over 16,000 maps, including a
number of items dating from the 19th century.

LIBRARY SERVICES

The library is used by the general public,
students, other government agencies, and private
consulting companies. While circulation is
restricted to Survey staff, the personnel of other
state agencies and the Florida State University
Geology Department, the library is open to the
general public for research. In addition, library
materials are available to libraries throughout the
United States via the Interlibrary Loan system on
a limited basis.

The library participates in a nationwide
Interlibrary Loan network through which the staff
has access to other special and academic
collections. The library cooperates with other
libraries through various networking groups on








the local, state, and national level. The librarian
participates in the activities of the Panhandle
Library Access Network, and the Geoscience
Information Society.

The library has other specialized
computer-based services that are described in
the Computer Services section, below.

PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTION

The library is responsible for providing
detailed information on the survey's 636
published documents and reports, and oversees
the distribution of all documents currently in print.
During 1993-1994 this included over 2,525
requests for 25,000 documents. In addition,
publications are distributed to 250 depository
libraries around the world, which maintain
collections of Florida Geological Survey
publications. Many of the FGS publications are
used as study materials by geologists studying
for the Florida Professional Geologist Licensing
Exam which is given twice a year. The library is
active in providing these publications and other
information to those studying for the exam.

SPECIAL PROJECTS

The library collection includes many old,
rare, and increasingly fragile items. In order to
preserve them, and keep them available to the
public for research, a preservation study was
begun in the summer of 1994. This study was
conducted by staff members of the Florida
Division of Library and Information Services,
Bureau of Archives and Records Management.

Work on the Bibliography of Theses and
Dissertations on Florida Geology was completed.
It is anticipated that this work will be published
as part of the Survey's Special Publications
series.

Also in 1994, a reorganization of the
library facilities was begun. Shelving and flat
map cases were rearranged to provide greater
flexibility in shelving and more efficiency in
accessing and storage of library materials.


SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

In 1993-1994, the archives of the Florida
Sinkhole Research Institute were transferred to
the Survey's Research Library. This archive
contains original records of field research of
sinkhole occurrences, county maps of sinkhole
locations, and copies of publications of the
Florida Sinkhole Research Institute.

The Survey also houses the archives of
the National Association for Cave Diving (NACD)
Divers, Florida chapter. NACD members have
provided the Survey with underwater cave survey
maps, video tapes of several cave conduit
systems, and NACD publications. These
materials provide non-diving geological staff with
important insight into the cave network locations
as well as the size, shape and hydrogeology of
subaqueous caves in Florida.

GEOLOGIC SAMPLE COLLECTIONS

The FGS maintains separate collections
of well and surface outcrop samples. The well
sample collection contains approximately 17,150
sets of samples from research wells as well as
water and oil wells. Most wells are represented
by sets of drill cuttings. Seven hundred and
thirty-six wells are represented by continuous
core or core samples (a total of approximately
167,000 feet). New core sample sets added to
the archives were drilled by the FGS, Water
Management Districts and geologic consultants.
The sample repository facility occupies about
9,500 square feet, with 17,655 square feet of
shelf space.

A collection of approximately 4,900
outcrop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in the
Gunter Building. These samples are cross
indexed by formation, lithology, county and
location. The collection is referred to as the "M-
Series." The M-Series is particularly valuable
given Florida's high rate of growth and
development. Surface exposures of critical
lithologies have become inaccessible with the
continued proliferation of roadways, shopping
centers, parking lots and high-rise housing.








These sample archives and the data
base they represent are utilized by geologists at
the FGS, many other state, federal and local
governmental agencies, universities (both in and
out of the state) and many geological
consultants.

The FGS Macro-invertebrate Collection
is now located at and curated by the Florida
Museum of Natural History, in Gainesville, at the
University of Florida.

DATA FILES

Samples from wells which are stored at
the FGS Sample Repository are indexed by
accession number, county, and section,
township, and range location. Lithologic logs,
drillers logs, and information sheets which
correspond to these wells are filed by county and
accession number in a series of looseleaf
binders. Information from these books is
gradually being transferred to the Survey's
computerized data base which currently contains
data from approximately 3,558 wells. Computer
services are discussed more completely in a later
section of this report.

A file of geophysical logs contains
information for approximately 4,800 wells. Many
of these wells have corresponding lithologic
samples available and are assigned FGS
accession numbers. Geophysical logs
represented include electric (normal, lateral, SP),
natural gamma, caliper, fluid resistivity or
conductivity, temperature, single point resistivity,
acoustic velocity, fluid velocity, neutron
(porosity), and gamma-gamma (density). In
addition, complete suites of geophysical logs
accompany most permitted oil and gas wells.


COMPUTER SERVICES


Computer systems at the FGS have
been used primarily for word processing,
database management, information resources
and computer-aided design in support of various
data collection and research programs.
Installation of a local area network (LAN) at the
FGS, however, has substantially improved data
security, management, storage and accessibility.


Next year, the FGS LAN will be connected to the
DEP user group through the Tallahassee
Municipal Area Network (TMAN). This
connectivity will facilitate department-wide e-mail,
use of shared hardware peripherals (i.e., plotters
and scanners), software and other DEP LANs.
Moreover, it will provide the FGS staff with
access to the Internet and it will make FGS
databases more accessible to the Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP), as well as other
state, local and federal agencies and the general
public.

In an effort to expedite aspects of this
accessibility, the FGS has established three
Internet resources: an FGS Bulletin Board on the
Tallahassee Free-Net, an FGS gopher site and
a World Wide Web (www) home page. The latter
two are located within the DEP gopher and www
sites.

The FGS is also on the Tallahassee
Free-Net, a free-of-charge, community-based,
computer network. Free-Net can be accessed by
calling (904) 488-5056, (904) 488-6313, or (904)
921-0807, day or night. For those with Internet
accounts, at the cursor type freenet.fsu.edu> and you will log directly onto the
Tallahassee Free-net.

Once you have registered and received
a Free-Net account, you can then log onto the
Survey's menus by simply typing FGS at Free-
Net's main menu. Alternate means of getting
into the Survey, once you are on Free-Net's main
menu, include pressing #8 (the Education
Complex) or pressing #10 (the Government
Complex), will drop you into a sub-menu. At that
point, pressing #2 (State of Florida Government
Agencies) will also allow you to access the FGS.


Once at the FGS main menu, you will
see the following seven categories:
1. Mission statement
2. Florida geology
3. FGS programs
4. List of Publications
5. FAQ's (Frequently Asked Questions)
6. Ask A Question
7. Meetings and announcements








Pressing #2 will drop into a sub-menu
which discusses such topics as sinkholes, fossils,
and earthquakes. Other topics found on this
sub-menu include Florida's geological history,
rocks and minerals, and the FGS's newsletter --
The FORUM.

Pressing #3 at the FGS main menu will
drop into a sub-menu that lists and explains the
various programs at the Survey. These
programs include Oil and Gas, Environmental,
Mineral Resources, and Geological
Investigations.

Category #6 (Ask A Question) enables
correspondence with the Survey. This could very
well be the most important category, because it
allows the public to communicate directly with the
FGS. The questions received, along with the
Survey's responses, are posted in #6.

The FGS/DEP gopher site
(gopher.dep.state.fl.us) contains the FGS List of
Publications, all computer coded lithologic data
(-4,000 wells) in self-extracting files, and a
decoding program and manual provided by
GeoSys, Inc. (Gainesville, Florida). These data
files and the program can be easily downloaded
to any PC workstation connected to the Internet.
The program allows the user to view and print
the coded lithologic descriptions. The lithologic
data and programs are also located on the
FGS/DEP www page (http://www.dep.state.fl.us).
Digital files containing geologic maps and cross
sections are among the resources to be added to
the FGS gopher and www sites.

In addition to the lithologic database,
other FGS databases include: 1) an oil and gas
geophysical permit application database, 2) an oil
and gas well database, 3) Florida mineral
producers list, 4) partial inventory of geologic
samples (cores and cuttings from over 17,000
wells), 5) inventory of sinkholes from the Florida
Sinkhole Research Institute, and 6) inventory of
geologic outcrop descriptions in Florida. Digital
maps include county base maps, geologic maps,
a statewide geomorphic map, location maps for
cores and oil and gas wells, and a map of active
mines in Florida.


In 1993, the Research Library began a
subscription to the GEOREF database on CD-
ROM. GEOREF, the CD-ROM version of the
American Geological Institute's geoscience
database, contains over 1.5 million records
covering geology from 1785 to the present.

The library is able to access the online
catalogs of the State University System of
Florida (LUIS) and the State Library of Florida
(LION) through the Internet and through direct
dial-up. This allows library staff to expand the
access of researchers to relevant material.


STUDENT ASSISTANTSHIP PROGRAM


The FGS sponsors an active student
assistantship program which is beneficial for
students and staff geologists. Qualified graduate
and undergraduate students in geology obtain
work experience in a professional setting while
staff geologists, in turn, are assisted by
knowledgeable and motivated individuals. The
assistantship program was begun in 1974 and
has run with minor interruptions since then.

Currently, most students are employed
by contract and grant-funded studies. These
students conduct research tasks while under the
supervision of professional geologists on the
Survey staff. As the program has developed, the
FGS and several Water Management Districts
have provided funding for assistants. Additional
funding sources include the U.S. Minerals
Management Service, the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, and the U.S.
Geological Survey.

CONTINUING EDUCATION

Opportunities for continuing education
available to staff at the FGS dwindled in 1993-
1994 as a result of budgetary cutbacks. The
State of Florida continues to maintain a unique
program in which tuition is waived for state
employees enrolling in job-related courses on a
space-available basis. A number of Survey staff
have taken advantage of this program, enrolling
in various courses related to their work.








Attendance at technical short courses
has been severely reduced. One staff member
attended a course on "Appraisal of Industrial
Minerals." FGS employees attended a workshop
dealing with sexual harassment in the workplace.
Staff members were encouraged to attend
courses on first aid, CPR, and the emergency
use of oxygen. Supervisory staff attended various
Total Quality Leadership training sessions.


COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS


The FGS participates in cooperative
programs with federal agencies, other state
agencies, county agencies, and water
management districts.


COASTAL RESEARCH GROUP


In 1991 an informal Coastal Research
Group (CRG) was organized at the FGS. The
Coastal Research Group is committed to
continuing fundamental research to improve our
understanding of Florida's coastal ecosystems
and processes. This research will provide
information that is essential for planning,
ecosystem management, conservation, and
protection of Florida's valuable coastal
resources.

From modest beginnings the CRG's
responsibilities and projects expanded
considerably during 1993 and 1994. At present,
the research group's FGS staff consists of four
licensed Professional Geologists who serve as
principal investigators: Dr. Ron Hoenstine, Jim
Balsillie, Henry Freedenberg, and Jim Ladner.
The principal investigators have 78 years
combined experience in Florida geology, coastal
processes, and marine ecosystems. Other
contributing FGS staff include geologists
Jacqueline Lloyd, Ed Lane, Steve Spencer, and
Ken Campbell. Engineering, maintenance, and
navigation expertise is provided by Ted Kiper, an
FGS staff engineering technician with a U.S.
Coast Guard Captain's certification.


In addition, the CRG staff collaborates
with Dr. Joe Donoghue, a professor of coastal
processes/marine geology in FSU's Geology
Department. The Geology Department and the
FSU Marine Laboratory provide access to field
sampling equipment and research vessels, as
well as analytical instrumentation for
sedimentology and geochemistry. The
collaboration between the CRG and FSU
provides opportunities for directed graduate
research studies funded through employment on
the CRG research grants. Five graduate
students from FSU's Geology Department are
currently employed as research assistants on
various CRG coastal projects. In the past, the
CRG has cooperated similarly with University of
Florida, University of South Florida, Florida
Institute of Technology, and the Florida Institute
of Oceanography.

Boats in the CRG inventory include a
13.5-foot Boston Whaler, and a 24-foot jet-drive
Carolina Skiff with a power winch for shallow
water sediment sampling. For deeper water and
heavy-duty sediment sampling the CRG uses the
FGS RV Coastal Probe, a 30-foot, diesel
powered, shallow draft, research vessel. This
boat has a 2-ton-capacity hydraulic winch, a
hydraulic clam-shell grab sampler, significant
storage space, and a completely enclosed pilot
house.

FGS/CRG field equipment includes the
following portable instruments acquired during
this biennium:

1. A global positioning system (GPS) with real-
time differential (Starlink MRB-2A radiobeacon
receiver) for site location, station keeping, and
station recovery.
2. A YSI/Grant Model 3800 Water Quality
Logger for on-site measurement of salinity,
temperature, depth, pH, conductivity, and
turbidity.
3. A Sediment Erosion Table (SET) for
measuring short-term marsh accretion and
response to storm events.
4. A jet probe for determining sediment
thickness above bedrock.
5. A cryogenic coring device for measuring
marsh accretion rates.
6. A portable vibracore system.









FGS computer graphics equipment (for
digital graphics input, as well as publication and
presentation output) includes:

1. Three dedicated AutoCad drafting stations
and an HP ScanJet color scanner.
2. Output devices include two HP Draftmaster
36"-wide color plotters, three HP LaserJet
printers, a Genicom 7025 color wax thermal
printer, and an HP 550C DeskJet color printer.

COASTAL RESEARCH GROUP PROJECTS

The CRG's first research project, A
Geological Assessment of the Florida Big Bend
Coastal Wetlands, was initiated in July 1991 and
continued through 1994. This project is partially
funded by the U.S. Geological Survey. It focuses
on characterizing the wetlands processes of the
estuaries of the Aucilla, the Steinhatchee, the St.
Marks, and the Ochlockonee Rivers. The final
comparison among these four Big Bend estuaries
will enable better prediction of such natural
systems' responses to changes that are either
natural (e.g., sea level change) or human-
induced (e.g., increasing development).


The CRG is also working on two projects
partially funded by the U.S. Minerals
Management Service (MMS). The first is MMS-
1, Baseline Investigation of Estuarine Sediment
Metals for the Steinhatchee River Area of the
Florida Big Bend. This is a baseline program to
identify concentrations of metals within sediment
faces of the Steinhatchee River estuary.
Sediment metals-enrichment will be related to
basin land use where possible.

The second MMS-supported study is
MMS-2, A Geological Investigation of the
Offshore Area Along Florida's Central East
Coast. This study is designed to characterize
the geologic processes and parameters affecting
the shore and nearshore coastal areas of
Florida's central eastern Atlantic coast, as well
as evaluate known and potential offshore sand
resources for beach renourishment. Similar
nearshore investigations by the FGS (1985-1992)
have examined the sand and heavy mineral
resources off the Gulf Coast of northwest Florida,
off Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic coast, north
of Cape Canaveral to the Florida-Georgia state
line, and off southeast Florida from Ft. Pierce to
Miami.


The Florida Geological Survey's RV Coastal Probe. FGS photo.








FLORIDA RADON
RESEARCH PROGRAM

The FGS conducted a geological
mapping program in conjunction with the
Department of Community Affairs' (DCA) Florida
Radon Research Program. The cooperative effort
included the FGS, USGS, DCA, University of
Florida, Rogers & Associates Engineering and
other contractors. This program examined the
radon hazard potential and the associated
geology of the State of Florida.

The near-surface geology of the State
was mapped by Survey geologists during the
course of the project. Twelve counties were
completed during 1992. The remaining 55
counties were mapped during this biennium. The
maps were utilized in conjunction with soils data,
indoor radon measurements and other
information to create a map of the state showing
the radon-hazard potential. The completed
radon-hazard potential map is being finalized by
the Florida Department of Community Affairs.

DEPARTMENT of
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

APALACHICOLA NATIONAL FOREST
AMBIENT GROUND-WATER PROJECT

The Florida DEP contracted with the
FGS to investigate the surficial aquifer system at
sites in Liberty and Wakulla Counties. Core
holes were drilled at each of 12 sites for
analysis and for FGS database purposes.
Lithologic logs were generated for each core,
formation picks made and the data entered onto
the FGS computer database. Monitor wells were
constructed at 11 sites for the ambient ground-
water monitor network. This lithologic
information and the ambient ground-water quality
information will be useful for a variety of
ecosystem management decisions.

DIVISION of RECREATION
and PARKS

SAN FELASCO HAMMOCK
STATE PRESERVE PROJECT

Six shallow cores were drilled at San


Felasco Hammock State Preserve in cooperation
with the DEP Division of Recreation and Parks
and the University of Florida Department of
Geology. One of the coreholes was converted to
a monitor well in cooperation with the Alachua
County Department of Environmental Protection.
This work contributed to a University of Florida
thesis by Kris Saum on the geology and
hydrology of the San Felasco Hammock State
Preserve.

DIVISION OF RECREATION
and PARKS

NESTING SUBSTRATE PROJECT

A collaborative effort between the FGS
and DEP's Division of Recreation and Parks was
begun in order to clarify aspects of an artificial
nesting substrate which improved breeding
success in Least Terns and Black Skimmers.
The substrate was emplaced along the St.
George Island Causeway which connects St.
George Island to the mainland at Eastpoint,
Franklin County, Florida. Biologists from the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
and the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission supervised emplacement of the
substrate which was provided by the Florida
Department of Transportation.

The substrate, a mixture of sand and
shell, was shown to attract Least Terns and
Black Skimmers. Because of their biological
vulnerability, factors relating to the breeding
success of both species are of special interest. A
large composite sample of the substrate was
analyzed for grain size characteristics at the
Florida Geological Survey. It is anticipated that
other investigators will use this work in efforts to
further encourage breeding of these species.

SUWANNEE RIVER
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

WELL DESCRIPTION PROGRAM

The FGS and the Suwannee River Water
Management District (SRWMD) have maintained
a successful and mutually beneficial working
relationship for nearly 20 years. During much of
this period, the SRWMD funded geology








graduate students to work as research assistants
at the FGS, describing well samples and cores
and entering the coded lithologic logs into the
FGS database. This arrangement has worked
exceedingly well, resulting in the addition of
much new data on the geology of the District to
the databases of both agencies.

This cooperative project continued
through the years 1993-1994. During this period,
over 200 previously unworked wells were
described and added to the FGS database. In
addition, data from the existing well file database
was compiled to construct preliminary isopach
maps of the surficial aquifer system within the
SRWMD. A new contract to continue the well
description and surficial aquifer delineation
projects was signed in early October of 1994.

GEOLOGY and HYDROGEOLOGY
of the UPPER CARBONATE UNIT
of the INTERMEDIATE
AQUIFER SYSTEM in BRADFORD
and UNION COUNTIES, FLORIDA

This is a cooperative study between the
FGS and the Suwannee River Water
Management District, in Bradford and Union
Counties. The FGS will drill nine sites, collecting
continuous core or cuttings samples for lithologic
and stratigraphic analysis, collect split spoon
samples for hydraulic conductivity analysis and
construct monitor wells at each site. One site
will include an 8-inch well for aquifer testing.
Each test hole will penetrate into the upper
carbonate unit of the intermediate aquifer
system. This unit is the primary source of
potable water in the study area. Two lakes will
also be investigated (auger holes and lithologic
analysis) to determine the relationship of the
lakes to the aquifer. Test hole sites are being
selected as of this writing.

SOUTH FLORIDA
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

LITHOLOGIC UNITS
of AQUIFER SYSTEMS

In 1992, the FGS and the South Florida
Water Management District (SFWMD) began a


cooperative project in Collier, Lee, Glades,
Martin, Okeechobee, Osceola, and St. Lucie
Counties. South Florida is experiencing rapid
population growth and water management
practices must be predicated on an adequate
understanding of the lithologic units which
comprise aquifer systems. Topographic relief in
these counties is relatively flat, making reliable
subsurface data an invaluable asset.

Descriptions of 64,000 feet of lithologic
samples from cores and cuttings were entered
into the FGS Well Log Database for the SFWMD
during 1993-1994.



SOUTH FLORIDA WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
and
UNIVERSITY of MIAMI

FLORIDA KEYS
CORE DRILLING PROJECT


The FGS, South Florida Water
Management District (SFWMD), and the
University of Miami are cooperating on this
project. Three deep cores have been drilled, two
of which were converted to monitor/observation
wells for the SFWMD. Interpretation of these
cores will significantly increase the information
available on the subsurface framework of the
Florida Keys and the formation of the Keys.


St. JOHNS RIVER WATER
MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
COOPERATIVE PROGRAM

DISTRICT OBSERVATION WELL NETWORK
(DOWN)


A cooperative program was developed
between St. Johns River Water Management
District (SJRWMD) and the Florida Geological
Survey in keeping with the missions of both
agencies. SJRWMD is developing a District
Observation Well Network (DOWN) program.
Geologic samples obtained during the








emplacement of these wells provide site-specific
data which is vital in ascertaining local and,
eventually, regional hydrogeologic conditions.
Samples from the DOWN Program as well as
other previously undescribed samples on file at
the FGS will be inventoried, examined, described
and entered into an electronic database for use
by both the FGS and SJRWMD.


SOUTHWEST FLORIDA
WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


A cooperative program was established
in 1991 between the Southwest Florida Water
Management District (SWFWMD) and the FGS to
construct geologic cross sections throughout the
16-county SWFWMD region. The purpose of the
project is to delineate the extent of
lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic units
within the Southwest Florida Water Management
District (SWFWMD), thus providing knowledge
essential for the protection and management of
ground-water resources in southwest Florida.

The project is subdivided into three
phases: Phase I includes the southwest region
from Pinellas and Hillsborough to Charlotte
Counties. Phase 11 includes the northwest region
from Levy and Marion to Pasco Counties. Phase
III includes the southeastern region, including
Polk, Highlands, Hardee and Desoto Counties.

Detailed lithology, regional
lithostratigraphy of Eocene through Miocene
formations, gamma-ray log characteristics of
these formations and aquifer-system delineations
within each study area are the primary focus of
the cross sections. Most of the data used to
construct the cross sections are taken from
detailed descriptions of wells drilled as part of
the SWFWMD Regional Observation and
Monitoring Program (ROMP). In areas where
ROMP data are not available, borehole data from
the FGS and U.S. Geological Survey are utilized.
Interim reports on each project phase are in
preparation. Twenty-one cross sections have
been completed to date. A final report on the
geologic framework of southwest Florida is
planned and will be facilitated by further
cooperative programs with the SWFWMD.


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

SARASOTA COUNTY
INTERMEDIATE AQUIFER SYSTEM
CORE DRILLING and ANALYSIS

The FGS, in cooperation with the U.S.
Geological Survey and Sarasota County, drilled
and analyzed two core holes in Sarasota County.
This investigation focused on the Neogene
stratigraphy of the intermediate aquifer system in
the two cores which were drilled into the
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone and the top of
the Floridan aquifer system.

CITY of SARASOTA
DOWNTOWN WELL FIELD

The FGS, in cooperation with the U.S.
Geological Survey and the city of Sarasota,
drilled and analyzed a deep core hole located at
the Sarasota Downtown Well Field. The
investigation focused on the Neogene and
Paleogene lithostratigraphy and the Floridan
aquifer system. The corehole was drilled into the
top of the Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation
and terminated at a total depth of 1,101 feet
below land surface. The core obtained in this
study is cataloged as well W-16999 and is stored
in the FGS core repository.

COLLIER and MONROE COUNTIES
DATA COLLECTION

FGS and USGS personnel drilled 10
shallow test holes in Collier and Monroe
Counties (half in the Big Cypress National
Preserve). The samples collected support the
FGS geologic mapping effort as well as separate
USGS projects.

SURFICIAL BEDROCK GEOLOGY
of the EASTERN HALF of the
HOMESTEAD 1:100,000 QUADRANGLE

This cooperative project is funded jointly
by the FGS and the USGS under the State
Geologic Mapping Program (STATEMAP)
established by the National Geologic Mapping
Act. The driving force for mapping in this area is
the recent priority given the south Florida area by
both state and federal agencies. The study area








includes parts of the Everglades, Florida Bay and
the Florida Keys.

The mapping of the Homestead
Quadrangle is a two-year effort which started late
in 1994 with the eastern half of the quadrangle.
Initial field work and sample collection has
begun. Twelve to 15 shallow cores will be drilled
and additional shallow push cores and surficial
samples will be collected for the project. A
surficial geology map and cross sections of the
shallow subsurface will be produced.

SUMMARY of the GEOLOGY and
HYDROGEOLOGY of the LITTLE RIVER BASIN,
SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA

This cooperative study by the FGS and
the USGS National Water Quality Assessment
(NAWQA) program will investigate the geology
and hydrogeology of the Little River basin, a
karst drainage basin. The FGS will drill fifteen
test holes into the upper Floridan aquifer system
and collect core or well cutting samples for
lithologic and stratigraphic analysis. Split spoon


samples will be collected from selected zones for
hydraulic conductivity analysis. Each test hole
will have a monitor well installed for water quality
sampling and to facilitate investigation of the
interaction of surface and ground water.

PUBLICATIONS

Bulletin

B-64 Geologic framework of the Lower Floridan
Aquifer System, Brevard County, Florida, 1994:
J.G. Duncan, W.L. Evans III, and K.L. Taylor, 90
P.


Special Publications

SP-34 Florida's ground-water quality monitoring
program, background geochemistry, 1993: edited
by G.L. Maddox, J.M. Lloyd, T.M. Scott, S.B.
Upchurch, and R. Copeland, 364 p.

SP-35 Florida's geological history and geological
resources, 1994: edited by Ed Lane, 64 p.


Knowledge of local land regional geology and hydrology is of paramount importance when trying
to remediate natural or man-made disasters. In west-central Polk County, in late June 1994, a
sinkhole (about 180-feet deep, 110-feet wide) opened beneath a phosphogypsum stack. The stack
was carried into the aquifer system when the intermediate aquifer system and the confining unit
of the Floridan aquifer system were breached. FGS photo.








SP-36 Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and
paleontology of southern Florida, 1993: edited by
T.M. Scott and W.D. Allmon, 194 p.

SP-37 The Neogene of Florida and adjacent
regions: Proceedings of the Third Bald Head
Island Conference on coastal plains geology,
1993: edited by V.A. Zullo, W.B. Harris, T.M.
Scott, and R.W. Portell, 112 p.

Information Circulars

IC-109 Industrial minerals industry directory of
Florida, 1993: S.M. Spencer, 30 p. (includes a
copy of MS-139).

IC-110 1992 and 1993 Florida petroleum
production and exploration, 1994: J.M. Lloyd
(includes petroleum reserve estimates, by C.
Tootle), 30 p.

Map Series

MS-135 Mineral resources of Hamilton County,
Florida, 1993: S.M. Spencer, F.R. Rupert, R.W.
Hoenstine, and E. Lane.

MS-136 Mineral resources of Columbia County,
Florida, 1993: E. Lane, R.W. Hoenstine, and
S.m. Spencer.

MS-137 Mineral resources of Suwannee County,
Florida, 1993: R.W. Hoenstine, S.M. Spencer,
and E. Lane.

MS-138 Potentiometric surface of the Upper
Floridan Aquifer in Florida, May 1990, 1992: G.L.
Barr.

MS-139 Industrial mineral operations in Florida,
1993: S.M. Spencer (copy included with IC-109).

Poster

Common Cenozoic Echinoids From Florida,
1993: F.R. Rupert, illustrates 22 fossil echinoid
species, black & white, 22.5" x 35".

Open File Reports

OFR-55 Neutron log signature of the Pliocene
Tamiami Formation in Brevard and Indian River


Counties, east-central peninsular Florida, 1993:
R.A. Johnson, 22 p.

OFR-56 Sarasota County intermediate aquifer
system core drilling and analysis, 1993: K.M.
Campbell, R. Green, and W.L. Evans III, 21 p.

OFR-57 An overview of Florida marine mining
and marine oil and gas production regulations,
1993: C.B. Garrett, 5 p.

OFR-58 Florida sinkhole index, 1994: S.M.
Spencer and Ed Lane, 100 p.

OFR-59 Geomorphology and geology of
Escambia County, Florida, 1993: F. Rupert, 6 p.

OFR-60 The geology of Warm Mineral Springs,
Sarasota County, Florida, 1994: F. Rupert, 7 p.

OFR-63 A fossil hunter's guide to the geology of
panhandle Florida, 1994: F. Rupert, 11 p.

OFR-65 A fossil hunter's guide to the geology of
the northern Florida peninsula, 1994: F. Rupert,
12 p.

Open File Map Series

While working with the Florida Radon
Research Program, maps showing the surface
and near-surface geology were required. These
maps were utilized in conjunction with other data
to estimate the radon hazard potential throughout
the state. Data for map construction was
obtained from field experience of the authorss,
previous maps, FGS well file logs and cores, and
pertinent literature. These maps provide the
basis for the construction of a new statewide
geological map.

OFMS-14 Geologic map of Escambia Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-15 Geologic map of Santa Rosa Co.,
1993: T. Scott.

OFMS-16 Geologic map of Okaloosa Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-17 Geologic map of Walton Co., 1993: T.
Scott.









OFMS-18 Geologic map of Washington Co.,
1993: K. Campbell.

OFMS-19 Geologic map of Bay Co., 1993: K.
Campbell.

OFMS-20 Geologic map of Calhoun Co., 1993:
K. Campbell.

OFMS-21 Geologic map of Franklin Co., 1993:
F. Rupert.

OFMS-22 Geologic map of Gadsden Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-23 Geologic map of Gulf Co., 1993: F.
Rupert.

OFMS-24 Geologic map of Holmes Co., 1993:
K. Campbell.

OFMS-25 Geologic map of Jackson Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-26 Geologic map of Liberty Co., 1993: F.
Rupert.

OFMS-27 Geologic map of Madison Co., 1993:
K. Campbell.

OFMS-28 Geologic map of Leon Co., 1993: T.
Scott.

OFMS-29 Geologic map of Taylor Co., 1993: K.
Campbell.

OFMS-30 Geologic map of Wakulla Co., 1993:
F. Rupert.

OFMS-31 Geologic map of Jefferson Co., 1993:
F. Rupert and J.W. Yon.


OFMS-32 Geologic map of Hamilton Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-33 Geologic map of Suwannee Co.,
1993: F. Rupert, J. Lloyd, and K. Campbell.

OFMS-34 Geologic map of Lafayette Co., 1993:
K. Campbell.


OFMS-35 Geologic map of Dixie Co., 1993: K.
Campbell.

OFMS-36 Geologic map of Gilchrist Co., 1993:
F. Rupert and K. Campbell.

OFMS-37 Geologic map of Columbia Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-38 Geologic map of Baker Co., 1993: T.
Scott.

OFMS-39 Geologic map of Union and Bradford
Cos., 1993: T. Scott.

OFMS-40 Geologic map of Sumter Co., 1993: K.
Campbell.

OFMS-41 Geologic map of Hernando Co., 1993:
K. Campbell.

OFMS-42 Geologic map of Pasco Co., 1993: J.
Arthur.

OFMS-43 Geologic map of Seminole Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-44 Geologic map of Pinellas Co., 1993:
J. Arthur and K. Campbell.

OFMS-45 Geologic map of Hillsborough Co.,
1993: K. Campbell and J. Arthur.

OFMS-46 Geologic map of Polk Co., 1993: K.
Campbell.

OFMS-47 Geologic map of Orange Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-48 Geologic map of Osceola Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-49 Geologic map of Brevard Co., 1993:
T. Scott.

OFMS-50 Geologic map of Manatee Co., 1993:
K. Campbell.


OFMS-51 Geologic map of Hardee Co., 1993: T.
Scott and K. Campbell.









OFMS-52 Geologic map of Highlands Co., 1993:
J. Arthur.

OFMS-53 Geologic map of St. Lucie Co., 1993:
J. Duncan and T. Scott.

OFMS-54 Geologic map of Okeechobee Co.,
1993: T. Scott.

OFMS-55 Geologic map of Indian River Co.,
1993: T. Scott.

OFMS-56 Geologic map of Martin Co., 1993: J.
Duncan and T. Scott.

OFMS-57 Geologic map of Sarasota Co., 1993:
K. Campbell and J. Arthur.

OFMS-58 Geologic map of DeSoto Co., 1993: J.
Arthur.

OFMS-59 Geologic map of Charlotte Co., 1993:
T. Scott and T. Missimer.

OFMS-60 Geologic map of Glades Co., 1993: K.
Campbell.

OFMS-61 Geologic map of Lee Co., 1993: T.
Missimer and T. Scott.

OFMS-62 Geologic map of Hendry Co., 1993: T.
Scott.

OFMS-63 Geologic map of Collier Co., 1993: J.
Duncan.

OFMS-64 Geologic map of Broward Co., 1993:
J. Duncan.

OFMS-65 Geologic map of Palm Beach Co.,
1993: T. Scott.

OFMS-66/1 Geologic map of Monroe Co.
(mainland), 1993: J. Duncan.

OFMS-66/2 Geologic map of Monroe Co.
(Florida Keys), 1993: J. Duncan.

OFMS-67 Geologic map of Dade Co., 1993: J.
Duncan.


OFMS-68 Geologic map of St. Johns Co., 1994:
T. Scott.

Biennial Report

Biennial Report 17 (1991-1992), 1993, P.A.
Bond, 50 p.

The Florida Geology FORUM

March 1993, vol. 7, no. 1, edited by S. Ray.

October 1993, vol. 7, no. 2, edited by S. Ray.

March 1994, vol. 8, no. 1, edited by C. Collier.

October 1994, vol. 8, no. 2, edited by C. Collier.


PAPERS BY STAFF IN
OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS

Compositional patterns of surface and
subsurface early Mesozoic tholeiites in
Alabama, Florida and Georgia: A preliminary
report [abs.]: K. Milla, P.C. Ragland, and J.D.
Arthur, 1993: in Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs, v. 25, no. 4, p. 57.

A database of 111 major-element
analyses was compiled for surface and
subsurface Early Mesozoic tholeiites in Alabama,
Florida, and Georgia. All subsurface samples
are from wells in the region of the South Georgia
Basin, and exposed samples are from the
eastern North America (ENA) diabase dike suite.
At least some trace-element analyses are
available for approximately half of the samples.
The analyses display a distinct bimodal
distribution, with no compositional overlap for
many elements. One group is olivine
modal/normative and the other group is quartz
modal/normative; all samples are tholeiitic.
Within the olivine group three distinct
compositional subgroups occur, which can be
discriminated on the basis of Ti and large-ion
lithophile (LIL) elements: 1) high-LIL olivine
(HLO), 2) low-LIL olivine (LLO), and 3) high-Ti
olivine (HTO). HLO magmas were affected by
only olivine control, whereas little mineral control
apparently affected HTO magmas. Two distinct









quartz modal/normative groups are present: 1)
low-Ti quartz (LTQ), and 2) high-Fe quartz
(HFQ); these two groups are apparently not
petrogenetically related in this region. Terms for
these magma types have been used previously
to characterize similar tholeiites elsewhere in the
ENA province.

Of the 111 analyses, only 17 are from
the subsurface. All but four of these subsurface
samples are relatively enriched in TiO2 (>0.9
weight percent) and four have TiO2
concentrations greater than 1.7 percent, which
are higher than any reported values in the
southeastern ENA igneous province. Thirteen of
the 17 samples are quartz modal/normative, and
most are hydrated and altered relative to the
surface samples. Some subsurface samples are
enriched in high field-strength incompatible
elements in comparison to any intra- or
extrabasinal samples in the entire ENA province
and apparently reflect a unique petrogenetic
process and/or source composition.

Lithostratigraphy and general aquifer-system
characteristics of southwest Florida, J.D.
Arthur, D. DeWitt, and R. Green, 1994: in Florida
Scientist, v. 57, Supplement 1, p. 38-39. [J.D.
Arthur and R. Green (FGS); D. DeWitt
(Southwest Florida Water Management District
(SWFWMD), 2379 Broad St., Brooksville 34608).]

A three-year cooperative program exists
between the SWFWMD and the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) to construct geologic
cross sections throughout the SWFWMD region.
The purpose of the program is to delineate the
extent of regional lithostratigraphic and
hydrostratigraphic units to aid in the management
and protection of ground-water resources.
Regional lithostratigraphy of Eocene through
Miocene formations, gamma-ray log
characteristics and aquifer system delineation
are the primary focus of the cross sections. The
SWFWMD Regional Observation and Monitoring
Program (ROMP) has provided most of the data,
however, FGS and U.S. Geological Survey data
have been utilized as well. Interim reports and a
final report are to be published by the FGS.

Multiple injection of magma from two mantle


sources into the East Gainesville diabase
sheet, Culpeper Basin, Virginia [abs], J.D.
Arthur and P.C. Ragland, 1994: in Geological
Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.
26, no. 3, p. 3.

Published reconnaissance studies on the
central and upper portions of the early Mesozoic
East Gainesville diabase sheet have reported
that this intrusion belongs to the high-Ti quartz-
normative (HTQ) tholeiitic magma type. The
other early Mesozoic diabase magma type in the
region is olivine normative (OLN) and its more
fractionated low-Ti quartz-normative equivalent
(LTQ). Locally these two magma types can also
be distinguished based on their phenocryst
populations: they can both contain plagioclase
and clinopyroxene phenocrysts, but only the
OLN/LTQ diabases contain olivine and only the
HTQ diabases contain orthopyroxene.

New geochemical and petrographic data
on samples from two cores taken at the bottom
of the sheet reveal an alternation of HTQ and
OLN/LTQ diabase layers on a scale of 10-20 m.
Analyzed core are 60 m and 90 m in length. The
best chemical criterion for distinguishing between
the two lithologies is weight percent TiO2 (HTQ >
0.90% > OLN/LTQ), although they differ in many
other elements as well particularly incompatible
trace elements such as Zr. Moreover, each
change in magma type is marked by an internal
chill margin and apparent lithologic correlations
can be made between the two cores, which are
about 200 m apart. The HTQ magma was
apparently intruded first and had sufficient time
to cool before injection of OLN/LTQ magmas and
concomitant formation of their chill margins;
these magmas were apparently intruded along
planes of weakness in the original HTQ sheet.
Both cores indicate that the deepest OLN/LTQ
injection was emplaced at the base of the
existing sheet.

Alteration effects associated with Mesozoic
diabase intrusives and their host rocks in rift
basins from Maryland and Virginia, [Ph.D.
dissertation], J.D. Arthur, 1994: Florida State
University, Tallahassee, 463 p.

Mineralogical and geochemical effects of








alteration were studied in three early Mesozoic
diabase/host-rock systems: 1) the Rocky Ridge
dike and aureole, Gettysburg basin, Maryland; 2)
the West Gainesville and Nokesville diabase
sheets and subjacent host rocks, Culpeper basin,
Virginia; and 3) the East Gainesville diabase
sheet and associated host rocks, Culpeper basin,
Virginia. The Rocky Ridge diabase is relatively
unaltered and its thermal aureole formed under
predominately isochemical conditions. The West
Gainesville/Nokesville system exhibits apparent
isovolumetric, complementary exchange of
volatiles and alkalis(?) from the host rocks with
Si, Al, Fe(?), Mn, Mg, Ca, Co and V(?) from the
diabase sheet. Mass-balance calculations for
this system indicate that, except for loss of Si
and gain of volatiles and perhaps alkalis, it
behaved isochemically. The East Gainesville
diabase sheet is characterized by multiple
injection of two magma types from different
mantle sources. Alteration in this system is more
complex and aureole temperatures were lower
than those in the West Gainesville/Nokesville
system.

Observed mineral reactions in the
diabase are consistent with relative mobilities;
the dominant mechanisms for this mass transfer
are apparently infiltration metasomatism and
intergranular diffusion. Relative mobilities of
cations can be correlated with ionic radius.
Rare-earth elements and Zr were immobile with
respect to the diabase sheets, but Ti, commonly
used to distinguish magma types in these and
other mafic rocks, was not. In all studies Si, Al,
Fe, Ca, and V were lost from the diabase during
metasomatism, whereas volatiles, Rb and K were
gained.


Small-scale geochemical cycles and the
distribution of uranium in central and north
Florida organic deposits, 1993, P.A. Bond: in
GSA Abstracts with Program, Southeastern
Section, v. 25, p. 4.

The global geochemical cycle for an
element tracks its path from its various sources
to its sinks via processes of weathering and
transportation. The cycle may then be quantified
in a necessarily approximate manner. The


geochemical cycle (thus quantified) reveals
constraints (known and unknown) on an
element's behavior imposed by the various
processes which act on it.
In the context of a global geochemical
cycle, a continent becomes essentially a source
term. If, however, an element's behavior is
examined in a local or regional context, sources
and their related sinks may be identified. This
suggests that small-scale geochemical cycles
may be superimposed on global geochemical
cycles. Definition of such "sub-cycles" may
clarify the distribution of an element in the earth's
near-surface environment.

In Florida, phosphate minerals of the
Hawthorn Group act as a widely distributed
source of uranium. Uranium is transported by
surface- and groundwaters. Florida is the site of
extensive wetlands and peatlands. The organic
matter associated with these deposits adsorbs
uranium and may act as a local sink depending
on its hydrogeologic setting. This work examines
the role of organic matter in the distribution of
uranium in the surface and shallow subsurface
environments of central and north Florida.


A Geological perspective for the occurrence
of mercury in Florida, 1993, P.A. Bond: Florida
Scientist, Program Issue, v. 57, Supplement 1, p.
38.

The occurrence of mercury in the context
of Florida's geologic and tectonic setting is poorly
understood since significant mercury deposits are
known to have very different associations.
Available data (albeit sketchy) suggests that
some mercury was incorporated into Florida's
geologic materials, naturally, when they were
formed (a background component), while
additional studies document the accumulation of
mercury in surficial earth materials as a result of
anthropogenic activities. The relationship of
mercury to organic deposits in Florida is inferred
to be both particularly significant and complex
since those deposits may concentrate mercury
from a variety of natural and anthropogenic
sources and possibly release it via poorly defined
leaching and oxidation processes. Geological
studies of mercury in fresh water and estuarine








systems yield variable results. An attempt to
infer the geology of mercury's origin, transport,
distribution and redistribution in the Florida
environment from published literature indicates
numerous areas for further research.


The Environmental significance of organic
matter in Florida, 1994, P.A. Bond: presented at
the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of
America, Seattle, Washington.


In Florida the environmental significance
of organic matter is a subject of continuing
controversy, because of its association with
wetlands. One aspect of the controversy
involves the extent to which organic matter acts
as a sink for heavy metals. In the popular press
this translates to "wetlands act as a natural water
filter." "Natural water filter" is an inspired turn-of-
phrase which utilizes common experience in the
explanation of an obscure technical concept. If
this popular concept of wetland function is to
become entrenched in policy, specific studies are
needed to realistically constrain it.

This study uses uranium-series isotopes
as naturally occurring tracers in order to examine
the geochemical function of various organic
deposits. The "experimental" conditions that
result in the accumulation of uranium and
thorium in organic matter arise from the shallow
hydrogeology of Florida. Uranium is largely
associated with the phosphate mineral, carbon
fluorapatite, which occurs dispersed throughout
the Hawthorn Group. Uranium's concentration is
on the order of parts per billion in Florida waters.
Organic matter, which necessarily accumulates
under wet conditions, adsorbs uranium.

Chemical differences between uranium
and thorium are used to elucidate the processes
accompanying accumulation in variable
hydrogeologic settings. Uranium is soluble under
oxidizing conditions, while thorium is
characterized by extremely low solubility in
natural waters and is transported almost entirely
in particulate material. Isotopic analyses allow
detrital thorium input to be estimated. This
information sheds new light on the geochemical


role of wetlands in the shallow geological
environment of Florida.


Peatlands and Uranium accumulation in
Florida, 1993, P.A. Bond: Resource
Management Notes, v. 5, no. 1, Florida
Department of Natural Resources, p. 20.

Three magnetic reversals recorded in an 80-m
organic rich core from a sinkhole east of
Tampa, Florida, 1994, L. McCartan, J.C.
Liddicoat, P.A. Bond, J.K. Osmond, and M.
Rubin: GSA Southeastern Section, Abstracts with
programs, v. 26, p. 55.

Sarasota County Intermediate Aquifer System
Core Drilling and Analysis, 1993, K.M.
Campbell, T.M. Scott, R.C. Green and W.L.
Evans III: Florida Geological Survey Open File
Report 56, 21 p.

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), in
cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey
(USGS) and Sarasota County, drilled and
analyzed two core holes in Sarasota County.
This investigation focused on the Neogene
stratigraphy of the intermediate aquifer system in
the two cores which were drilled into the
Oligocene "Suwannee Limestone" and the top of
the Floridan aquifer system.

The Carlton Reserve core, FGS W-
16782, 580' TD, is located in the northwest
quarter of the northwest quarter of section 31,
Town-ship 38 South, Range 20 East. The South
Venice core, FGS W-16814, 701' TD, is located
in the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter
section 29, Township 39 South and Range 19
East. Both core-holes were drilled utilizing a
Failing 1500 drill rig. Core samples were
collected from the land surface to the total depth
of each well. Split spoon samples were collected
at selected intervals in the unconsolidated
sediments for hydraulic conductivity analysis.
The Carlton Reserve well was converted to a
four-inch diameter monitor well by plugging the
hole back to 190 feet and installing casing from
the land surface to 175 feet. The open hole
interval is from 175-190 feet. The South Venice
core was abandoned after coring in accordance








with Southwest Florida Water Management
District and Sarasota County regulations.


Core drilling and analysis: City of Sarasota,
Downtown Well Field, 1993, K.M. Campbell, T.
M. Scott and R.C. Green: Florida Geological
Survey Open File Report 62, 16 p.

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), in
cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) and the city of Sarasota, drilled and
analyzed a deep core hole located at the
Sarasota Downtown Well Field (SDWF). The
investigation focused on the Neogene and
Paleogene lithostratigraphy and the Floridan
aquifer system. The corehole was drilled into the
top of the Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation
and terminated at a total depth of 1,101 feet
below land surface. A four-inch diameter monitor
well was constructed after coring was completed
with a monitor zone from 353 to 590 feet.

The core obtained in this study is
cataloged as well W-16999 and is stored in the
FGS core repository. A lithologic description for
the core was made and recorded in the standard
FGS format and entered into the FGS data base.
A stratigraphic column was also generated from
the lithologic log.

The SDWF draws water from both the
intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems. The
intermediate aquifer system and confining unit
consists of Paleogene and Neogene Hawthorn
Group sediments. The Floridan aquifer system
is composed of latest Paleogene sediments of
the Hawthorn Group, and Paleogene sediments
of the Suwannee and Ocala Limestones and the
Avon Park Formation.


Generalized prime recharge for aquifers of
primary use, 1993, compiled by K.M. Campbell,
J.M. Lloyd and T.M. Scott: Department of
Environmental Protection intra-agency document,
14 maps, 1:250,000 scale.

The generalized prime recharge, for the
aquifers of primary use, was compiled for the
entire state utilizing the best available information


on recharge to the principal aquifers. Where
actual recharge data was unavailable, potential
high recharge areas were estimated through
analysis of the near surface materials, geologic
units present, geomorphology, topography and
the aquifer use and description.

Geologic framework of the Lower Floridan
aquifer system in St. Lucie, Martin, and Palm
Beach Counties, Florida, 1994, J.G. Duncan,
W.L. Evans 111, J.G. Aylor Jr., and L. Li. A report
submitted to (and funded by) the U.I.C. Section
of DEP, December, 1994.

Injection-disposal wells are commonly utilized
for the elimination of liquid waste products in St.
Lucie, Martin, and Palm Beach Counties. The
liquid waste is pumped underground into highly
permeable rocks within the non-potable portion of
the lower Floridan aquifer system. Ground-water
chemical data from monitor wells at injection
sites here differ significantly from those in other
areas like Brevard County where trends suggest
leaky confinement.

Strata of the lower Floridan aquifer
system in the study area are characterized by
Paleocene to Middle Eocene, interbedded
limestones and dolostones that dip gently to the
east-southeast. Steep, west-southwest dip (up to
17 degrees) in eastern Palm Beach county
indicates a zone of structural deformation related
to normal faulting or monoclinal folding.

The "Boulder Zone" is the primary
injection horizon and consists of highly fractured
and sometimes cavernous dolostones. Above the
Boulder Zone, there are layers of carbonates that
demonstrate confining qualities. Analysis of
geophysical logs, lithologic samples and borehole
videos indicate that fractures are common in the
lower Floridan aquifer system.

Analysis of ground-water chemistry data
from monitor wells at nine injection sites showed
that only two wells exhibit trends in water quality
such as a decrease in total dissolved solids
and/or chloride concentrations. These trends
are attributed to the upward migration of injected
waste waters along permeable conduits related
to fractures, dissolution cavities, and vertical








and/or lateral lithofacies variations.


The lack of ground-water chemistry trends in
the study area may be related to the location
(depth) of the deep monitor zone relative to the
top of the Boulder Zone. Deep monitor zones in
the study area are typically shallower by 500 feet
or more than Brevard County monitor zones.

Karst Features of Northern Florida, 1993, F.R.
Rupert: in Geologic Field Studies of the Coastal
Plain in Alabama, Georgia and Florida,
Southeastern Geological Society Guidebook 33,
p.49-61.

The Geology of Warm Mineral Springs,
Sarasota County, Florida, 1994, F.R. Rupert: in
Programs of the Florida Academy of Sciences,
vol. 57, p.40-41.

Warm Mineral Springs is a 70-meter
deep, water-filled sinkhole in southern Sarasota
County, Florida. Mineral-rich anaerobic water
enters the sink through a spring vent near the
bottom of the north wall of the sink. In 1991,
divers explored and mapped the primary conduit
feeding the spring to its terminus, a distance of
53 meters from the vent. Twenty-one geological
samples, collected at 3-meter depth intervals
from the north wall of the sink during the
exploration, are described. A geologic section
for the sinkhole and a map of the primary cave
are illustrated.

The Geologist and Public Policy Issues,
Opportunities and Obligations, 1993, W.
Schmidt: in Geological Society of America,
Southeastern Section, 42nd Annual Meeting
Abstracts, p. 67.

Historically, geologists have been
perceived by the public as solely involved in
resource exploration and production or geologic
hazards mitigation. This generally included
mining, oil drilling, landslide or earthquake (after-
the-fact) comments, and rock or mineral
collecting. These operations have come to be
associated with land exploitation involving
extraction of non-renewable resources, and
often, in consequence, pollution. These generic
activities may not currently be considered


environmentally sound or politically correct.

Because of the high visibility of
"environmental issues" in recent years,
geologists now have an opportunity to offer
necessary input contributing to solutions for
many of these problems. Indeed, we must be
thought of as part of the solution, and thus alter
public perception that geologists are facilitators
of environmental damage. After all, who may
better protect and conserve the earth and its
environments than people trained in the Earth
Sciences?

Governmental, industry and consulting
geologists are now involved in a wide range of
interpretative geological decisions regarding a
cross-section of activities aimed at development
and conservation of our lands and our natural
resources. These can be grouped in generalized
categories including; waste disposal issues,
water resources issues, land-use planning and
zoning issues, and resource conservation or
regulation requirements.


Methodology for Identifying and Prioritizing a
State's Geologic Mapping Needs, 1993, W.
Schmidt: in Geological Society of America,
Southeastern Section, 42nd Annual Meeting
Abstracts, p. 67.


The National Geological Mapping Act of
1992, through an implementation plan, requires
each state to identify short and long term
priorities in response to intrastate needs for
geologic map information. In addition, these
needs must also mesh with federal priorities and
interstate needs shared by adjacent states
having common requirements.

Priorities for investigations within each
state are determined by the respective state
geological survey. These priorities are in turn
submitted to the USGS for the development of a
national priority analysis. State surveys may
arrive at a priority listing by any of several
methods. These include; executive board
oversight and direction, a geologic mapping
advisory committee which provides guidance, or








through input from the community of geologic
map users. Typically, input is solicited from
(among others) environmental regulatory
agencies, planning/zoning groups, departments
of natural resources and transportation, mining
associations, conservation groups, universities,
and the public.

Final proposals for funding will be
reviewed by a peer review panel composed of
seven scientists. This panel will include two
scientists from the USGS (one of whom will act
as panel chair), and five state geologists.


Geological Assessment The Foundation of
Environmental Management, 1993, W. Schmidt:
in the Legacy Earth Resources Workshop
Transactions, U.S Army Corps of Engineers
Miscellaneous Paper GL-94-12. Eglin Air Force
Base, Niceville, Florida, March 8-11, 1993, p. 5.

Too often, when an environmental
assessment of an area is required, and the
background scientific literature is consulted
regarding endangered or threatened species,
critical habitat, and general ecosystem analysis,
the basic foundation of our earth systems is
ignored. The general emphasis in today's
environmental review is biological. While this is
clearly an important component of the overall
assessment, it is not the foundation for truly
understanding why many environments and
ecosystems exist today. Forested uplands, dry
inland ridges, wetlands, and coastal swamps to
name a few, all owe their existence to the local
shallow subsurface geology and hydrogeologic
regime. All species exist in the habitat for which
they are best adapted. Why does an area
function as a wetland? Is it a ground-water
discharge area? Is it a low relief karst prairie, or
is it part of an episodic fluvial system? Why do
certain species of plants grow in selected defined
regions? Are they dependant on the near
surface mineralogical nutrient sources? Are they
in need of well drained sediments? Do they
require a specific ground water or surface water
chemistry? A clear understanding of the natural
systems which includes the geologic foundation
of our environment is the most essential aspect
of any environmental assessment. A review that


considers only the living part of the ecosystem,
while ignoring the basic geology that gave rise
to the terrain, will be seriously and fundamentally
incomplete.


The Geology of Florida, 1993, W. Schmidt:
Keynote Address to the 44th Highway Geology
Symposium, Tampa, Florida, May 19-21, 1993.

As a welcome to the State of Florida and
as an opening to the 44th Highway Geology
Symposium, a brief review of the geology of the
Florida Platform, its historical context, economic
geology, karst processes, and general surface
features is to be presented by the Florida State
Geologist, Dr. Walter Schmidt. Dr. Schmidt will
use slides to show the various surface locations,
rock types, and various rock quarries. In
addition several publications of the Florida
Geological Survey will be described and made
available to meeting participants.

Report to the 1994 Florida Legislature as
Required by Chapter 91-144, Laws of Florida,
Regarding the Hydrogeologic Assessment of
Older Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells, 1993, W.
Schmidt: Florida Department of Environmental
Protection Report to the Legislature, 5 p.

The 1991 Florida Legislature passed
Chapter 91-144 Laws of Florida requiring the
Department of Natural Resources to assess the
potential for environmental damage from older
abandoned (before 1974) oil and gas wells. This
report summarizes the study, including the
contractor research, the findings, and makes
recommendations to the Florida Legislature.

Geological Assessment The Foundation of
Environmental Management, 1993, W. Schmidt:
Florida Geology Forum, Vol. 7, No. 1.

This brief article describes the
fundamental nature that geological assessment
plays in any comprehensive environmental
management or regulatory program. The
building blocks of our earth function as our
primary life support system. Without detailed
knowledge or our soils, ground water, mineral
resources, surface land geomorphology, and








natural hazards, we can never holistically
understand or predict change to our dynamic
environments.

Drilling is the Only Way to Find Out What
Really Lies Under the Ground, 1993, W.
Schmidt: Florida Geology Forum, Vol. 7, No. 2.

A short paper on collecting earth science
data in the field to support environmental
understanding. While modern science has
developed many remote techniques of collecting
data from both the surface and subsurface of our
earth, core drilling still remains as the only way
of "ground truthing" or proving what really lies
under the ground.

State Geological Surveys; Their Economic
and Environmental Impact, 1994, W. Schmidt:
Florida Geology Forum, Vol. 8, No. 1.

While most governmental agencies
provide an identifiable service to the public, they
generally are not considered profit making or
revenue generators. State Geological Surveys,
however, clearly provide a significant economic
benefit to their respective state. Mitigation of
geologic hazards, land-use planning and
management decisions, water resources
protection and location, and economic mineral
deposits mapping are but a few of the economic
benefits society enjoys from geological survey
applied research. A per capital funding level of
the various state geological surveys is reviewed,
with surprising results for Florida considered a
modern environmentally aware state, which is
fourth in national population.

What Underlies Our 9,200 Square Miles of
State Waters?, 1994, W. Schmidt: Florida
Geology Forum, Vol. 8, No. 2.

The offshore Florida State waters cover
an immense amount of acreage. This
approximate 9,200 square miles has very little
data collected or interpreted regarding the sea-
bottom. In recent years many questions have
been asked regarding offshore oil wells, offshore
sand sources, location of hard bottoms vs live
bottoms, "live rocks" harvesting, and effects of
uplands development or sea-level change,


aragonite sands mining, among other questions.
How can the state make informed planning
decisions without knowledge of the resource they
are trying to manage? The Florida Geological
Survey has been studying the offshore and
nearshore geology for several years, mostly with
contract and grant projects funding.

Geological Assessment The Foundation of
Environmental Management, Example: the
Florida Big Bend, 1994, W. Schmidt: presented
at the Urban Runoff Symposium (A Symposium
on the Impact of Urban Runoff on Lake and
Ground Water Integrity and Public Health),
Tallahassee.

Too often when an environmental
assessment of an area is required, or a land-use
planning review is carried out, and the
background scientific literature is consulted, the
basic foundation of our earth systems is ignored.
Our natural environment is the composite result
of the interaction of four earth systems: the
Geosystem (the solid earth), the Hydrosystems
(the hydrologic cycle or the aqueous components
of our earth), and the Atmosystems
((meteorological and climate aspects). These
three components interact and their resulting
composite environment determines what floral
assemblage can inhabit an area, which generally
is the precursor for the associated faunal
assemblage. This biologic community
relationship is generally referred to as the
Ecosystem. Forested uplands, dry inland ridges,
wetlands, and coastal swamps to name a few, all
owe their existence to the local shallow
subsurface geology and hydrogeologic regime.
Why does an area function as a wetland? Is it a
ground water discharge area? Is it a low relief
karst prairie, or is it part of a episodic fluvial
system? Is the water table perched on a
mineralized hardpan or clay layer? Is the ground
water chemistry different from the surface water
chemistry, and is there communication between
the two? A clear understanding of the natural
systems which includes the geologic foundation
of our environment is the most essential aspect
of any comprehensive environmental
assessment. Local geomorphology and geologic
maps, in conjunction with subsurface geologic
interpretations will be used to demonstrate the








fundamental nature of geologic understanding for
environmentally conscious land-use planning,
and holistic ecosystem management.


Preliminary Analysis of Integrated
Stratigraphic Data from the South Venice
Corehole, Sarasota County, Florida, 1994, G.L.
Wingard, S.D. Weedman, T.M. Scott, L.E.
Edwards and R.C. Green: U.S. Geological
Survey Open File Report 95-3.

The South Venice corehole is a 701-feet
deep continuous core drilled by the FGS in
Sarasota County, Florida (section 29, Township
39 South, Range 19 East). The core penetrated
Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary sediments.
This investigation incorporated lithostratigraphy,
biostratigraphy and strontium isotope stratigraphy
to provide a better understanding of the geologic
framework in southwestern Florida. New data
from this study showed that the Hawthorn Group
Arcadia Formation began to be deposited as
early as mid-Oligocene. Better constraints on
the age of the Hawthorn Group sediments was
provided by this investigation.

The Okeechobee formation: A preliminary
reassessment of the latest Pliocene to late
Pleistocene lithostratigraphy of southern
Florida, 1994, T.M. Scott: in Florida Scientist, v.
57, Programs Issue, p.41.

The Okeechobee Formation, introduced
by Scott (1992) as an informal unit,
encompasses the sediments formerly assigned to
the Caloosahatchee, Bermont and Fort
Thompson Formations in southern Florida. The
Okeechobee formation is equivalent to an
expanded Nashua Formation in northern Florida.
The units included in the Okeechobee were
defined by biostratigraphic means not
lithostratigraphic ones. The establishment of the
Okeechobee formation is an attempt to provide
a lithologic framework for the biozonations of the
latest Pliocene through late Pleistocene
sediments of southern Florida.


Reinterpretation of the Peninsular Florida
Oligocene A Multidisciplinary View, 1994,


T.M. Scott, G.L. Wingard, S.D. Weedman and
L.E. Edwards: GSA Annual Meeting, Seattle,
WA, Programs with Abstracts, p. A151.

For many years Coastal Plain geologists
held the opinion that all Oligocene sediments in
peninsular Florida belonged in the Suwannee
Limestone. Based on mollusks, the Suwannee
was shown to be Early Oligocene (Rupelian) and
it was assumed that there was limited deposition
during the Late Oligocene (Chattian). Chattian
sediments are absent in the Georgia coastal
plain and in northern peninsular Florida.
Oligocene deposits in general are missing in
much of northern Florida.

Recent investigations of the upper
Tertiary section in southern Florida reveals the
presence of a thick Upper Oligocene section that
had been previously placed in the Early Miocene
based on limited data. New age information
derived from mollusks, dinoflagellates,
calcareous nannofossils and Sr isotopes led to
the age reassignment of the lower Hawthorn
Group sediments from Early Miocene to Late
Oligocene. Data also suggest the correlation of
the type Suwannee Limestone to the Lower
Oligocene section in southern Florida.

Within southern Florida, dolomitization in
the Suwannee Limestone is rare. Dolomitization
and extensive leaching are common in the
Hawthorn Group in central Florida but decreases
in the subsurface to the south. The diagenetic
patterns are attributed to changes in the
frequency and amplitude of sea level changes
during the Oligocene, an increased influx of
siliciclastics in the Late Oligocene and a
prolonged period of exposure during the Late
Miocene.

The new data change the interpretation
of the Florida Platform's late Paleogene-early
Neogene geologic history. Late Paleogene
deposition was much more extensive and the
beginning of the carbonate to siliciclastic
transition began at least several million years
earlier than previously thought.

Cenozoic record of global sea level events in
the Hawthorn Group and Tamiami Formation








on the Florida Platform, 1994, T.M. Missimer,
D.F. McNeill, R.N. Ginsburg, P.A. Muller, J.M.
Covington, and T.M. Scott: Programs with
Abstracts, GSA Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, p.
A151.

New age determinations of the Hawthorn
Group and Tamiami Formation revise the age of
these units and reveal the effects of major,
global sea level events on the southern Florida
Platform. Hawthorn Group and Tamiami
Formation sediments were once believed to be
Middle and Late Miocene (respectively). Stable
strontium isotopes, magnetostratigraphy,
calcareous nannoplankton and foraminfer age
determinations indicate that the Hawthorn Group
deposition began in the Late Oligocene (30
million years ago -MA) and continued through
Early Pliocene (4.5 MA). Deposition of the
Tamiami Formation occurred between 4.5 MA
and 2.8 MA.

Major sea level events are recorded by
significant gaps across disconformities and/or
significant facies changes. Based on the time
gaps across the major disconformities, about
one-third of the time-stratigraphic record is
missing. If an equal amount of time is missing
across minor disconformities then two-thirds of
the time-stratigraphic record is absent.

A Roadway Problem In A Cavernous Karst
Environment at the Florida Caverns State
Park, 1993, S.M. Spencer: in Proceedings of the
44th Annual Highway Geology Symposium, p.
36, May 19-21, Tampa.

The Florida Caverns State Park, in
Jackson County, Florida, has within its limits a
unique network of caves, one of which was
thought to run under a paved road. The road
has been used for several years. Recently,
some cave authorities expressed concerns about
the structural integrity of China Cave, and
consequently, the safety of the road above it.

The potential for catastrophic collapse of
the roadway led to an investigation of a network
of cave passageways in November and
December, 1992. The survey, intended to verify
and update a 1973 survey, located four cave


entrances and possibly as many as four vertical
shafts to the surface. There is a topographic
depression believed to be a collapsed cave in
a lightly wooded area on the north side of the
road. Surveyors mapped the main passageway
of China Cave, and found that not only does it
underlie the roadway, but as little as seven feet
of rock, road-base material, and asphalt lie
between the cave ceiling and the road.

Remediation may call for fill material in
areas showing signs of settling, and for sealing
the asphalt roadway to help prevent surface
water from percolating downward through the
limestone into the cavern. The Park could
reroute the road, or limit the weight of vehicles
using the road. Lastly, and perhaps most
important, China Cave, and the roadway above
it warrant close monitoring for any physical
changes.

Federally reserved mineral lands in Florida,
1994, S.M. Spencer: in Programs of the Florida
Academy of Sciences, v. 57, Supplement 1, p.38;
58th Annual Meeting, March 24-26, Tallahassee.

Approximately 270,000 acres of land in
Florida contain federally reserved minerals.
Except for a few mineral resource maps
prepared by the Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
and surveys published by the United States
Geological Survey (USGS Miscellaneous Field
Series), there has not been many reports
published on these lands. This report, which is
based on FGS data, defines the geographic
limits of the federally reserved mineral lands in
Florida and correlates these lands with the
various associated industrial minerals found here.
The concept of public domain lands and the
associated basic mineral types, as well as the
current status of the Mining Law of 1872 are
discussed.


POSTER PRESENTATION

Triassic/Jurassic Stratigraphy and Basement
Structure along the Pensacola Arch/Conecuh
Embayment Margin in Northwest Florida, J.G.
Duncan: poster session presented at AAPG
National Convention, Denver, Colorado, June
1994.








Stratigraphic and structural analysis of deep
borehole and seismic reflection data along the
Pensacola Arch/Conecuh Embayment margin in
eastern Santa Rosa County, Florida, reveals a
series of grabens and horsts bounded by
northeast trending faults that developed during
continental rifting of Pangea in the Late Triassic
and Early Jurassic. A second basement fault or
fault system strikes northwest, roughly
perpendicular to the northeast-trending faults and
is correlative with the Alabama-Arkansas fault
system or Gulf regional basement rift system.
Paleotopograhy inherited from these structures
controlled the thickness and distribution of Middle
to Upper Jurassic stratigraphic units along the
embayment margin at the Pensacola Arch.

Upper Triassic synrift sediments that
accumulated in northeast-trending grabens pinch-
out abruptly against elevated fault blocks of
Suwannee Terrane basement along the
southeast margin of the Conecuh Embayment.
Middle Jurassic Louann/Werner evaporites and
Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstones thin and/or
pinch-out over horst blocks. The Upper Jurassic
Smackover Formation thins over the
paleotopographic highs associated with Norphlet
sand-dune fields and also thins or pinches-out
over basement horsts before reaching its
regional depositional limit at the Pensacola Arch.
Observed faulting in the Jurassic section
must have originated in the basement rather than
in the Louann Salt as the Louann Salt is absent
along the margins of the Pensacola Arch. This
indicates that rift-related extension in this portion
of Gulf of Mexico region continued into Upper
Jurassic time and possibly later.


TALKS BY STAFF
TO
PROFESSIONAL GROUPS

Uranium and Organic Matter in Florida-
Ongoing Research, 1993, P.A. Bond: presented
to the staff of the Florida Geological Survey,
Tallahassee, Florida.


Small-scale Geochemical Cycles and the
Distribution of Uranium in Central and North
Florida Organic Deposits, 1993, P.A. Bond:
presented to the Southeastern Section of the
Geological Society of America, Tallahassee,
Florida.

Water and Geology, 1993, P.A. Bond:
presented to the Brevard Environmental Science
Institute on Water and Geology, Palm Bay,
Florida.

The Old Red Sandstone, 1993, P.A. Bond:
presented to the Annual Meeting of the Irish
Education Association, Tallahassee, Florida.

Stratigraphy and structure along the
Pensacola Arch/Conecuh Embayment margin
in northwest Florida, 1993, J.G. Duncan: poster
session, presented at the Geological Society of
America Southeastern Region Meeting,
Tallahassee, Florida, April 1993.

Stratigraphic and structural analysis of
deep borehole data along the Pensacola
Arch/Conecuh Embayment margin in eastern
Santa Rosa County, Florida reveals a northeast-
trending basement normal fault that is
downthrown to the northwest. The fault
functioned as a border fault of a half-graben (or
graben?) that developed during continental rifting
of Pangea in the Late Triassic and Early
Jurassic. The upthrown or horst block was a
paleotopographic high that formed the
southeastern boundary of the Middle to Late
Jurassic Conecuh Embayment. A second,
younger basement fault trends approximately
perpendicular to the half-graben border fault.

Late Triassic synrift continental
sediments, deposited on the downthrown block of
the half-graben, pinch-out abruptly to the
southeast against pre-Mesozoic Suwannee Basin
basement. The border fault is located
approximately where the Triassic sedimentary
wedge pinches out.

Middle to Upper Jurassic drift-stage strata of
the Conecuh embayment progressively onlap the
post-rift unconformity toward the southeast.
Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates
and evaporites apparently overstep Triassic










deposits and rest directly on Suwannee Basin
quartzitic sandstone near their depositional limit
at the Pensacola Arch. The Smackover
Formation thins significantly toward the southeast
in association with the Triassic pinch-out and
half-graben border fault.

The pinch-out trend of the Smackover
Formation suggests a northeast-southwest
orientation for the Triassic border fault and
supports a horst-block origin for the Pensacola
Arch.

Geology of Florida, 1993, F.R. Rupert:
presented to the Florida Canoeing and Kayaking
Association, Lake Yale, FL.

Florida Geology, 1993, T.M. Scott: presented to
Univ. of Florida, Florida Geology class.

Florida Geology, 1993, T.M. Scott: presented to
Southwest Florida Water Management District
sponsored course at Eckerd College, St.
Petersburg.

The FGS and the Cenozoic Geology of
Florida, 1993, T.M. Scott: lecture to Geology of
Florida Class, University of South Florida, St.
Petersburg Campus.

Geological Assessment The Foundation of
Environmental Management, 1993, W. Schmidt:
presented at the Legacy Earth Resources
Workshop, Eglin Air Force Base, Niceville,
Florida.

The Geology of Florida, 1993, W. Schmidt:
Keynote Address to the 44th Annual Highway
Geology Symposium, Tampa.

Geology of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota
County, Florida, 1994, F.R. Rupert: presented
to the Florida Academy of Science Annual
Meeting, March 24-26, 1994, Tallahassee.

Geology and Geomorphology of the Leon
Sinks Geological Area and adjacent Woodville
Karst Plain, 1994, F.R. Rupert: presented at
Florida State University, Tallahassee.

The Environmental Significance of Organic


Matter in Florida, 1994, P.A. Bond: presented at
the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of
America, Seattle, Washington.

Uranium Isotopes and Organic Matter in
Florida-Ongoing Research, 1994, P.A. Bond:
presented to the staff of the Florida Geological
Survey, Tallahassee.

Internet the world through your desktop,
1994, J.D. Arthur: presented to staff of the
Florida Geological Survey.

Applications of geologic software packages
from GeoSys, Inc., 1994, J.D. Arthur: presented
to the staff of the Florida Geological Survey.


Introduction to Total Quality Leadership
(TQL), 1994, J.M. Lloyd: presented to DEP
offices at: Apalachicola, Homassasa Springs,
West Palm Beach, and St. Petersburg.

Florida geology, 1994, T.M. Scott: presented to
Southwest Florida Fossil Club, Port Charlotte,
FL.

Geology of Peninsular Florida, 1994, T.M.
Scott: Lecture at Univ. of Miami Geology Dept.
Seminar.

The FGS and the Cenozoic Geology of
Florida, 1994, T.M. Scott: lecture to Univ. of
South Florida Geology of Florida Class, St.
Petersburg.

Geology of Florida, 1994, T.M. Scott:: lecture to
Univ. of Florida Geology of Florida Class,
Gainesville.

Programs of the Florida Geological Survey,
1994, W. Schmidt: presented to the Centerpiece
Workshop, sponsored by the Florida Rural Water
Association, Tallahassee.

Oil and Gas Exploration in the Big Cypress
Swamp: The Big Cypress Swamp Advisory
Committee, a Model for the Future, 1994, W.
Schmidt: presented at the National Audubon
Society Convention, Fort Myers.








Wakulla County Geology and Hydrology,
1994, W. Schmidt: presented to the Wakulla
County Planning Commission.

The Florida Geological Survey; Programs and
Future Direction, S.M. Spencer and J.M. Lloyd,
1994: presented at Ninth Regional Phosphate
Conference, Lakeland.

ADDITIONAL
PROFESSIONAL
ACTIVITIES

Symposia

Geological Society of America (GSA),
Southeastern Section: Pre-Cretaceous evolution
of Florida and the southeast Coastal Plain,
Tallahassee, FL, April 1993.

Highway Geology Symposium, Annual Meeting,
Tampa, FL, May, 1993.

Florida Water Management Districts/Department
of Environmental Protection Second Annual
Symposium for Technical Exchange, June 1993,
Tampa, FL.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists
(AAPG) National Convention, Denver CO., June
12-15, 1994.

GSA, Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, October
1994.

Meetings, Conferences, and Workshops

January, 1993, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting.

March, 1993, DOD, Legacy Earth Resources
Workshop, Eglin AFB, Florida.

March, 1993, GSA, National Geology & Public
Policy Committee Meeting, Washington D.C.

March, 1993, Dept. of Community Affairs, Florida
Radon Research Program meeting, Tampa.

April, 1993, Southeastern Geological Society
meeting, Tallahassee.


April, 1993, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting.

April, 1993, AASG Federal Liaison Committee
Meetings, Washington D.C.

April, 1993, Global Positioning System (GPS)
conference, Tallahassee.

April, 1993, Florida Paleontological Society
Meeting, Clewiston.

April, 1993, Southeastern Section, Geological
Society of America meeting, Tallahassee.

April, 1993, Co-chairman for symposium on "Pre-
Cretaceous evolution of Florida and the
Southeast Coastal Plain," Geological Society of
America, Southeastern Sectional meeting,
Tallahassee, Florida.


May, 1993, Annual Highway
Symposium, Tampa.

May, 1993, Oil and Gas Well
Workshop, Tallahassee.


Geology


Plugging


May, 1993, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists Board meeting.

June, 1993, AASG Annual Meeting, Idaho.

June-October, 1993, USGS meeting on Florida
research, Reston, VA.

June, 1993, Second Annual WMD/DEP
Symposium for Technical Exchange, booth and
abstract, Tampa.

June, 1993, Dept. of Community Affairs, Florida
Radon Research Program meeting, Tampa.

August, 1993, STATEMAP Geologic Mapping
Advisory Committee meeting.

August, 1993, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting, St. Augustine.

August, 1993, Florida Shore & Beach
Preservation Association Annual Meeting, Amelia
Island, Florida.








September, 1993, Jefferson County Commission
meeting, on Colonial Pipeline proposal.

September, 1993, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting, Orlando.

September, 1993, AASG Federal Liaison
Committee meetings, Washington D.C.

September, 1993, Annual and AASG Biannual
meetings, Boston.

September, 1993, Human Resource
Development, Personnel Management
conference, Orlando.

September, 1993, Florida Academy of Sciences
Board meeting, Orlando.

September, 1993, Bureau of Mine Reclamation,
Green Swamp Rule Meeting, Tallahassee.

October 1993, Florida Radon Research Program,
Quarterly Meeting, Tampa.

October, 1993, Oil and Gas Well Plugging
Workshop, Tallahassee.

October, 1993, GSA meeting, Boston, MA.

November, 1993, STATEMAP Geologic Mapping
Advisory Committee meeting.

November, 1993, Florida Paleontological Society
Meeting, Lake City.

November, 1993, Meteorite impact meeting,
Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.

November, 1993, USGS Borehole Geophysics
Seminar, Orlando.

December, 1993, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting, Wakulla Springs, Florida.

December, 1993, Dept. of Community Affairs -
Florida Radon Research Program meeting,
Tampa.

December, 1993, National Science Teachers
Association Meeting, Host booth, Orlando.


January, 1994, NAWQA/USGS meeting, Palm
Beach.

January, 1994, USGS/STATE Cluster meeting,
Biloxi, Miss.

February, 1994, East Gulf Petroleum Technology
Transfer meeting, Jackson, MS.

February, 1994, WCTV interview regarding oil
and gas resources of Florida.

February, 1994, Groundwater Protection
Technology Transfer Meeting, Tallahassee.

February, 1994, Florida Comparison of
Environmental Risks, Ecology Task Force
Meeting.

February, 1994, USGS/AASG Eastern Region
Cluster Meeting, Mississippi.

February, 1994, Leon County School System
Student Mentorship Program, Tallahassee.

March, 1994, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting, Tallahassee.

March, 1994, Wakulla County Commission talk
on cave and fracture patterns.

March, 1994, USGS Project Review committee,
Hydrostratigraphy of Sarasota Co.

March, 1994, Ecology TAC Meeting.


April, 1994, American Geological
Environmental Affairs Committee
Washington D.C.


Institute
meeting,


April, 1994, AASG Federal Liaison Committee
Meetings, Washington D.C.

May, 1994, Governor's Conference on
Ecosystem Management, Steering Committee
Meeting.

May, 1994, Florida Paleontological Society
Meeting, Tampa.

May, 1994, Ecology TAC Meeting.








June, 1994, AASG Annual Meeting, Ohio.

June, 1994, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting, Orlando.

July, 1994, Ecosystem Fieldtrip for DEP
Secretary.

July, 1994, Meeting with new Director of the
USGS in Reston, VA.

August, 1994-present, Technical Advisory
Committee, Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, re: Phosphogypsum-stack sinkhole,
Polk County.

August, 1994-present, Exam Committee, Florida
Department of Professional Regulation, Board of
Professional Geologists.

August, 1994, Ecology TAC Meeting.

September, 1994, GIS Subcommittee, Florida
Department of Environmental Protection.

September, 1994, DEP / University Faculty
Meeting on ecosystem management principles.

September, 1994, AASG Federal Liaison
Committee Meetings, Washington D.C.

Subcommittee on Aquifer Vulnerability Mapping
in Florida, Recharge Protection Committee,
Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
October, 1994 present.

October, 1994, Media Interface workshop at GSA
Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA.

October, 1994, Ecology TAC meeting.

October, 1994, GSA Annual / AASG Biannual
Meeting, Seattle, WA.

October, 1994, Meeting with FSU Geology
Department and geological community on
Environmental Geology course offering.

October 1994, USGS National Water Quality
Assessment (NAQUA) meeting, Little River
Project, Suwannee County, Florida.


October, 1994, 31st Annual American Institute of
Professional Geologists Meeting, Flagstaff,
Arizona.

October, 1994, Institute for Environmental
Education Media Interface Workshop, at GSA
Seattle, WA.

November, 1994, DCA Florida Radon Research
Program meeting, Tampa.

November, 1994, NAWQA/USGS meeting, Palm
Beach.


November, 1994, Ninth Annual
Phosphate Conference, Lakeland.


Regional


November, 1994, National Audubon Society
Annual Meeting, speaker, Ft. Myers.

November, 1994, Ecology TAC Meeting.

December, 1994, Meeting to discuss the
reinstatement of the Florida Sinkhole Research
Institute, Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando.

December, 1994, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists meeting, Tallahassee.

December, 1994, Urban Runoff Symposium,
speaker, Tallahassee.

December, 1994, Ecology TAC Meeting.

Fieldtrips

F.R. Rupert, 1993: "Geology of Falling Waters
State Recreation Area," Field trip for the
Southeastern Geological Society Annual meeting.

T.M. Scott, 1993: West Florida Shelf
phosphorites sampling cruise with University of
Florida Geology Dept.


PERSONNEL INFORMATION

Personnel Changes

A number of personnel changes occurred
during 1993-1994. The following employees








retired: Peter M. Dobbins, Administrative
Assistant; Albert Phillips, Driller's Assistant; and
Dr. Charles Tootle, Petroleum Engineer. The
following employees resigned from the Survey:
Connie Garrett, Professional Geologist; Alice
Jordan, Librarian; and Marycarol Reilly,
Professional Geologist. Joan Gruber, Secretary
with Oil and Gas Section, retired.

Several new employees were welcomed
aboard. Jim Trindell replaced Albert Phillips as
Driller's Assistant; Cynthia Cook replaced
Marycarol Reilly as Professional Geologist; Jim
Ladner replaced Connie Garrett as Professional
Geologist; Henry Freedenberg and James
Balsillie came on board as new Professional
Geologists; Evelyn Jordan started as secretary
in the Jay field office; and Darlene Lasalde
began as secretary at the Tallahassee office.

Promotions at the Tallahassee
headquarters included: Sandie Ray to
Administrative Assistant to replace Pete Dobbins;
Deborah Mekeel to Librarian to replace Alice
Jordan; and Cindy Collier to Administrative
Secretary.


Professional Staff

Jonathan D. Arthur, Professional Geologist I,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, Florida
State University (1982); PhD, Florida State
University (1994). Research interests:
geochemistry, igneous petrology, and
hydrogeology. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Professional memberships:
Southeastern Geological Society, Geological
Society of America, and Sigma Xi.

Paulette Bond, Professional Geologist I,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, West
Virginia University (1971); MS, University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1974); PhD
candidate Florida State University. Research
interests: low temperature geochemistry and
environmental geology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Consultant to Florida Board
of Professional Geologists, Geology Examination
Committee. Professional memberships:
Geological Society of America and Southeastern


Geological Society.

Kenneth M. Campbell, Professional Geologist
Supervisor, Geological Investigations Section.
BS, Old Dominion University (1975); MS, Florida
State University (1979). Geologic Interests:
Cenozoic stratigraphy, sedimentation and coastal
processes. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Southeastern Geological Society
Secretary/Treasurer. Consultant to Florida Board
of Professional Geologists, Professional
Geologist Test Committee.

Robert S. Caughey, Professional Geologist II,
Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field Office. BS,
University of Arizona (1976). Research interests:
Cenozoic stratigraphy and hydrogeology, and
"boulder zone" of south Florida. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Society of Mining Engineers,
Division of American Institute of Mining and
Metallurgical Engineers; Association of
Exploration Geochemists, National Association of
Geology Teachers, American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Southeastern
Geological Society, and New Mexico Geological
Society.

Cynthia V. "Cindy" Cook, Professional
Geologist I, Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field Office.
BA, University of Florida (1981). Research
interests: hydrogeology and invertebrate
paleontology. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida).

Lawrence D. Curry, Environmental
Administrator, Oil and Gas Section. BS,
University of South Florida (1973). Licensed
professional geologist (Florida).


Joel G. Duncan, Professional Geologist I,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, University
of Alabama (1977). MS candidate Florida State
University. Research interests: Carbonate
petrology; tectonics, and basin analysis.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).

Henry Freedenberg, Professional Geologist I,
Mineral Resource Investigation and
Environmental Geology Section. BA, State








University of New York (1974); MA, State
University of New York at Buffalo (1976).
Research interests: coastal processes,
environmental geology, petroleum geology,
carbonate petrology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Professional memberships:
National Water Well Association, National
Geographic Society.

Ed Gambrell, Environmental Specialist III, Jay
Oil and Gas Field Office. BS, Engineering,
Mississippi State University (1960).

Ed Garrett, Professional Geologist I, Tallahassee
Oil and Gas Office. BS, Florida State University
(1983). Research interests: Environmental
effects of offshore drilling; regulatory computer
applications. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida).

Richard C. Green, Geologist, Geological
Investigations Section. BS, Florida State
University (1986); MS, Florida State University
(1994). Research interests: uranium/thorium
geochemistry and environmental hydrogeology.
Project geologist, USGS STATEMAP project.

Don L. Hargrove, Engineer III, Tallahassee Oil
and Gas Office. Engineering degree candidate
at Florida State University/Florida A & M
University. Geophysical permits, field observer
coordinator.

Ronald W. Hoenstine, Professional Geologist II,
Mineral Resource Investigation and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of Florida (1967); MS, University of Florida
(1974); PhD, Florida State University (1982).
Research interests: hydrogeology and
environmental geology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida). Member: Installation
Restoration Environmental Cleanup Advisory
Committee, Jacksonville Naval Air Station.

James P. Jones, Engineer I, Geological
Investigations Section. Founder of Tallahassee
area AutoCAD users group.

Ted B. Kiper, Engineering Technician IV and
Associate Professor, Florida State University.
AA, Tallahassee Community College (1976); BS,


Florida State University (1988); MS, Florida State
University (1993). US Coast Guard Captain.

Lucien James "Jim" Ladner, Professional
Geologist I, Mineral Resource Investigation and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of Southern Mississippi (1970). Research
interests: hydrogeology, environmental and
coastal geology. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida).

Burke Edward "Ed" Lane, Professional
Geologist II, Mineral Resource Investigation and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, University
of Delaware (1966); MS, Pennsylvania State
University (1968). Research interests:
hydrogeology, environmental geology and karst.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Member: Solid Waste Management Advisory
Committee (State of Florida), and DEP Strategic
Educational Committee.

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
and Administrator of Mineral Resource
Investigation and Environmental Geology
Section. BS, Florida Atlantic University (1976);
MS, University of Chicago (1979). Research
interests: environmental geology. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida). Professional
memberships: Geological Society of America,
American Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Southeastern Geological Society, and Computer
Oriented Geological Society.

Deborah E. Mekeel, Librarian Specialist. BA,
Bridgewater College (1982); MLS, Florida State
University (1993). Specialization: Cataloging.
Professional memberships: Geoscience
Information Society, American Library
Association, Association for Library Collections
and Technical Services, ALA Map and
Geography Round Table, North Florida Library
Association, and Beta Phi Mu.

John A. Morrill, Engineer I/Drilling Coordinator,
Geological Investigations Section. AA, Lake City
Junior College (1973); attended University of
Montana from 1974-1976. Licensed Florida
Water Well Contractor.








Frank R. Rupert, Professional Geologist I,
Geological Investigations Section. BS, Florida
Atlantic University (1976); MS, Florida State
University (1980). Research Interests: Cenozoic
micropaleontology and biostratigraphy and
environmental hydrology. Project Geologist,
Woodville Karst Plain Project. Member, DEP
Wakulla Springs Water Quality Working Group.
Licensed professional geologist (Florida).
Professional memberships: Society of Economic
Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Florida
Academy of Science, Florida Paleontological
Society. Past President, Florida Paleontological
Society.

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief,
Florida Geological Survey. BA, University of
South Florida (1972); MS, Florida State
University (1977); PhD, Florida State University
(1983). Research interests: Cenozoic
stratigraphy, hydrogeology, environmental
geology, and paleogeography. Licensed
professional geologist (Florida, South Carolina,
and North Carolina). Board member, Florida
Board of Professional Geologists; Member,
Governor's Outer Continental Shelf Advisory
Committee, Geology and Public Policy
Committee; Geological Society of America,
Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM),
Southeastern Geological Society, Florida
Academy of Sciences; State Representative and
President-Elect of the Association of American
State Geologists; Adjunct Professor, Florida
State University Geology Department; Chairman
of the Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee.
Certified Professional Geologist, American
Institute of Professional Geologists.


Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist for
Geological Investigations. BA, University of
South Florida (1971); MS, Eastern Kentucky
University (1973); PhD, Florida State University
(1986). Research interests: Cenozoic
lithostratigraphy, geologic history, and
hydrogeology. Consultant to the Florida Board of
Professional Geologists, Geology Examination
Committee. Member: Geological Society of
America, Southeastern Geological Society,
Society of Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Florida
Academy of Sciences, Sigma Xi. Past-President
Southeastern Geological Society, 1978 and
1990-92; Past-President Florida Section of the
American Institute of Professional Geologists,
1985-86. Research Associate, University of
South Florida. Licensed professional geologist
(Florida). Certified Professional Geologist,
American Institute of Professional Geologists.

Steven M. Spencer, Professional Geologist I,
Mineral Resource Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section. BS, Florida
State University (1981). Research interests:
economic geology. Licensed professional
geologist (Florida).

Clerical and Technical Staff

Cynthia A. "Cindy" Collier, Administrative
Secretary. AAS, Tallahassee Community (1975).

Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian.

Darlene Lasalde, Secretary Specialist

Sandra "Sandie" Ray, Administrative Assistant
II. AA, Chipola Junior College (1970).

Franklin R. Rush, Jr., Laboratory Technician I.








Research Assistants


Jennifer Branch
Steve Campbell
Donna Gerace
Brad Highley
Alexis Howell
Li Li
Song Ping
Lorene Whitecross
Koren Taylor
Meryl M. Enright
Robert Godwin, Jr.


AWARDS


Mark Groszos
Zi-Chang Chen
Heidi Hertler
Candace Trimble
Dennis Jensen
Harley Means
Tippi Polo
Scott Whitecross
Elizabeth Doll
Steve Palmas
James Gagalis


Research Associates


Dr. Lucy Edwards (USGS)
Lynn Barr (USGS)
Ed Oaksford (USGS)
Ron Ceryak (SRWMD)
Dave DeWitt (SWFWMD)
Dr. Robert Lindquist (GeoSys, Inc.)
Dr. Lucy McCartan (USGS)
Dr. Suzanne Weedman (USGS)
Dr. Lynn Wingard (USGS)
Lari Knochenmus (USGS)
Dr. Joe Aylor
Dr. Jim Otton (USGS)
Will Evans III
Rick Copeland (DEP)
Dr. Gary Zarillo
(Florida Institute of Technology)
Dr. Joe Donoghue
(Florida State University)


Ed Lane and Ron Hoenstine, Professional
Geologist II's with the Mineral Resource
Investigation and Environmental Geology
Section, received the Geological Society of
America's 1994 John C. Frye Memorial Award in
Environmental Geology. The John C. Frye
Memorial Award is given in recognition of an
outstanding publication concerning environmental
geology. The recipients were selected as the
result of a nationwide competition of papers
published by either the GSA or any of the 50
state geological surveys. They were coauthors
of the FGS Special Publication 33,
"Environmental Geology and Hydrogeology of the
Gainesville Area, Florida." This report
demonstrates the fundamental contribution that
geology makes to the understanding of our
environment and its importance to responsible
land-use planning.

Jim Jones, Engineer with the Geological
Investigations Section, was chosen by his co-
workers as the FGS Employee of the Year for
1993. Jim was commended for his many years of
dedicated performance and cooperative spirit. He
received a certificate and plaque at the annual
FGS Employee of the Year luncheon. Jim also
received a 1993 Davis Productivity Award for his
work in setting up the FGS's AutoCAD drafting
system.

Jessie Hawkins, Custodian with the
Administrative Section, was selected by his co-
workers as the FGS Employee of the Year for
1994. Jessie was commended for his many
years of dedicated performance and cooperative
spirit. Jessie received a certificate and plaque at
the annual FGS Employee of the Year luncheon.








TRIBUTE TO RICHARD HOWARD


By
Ed Lane


The Florida Geological Survey lost a friend on April 11, 1993, when Richard Howard went home
to his beloved Lord.

After knowing Richard for more than 20 years, I think the one word that would describe him would
be "exemplary." In both his personal and professional affairs, I never knew him to compromise with truth,
honesty, or duty. As a pace-setter, Richard always gave more of himself to his family, friends, colleagues,
and his job than was expected or necessary. Without reservations, I can say that Richard truly set an
example that everyone could use as a standard of life.

Richard was employed by the Florida Geological Survey for 25 years. He was the son of the late
General Billy Howard and Mrs. Inez Isom, born August 8, 1921, in Wilson, North Carolina. He attended
public school in Wilson County. During World War II1 he served in the U.S. Army, European theater of
operations, from 1941 to 1946, driving trucks for the famed "Red Ball Express." He married his lifelong
wife, Rosa Lee Matthews, on April 8, 1943. He leaves to cherish his memory his wife and daughter, and
a host of relatives and caring friends.

PEACE FRIEND








BUDGET SUMMARY

The FGS is funded primarily from
General Revenue each year with additional
funding from the Petroleum Exploration and
Production Bond Trust Fund to support an
Engineer III position in the Oil and Gas Section.
Some positions concerned with minerals and
related resource issues were funded by the Land
Reclamation Administration Trust Fund. Those
expenditures and appropriations are included in
the overall totals shown below. Also included
are funds received from outside contracts.


The requested budget is reviewed by the
Division of Administrative and Technical Services
and the Secretary's office of the Department of
Environmental Protection, before being presented
to the Governor. Upon approval, the budget
request is submitted to the Florida House of
Representatives and the Florida Senate for
review by their budget committees.
Budgets approved for the FGS by the
Florida Legislature for Fiscal Years 1992-1993
and 1993-1994 are summarized below. Due to
expected shortfalls of state revenues the total
budget fell in 1994; similar reductions are
expected in FY 1994-1995.


FGS BUDGET


1992-1993


Salaries & Benefits

Other personal
services

Expenses

Operating capital
outlay


$2,082,683


$1,110,267


496,925

388,248


87,243


1993-1994

$1,296,167


245,417

326,858


120,307


TOTAL


$1,988,749








APPENDIX

ABSTRACTS FOR SELECTED
PRESENTATIONS and PUBLICATIONS

Biennial Report 17, 1991-1992, Florida
Geological Survey, 1993. By Paulette A. Bond.

Summarizes programs, activities, and
publications of the Florida Geological Survey for
the calendar years 1991 and 1992.

Poster Common Cenozoic Echinoids from
Florida, 1993. Compiled by Roger Portell, Craig
Oyen and Frank Rupert.

Intended as a guide for both amateur
and professional paleontologists, this poster
illustrates some of the more common Eocene
through Pleistocene echinoids found in Florida.
The illustrated specimens are reposited in the
Invertebrate Paleontology collection at the
Florida Museum of Natural History. Each is
shown full size, and the different species are
arranged chronologically by Epoch.

Bulletin 64 Geologic framework of the Lower
Floridan Aquifer System, Brevard County,
Florida, 1994. By Joel G. Duncan, William L.
Evans III, and Koren L. Taylor.

Utilization of injection-disposal well
systems for the elimination of liquid waste
products is a common practice in Brevard
County, Florida. The liquid waste is pumped
underground into highly permeable rocks within
the non-potable portion of the lower Floridan
aquifer system. Ground-water chemical data from
monitor wells at several injection sites suggest
that the presence and/or lateral continuity of
suitable confining rock above the injection zone
is questionable.

Strata of the lower Floridan aquifer system
are characterized by Paleocene to Middle
Eocene, interbedded limestones and dolostones
which dip gently to the east southeast. Several
lines of evidence suggest the possibility of
faulting in Brevard County.


The "Boulder Zone" is the primary injection
horizon and consists of highly fractured and
cavernous dolostones. Above the Boulder Zone,
there are layers of carbonates that have
confining qualities. Evaluation of geophysical
logs, lithologic samples and borehole videos from
the injection wells indicate that numerous
fractures exist throughout the lower Floridan
aquifer system including the confining strata.

Analysis of monitor zone ground-water
chemical data showed that several of the wells in
the study exhibit trends in water quality such as
a decrease in total dissolved solids and/or
chloride concentrations. These trends are
attributed to the upward migration of injected
waste waters along permeable conduits related
to fractures, dissolution cavities, and vertical and
lateral lithofacies variations. The confining layers
of the lower Floridan aquifer system in Brevard
County are probably best described as having a
leaky character.

Information Circular 110, 1994. By Jacqueline
M. Lloyd, including Florida Petroleum Reserve
Estimates, by Charles H. Tootle.

Florida oil production began to decline in
1979 and generally has continued to do so.
However, statewide production increased during
1992 and 1993 due to increased production at
the Jay field, the largest producing field in
Florida. Exploration activity during 1992 and
1993 was very limited. Only five onshore
exploratory wells were drilled during 1992 and
1993. Three of these were in the Florida
panhandle in Escambia and Santa Rosa
Counties; two were in south Florida in Hendry
and Collier Counties. All five exploratory wells
were plugged and abandoned as dry holes.

Geophysical exploration conducted
during 1992 and 1993 was limited to the Florida
panhandle and only covered 41.4 miles of
seismic lines. In addition to this completed
geophysical exploration, a permit expired for an
extensive offshore seismic, gravity, and magnetic
survey. This exploration would potentially have
explored a dense grid off of Florida's Gulf coast
extending from offshore of Apalachicola, Franklin
County to offshore of Naples, Collier County.









One exploratory well permit was pending
in federal waters off Florida at the close of 1993.
This well would be the third to be drilled in the
Destin Dome area by Chevron. The two
previously drilled wells were classified by the
federal government as producible Norphlet gas
discoveries.

Open File Report 59 Geomorphology and
Geology of Escambia County, Florida, 1993. By
Frank R. Rupert.

Designed as a general overview of the
geology of Escambia County, Florida, this report
provides information on the geomorphology,
Middle Miocene to Recent stratigraphy,
groundwater aquifer units, and mineral resource
commodities in the county. The landforms and
shallow stratigraphy are illustrated in a
geomorphic map and two geologic cross
sections.

Open File Report 60 The Geology of Warm
Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida, 1993.
By Frank R. Rupert.

Warm Mineral Springs is a 70 m deep
water-filled sinkhole in southern Sarasota
County, Florida. Mineral-rich anaerobic water
enters the sink through a spring vent near the
bottom of the north wall of the sink. In 1991,
divers explored and mapped the primary conduit
feeding the spring to its terminus, a distance of
53 meters in from the vent. Twenty one
geological samples were collected at 3 meter
depth intervals from the north wall of the sink for
stratigraphic analysis. The samples reveal the
sinkhole is developed in carbonates belonging to
the Miocene age Arcadia Formation of the
Hawthorn Group. This unit is unconformably
overlain by Pleistocene Ft. Thompson Formation
and undifferentiated Pleistocene sands. A map
of the primary cave feeding the spring and a
geologic section for the sinkhole are illustrated.


Open File Report 63 A Fossils Hunter's Guide
to the Geology of Panhandle Florida, 1994. By
Frank R. Rupert


The Florida panhandle offers the fossil
hunter a chance to sample a wide variety of
Eocene through Pleistocene invertebrate and
vertebrate fossils. Among the most productive
areas are stream banks and bottoms, were
erosion has uncovered fossiliferous units. This
guide is intended to aid the avocational
paleontologist understand the relationship
between the regional geomorphology, geology
and subsurface structure and their influence on
the occurrence of fossiliferous strata. Included
are geomorphic, structure, and geologic maps
and cross sections. Also included is a map
showing the classic geologic sites, as well as
ideas for other places to hunt.


Open File Report 65 A Fossil Hunter's Guide to
the Geology of Northern Peninsular Florida,
1994. By Frank R. Rupert.

Northern peninsular Florida offers the
fossil collector a variety of collecting
opportunities, with fossils ranging from Middle
Eocene to Pleistocene in age. This guide
summarizes the regional geomorphology,
geology, and subsurface structure of the northern
Florida peninsula and their relationships to fossil
hunting localities in the area. Included are
geomorphic, structure, and geologic maps and
cross sections. Also included is a map of the
classic geologic sites. Suggestions for other
places to hunt fossils in the area are provided.


Open File Report 66 A Fossil Hunter's Guide to
the Geology of Southern Florida, 1994. By
Thomas M. Scott and Frank R. Rupert.

Southern Florida offers the fossil
enthusiast some of the finest Miocene to Recent
collecting in the state. Vertebrate fossils may be
found in abundance in the Hawthorn Group
sediments, and the area is renowned for its
Pliocene and Pleistocene shell bed deposits.
This guide provides an overview of the regional
geomorphology, geology, and structure of
southern Florida, particularly as it pertains to
fossil collecting. Included are geomorphic and
geologic maps and cross sections, as well as
maps to the classic geologic localities. Also








included are suggestions on some currently-
accessible fossil hunting locations.


Map Series 135 Mineral Resources of Hamilton
County, Florida, 1993. By Steven M. Spencer,
Frank Rupert, Ronald W. Hoenstine, and Ed
Lane.

In recent years, considerable attention
has been focused on Florida's population
increase and rapid development, and their effect
on the state's important mineral resources. It is
because of this development that Florida's
mineral resources have been severely impacted.
Knowledge of the types of minerals present and
their related usages plays an integral part in the
planning and preparation of Florida's future.

At the request of the North Central
Florida Regional Planning Council, the Florida
Geological Survey initiated this investigation of
Hamilton County's mineral resources. The
objectives were to identify potential mineral
resource areas and to present the results in a
format appropriate for use by city and county
planners.

Map Series 136 Mineral Resources of Columbia
County, Florida, 1993. By Ed Lane, Ronald W.
Hoenstine, and Steven M. Spencer.

In recent years, considerable attention
has been focused on Florida's rapid population
increase, the accompanying development, and
their effect on the state's important mineral
resources. In the past, development has
occurred in areas underlain by known mineral
deposits, precluding extraction of the minerals.
The economics associated with these mineral
resources represent substantial employment and
income to the private sector as well as taxes to
county and state governments.

In response to a request from the North
Central Florida Regional Planning Council, the
Florida Geological Survey initiated this
investigation of Columbia County's mineral
resources. The objectives were to identify
potential mineral resource areas and to present
the results in a format appropriate for use by city


and county planners. This mineral resource
assessment is general and is intended as a land-
use planning tool.


A knowledge of Columbia County's
mineral resources is basic and integral to the
process of initiating, developing, and
implementing an effective comprehensive land
use plan. This information is essential to
planners and officials in their analyses of urban
and rural development in such areas as zoning,
road construction and the establishment of waste
disposal sites.


Map Series 137 Mineral Resources of Suwannee
County, Florida, 1993. By Ronald W. Hoenstine,
Steven M. Spencer, and Ed Lane.

Lately, much attention has been given to
Florida's rapidly growing population, the resulting
development, and their effect on the state's
mineral resources. Frequently, this development
occurred in areas where known mineral deposits
exist, thus precluding their extraction. The
Florida Legislature enacted legislation in 1985
and updated in 1986, required each county to
establish a comprehensive land use plan.

In response to this legislation, and at the
request of the North Central Florida Regional
Planning Council, the Florida Geological Survey
initiated an investigation of Suwannee County's
mineral resources. The objectives were to
identify potential mineral resource areas and to
present the results in a format appropriate for
use by city and county planners. The map is
drawn as a scale of 1:250,000. There is an
accompanying text and figures relating to the
areas' geology and mineral resources on the
reverse side.


Map Series 139 Industrial Mineral Operations in
Florida, 1993. By S.M. Spencer.

Shows locations of 313 mineral and earth
resources extraction operations. Scale 25 miles
to 1 inch. A copy of this map is also included
with Information Circular 109.










Special Publication 35 Florida's Geological
History and Geological Resources, 1994: edited
by Ed Lane.

Reconstructs the geological history of
Florida and discusses the geological resources of
the state. Presented in easy-to-understand terms
and profusely illustrated.

Special Publication 36 Plio-Pleistocene
Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Southern
Florida, 1993: edited by T. Scott and W. Allmon.

This Special Publication resulted from a
field trip sponsored by the Southeastern
Geological Society in 1990. The volume offers
discussions of the philosophical nature of
research on the shell-bearing sediments.
Discussions the geochronology of the Plio-
Pleistocene sediments in southern Florida.
Articles on the molluscan and barnacle faunas
are presented. There is also a discussion of the
avifauna discovered in this area. The facies
relationships in the Tamiami Formation Is
presented.


Special Publication 37 The Neogene of Florida
and Adjacent regions; The proceedings of the
Third Bald Head Island Conference on Coastal
Plains Geology, 1993: edited by V. Zullo, W.B.
Harris, T.M. Scott and R.W. Portell.

The Bald Head Island Conferences on
Coastal Plains Geology are held in order to
gather together acknowledged experts in coastal
plains geology for the purposes of discussing
research, results and theories. This volume
presents papers by various authors on topics
ranging from problems with the lithostratigraphic
interpretations in the coastal plain to
paleobiogeography of a late Cenozoic barnacle
fauna in Florida.





UNNE IiSM OF FLORIDA
MANSION SCIENCE LIBRAR.I | OF ||1||||

3 1262 05389 6998


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 WEST TENNESSEE ST.
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief
Cindy Collier, Administrative Secretary Deborah Mekeel, Librarian
Jessie Hawkins, Custodian Sandie Ray, Administrative Assistant



GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist
Jon Arthur, Petrologist Dennis Jensen, Research Assistant
Joe Aylor, Research Assistant Jim Jones, Engineer
Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist Ted Kiper, Engineer Technician IV
Jennifer Branch, Research Assistant Darlene Lasalde, Secretary Specialist
Paulette Bond, Geochemist U Li, Research Assistant
Ken Campbell, Sedimentologist Harley Means, Research Assistant
Steve Campbell, Research Assistant John Morrill, Driller
Joel Duncan, Sedimentary Petrologist Song Ping, Research Assistant
Will Evans, Sr. Research Associate Tippi Polo, Research Assistant
Donna Gerace, Research Assistant Frank Rupert, Paleontologist
Rick Green, Sr. Research Associate Frank Rush, Laboratory Technician
Mark Groszos, Research Assistant Jim Trindell, Driller's Assistant
Alexis Howell, Research Assistant Lorene Whitecross, Research Assistant
Scott Whitecross, Research Assistant



MINERAL RESOURCE INVESTIGATIONS
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
Zi-Chang Chen, Research Assistant Ron Hoenstine, Environmental Geologist
Henry Freedenberg, Geologist Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist
Connie Garrett, Environmental Geologist Ed Lane, Environmental Geologist
Heidi Hertler, Research Assistant Steve Spencer, Economic Geologist
Brad Highley, Research Assistant Candace "Candy Trimble, Res. Assistant



OIL AND GAS SECTION

L. David Curry, Administrator
Robert Caughey, District Coordinator Ed Garrett, Geologist
Cynthia "Cindy" Cook, Geologist Joan Gruber, Secretary Specialist
Don Hargrove, Engineer Evelyn Jordan, Secretary Specialist
Ed Gambrell, Environmental Spec. III Charles H. Tootle, Professional Engineer