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Biennial report, Florida Geological Survey
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 Material Information
Title: Biennial report, Florida Geological Survey
Cover title: Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 2004
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility: State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJG7269
oclc - 22342552
alephbibnum - 001754280
lccn - sn 90001622
issn - 1052-6536
System ID: UF00000224:00002
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Preceded by: Biennial report

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Front Matter
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text



























OUR CHANGING NATURAL LANDSCAPE The gray area in the picture above depicts
Florida's land area during the low sea level stand of the late Pleistocene, about 18,000
years ago. Florida's current land area is outlined in white.



4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Biennial Report 23
2003 2004




































































Cover design by Tom Greenhalgh. Illustration used with permission of Tasa Graphic Arts.









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Colleen M. Castille, Secretary


DIVISION


OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Edwin J. Conklin, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief


BIENNIAL REPORT 23
2003 2004


By

Tom Greenhalgh, P.G. #1277, Jim Ladner, P.G. #1726,
and Frank Rupert, P.G. #0149


Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
2005































































ISSN 1052-6536






II









PREFACE


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
December 2005





The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and
Management, Department of Environmental Protection is publishing Biennial Report 23,
prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the
FGS staff during the two-year period January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004.
Research results are reported in the Survey's various publication series, professional jour-
nals, presentations, and contract deliverables. Reports for this period are listed here, along
with a summary of extended services and other activities of the FGS.










Walt Schmidt, Ph.D, P.G.
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey










TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

F O R E W O R D .. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1
INTRODUCTION ........ ........................... ................................. 5
FGS CREATES THE HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION ...................................5... 5
FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL OFFICE SPACE ................................. . ...... .6
TH IS BIENN IA L REPO RT . ......................................................... 6
FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE . .......... ........................................... 7
OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST ............................................. 7
ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION ................. 9
COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM .................................... . ...... .9
Geographic Informational System s ................................ ...... .9
W eb Technologies .................................................. 10
Inform ation Technologies (IT) .......................................... 10
PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM .................................... . ...... 11
Earth Science W eek 2003 ...................................... ...... 11
Earth Science W eek 2004 ...................................... ...... 11
RESEARCH LIBRARY .................................................... 12
Library Services .......... ....................................... 12
Library Com puter Services ..................................... ...... 12
Publications D distribution ...................................... ...... 13
SPECIAL PROJECTS ................ .................................. 13
Leon County School System Leon Advocacy and Resource Center
Coopertive Job Training Program ...................................... 13
National Geologic M ap Database ........................... ........... 13
St. Johns River Water Management District Cooperative Program .............. 13
GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION .................................. . ...... 14
COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM ................................... . ...... 15
O n-going Coastal Projects ..................................... ...... 15
Sedim entologic Research ................................ . . 15
Sedimentation Elevation Table (SET) Project .................. . . 15
Cooperative Coastal Projects .................................... ...... 16
Offshore Sand Investigation ..................................... 16
Joint Coastal Research ............................ ........... 18
Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium ................ 18
FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute Scallop Research Project .... 19
Resistivity Survey Project ............................... ...... 19
GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION PROGRAM ................................. 20
On going Geologic Data Acquistion Projects ........................ ..... 20
Geologic Sample Collection ..................................... 20
Cooperative Geologic Data Acquistion Projects ...................... . 21
M anatee Springs Investigation ................................... 21
Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment ........................ ..... 21
Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation ....................... . . 21
Oleno State Park and River Rise State Preserve ................. . .22
Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer Monitoring Well Construction .......... .22
City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Investigation ................ 22
Northwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program ..... 22
South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program ........ 22
MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM .................................. . ...... 22
Phosphate ..................................................... 23



iv










Crushed Stone ..................................................... 23
Sand and Gravel ................................................ 23
Heavy M inerals .................................................... 23
Peat ............. ................................... ......... 23
Clay ............. ... ...................................... 23
Crude Oil and N natural Gas ..................................... ...... 24
SPRINGS PROGRAM ..................................................... 24
STATEMAP PROGRAM .................................................. 25
HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION .......................................... ............ 27
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY PROGRAM ................................. . ..... 27
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemistry Studies ........................ .27
Bench-Scale Geochemical Assessment of Water-Rock Interaction:
Seminole County ASR ................................................ 28
Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the Groundwater Quality of Spring
W ells in Florida .................................................. 29
EDUCATION PROGRAM .................................................. 32
Development of a Cave Glossary ................................ ...... 32
"Explore Florida!" W ebsite ..................................... ...... 32
Karst Short Course and Field Trip ................................ ...... 33
KARST HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM ........................................ .33
Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility Study ................................... 34
Wakulla In-Cave Meter Data Management ................................. 34
Tide Gauging .................................................... 34
Expansion of the Cave Metering Network .......................... . 35
Continuation of the Woodville Karst Plain Modeling Efforts ................... 35
Florida Cave Database ...................... .. .................... 35
Wakulla Springs-Statistical Analysis and Modeling of
Discharge and Rainfall ........................................... 35
PHYSICAL AQUIFER CHARACTERIZATION PROGRAM ........................ 36
Estimating Ground Water Discharges via Radon Tracing ...................... 36
Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project ................ 38
AQUIFER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM ......................... 38
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment . . . . . . . ...... 38
Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment ................................. 39
Sensitive Karst Areas ............. ..................................... 40
Florida Springs Protection Areas ................................. ...... 41
Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on the
W ater Quality of Fanning Springs ............................... ...... 42
OTHER OUTSOURCED RESEARCH .................................. . ...... 42
THE HYDROGEOLOGY CONSORTIUM ...................................... .44
O IL AN D G A S SECTION ............................................................ 45
REGULATORY PROGRAM ............ ...................................... 45
DRILLING AND PRODUCTION ...................................... ...... 46
GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION ...................................... ...... 47
OFFSHORE ACTIVITY ..................................................... 47
IMPORTED NATURAL GAS IN SOUTH FLORIDA .............................. 47
OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM ................................ ...... 48
OIL AND GAS DATABASE ................................................. 48
OIL AND GAS W EBSITE . .......... ........................................ 48
SPEC IA L PR O JEC T S . ............................................................ 49
INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 49
SINKHOLE SUMMIT II .......................................... 49
REVISION TO HYDROGEOLOGICAL UNITS OF FLORIDA ................... 50


v










EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION ....................................... ...... 51
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY LAB AND SEM .................................... . ...... 51
CORE STORAGE FACILITY EXPANSION ..................................... ...... 52
NEW DRILL RIG AND WATER TRUCK . . ........ ................................. .. 52
NEW OFFICE SPACE ........................................................ 52
PUBLICATIONS ................................................................... 53
FG S PU B LIC ATIO N S . ............................................................ 53
BIENNIAL REPORT ................................................... 53
BULLETIN ............ ... . ... ..... ................ ..... . 53
FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM . . ....... .................................. .. 53
INFORMATION CIRCULAR ............. ..................................... 53
LEAFLET ........................................................... 53
MAP SERIES ........................................................ 54
OPEN FILE MAP SERIES . .......... ........................................ 54
OPEN FILE REPORTS . ......... ........................................... 55
POSTERS ........................................................... 55
REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS ..................................... ...... 56
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS ............ ....................................... 57
VIDEO SERIES ....................................................... 59
M ISCELLANEOUS REPORTS . . ......... ................................... 59
PAPERS BY STAFF IN OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS ...................................... .61
PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES ................................. 82
PRESENTATIONS ........................................................... 82
2003 ............ .......................................... ......... 82
2004 ............................................................... 84
FIELD TRIPS ............................................................... 86
2003 ............ .......................................... ......... 86
2004 ............................................................... 86
MEETINGS ................................................................ 86
2003 ............ .......................................... ......... 86
2004 ............................................................... 89
TRAINING ................................................................ 91
2003 ............ .......................................... ......... 91
2004 ......................... ........................... ........... 92
BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) ...................................... ...... 92
2003 ............ .......................................... ......... 92
2004 ............................................................... 92
PERSONNEL INFORM ATION . ........................................................... 93
INTRODUCTION ........................................................... 93
PERSONNEL CHANGES ...................................................... 93
FULL TIME EMPLOYEES .......................... ..................... 93
RESEARCH ASSOCIATES & ASSISTANTS ................................... .94
FULL TIME EMPLOYEES ............................. ......................... 96
RESEARCH ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS ....................................... .104
OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ........................................ ...... 107
FGS AWARDS PROGRAM .......................................................... 108
FGS AWARDS FOR 2003 ..................................................... 108
FGS AWARDS FOR 2004 ..................................................... 109
OUTSIDE AWARDS ......................................................... 110
RETIREMENT ........... ........................................... .......... 111
FGS BUDGET SUMMARY ...........................................................112






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


FORWARD
by
Walt Schmidt
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey


As we entered 2005, the State of
Florida was recovering economically and
emotionally from one of the worst hurricane
seasons our state has ever seen. The people
of Florida have been through great trauma
and personal loss; however, through it all,
many have shown their inner strength and
ability to persevere. The Governor and the
Secretary of DEP praised and described, on
several occasions, the many individuals and
volunteer groups that provided assistance,
coordinated emergency response and
resource follow-up assistance to those in
need. We can be proud of our efforts and
appreciative of those who donated so much
of their time to assist our communities.
Our Oil and Gas District Field Offices in Ft.
Myers and Jay both escaped with near
misses with no major damage, as did our
staffs personal homes. Tallahassee was out
of harms way from the main paths of
destruction, but we had many downed trees
and numerous power outages. All in all, we
were glad to see the 2004 hurricane season
end.

During the 2003-2004 biennium, the
FGS again proposed modifications to the
distribution formula for minerals severance
tax revenue to more equitably include the
minerals trust fund (MTF) in this distribu-
tion. The DEP has agreed with this need
each year and put forward the proposal. To
date, however, legislative action has not
occurred. We have once more proposed
modifications to the Oil and Gas statues to
update some outdated language and to close
down the MTF as a surety option for private
industry. We have also proposed language
to allow the FGS to maintain certain data
from sinkholes, caves, and springs confiden-
tial from public records. This is intended to
increase our database for resource conser-


vation and ground-water dynamics under-
standing and protection. These also have
not been acted upon yet....we will keep try-
ing until these concerns are satisfactorily
addressed.

The Florida Geological Survey has been
very active and productive during 2003 and
2004. In February 2003, the Department
held the Florida Springs Conference -
"Natural Gems Troubled Waters" in
Gainesville, Fl, attended by almost 400 pro-
fessionals and private citizens. The confer-
ence agenda included field trips to the
Ichetucknee Springs State Park and the
Santa Fe River recharge basin, concurrent
speaker sessions, invited guest speakers,
and the premier of a new documentary
video Waters Journey. The FGS was a sig-
nificant participant with eight presenta-
tions, hosting an educational booth, and
participating in numerous discussions and
planning sessions. Later in 2003, the FGS
published the Florida Spring Classification
System and Spring Glossary, Special
Publication No. 52, compiled by Dr. Rick
Copeland. Two staff also presented papers
at the annual meeting of the Florida
Academy of Sciences and published in-
house reports on two projects funded in part
by the "Florida Springs Initiative" estab-
lished by Governor Bush. During this two
year period, the Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) project
was completed, and will be published as
Bulletin 67. This important contribution to
protecting and conserving our valuable
ground-water resources was presented at
several professional meetings and at plan-
ning and elected officials' conferences. We
have also contracted with several groups to
provide us with targeted research results on
selected hydrogeology projects. Contractors






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


have included leading Professional
Geologists from Florida State University,
the University of West Florida, the U.S.
Geological Survey, and Hazlett-Kincaid Inc.
One of the products was an educational
DVD in our video series titled Florida's
Aquifer Adventure. This is a 20 minute
video which describes Florida's aquifer sys-
tems, springs, caves and environmental
issues. We published the transactions of a
workshop held in 2002 titled Workshop to
Develop Blue Prints for the Management
and Protection of Florida's Springs. In
cooperation with the Hydrogeology
Consortium, the FGS organized, hosted and
published the transactions from a workshop
held in April of 2003, titled Significance of
Caves in Watershed Management and
Protection in Florida. Again in 2004, we
teamed with the Hydrogeology Consortium
and the American Ground Water Trust to
put on the ASR (Aquifer Storage and
Recovery) IV Forum in Tampa and pub-
lished the transactions from this confer-
ence. In May 2004, the FGS cooperated
with the Cave Diving Section of the
National Speleological Society at their
workshop The Science of Cave Diving. This
four day workshop brought together cave
divers, scientists, regulators, private
landowners, and researchers to explore
cooperative opportunities for the cave div-
ing and scientific communities in the man-
agement and protection of our karst envi-
ronment. Finally, we published two educa-
tional posters on Florida's Sinkholes and on
Florida's First Magnitude Springsheds in
2004. Our Hydrogeology and Geological
Investigations staff have also been active
cooperators with the Department of
Community Affairs, assisting as Technical
Advisory Committee members on their
"Model Springs Land Development Code"
and in preparing various springshed and
stream to sink map products. In response to
this high level of activity and productivity,
the FGS upgraded the Hydrogeology
Program to Section status in 2004. Dr. Jon
Arthur oversees this section as the


Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology.

At the beginning of 2003, the Oil and
Gas Section moved out of the Gunter
Building into its new offices at the DEP
Warehouse facility on Commonwealth
Boulevard in Tallahassee. About one year
later, our Geologic Data Acquisition
Program also relocated to the Warehouse.
This now puts the core / auger drilling oper-
ations staff co-located with our Geology
Sample Repository. We built a 1,785 square
foot drilling operations "barn" to house
some of our equipment on location.
Additional core storage space adjacent to
the existing geologic sample library was
made available to us by DEP. We have
begun installing a mobile aisle shelving sys-
tem in this facility. We have also moved to
and expanded several labs at the
Warehouse facility. We now operate our
Scanning Electron Microscope / Microprobe
Lab and our Environmental Geochemistry
Lab at the Warehouse site. A visiting scien-
tist lab is available for sample lay-out and
description. A computer network station
has been installed to allow access to our
well log database and data entry on-site.

Our "minerals resource review" pro-
gram to support the DEP Division of State
Lands has continued to grow in regards to
demands on our time. In response to sever-
al conservation lands programs, there are
continuing requests for mineral resource
potential comments on numerous land
parcels the state is considering for acquisi-
tion, acquiring a conservation easement, or
selling. Our Coastal Research Program
continues with its cooperative partnership
with the U. S. Minerals Management
Service to assess the sand resources off-
shore of the northeastern coast of Florida
for potential beach renourishment use.

The Oil and Gas Section, responding to
questions about the potential for ground-
water contamination from old, abandoned
oil wells, designed a project to re-enter a






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


selected subset of old, plugged wells, to
assess their status and plug them according
to modern standards. This pilot program is
intended to last five years, at which point a
project review will occur to determine if fur-
ther action is warranted. The section also
has been working tirelessly on their Oil and
Gas data management and upgrading the
database. Much information is now avail-
able on the web and the full new capabili-
ties should allow tracking of regulatory
deadlines, bonding, descriptive well data,
and fluid production. The six chapters of
Administrative Rules have undergone a
revision and modern upgrade. Public work-
shops have been held and we anticipate pro-
posing full rule revisions in early 2005.

In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the
Leon County School System to provide job
training for area high schools students with
special needs. Our program provided vari-
ous computer filing / scanning job experi-
ences for the students. This continuing
project is helping the FGS work on the
backlog of well log data in need of digital
entry. Other outreach activities included
our annual open-house each Earth Science
Week, our participation at the Florida
Capitol during Earth Day, Mining Day, and
Oceans Day. We cooperated with teachers
from the Florida Sheriffs Youth Ranch to
provide them with our earth science educa-
tional materials and a brief on Florida
Geology. Staff also assisted in other inter-
agency projects during 2003, including pro-
viding articles and assisting the
Tallahassee Museum of History and
Natural Science, cooperating with the DEP
Office of Environmental Education in the
Community Classroom after school pro-
gram, participating in the Marion County
Spring Festival, assisting the Department
of Health with one of their workshops, and
leading a fieldtrip for the National Ground


Water Association.

The Florida STATEMAP component of
the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping
Program continues its past successes. We
have completed the Marianna 1:100,000
scale Quadrangle and began fieldwork on
the Gainesville, 1:100,000 scale quadrangle.
Staff held a one week lower Suwannee
River expedition using a rented houseboat
as their field staging facility. Staff from the
Florida Museum of Natural History and
Okaloosa-Walton Community College
joined our staff for the field work.

In the summer of 2004, the Florida Fish
and Wildlife Commission, working with the
US Environmental Protection Agency and
the US Navy, requested our assistance to
investigate the sea floor with our sonar sur-
vey equipment. The site, about 36 kilome-
ters southeast of Pensacola, is under consid-
eration for sinking the USS Oriskany, a
World War II aircraft carrier, for use as the
worlds largest intentionally sunk, artificial
reef.

In the fall of 2004, we organized and
held a meeting titled Sinkhole Summit II.
This was in response to legislation request-
ing the FSU College of Business and the
Department of Risk Management and
Insurance to recommend "uniform stan-
dards" to evaluate sinkhole claims. The
FGS facilitated the discussion and compiled
the results for the university.

This is but a small fraction of the activ-
ities and projects the staff of the Florida
Geological Survey has been involved in
these last two years. Details on these and
many other projects can be found on the fol-
lowing pages.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


*~~W~~*- :r m rf ~ ...
.-r--~ME-q~,4- -d~


State Geologist Elias Sellards (left) poses with Roland Harper (middle) and Herman
Gunter (right) on the steps of one of the FGS's early offices (circa 1908 1920). The
building was a former wood and coal-storage structure situated just south of the Capitol
Building in Tallahassee (anonymous photo).


1






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


INTRODUCTION


The Florida Geological Survey's (FGS)
Main Office is located on the campus of the
Florida State University (FSU) in the
Herman W. Gunter Building, adjacent to
the university's Department of Geological
Sciences. The FGS's Oil and Gas Section
and Geological Data Acquisition Program
are co-located in office space in the
Department of Environmental Protection's
(DEP) Warehouse on Commonwealth
Boulevard. The FGS has a staff of 65 40
full-time, permanent and 25 part-time OPS
employees.


FGS Main Office, Gunter Building, FSU
Campus, Tallahassee, FL (photo by Tom
Scott).
Research facilities at the FGS include a
geological research library, sample reposito-
ries, and laboratories. The library contains
an extensive collection of state and federal
publications, periodicals, and references.
The sample repositories hold cores and well
cutting samples from more than 18,585
wells (both onshore and offshore), as well as
samples from approximately 5,400 out-
crops.

The laboratory facilities at the Gunter
Building include a permeability lab
equipped with 44 falling-head permeame-
ters; a sedimentology lab containing dia-
mond-blade rock-saws, drill press corer, and
core saw for core processing, sieve shakers,
ovens, and balances; sample preparation
equipment for clay mineralogy, organic/car-


bonate content and micro/nannofossil stud-
ies; and an alpha spectrometer.

A Hydrogeochemistry Lab and scan-
ning electron microscope (SEM) laboratory
have been set up at the Warehouse. New
equipment includes an alpha spectrometer
and a radio-isotope fume hood, a Mega Pure
3A Water Still, and a Jeol JXA-840A SEM
and microprobe.

Field equipment includes a trailer-
mounted auger rig, a truck-mounted
Failing 1500 drill rig for continuous coring,
a truck-mounted Mobile Drill and CME
auger/core rigs with wire-line coring capa-
bility, various pickup trucks and four-wheel
drive vehicles, two research vessels and six
smaller boats used for inland and marine
research projects. In addition, the FGS has
a side scan sonar, a geopulse subsurface
acoustic profiler, a vibracore sediment col-
lection system, a jet probe and a number of
water chemistry data loggers, GPS units
and sediment core and grab sampling
devices.

The FGS acquired its "GeoLab" in 1998.
The GeoLab is an aluminum step-van that
has been outfitted for mobile field and sim-
ple laboratory work and can also be used for
educational demonstrations at environmen-
tal fairs and schools. The FGS also has
cooperative agreements with FSU's
Department of Geological Sciences to share
an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray fluores-
cence spectrometer, and an atomic absorp-
tion spectrometer.

FGS CREATES THE
HYDRODGEOLOGY SECTION

In June 2004, in recognition of the
increasingly important role of hydrogeology
research within the mission of the FGS and
DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reor-
ganized to become a formal Section within






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the FGS. The new Hydrogeology Section
expands hydrogeologic research to further
the protection and management of Florida's
aquifers, ground-water resources and
springsheds. The Section is comprised of
Professional Geologists, a Senior Scientist,
and several OPS research staff who contin-
ue to conduct in-house research, and
administer hydrogeological research
through outsourcing. Knowledge gained
through this research has been applied to
rule making, regulatory, and policy deci-
sions that facilitate efficient, science-based
protection of the quantity and quality of
Florida's water resources.

FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL
OFFICE SPACE

In the summer of 2003, the Geological
Data Acquisition Program staff moved to
offices in the Warehouse and Core Storage
Facility located behind the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection's
(FDEP) Annex, across the street from the
FDEP Douglas Building located just off of
Capitol Circle Northwest in Tallahassee.


THIS BIENNIAL REPORT


Biennial reports have been historically
compiled by the FGS to not only chronicle
its legacy but to inform the public as to its
activities. They also serve to insure
accountability of FGS activities to Florida
government and the pubic pursuant to FGS
mission goals prescribed by Chapter 377,
Florida Statutes.

Following this introduction, eleven sec-
tions provide information about our pro-
gram, in the following order. Descriptions
of the general organization of the FGS are
provided in FGS ORGANIZATIONAL
STRUCTURE.


Work conducted by the FGS either on
its own or in conjunction with other agen-
cies in the past two calendar years is chron-
icled in the write ups for the four individual
FGS Sections. The four sections are the:
ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL
DATA MANAGEMENT, GEOLOGICAL
INVESTIGATIONS, HYDROGEOLOGY
and OIL AND GAS.

Next, the SPECIAL PROJECTS sec-
tion describes those projects which were not
anticipated, but were important enough to
garner special attention.

FGS scientists strive to maintain state-
of-the-art status regarding field support
and measurement and laboratory analytical
equipment; new additions during the bien-
nial period are described in EQUIPMENT
AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION.

Florida Statute 377.075 is quite specif-
ic about the role of the FGS; specific to its
mandate is the dissemination of geologic
information forthcoming from investigation
in published products. These are listed and
abstracted in the PUBLICATIONS section.

In addition to written, published prod-
ucts, the FGS is involved in in-house and
outside activities described in the PRE-
SENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFES-
SIONAL ACTIVITIES section.

The PERSONNEL INFORMATION
section chronicles personnel changes during
the past two-year period, and provides short
biographies of FGS personnel. Accolades
received by our staff or the Survey are
described in the AWARDS section.

Finally, a short, one-page tabulated
representation of FGS funding is provided
in the FGS BUDGET SUMMARY.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE


OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST

The State Geologist carries a three-fold
responsibility: Chief of the Survey, State
Geologist, and Administrator of Oil and Gas
exploration and production operations
throughout the State. The Chief exercises
the general program leadership, direction,
and management authority in planning,
scheduling and executing the programs of
the Survey. As State Geologist, he is the
point of contact representing the State of
Florida on geoscience inquiries from elected
and appointed officials, government agen-
cies, industry, mining companies, oil and
gas companies, geologic and hydrogeologic
consultants, environmental consultants,
academia, land and mineral owners, educa-
tors, students, and the public. The respon-
sibilities of the State Geologist and the
duties of the Florida Geological Survey have
been defined by the Florida Legislature
and are generally listed in Section 377.075,
Florida Statutes. With this guidance and
policy input from the Department of
Environmental Protection, the FGS has a
broad mission. It is described as follows:

The mission of the FGS is two
fold: First: to collect, interpret, dis-
seminate, store and maintain geo-
logic and earth science data, there-
by contributing to the responsible
use and understanding of Florida's
natural resources; and Second: to
conserve the State of Florida's oil
and gas resources and minimize
environmental impacts from explo-
ration and production operations
through regulatory oversight using
permits and inspections.

The FGS is presently organized into


Dr. Walter "Walt" Schmidt, State Geologist
and Chief, Florida Geological Survey
(photo by Harley Means).

four sections which are administered by the
State Geologist as Chief of the Survey. This
organizational structure is shown in the
organizational chart on the following page.

The sections include: the
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section, the Geological
Investigations Section, the Hydrogeology
Section, and the Oil and Gas Section. Each
of these sections is managed by a Section
Administrator. In addition to the overall
administration of the FGS, the primary
responsibilities of the State Geologist
include the historical functions of acting as
the chief geoscientist for the State in vari-
ous capacities and needs, and overseeing
the overall production and quality of the
geological research produced by the staff.
The State Geologist is also ultimately
responsible for implementing the State's oil
and gas exploration and production regula-
tions.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL
DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION

The Survey's Administrative and
Geological Data Management Section
includes the Administrative Secretary to
the State Geologist, administrative support
staff, the building custodian, the survey
librarian, the FGS network administrator,
the geological mapping and analysis staff,
and the environmental geology and educa-
tional outreach staff.

This section is responsible for adminis-
tration (budget, department and intera-
gency liaison, etc.) and personnel manage-
ment (travel, leave, benefits, etc.), Gunter
Building maintenance and repair, computer
system management and network adminis-
tration, web design, development and main-
tenance, and contract and grant tracking.
This group's functions also include graphics
design, geological mapping and map inter-
pretation through GIS and CAD analysis,
geological research library services, publi-
cation production and distribution, geologi-
cal education and public outreach, and envi-
ronmental geology research.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM

Geographic Information Systems

The Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) capability of the FGS consists of a
full-time GIS Analyst, a CAD analyst, a
general support group who contribute to
specific projects, three OPS technicians
specifically working on the Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment Program (FAVA)
Hydrogeology project, and the support of
BIS/GIS division.

Tasks undertaken by GIS include:
assistance in map production, development
of GIS applications, imagery manipulation
support, and technical support to all users
of GIS software (ArcView 3.2a, ArcGIS 8.x,
ESRI Extensions, ERDAS Imagine and


Jacqueline "Jackie" M. Lloyd, Assistant
State Geologist, Administrator of the
Administrative and Geological Data
Management Section (photobyHarleyMeans).


Surfer.) Other tasks include software evalu-
ation, development and maintenance of GIS
data on the FGS and DEP Intranet, instal-
lation and maintenance of GIS software,
scanning, digitizing, map series production
and maintenance, image processing, inter-
active web-based map development and
maintenance and development of GIS data-
bases and tools through programming lan-
guages such as Avenue and Visual Basic.

Major accomplishments for projects
during the time period of January 1, 2003
through December 31, 2004 include: revi-
sion of Florida Oil and Gas maps, comple-
tion of the FGS/MMS coastal sand search
program years 1 and 2, revision of the FGS
GIS data library directory, revision of
Wakulla County karst coverage mapping
project, addition of quarter/quarter/quarter
sections to PLSS boundary data layer,
assisted with the development of the State
of Florida Geologic Map at 1:100,000 scale
program and continued data conversion and
program transition to the ArcGIS 8.x for-
mat.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In support of the FAVA program, major
accomplishments include: development and
revision of a statewide 15m digital elevation
model at state level, development of closed
topographic depressions (CTD's) coverage,
refinement of soil permeability and
drainage grid, development of effective
karst features coverage for the Floridan
Aquifer System, and development of aquifer
thickness layers for FAVA. For details on
other FAVA maps, see page 38.

Web Technologies

The web capabilities of the FGS consist
of a full-time webmaster, who maintains,
enhances and adds to the FGS Internet and
Intranet web sites. All content on both sites
are supplied to the webmaster by full-time
and OPS employees of the FGS. These web
sites are part of the larger DEP website,
which is made up of all websites maintained
by the Department's Bureaus and
Divisions. The goal of the FGS Internet is to
present available geological information to
the citizens of the State of Florida. The goal
of the FGS Intranet is to supply forms,
graphics, library resources and helpful
information to FGS and DEP employees.

Tasks undertaken by the webmaster
include: preparation of information into
web pages for the Internet and Intranet in
compliance with ADA section 508 require-
ments and DEP web standards, develop-
ment of websites presenting geologic infor-
mation for CD's and DVD's, burning and
label printing of CD's and DVD's intended
for mass distribution, graphics for websites,
poster presentations and development of
CD/DVD labels.

Major accomplishments during the
time period of January 1, 2003 to December
31, 2004 include: redesign of the Internet
and Intranet to comply with DEP's new look
and feel and ADA section 508 compliancy
requirements. New additions to the
Internet include: Florida Rocks and


Minerals a subweb with pictures and
description of Florida's most common rocks
and minerals, an Oil and Gas subweb to
supply information to the Oil and Gas
industry, Springs of Florida FGS Bulletin
66, education web page to direct teachers
and students to educational material pro-
vided by the FGS and a page for sinkhole
frequently asked questions. Products creat-
ed for CD's and DVD's include: A Geologic
Investigation of the Offshore Area Along
Florida's Northeast Coast Year 1 and Year 2
Annual Reports.

Information Technologies

The Information Technologies (IT)
capabilities of the FGS include a full-time
Systems Programmer and an OPS automa-
tion specialist who are supplemented by the
Bureau of Information Systems (BIS). Most
computer hardware and software issues are
addressed by the systems programmer and
automation specialist. FGS primarily uses
Microsoft operating systems in conjunction
with office utilities from Microsoft.

Tasks undertaken by IT include: instal-
lation of newly acquired software, mainte-
nance and upgrading of all FGS computer
hardware systems including installation of
new devices, maintenance of networked
computer systems capabilities and periph-
eral devices, equipment storage and sup-
port for FGS network servers maintained
on-site.

Major accomplishments for the IT sec-
tion from January 1, 2003 through
December 31, 2004 include: All computer
systems were protected from virus attacks
by McAfee Enterprise virus scan and were
updated automatically by the ePo agent in
cooperation with BIS. Operating systems
in use by the FGS were setup to randomly
receive new updates that have been tested
by BIS and corresponding IT technical rep-
resentatives by the Software Update
Service server. All data generated by the






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


FGS is now backed up in house on a
Certance DAT 72 Autoloader. Backup
strategies and contingency plans have been
implemented in compliance with BIS back-
up standards and retention schedules.

PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

As an ongoing public education and
outreach effort, FGS staff members give
talks on Florida geology to local civic
groups, clubs and school classes throughout
the year. Resources permitting, we also
provide booths and displays at various local
festivals and celebrations such as Earth
Day. In 2003 and 2004, the FGS hosted
day-long open houses at its main office dur-
ing Earth Science Week of each year.

Earth Science Week 2003

October 12-18, 2003 was Earth Science
Week (ESW), a national event initiated and
sponsored by the American Geological
Institute (AGI) to raise public awareness of
the earth sciences and their role in our daily
lives. The theme for the 2003 event was
"Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring our
Changing World." In celebration of ESW
the FGS hosted its annual Open-House on


Wednesday, October 15 at the Gunter
Building on the campus of Florida State
University. The local home schooling com-
munity was invited as well as the general
public. The Open-House featured building
tours and various interactive activities.
FGS staff members also gave talks in local
middle schools on earth science topics dur-
ing ESW.

Earth Science Week 2004

On October 13, 2004 the Florida
Geological Survey held its annual Open
House celebrating Earth Science Week at
its main facility, the Gunter Building, on
the campus of Florida State University. We
especially enjoyed the attendance of fami-
lies from our local home schooling commu-
nity. The AGI theme for the 2004 event was
"Living on a Restless Earth". Interactive
activities appropriate for various age
groups were planned. Tours of our facility
at the Gunter Building were run through-
out the day. For the first time this year, the
Department of Environmental Protection's
Office of Environmental Education partici-
pated with Greg Ira and Jenny Dambek in
presenting an interactive ground-water
activity. Faith Eidse represented


Walt Schmidt leading a tour of the FGS building during Earth Science Week, 2004 (photo
by Frank Rupert).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Northwest Florida Water Management
District, demonstrating various ways by
which water is polluted, using their
Enviroscape Model.

This year, we planned special activities
to assist Webelos Scouts in earning their
Geology Badges. We extended Open House
hours from 6:30 to 8:30 pm so that Scouts
who usually meet in the evening could take
advantage of Open House activities.
Approximately 50 scouts, parents, and lead-
ers joined us for building tours, movies of
volcanic eruptions, hands-on identification
of volcanic rocks and an introduction to
common Florida rocks and minerals.

RESEARCH LIBRARY

The Research library is an integral part
of the Survey's research and regulatory pro-
grams. In support of the information needs
of staff, students, and researchers from the
public sector, the library staff provides
access to basic research materials including
books, maps, state and federal documents,
photographs and periodicals. Materials
continue to be collected and purchased on
various aspects of geology, including mining
and mineral resources, environmental geol-
MvmtW7_, p


Florida Geological Survey Library (photo
by Jim Balsillie).


ogy, hydrogeology and other related topics.
The library has one of the largest and oldest
geologic map collections in the state of
Florida.

Library Services

The library is used by the general pub-
lic, students, other government agencies,
and private consulting companies. While
circulation is restricted to Survey staff, and
the faculty of the Florida State University,
Department of Geological Sciences, the
library is open to the general public for
research. In addition, library materials are
available to libraries throughout the world
via the Interlibrary Loan system.

The library participates in a nation-
wide Interlibrary Loan network through
which the staff has access to other public,
special and academic collections. The
library cooperates with other libraries
through various networking groups on the
local, state, and national level. The librari-
an participates in the activities of the
Panhandle Library Access Network
(PLAN), the Florida Library Network
(FLIN), The North Florida Library
Association (NFLA), and various other
library and geoscience cooperatives.

The library has a new automation sys-
tem and is currently beginning the long
project of barcoding all of the holdings to
enable more accurate records for circulation
and inventory. An assessment of all of the
collections is in progress to determine it's
value and usefulness to the mission of the
survey. Many documents from non-coastal
plain states have been returned to those
states, or donated to libraries wishing to
increase their holdings in geological materi-
als.

Library Computer Services

The Research Library currently has
access to the GEOREF database, as well as






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


more than 25 other major databases,
through the State Library. Many of these
databases are full-text, expanding our
access to periodical literature.

Publications Distribution

The library is responsible for providing
detailed information on the survey's nearly
745 published documents and reports, and
oversees the distribution of all documents
currently in print. During 2003-2004 this
included more than 1,000 requests for a
total of approximately 7,000 documents. In
addition to individual requests, publica-
tions are distributed to more than 130
libraries, throughout Florida, the U.S. and
around the world, which maintain deposito-
ry collections of Florida Geological Survey
publications. FGS Publications are
requested by students, environmental con-
sultants, government agencies, libraries,
schools, geologists studying for professional
licensure, and the general public.

The List of Publications is also now
available online, with many of the Survey's
publications available in full text at no
charge. Thanks go to the Publication of
Archival Library and Museum Materials
(PALMM) of the libraries of the State
University System's Division of Colleges
and Universities, for continuing to scan in
many of our publications. This allows the
public fast and free access to many titles.
The online version of the List of
Publications is:
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publi-
cations/index.htm

SPECIAL PROJECTS

Leon County School System Leon
Advocacy and Resource Center
Cooperative Job Training Program

In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the
Leon County School System to provide job
training for local area high schools students


with special needs. The FGS program pro-
vides various computer filing / scanning job
experiences for the students. This continu-
ing project is helping the FGS digitize its
extensive collection of older, hard-copy
lithologic well logs.

National Geologic Map Database

During 2003-2004, the Florida
Geological Survey continued inputting FGS
published geologic maps into the National
Geologic Map Database. The National
Geologic Map Database is a project spon-
sored by the U.S. Geological Survey's
National Geologic Mapping Program in
cooperation with the Association of
American State Geologists. The goal of the
project is to establish a database of all
national and state produced geologic maps,
both paper and digital, and to provide key-
word and geographic searching capabilities
for the database. All published maps of the
Florida Geological Survey are included in
the database on an annual basis. The
National Geologic Map Database may be
accessed at: http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/.

St. Johns River Water Management
District Cooperative Program

In 1993, a cooperative program was
developed between the St. Johns River
Water Management District (SJRWMD)
and the FGS. In this program, samples
obtained from wells drilled as part of the
District Observation Well Network
(DOWN) are shipped to the FGS for prepa-
ration, description, and entry into an elec-
tronic database. SJRWMD funds a student
research assistant to describe samples. The
work is beneficial to both the District and
the FGS. The FGS is able to augment its
lithologic coverage of the counties covered
by the SJRWMD. SJRWMD obtains
descriptions of samples from its observation
wells providing it with site specific data
vital in understanding local and regional
hydrogeologic conditions.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
SECTION

The Geological Investigations Section
is comprised of the Coastal Research
Program, the Geologic Data Acquisition
Program, the Mineral Resources Program,
the Springs Initiative Program (created in
2001), Geologic Mapping Program
(National Cooperative Geologic Mapping
Act "STATEMAP") and the Water
Management District Cooperative Program.
In 2004, the Hydrogeology Program was
elevated to section status and removed from
the Geological Investigations Section. The
Geological Investigations Section conducts
research projects covering a wide range of
topics with section scientists being involved
in many basic and applied research proj-
ects. The projects are designed to produce
and interpret geological data to aid in
growth planning, resource management
and a better understanding of earth sys-
tems.

Under the auspices of the Governor's
Florida Springs Initiative, the 2001 Florida
Legislature authorized the inclusion of the
Florida Spring's Initiative in the
Department of Environmental Protection's
budget. The FGS was tasked with creating
an inventory of the State's more than 700
springs. The FGS began an investigation of
the springs which included land uses
around the springs and spring-water quali-
ty. In 2003-04, the Survey published FGS
Bulletin 66 Springs of Florida by T. M.
Scott, G. H. Means, R. P. Meegan, R. C.
Means, S. B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland, J.
Jones, T. Roberts and A. Willet. Included in
Bulletin 66 are chemical analyses of the
spring water for 126 springs and maps and
descriptions of more than 460 springs. A CD
accompanies the printed version and con-
tains all the published information plus the
descriptions and photographs of more than
350 springs that were not sampled. The
entire volume is also available on the FGS
website.


Dr. Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist
for Geological Investigations (photo by
Harley Means).


The Florida Springs Initiative began
funding an investigation of wallets in
2004. Swallets, those sinkholes that cap-
ture water from surface streams and rivers,
provide direct avenues of recharge to the
Floridan Aquifer System and, therefore, are
highly susceptible to pollution. FGS teams
are locating and describing swallets in
order to provide the first comprehensive
listing of the features and their distribu-
tion.

Ongoing cooperative research with the
State's water management districts and the
FGS Hydrogeology Section is delineating
hydrostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic
units. The FGS is studying potential beach
renourishment sands offshore from the
state's northeast coast in cooperation with
the U.S. Minerals Management Service.
Other investigations include mapping fund-
ed through the STATEMAP program in the
eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000
scale quadrangle (2003), the western por-
tion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quad-
rangle (2004), and ongoing mapping for
2004-05 in the eastern portion of the
Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quadrangle,






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


research on the Citronelle Formation in the
western Florida panhandle and cooperation
with State archeologists on the investiga-
tion of Native American sites. Work contin-
ues on the development of a new state geo-
morphic map which will delineate landform
distribution throughout the state and aid in
understanding the processes that developed
the state's land surface.

The section also consults with other
government agencies because the knowl-
edge of regional and local geology of a given
area is fundamental in the evaluation of
numerous environmental problems. The
Geological Investigations Section responds
to inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and
contamination, geologic hazards, geologic
mapping, Florida's geologic history, and
problems related to community planning
and development. The group prepares
detailed lithologic logs for wells that are on
file at the FGS. This information is added
to the Survey's digital data base which cur-
rently contains logs for more than 5,400
wells. This data base and the programs
designed to manipulate it are currently
used by other governmental agencies and a
number of private firms.

COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM

The Coastal Research Program (CRP)
is committed to continuing fundamental
research to improve our understanding of
Florida's coastal ecosystems and environ-
mental processes. This research provides
information that is essential for planning,
ecosystem management, conservation, and
protection of Florida's valuable coastal and
underwater resources.

Ongoing Coastal Projects

Sedimentological Research

A comprehensive comparative study
was initiated in 2002 and was published in
2003. In this study, a new type of sieve


shaker, the British-designed Meinzer II,
was compared to the long-used "industry
standard" Rul.ip shaker. Twenty sand-
sized sediment sample pair tests were con-
ducted using four different sieving protocols
to determine if Meinzer shakers duplicate
results from Rotap shakers. It was found,
based on qualitative visual assessments of
sample pair cumulative probability distri-
butions and on quantitative statistical
analyses, that Rotap and Meinzer shakers
result in essentially identical outcomes.

GRANPLOT, an analytic granulmetry
tools software application, was installed on
the FGS web site in 2002 and has been
viewed over 3,300 times. In addition, vari-
ous communiques have been received by the
authors. B. A. Cheadle, President of
DarkMatter Energy Consulting
Corporation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
wrote "... with some interest as I have often
struggled with devising an appropriate
manner to trick EXCEL into faking a probit
scale for probability plots". M. J. Johnsson,
a coastal geologist with the California
Coastal Commission, congratulated the
effort by stating "... I am impressed with
the wonderful job you have done
GRANPLOT certainly far exceeds my hum-
ble spreadsheets in utility and design."
Professor Jorge Ledesma-Vaczques,
Chairman of the Geology Department,
Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada,
Mexico, teaches undergrad and graduate
sedimentology and was "... very much inter-
ested in getting a copy of GRANPLOT ..."
for use by his students.

Sedimentation Elevation Table Project

Florida Gulf Coast marshes along the
Big Bend are experiencing sea-level rise
and an insufficient sediment supply to
maintain marsh surface elevation. Local
mean sea level is rising at an approximate
rate of 1.5 to 2.4 millimeters (mm) per year
and the spring-fed or controlled (dammed)
rivers of the Florida Gulf Coast do not pro-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


vide sufficient sediments to maintain long-
term health of the marshes. Marsh health
is determined by several factors; sediment
supply, sea-level rise, storm events, erosion
rate of waves and marsh subsidence. Over
the last 12 years the Florida Geological
Survey's Coastal Research Program, in
cooperation with the United States
Geological Survey, installed Sediment
Elevation Tables (SET) at a number of sites
along the Florida Gulf Coast (St. Joe Bay,
Apalachicola River, Ochlockonee River, St.
Marks River, Aucilla River, Rocky Creek,
Cedar Key area and Waccasassa River
area) to measure elevation changes of the
marsh surface. SET measurements were
combined with feldspar marker horizon
measurements to quantify changes in
marsh topography. The sediment supply
for the majority of these marshes is not suf-
ficient to keep pace with sea level rise,
resulting in a marsh surface elevation loss
of -0.3 to -15.0 mm/year. As a result, this
data suggests that the Big Bend coastal
areas are at risk, a finding that points out
the dynamic and mobile nature of coastal
environments.

The Coastal Program continued moni-
toring SET sites during the 2003-2004 peri-
od, evaluating the response of marshes to
sea level rise. A report of this data with
interpretations will be issued as an interac-
tive report (CD) in 2006.

Cooperative Coastal Projects

Offshore Sand Investigation

In 2002, the Florida Geological Survey
and the U.S. Minerals Management
Service (MMS) entered into a second multi-
year cooperative agreement with the specif-
ic goal of locating and characterizing both
the aerial extent and volume of available
sands suitable for beach nourishment lying
in federal waters adjacent to state sub-
merged lands off the northeast coast of
Florida.


The area of investigation in Year 1
(2003) comprised shallow sediments in fed-
eral waters off Nassau and Duval Counties,
from three to approximately ten miles off-
shore, and the sediments on the beaches
immediately adjacent to that area. During
2003, over 230 miles of sub-bottom profile
data were collected off Nassau and Duval
Counties and interpreted to determine loca-
tions thought to be favorable for the deposi-
tion of beach-quality sand. A total of 34
beach sampling locations were identified In
Nassau and Duval Counties and 106 sur-
face samples collected. A total of 18 off-
shore seabed grab samples were collected.
A total of 10 offshore seabed grab sample
locations were visited with grab samples
being collected from nine locations. Three
push cores were collected on the ebb tidal
delta of the Nassau River. Descriptions
were made and grain size distributions
were determined for all beach and offshore


Jim Ladner conducts cryogenic coring at
a SET site (photo by Dan Phelps).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


seabed grab samples and push cores. A pre-
liminary seismic stratigraphic analysis of
sub-bottom profiler data collected was com-
pleted. As a result of the seismic strati-
graphic analysis conducted, several fea-
tures indicative of high potential for the
occurrence of beach restoration quality
sand in federal waters off Duval County
were identified. This analysis was discussed
with representatives of the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District
Office and a copy of the preliminary work
map delineating those features was provid-
ed to them. They then selected 45 locations
in the study area of particular interest for
vibracoring in 2004. The results of the
tasks completed in 2003 for this investiga-
tion are detailed in A Geological
Investigation of the Offshore Area along
Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 1 Annual
Report to the United States Department of
Interior Minerals Management Service
(Phelps et al., 2003). This report will be
available on CD, via the MMS web site or
from the FGS.


In 2004, the CRP continued its second
multiyear program of offshore investiga-
tions in cooperation with the Minerals
Management Service. Data collection in
Year 2 of this study concentrated primarily
on the areas offshore of Nassau and Duval
Counties as well as the northern half of St.
Johns County from three to approximately
ten miles offshore and the sediments on the
beaches immediately adjacent to that area.
During Year 2, over 190 miles of seismic
data were collected and interpreted to
determine locations thought to be favorable
for the deposition of beach-quality sand A
total of 63 beach sampling locations in St.
Johns and Flagler Counties were identified
and 127 points sampled. Samples collected
from the beaches of St. Johns County were
analyzed and the results included in the
Year 2 Report. Samples collected from the
beaches of Flagler County will be included
in the Year 3 Report. A total of 52 vibra-
cores were collected offshore of Nassau and
Duval Counties. Of that total, 11 vibracores
were collected by the FGS and 41 were col-


'


r


The 50' KV Geoquest (photo by Dan Phelps).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


elected by the FGS's subcontractor Athena
Technologies Inc. offshore of southern
Duval County.

The results of the tasks completed in
Year 2 of this investigation are detailed in
A Geological Investigation of the Offshore
Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year
2 Annual Report to the United States
Department of Interior Minerals
Management Service (Phelps et al., 2004).
This report will be available on DVD via the
MMS web site or from the FGS.


Joint Coastal Research


During 2003, di
ed between the N
Center, Coastal
Coastal Operations


scussions were conduct-
raval Surface Warfare
Systems Station, the
Institute and the FGS


Jim Balsillie and Jim Ladner procure a
vibracore in the Atlantic Ocean (photo by
Dan Phelps).


Coastal Research Program resulting in a
new memorandum of agreement between
these three groups in July, 2003. The pur-
pose of this agreement provides a mecha-
nism to develop a working relationship
between the three participating organiza-
tions and was established to facilitate coop-
erative efforts, and to leverage mutual
expertise in the broad areas of coastal sci-
ence, engineering and technology.
Investigations involving common needs of
the state and federal agencies will be car-
ried out in Florida's near-shore and OCS
waters.

Gulf of Mexico State Geological
Surveys Consortium

A memorandum of agreement of State
Geologists, representing the five states bor-
dering the Gulf of Mexico, Florida,
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and
Texas, forms the Gulf of Mexico State
Geological Surveys Consortium. This asso-
ciation was formed to provide for joint coop-
eration in investigations and scientific
exchanges concerning earth sciences
(including geology, geochemistry,
geochronology, geophysical, and geotechni-
cal studies) on subjects of mutual interest.
This cooperation strives to advance the
understanding of the Gulf of Mexico
onshore and offshore and promote coopera-
tion on regional studies. An improved
understanding of the geologic processes
impacting the Gulf of Mexico is essential for
the formulation of wise decisions regarding
the use and preservation of the region's nat-
ural resources.

In 2003, the consortium met to develop
a framework of identified needs and areas
of cooperation for future research in the
Gulf of Mexico. These were formalized in a
report that was given to the USGS and con-
gressional staff for potential funding.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute
Scallop Research Project

In 2004, the FGS CRP and the Florida
Marine Research Institute (FMRI) conduct-
ed an investigation of the offshore area off
Port Canaveral using an established con-
trol-grid to monitor the health of scallops
and associated biota (Calico Project). The
established research grid was located in an
area 15 to 30 miles offshore in water depths
ranging from 50 to 250 feet. Utilizing the
50' FGS RV GeoQuest, 60 trawl samples
were collected. In order to accomplish this
task, it was required that the RV GeoQuest
be fitted with a stern-mounted fast-
retrieval winch, which was built and
installed by Wade Stringer, the ship's cap-
tain.

The cruise was conducted on November
20 24, 2004. Scallop collection was accom-
plished using a mesh-bag attached to a
tethered trawl frame and dragged on the
ocean bottom a speed of one to four knots.
Upon retrieval, the contents were sorted
and weighed and the scallop tissue sam-
pled.

FGS personnel included Wade Stringer
and James H. Balsillie. FMRI personnel for
this Calico Project included Steve Geiger
(Assoc. Research Scientist, Principal
Investigator for the Calico Project), Janessa
Cobb (research staff), Carla Beals (research
staff), Bill Arnold (fisheries supervisor), and
Brett Pittinger (research staff).

Resistivity Survey Project

In the spring of 2003, staff from the
FGS Coastal Research Program and the
FGS Hydrogeology Section conducted a
resistivity survey of eleven coastal and
estuarine areas around Florida. Using two
boats and a 400-feet-long towed cable, resis-


Dan Phelps examining Volusia County
beach erosion (photo by Jim Ladner).
tivity data were recorded in the surveyed
water bodies up to 90 feet deep. The method
measures differences in conductivity
between saltwater and freshwater and
between polluted water and clean water.
Physical parameters such as temperature,
pH, and salinity were concurrently meas-
ured. In some locations a side-scan sonar
record of bottom features was also obtained.
The acquired data showed that the method
is a feasible and economical initial step in
locating areas of ground-water discharge
that can be "ground truthed" at a later date.
The survey suggests that remote-sensing
techniques such as thermography, satellite
imaging and resistivity may be practical
approaches to estimating ground-water con-
tribution over large areas of surface water.
Quantification of ground-water contribu-
tion as base flow to surface water is essen-
tial to regulatory programs such as Total
Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) and others.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION
PROGRAM

The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. Very low topographic
relief characterizes the state and data
obtained from cores is essential to the
understanding of subsurface stratigraphy,
hydrogeology and hydrology.

During 2003-2004, the FGS operated
three rigs; a Failing 1500, a Mobile Drill B-
31 and a CME 75. The Failing 1500 was
taken out of service in 2004 and the full
time crew (a licensed driller and an assis-
tant), is now operating the CME 75, pend-
ing delivery of a new Schramm T450M11A
drill rig. The Mobile Drill and CME
auger/core rigs have been outfitted for con-
tinuous coring in rock or unconsolidated
sediments. These two rigs are utilized for
shallow (about 230 feet) and intermediate
(about 800 feet) depth coring.

During 2003-2004, the FGS drilling
program drilled 20 core holes in six counties
in support of five different projects. Core
holes ranged from 29.5 to 900 feet in depth
for a total of 4592 feet cored. Monitor wells
were constructed in 13 of these core holes in
cooperation with Collier County, the
Northwest Florida and Suwannee River
Water Management Districts, Florida
Department of Health and the Department
of Environmental Protection Bureau of
Watershed Management.

Ongoing Geologic Data
Acquisition Projects

Geologic Sample Collection

The FGS maintains separate collec-
tions of well and surface outcrop samples.
The well sample collection contains more
than 18,585 sets of samples from explo-
ration, water and oil wells. Most wells are
represented by sets of drill cuttings.
Approximately 1100 wells are represented


by continuous core or core samples (a total
of approximately 200,500 feet). The FGS,
USGS, Water Management Districts and
geologic consultants drill new core sample
sets and add them to the archives. The
sample repository facility occupies 12,090
square feet, with almost 30,000 cubic feet of
shelf space, with room for expansion.

A collection of approximately 5,750 out-
crop samples and mineral specimens is
maintained by the FGS at its headquarters
in the Gunter Building. These samples are
cross-indexed by formation, lithology, coun-
ty and location. The collection is referred to
as the "M-Series." The M-Series is particu-
larly valuable given Florida's high popula-
tion growth and development. Surface
exposures of critical lithologies have become
inaccessible with the continued prolifera-
tion of roadways, shopping centers, parking
lots and high-rise housing.

These sample archives and the data
base they represent are utilized by geolo-


mm-


FGS's new Schramm T450 drill rig
installing monitoring wells for Southeast
Sprayfield Investigation (photo by Ken
Campbell).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


gists at the FGS, other state, federal and
local governmental agencies, universities
(both in and out of the state), geological con-
sultants, well drillers, and the public.

Cooperative Geologic Data
Acquisition Projects

Manatee Springs Investigation

The Florida Department of Health,
Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, con-
tracted with the FGS to investigate four
sites in and around Manatee Springs State
Park. Ten shallow core holes and monitor
wells were drilled in each of two camp-
grounds within the park during 2002 to


rh


Installation of Manatee Springs conduit
monitoring wells (photo by David Paul).


investigate the operation of septic systems
in a karst environment. The remaining two
sites outside the park had a total of three
cores drilled and monitor wells constructed
during 2003. Core samples were examined,
lithologic logs generated, formation picks
made and the logs were entered into the
FGS database. Hydraulic conductivity
analyses were also conducted on selected
samples from each core. Manatee Springs
State Park, Suwannee River Water
Management District and Florida State
University were also cooperators.

Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment

In this cooperative agreement, the FGS
agreed to drill three 1000-foot holes at loca-
tions specified by Collier County to be
established as monitoring wells for continu-
ous aquifer monitoring and to obtain core to
determine hydrostratigraphy. The second
well was completed and the third well
drilled during this period. Lithologic
descriptions were generated for the FGS
computer database. Collier County decided
not to install monitor wells at these sites.
This project is complete.

Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation

Three core holes were drilled intersect-
ing the Main, Blue Water and Sewer tun-
nels (conduits). Drill sites were selected
utilizing cave divers to set up radio beacons
in the spring conduits and using a radio
receiver at the surface to locate the surface
location directly over the beacon. Four inch
monitor wells were constructed with open
completions in the spring conduits. The
SRWMD has installed dedicated instru-
mentation thru these wells to collect con-
duit specific water quality and quantity
information previously available only by
sending a cave diving team to physically
collect the water samples. Lithologic
descriptions of the core samples were gener-
ated for the FGS wells database.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Oleno State Park and River Rise
State Preserve

Two core holes were drilled and moni-
tor wells constructed in support of an ongo-
ing investigation into the hydrogeology of
the Oleno/River Rise area. These cores
were also in support of the ongoing
STATEMAP project.

Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer System
Monitor Well Construction

Three coreholes were drilled proximal
to the water filled conduits comprising the
Sullivan Sink portion of the Leon Sinks
Cave System within the Apalachicola
National Forest. Monitor wells were
installed in each borehole with the
screened/open hole portion of the wells cor-
responding to the same depths as the adja-
cent conduit. Lithologic logs were generat-
ed, formation picks made and hydraulic
conductivity analysis made on selected
samples of each core.

City of Tallahassee Southeast
Sprayfield Investigation

The FGS is participating in an ongoing
investigation to determine whether the
sprayfield is contributing to the nutrient
load being delivered to springs in the area
(including Wakulla Spring). A series of
wells will be drilled to monitor leachate
from the sprayfield and serve as dye injec-
tion points for tracing studies. Each drill
site will have two wells (125-feet and 250-
feet deep). The deep hole will be continuous
core. Drilling commenced in late 2004, and
the first of two wells at the initial drilling
site was completed by the end of that year.
Cuttings from this 125-foot well were
described and the lithologic log added to the
FGS wells database.


Northwest Florida Water Management
District Cooperative Program

During fiscal years 2003 and 2004, FGS
staff described well cuttings and entered
the data into the FGS wells database under
a purchase order agreement with the
Northwest Florida Water Management
District. Kenji Butler and Harley Means
worked on the project. In 2003, Kenji
described 180 cuttings samples from
NWFWMD. In fiscal year 2004, Kenji
described another 902 samples. The data
from this project helped to refine knowledge
on the lithostratigraphy of Walton County
and vicinity.

South Florida Water Management District
Cooperative Program

South Florida is experiencing rapid
population growth and water management
practices must be predicated on an ade-
quate understanding of the lithologic units
which comprise aquifer systems. In 1992,
the FGS and the South Florida Water
Management District (SFWMD) began a
cooperative project in Collier, Lee, Glades,
Martin, Okeechobee, Osceola, St. Lucie,
Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties to
provide geologic information in support of
this need. Several OPS staff members
described samples for the SFWMD during
2003-2004, resulting in an addition of over
60,000 feet of new descriptions from the dis-
trict.

MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM

The Mineral Resource Program main-
tains communication with the mineral
industry in Florida. The section publishes a
biennial status report related to industry
activity. The program is also responsible
for providing mineral resource assessments
on parcels of land that are targeted for pur-
chase by the state. These assessments are
completed on an as-needed basis. We are
continuing to provide geologic input into the






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


mineral lands transfer between the Federal
Bureau of Land Management and the state
of Florida.

For the year 2003, the USGS ranked
Florida fifth in the U.S. with an estimated
non-fuel mineral production value of $2 bil-
lion. Following is a description of mineral
resources.

Phosphate

Florida supplies approximately one-
quarter of the world's phosphate needs and
three-quarters of US domestic needs.
Nearly all of the phosphate rock that is
mined in Florida is used to manufacture
fertilizer which, in turn, is used for agricul-
tural purposes. What is not used in the
manufacture of fertilizer is typically used in
a number of products including feed supple-
ments, vitamins, soft drinks, and tooth-
paste. In recent years, fertilizer exports
from Florida have exceeded a billion dollars
in value, making it another one of Florida's
leading export commodities.

Crushed Stone

Florida rose to second in the United
States in the production of crushed stone
(limestone and dolostone). Most of the
stone that is mined in Florida is used for
road construction. Limestone of high puri-
ty can undergo calcination (heating) and,
together with other ingredients, be used to
manufacture portland and masonry
cement. Florida ranked seventh in the pro-
duction of portland cement and is first in
the production of masonry cement.

Sand and Gravel

Florida ranks in the top one-third of
states in the country in sand and gravel
used and produced. Sand and gravel is sub-
divided into construction and industrial
sand, the bulk of which is, in Florida, con-
struction grade.


Heavy Minerals

These are mineral grains with specific
gravities generally in excess of 2.9. They
include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and leucox-
ene. Ilmenite and rutile are primary ingre-
dients in the manufacture of titanium diox-
ide pigments, used in the manufacture of
paint, varnish and lacquers, plastics, and
paper. Florida is the top heavy mineral
producer in the nation.

Peat

Peat is an organic-rich accumulation of
decaying plant material. Although peat
departs from the inorganic definition of a
mineral, it is generally considered an eco-
nomic mineral. Florida ranked first in the
nation in the production of horticultural
peat.

Clay

Fuller's earth, common clay, and kaolin
are mined in a few locations in Florida.
Fuller's earth is typically used as an
absorbent material, while kaolin is used in
the manufacture of paper and refractories.
Common clay, mined in small quantities
from various locations throughout the state,
is used in the manufacture of brick, cement
and lightweight aggregate.

The state led the nation during 2003 in
production of phosphate rock, titanium con-
centrates, and peat. Florida tied for first in
masonry cement production, fourth in pro-
duction of Fuller's earth, second in crushed
stone, third in magnesium compounds, and
seventh in Portland cement. Florida contin-
ues to produce substantial quantities of
sand and gravel and ranks approximately
13th in sand and gravel used by producers
in 2003. (The USGS prepares state ranking
information every two years based upon
confidential data returned to them from
Florida mine operators.)






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Crude Oil and Natural Gas

Oil and gas are produced from two pri-
mary oil field areas of Florida. Production
began in 1943 in south Florida near Fort
Myers, where the Cretaceous Sunniland
Formation yields oil from depths between
11,000 and 13,000 feet. In northwestern
Florida, near Jay, oil has been produced
since 1970 from the Jurassic Smackover
and Norphlet Formations at depths
between 14,000 and 17,000 feet. Production
peaked in the late 1970s at 48 million bar-
rels of crude oil and 52 billion cubic feet of
natural gas per year. For additional,
detailed information see the section on the
Oil and Gas Regulatory Program.

SPRINGS PROGRAM

The Florida Springs Initiative, estab-
lished by Governor Bush in 2001, continued
to receive legislative funding in 2003/04. Of
the $2.5 million dollar per year allocation
the Initiative received, the Florida


Geological Survey was granted over
$400,000 to continue research and monitor-
ing of springs through several projects.
Those projects include the revision of
Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida, Quarterly
Water Quality and Discharge Monitoring,
and the Swallet Inventory Project.

In 2003, work continued on the revision
of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida. Field
teams visited and described 463 springs
across the state almost doubling the num-
ber of springs listed in Bulletin 31, Revised
(1977). Water quality and discharge meas-
urements were also taken at 126 springs.
This work culminated in the publication of
a new volume, Bulletin 66, Springs of
Florida, which was released in September
of 2004. This work was the third iteration
in the Springs of Florida series and the
most comprehensive to date. The volume
includes color photos, maps, water quality
tables and a CD in the back cover that con-
tains the entire document in digital format.


Jackson Blue Spring (Photo by Tom Scott).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


The entire volume is also available online
at:
http:///www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geolog-
ictopics/springs/bulletin66.htm.

Springs field teams continued to sam-
ple water quality and measure discharge of
most of Florida's first magnitude springs
and some selected second magnitude
springs in 2003/04. The work is done on a
quarterly basis starting in January.
Samplers Ryan Means and Rebecca Meegan
sampled springs as part of an ongoing proj-
ect that will look at water quality and quan-
tity trends through time. James McClean
and Brie Coane began measuring the dis-
charge at sampled springs in 2004. The
water samples are analyzed by the FDEP
lab and the data are uploaded into an inter-
net accessible database.

In July 2004, the Florida Geological
Survey started the Swallet Inventory
Project. Swallets are karst features that
receive surface water. These features are
important because they provide direct
access to the aquifer system without any
possibility for filtering out contaminants.
Many swallets exist in spring basins and
may be contributing contaminated water to
springs. Ed Chelette and Diana Thurman-
Nowack were hired to conduct an inventory
of major swallets in first magnitude spring
basins. Their work includes inspecting
topographic maps, aerial maps and other


T. Scott, R. Green and H. Means in Brooks
Cave (photo by Sean Roberts).


W. Evans and J. Halfhill identifying fossils
in rock quarry (photo by Rick Green).

sources to locate potential swallets then vis-
iting the site to record data about each
swallet. The data are stored in a database
which is used to create maps. These maps
are useful to local land managers and plan-
ners who make decisions about land use in
these vulnerable areas.

STATEMAP PROGRAM

The STATEMAP Program is a coopera-
tive project funded jointly by the FGS and
the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping
Program under the State Geologic Mapping
Component (STATEMAP). For each of the
last ten years, staff members from the FGS
have performed detailed geologic mapping
of 1:100,000 scale USGS quadrangles and
published the results as part of the FGS
Open-File Map Series (OFMS).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In 2002-2003, FGS staff geologists
Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave
Paul, and Jake Halfhill, together with John
Bryan, a professor with Okaloosa-Walton
Community College, with the help of Roger
Portell, a paleontologist from the Florida
Museum of Natural History, produced a
geologic map, a surficial sediments map,
and several geologic cross sections for the
eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000
Quadrangle. These maps and cross sections
are available through the FGS Open File
Map Series (OFMS No. 92).

In 2003-2004, Richard Green, William
L. Evans III, Dave Paul, John Bryan, and
Roger Portell, produced a geologic map for
the western portion of the 1:100,000 scale
Gainesville Quadrangle. The project
included a bedrock geologic map, a poster
showing descriptions and key fossil for the
units, and several geologic cross sections.
These maps and cross sections are also
available through the FGS Open File Map
Series (OFMS No. 93).

As part of the field mapping for the
2003-2004 western portion of Gainesville
1:100,1000 Quadrangle, STATEMAP
Project staff from the FGS STATEMAP,
Coastal Research Program, and
Hydrogeology Section, together with Jon
Bryan, and Roger Portell completed an
extensive geologic mapping expedition of
the lower Suwannee River system within
the study area. Utilizing two scout/support
boats and a live-aboard vessel as a base of
operations, expedition geologists mapped
over 100 miles of the lower Suwannee River
and approximately 10 miles of the Santa Fe
River. This included the collection of
numerous geologic samples and the rescue
of a young Barred Owl that had been hope-
lessly snared in an abandoned catfish line
along the banks of the Suwannee River.

In September, 2004, the FGS began
working on production of a bedrock geologic
map, and several geologic cross sections for


Live-aboard house boat utilized during
the lower Suwannee River mapping proj-
ect (photo by Rick Green).

the eastern portion of the 1:100,000 scale
Gainesville Quadrangle. Field mapping
began in October, with a planned comple-
tion date of October, 2005. The maps and
cross sections for this area will be available
through the FGS Open File Map Series
beginning in November of 2005.

After input and an October workshop
with the Florida Geological Mapping
Advisory Committee, the USGS 1:100,000
Lake City Quadrangle in north-central
Florida was selected for the next area to be
mapped under the STATEMAP program. If
the National STATEMAP Advisory
Committee approves the project, mapping
will begin in this area in November of 2005.


Will Evans' rescue of a Barred Owl (photo
by Rick Green).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION

In June 2004, in recognition of the
increasingly important role of hydrogeology
research within the mission of the FGS and
DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reor-
ganized to become a formal Section within
the FGS. The mission of the Hydrogeology
Section is to disseminate hydrogeologic
information, conduct hydrogeologic
research, and administer such research
through outsourcing in support of the need
for unbiased, scientific knowledge of
Florida's water resources with specific
emphasis on aquifer system dynamics and
the sustainability of ground water and
watersheds. This knowledge is applicable to
rule making, regulatory, and policy deci-
sions that facilitate efficient, science-based
protection of the quantity and quality of
Florida's water resources a critical compo-
nent of Florida's environment. Five interre-
lated program areas comprise the Section:
1) hydrogeochemistry, 2) physical aquifer
characterization, 3) aquifer vulnerability
assessment, 4) karst hydrogeology and 5)
education.

HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY PROGRAM

Laboratory facilities and research with-
in Hydrogeochemistry Program has signifi-
cantly expanded in response to the increas-
ing need for understanding water-rock
interactions, especially with regard to
aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) prac-
tices. Research on water quality changes
during ASR continue at the field scale (i.e.,
cycle testing) and at the bench scale. The
bench-scale studies focus on developing a
predictive tool for potential water-rock reac-
tions in the field. The following are hydro-
geochemistry projects worked on during
2003-2004.

Aquifer Storage and Recovery
Geochemical Studies

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a


Dr. Jon Arthur, Assistant State Geologist
for Hydrogeology (photo by Harley Means).

cost-effective, viable solution to address
drinking-water shortages in Florida. ASR
wells are Class 5 injection wells regulated
by the Underground Injection Control
Program of the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection Division of
Water Resource Management (FDEP-UIC).
Twenty-six ASR facilities are in operation
in Florida and more than 15 sites are under
development. Some of the sites include
reclaimed water ASR facilities, which are
also cost-effective solutions to local water
shortages. The FGS is working with the
FDEP-UIC Program, the University of
South Florida, SWFWMD, SFWMD and
consulting firms to characterize water rock
geochemistry during ASR at the bench scale
and in the field.

The Florida Aquifer Storage and
Recovery Geochemical Study is an ongoing
investigation by the FGS to examine water-
rock geochemical interactions that take
place during ASR cycle testing. Water-
quality variations and aquifer system char-
acteristics at five ASR facilities are the
focus of the current study. In addition, geo-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


chemical and mineralogical data from cores
taken within and outside the influence of an
ASR storage zone are currently being col-
lected.

FGS research funded by the FDEP-UIC
Program has confirmed that understanding
water-rock geochemical interactions is
important to the continued success of ASR
in Florida. Results of this investigation
indicate the following: 1) chemical (includ-
ing isotopic) variability exists within
ground water and carbonates of the
Floridan Aquifer System, 2) this variability
may result in site-specific geochemical
processes affecting ASR wells and water
quality, 3) in some localities, oxygen-rich
surface waters, once injected into the
Floridan Aquifer System causes the release
of trace metals such as arsenic (As), iron
(Fe), manganese (Mn), uranium (U) and
perhaps nickel (Ni) into the recharged (and
eventually recovered) waters, 4) the design
of recharge-storage-recovery cycle tests and
the location of monitor wells are important
aspects of understanding these geochemical
processes. Of the nine cycle tests investi-
gated to date, most recovered samples
exceed the new maximum contaminant
level (MCL) for As (10 ug/1). Research on
the source of As in the Floridan Aquifer
System matrix, results of cycle testing in
different hydrogeological settings and the
effects of repeated cycles tests continues.

The FGS is also engaged in research as
part of the Comprehensive Everglades
Restoration Plan to conduct a geochemical
reconnaissance of the Floridan Aquifer
System carbonates in southern Florida.
This investigation will focus on carbonate
mineralogy, mineral chemistry, rock geo-
chemistry (including a series of isotopic
analyses), and bench-scale studies. Two
types of bench scale studies are planned:
sequential extraction, which identifies asso-
ciations between minerals and metals, and
leaching studies that assess solubility of
metals during simulated cycle tests under


high-dissolved oxygen conditions in the lab-
oratory. Similar experiments are being con-
ducted for consulting firms, who have recog-
nized the expertise and the unique analyti-
cal capabilities of the FGS hydrogeochem-
istry lab (see below).

Results of this research underscore the
need for continued research on the geo-
chemistry of ASR in Florida, especially in
consideration of the 300+ ASR wells pro-
posed as part of the Comprehensive
Everglades Restoration Plan. There exists
a need to improve our understanding of the
water-rock dynamics in different hydrogeo-
logical settings in which ASR may be
applied.

Bench Scale Geochemical Assessment
of Water-rock Interaction: Seminole
County ASR

The purpose of this study is to charac-
terize bench-scale leachability of Floridan
Aquifer System carbonate rocks in response
to high concentrations of dissolve oxygen
(DO), and identify sources of metals in
these rocks. This study is divided into five
main parts: 1) lithological descriptions of
the ASR well rock samples of Avon Park
Formation, Seminole County, 2) permeabil-
ity study for both vertical and horizontal
core samples of the ASR well, 3) geochem-
istry of the water samples (leachate) when
exposed to aquifer rocks under high concen-
trations of dissolved oxygen, 4) geochem-
istry of the aquifer rocks to identify sources
of metals in these rocks, and 5) sequential
extraction of the storage-zone carbonates to
identify mineral and non-mineral phases in
the aquifer matrix that may be leachable
under ASR conditions.

Four hundred sixty five water samples,
seven whole rock samples, and seven
sequential leaching samples have been ana-
lyzed for 64 elements at a commercial labo-
ratory using inductively coupled plasma-
mass spectrometer and optical emission
spectrometer analytical techniques.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


Water-quality changes during four
bench-scale cycles have been evaluated.
Time-series graphs allow comparison of
water chemistry changes during periods of
aeration and non-aeration for each cycle.
The graphs of water quality changes during
bench-scale cycles (see following figure) also
clearly define concentrations and mobiliza-
tion, depending on the initial concentra-
tions of the source rock. Mobilization of As,
U and other trace metals during four cycles
for the Seminole ASR aquifer rocks are evi-
dent. Comparable results for leached As
were evident in all four cycle tests.
Leachates collected from cycle test 1 dis-
played greater As concentrations compared
to the other three cycles. During this cycle,
leachates collected during pump off showed
an increase of As concentrations with time
whereas during pump on, As peaked, then
showed decrease in concentrations with
time. On the other hand, other samples
showed more than one As peak.

From the whole-rock geochemistry
data, trace metals such as As, Cr, Ni, V, Mo,
U, Zn, Sb, S, Sc, Th, La, and Sm showed
high concentrations. When compared to
global averages for limestone, these select-
ed trace metals far exceed global averages.
The linear co-variations of As and Mo sug-
gest that Mo is possibly associated in As-
bearing phases such as arsenian pyrite.
Other minerals or phases containing As in
these carbonate rocks include organic mate-
rial and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide coatings.
Arsenian pyrite is among the sources of As
in the ASR aquifer rocks; however, sequen-
tial extraction studies suggest other phases
(e.g., Fe-oxides and organic) may contain
As and associate metals as well. Organic
material may contain U, which is also
thought to be associated with carbonate
phases.

Sequential extraction bench tests sug-
gest that dominant As-bearing phases
reside within the "organic plus insoluble
residue" fraction of the matrix, which


includes sulfide minerals (see Results of
sequential extraction figure).

The results also demonstrate that the
"organic plus insoluble residue" fraction is
strongly associated with Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Fe,
La, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and U whereas Zn is
associated with carbonate minerals.
Organic material is recognized as a
source/sink for uranium. The sources of
arsenic may also include organic in addi-
tion to pyrite. These extraction results also
provide evidence for presence of As and
other mobilized metals in "non-sulfide" frac-
tions of the aquifer matrix (e.g., the carbon-
ate and Fe-oxide fractions). In summary,
four different chemical forms of As were
extracted from the core samples. The
extracted chemical forms are as follows: (1)
soluble form, (2) acid soluble form (As main-
ly fixed in carbonates), (3) reducible form
(As fixed in Fe and/or Mn-oxides), (4) insol-
uble form (As fixed mainly in sulfides and
rarely in silicates). Arsenic occurs predomi-
nantly in the reducible form, organic form
and insoluble form.

Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the
Ground-water Quality of Springs and
Wells in Florida

For decades, Floridians have been
interested in the quality of spring and well
water. By the early 1900s, only a handful of
springs had been analyzed for their chemi-
cal constituents. However, the number of
springs sampled and the chemical con-
stituents analyzed increased through the
first half of the 20th century. In 1947, the
FGS published an inventory of springs in
Florida, which included water quality
analyses (Ferguson et al., 1947). The publi-
cation was revised in 1977 (Rosenau et al.,
1977), and in 2004, a third publication
regarding the springs of Florida, including
water quality analyses, was published by
the FGS (Scott et al., 2004).

It should be noted that nitrate (nitrate








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


plus nitrite as N, but referred to as nitrate)
concentrations have been increasing in
springs for the past several decades.
Although this has been an impetus in
recent years for increased spring monitor-
ing, the state is interested in many chemi-
cals, not only from springs, but also wells.
Over the years, the water management dis-
tricts and other organizations began sam-
pling and analyzing the water quality from
both springs and wells. Although today it
can be said that many springs and wells
have been sampled, only a few have been
monitored consistently for an entire suite of
chemicals for more than a decade.
However, by the early 1990s, over 70
springs and about 50 wells were being mon-
itored for water quality on a fairly regular
basis.

The purpose of this project is to statis-
tically evaluate data collected from the
springs and wells for the period 1991 2003.
Before the evaluation can be conducted, the
data needs to be obtained. During 2003 and
2004, the FGS collected the water-quality
and flow data from these springs and wells.
In addition, the data was compiled and pre-
pared for statistical analyses. The antici-
pated completion date of the trends report
is 2006.

EDUCATION PROGRAM

The Education Program within the
Hydrogeology Section emphasizes develop-
ment of workshops, posters and curriculum
materials that promote a better under-
standing of Florida's complex hydrogeologic
systems. Intended end-users vary by proj-
ect and range from elected officials, second-
ary school students, private industry and
the general public.

Development of a Cave Glossary

In April 2003, the FGS co-sponsored a
workshop (Significance of Caves in
Watershed Management and Protection in


Florida) in which the theme was to provide
a forum to facilitate discussions among sci-
entists, resource managers, cavers and the
public regarding the significance of caves
and springs in Florida. During the work-
shop, it was pointed out that caves: (1) con-
tain archeological and cultural artifacts; (2)
can act as laboratories for medical, biologi-
cal, geological, hydrogeological, and other
scientific studies; (3) are valuable tools for
understanding ground-water flow and con-
tamination transport in karst terrains; and
(4) because of 1-3, can significantly impact
local and statewide economies.

Because of the importance of caves, and
because cavers spend a considerable
amount of time inside caves, it is imperative
that cavers communicate their considerable
knowledge of caves in a standardized proto-
col with each other and with the scientific
community. For these reasons, it was rec-
ommended that a cave glossary be devel-
oped, emphasizing terms used in and near
Florida, including the Caribbean.

FGS took the lead in developing the
glossary. It organized a committee to assist
it in generating the glossary. The commit-
tee, (The Florida Committee for the
Terminology for Cave and Karst Systems),
consisted of representatives from the dry
caving, cave diving communities and FGS
geologists. The committee decided that the
two major purposes in publishing the glos-
sary were to improve: (1) the overall under-
standing of wet and dry caves in and near
Florida, and (2) consistency in the usage of
terms associated with caves. The draft ver-
sion of the glossary contains over 1500
terms. The final document should be com-
pleted in 2006.

"Explore Florida!" Website

Explore Florida! is a Web-based cur-
riculum that integrates multidisciplinary
lesson plans with the use of maps and
images such as satellite and airborne






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


imagery, aerial photography, topographic
maps, and other special-purpose carto-
graphic products (e.g., 3D anaglyph maps).
These materials allow middle and high
school students to visualize earth-system
processes and human impact while relating
them to disciplines beyond earth science,
such as mathematics, history, social science
and language arts. Student and teacher
manuals contain site-specific background
information and sets of "hands-on" and
"minds-on" interdisciplinary activities
keyed to the state science standards. All
materials can be used in the classroom
straight from the Web, or can be down-
loaded and printed in black and white, or
color. A series of workshops will be held to
familiarize teachers with these resources.

By the end of fiscal year 2004, four
units of Explore Florida! have been made
available: The Woodville Karst Plain study
area features a comparison of topographic
maps with infrared aerial photographs to
identify karst features, infer recharge and
discharge of aquifers, and examine land
use, both historical and modern. Several
archeological sites are included. The
Florida Peninsula study area highlights the
contrasting land use exemplified by such
diverse features as Cape Canaveral, the
Disney Complex, the interior phosphate
mining area, and paleo-shoreline features
such as the Lake Wales Ridge. Satellite
images and topographic maps enable stu-
dents to relate these land uses to the geolog-
ic framework of the peninsula. The South
Florida study area focuses on the unique
habitats of the Everglades, the Florida
Keys, and the impact of population pressure
from the Miami area, which threatens to
over-run these distinctive natural areas.
Historic photos and sketches are compared
with modern infrared aerial photographs to
document changes in land use through
time.

Explore Florida! is designed for consis-


tent expansion and versatility. Each unit is
framed around a template that includes the
following components: Purpose, Student
Learning Objectives, Goals, Rubrics for
Assessment, Sunshine State Standards,
Background Material (may be written for
both student and teacher or separate mate-
rial for teacher and student), resources such
as places to visit, references, web sites, glos-
sary, and newspaper articles. Each student
activity includes a materials list and work-
sheets. Enrichment activities and answer
keys are also included.

This task was conducted by the Florida
Resource and Environmental Analysis
Center in cooperation with the FGS; we
anticipate using the same contractor to
develop additional Florida units in the
2005-2006 time-frame. For more detailed
information about this project one may log
on to: http://www.exploreflorida.org.

Karst Short Course & Field Trip

The fundamental problem associated
with effective hydrogeologic characteriza-
tions of karst settings in Florida is a lack of
available formal education on karst hydro-
geology at the academic and professional
levels in Florida. To address this problem a
short course (including a field trip) on karst
in Florida was developed and tested in
2003/2004. We anticipate continuing these
activities in upcoming years in cooperation
with the Hydrogeology Consortium

KARST HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM

Ground-water flow in karst hydrogeo-
logic settings is difficult to characterize.
This program focuses on field studies and
modeling techniques to facilitate this char-
acterization. Multifaceted field investiga-
tions address the nature of ground-water
flow through conduit systems by employing
dye tracing and tide gauging (along coastal
karstic areas), as well as monitoring spring






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


discharge, rainfall, and water-quality
parameters within subsurface conduits sys-
tems. These field studies provide calibra-
tion and validation for complex ground-
water flow models. Moreover, a cave data-
base has been established to serve as a ref-
erence for these modeling efforts as well as
characterization of highly valuable and vul-
nerable natural resources.

Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility Study

The quantitative ground-water tracing
program, conducted by the FGS in collabo-
ration with private sector firms, over the
past three fiscal years has been a success.
Key flow paths in the Woodville Karst Plain
(WKP) have been successfully documented
between disappearing streams, the Leon
Sinks and Wakulla cave systems, and
Wakulla Spring. The quantitative aspect of
the tracer tests has permitted the calcula-
tion of ground-water velocities and other
hydraulic parameters that will be crucial to
future ground-water modeling efforts. The
purpose of these studies was two-fold: (1) to
characterize and identify the key karst fea-
tures in the Woodville Karst Plain that
have a probable influence on water flow in
the watershed; (2) to determine the feasibil-
ity of conducting quantitative ground-water
tracing experiments in the basin aimed at
identifying flow direction and velocities
along karstic flow paths to Spring Creek
springs system. The study was also to
assess the effect of tides and associated
hydrogeology in Spring Creek on the
Wakulla Spring system. While significant
progress was made in achieving these goals
in 2003-2004, work is on going using similar
approaches.

Wakulla In-cave Meter Data Management

Seven oceanographic meters, manufac-
tured by Falmouth Scientific, were
deployed in the Wakulla cave system and
began recording in late 2003. The meters


will be continually recording velocity, tem-
perature, and specific conductance at 15-
minute intervals. The data was stored
onboard the devices then manually down-
loaded on-site by FGS staff at approximate-
ly 30 to 60-day intervals. Drs. Tim Hazlett
and Todd Kincaid who are on the staff of
GFDI at FSU have developed a preliminary
website for the dissemination of the data
which is updated at approximately 60 to 90-
day intervals. The dataset that was devel-
oped is one-of-a-kind and represents the
most detailed characterization of a karst
aquifer anywhere in the US, if not the
world.

In order to capitalize most fully on the
expanding dataset and consequently foster
multidisciplinary research efforts, effort to
make the data more readily available to
researchers world-wide was begun in 2004.
This effort included steps to automate the
data collection and dissemination processes
by: 1) installing cabling and radio telemetry
systems at the on-site data stations that
will continuously communicate the data
from the meters to a local computer server;
2) constructing a local computer server to
collect the data, store it on local hard drives,
and communicate it to a global computer
server via the Internet; 3) developing a com-
puter program that will automatically
receive the data, process it into a desired set
of graphical output, and post the output
regularly to a project website; and 4) archiv-
ing the data, with enough redundancy (i.e.
backups), such that it can be retrieved, in
raw format, at will via an Internet inter-
face. The complexity of the telemetry sys-
tem will necessitate continuation of these
and similar activities into the 2005/2006 fis-
cal year.

Tide Gauging

One of the most interesting insights
that have come out, thus far, from these
activities is the potential correlation






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


between regular small-scale discharge fluc-
tuations at Wakulla and the tides in the
Gulf of Mexico. In late 2004, the FGS
installed two tide gauges close to Spring
Creek that will be periodically harvested.
We anticipate exploring this possible rela-
tionship further in 2005/2006 to obtain
additional data on tidal fluctuations in the
Gulf of Mexico south of Wakulla Spring.

Expansion of the Cave Metering Network

The existing cave meter network effec-
tively characterizes the flow to the spring
from four most significant known conduit
sources; however, the results of the last two
ground-water tracing experiments have
demonstrated that the Wakulla cave sys-
tem is directly connected to the Leon Sinks
cave system and that ground-water flows
between the two in approximately seven
days. Given this connection, and the stated
goal of the metering project, which was to
characterize the source waters for Wakulla
Spring, we believe that additional meters
are needed in the Leon Sinks cave system.

Continuation of the Woodville Karst
Plain Modeling Efforts

In 2004, the FGS outsourced an inves-
tigation to predict ground-water movement
and contaminant transport in karst using
finite-element models. The contractors used
existing and accepted finite-element
numerical strategies but employed the
detailed characterization data gleaned from
the field studies to more accurately articu-
late karst features in the model domain and
calibrate the model simulations to real-
world conditions. Currently, the model con-
tains all of the key karst features in the
northern part of the WKP and calibrates
fairly well to velocities measured through
ground-water tracing and historical head
levels published in the literature. This


model has been sufficiently developed to
warrant continuation of field testing and
full-scale calibration, and validation in the
2005/2006 time-frame.

Florida Cave Database

The Florida Cave Database was initial-
ly developed with funding from the
Hydrogeology Program in FY 2001-2002
and augmented, revised, and refined in FYs
2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The database
currently contains details from more than
30 underwater caves, each of which are rep-
resented by two ESRI GIS shape-files and
associated datasets: one representing the
survey points or significant turning points
in the caves, which contains sufficient data,
when available, to render a 3D model of the
cave; and one that represents the 2D trend
of the cave passages. All the files are pro-
jected to a custom FDEP Albers conformal
conic projection. These files can be down-
loaded from a project website and immedi-
ately included in a GIS. Currently the data
base is being populated with additional
data available to state or local government
staff as well as the private sector. This
activity is expected to continue for the fore-
seeable future.

Wakulla Springs Statistical Analysis
and Modeling of Discharge and Rainfall

It is reasonable to characterize this
task as the heart of past and on going
research in the "Wakulla Project."
Understanding the hydrogeological com-
plexity of Wakulla Spring, its interaction
with surface water sources and with land
use activities, has begun to yield informa-
tion that can be applied to serve an overar-
ching goal of effective management, and
protection of water within the entire
Woodville Karst Plain Watershed. The data
is being used to calibrate the finite element
model previously mentioned with an ulti-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


mate deliverable being a model which can
accurately simulate ground-water flow and
contaminant transport in karst settings.

With support by the FGS's
Hydrogeology Program, beginning in 2002,
a prototype of such a model, called KARST-
MOD, has been developed by two members
of our research team: Drs. David Loper and
Tim Hazlett. The method utilizes a statisti-
cal scheme to define probable pathways
between discrete sources of recharge such
as sinkholes or sinking streams and spring
discharges. Once a probabilistic network of
pathways has been established, a combina-
tion of statistical and deterministic meth-
ods is used to simulate the travel-time
between any point in a basin and a spring.
To date, the model has been developed to
the point where testing is appropriate. The
next step is to calibrate KARSTMOD, using
data on flow, temperature and electrical
conductivity. In this context, temperature
and conductivity are to be used as proxies
for contaminants.

During 2004, calibration of the flow
and transport characteristics of KARST-
MOD was initiated using data collected
(over the past 6 years) by the S-4 meter
(installed by the NWFWMD) in the main
vent of Wakulla Spring. In subsequent
years, we intend to expand this calibration
process to include the data currently being
harvested from the seven Falmouth meters
deployed in the conduits leading to Wakulla
Spring. The S-4 data contains a surprising-
ly rich spectrum of variations in discharge
and other variables, on all timescales from
hourly to (at least) annual. This variability,
when properly analyzed and cross-correlat-
ed with rainfall and flow in sinking
streams, can shed considerable light on how
the Wakulla Springs flow system responds
to events and activities on the land surface.
This in turn will provide the basis for the
calibration of KARSTMOD model that will


eventually serve as a tool to protect and
manage the quality of the spring system
and the entire watershed.

PHYSICAL AQUIFER
CHARACTERIZATION PROGRAM

Characterization of Florida's hydrogeo-
logical framework is of paramount impor-
tance with regard to the protection, conser-
vation and management of Florida's
ground-water resources. Aspects of this
characterization include developing physi-
cal models of aquifer systems, development
of physical aquifer property databases, and
completion of applied research to assess
surface-water ground-water interactions.
Two projects, described below, were in
progress during 2003-2004.

Estimating Ground-Water Discharges
via Radon Tracing

This project builds on previous work by
scientists from the FSU Department of
Oceanography and the FGS. That project
investigated the area around Lanark Reef
using a continuous radon monitoring sys-
tem and side scan sonar to search for areas
of point source discharge (springs) as well
as diffusive seepage. Lines were run paral-
lel to the shore and one transect was made
several kilometers out to sea. Radon inven-
tories (Rn 222 activity correlated to water
depth) and salinity trends clearly confirmed
the location of the previously known Lanark
and Sulfur Springs. Additionally, a near-
shore area just west of the FSU Marine
Laboratory (FSUML) was also investigated
and shown to display lower salinity and ele-
vated radon levels. This area was used to
investigate diffusive seepage since there
was no visible surface drainage anywhere
nearby.

During the same period that these sur-
veys were performed, the researchers






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


deployed a stationary continuous radon
monitor at a station about 100 meters off
FSUML and collected time-series data for
approximately 24 hours. These results were
used to estimate diffusive seepage using a
modeling approach that generally relies on
solving mass balance equations. Estimates
showed ground-water velocities ranging
from 5-40 cm/day with increased seepage
rates at low tide.

Such trends of enhanced seepage dur-
ing lower tidal stages have now been seen
in several areas including the area around
FSUML and in the Florida Keys. This is
apparently due to a modulating effect
caused by increased hydrostatic pressure at
higher tides resulting in diminished
ground-water discharge flow rates because
the hydrostatic pressure acts in the oppo-
site direction than the effects of the
hydraulic gradient coming off the land.

The isotopic results from Sulfur Spring
all showed essentially the same result for
all parameters measured (salinity, radon,
and radium), indicating that there is little
mixing going on at the spring vent. Lanark
Spring, on the other hand, showed internal
consistency in the conductivity/salinity
results but a wide variation in the radon
and radium results. The most likely expla-
nation is that there was mixing of at least
two fresh ground-water end-members in the
vent sampled. The high-radon sample in
Lanark was fairly similar in composition to
all samples in Sulfur Spring.

The FSU/FGS team also worked on an
assessment of flow rates and isotopic con-
centrations in waters from several vents at
Spring Creek Spring on April 14, 2004. FGS
researchers made measurements using con-
tinuous side scans surveys and FSU inves-
tigators collected a total of 20 samples for
isotopic analysis at two transects and four
individual spring vents. Five additional off-


shore samples were analyzed for Rn 222
and Ra 226, after collection by FGS
researchers. The samples show the general
decreasing trend in radon activity as one
moves farther offshore, away from ground-
water-spring inputs. These preliminary
findings would seem to justify continuation
of the effort to better quantify ground-water
discharge in the Spring Creek and other
vents using Radium isotopes

In FY 2002-2003 the FGS funded some
of the effort to develop and construct the
Taniguchi-style automated seepage meter
to replace the old-fashioned metal drum
meters previously used in detecting and
measuring ground-water discharge. That
effort was interrupted due to some difficul-
ties with Dr. Taniguchi's travel from Japan
to the US. In the latter parts of 2004 the
researchers acquired the final components
needed to construct the Taniguchi-style
automated seepage meter without the need
to have the inventor physically present in
the US. One of six meters was constructed
and tested successfully. The researchers
also worked with Dr. Paul Lee of DEP who
had designed and built, together with per-
sonnel from the FSU-FAMU School of
Engineering, an automatic seepage meter
based on ultrasonic sound (the Taniguchi
meter is based on the flow of heat).

These meters were deployed in environ-
ments where more disseminated flow is
expected, including the area around
Lanark Reef, Lake Barco (a site of another
DEP project involving ground water-surface
water interaction), and other locations of
potential interest to the DEP and the FGS.
The result of these studies will be signifi-
cant to planned research (in 2005/2006
time-frame) supported by the Hydrogeology
Program which seeks to account for ground
water contribution in calculating Total
Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) to surface
waters.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic
Framework Mapping Project

Begun in 1995, the Southwest Florida
Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project
has been a collaborative effort between the
FGS and SWFWMD to create a Microsoft
Access database of wells within the district
for the mapping project. The creation of this
database, FGS_Wells, lead to state wide
implementation in 2000 which included Oil
and Gas regulatory data and ArcGIS well
location interfacing.

The mapping project culmination in
2004 has generated 20 surface and thick-
ness maps and 34 cross-sections illustrating
the lithostratigraphic and hydrostrati-
graphic framework of the southwest Florida
region. These maps were created using
ArcGIS and AutoCAD. Mapped lithologic
units include the Middle Eocene Avon Park
Formation to the Miocene/Pliocene Peace
River Formation. Mapped hydrologic units
include the Middle Floridan Aquifer
Confining Unit, the Floridan Aquifer
System, the Intermediate Aquifer System,
and the Surficial Aquifer System.

A database of 1065 wells is the basis for
the generated maps. Of these 1065 wells
more than 60 percent have been inspected
to determine lithostratigraphic contacts.
Detailed lithologic descriptions have been
made of approximately one-quarter of those
wells. Where gaps exist, wells with geo-
physical logs are included in the analysis to
provide adequate coverage for the generat-
ed maps and cross-sections.

The maps were generated using the
Geostatistical and Spatial Analyst exten-
sions in ArcGIS 8.3. All regions of the
SWFWMD including a ten-mile buffer zone
were analyzed. The production of these


maps provides the most detailed lithostrati-
graphic and hydrostratigraphic data in the
state to date, and will provide the basis for
further improvement. The end product is
set for review in 2006 and publishing soon
thereafter. The final product will be in both
paper and digital formats.

AQUIFER VULNERABILITY
ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

This program area focuses on continued
modeling of the contamination potential of
Florida's aquifer systems at the state and
local scale. In addition, areas that are sus-
ceptible to the formation of sinkholes have
been delineated in a pilot study of "sensitive
karst areas." Knowledge of these areas is
important with regard to land-use planning
and construction criteria for retention
ponds.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment

During the 2003-2004 calendar year,
the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA) project was in full
swing. The assessment is based on an ana-
lytical method adapted for GIS-based min-
eral-potential mapping. The method, known
as Weights of Evidence (WofE), combines
evidence from known occurrences of a phe-
nomena with spatial data to calculate a pre-
dictive response based on Bayesian theory
with an assumption of conditional inde-
pendence. Prior probabilities are calculated
by dividing the number of known occur-
rences (training points) by the study area
producing a probability of occurrence with-
out the benefit of relevant data. Weights are
calculated for independent GIS data cover-
ages (evidential themes) based on the spa-
tial relation between each evidential theme
and training points. Results are reflected as
posterior probabilities on an output map






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


known as the response theme.

The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA) applies the WofE
method to the three principal aquifer sys-
tems in Florida through the use of the Arc
Spatial Data Modeler within the ArcView
3.x platform. This extension facilitates
assessment of spatial datasets, conditional
independence, response theme uncertainty
and validation, and provides other model-
ing techniques and statistical tools. Results
of the project include maps that predict the
relative contamination potential of
Florida's principal aquifer systems.

In FAVA models, training points con-
sist of data from wells reflecting back-
ground water quality. Parameters used in
the models to reflect known occurrences of
aquifer vulnerability in the natural hydro-
geologic system include dissolved oxygen
and total dissolved nitrogen. Evidential
themes include combinations of several
improved or newly created statewide cover-
ages: depth to water table, hydraulic head
difference, thickness of confinement, dis-
tance to karst features, soil permeability,
and aquifer system overburden. To maxi-
mize scientific defensibility of the response
themes (relative vulnerability maps), mod-
els were validated using independent train-
ing data sets, training-point subsets and by
demonstrating lack of correlation between
land use and posterior probability.

Aquifer vulnerability maps are an
important resource for planners, develop-
ers, resource-management professionals
and policy makers to facilitate protection of
Florida's ground-water resources at the
regional and local level. Among the
strengths of the FAVA methodology is the
ability to scale the study area to better meet
the needs of local government agencies. For
example, Alachua County funded the FGS


in 2004 to complete a vulnerability assess-
ment for that county. A draft of the report
has been completed and the county is now
considering additional funds to refine input
geologic data layers, which may serve to
refine the response theme.

Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment

In 2004, the bulk of the work for the
Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
(WAVA) and a draft report was completed.
The study was initiated due to water quali-
ty concerns in Wekiwa spring and the
Wekiva River. Hydrogeology of the Wekiva
River study area is characterized by moder-
ate to no confinement and a multitude of
karst features. Ground water recharges the
Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) by infiltra-
tion through these sediments or directly
through sinkholes. The Wekiva River
Coordinating Committee Final Report iden-
tifies numerous studies by Florida's water
management districts and the USGS that
clearly demonstrate contamination attrib-
utable to changes in land use. Therefore,
the FGS was authorized under the Springs
Initiative and the Wekiva River
Coordinating Committee to identify zones of
aquifer vulnerability, for the Floridan
Aquifer System, within the Wekiva River
study area.

WAVA utilizes a model that applies
existing geographic information system
data to predict relative vulnerability of the
Floridan Aquifer System in the Wekiva
study area. The vulnerability zones are
based on the weights of evidence (WofE)
modeling technique used in the statewide
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
(FAVA).

Use of WofE requires the combination
of diverse spatial data which are used to
describe and analyze interactions and gen-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


erate predictive models. In WAVA the spa-
tial data is composed of a training point
theme and evidential themes. The training
point theme consists of locations of known
occurrences. In WAVA these are wells that
exceed a certain concentration of dissolved
oxygen. Wells with high dissolved oxygen
concentrations are indicative of areas where
a good connection exists between the top of
the aquifer and land surface. The evidential
themes include soil permeability, buffered
effective karst features, Intermediate
Aquifer System (IAS) thickness and head
difference between the Surficial Aquifer
System and the Floridan Aquifer System.
These themes act as evidence in the model
by either protecting the aquifer from con-
tamination or allowing contamination to
move quickly from land surface to the top of
the aquifer system (i.e., areas of thick IAS
sediments versus areas of thin IAS sedi-













Thm ...c -


Hydraulicq
Head
DlffOren

WAVA
Response
Thema


Conceptual model of the FAS. The top four
layers are evidential themes and the bot-
tom layer is the response theme divided
into zones of relative vulnerability.


ments). The WofE technique quantifies
relationships between these evidential
themes and the training point theme in
order to predict zones of vulnerability.
These zones are classified into a primary
protection zone, a secondary protection zone
and a tertiary protection zone. These pro-
tection zones will be used in decision mak-
ing, development of rules, or policies
regarding environmental conservation, pro-
tection, growth management and planning.

Sensitive Karst Areas

The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a
thick sequence of Paleogene carbonates, is a
major fresh water resource in Florida.
Overburden comprised of Surficial Aquifer
System and/or Intermediate Aquifer
System sediments may act to protect the
FAS from potential contamination sources
where it is present. This overburden can be
several hundred feet thick where it provides
variable confinement for the FAS, or it can
be thin to absent in areas where carbonate
units comprising the FAS are exposed at or
near land surface. In areas where the over-
burden is thin to absent, the potential for
karst terrain development such as sink-
holes and collapse features is increased.
Karst terrain provides preferential flow
paths for surface water to enter the under-
lying aquifer system and, therefore, places
them at a greater risk of contamination
from the surface.

To develop the sensitive karst areas
(SKA) boundary, the FGS utilized a
Geographic Information System incorporat-
ing spatial data layers such as the state
geologic map, land surface topography and
overburden thickness maps. Land surface
topography is comprised of the Digital
Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the
FAVA project. The DEM was created by
digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000
scale Quadrangle maps, converting these
arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and
then into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


GRID along with a GRID of the top of the
Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the
NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS
overburden GRID. This was accomplished
by subtracting the FAS overburden from
the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of
FAS overburden were then identified and
overlain on areas affected by karst topogra-
phy in the NWFWMD. Based on the combi-
nation of these two maps the SKA limits
were identified for the NWFWMD.

This methodology was created for the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of Water Resource
Management and was inserted in the FDEP
Environmental Resource Permit Applicant's
Handbook Volume II, Engineering
Requirements for Stormwater Treatment
and Management Systems Water Quality
and Water Quantity. The delineated SKA
maps are used when sighting proposed
stormwater holding ponds and establishes
additional design criteria for these struc-
tures including minimum thickness of sedi-


ment between the surface and limestone,
total depth of holding pond, vegetation
requirements, sediment traps, liners and
potentially ground-water modeling. For
more information on this project please
refer to the American Geological Institute
website:
http://www.agiweb.org/environment/pub-
lications /mapping/graphics /florida.pdf
Please hit refresh if figure does not appear
the first time.

Florida Springs Protection Areas

In response to a request by the Florida
Department of Community Affairs (DCA) in
2004, the FGS developed a map delineating
areas where Florida's springsheds and
springs are susceptible to land use activi-
ties. The resulting map will be available in
digital form as FGS Open File Map Series
No. 95, and can be referenced when state
growth and land use issues are addressed.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The purpose of the map is to identify
areas that contribute flow to Florida's
springs and provide land use decision-mak-
ers with a published resource to assist them
in protecting and restoring the quantity and
quality of Florida spring discharge.
Utilizing data from Florida water manage-
ment districts, the U.S. Geological Survey
and Florida's Department of Environmental
Protection, the FGS utilized geographical
information systems (GIS) software, expert
knowledge and interpretation to generate a
map delineating springs protection areas in
Florida. This updatable map will be period-
ically revised as on-going and future
research improves our understanding of
springsheds.

Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on
the Water Quality of Fanning Springs

Fanning Springs is a first-magnitude
spring located within Fanning Springs
State Park on the Suwannee River in Levy
County. The spring consistently discharges
nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite as N) in excess
of 3.0 mg/L. This is the highest concentra-
tion of nitrate discharging from any of the
first-magnitude springs that reside in
Florida's State Parks. In a cooperative
effort with the Department's Division of
Recreation and Parks and the USGS, the
FGS is assessing the source of nitrate dis-
charging from the spring. The goals of the
project are to estimate: (1) the aerial extent
of the springshed (recharge basin); (2) the
sources of nitrate originating within the
springshed and their respective contribu-
tion to the loading of nitrate; (3) the ground-
water travel times for the various sources of
nitrate; (4) the dilution rates that occur
between the sources and the spring; and (5)
establish a nitrate monitoring network for
Fanning Springs. During 2003 and 2004,
the FGS obtained pertinent data from the
Suwannee River Water Management
District (SRWMD). In addition, the
SRWMD and the FGS worked together to


delineate the Fanning Springshed. The
delineation was based on a one-foot poten-
tiometric surface obtained from over 100
SRWMD wells. The anticipated completion
date for the project is 2006.

OTHER OUTSOURCED RESEARCH

The Hydrogeology Program and the
Outsourcing Program have been described
elsewhere in this and in the last biennial
report. The following is an update of proj-
ects developed in the 2003/2004 period and
those ongoing in 2005.

The following projects, funded by the
Hydrogeology Program for FY 2003/2004,
were completed and reports delivered:

-The utility of foraminifera (forams) as indi-
cators of environmental degradation or
salinity changes in coastal waters. This
project was a continuation of an initial
study supported in FY 2001. The first
phase of the study focused on natural
changes in salinity profiles, while the sec-
ond phase focused on foram's response to
pollution. The current report is being devel-
oped for publication as an FGS Special
Publication.

- A CD ROM for the Proceedings of the
Workshop Significance of Caves in
Watershed Management and Protection in






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


Florida was finalized. An adequate number
of CDs were produced by the FGS for distri-
bution to all the workshop participants and
other interested parties; it is available at
the FGS library for purchase by the public.

- A report on the evaluation of remote sens-
ing methods for the identification of areas of
ground-water interaction with surface
water has been finalized. It is being peer-
reviewed internally and externally for pub-
lication as an FGS Special Publication.

-A report on the dye tracing studies in the
Woodville Karst watershed project has also
been completed. This study was conducted
in an effort to generate data on ground-
water movement in karst for the ultimate
purpose of developing a model to predict
such movement. The study was conducted
by Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. under contract with
FSU and the FGS. This report is also being
developed into an FGS publication. In the
interim; the report is available for review on
the Hydrogeology Consortium and Hazlett-
Kincaid, Inc. webpages (http://hydrogeolo-
gyconsortium.org/ and http://www.hazlett-
kincaid.com/)

- A report on the evaluation of remote sens-
ing techniques for the identification of sub-
marine springs was also completed. This
study was funded by a grant from NASA's Jet
Propulsion Lab. The report has been deliv-
ered to and accepted by NASA in satisfaction
of the grant requirements. The grant allowed
the purchase of satellite "scenes" of areas of
the Gulf of Mexico being studied for thermal
signatures. These signatures would indicate
possible discharge of ground water to surface
waters of the Gulf as well as inland waters.

-The first phase of a study that was con-
ducted by FSU, in cooperation with FGS
and the Springs Initiative Program at DEP,
has also been completed. This project seeks
to understand the dynamics of water flow in
the Wakulla Spring system and how it is


influenced by interaction with surface
waters. Flow meters deployed by divers in
the tunnels and caves of the spring system
have been generating data that will be sta-
tistically analyzed and correlated with
other data, such as rainfall and hydraulic
heads in wells, in an effort to locate the
sources of surface water input into the
spring system.

Wells have also been drilled directly
into conduits using transponders purchased
for the purpose. Power sources and tubing
have been threaded through these wells to
allow for continuous data recording and
water quality sample collection and analy-
sis without the need to dive into these con-
duits. During 2005, efforts will be focused
on developing a telemetry system that will
allow for direct input of data into computers
of the scientists involved. Similar studies
are being conducted in the Manatee Spring
System by the Suwannee River Water
Management District in cooperation with
FGS and the Springs Initiative Program.

Other projects that were conducted by
FSU, UWF and the USGS and funded by
the Hydrogeology Program in FY
2003/2004:

1. Evaluating the impact of ASR projects on
native microbial communities.
2. Identifying the sources of bacterial con-
tamination of springs using genetic typing
and bio-film cultures.
3. Quantifying ground-water discharge into
surface waters using radon and radium
along with seepage meters.
4. Developing a workshop to address scien-
tific and regulatory issues associated with
ASR projects in Florida.
5. Continuation of dye tracing studies in the
Woodville Karst watershed for the ultimate
purpose of developing models to predict
ground-water movement and contaminants
behavior and transport in karstic settings.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


THE HYDROGEOLOGY CONSORTIUM

Large areas of Florida, as well as other
areas of the US, are underlain by karst
geology, which is riddled with conduits and
cavities of differing diameters and orienta-
tions resulting in ground-water flow under
multi-porosity conditions. Under such con-
ditions the classical equations (such as
Darcy's Law) for depicting ground-water
flow and contaminant transport are not
operative. Karstic conditions also allow for
significant volumes of ground water to flow
rapidly through watersheds with increased
potential for interaction with surface water.
Ground-water models based largely on
Darcy's Law and traditionally used in
homogeneous aquifers are, therefore, not
applicable in karst. New approaches must
be developed to conceptualize flow and
transport in multi-porosity aquifers. Based
on such conceptual models, analytical and
numerical models could eventually be
developed that would, more accurately, pre-
dict water flow in karstic aquifers. The use
of such models will be essential if the
behavior and ultimate fate of natural and
man-made contaminants on ground-water
quality are to be evaluated. Ground-water
quality data will in turn be critical in mak-
ing correct decisions in efforts to clean up
and/or manage karst-dominated water-
sheds.

To help in achieving this goal, scien-
tists from state and federal agencies, as
well as universities and the private sector,
under the leadership of Drs. Rodney S.
DeHan of the FGS and David Loper of FSU,
met in November 1997 and established the
Hydrogeology Consortium. The steps taken
and parties involved were discussed in ear-
lier biennial reports that can be found on
the FGS's Webpage. More details about the
Consortium, including how to join in, can
also be found at:
http://hydrogeologyconsortium.org


or by telephone at (850) 644-5625 Fax: (850)
644-8972. Currently, the Consortium is in
the process of being classified as a not-for-
profit organization for federal taxing pur-
poses. In 2004, the Consortium co-spon-
sored a workshop on ASR in cooperation
with the FGS and the American Ground
Water Trust.

Since its establishment, the
Consortium, in cooperation with the
Hydrogeology Program, has been involved
in organizing and or co-sponsoring several
workshops including the following for which
CDs for the proceedings have been devel-
oped and are currently available for pur-
chase from the FGS's library:

1) Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the
Management and Protection of Florida
Springs (May 8-9, 2002) in Ocala, Florida,
FGS Special Publication 51.

2) Workshop on the Significance of Caves in
Watershed Management and Protection,
(April 16-17, 2003) in Ocala, Florida, FGS
Special Publication 53.

3) Workshop on Aquifer Storage & Recovery
IV: Science, Technology, Management and
Policy. The workshop was held on April 15-
16, 2004 in Tampa, Florida, FGS Special
Publication 54.

The Consortium also co-sponsored sev-
eral other public education activities aimed
at educating the public about the signifi-
cance and vulnerability of the Wakulla
Springs System to degradation from activi-
ties on the land surface. This effort consist-
ed of presentations made by Consortium
members and other FGS scientists and con-
tractors in "town hall" type meetings in
Woodville and subsequently in Tallahassee
followed by a "Walk for Wakulla" in
November of 2004. A more detailed descrip-
tion of these events can be found on the
Consortium's Webpage mentioned above.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


OIL AND GAS SECTION

The Oil and Gas Section regulates
petroleum exploration and production with-
in the state and state waters pursuant to
Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and imple-
menting Rules 62C-25 to 62C-30, Florida
Administrative Code. The Section's primary
responsibilities are environmental protec-
tion, safety, conservation of oil and gas
resources, and correlative rights protection.
These concerns are addressed when permit
applications are reviewed and permit condi-
tions are enforced by field inspection. The
Section's home office is located in
Tallahassee and the field offices are in Jay
and Ft. Myers near the oil and gas fields.
The Section's key activities include permit-
ting geophysical, drilling, and transport
operations, inspecting field operations,
tracking activities by the use of production
and other reporting forms, enforcing finan-
cial security requirements, and maintain-
ing databases for well and geophysical per-
mits.

Approximately 6.1 million barrels of
crude oil and 7 billion cubic feet of natural
gas were produced in Florida during 2003
and 2004. During the last 2 years, the
state's oil and gas production rates have
fallen by 21% and 8% respectively. On
December 31, 2004, the state's cumulative
production totals reached approximately
595 million barrels of oil and 628 billion
cubic feet of gas. In 1978, Florida's annual
petroleum production rates peaked at 48
million barrels of oil and 52 billion cubic
feet of gas, which ranked Florida 8th among
oil producing states. Since 1945, the state
has received approximately 1382 drilling
permit applications, of which 319 wells
were never drilled, 716 were dry holes, and
346 became producers. The state currently
has 59 producing wells operating within
eight active oil and gas fields. One field,
with three wells, is currently shut in and 12
formerly producing fields have been perma-
nently plugged and abandoned.


WOE1,













Ed Garrett, Administrator of the Oil and
Gas Section (photo by David Taylor).



REGULATORY PROGRAM

During the state's production decline
over the last 26 years, the Oil and Gas
Section's focus has gradually shifted from
permitting and inspecting drilling and geo-
physical operations to regulation of well
maintenance, plugging/abandonment, site
restoration, and decommissioning of oil and
gas field facilities. Over the last two years,
23 wells were plugged and abandoned and 5
well sites were restored. Approximately 72
of the state's 180 permitted oil and gas
wells are currently inactive and may need
to be plugged and abandoned over the next
several years. Many of the existing produc-
ing wells are approaching profitability
threshold as the statewide water cut (per-
centage of produced water mixed with the
produced crude oil) has climbed to 96%.
Currently 58 of the state's 180 permitted
wells are dedicated to reinjecting produced
water that has been separated from pro-
duced crude oil.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Southwest Florida Oil and Gas Inspectors
Bob Caughey and Paul Attwood (timer
photo by Paul Attwood).

DRILLING AND PRODUCTION

Southwestern Florida: Collier
Resources Company, the major mineral
rights owner within the Big Cypress
National Preserve, agreed to sell its drilling
rights on 765,000 acres to the Department
of Interior, but Congress failed to fund the
transaction. The two parties are now con-
sidering renegotiating the arrangement
pending another study of petroleum reserve
estimates. If the two parties ultimately
come to an agreement, the likelihood of
near-term exploration or development of
new fields in southern Florida will be sub-
stantially reduced.

One drilling permit for a wildcat well
was issued during the 2003-2004 period in
southwest Florida. Drilling operations for
the well, the Bob Paul #20-4 in Highlands
County, began November 8, 2004 and was
still underway at the end of 2004. The tar-
get is the Deep Lake Sands Formation at a
total vertical depth of 12,800 feet. Although
the closest productive well is approximately
40 miles southwest of the Bob Paul #20-4, a
dry hole drilled 12 miles to the west in 1955
under Permit 225 yielded shows of crude oil
in core samples taken from the
Fredericksburg "B" Formation from depths
between 8,822 and 8,890 feet. The operator
intends to test Bob Paul #20-4 for hydrocar-
bons at various depths. If the well is suc-


cessful, the operator plans to drill up to
eight additional wells from the same pad
which lies in an orange grove south of Lake
Placid. Permit applications have been sub-
mitted for three of these wells.

Although no new drilling permits were
issued for established fields in the
Sunniland Trend, five existing operating
permits were recertified, one producing well
was drilled to a deeper target, 20 wells were
worked over to perform downhole mainte-
nance and secondary recovery techniques,
five wells were pliji' .- and abandoned, and
four restored well sites passed final inspec-
tion. Production from the nine fields in the
southwest Florida dropped from approxi-
mately 3,300 to 2,600 barrels of oil per day.
Oil and Gas staff at the Fort Myers field
office conducted 5,696 inspections of wells
and related facilities.

Northwest Florida: Production at Jay
Field was suspended for 10 days in response
to Hurricane Ivan during September 2004.
The shut down cost Exxon-Mobil approxi-
mately 100,000 barrels of oil. Nevertheless,
Jay field continues to dominate state pro-
duction with approximately 73% of the
state's total oil and 78% of the gas. Jay
Field has now produced 416 million barrels
of oil. Although no new wells were drilled in
Jay Field during 2003-2004, Exxon-Mobil
submitted four drilling applications in 2004
and was preparing to begin drilling this
series of infield wells at the end of 2004.

During March 2004, Petro Operating
Company resumed production at the
Blackjack Creek Field after a two year shut
down to reconfigure the field's separator
plant for reinjection of acid gas byproduct.
Production has since averaged approxi-
mately 170 barrels of oil and 0.54 million
cubic feet of gas per day. McLellan Field,
which lies approximately 20 miles east of
Jay has not produced any oil or gas since
2003 and may be decommissioned when its
current operating permits expire in October






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


2005. Oil and Gas staff at the Jay field
office conducted 2,285 inspections of wells
and related facilities during the 2003-2004
period.

During 2003, one wildcat well was
drilled in northwest Florida near
Crestview. The Permit 1315 well was direc-
tionally drilled by Zinke and Trumbo, Inc.
underneath Interstate 10 in Okaloosa
County to a Smackover Formation target at
a total vertical depth of 15,500 feet.
Production flow testing was not conducted
because well logs indicated the well was a
dry hole. Zinke and Trumbo, Inc, applied in
2003 for drilling permits to three additional
targets, but chose to terminate the drilling
project when the first well proved unsuc-
cessful.

GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION

One geophysical survey was conducted
by Mayne and Mertz, Inc. under Permit No.
G-160-03 from January through March
2004 in northern Escambia and Santa Rosa
Counties. The survey method was three-
dimensional seismic reflection/refraction
covering 13 square miles. The energy source
was 5.5 pound charges detonated from
within approximately 950 shallow shot
holes. All drilling, detonations, and plug-
ging operations were witnessed under the
Oil and Gas Section's observer program.
The section's geophysical engineer super-
vised and coordinated the inspection duties
of 23 observers.

OFFSHORE ACTIVITY

In June 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court
chose not to hear an appeal by Coastal
Petroleum Company to reconsider lower
court rulings against Coastal's claim that
the State of Florida's denial of offshore
drilling Permit Application 1281 constitut-
ed an illegal taking of Drilling Lease No.
224-A. Permit Application 1281, which pro-
posed drilling south of St. George Island,


was submitted to the Oil and Gas Section in
1992 and was ultimately denied in 1998.
The U.S. Supreme Court ruling culminated
several years of legal dispute between
Coastal and the State of Florida over
numerous offshore drilling applications and
Coastal's Gulf of Mexico offshore leases
which extend along a 425-mile tract from
Apalachicola to Naples.

IMPORTED NATURAL GAS
IN SOUTH FLORIDA

Prior to 2002, the only major natural
gas delivery system to southern Florida was
the Florida Gas Transmission Pipeline
which extends from southern Texas to
southern Florida with mainline capacity of
2.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/day).
During 2002, Duke Energy Gas
Transmission and Williams completed con-
struction of the Gulfstream Pipeline, which
crossed the Gulf of Mexico along a 581-mile
path from south Alabama to Manatee
County. A 110-mile extension across the
Florida peninsula was added in 2004. The
extension will ultimately deliver 1.1 Bcf/day
to nine counties in southern Florida.

During April 2004, the Governor and
Cabinet approved plans by Tractebel North
America and AES to build two additional
natural gas pipelines to south Florida with
a combined total capacity of approximately
two Bcf/day. The gas will be imported via
liquefied natural gas tanker ships from
around the world, offloaded and revapor-
ized at port/pipeline facilities in the
Bahamas, and delivered through undersea
pipelines to Broward and Palm Beach
Counties.

Completion of these pipeline systems
will dramatically increase southern
Florida's natural gas supply and may ulti-
mately create a strong demand for large
scale gas storage systems in south Florida.
Oil and gas operators in southwestern
Florida have already directed inquiries to






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the Oil and Gas Section concerning permit-
ting procedures for modifying depleted oil
and gas fields for use as large scale gas stor-
age facilities. The oil and gas rules, Sections
62C-25 through 62C-30, Florida
Administrative Code, are currently being
revised to address gas storage permitting.

OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM

During 2003 and 2004, the Oil and Gas
Section's petroleum engineer launched a
program approved by the legislature to con-
duct remedial plugging on improperly
plugged and abandoned old oil and gas
wells throughout the state. These wells
were generally drilled before the state's for-
mal regulatory system of rigorous permit-
ting and inspection. The targeted wells
were prioritized on the basis of potential
threat to potable ground water. The sec-
tion's petroleum engineer directed a con-
tracted drilling service to plug six wells in
Levy County and one in Putnam County.
During 2004, plugging operations were cut
short on a 12,000 foot well in Collier County
because of unexpected metal debris found in
the original cement plugs. As the program


continues, this well and up to ten others are
slated for plugging and abandonment over
the next two years.

OIL AND GAS DATABASE

In 2004, the section's primary well per-
mit database was upgraded to track,
archive, and make monthly reports for all
oil and gas well production data in the
state. This new tool provides section staff
with the capability of performing such tasks
as evaluating wells and fields, reconciling
production data with other records, convey-
ing to mineral owners the oil and gas pro-
duction of a specific area, providing pack-
aged information for the website, and other
tasks.

OIL AND GAS WEBSITE

The Oil and Gas Section's website was
expanded in 2004 to publish monthly pro-
duction data from all of the state's active oil
and gas wells. The new system provides raw
and summarized production data to the
industry, the public, and to other govern-
ment agencies. The system supplants bulk
mailing, gives users the information faster,
and provides it in a digital format.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


SPECIAL PROJECTS


INTRODUCTION

From time-to-time certain issues arise
in addition to planned and budgeted activi-
ties, to which the Florida Geological Survey
is asked to respond. In 2004, the FGS par-
ticipated in a legislative request to assess
insurance coverage of sinkhole damage and
commenced a project to update the hydros-
tratigraphic unit names in Florida.

SINKHOLE SUMMIT II

In 1992, the Florida Geological Survey
hosted a Sinkhole Summit in response to
legislation that requested the Florida State
University Center for Insurance Research,
under the direction of the Florida
Department of Insurance to address numer-
ous issues dealing with insurance coverage
of sinkhole damages. One small part of that
effort dealt with what competent profes-
sionals do to determine if karst processes
are the likely or probable cause of observed
damage. In addition, the legislation
requested input on recommendations for a
continuing research facility on sinkhole sci-
ence. The summit was a brainstorming and
consensus building session among a cross-
section of Professional Geologists, geotech-
nical engineers and other associated
experts to compile such a listing and
address the questions. A summary of those
deliberations was included in the final leg-
islative report and those specific sections
were reproduced by the FGS as Open File
Report No. 72 (available online, see FGS
web site, List of Publications).

The 2004 legislative session again
requested an assessment of insurance cov-
erage in response to sinkhole damage. A
study was requested to be done by the FSU
College of Business, Department of Risk


Management and Insurance, in consulta-
tion with the Florida Geological Survey to
provide recommendations on the feasibility
of creating a Sinkhole Insurance Facility,
and to recommend "uniform standards" to
evaluate sinkhole claims (among numerous
other things). In this regard, the FGS con-
vened Sinkhole Summit II to essentially
update the 1992 effort. Many technologies
and the understanding of subsurface karst
processes have advanced during the last
twelve years and a modern update was in
order. The intent was to gather a group of
experts in one place to discuss the current-
ly accepted practices used by the profession-
al geoscience community. Another intent
was to compile a listing of those technolo-
gies and activities that a competent profes-
sional would utilize in an assessment of a
site to determine if karst processes are pres-
ent or responsible for observed features.

The meeting was held in the conference
room of the FGS Headquarters at the
Gunter Building in Tallahassee on
September 28, 2004. Twenty five
Professional Geologists, geotechnical engi-
neers, and other experts representing pri-
vate industry / consultants, regional, state
and federal governmental agencies, acade-
mia, and agency insurance program experts
participated. A final submittal to the FSU
Department of Risk Management and
Insurance for incorporation into their
report to the Financial Services
Commission and the Legislature was com-
pleted in November 2004. The report is
titled: Geological and Geotechnical
Investigation Procedures for Evaluation of
the Causes of Subsidence Damage in
Florida, compiled by W. Schmidt, with con-
tributions from the participants of Sinkhole
Summit II. The report will be available
online as an FGS Special Publication.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REVISION TO THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL
UNITS OF FLORIDA (FGS SPECIAL
PUBLICATION 28)

In 1986, FGS published a document,
Hydrogeological Units of Florida. It was
published for the Ad Hoc Committee on
Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition,
under the auspices of the Southeastern
Geological Society. The document
addressed the issue of consistency of
nomenclature within the hydrogeologic
community in Florida. It was an important
step in assisting both governmental agen-
cies and the private sector regarding the
proper and consistent use of hydrogeology
terms throughout the state.

Recently, based on discussions by staff
from the FGS, the USGS, and the private
sector, it was noted that since 1986, there
had been a considerable increase in the
understanding of the Florida's hydrogeolog-
ical units. For this reason, in 2003, a com-
mittee was formed to discuss potential revi-
sions to the document. The committee (The
Second Ad Hoc Committee on Florida
Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition) con-
sists of representatives from the FGS, the
USGS, the water management districts,
private hydrogeological consultants, and
the Florida university system.

The committee met in August, 2003 to
discuss potential revisions. It was decided
that a revised publication should be made.
The FGS took the lead. The revised publi-
cation will consist of a minimum of text and
will emphasis a series of hydrogeological
cross sections from around the state pub-
lished in poster format. During 2003 and
2004, the FGS began making a series of
hydrogeological cross sections traversing
the state with using updated hydrostrati-
graphic terminology. The revisions will be
reviewed by the AD Hoc committee and the
expected completion date is 2006.


FGS geologists Frank Rupert and Walt
Schmidt examine a large sinkhole in
Tallahassee (photo by Tom Scott).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION


HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY
LAB AND SEM

The Hydrogeology Section acquired
new lab space at the DEP Annex for a
hydrogeochemistry lab and sample storage.
Part of the space is occupied by a radio-iso-
tope lab, equipped with an alpha spectrom-
eter, a radio-isotope fume hood, and a Mega
Pure 3A water still. This lab will be used for
uranium isotope studies of ground water.
Of particular interest will be the water-rock
interaction processes, including sequential
leaching and mobility of trace metals, that
occur during ASR.

From this, future geochemical models
may be able to predict water-rock interac-
tions and movement of the As front.
Experiments will look at the effects of low-


ering DO once As is in solution, and the
effects of SO4 and Fe in the water. Also
being considered is magnetic separation of
the carbonates to concentrate the potential-
ly As-rich phases.

The Hydrogeology Section has also
acquired a used Jeol JXA-840A Scanning
Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM lab is
located adjacent to the hydrogeochemistry
lab. This instrument can be used for many
applications. The current study will utilize
its high performance electron probe micro-
analyzer and its capability as a high resolu-
tion scanning microscope. Pre- and-post-
leaching samples will be examined. The
electron probe micro analyzer measures
constituent elements of a specimen and
their distribution. The EDX utilizes 4 Pi
Revolution software.


New Scanning Electron Microscope (photo by Cindy Fischler).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CORE STORAGE FACILITY
EXPANSION

Additional space within the FDEP
Warehouse building (where our existing
sample repository is located) became avail-
able to the FGS and has been utilized for
additional core storage and for a new sam-
ple preparation lab. Well samples will now
be delivered, processed and archived in the
same building. The first phase of mobile
aisle shelving has been installed. This
expansion, when all shelving is installed,
will handle core storage needs for the next
12-15 years. The FGS is grateful for finan-
cial support from the SWFWMD in the
effort.

NEW DRILL RIG AND WATER TRUCK

The Florida Legislature provided funds
to procure a new, state of the art drill rig to
replace the very tired and inefficient Gefco
1500. The new rig (Schramm T450M11A)
will provide significant improvements in


New Ford F450 water/support truck
(photo by Ken Campbell).

crew safety, productivity and depth capabil-
ity. A new water truck/support vehicle was
also purchased.

NEW OFFICE SPACE

Drilling operations staff moved to office
space in the Warehouse and Core Storage
Facility located behind the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection's
(FDEP) Annex. Both buildings are south
and across the street from the FDEP
Douglas Building located just off of Capitol
Circle Northwest in Tallahassee.


- I *1*T


New Schramm T450M11A drill rig (photo by Frank Rupert).


PREP-






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


PUBLICATIONS


FGS PUBLICATIONS

The following reports in the FGS publi-
cation series were published during the
period from January 2003 through
December 2004:

BIENNIAL REPORT

Balsillie, J. H., 2003, Florida Geological
Survey Biennial Report 22, 2001-2002:
Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report
22, 115 p.

BULLETIN

Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Meegan, R.P.,
Means, R.C., Upchurch, S.B., Copeland,
R.E., Jones, J., Roberts, T., and Willet,
A., 2004, Springs of Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin 66, 377 p. plus
CD.

In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) published the first Springs of Florida
bulletin which documented the major and
important springs in the state (Ferguson et
al., 1947). This publication was revised in
1977, with many previously undocumented
springs and many new water-quality analy-
ses being added (Rosenau et al., 1977). The
Florida Geological Survey's report on first
magnitude springs (Scott et al., 2002) was
the initial step in once again updating and
revising the Springs of Florida bulletin.
The new bulletin includes the spring
descriptions and water-quality analyses
from Scott et al. (2002). Nearly 300 springs
were described in 1977. As of 2004, more
than 700 springs have been recognized in
the state and more are reported each year.
To date, 33 first magnitude springs (with a
flow greater than 100 cubic feet per second
or approximately 64.6 million gallons of
water per day) have been recognized in
Florida, more than any other state or coun-
try (Rosenau et al., 1977). Our springs are


a unique and invaluable natural resource.
A comprehensive understanding of the
spring systems will provide the basis for
their protection and wise use.

FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM

The Florida Geology Forum newsletter
is designed to reach a wide range of readers
interested in geology and natural resources
of Florida. Each issue includes current
events and activities at the FGS, as well as
meeting announcements and contributed
articles from other geoscience organizations
and University geology departments.

March 2003, v. 17, no. 1, edited by Paula
Polson

October 2003, v. 17, no. 2, edited by Paula
Polson.

March 2004, v. 18, no. 1, edited by Paula
Polson.

October 2004, v. 18, no. 2, edited by Paula
Polson.

INFORMATION CIRCULAR

Armstrong, Carol, (ed.) 2004, List of
Publications. Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular 87, 56 p.

LEAFLET


Rupert, F., 2004,
Geological Survey:
Survey Leaflet 17.


This is the Florida
Florida Geological


This color tri-fold brochure summarizes
the history, mission and services provided
by the Florida Geological Survey. Inside,
the brochure details the present adminis-
trative structure of the Survey along with
listings of current projects and activities.
Contact information and a map to the main
offices are provided on the back panel.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MAP SERIES

Marella, R.L., and Sepulveda, A.A.,
2004, Potentiometric surface of the Upper
Floridan Aquifer in Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Map Series 149.

Printed by the FGS, this report is the
seventh in a series of USGS map reports
describing the potentiometric surface of the
Floridan Aquifer System in Florida. It dif-
fers from the earlier reports, because it
emphasizes the highly permeable Upper
Floridan Aquifer. Data were collected as
part of a continuing program that monitors
ground-water resources in Florida in coop-
eration with the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, the state water
management districts, and local govern-
ment agencies. This report illustrates and
describes the potentiometric surface of the
Upper Floridan Aquifer based on water lev-
els from more than 1,200 wells measured in
May 2000 (mostly in Florida). Discussions
regarding water levels or water-level
changes in 2000 refer to those measured in
May 2000; similarly, 1995 water levels refer
to May and June 1995. The potentiometric
surface is a spatial representation of the
levels in which water would rise in tightly
cased wells open to the Upper Floridan
Aquifer. The potentiometric surface was
developed from the altitude of water levels
in the wells and is represented on maps by
contours that connect points of equal alti-
tude above mean sea level. To depict the
dynamic condition of the aquifer, this report
includes a map of changes in water levels
between 1995 and 2000 and hydrographs
from five wells across the State with long-
term records.

OPEN FILE MAP SERIES

Green, R.C., Evans, W.L., III, Bryan, J.,
and Paul, D., 2003, Geologic map of the
eastern portion of the USGS 1:100,000
Scale Marianna Quadrangle, northwestern
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open-
File Map Series 92, 2 plates.


The near surface geology of the eastern
half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale
Marianna Quadrangle is composed of car-
bonate and siliciclastic sediments ranging
from Eocene to Holocene. Within this area,
geologic influences are a combination of flu-
vio-deltaic and marine deposition, erosion of
sediments as a result of eustatic changes in
sea level, dolomitization, and dissolution of
underlying carbonates. These factors, com-
bined with the fact that there is a transition
zone between the primarily siliciclastics
sediments of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the
Mississippi Embayment to the west and the
predominantly carbonate sediments of the
Florida Platform within the study area can
make differentiation of formations difficult
(Green et al., 2001).

Several relict Neogene coastal terraces
have been recognized in the area and sur-
face topography has been incised by numer-
ous streams, often creating a dendritic
drainage pattern. Some streams emerge
from steep sided ravines, called steepheads.
These features, unique to western Florida,
reflect the interaction between ground
water and thick, siliciclastics which sit atop
impermeable clays of the underlying Alum
Bluff Group.

Evans, W. L., III, Green, R. C., Bryan, J.,
and Paul, D., 2004, Geologic map of the
western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000
scale Gainesville Quadrangle, north-central
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open-
File Map Series 93, 2 plates.

The near surface geology of the western
portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale
Gainesville quadrangle is composed of a
complex mixture of carbonate and siliciclas-
tic sediments ranging from Eocene to
Holocene. A combination of factors, includ-
ing fluvio-deltaic deposition, marine deposi-
tion, dissolution of underlying carbonates,
erosion of sediments as a result of eustatic
changes in sea level, and structural fea-






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


tures, have influenced the geology of the
study area.

Much of the western portion of the
Gainesville quadrangle is located within
the Suwannee River and Santa Fe River
basins. In this area, the Suwannee River,
the Santa Fe River, and their tributaries
contain at least 55 documented springs,
including 9 first magnitude springs (defined
as having a minimum average flow of 100
cubic feet per second, or 64.6 million gallons
per day).

Of a total of 33 first magnitude springs
in the state, approximately 27 percent are
located within the study area. Many of
these springs have evidenced significant
increases in pollutants in the last few
decades, particularly nitrate (Scott et al.,
2002). Detailed geologic mapping of lithos-
tratigraphic units in this area provides crit-
ical data needed to help in future assess-
ments of the vulnerability of these aquifer
systems to contamination.

OPEN FILE REPORTS

Rupert, F., 2003, Geology of Suwannee
County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Open File Report 86, 9 p.

This publication presents an overview
of the geology of Suwannee County.
Included are sections on: 1) geomorphology,
describing the shape and origin of the land
surface; 2) stratigraphy, describing the
underlying rock strata; 3) ground water,
providing an overview of the aquifer sys-
tems in Suwannee County; and 4) mineral
resources present in the county.

Balsillie, J. H., and Dabous, A. A., 2003,
A new type of sieve shaker; the Meinzer II,
comparative study with Rotap technology:
Florida Geological Survey, Open File
Report No. 87, 93 p.

A new type of sieve shaker, the British-


designed Meinzer II, is compared to the
long-used "industry standard" Rotap shak-
er. Twenty sand-sized sediment sample
pair tests were conducted using four differ-
ent sieving protocols to determine if
Meinzer II shakers duplicate results forth-
coming from Rotap shakers. It was found,
based on qualitative visual assessments of
sample pair cumulative probability distri-
butions, and on quantitative statistical
analysis, that Rotap and Meinzer II shakers
result in essentially identical outcomes.
Furthermore, this conclusion is reached for
samples tested with soft or friable sand-
sized particles, wherein the Meinzer II was
found to be gentler than the Rotap
machines.

Balsillie, J. H., 2003, A mechanically sim-
ple and low cost subaqueous surface sedi-
ment sampler: Florida Geological Survey,
Open File Report No. 88, 19 p.

Over the years, the author has devel-
oped a subaqueous surface sediment sam-
pler that is simple to operate and inexpen-
sive to construct. It is designed to be oper-
ated in water ranging from wading depths
to a water depth up to 20 feet when operat-
ed from a boat. This paper describes (1)
sampling rational of the sedimentation unit
for which the device has been designed, (2)
sample size constraints for which the sam-
pler has been configured, (3) sampler speci-
fications, dimensions and construction tips,
and (4) sampler operation.

POSTERS

Spencer, S., and Rupert, F., 2003,
Florida's industrial minerals: Making mod-
ern life possible: Florida Geological Survey
Poster 9.

Since pre-historic times man has uti-
lized the natural materials from the earth
for constructing shelters, tools, utensils,
and weapons. The earliest mining in
Florida was carried out by Native






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Americans, who quarried the mineral chert
from limestone for use in points and tools.
Alluvial clay deposits were also utilized for
pots and other cooking utensils. Today min-
erals from the earth are the building blocks
of our modern society. Florida ranks among
the top ten states in the nation in industri-
al mineral production. Florida's minerals
are utilized both locally and worldwide.
This poster illustrates and describes
Florida's common industrial minerals and
shows the mining areas for each within the
state.

Bond, P. A., 2003, Land use and spring
protection: Florida Geological Survey
Poster 10.

This poster illustrates geohydrologic
aspects of a springshed and cultural fea-
tures that have the potential to affect water
quality and quantity, with special emphasis
on protective practices.

Rupert F., and Spencer, S., 2004,
Florida's sinkholes: Florida Geological
Survey Poster 11.

Sinkholes are a natural component of
Florida's landscape. In the simplest sense,
sinkholes are depressions in the land sur-
face resulting from the dissolution of under-
lying bedrock. Their size depends on the
local geology. Two broad types of sinkholes
occur in Florida. Collapse sinkholes form
quickly and tend to develop in areas with
clayey sediments overlying the bedrock.
They typically are the result of an under-
ground cavity enlarging to the point where
its ceiling no longer supports the weight of
the overlying sediments. Solution sinkholes
form gradually and commonly occur in
areas with sandy sediments overlying
bedrock. These typically form by gradual
infilling of cracks and voids in the underly-
ing bedrock by cover sediments. The land
surface over the in-filled bedrock subsides
in response. This poster illustrates the
locations of reported sinkholes in Florida,


the primary sinkhole zones statewide, types
of sinkholes, and the processes that form
them.


Greenhalgh, T., 2003,
nitude springsheds:
Survey Poster 12.


Florida's first mag-
Florida Geological


The Florida Geological Survey in con-
junction with the Northwest Florida,
Suwannee River, St. Johns River and
Southwest Florida Water Management
Districts, as well as the United States
Geological Survey are working together to
develop a preliminary map of Florida's first
magnitude spring recharge basins (spring-
sheds). This map is a compilation of the
readily available first magnitude spring-
shed boundary maps. The purpose of the
map is to inform decision makers (e.g.,
county commissioners, legislators, and local
and state agency personnel) and citizens
about the importance of appropriate land
use within a springshed and to establish a
baseline for the further refinement of the
springshed boundaries. As on-going and
future research improves the understand-
ing of the ground-water hydrology of these
springsheds, more accurate maps of the
individual springsheds will be available at
the Florida Geological Survey.

Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc., 2003, Karst educa-
tional posters: to be available as Florida
Geological Survey Poster 13 (CD).

This is a series of eight color posters
depicting ground water surface water
interaction, aquifers, hydrologic cycle,
karst, distribution of the earth's water, por-
sity and permeability, and how you can
help.

REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS

Balsillie, J. H., and Donoghue, J. F.,
2004, High-resolution sea-level history for
the U. S. Gulf of Mexico since the last gla-
cial maximum: Florida Geological Survey,






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


Report of Investigations No. 103, 65 p.

Comprehensive, high-resolution, com-
posite sea-level curves for the U.S. Gulf of
Mexico since the last glacial maximum have
been developed based on all available radio-
carbon and calibrated absolute age-data.
They are based on sea-level elevation indi-
cators that, on the average, were measured
once every 60 years for the past 20,000
years. The data sets consist primarily of
geological sea-level indicators (some are
archaeological). Published sea-level histo-
ries of the Gulf of Mexico exhibit significant
variability. While there is error associated
with the 14C age dating methodology, the
bulk of error is undoubtedly associated with
the indicator material chosen to represent
sea-level elevation. It is the latter that
must be judicially treated. Such error has,
perhaps, been inflated to such an argumen-
tative and defeatist extent among
researchers that comprehensive compila-
tion and analysis of sea-level data for the
Gulf, until now, has been avoided.

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS

Copeland, R. E. (Compiler), 2003, Florida
spring classification system and spring
glossary: Florida Geological Survey Special
Publication 52, 17 p.

In May 2002, a Florida Springs work-
shop was held in Ocala, Florida sponsored
jointly by the Hydrogeology Consortium,
the Florida State University, and the
Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of
the workshop was to provide a forum to
facilitate discussion among scientists,
resource managers and the public regard-
ing the significance of springs as valuable
natural systems.

Included among the recommendations
of the workshop was the need for the devel-
opment of consistent terms as applied to
spring usage in the state of Florida. As a
result, the Florida Geological Survey agreed


to form a committee to address spring
nomenclature. The Florida Springs
Nomenclature Committee was formed in
the fall of 2003 and was made up of repre-
sentatives from the Florida Geological
Survey, the state's water management dis-
tricts, the state university system, the
hydrogeological consultant community, and
the general public. In addition to develop-
ing a glossary of terms, the committee
developed a spring classification system in
order to allow the citizens of Florida to eas-
ily classify springs into one of a minimum
number of categories. It is believed that the
classification system, as well as the glos-
sary, will assist Floridians in improving
their overall understanding of springs and
to increase consistency in the usage of
terms associated with Florida's springs.

Dehan, R. (compiler), 2003, Significance of
caves in watershed management and pro-
tection in Florida: Workshop Proceedings,
April 16-17, 2003, Ocala, Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication 53,
CD.

The workshop on the Significance of
caves in watershed management and protec-
tion in Florida was designed to bridge the
gap between cavers and the public at large
on the one hand and scientists involved in
water resource protection research and reg-
ulatory activities on the other. Ideas and
discussions were exchanged on ways for
cavers to contribute to scientific data gath-
ering while practicing their sport/hobby.
The workshop delved into the significance
of cave system maps and morphology data
in understanding karstification processes
and ultimately in understanding the
dynamics of ground water flow in saturated
caves. Interaction between surface and
ground water was of special interest to the
participants since this interaction is
thought to play a critical role in ground
water contamination, thus the health and
integrity of watersheds. Finally, discus-
sions were directed to the significance of






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


these types of data in the development of
conceptual and numerical models for
ground water flow and contaminant trans-
port in karstic settings.

Special Publication 54, 2004,
Proceedings, Aquifer Storage Recovery IV:
science, technology, management and poli-
cy, Tampa, Florida April 15-16, 2004:
Florida Geological Survey CD.

This CD contains a compilation of the
oral and poster presentations and discus-
sion summaries from the Aquifer Storage
Recovery IV, science, technology, manage-
ment, and policy, held in Tampa, Florida -
April 15 & 16, 2004. The Forum was spon-
sored and organized by the American
Ground Water Trust, the Florida Geological
Survey, and the Hydrogeology Consortium.
Additional co-sponsors included: the US
Geological Survey, the Florida Ground
Water Association, the South Florida Water
Management District, the St. Johns River
Water Management District, the Florida
Association of Professional Geologists, and
the Southwest Florida Water Management
District.

Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)
technology is a well established method of
conserving water resources and has been
used in numerous parts of the world for
many years. It has also been used success-
fully in Florida, and in recent years has
received much attention in regard to the
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Plan, in which ASR is proposed to play a
significant role. This Forum addressed
"Science and Technology" issues on the first
day and "Management and Policy" issues
the second day with numerous experts pre-
senting papers and responding to questions.
In addition, several excellent research proj-
ects were summarized in poster sessions
during the meeting. These presentations
and posters are compiled in this CD to


make this important information available
to the professional community, interested
government officials and the public. This
information will assist government agen-
cies, land owners, environmentalists,
hydrogeologists, and engineers, in better
conserving and protecting Florida's pre-
cious water resources.

Special Publication 56, 2004, Wakulla
Springs scientific symposium, May 13,
2004: Florida Geological Survey CD,

Wakulla Spring has long been a draw
to wildlife and ancient human inhabitants.
What we see today as the Woodville Karst
Plain had it's beginnings after the original
deposition of the marine sediments (during
the Oligocene and Miocene, (35 through 5
million years ago). Marine, coastal and flu-
vial processes alternatively deposited and
reworked successive layers of younger
rocks. In this area, most of these are now
missing due to subsequent erosion and re-
deposition further offshore. We now have
residual quartz sands, with included shell
material and sporadic silts and clays, over-
lying the irregular karstic surface of the
lithified limestone.

Numerous fluctuations in sea-level
occurred throughout the Neogene and sev-
eral during the Pleistocene have been well-
documented, using many lines of evidence.
This relentless "pumping" caused by ongo-
ing fluctuations in sea-level and the contin-
uous dissolution of the carbonate rocks from
aggressive surface and ground water has
resulted in one of the most prolific ground-
water aquifers in the world, what we call
the Floridan Aquifer System. The last
major episode of sea-level change probably
resulted in the formation of the cave / con-
duit system we see today.

The professional cave diving communi-
ty has utilized the Wakulla Cave system






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


and surrounding area for training, equip-
ment testing, and exploration of the system.
They have mapped the resource and assist-
ed land managers with conservation plan-
ning and environmental protection. Cave
diving exploration has occurred sporadical-
ly since 1955 and in the mid 1980's the US
Deep Caving Team came to the area for
exploration and equipment testing. Most
importantly, also, the mid- 1980's saw the
beginning of the Woodville Karst Plain
Project ( a NSS sanctioned project in coop-
eration with Global Underwater Explorers),
which has resulted in continuous diving
exploration and research in the system for
over 20 years, providing invaluable data,
information, and scientific cooperation with
the hydrogeologic community. Partially as
a result of this collaboration between the
cave diving community and the hydrogeo-
logic community, a workshop was held in
2003 in Ocala, titled: Significance of Caves
in Watershed Management and Protection
in Florida. The proceedings of that meeting
are now published in CD format as FGS
Special Publication No. 53.

The Wakulla Springs scientific sym-
posium assembled local experts to summa-
rize their recent activities and current
research. These presentations include the
Florida Springs Initiative; a general hydro-
geologic overview of the area; a review of
wetland ecosystems; information on some
new cave and conduit flow measurements;
and dye tracing studies; a bio-reconnais-
sance overview; a review of some studies
that are part of the Woodville Karst Plain
Project; a review of local aquifer recharge
studies, and several other projects in the
region.

VIDEO SERIES

Singer, M., Jablonski, J. and Arthur, J.
(co-producers), 2004, Florida's Aquifer
Adventure: Florida Geological Survey Video


Series No. 2 produced in cooperation with
Global Underwater Explorers and Hazlett-
Kincaid, Inc., DVD/VHS, 20 minutes.

Florida's Aquifer Adventure! is a 20
minute educational film describing
Florida's aquifer systems, springs, under-
water caves, cave diving and environmental
issues through spectacular videography.
The lead producer and editor of the film was
Marc Singer (Global Underwater
Explorers), winner of the Sundance Film
Festival award. The project, funded by the
FGS Hydrogeology Program, was lead by
Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc. The film has been
aired on Florida Public Television and is
available in VHS and DVD formats from
the FGS.

MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS

Miscellaneous reports include contract
progress reports and deliverables, or other
special reports prepared in-house, in hard
copy or digital format. They are not part of
the regular FGS publication series but,
because they commonly represent extensive
data gathering, compilation, and analysis
projects, they are included here as scientific
reports.

Balsillie, J. H., 2004, Native sediment
composite statistics for Alligator Spit beach
sands, Gulf of Mexico Coast, northern
Florida: Unpublished report to the U. S.
Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District,
94 p.

Beach restoration and maintenance
renourishment design protocols require
knowledge of the granulometry of borrow
material and native beach material.
Comparative numerical statistics of borrow
and native materials are then used to quan-
titatively determine overfill ratios and
maintenance renourishment schedules
(Krumbein, 1957; Krumbein and James,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1965; James, 1974, 1975: Hobson, 1977;
etc.). Granulometric statistics can be
viewed as either suite statistics or compos-
ite statistics. For the former, suite means
are determined by averaging moment meas-
ures to yield the mean of the means, the
mean of the standard deviations, mean of
skewness, mean of kurtosis, etc. For the
latter, frequency or cumulative frequency
percentiles of all sample distributions are
averaged and then analyzed to produce the
composite mean, standard deviation, skew-
ness, kurtosis, etc. The two approaches
result in different statistical outcomes.
Composite statistics are those used in beach
design work. Composite and suite statis-
tics have been discussed in detail by
Krumbein (1957), Dwass (Krumbein, 1957,
Appendix B), Balsillie and Tanner (1999),
and Balsillie (2002).

Parker, W. C., Arnold, A. J., Balsillie, J.
H., and Hiller, W. C., 2003, The applica-
tion of benthic foraminifera to environmen-
tal analysis of coastal habitats of the
Florida Panhandle: Contract deliverable to
the Florida Geological Survey, June 30,
2003, 18 p.

Preliminary work as part of a previous-
ly DEP-funded Springs project demonstrat-
ed that foraminiferal assemblages in the
Spring Creek and St. Joseph Bay regions
are particularly sensitive to spring outflow
induced changes in salinity and anthro-
pogenic pollutants. However, timing of the
original research funding did not permit
exploration of temporal changes in the
foraminiferal assemblages being studied. In
order to demonstrate a robust and reliable
relationship between the micro/meiofauna
of these environments and salinity/pollu-
tion, natural temporal and spatial variation
of the fauna must be recorded. This was the
fundamental goal of the present project.
The primary study areas included the St.


Marks River estuary and the Spring Creek
estuarine system. A secondary goal of the
project was to survey samples taken in
1996-1998 in the Cedar-Ortega River above
its confluence with the St. John's River, as
part of a separate project. This survey was
intended to assess the suitability of those
stored cores for further historical
foraminiferal analysis.

Phelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie,
J.H., Dabous A., LaChance M., and
Fischler C., 2003, A geological investiga-
tion of the offshore area along Florida's
northeast coast, Year 1: Annual Report to
the United States Department of Interior,
Minerals Management Service: 2002-2003:
Florida Geological Survey, unpublished
report, CD.

The FGS and the U.S. Minerals
Management Service entered into a multi-
year cooperative agreement with the specif-
ic goal of locating and characterizing both
the areal extent and volume of available
sands suitable for beach nourishment lying
in federal waters adjacent to state sub-
merged lands off the northeast coast of
Florida. In Year 1 of this study, over 230
miles of seismic data was collected and
interpreted to determine locations thought
to have been favorable for the deposition of
beach-quality sand. A total of 34 beach
sampling locations were identified and 106
surface samples collected and a total of 10
offshore seabed grab sample locations were
visited. Grab samples were collected from 9
offshore locations. Three push cores were
collected on Bird Island, an island in the
ebb tidal delta of the Nassau River.
Descriptions were made and grain size dis-
tributions were determined for all beach
and offshore seabed grab samples and push
cores. All of the above referenced data are
accessible within this report.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


As a result of the seismic stratigraphic
analysis several features indicative of high
potential for the occurrence of beach
restoration quality sand in federal waters
off Duval County were identified. This
analysis was discussed with representa-
tives of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Jacksonville District Office and a copy of
the preliminary work map delineating
those features provided to them.

Phelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie,
J.H., Ladner, L.J., Dabous A.,
LaChance M., Bailey K., and Fischler
C., 2004, A geological investigation of the
offshore area along Florida's northeast
coast, Year 2: Annual Report to the United
States Department of Interior, Minerals
Management Service: Florida Geological
Survey unpublished report, DVD.

The FGS and the U.S. Minerals
Management Service have continued a
multi-year cooperative agreement to locate
and characterize both the areal extent and
volume of available sands suitable for beach
nourishment lying in federal waters adja-
cent to state submerged lands off the north-
east coast of Florida. One-hundred-and -
ninety miles of seismic data were collected
offshore of Nassau, Duval and Flagler
Counties in Year 2. The seismic data col-
lected in Years 1 and 2 are provided as
processed images. A total of 127 beach
samples were collected from the beaches of
St. Johns and Flagler Counties.
Photographs and granulometric analyses of
the beach samples collected from St. Johns
County are provided. Fifty two vibracores
were collected offshore of Nassau and Duval
Counties and three vibracores were collect-
ed in the mouth of the St. Johns River.
Vibracores directly acquired by the FGS are
provided as photographs and granulometric
analyses. Vibracores acquired by a contrac-
tor are provided as penetration curves,
drilling diagrams and, with exceptions, as


granulometric curves. Analysis of these
vibracore data infers potential reserves of
up to 198.5 million cubic yards of restora-
tion-quality sand offshore of southern
Duval County.

Analysis of the sub-bottom profiler data
indicate the presence of areas of anomalous
dip offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties
a well as three clearly identifiable buried
depressions which are interpreted to be dis-
solution collapse features. These three con-
jectured collapse features lie six to seven
miles offshore, are vertically persistent to
the base of the seismic data recorded and
are not expressed bathymetrically.

Based on age-date analysis of woody
material present in one of the vibracores,
the calculated sedimentation rate for the
first 16.8 feet of sediments in this core is
0.3621 mm per year +\- .0015 mm. This
figure would set an approximate lower limit
on the average Holocene sedimentation rate
locally.

Schmidt, Walter, 2004, Geologic and
geoechnical investigation procedures for
evaluation of the causes of subsidence dam-
age in Florida: A report submitted to the
Florida State University, College of
Business, Department of Risk Management
and Insurance, in response to requirements
of Chapter 627.7077 Florida Statutes, 21 p.

PAPERS BY STAFF IN
OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS

Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A.A. and Cowart,
J.C., 2003, Water-rock geochemical consid-
erations for Class V aquifer storage and
recovery wells: Florida case studies, 2003:
Abstract, Second International Symposium
on Underground Injection Science and
Technology Symposium, Berkeley
Laboratories, CA, Symposium Abstracts,
October 22-25, 2003, p. 63-64.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is
an effective method of meeting increasing
water-supply demands by injecting avail-
able water into confined or semi-confined
permeable formations for later withdrawal
as needed. Not only does ASR meet increas-
ing demands for drinking water, but it has
several applications in industry, agriculture
and environmental restoration. A prime
example of the latter application is the role
of ASR in the Comprehensive Everglades
Restoration Plan (CERP). More than 300
ASR wells are proposed in South Florida to
capture -1.7 billion gallons of water per day
and store it in the Floridan aquifer system
(FAS) for later use. The planned CERP
effort alone comprises an order of magni-
tude increase in ASR applications in
Florida within the next two decades. Many
scientific and engineering issues need to be
addressed in the design, construction, test-
ing and operation of an ASR facility. Some
of these issues include the fate and trans-
port of microorganisms, algal toxins, and
changes in water chemistry (and thus qual-
ity) due to ASR practices.

Our research focuses on the characteri-
zation of water quality changes during ASR
activities in Florida. Long-term goals of our
project include: 1) investigation of water-
rock interaction during ASR with an
emphasis on identifying the source and
mechanism for trace metal mobilization
into injected and recovered water; 2) assess-
ment of these interactions within varying
hydrogeologic settings (i.e., different
aquifer systems and matrix compositions
[chemical/mineralogical]); 3) evaluation of
the effect of repeated ASR cycle testing and
other ASR practices (e.g., borehole acidiza-
tion) on these interactions; 4) exploring the
application of U isotopes to identify source
waters (injected, native and interstitial)
and mixing; and 5) providing the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection
(FDEP) and CERP with scientific knowl-
edge on which to base ASR design, regulato-
ry and operational decisions. At present,


ASR wells in five facilities located in south-
west Florida comprise the focus of our
research. Results summarized herein are
based on our work at two of these facilities,
which are located more than 120 km apart:
Rome Avenue ASR, Hillsborough County
and Punta Gorda ASR, Charlotte County.

Combined results from multiple cycle
tests at these facilities suggest that As, Fe,
Mn, Ni (?), V (?) and U are mobilized from
the aquifer system matrix into the injected
waters. This mobilization is most apparent
during the recovery phase of a cycle test at
the ASR well. Arsenic and U mobilization
are the most consistent and well-document-
ed trends, with concentrations exceeding 85
gg/1 and 6 gg/1, respectively. Three pairs of
cycle tests indicate that maximum observed
As concentrations decrease during succes-
sive cycle testing. This preliminary obser-
vation holds true only where both cycle-test
injection volumes are similar and exposure
of "new" aquifer matrix to the injected
water is minimal. This result is not only
desired, but expected assuming that the As
source is a fixed and consistently depleted
concentration within the aquifer matrix and
not replenished due to changes in redox
conditions (e.g., pH-adjusted cycle tests),
mixing or changes in flow paths. In con-
trast, data from paired cycle tests where the
second injection input volume is greater
reveal different results. In this scenario, As
concentrations in the second cycle test are
equal to or greater than those of the first
cycle test due to the exposure of input
waters to a larger volume of previously
unaffected (e.g., un-leached) aquifer matrix.
A further observation relevant to the design
and monitoring of cycle tests is that maxi-
mum As concentrations are observed during
recovery after 50 percent or more of the
input waters are recovered (as measured by
total recovery volume).

Data also indicate that different geo-
chemical processes or reactions govern the
relative mobility of metals. For example,






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


during recovery U concentrations peak ear-
lier than those of As and other metals. The
activity ratio (AR) of 234U/238U is also useful
for identifying mixing and evolution of
waters during ASR. Moreover, the AR is
useful to demonstrate heterogeneity that
exists among wells in a single wellfield
(Rome Avenue) or between ASR facilities
located kilometers apart (Rome Avenue
[Tampa] and Punta Gorda). Various mod-
els are proposed to account for the observed
trends in AR including mobilization of thin
234U-depleted U carbonate grain coatings,
and mobilization of homogeneously distrib-
uted 234U-depleted U from within grains by
,,i' .-- ; i\~ ., oxic waters.

Mineralogical and chemical characteri-
zation of storage zones in the Floridan
aquifer system (FAS) at both ASR facilities
has been determined through a variety of
analytical methods. Average compositions
for FAS limestones are similar to global
averages, except for Cr, which is higher in
the FAS rocks. Maximum concentrations of
some metals (e.g., As, Ni, and U), however,
far exceed global limestone averages.
Mineralogy of the ASR storage zone carbon-
ates is dominantly calcite and dolomite with
minor clay minerals and organic material,
and trace amounts of quartz, gypsum, and
pyrite. Semiquantative microprobe analy-
ses of pyrites tentatively suggest that As
concentrations vary up to more than two
weight percent.

Although additional As-bearing phases
(i.e., Fe-Mn grain coatings, organic) are
suspected, they were not detected in our
preliminary microprobe study; however,
another analytical technique suggests that
trace metals are more widely dispersed
within the aquifer matrix. Limestone sam-
ples from an ASR storage zone were ana-
lyzed by a sequential extraction technique
designed to identify the concentration of As,
U, and other trace metals in four
mineral/phase groups: total soluble heavy
metals, carbonates, Fe- and Mn-oxides, and


organic plus sulfides. Preliminary results
indicate that although most of these trace
metals are concentrated in the organics
plus sulfides" fraction, trace metals are also
associated with the other mineral-bound
fractions.

In closing, the Floridan aquifer system
matrix is chemically heterogeneous, which
is not only exemplified by carbonate geo-
chemical data, but by variable geochemical
responses observed in cycle tests data from
wells only a few hundred meters apart
(Rome Avenue ASR wells). Mobilization of
As, Fe, Mn, U and other metals is observed
during ASR activities. A principle mecha-
nism of this mobility is likely the input of
oxygen-rich surface waters into a reduced
aquifer, thereby oxidizing trace-metal rich
phases (e.g. pyrite) and releasing metals
into solution. Other variables affecting this
mobility include: 1) native and input water
chemistry and related parameters, 2)
aquifer matrix chemistry/mineralogy, 3)
input water matrix contact time and num-
ber of cycle tests, and 4) site-specific hydro-
geology (e.g., pore/conduit geometry,
dynamic pathways). In addition to U being
mobile, U activity ratios are useful toward
understanding ground water evolution dur-
ing ASR activities. Due to concerns regard-
ing maximum contaminant levels, the
design, construction and operation of ASR
facilities, including monitor well placement
and monitoring schedules should take into
account the possibility of water-rock inter-
action and mobilization of metals into
recovered waters.

Arthur, J.D., DeHan, R.D., Kincaid,
T.R., and Bond, P., 2003, Education and
outreach efforts toward better management
and protection of Florida springs: Abstract,
Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems
- Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003,
Gainesville, FL, p. 1.

The Florida Legislature authorized the
Florida Department of Environmental






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Protection (FDEP) Florida Geological
Survey (FGS), in Fiscal Year 2001/2002, to
enhance the new FGS Hydrogeology
Program with funds from the Water Quality
Assurance Act trust fund. These funds are
largely applied to hydrogeologic research
activities through "outsourcing" to universi-
ties and the private sector. Needs identified
by FDEP programs stressed that an
improved understanding of the interaction
between ground and surface water, espe-
cially in Florida's unique karstic geology
setting, would be valuable toward water-
shed resource protection and management.
As such, most of the scientific research and
education/outreach activities funded by the
Hydrogeology Program focus on springs and
related karst systems. Outreach and educa-
tion activities are summarized below.
Descriptions of scientific research coordi-
nated by the program are on-line at:
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/pro-
gramssections /hydrogeology. htm.

1) Establishment of a Florida karst data-
base: An Internet-accessible database is
being developed to provide access to loca-
tions, depths and dimensions of Florida
caves. This data is essential for accurate
delineation of watershed or springshed
boundaries, and is important regarding
ground-water flow modeling efforts in karst
aquifers. Upon completion of this applica-
tion, qualified users will be able to input,
store and retrieve karst-related data. The
web-site also provides educational informa-
tion about Florida karst geology.

2) Construction of educational models and
exhibits: Karst and hydrogeologic-cycle con-
cepts are presented in a series of posters
and a short video within the framework of a
"traveling kiosk." This display is intended
to be a resource for middle and high school
students, their teachers and the general
public to help them become aware of issues
associated with living in, managing and
protecting ecosystems dominated by karst
geology.


3) A Workshop titled "Blueprints for the
management and protection of Florida's
springs:" This two-day workshop, held in
May of 2002 in Ocala, was framed around
three invited panels of experts and a plena-
ry session. The workshop focused on both
the science and policies of managing and
protecting springs. The findings and recom-
mendations of the panels, including signifi-
cant input from workshop participants,
have been published as "workshop proceed-
ings" in a CD ROM format that is available
to the public. To obtain a copy, contact the
FGS, or visit our website at the Internet
address listed above.

4) Springshed posters: Two posters pertain-
ing to springsheds are being prepared by
the FGS: 1) In response to a request by One
Thousand Friends of Florida, the FGS
recently prepared a graphic illustrating
various factors involved in springshed basin
planning. This graphic will be expanded as
an educational poster relating land use to
underlying karst geology. 2) In accordance
with ideas stemming from the Springs
workshop in Ocala (see #3 above), the FGS
is leading a multi-agency effort to compile
existing knowledge of springshed bound-
aries. This preliminary information will be
the central focus of a poster designed to
inform decision makers and citizens about
the location and significance of these areas
that are highly vulnerable to ground-water
contamination. For more information,
please see the abstract presented at this
conference by Tom Greenhalgh,
FDEP/FGS).

5) "Florida MAPS:" This is a developing cur-
riculum project centered on hands-on use of
satellite and airborne imagery, aerial pho-
tography, topographic maps, and other spe-
cial-purpose cartographic products.
Classroom activities will focus on Florida
hydrogeology and will allow middle- and
high-school students to visualize natural
processes and relate them to other disci-
plines (e.g., mathematics and history).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


Student and teacher manuals contain site-
specific background information (e.g.,
Woodville Karst Plain) and sets of hands-
on' and 'minds-on' interdisciplinary activi-
ties keyed to the national and state science
standards.

Baker, A., Cichon, J., Arthur, J., and
Wood, H.A.R., III, 2003, Florida aquifer
vulnerability assessment model, a step by
step approach to predicting aquifer vulner-
ability at the springshed level using
weights of evidence: Abstract, Florida
Springs Conference: Natural Gems -
Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003,
Gainesville, FL, p. 2.

Water flowing from Florida's springs
originates from within the Floridan aquifer
system. Water quality degradation can be
attributed to land-use activities occurring
within a spring's catchment area or "spring-
shed". The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA) involves the develop-
ment of a GIS model to estimate the rela-
tive vulnerability of Florida's aquifer sys-
tems. Model development is currently in the
preliminary stages and consists of five
countywide projects (four of which appear
in this poster). Weights of Evidence quanti-
fies relationships between spatial layers
with measured contaminant occurrences in
order to assess a hypothesis. Using these
calculated relationships, interactions can be
analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive
model or relative probability map. The
model currently involves utilization of the
following spatial layers: thickness of confin-
ing unit, soil drainage, and spatial distribu-
tion of karst features.

The model is designed to be easy to
update as well as scaleable, thereby
enabling evaluation of individual spring-
sheds. The model will also allow for the
incorporation of additional data layers
including karst features (e.g., hole type,
sinks, conduits, etc.), detailed potentiometric
surface maps and lineament features.


Further, land use and nutrient loading
could be added as inputs to produce a sus-
ceptibility model.

Balsillie, J. H., Dunbar, J.D., Means,
G.H., and Means, R.C., 2003,
Stratigraphic integrity of the Middle Paleo-
indian Ryan-Harley Site (8Je1004):
abstract, Florida Anthropological Society
55th Annual Meeting, Florida Underwater
Archaeology Conference 3rd Annual
Meeting, Abstract Volume, 15p.

Based on the seriation and chronologi-
cal placement of Suwannee points and a
correlation to a regional event stratigraphy,
the Ryan-Harley site is relatively placed
from 10,900 14C BP to -10,500 14C BP. The
Suwannee point level was determined to be
intact under the river bank and was active-
ly eroding in the Wacissa River channel.
Distribution and taphonomic analysis of
specimens from the Suwannee point level
suggest the assemblage, including the fau-
nal remains, represents an undisturbed
site. Geologic granulometric analysis of
plastic sediments and other evidence indi-
cates the Suwannee point level of the Ryan-
Harley site is intact with little or no post-
depositional reworking.

Bond, P.A., 2003, A picture of spring pro-
tection-posters in education and outreach:
Abstract, Geological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Abstracts
with Program, v. 34, no. 7, p. 19.

Florida's springs are a treasured part of
the state's environmental heritage. The
state's population growth (estimated at
4,000 to 6,000 new permanent residents per
week) and overwhelming use of ground
water (about 93% of the population depends
on it) are coupled with the innate vulnera-
bility of its hydrogeologic setting. In sup-
port of an innovative spring protection cam-
paign initiated by the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection, the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) has published two






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


posters that illustrate different aspects of
spring protection and ground-water
resources in a karst environment.

The FGS uses illustration as a visual
bridge between hydrogeology and various
human activities that impact water
resources in Florida's karst terrain. Florida
is characterized by low topographic relief so
that even common features such as layered
rocks and fractures are rarely observed by
lay people. Sinkholes often contain slump
material obscuring their relationship to
rock layers and the ground-water resources
they contain. The surficial expression of a
spring is shown both in its hydrogeologic
(cross-section view) and environmental con-
text (plan view). This juxtaposition of
hydrogeologic and environmental/cultural
information provides Floridians of all ages
with an understanding of ways in which
their actions impact springs.

Posters are an important part of the
education and outreach effort at the FGS.
They are used successfully as part of pre-
sentations to groups of all ages and are eas-
ily used in unconventional venues. A short
text with references allows stand-alone use
in class rooms, state parks and municipal
and state offices. Digital versions of the
illustrations are regularly incorporated into
talks allowing the presenter maximum flex-
ibility in commentary. Visually appealing
posters that convey clear, positive, and
accessible information are a cost-effective
means of reaching diverse audiences.

Bond, P.A., 2004, A picture of spring pro-
tection-posters in education and outreach:
Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the
Geoscience Information Society, v. 34, 5 p.

Florida's springs are a cultural and
environmental treasure. The motivation to
protect them is widespread. Two posters
have been produced at the Florida
Geological Survey as part of a spring protec-
tion effort led by the Department of


Environmental Protection. Both posters
have as their focus a large color illustration
of a Florida landscape with a cross-section
view of the hydrogeology that is associated
with the landscape. A spring is a prominent
feature of both the landscape and the cross-
section. This format was chosen so that the
relationship of surface water to ground
water and the subsurface movement of
ground water could be illustrated.
Illustration is used in an attempt to over-
come the difficulty that non-geoscientists
experience in conceptualizing subsurface
rock layers and the ground-water resources
they contain. Protecting Florida's Springs
presents fundamental elements of the
hydrogeology of springs. Land Use and
Spring Protection emphasizes a distribution
of land use activities that planners expect
will provide maximum protection for the
spring and was based on the technical illus-
tration, Overlay Protection District.
Because of their versatility and popular
appeal posters remain a valuable part of
education and outreach efforts at the
Florida Geological Survey.

Cichon, J. R., Arthur, J. D., and Baker,
A. E., 2003, An application of the Florida
aquifer vulnerability assessment model to
springshed protection: Abstract, Florida
Springs Conference: Natural Gems -
Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003,
Gainesville, FL, p. 8.

The quality of water flowing from
Florida's springs is directly related to the
dynamic interaction between land use,
recharge and the hydrogeology of a particu-
lar spring catchment area, or "springshed."
As defined in the Workshop to Develop Blue
Prints for the Management and Protection
of Florida's Springs held in Ocala in May,
2002, a springshed is "those areas within
ground-water and surface-water basins
that contribute to the discharge of the
spring."

Land use within a springshed can have






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


an impact on water quality flowing from the
spring system. Due to variable hydrogeolog-
ic settings within the springshed, water
quality changes due to land use practices
may be observed weeks to decades after the
application of the contaminant. As such, it
is important to identify relative aquifer vul-
nerability within a springshed to limit the
impacts on water quality in the spring sys-
tem. Best Management Practices designed
to improve and protect the quality of ground
water (including springs) are enhanced
when this science-based knowledge is con-
sidered.

The Florida Geological Survey is cur-
rently developing a GIS model to estimate
the relative vulnerability of Florida's
aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Model
development is currently in the preliminary
stages consisting of five countywide proj-
ects. The overall intent of FAVA is the
development of a tool for environmental,
regulatory and planning professionals to
facilitate the protection of Florida's ground-
water resources. FAVA differs from the
Environmental Protection Agency DRAS-
TIC model in that the newer technique is
GIS-based and accounts for Florida's
karstic terrain. Current methods employed
in FAVA model development include
Weights of Evidence, Fuzzy Logic and a
Travel Time method. Of these geostatistical
methods, Weights of Evidence holds the
most promise. Weights of Evidence quanti-
fies relationships between spatial layers
with actual contaminant occurrences in
order to assess a hypothesis. Using these
calculated relationships, interactions can be
analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive
model. The model currently utilizes the fol-
lowing spatial data layers (evidential
themes): thickness of confining unit, depth
to water, soil drainage, and the percentage
of an area covered by karst features.

Although the FAVA model will be pro-
duced as a statewide model, it is scalable for


application within study areas of varying
sizes, such as a springshed. The resolution
of evidential themes is dependent upon the
quantity and accuracy of data collected.
Data collection can be designed to yield a
more highly resolved vulnerability model,
especially for local-scale needs. Moreover,
due to flexibility of the FAVA design, evi-
dential themes specifically relevant to local
karst terrains (e.g., conduits, lineaments,
etc.) can be added to the model to signifi-
cantly enhance its application as a predic-
tive tool on the scale of a springshed.

Cichon, J.R., Arthur, J., Baker, A., and
Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment: Abstract, 67th
Annual Meeting, Florida Academy of
Sciences, Orlando, FL, Florida Scientist, v.
66, supplement 1, p. 54.

The Florida Geological Survey is cur-
rently developing a model to estimate the
relative vulnerability of Florida's aquifer
systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability
Assessment (FAVA). Model development is
currently in the preliminary stages consist-
ing of five county wide projects. The overall
intent of FAVA is the development of a tool
for environmental, regulatory and planning
professionals to facilitate protection of
Florida's ground-water resources. Weights
of Evidence, the current method employed
in the FAVA model, quantifies relation-
ships between spatial layers with actual
contaminant occurrences in order to assess
a hypothesis. The model currently utilizes
the following spatial layers (evidential
themes): thickness of confining unit, sold
drainage, and spatial distribution of karst
features.

Cichon, J.R.., Baker, A.E., Arthur, J.D.,
and Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida aquifer
vulnerability assessment (FAVA) utilizing
geologic mapping data to predict aquifer
vulnerability: Abstract, Geological Society
of America Abstracts with Program, v. 34,
no. 7, p. 65.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The relative vulnerability of an aquifer
to contamination is dependent upon the
thickness and composition of sediments
overlying it and the rate at which contami-
nants travel through these sediments. To
predict the vulnerability of Florida's major
aquifer systems to contamination the
Florida Geological Survey is currently
developing the Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model.
FAVA differs from the Environmental
Protection Agency's DRASTIC model in
that the newer technique is GIS based and
accounts for Florida's karst terrain.
Current methods employed in FAVA model
development include Weights of Evidence,
Fuzzy Logic and Travel Time. Of these
methods, Weights of Evidence best utilizes
new and available data sets to predict rela-
tive vulnerability since it is statistically val-
idated on the front end, easily updateable,
uncertainties can be calculated and the
model avoids preconceptions.

Weights of Evidence quantifies rela-
tionships between spatial layers with actu-
al contaminant occurrences in order to
assess a hypothesis. Contaminant source
data (i.e., training points) is obtained from
the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection's Background Water Quality
Network of wells. Spatial layers (i.e., evi-
dential themes) consist of existing and
newly developed GIS data and include
depth to water, soil drainage, distance to
karst features, thickness of confinement
and vertical leakage rates. Different eviden-
tial themes are utilized based on the aquifer
being modeled. The evidential themes
included in the Floridan Aquifer System
(FAS) model, for example, are thickness of
confining unit, distance to karst features
and soil drainage. To aid in the creation of
these themes, data collected during geolog-
ic mapping projects (e.g., cores, well cut-
tings, and wireline logs) are utilized. By cal-
culating the statistical significance between
training points and evidential themes,
interactions can be analyzed to yield a data-


driven predictive model. The output is a
grid-based probability map that can be used
by environmental, regulatory and planning
professionals to facilitate the protection of
Florida's ground-water resources.

Cichon, J.R., Wood, H.A.R., Baker, A.E.,
and Arthur, J.A., 2004, Application of geo-
logic mapping and geographic information
systems to delineate sensitive karst areas
for land-use decisions: American Geological
Institute website,
http://www.agiweb.org/environment/pub-
lications /mapping/graphics /florida.pdf,
2004.

The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a
thick sequence of tertiary carbonates, is a
major fresh water resource in the Florida
panhandle. Overburden comprised of
Surficial Aquifer System and/or
Intermediate Aquifer System sediments
may act to protect the FAS from potential
contamination sources where it is present.
This overburden can be several hundred
feet thick where it provides variable con-
finement for the FAS, or it can be thin to
absent in areas where carbonate units com-
prising the FAS are exposed at or near land
surface. In areas where the overburden is
thin to absent, the potential for karst ter-
rain development such as sinkholes and col-
lapse features is increased. Karst terrain
provides preferential flow paths for surface
water to enter the underlying aquifer sys-
tem, and therefore places them at a greater
risk of contamination from the surface.

To develop the sensitive karst areas
(SKA) boundary the FGS utilized a
Geographic Information System incorporat-
ing spatial data layers such as the state
geologic map, land surface topography and
overburden thickness maps. Land surface
topography is comprised of the Digital
Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the
FAVA project. The DEM was created by
digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000
scale Quadrangle maps, converting these






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and
then into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM
GRID along with a GRID of the top of the
Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the
NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS
overburden GRID. This was accomplished
by subtracting the FAS overburden from
the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of
FAS overburden were then identified and
overlain on areas affected by karst topogra-
phy in the NWFWMD. Based on the combi-
nation of these two maps the SKA limits
were identified for the NWFWMD.

This methodology was created for the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of Water Resource
Management and was inserted in the FDEP
Environmental Resource Permit
Applicant's Handbook Volume II,
Engineering Requirements for Stormwater
Treatment and Management Systems -
Water Quality and Water Quantity. The
delineated SKA maps are used when sight-
ing proposed stormwater holding ponds and
establishes additional design criteria for
these structures including minimum thick-
ness of sediment between the surface and
limestone, total depth of holding pond, veg-
etation requirements, sediment traps, lin-
ers and potentially ground-water modeling.
For more information on this project please
refer to the American Geological Institute
website:
http://www.agiweb.org/environment/pub-
lications /mapping/graphics /florida.pdf

Copeland, R. E., 2003, Development of a
spring glossary and classification system
for use in Florida: Abstract, Florida Springs
Conference: Natural Gems Troubled
Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville,
FL, p. 9.

In May of 2002, the Florida Geological
Survey and the Hydrogeology Consortium
co-sponsored a workshop to "Develop Blue
Prints for Managing and Protecting
Florida's Springs." The workshop was inter-


active and the attendees were asked to par-
ticipate in the discussions. Many did and
they expressed the belief that if the state is
to efficiently protect its springs, then a firm
understanding of Florida's springs is criti-
cal. If we are to understand our springs,
then our knowledge begins with a definition
of terms. With this in mind, participants at
the meeting requested that the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) take the lead in
developing a glossary of terms to be used by
both the scientific community and the pub-
lic of the state with regard to springs.

As a response to the workshop, the
Spring Nomenclature Committee was
established. In addition to the FGS and the
Hydrogeology Consortium, the committee
consists of representatives from the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection,
the state's Water Management Districts,
the United States Geological Survey, the
state university system, the hydrogeological
consulting industry of the state, and the
public.

The goal of the committee was to define
terms commonly used in Florida regarding
springs. The glossary consists of the most
commonly used spring terms, along with
their synonyms. Whenever possible, termi-
nology was taken from professional diction-
aries and glossaries.

During the development stage of the
glossary, it became apparent that a spring
classification system should also be devel-
oped. A spring classification system can act
as a model that enables one to envision the
relationship of one spring to the others
within the state. In effect, a classification
system assists us in better understanding
our springs. For this reason, the committee
decided that a spring glossary and classifi-
cation system go hand-in-hand. They took it
upon themselves to develop a spring classi-
fication system in addition to the glossary.
As it turns out, all of Florida's springs can
be grouped into only a handful of different






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


classes. This was fortunate in that it great-
ly reduces the complexity in the way we
think of our springs.

Copeland, R.E., and Upchurch, S.B.,
2003, Use of indices in evaluating Florida's
ground-water quality: Abstract, Final
Program (with abstracts), 19th Annual
Environmental Monitoring Conference,
Arlington, VA., p. 158.

In the late 1990s, Florida re-designed
its statewide surface- and ground-water
quality monitoring networks, and based the
design on random sampling. There was a
desire to develop water quality indices that
indicate, in defendable but simplistic terms,
the overall quality of water in: (1) an indi-
vidual sample and (2) over an entire basin.
The Ground-Water Quality Index is based
on whether one or more sampled analytes
exceeds a Guidance Concentration Level
(GCL) in a sample. Each GCL is based on
known or suspected human health hazards.
The logic is that if only one such chemical
exceeds its GCL, then the water cannot
fully support its designated use. For
ground water the designated use is drink-
ing water. The Basin Resource Index is
based on the proportion of ground-water
samples from an area that have at least one
analyte that exceeds a GCL. The redesigned
network commenced operations in 2000 and
during the first year it sampled approximate-
ly 25% of the state. It was found that 89% (
4%) of the wells in the sampled portion of
Florida meet standards. For the first time,
Florida has a key indicator that can be used to
estimate the overall quality of its ground
water with known confidence.

Copeland, R.E., 2003, Assessment of long
term trends (decades) in Florida spring
water quality: Abstract, Program Issue,
Florida Academy of Sciences, 67th Annual
Meeting, Orlando, FL., Florida Scientist, v.
66, Supplement 1, p. 51.

Copeland, R.E., 2003, Assessment of long
term trends (decades) in Florida spring


water quality: Abstract, Florida Springs
Conference: Natural Gems Troubled
Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville,
FL, p. 10.

Florida has over 700 recognized
springs. Unfortunately, chemicals pro-
duced by man's land use activities that
enter aquifer systems through natural
recharge processes can negatively impact
the quality of spring water. In addition,
because of the high demand of ground
water, heavy pumping can potentially lower
aquifer water levels. This can result in a
negative impact on both the flow rate and
the water chemistry of springs. Thirteen,
first-magnitude springs were sampled for
17 common chemicals by governmental
agencies in 1948, the early 1970s, 1985, and
2001. These fours sets of consistent data
were used for long term trend detection.
Results indicate that between the early
1970s and 2001, nitrate concentrations
have increased in 13 first-magnitude
springs almost 20-fold. The increase is tied
to land use activities in the vicinity of the
springs and is adversely affecting aquatic
life in several of the associated spring runs.
Between 1985 and 2001, the total dissolved
solids (TDS) have significantly increased.
This could be related to the recent decrease
in Florida's rainfall since the late 1990s,
which has lowered ground-water levels and
discharge from springs. Evidence suggests
that mineralized ground water, originating
from the deeper portion of Florida's aquifers
and migrating upward due to excessive
ground-water pumping, could be the reason
for the increase in TDS. Currently, this
theory is being checked by analyzing water
quality data collected either quarterly or
bimonthly from the states' water manage-
ment districts since the 1980s.

Denizman, C., Kincaid, T., Arthur, J.,
and DeHan, R., 2004, Karst Development
in Florida: Spatial analyses based on sub-
surface and surficial karst databases in
GIS: Abstract, Geological Society of






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no.
5, p. 134.

Most research on karst geomorphology
of Florida has been based on surficial karst
features primarily because cave data has
not been easily accessible especially in digi-
tal format. In order to provide a centralized
repository for cave data in Florida, the
Florida Geological Survey Hydrogeology
Section (FGS-HS) initiated the Florida
Cave Database project in 2001. The purpose
of the project is to compile and synthesize
all available maps and data for caves in
Florida into a centralized GIS-compatible
database.

To date, the Florida Cave Database
includes 31 of the largest underwater caves
in Florida that constitute more than 130km
of conduits. The cave files were digitized
from maps and survey data provided by the
National Speleological Society Cave
Diving Section and the Global Underwater
Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project.
Location, conduit trend, conduit dimension,
water quality, flow direction, ownership,
and land use include some of the data fields
underlying point and line based shapefiles
fully documented by metadata. The water
quality component of the database will be
rendered compatible with the Florida
Springs database (also being developed by
the FGS-HS).

This paper explains the database struc-
ture; shows the results of conduit trend
analyses; and presents the extent of subsur-
face karst development in Florida by statis-
tical summaries of morphometric data on
cave passages such as length, width, and
depth. Comparing the cave distribution to
the previously prepared GIS database of
some 25,000 sinkholes, this study also
attempts to investigate the connection
between subsurface and surficial karst
development. Further information about
the Florida Cave Database can be obtained
from www.hazlett-kincaid.com/FGS/.


Green, R.C., Evans, W.L. III, Bryan, J.,
and Paul, D., 2004, Surficial and bedrock
geology of the eastern portion of the
U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna
Quadrangle, northwestern Florida:
Abstract, Geological Society of America,
Northeastern Section Southeastern
Section Joint Meeting, Abstracts with
Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 61.

The near surface geology of the eastern
half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale
Marianna Quadrangle, which was mapped
by the Florida Geological Survey as part of
a two-year STATEMAP project, is composed
of Eocene to Holocene carbonate and silici-
clastic sediments. Within this area, geolog-
ic processes include a combination of fluvio-
deltaic and marine deposition, erosion,
dolomitization, and karstification. Several
structural, sedimentological, and geomor-
phic variables are unique to the area and
have affected the near surface expression
and interpretation of the geology of the
region. Two important structural features
are recognized: the Chattahoochee Arch a
northeast/southwest-trending high that
exposes Eocene and Oligocene carbonates,
with younger strata thinning around the
arch; and the Apalachicola
Embayment/Gulf Trough an elongated
basin that widens southwestward, towards
the Gulf of Mexico, and narrows to the
northeast into Georgia. Gulf water moved
through this strait from the Middle Eocene
through Oligocene, flowing across the east-
ern panhandle of Florida, through southern
Georgia and to the Atlantic Ocean. This
structure crosses through the southeastern
part of the study area, and noticeably influ-
enced sedimentation patterns in the region.

The Eocene to Miocene carbonate units
exposed in the area have regional strati-
graphic significance, and historically have
been identified, correlated, and interpreted
in many different ways. Some previous
investigators relied heavily on fossils to
establish formations and correlate faces






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


within this region, a practice which has led
to some lithostratigraphic confusion.
Detailed mapping of the carbonate units
allows for a better understanding of the
relationships between cave development,
karstification, ground-water quality, and
regional geology in the area.

In the northeastern portion of the study
area, where the siliciclastics thin and the
carbonates are near the surface, numerous
karst features, springs, and caves are pres-
ent. These karst features often allow for
direct recharge of surface water to the
Floridan Aquifer System. This infiltration
of surface water influences the ground-
water quality of springs in the area as rec-
ognized by increased nitrate concentrations
in the spring water.

Kincaid, T.R., Denizman, C., Arthur,
J.D., and Hazlett, T., 2004, The Florida
Cave Database: A GIS of underwater caves
for hydrogeological characterizations:
Abstract, Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 85.

Caves are one of the most hydrological-
ly important but least understood and docu-
mented physical features in the Floridan
aquifer. Though there are currently more
than 50 mapped underwater caves in
Florida and perhaps as many as 4000 above
water caves in Florida that have either been
mapped or located, these features are rarely
included in hydrogeological investigations.
The primary limiting factor has is access,
particularly in Florida where many caves,
and all of the longest caves, are fully satu-
rated (underwater). Though very few pro-
fessional hydrogeologists have actually
been in an underwater cave in Florida,
explorers have traditionally surveyed the
trends and dimensions of the cave passages
they explore and those maps now represent
the most significant and extensive record of
Florida's underwater caves available to the
professional hydrogeologist.


As with direct observation of the under-
water cave environment, the problem with
using the maps has been access, because
the maps do not reside in a centralized loca-
tion nor are they typically in a suitable for-
mat for inclusion in a hydrogeologic investi-
gation. The Florida Cave Database project
was initiated by the Florida Geological
Survey Hydrogeology Program (FGS-HP) to
compile and synthesize all available cave
maps and cave location data into a central-
ized GIS compatible database. Ultimately,
the purpose is to make cave maps more
accessible to professional hydrogeological
investigations, and to encourage their use
in such endeavors.

To date, the Florida Cave Database
includes 26 of the largest underwater caves
in Florida digitized from maps and survey
data provided by the National Speleological
Society Cave Diving Section and the
Global Underwater Explorers Woodville
Karst Plain Project. Location, conduit
trend, conduit dimension, water quality,
flow direction, ownership, and land use
include some of the data fields underlying
point and line based shapefiles fully docu-
mented by metadata. The water quality
component of the database will be rendered
compatible with the Florida Springs data-
base (also being developed by the FGS-HP).
Though specific access issues remain to be
addressed, all of the shapefiles are intended
to be made available to hydrogeologists via
the WWW. Further information on the
Florida Cave Database is available at:
www.hazlett-kincaid.com/FGS/cave-db/.

Kincaid, T.R., Schmidt, W., Cook, S.A.,
Loper, D., Davies, G.J., and McKinlay,
C., 2004, Collaborating for a better tomor-
row: research and community outreach
aimed at protecting Wakulla Spring:
Abstract, Geological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs,
v. 36, no. 5, p. 421.

Florida's Wakulla Spring is a unique






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


natural and cultural resource. It is the
largest single-vent spring in Florida, and
perhaps the world. The 37 m deep 60+ m
wide spring vent regularly discharges more
than 15 m3/s of water per day and at times
exceeds 90 m3/s. Cave divers have explored
more than 16 km of underwater cave pas-
sages that connect to the spring and aver-
age 10-80 m in diameter. The spring is the
center piece for Edward Ball Wakulla
Springs State Park, which is regarded as
the "Crown Jewel" of the Florida State Park
system. Every year nearly 200,000 people
visit the park to take glass bottom boat
tours, observe alligators, birds, and fish in
their natural -i. ling. or simply swim in the
crystal clear spring water.

Unfortunately, Wakulla Spring is
threatened from increased surface-water
runoff and nitrate contamination. Hydrilla
verticillata and species of algae have nearly
taken over the spring basin and the water
clarity has diminished to the point where
the glass bottom boats cannot run for
months to years on end. Spring protection
in Florida has received considerable atten-
tion in recent years, where numerous
groups attack the problem from various
angles. The problems at Wakulla have led
to an exciting collaboration between state
agencies, non-governmental organizations,
and private companies aimed at arresting
the declines in quality, and protecting the
spring for future generations.

The Hydrogeology Consortium, Florida
Geological Survey, Global Underwater
Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project,
Wakulla Springs State Park, Florida State
University, Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc.,
Cambrian Ground Water Co., and others
have joined forces to conduct focused
research to determine the causes for spring
degradation, identify possible solutions and
disseminate the resulting data and knowl-
edge to the public and the key decision mak-
ers. The results to date have been ground-
breaking accomplishments in instrument-


ing and characterizing the karst watershed,
expanding community involvement, and
increasing political awareness that land-
use decisions can have a real and nearly
immediate impact on spring-water quality.
The purpose of this talk is to demonstrate
how the key component of these successes
has been the collaborative nature of the
endeavors.

McClean, J.A.R., DeHan, R.S., and
Donoghue, J.F., 2003, Investigation of the
feasibility of remote sensing technologies in
locating submarine springs: Abstract,
Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems
- Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003,
Gainesville, FL, p. 33.

This project evaluated the suitability of
aerial thermography and boat-towed elec-
tric resistivity as remote sensing methods
to identify submarine ground-water dis-
charge in the Gulf of Mexico. A more gener-
al objective of the study was to develop reli-
able and cost effective methods of quantify-
ing interaction between ground water and
surface water in karst settings. Such data
are necessary for the development of ana-
lytical and numerical models capable of pre-
dicting and quantifying ground water and
water-borne contaminants movement and
fate in Florida's watersheds.

Aerial thermography relies upon the
ability to detect variations in emitted sur-
face temperature between ground water
and surface water. The option exists for
space based sensor platforms or airborne
units to collect thermography data, with a
trade off between ground resolution and
cost of data acquisition. Both space based
and aerial data collection methods were
under evaluation in this study. Boat towed
electric resistivity generates a graph of spe-
cific conductance as a function of salinity or
the presence of electrically conductive con-
taminants throughout the water column
and bottom sediments by modelling
observed resistance between antennae






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


pairs. This method therefore has the ability
to identify the presence of fresh ground
water in shallow submarine sediments, or
contaminates in fresh surface waters, from
equipment towed at the water's surface.
The equipment configuration under investi-
gation has a theoretical maximum sensing
range of 20 meters below the surface of the
water under ideal conditions. Such condi-
tions include sediments low in clay minerals,
which attenuate or absorb the induced elec-
trical signal, thereby reducing sediment pen-
etration.

During 2001, FGS personnel conducted
a study to identify thermal anomalies in the
northern Gulf of Mexico using Landsat 7,
Band 6 thermal imagery having 60-meter
ground resolution and two degree Celsius
radiometric resolution (McClean 2002, in
press). A basic assumption of this study is
that ground water typically discharging at a
constant 20 degrees Celsius will be
detectable as warmer water mixing with
the ambient cold water of the Gulf of Mexico
in winter. During the period of data collec-
tion, surface temperatures in the Gulf of
Mexico ranged from 11 degrees along the
coast to 17 degrees further offshore. The
inverse situation occurs during summer
months when ground-water discharge
should appear as colder water mixing with
the warmer Gulf waters, which can reach as
high as 28-30 degrees Celsius during July
and August.

Results of this preliminary investiga-
tion, in conjunction with locations of off-
shore springs and limestone outcrops as
reported by local divers and fishermen,
were compiled into database format and
analyzed using Arc View Geographic
Information System software. This GIS
study enabled the establishment of study
areas identified as having a high probabili-
ty of submarine springs. FGS contracted
SenSyTech, Inc. Imaging Group to collect
high-resolution thermal imagery (1-4 meter
ground pixel size with 0.2 degree Celsius


resolution) over eleven test sites during
May 2002. In addition, Zonge Engineering
Research Organization Inc. conducted boat-
towed electric resistivity surveys at nine
sites during June 2002. Five of these sur-
veys were along transects for which ther-
mography data was also collected. This
paper summarizes areas of submarine
ground-water discharge identified by these
remote sensing methods and preliminary
results of ground truth evaluation. Ground
truth verification methods include water
quality analysis, seismic profiling, Doppler
acoustic discharge measurements, depth
sounding and sidescan sonar to map sub-
merged karst features typically associated
with ground-water discharge. Sidescan
sonar data collection occurred in tandem
with the towed resistivity surveys, as well
as continuously recorded water depths and
surface temperatures linked to GPS posi-
tions within four meters horizontal accura-
cy. Additional in situ water quality sam-
ples, taken in conjunction with follow up
seismic surveys, can augment these geo-
physical methods to identify ground-water
discharge based upon temperature, pH and
salinity values both at the surface and at
depth. The results of these ground truth
investigations as presented in this paper
will determine the feasibility and level of
success achieved by the remote sensing
methods described above. The
Hydrogeology Program established at FGS
by the Florida Legislature provided pri-
mary funding for this investigation.

Means, G.H., and Scott, T.M., 2003,
Status of the Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin 31 update: Abstract, Florida
Springs Conference: Natural Gems -
Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003,
Gainesville, FL, p. 34.

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
published Bulletin 31, The Springs of
Florida in 1947, which was the first compre-
hensive report ever produced on Florida's
springs. This volume contains water chem-






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


istry data, flow measurements, map loca-
tions, and other pertinent information on 76
major springs along with some information
on other springs. The Bulletin was updated
in 1977, and many newly discovered springs
were added to it. In 2001, the Florida
Legislature passed the Florida Springs
Initiative in response to recommendations
made by the Florida Springs Task Force.
This initiative authorized funding to the
Department of Environmental Protection
for springs related projects.

The Florida Geological Survey received
funding in 2001 from the Florida Springs
Initiative to make a second revision to
Bulletin 31. Within four months of funding,
the FGS had sampled and compiled data on
the 33 first magnitude springs of Florida.
These data were published in FGS Open
File Report 85, First Magnitude Springs of
Florida, in January, 2002. Currently, sur-
vey staff are sampling water quality and
gathering data on second magnitude
springs. A similar Open File Report will be
published on selected second magnitude
springs, and by July of 2004, a complete
revision to Bulletin 31 will be published.

Means, G.H., Copeland, R., and Scott,
T.M., 2003, Nitrate trends in selected sec-
ond magnitude springs of Florida: Abstract,
Geological Society of America South-
Central and Southeastern Sections
Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50.

Florida's more than 700 springs are
natural treasures which provide recreation
and enjoyment to millions of people each
year. Over the past 55 years, the FGS has
periodically sampled and analyzed water
from selected springs across the state. As
part of the Florida Springs Initiative, the
FGS has recently sampled spring water
from Florida's 33 first magnitude springs
and published the newly acquired data in
comparison to historic data in order to doc-
ument changes in water quality over time.
The FGS documented increasing trends in


nitrate levels in the first magnitude springs
when compared to historic nitrate levels.

Following the sampling effort of the
first magnitude springs, the FGS sampled
selected second magnitude springs. Data
from second magnitude springs were ana-
lyzed using the Mann-Kendall and the
Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. Both tests
are nonparametric. The first was used to
check for a monotonic trend over time for
nitrate from an individual spring. The sec-
ond was used to compare nitrate data from
all sampled second magnitude springs dur-
ing any time step (e.g. 2002) to a previous
step (e.g. 1985). As with the first-magni-
tude springs, nitrate trends similar to those
seen in the first magnitude springs were
observed.

The documenting of increasing nitrate
levels in Florida's springs by the FGS, and
other state and federal agencies has
prompted research efforts aimed at pin-
pointing nitrate sources. The Florida
Primary Drinking Water standard for
nitrate is currently 10 mg/1. However, con-
centrations of as little as 1 mg/1 of nitrate
have caused significant alteration in the
ecology of some springs and spring runs.
Currently, the Florida Springs Initiative is
funding further research into nitrate trends
and sources and is working to develop best
management practices for springsheds that
have been impacted by elevated nitrates.

Means, G. H., Means, R., Balsillie, J. H.,
and Dunbar, J., 2003, Geoarchaeological
consideration of the Ryan-Harley site (8JE-
1004) in the Wacissa River, northern
Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with
Programs, v. 34, no. 7, p. 35.

The inundated Ryan-Harley site (8Je-
1004) is located in a swamp forest dissected
by channels of the spring-fed Wacissa River
in northern Florida. The Ryan-Harley site
is thought to represent an undisturbed






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Middle Paleoindian Suwannee point site
(-10,900 14C BP to -10,500 14C BP)
(Anderson et al., 1996, Goodyear, 1999,
Dunbar, 2002). The site consists of sandy to
silty organic rich, unconsolidated sediments
overlying the Oligocene Suwannee
Limestone. Distribution and taphonomic
analyses of the artifacts and vertebrate fau-
nal remains recovered from the Suwannee
point horizon suggests the artifact assem-
blage and the faunal remains represent an
archaeological site component that has
remained relatively intact since its time of
deposition. Additional conformation of site
integrity beyond the artifact suite is also
necessary. To accomplish this, granulomet-
ric analyses of unconsolidated sediment
samples were performed. Samples were col-
lected from the artifact-bearing horizon and
from horizons immediately above and
below. Arithmetic probability plots of grain-
size distributions suggest that most but not


all of the sandy sediments were originally
transported and deposited as point bars by
fluvial processes. Evidence presented shows
that the artifact assemblage, fossil verte-
brates, and fine grain fraction eolian sand
recovered from the Suwannee point horizon
were deposited after the deposition of the
point bar during a subaerial event. The
Suwannee point horizon then became inun-
dated and buried. The granulometric analy-
ses as well as other lines of evidence indi-
cate the Suwannee point horizon at the
Ryan-Harley site is essentially intact with
little or no post-depositional reworking.

Pichler, T., Arthur, J., Price R., and
Jones, G., 2004, The arsenic problem dur-
ing Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR):
Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68,
Issue 11, Supplement 1, p. 520.

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is


Rock Springs, Orange County, Florida (photo by Tom Scott).






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


the process of artificially recharging and
storing treated surface water in a confined
aquifer, then recovering that water at a
time of need, such as during a drought or
dry season. Some concerns exist regarding
widespread utilization of ASR in Florida
due in part to the discovery that some
recovered water samples from the upper
Floridan Aquifer System (Suwannee
Limestone) in southwestern Florida contain
more than 100 ppb arsenic, while the inject-
ed water is virtually arsenic free. To inves-
tigate this problem we carried out a
detailed mineralogical and chemical study
of regional groundwater and aquifer matrix.

Our study shows that groundwater in
the region is virtually arsenic-free (<0.5
pg/L) and oxygen depleted. The average
arsenic concentration for 306 samples of the
aquifer matrix is 3.5 ppm, which is higher
than the global average for limestone of 2.6
ppm. Maximum arsenic concentrations for
limestone samples range up to 54 ppm. Our
combined geochemical, lithologic and min-
eralogical study of the Suwannee
Limestone shows that: (1) The arsenic in
the Suwannee limestone is primarily con-
centrated in trace minerals, particularly
framboidal pyrite. (2) Framboidal pyrite
contains arsenic at concentrations in excess
of 1000 ppm, (3) Other trace minerals and
organic material contain arsenic in much
lower amounts when compared to fram-
boidal pyrite. (4) Framboidal pyrite is ubiq-
uitous throughout the Suwannee
Limestone, but is most abundant in high
porosity zones. (5) Previously suggested
iron oxyhydroxide minerals are apparently
not an important source of arsenic.

The breakdown of pyrite and mobiliza-
tion of arsenic during ASR could be caused
by a change in redox. In most Florida ASR
operations, water rich in dissolved oxygen
(DO) is introduced into the storage zone.
Thus, the injection of oxygen-depleted


water could be an alternative to the current
practice in order to mitigate potential
arsenic mobilization.

With respect to the world-wide opera-
tion of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)
facilities that intend to store water in low-
DO limestone aquifer systems, it is impor-
tant to carry out a detailed
mineralogical/chemical investigation of the
aquifer matrix prior to construction and
operation. If arsenian pyrite is present, the
injection of oxygen-rich water will most
likely cause a release of arsenic.


Portell, R. W., Means, G.H., and Scott,
T.M., 2003, Exceptional preservation and
concentration of whole body Ranilia
(Decapoda: Raninidae) in the Pliocene
Intracoastal Formation of Florida: Abstract,
Geological Society of America South-
Central and Southeastern Sections
Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50.

In Liberty County, Florida over 500,
nearly complete to complete, carapaces of a
new species of Ranilia, were collected from
the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation. The
low degree of disarticulation of the crabs
indicates that they were buried rapidly,
most likely during a severe storm eventss.
At least six other decapod genera occur in
association with Ranilia but all were much
less abundant (and still await study). The
Intracoastal Formation, first described by
P. Huddlestun in 1976, is primarily a sub-
surface unit, occasionally cropping out
along streams and riverbanks from west-
ern-most Okaloosa County eastward to
southwestern Wakulla County. However,
recent excavations in Liberty County
exposed nearly 5 m of Intracoastal section;
the upper 3 m dominated by Ranilia fossils.

The crab-bearing unit is slightly phos-
phatic, loosely cemented, carbonate sand,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


easily removed by precipitation and runoff.
At several locations in the quarry, Ranilia
carapace density averaged six per m2.
Given that the quarry is approximately 0.3
km2 and that the Ranilia fossils occur
throughout the quarry wherever the
Intracoastal Formation is exposed, rough
estimates indicate that many thousands of
Ranilia may have been present prior to
mining.

Previous reports of Florida Pliocene
crabs are limited to Petrochirus bouvieri
Rathbun 1918, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson
1859, and Parthenope charlottensis
Rathbun 1935, and were based solely on
chelae and fingers. The only Florida
Pliocene whole-body crab was Petrolisthes
myakkensis, described by Bishop and
Portell in 1989, thus the total known
species diversity of Florida Pliocene crabs
prior to this report was a meager four.

Rolland, V.L. and Bond, P.A., 2003, The
search for spiculate clays near aboriginal
sites in the lower St. Johns River region,
Florida: The Florida Anthropologist, v. 56,
no. 2, p. 91-111.

The identification of St. Johns cultural
occupations is based largely on the presence
of ceramic vessels with pastes containing
abundant quantities of sponge spicules.
Spicules represent the bio-silicate remains
of freshwater sponges: Class
Demospongiae, Family Spongillidae. While
many thousands of spiculate St. Johns
shards have been recovered, no raw spicu-
late-clay sources have been located that
contain the quantity of spicules observed
within St. Johns paste. The focus of our
study has been to explore this contradiction
and to consider a possible alternative
hypothesis that the presence of spicules in
St. Johns vessels reflects a cultural tradi-
tion involving the purposeful addition of
spicules as a tempering agent. In other
words, the assumption that the clay sources
targeted by St. Johns potters naturally con-


trained abundant sponge spicules may be
incorrect. In the following discussion, we
describe Florida clay deposits, offer ethno-
graphic and archaeological evidence from
the Amazon basin and Africa that reveal a
long history of the use of sponges as temper,
report the analysis of 136 well samples and
45 shallow clay samples, and discuss the
possibility of spiculate mucky soils as a
source of St. Johns paste.

Rupert, F., 2003, Fossils: a glimpse into
Florida's underwater past: Tallahassee
Museum of Science Newsletter, July, 2003.

Florida has a rich fossil heritage, and
our state's long association with the sea is
evidenced in the abundant marine fossils
found here. For much of the past 200 mil-
lion years, Florida was under water.
Through the reign of the dinosaurs and up
until the middle Oligocene Epoch, 30 mil-
lion years ago, the area of present day
Florida was sea bottom. A myriad of crea-
tures flourished in these ancient seas.
Many left their remains in the sea floor sed-
iments, which ultimately became the rocks
we see today. Mollusks, or seashells, are
typically abundant. In some deposits the
shells are well-preserved because their
hard, lime shells remained after the death
of the animal. Sometimes only molds and
casts of the original shells remain in the
rock. Other shelled creatures, such as
microscopic foraminifera, corals, algae,
sand dollars and sea biscuits, are also com-
mon constituents of Florida's rocks.
Dugongs, the marine mammal relatives of
the modern manatee, frequented the lagoon
and coastal waters, grazing on sea grasses.
Rib bones and vertebrae from these crea-
tures are common finds in Miocene Epoch
rocks. And always lurking nearby were the
sharks, predators to dugongs and fish alike.
Sharks lose and replace teeth frequently
throughout their lives, resulting in the dep-
osition of many more fossil teeth than other
animals. Small to medium shark teeth are
common fossils in Miocene Epoch sedi-
ments.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


The new fossil dig display at the muse-
um provides visitors with a hands-on explo-
ration of one moment in Florida's geologic
past. Featured in the exhibit are fossil-
laden boulders of a rock called the Torreya
Formation. The Torreya Formation was
deposited in the Early Miocene Epoch,
about 20 million years ago. Geologists char-
acterize these boulders as sandy, clayey,
phosphatic limestone and dolostone. This
means the boulders are principally carbon-
ate, with impurities consisting of quartz
sand, clay, and phosphate grains. The
Torreya Formation underlies portions of the
eastern Florida panhandle and southwest-
ern Georgia. Primarily a subsurface unit,
the Torreya is exposed in the Fullers Earth
mines near Quincy, Florida, and
Attapulgus, Georgia, where its Attapulgite
(Palygorskite) clays are extracted for com-
mercial use. Natural exposures of the
Torreya Formation may be seen at Torreya
State Park in Liberty County, Big Dismal
Sink in Leon County, and along the
Sopchoppy River in Wakulla County.

Schmidt, Walter, 2003, Measuring geolog-
ic research projects as productive outputs
towards the desired outcome of natural
resource conservation: American Institute
of Professional Geologists, The Professional
Geologist, March 2003, p. 11-12.

Schmidt, Walter, 2003, Professional
Geology Not Just for Scientists Anymore!
Think.... "Marketing": American Institute
of Professional Geologists, The Professional
Geologist, May / June 2003, p. 7.

The professional geology community is
classically comprised of individuals who
tend to keep to themselves and don't social-
ize and attend large meetings often. They
like solitary field work and they enjoy the
outdoors where they can do "hands-on geol-
ogy" and maybe take samples back to the
lab or office to contemplate or write-up their
field notes. Too often when we do gather
together, we solicit validation from our


peers and we "preach to the choir" on earth
science and environmental conservation
issues when we are already in the same cor-
ner. Geoscience issues so often serve as a
critical foundation to environmental regula-
tory decisions, land-use decisions and plan-
ning, geologic hazards mitigation, contami-
nation and waste clean-up, water resources
protection, minerals exploration and pro-
duction, sustainable development or envi-
ronmental conservation. Geologists have
much to offer and they must become more
proactive to share their knowledge and offer
their insight. Not only can it be financially
rewarding, it will increase the odds of vari-
ous environmental engineering projects
being successful if they are based on compe-
tent geoscience. Involvement increases the
professional respectability and personal
self-worth of those offering such assistance.
We live in a state where the environment
and our pristine natural resources are
extremely visible in public policy and signif-
icant to our economic well-being. The geo-
science community must step up and offer
what we can, timely and on task when
appropriate. Our apathy as a profession
must change!

Scott, T.M. and Means, G.H., 2003,
Geologists' role in defining public policy -
The Florida Springs Initiative: Abstract,
Geological Society of America South-
Central and Southeastern Sections
Meeting, v. 35, no. 1. p. 49.

In September 1999, the Secretary of the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, the Florida Geological Survey's
parent agency, mandated the initiation of
the Florida Springs Task Force in response
to the declining health of the state's
springs. The task force was composed of
geologists, biologists, planners and others.
The task force met monthly for a year and
compiled a series of recommendations
which were presented to the Governor and
Legislature. Geologists guided the task
force in learning about the subsurface envi-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ronment, the interaction between the sur-
face and subsurface environments and in
developing portions of the final report.

The mounting challenges of accommo-
dating Florida's rapid population growth
demanded effective tactics to protect the
state's world-renowned springs. The need
for hydrogeological research, the develop-
ment of best management practices and
careful land use planning was recognized.
The 2001 Florida legislature provided $2.5
million for the first year of the Florida
Springs Initiative. A large portion of the
allocation was used to fund a number of
geological projects including: 1) Water sam-
pling and analyses, description of Florida's
largest springs and publication of the
results; 2) Delineation of springsheds for
selected first magnitude springs; and 3)
Investigations of the nitrate sources affect-
ing the spring waters. Geologists are
tasked with determining the problems, the
sources of the problems, and educating not
only the Governor, Legislature, and other
governmental officials but also the public.
Only through understanding the problems
and enlisting the informed assistance of
others can the State's valuable resource of
springs be saved from further degradation.

Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Greenhalgh,
T., Campbell, K.M., DeHan, R., and
Hornsby, D., 2003, Innovative investiga-
tive approach to assessing the culturally-
induced water-quality changes in Wakulla
and Manatee Springs, Florida: Abstract,
Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Seattle, WA, v. 34, no. 7, p. 200.

Florida is one of the fastest growing
states in the country. Karst terrain predom-
inates in much of Florida where the carbon-
ate Floridan aquifer system is at or near the
land surface. Geologists have inventoried
more than 700 springs in Florida. A trend of
declining quality of water emanating from
many of Florida's springs was recognized.


With funding from the Florida Springs
Initiative, two first magnitude springs,
Wakulla and Manatee, were selected for a
unique investigative approach to water-
chemistry provenance. Both springs have
on-going water-quality sampling programs.
The springsheds of these springs are being
delineated based on extensive water-level
data, chemical and physical parameters.
Both springs have extensive underwater
cave systems with multiple conduits.
Individual conduits have different water
quality indicating different source areas. As
such, cultural activities may affect the
water quality in one portion of the system
but not another. Through water-quality
monitoring and springshed delineation, the
effects of cultural activities on ground water
and the springs can be better understood.

Historically, water samples gathered
from individual conduits had to be taken by
cave divers, a time-intensive and dangerous
undertaking. Discussions between scien-
tists and managers concluded that drilling
wells into selected conduits at Wakulla and
Manatee Springs would provide a new and
innovative way to access the conduits for
periodic sampling and monitoring instru-
ment placement. Wells were drilled into
three conduits at Manatee Springs during
May and June 2003. Placement of the wells
was accomplished by divers placing an ori-
ented radio beacon in a conduit and a sur-
face receiver pinpointing the vertical loca-
tion. The FGS drill rig cored each hole
approximately 23 meters deep. Wells up to
100 meters deep will be drilled into the con-
duits at Wakulla Springs in July and
August 2003. Probes to continuously meas-
ure flow, temperature, nitrate and other
parameters will be placed in the conduits by
divers and will be connected to the surface
through the wellbore. Water-quality sam-
ples can now be obtained to study short-
term responses to storm events and for com-
parison to long-term data sets. This data






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


will allow geologists to assess the degrada-
tion of Florida's springs and assist the State
in developing BMPs.

Scott, T.M., 2004, The new geomorphic
map of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society
of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO,
Abstracts with Program, v. 36, no. 5, p. 578.

The last state-wide geomorphic map
published by the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) at a 1:2,000,000 scale was released in
1964. Brooks published a geomorphic map
of the state at a scale of 1:500,000 in 1982
but it was not widely utilized. The new geo-
morphic map is a combination of an
upgrade of the 1964 map and a reinterpre-
tation of the state's physiography. Utilizing
a combination of old-fashioned geological
mapping techniques and modern, digital
techniques, a new geomorphic map of
Florida has been produced by the Florida
Geological Survey. Initial mapping
employed visual inspection of 1:24,000 scale
topographic maps to identify physiographi-
cally similar areas then transferring those
areas to a 1:750,000 scale map by hand. The
resultant map was digitized. The digital
outlines of the geomorphic features were
overlain on to topography and aerial pho-
tography layers to aid in the resolution of
boundary issues. Field checking of bound-
aries is occurring during travel for other
FGS projects. The new map better identifies
the karstic areas of Florida. This allows for
a more complete understanding of the
water resource issues surrounding Florida's
springs and the continuing intense develop-
ment in the state.

Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004, The
Florida Springs Initiative the results of
the Florida Geological Survey's three year
investigation and the impacts on public pol-
icy: Abstract, Northeastern and
Southeastern Section meeting of the
Geological Society of America, Tysons
Corner, VA, Geological Society of America


Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 41.

Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004, The
Florida Springs Initiative the results of
the Florida Geological Survey's three year
investigation and the impacts on public pol-
icy: Abstract, Florida Scientist v. 67,
Supplement 1, p. 54.

The Florida Springs Initiative, funded
by the Florida Legislature since the 2001-02
fiscal year, was the result of the efforts of a
diverse mix of geologists, biologists, other sci-
entists and citizen representatives that com-
prised the Florida Springs Task Force. The
Task Force was formed in response to the
perception that Florida's springs were
becoming degraded. The Florida Geological
Survey was tasked with revising the Survey's
1977 bulletin "Springs of Florida" which
included locations, descriptions and, in some
cases, water-quality data. It is now known
that more than 700 springs exist in the state.
Survey teams visited, described and collected
water samples at all the first magnitude
springs (33) and approximately 60 second
magnitude springs. The teams also visited
other lower magnitude springs, inspecting
and describing them. Nearly 500 springs
have been described by the teams. The
descriptions of the spring boils and runs have
noted that many springs have been degraded
compared to historical accounts and have
had abundant algal blooms caused by
changes in the spring-water quality. Water-
quality analyses reveal increases in several
analytes most notably nitrate. The natural
nitrate levels in the Floridan Aquifer System
are below 0.05 mg/1. Today, some water from
first magnitude springs exceeds 5.0 mg/1
nitrate. Water from some lower magnitude
springs contains more than 30 mg/1 nitrate.
Increased nitrate levels have been linked to
human activities and land-use changes. Best
Management Practices are being developed
in order to prevent further degradation of the
springs and to help return the springs to a
more natural state.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER
PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES


PRESENTATIONS


the Florida
Gainesville, FL,
February, 2003.


2003


Springs
by Rick


Conference,
Copeland,


Water-rock interactions during aquifer
storage and recovery: Florida Association
of Professional Geologists, Tallahassee, FL,
by Jon Arthur, January, 2003.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
project. Florida Springs Task Force, Ocala,
FL, by Jon Arthur, January, 2003.

What geologists really do or has a spouse,
loved one, friend ever said "You get paid to
do that?!!! Lecture to the Everglades
Geological Society, Ft. Myers, FL, by Tom
Scott, February, 2003.

Education and outreach efforts toward bet-
ter management and protection of Florida
springs. Presented at the Florida Springs
Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur,
February, 2003.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
model, a step by step approach to predicting
aquifer vulnerability at the springshed
level using weights of evidence. Presented
at the Florida Springs Conference,
Gainesville, FL, by Alan Baker, February,
2003.

An application of the Florida Aquifer
Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model to
springshed contamination. Presented at the
Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville,
FL, by James Cichon, February, 2003.

Investigation of the feasibility of remote
sensing technologies for locating submarine
springs. Presented at the Florida Springs
Conference, Gainesville, FL, by James
McClean, February, 2003.

Assessment of long term trends (decades) in
Florida spring water quality. Presented at


Development of a spring glossary and clas-
sification system for use in Florida.
Presented at the Florida Springs
Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Rick
Copeland, February, 2003.

Status of the Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin 31 update. Presented at the
Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville,
FL, by Guy "Harley" Means, February, 2003

The Hydrogeology of Lake County.
Presented to National Wildlife Federation
Habitat Stewards Training Class,
Clermont, FL, by Paulette Bond, March,
2003.

Nitrate trends in selected second magni-
tude springs of Florida. Southeastern/
South-central Section, Geological Society of
America Meeting, Memphis, TN, by Guy
"Harley" Means, Rick Copeland, and Tom
Scott, March 2003.

Exceptional preservation and concentration
of whole-body Ranilia (Decapoda:
Raninidae) in the Pliocene Intracoastal
Formation of Florida (p1i..I-I). Geological
Society of America meeting, Denver, CO, by
Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, March,
2003

Nitrate trends in selected second magni-
tude springs of Florida. South-
eastern/South-central Section, Geological
Society of America Meeting, Memphis, TN,
by Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott,
March, 2003.

Geologists' role in defining public policy. -
The Florida Springs Initiative.
Southeastern/South-central Section of the
Geological Society of America, Memphis,






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


TN, by Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means,
March, 2003.

Assessment of long term trends (Decades)
in Florida spring water quality. Presented
at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Academy of Sciences, Orlando, FL, by Rick
Copeland, March, 2003.

Earth Day at the Florida Capitol.
Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie
Lloyd, Paulette Bond, Steve Spencer, Frank
Rupert, Dave Taylor, April, 2003.

Mining Day at the Florida Capitol.
Tallahassee, Fl., by Walt Schmidt, Steve
Spencer, Frank Rupert, April, 2003.

The Florida Springs Initiative and cave
management. Florida Cave Management
Workshop, Ocala, FL, by Guy "Harley"
Means, April, 2003.


"Harley" Means, August, 2003.

Florida Springs Initiative update.
Presented to the Department of
Environmental Protection, Quarterly
Monitoring Meeting, Guy "Harley" Means,
September, 2003.

The Florida Springs Initiative and where
does our spring water come from?.
Presented at the Marion County Springs
Festival, by Guy "Harley" Means,
September 2003.

Florida during the Pleistocene. Tallahassee
Museum of History and Natural Science,
Tallahassee, FL, by Guy "Harley" Means,
September, 2003.

Lecture to FSU Geohazards graduate class.
Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt,
September, 2003.


What geologists really do.
Florida Water Management
Tom Scott, May, 2003.


Northwest
District, by


Interview for WFSU
sinkholes and karst.
September, 2003.


Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
project. Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Fl.,
by Jon Arthur, May, 2003.

Florida Springs Initiative. Florida Local
Environmental Resource (FLERA) Agencies
Conference, Jupiter Beach, FL, by Guy
"Harley" Means, July, 2003.

Use of indices in evaluating Florida's
ground-water quality. Presented at the
19th Annual Environmental Monitoring
Conference, Arlington, VA, by Rick
Copeland, July, 2003.

FAVA and the Hydrogeology Program.
Suwannee River Water Management
District, Live Oak, FL, by James Cichon,
August, 2003.

FGS Role in the Florida Springs Initiative.
American Institute of Professional
Geologists Florida Section Meeting, by Guy


Florida geology and professional geology.
FIU Geology Department., Miami, FL, by
Walt Schmidt September, 2003.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
project. Wekiva River Basin Workgroup,
Orlando, FL, by Jon Arthur, September,
2003.

Offshore sand source investigations off the
northern Florida east coast. 47th Annual
Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach
Preservation Association, Amelia Island,
FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2003.

Earth Science Week FGS Open House.
Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October,
2003.

Water-rock interactions during aquifer
storage and recovery. American Institute of
Professional Geologists Annual Meeting,
Lakeland, FL, by Jon Arthur, October,
2003.


Public TV
By Walt


show on
Schmidt,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Geology. Classroom lectures at
Fairview Middle School, Tallahassee, FL,
by Dave Taylor, Brie Coane, and Tom
Greenhalgh, October, 2003.

Springs of Marion County. Presented to the
Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL, by
Guy "Harley" Means, October, 2003.

Water-rock interactions during aquifer
storage and recovery. EPA Director's
Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur,
November, 2003.

Hydrology of Florida's karst regions.
Florida Department of Health Regional
Meeting, by Guy "Harley" Means and Tom
Scott, November, 2003.

Innovative investigative approach to
assessing the culturally-induced water
quality changes in Wakulla and Manatee
Springs, Florida. Geological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by
Tom Scott, November, 2003.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
(FAVA): utilizing geological mapping data
to predict aquifer vulnerability (p1.'-i.).
Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Seattle, WA, by James Cichon,
November, 2003.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
35th Annual National Association for Cave
Diving Seminar, Gainesville, FL, by James
Cichon, November, 2003.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
project. National Cave and Karst
Management Symposium, Gainesville, FL,
by Jon Arthur, November, 2003.

Water-rock Interactions During Aquifer
Storage and Recovery. EPA Director's
Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur,
November, 2003.

FGS Hydrogeology Program briefing for


FDEP Secretary Struhs. Tallahassee, FL,
by Jon Arthur, November, 2003.

Florida's aquifers: vulnerable and vital.
1000 Friends of Florida forum on Water
Issues facing the Florida Panhandle,
Tallahassee, FL by Jon Arthur, December,
2003.

The human history of the upper
Apalachicola River valley. Florida
Paleontological Society, Bristol, FL, by Guy
"Harley" Means, December, 2003.

Springs Initiative funded projects at the
Florida Geological Survey. Hernando
County Springs Workshop, Brooksville, FL,
by Guy "Harley" Means, December, 2003.

The FGS; its research and other activities.
Geology of Florida Class at UF, Gainesville,
FL, by Tom Scott December, 2003.

2004

The hydrogeology of Wakulla Springs.
Environmental Science Class of Wakulla
High School, at Wakulla Springs, FL, by
Paulette Bond, January, 2004.

Lecture to Florida State Parks Annual
Biologists Meeting. Wekiwa Springs, FL,
by Walt Schmidt, March, 2004.

The Florida Springs Initiative the results
of the Florida Geological Survey's three
year investigation and the impact on public
policy. Geological Society of America
Annual meeting, Tyson's Corner, VA, by
Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, March,
2004.

Ocean Day at the Capitol.: Poster presenta-
tion and static display. Tallahassee, FL, by
Dan Phelps and Jim Ladner, April, 2004.

Hydrogeology of northern Florida and other
geologic topics. Westminster Oaks,
Tallahassee, FL, by Tom Scott, April, 2004.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


Mining Day at the Florida Capitol.
Tallahassee, FL., by Walt Schmidt, Steve
Spencer, and Frank Rupert, April, 2004.

Earth Day event. Florida State University,
Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Tom
Scott, Jackie Lloyd, and Paulette Bond,
April, 2004.

Duval County geology. Duval County
Commission, Jacksonville, FL, by Rick
Green, April, 2004.

Earth Day at the Florida Capitol.
Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie
Lloyd, and Paulette Bond, April, 2004.

Windows into our aquifers. Annual
Meeting of the Florida Groundwater
Association, by Guy "Harley" Means, May,
2004.

The geologic history of the Dunnellon area.
Desoto's River of Discord Celebration,
Dunnellon, FL, by Paulette Bond, June,
2004.

Opening for the Wakulla Springs
Scientific Symposium. Tallahassee, FL,
by Walt Schmidt, July, 2004.

Sinkholes in Florida Seminar. Tampa, FL,
by Steve Spencer and Walt Schmidt,
August, 2004.

Lecture to Geohazards Graduate class at
FSU. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt,
August, 2004.

Briefing for DEP Press Secretary.
Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt,
September, 2004.

Marion County's precious springs. Marion
County Springs Festival, Silver Springs,
FL, by Guy "Harley" Means, September,
2004.

Offshore sand source investigations off the
northern Florida east coast. 48th Annual


Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach
Preservation Association. Marco Island,
FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2004.

Townhall meeting, Wakulla Springs water-
shed research activities. R.A. Gray
Building, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt
Schmidt, October, 2004.


A brief discussion of the geology
County, Florida. Duval
Commission. Jacksonville, FL,
Green, October, 2004.


of Duval
County
by Rick


FGS Open House for Earth Science Week.
Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October,
2004.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
project. Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, Daytona Beach,
FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2004.

The geology of Wakulla County. Annual
Meeting of The Wakulla County Historical
Society, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004.

Hydrogeology Program Briefing for the
Governor's OPB Staff. Tallahassee, FL, by
Walt Schmidt, October, 2004.

Hydrogeology '101'. Governor's Office of
Planning and Budget, Tallahassee, FL, by
Jon Arthur, October, 2004.

Geoarchaeological consideration of the
Ryan-Harley site (8JE-1004) in the Wacissa
River, northern Florida. Geological Society
of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA,
by Guy "Harley" Means, November, 2004.

Presentation to the "Walk for Wakulla
Springs" participants, Tallahassee, FL, by
Walt Schmidt and Guy "Harley" Means,
November, 2004.

Water-rock interactions during aquifer
storage and recovery. EPA Director's
Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur,
November, 2004.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DEP Division of Resource Assessment &
Management annual awards luncheon.
Tallahassee, FL,. by Walt Schmidt,
November, 2004.

Water quality issues in the Floridan
Aquifer System. American Water Works
Association conference, Orlando, FL, by Jon
Arthur, November, 2004.

The new geomorphic map of Florida.
Abstract, Geological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, by Tom Scott,
November, 2004.

Diagnostic Fossils in Florida Stratigraphy.
Everglades Geological Society, Ft. Meyers,
FL, by Frank Rupert, November, 2004.

Hydrogeology of Florida '101'. Water
Matters! A joint conference of the Florida
League of Cities and Florida Association of
Counties, Orlando, FL, December 2004.

FIELD TRIPS

2003

STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory
Committee Field Trip to Marianna, Florida,
Area, by Rick Green, October 2003.

Field Trip for Association of Ground Water
Scientists and Engineers meeting,
Orlando, FL, by Tom Scott, December,
2003.

Alum Bluff, Liberty County. Florida
Paleontological Society, by Guy "Harley"
Means and Tom Scott, December, 2003.

2004

STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory
Committee Field Trip to Gainesville, FL.,
Area, by Rick Green, October, 2004.


MEETINGS

2003

DEP NW District Office to discuss
agency/operator consent order regarding
Petro Oil Co. as operator of Blackjack Oil
Field. Pensacola, FL, Walt Schmidt,
January, 2003.


Southeastern Geological Society
Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt,
2003.

Panhandle Library Access
(PLAN), Town Meeting. Panama
Carol Armstrong, January, 2003.


Meeting.
January,


Network
City, FL,


Board of Professional Geologists.
Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt,
January, 2003.

Florida Association of Professional
Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
Jackie Lloyd, January, 2003.

FGS Management Retreat. Tallahassee,
FL, Ron Hoenstine, Walt Schmidt, Tom
Scott, Jackie Lloyd, Dave Curry, Carolyn
Stringer, January, 2003.

Florida Association of Professional
Geologists. Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt,
February, 2003.

The Florida Springs Conference, Natural
Gems Troubled Waters. Gainesville, FL,
James Cichon, Guy "Harley" Means, Walt
Schmidt, and Tom Scott, February, 2003.

DEP Activities and Performance Measures
Assessment. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, February, 2003.

DEP NW District Office to discuss agency/
operator consent order regarding Petro Oil Co.
as operator of Blackjack Oil Field. Pensacola,
FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


Meeting with FSU to discuss building needs
at Innovation Park. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, February, 2003.

USF Geology Alumni Society annual ban-
quet. Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Walt
Schmidt, February, 2003.

Meeting with DBPR / FBPG to discuss
Professional Geology Legislation.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February,
2003.

Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
Technical Advisory Committee. Camp
Weed, FL, Jon Arthur, Alan Baker, Alex
Wood and James Cichon, February, 2003.

67th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Academy of Sciences. Orlando, FL, Alan
Baker, James Cichon, Rick Copeland, and
Alex Wood, March, 2003.

Southeastern/South-central Section of the
Geological Society of America. Memphis,
TN, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means,
March 2003.

Meeting with FSU to discuss their plans for
use of the Gunter Building. Tallahassee,
FL, Walt Schmidt, March, 2003.

Meeting with DEP State Lands regarding
Oil Co. Leases. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, April, 2003.

Hydrogeology Consortium Workshop.
Ocala, FL, Rodney DeHan, Jon Arthur and
James Cichon, April, 2003.

Significance of Caves in Watershed
Management and Protection in Florida.
Ocala, FL, Tom Scott, Rick Copeland, Walt
Schmidt, Guy "Harley" Means, and Jon
Arthur, April, 2003.

C-Boom seismic equipment demonstration.
St. Petersburg, FL, Dan Phelps, April 2003.

Annual Meeting of Cave Diving Section of


the National Speleological Society (NSS-
CDS). Gainesville, FL, Tom Scott and Guy
"Harley" Means, May, 2004.

Board of Professional Geologists. Cape
Canaveral, FL; Tom Scott, July, 2003.

Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa
Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley"
Means, May, 2003.

Panhandle Library Access Network Spring
Conference. Niceville, FL, Carol Armstrong,
May, 2003.

Coastal Sediments 2003. Clearwater
Beach, FL, Dan Phelps, May 2003.

Florida Groundwater Association Meeting.
Cape Canaveral, FL, Tom Scott, May, 2003.

Annual Meeting of the Association of
American State Geologists. Lincoln, NE,
Walt Schmidt, June, 2003.

Florida Association of Professional
Geologists. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, June
2003.

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, June, 2003.

Coastal Management Program
Clearinghouse meeting. Tallahassee, FL,
Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.

Gas Storage Wells meeting. Tallahassee,
FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.

Coastal Operations Institute Meeting.
Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, July,
2003.

The Florida Local Environmental Resource
Agencies, Inc. (FLERA) Conference. Jupiter
Beach, FL, Guy "Harley" Means, July, 2003.

Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee,
FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Florida Section of the American
Institute of Professional Geologists meet-
ing. Lakeland, FL, Guy "Harley" Means,
August, 2003.

Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature meetings
Altamonte Springs, FL, and several other
meetings at the FGS, Tallahassee, FL, Rick
Copeland, Jon Arthur, Guy "Harley"
Means, and Tom Scott, August, 2003.

City of Alachua City Commission. Alachua,
FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means,
August, 2003.

Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys
Consortium. Mobile, AL, Walt Schmidt,
August, 2003.

FAPG Executive Committee Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, August,
2003.

Wekiva Basin Coordinating Committee
Public Meeting. Altamonte Springs, FL,
Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, September,
2003.

Naval Air Station Jacksonville Restoration
Advisory Board Meeting. Jacksonville, FL,
Ron Hoenstine, September, 2003.

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2003.

The Department of Environmental
Protection, Quarterly Monitoring Meeting.
St. Augustine, FL, Guy "Harley" Means,
September, 2003.

STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory
Committee Meeting. Florida Geological
Survey, Tallahassee, FL, Rick. Green, Tom
Scott, Guy "Harley" Means, Will Evans, and
David Paul, October, 2003.

Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission
Annual Meeting. Reno, NV, Ed Garrett,
October 2003.


Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2003.

18th Annual Phosphate Conference.
Lakeland, FL, James Cichon, October,
2003.

Florida Water Data Center discussion
meeting. FSU, Tallahassee., FL, Walt
Schmidt, October, 2003.


National Cave and
Gainesville, FL, Rick
Arthur, October, 2003.


Karst Symposium.
Copeland and Jon


The Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL,
Guy "Harley" Means, October, 2003.

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project
Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon
Arthur, October 2003.

35th Annual National Association for Cave
Diving Seminar. Gainesville, FL, James
Cichon, November, 2003.

Annual meeting of the Geological Society of
America. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott and Guy
"Harley" Means, November, 2003.

American Association of State Geologists,
mid-year meeting. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott,
November, 2003.

DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the
Model Springs Land Development Code.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November,
2003.

PERC Administrative Hearing.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott,
Jackie Lloyd and Jim Balsillie, November,
2003.

Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November,
2003.






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


Florida Department of Health Regional
Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Guy "Harley"
Means and Tom Scott, November, 2003.

Florida Paleontological Society. Bristol,
Florida, Guy "Harley" Means, December,
2003.

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2003.

Hydrogeology Consortium / FSU President
Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
December, 2003.

Association of Ground Water Scientists and
Engineers. Orlando, FL, Tom Scott,
December, 2003.

Godby High School Science Fair Judging.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December,
2003.

Coastal Operations Institute Meeting.
Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, December,
2003.

Panhandle Water Issues Workshop.
Tallahassee City Hall., Tallahassee, FL,
Walt Schmidt, December, 2003.

2004

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project
Delivery Team. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur,
January, 2004.

DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the
Model Springs Land Development Code.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January,
2004.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Walt Schmidt,
January, 2004.

Springs Task Force Meeting. Tallahassee,
FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004.


Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa
Springs, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004.

Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney
DeHan, January, 2004.

Meeting with Bob Hughes Drilling re/
Highlands County Drilling Applications.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January,
2004.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists.
Jacksonville, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004.

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, February, 2003.

Meeting with DMS to assess Gunter
Building facilities. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, February, 2004.

PERC Administrative Hearing.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February,
2004.

Meeting with FSU Dean of Arts & Sciences
regarding Geology Department.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February,
2004.

Office Inspection of the Jay Field Office.
Jay, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004.

ROSS Data Base Workshop. Dan Phelps,
February 2004.

DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the
Model Springs Land Development Code.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February,
2004.

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration
Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project
Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon
Arthur, March 2004.

Hydrogeology Consortium meeting.
NWFWMD, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


March, 2004.

Geological Society of America combined
Northeastern and Southeastern Sectional
meeting. Tyson's Corner, VA, Rick Green,
Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott, March,
2004.

Meeting with Shell Oil Co. re/ Offshore
Drilling Plans in Federal Waters.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, March,
2004.

Career Day Oakridge Elementary School.
Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, April, 2004.

Florida Association of Professional
Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt and Jon Arthur, April, 2004.

Florida Board of Professional Geologists.
Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur,
April, 2004.

DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the
Model Springs Land Development Code.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2004.

Aquifer Storage and Recovery IV Forum.
Tampa, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur and
Dan Phelps, April, 2004.

Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver
Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley"
Means, May, 2004.

National Speleological Society Cave
Diving Section, Science of Cave Diving
Workshop. High Springs, FL, Walt
Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Tom Scott, and Guy
"Harley" Means, May, 2004.

Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver
Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley"
Means, May 2004.

Hydrogeology Consortium Water Data
Center meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, Rodney DeHan, and Jon Arthur,
May, 2004.


Annual Meeting of the Florida
Groundwater Association. Orlando, FL,
Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott, May,
2004

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, May, 2004.

Meeting with Murphy Oil Company regard-
ing Offshore Drilling Plans in Federal
Waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
May, 2004..

Meeting with DCA regarding FGS mapping
of Springs Areas for the use in the model
code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May,
2004.

Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004.

DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the
Model Springs Land Development Code.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004.

Hydrologic Observatory Meeting with UF,
FSU, USGS, and the Hydrogeology
Consortium. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, June, 2004.


Annual Meeting of the
American State Geologists.
Walt Schmidt, June, 2004.


Association of
Stevenson, WA,


Meeting with DEP State Lands, State
Parks regarding potential acquisition of
limestone caves area in Jackson County.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004.

Meeting with DCA to discuss Florida
Springs Area Map. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, July, 2004.

Facilities inspection of Jay Oil Fields with
Governors OPB representative. Jay, FL,
Walt Schmidt, July, 2004

Gunter Building and Warehouse Facilities /
Program review by Governors OPB repre-






BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23


sentative. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
August, 2004.

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting, Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2004.

Meeting with Anadarko Oil Company
regarding offshore drilling plans in Federal
waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
September, 2004.

Marion County Springs Festival. Ocala,
FL, Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott,
September, 2004.

Sinkhole Summit II. Tallahassee, FL, Walt
Schmidt, Tom Scott, September, 2004.

ASC / LNG Pipeline Tunneling meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, October,
2004.

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2004.


STATEMAP Geologic
Committee Meeting.
Survey, Tallahassee,
October, 2004.


Mapping Advisory
Florida Geological
FL, Rick Green,


Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Tom Scott, Jon
Arthur and Walt Schmidt, October, 2004.

Oil & Gas Administrative Rules Public
Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
November, 2004.

Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting. Denver, CO, Walt Schmidt and
Tom Scott, November, 2004.

Seven Hills Regional Users Group
Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, James Cichon,
November 2004.

Olesya Lazareva Thesis defense at USF.
Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur,
November, 2004.


Association of American State Geologists,
mid-year meeting. Denver, CO, Walt
Schmidt and Tom Scott, November, 2004.

FGS Oil & Gas Section program planning
retreat. Maclay Gardens, FL, Walt
Schmidt, November, 2004

Meeting with DEP Inspector General Staff
to formulate audit plan Tallahassee, FL,
Walt Schmidt, November, 2004.

Godby High School Science Fair judging.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December,
2004.

Springs Task Force meeting. Tallahassee,
FL, Tom Scott, December, 2004.

Meeting with DCA representatives to
discuss Columbia County "stream-to-sinks"
mapping. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt,
December, 2004.

Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing System
Regional Association Conference. .Jack-
sonville, FL, Ron Hoenstine, December,
2004..

Panhandle Library Access Network Board
of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach,
FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2004.

Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney
DeHan, December, 2004

TRAINING

2003

Making the Connexion. Tallahassee, FL,
Carol Armstrong, January, 2003.

Technology Special Interest Group.
Mariana, FL, Carol Armstrong, March,
2003

First Aid/CPR Training for selected FGS
employees, Tallahassee, FL, March, 2003.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Copyright Law in the Digital Age.
Marianna, FL, Carol Armstrong, April,
2003.

Portals: Beyond the Hype. Panama City,
FL, Carol Armstrong and Paula Polson,
August, 2003.

Information Literacy. Marianna, FL, Carol
Armstrong, September, 2003.

Certified Public Manager Training.
Tallahassee, FL, Ed Garrett, two-year pro-
gram beginning September 2003.

Geochemist's Workbench. Denver, CO, Jon
Arthur, November, 2003.

PowerPoint Training Workshop.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December,
2003.


Schramm Drill Rigs Maintenance and
Operation Training, Craig Berninger and
Lee Booth, November, 2004.

BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF)

2003

Wakulla Springs Birding and Wildlife
Festival. Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2003.

Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL,
April, 2003.

Marion County Springs Festival. Rainbow
Springs State Park, Dunnellon, FL,
September, 2003.

Innovation Park Open House. Tallahassee,
FL, October, 2003.


Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter
2004 Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2003.


Management 101. Tallahassee, FL, Carol
Armstrong, January-May, 2004.

Florida Groundwater Association
Convention: Water well contractors contin-
uing education courses. Craig Berninger,
Lee Booth, Ken Campbell and Eric
Harrington, May, 2004.

Critical Computer Care. Panama City
Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, July, 2004.

People First Training. FGS staff, August,
2004.

Short Course on Carbonate Stratigraphy.
Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom
Greenhalgh, Will Evans, Cindy Fischler,
Clint Kromhout, Jon Arthur, Guy "Harley"
Means, Dave Paul, Tom Scott and Rick
Green, September, 2004.

Wireless Technology in Libraries.
Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, October,
2004.


2004

Florida State University Earth Day Event.
Tallahassee, FL, April, 2004.


Wakulla Wildlife Festival.
Springs, FL, April, 2004.


Wakulla


Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL,
April, 2004.

Desoto's River of Discord Celebration.
Dunnellon, FL, June, 2004.

Wild Florida Festival at the Tallahassee
Museum. Tallahassee, FL, September,
2004.

Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter
Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2004.

Where in the volcano is that? Front Porch
After School Program. Tallahassee, FL,
October, 2004.