<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Introduction
 Appropriation and expenditures
 Office and museum space
 Personnel
 Survey activities
 Work by consultants
 Studies by State and Federal Geological...
 Library report
 Topographic maps
 Cooperation with other agencie...
 Oil and gas exploration in...
 The mineral industry of Florida...
 The mineral industry of Florida...
 Known active mineral producers...
 Back Cover














Biennial report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000223/00011
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report of the Florida Geological Survey
Physical Description: 11 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1940-1961
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Board of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1940)-14th (1959-1960).
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000376187
oclc - 01956611
notis - ACB5800
lccn - sn 87028635
System ID: UF00000223:00011
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Illustrations
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Appropriation and expenditures
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Office and museum space
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Personnel
        Page 17
        Florida Geological Survey personnel
            Page 18
        U.S. Geological Survey personnel
            Page 19
            Surface Water Branch
                Page 19
            Quality of Water Branch
                Page 20
            Ground Water Branch
                Page 21
                Page 22
    Survey activities
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Cross-Florida Barge Canal
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
    Work by consultants
        Page 39
        Dr. Pierce Brodkorb
            Page 39
        Dr. W. A. White
            Page 39
        Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan
            Page 39
        Feasibility studies - Abbott, Merkt and Company
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
    Studies by State and Federal Geological Survey personnel and by consultants for the Survey - published between January 1, 1959, and December 31, 1960
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Estimation of funds needed for publications
            Page 50
    Library report
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Topographic maps
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Numerical index to topographic maps
            Page 54
            Page 55
        County index to topographic maps
            Page 56
            Page 57
    Cooperation with other agencies
        Page 58
        Attorney General and Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
        University of South Florida and the Board of State Institutions
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Ground water considerations
            Page 65
        Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida Section, American Water Works Association, and Florida Sewage and Industrial Waste Association
            Page 66
        University of Florida
            Page 66
        Florida state rural development committee
            Page 66
        State Road Department
            Page 67 (MULTIPLE)
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
        Florida Resource Use Committee
            Page 80 (MULTIPLE)
        Department of Water Resources
            Page 81
            Page 82
        State Board of Health
            Page 83
        U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division
            Page 84 (MULTIPLE)
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Proposed future program
                Page 91
                Page 92
    Oil and gas exploration in Florida
        Page 93
        1959-60 activities
            Page 93
            Page 94
    The mineral industry of Florida 1958-59
        Page 95
        Employment and injuries
            Page 96
        Consumption, trade and markets
            Page 97
            Page 98
        Trends and developments
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
        Legislation and government programs
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
        Review by mineral commodities
            Page 106 (MULTIPLE)
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Metals
                Page 120
                Page 121
                Page 122
                Page 123
            Mineral fuels
                Page 124
        Review by counties
            Page 125
            Page 126
    The mineral industry of Florida in 1960
        Page 127
    Known active mineral producers in Florida 1958-1959
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
RECENT
and
PLEISTOCENE



PLEISTOCENE


FLORIDA
GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY


? PLIO
PLEISTOCENE


FOU RTEENTH
B IE NNIAL
R E P 0 R T


MIOCENE


V


OLIGOCENE


959


EOCENE


-1960









STATE OF FLORIDA
Farris Bryant, Governor

FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT

of the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Covering Period
January 1, 1959 through December 31, 1960





Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist




Tallahassee, Florida
1961












FLORIDA STATE BOARD


OF

CONSERVATION





Farris Bryant
Governor


Tom Adams
Secretary of State


Ray E. Green
Comptroller


Richard Ervin
Attorney General


J. Edwin Larson
Treasurer


Doyle Conner
Commissioner of
Agriculture


Thomas D. Bailey
Superintendent of
Public Instruction


Robert O. Vernon, Administrator
Oil and Gas Division
State .Geologist





c/7





80199










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:

The Fourteenth Biennial Report summarizes the
responsibilities, history, work and activities of the Florida
Geological Survey, covering the calendar years of 1959-60.
The report contains summaries of the mineral production
and gives a list, of producers known to have been active.

The report'is required by the Legislature and will be
used to assist in answering requests for summaries of the
activities of the Florida Geological Survey and for tabulation
of the mineral wealth of the State. This department antici-
pates a greatly expanded economic development of Florida
during your administration and the data on water and mineral
resources developed by the Survey will be helpful in this
development and fully utilized by all needing them.

Respectfully yours,


Robert O. Vernon, Director
and State Geologist












TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Letter of transmittal ..... ............ ......... iii
Introduction................ .. ...................... 1
Appropriation and expenditures .................. 5
Office and museum space..................... 14
Personnel..................................... 17
Florida Geological Survey personnel ........... 18
U. S. Geological Survey personnel .............. 19
Surface Water Branch .................... 19
Quality of Water Branch ................... 20
Ground Water Branch............... ...... 21
Survey activities .................. .............. 23
Cross-Florida Barge Canal................ ... 26
Work by consultants ............................. 39
Dr. Pierce Brodkorb............... ........ 39
Dr. W.A. White .............................. 39
Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan 39
Feasibility studies Abbott, Merkt and Company 40
Studies by State and Federal Geological Survey
personnel and by consultants for the Survey -
published between January 1, 1959, and
December 31, 1960 ......................... 44
Estimation of funds needed for publications
1959-60.................................... 50
Library report ......... ......... ..... ..... 50
Topographic maps ..................... ............ 52
Numerical index to topographic maps .......... 5 54
County index to topographic maps.... ............ 56
Cooperation with other agencies ......... ........... 58
Attorney General and Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund ........................ 58
University of South Florida and the Board of
State Institutions .......................... 63
Ground water considerations ............... 65
Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida
Section, American Water Works Association,
and Florida Sewage and Industrial Waste As so-
ciation ................................... 66






Page


University of Florida......................... 66
Florida State Rural Development Committee .... 66
State Road Department ....................... 67
Governor's Office ............................ 67
Report of Governor's Commitee formed for the
study of the problem of retention of phosphate
slimes.................................... 67
Florida Resource Use Committee............... 80
Florida State University ..................... 80
Department of Water Resources............... 81
State Board of Health ......................... 83
U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 84
Current program .......................... 84
Proposed future program .................. 91
Oil and gas exploration in Florida ................ 93
1959-60 activities............................. 93
The mineral industry of Florida 1958-59 .......... 95
Employment and injuries ..................... 96
Consumption, trade and markets .............. 97
Trends and developments ..................... 99
Legislation and government programs .......... 103
Review by mineral commodities ............... 106
Nonm etals................................ 106
M etals................................... 120
Mineral fuels ................. ........... 124
Review by counties .............. ............ 125
The Mineral industry of Florida in 1960 ........... 127
Known active mineral producers in Florida 1958-1959 128



ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure
1 Florida Geological Survey .............. 14
2 Planned geological center .............. 15
3 Three-quarter view of proposed geological
museum................................ 16
4 Proposed route of trans-Florida barge
canal ................................. 30
5 Index to published topographic mapping.. 55
6 Aerial photo of Sanibel Island showing
the present shoreline and associated
features............................... 62









Figure Page
7 Recommended minimum cross section of
dam ................................... 79
8 Modified minimum cross section of dam 79
9 Distribution of observation wells in the
statewide network, by counties .......... 85
10 Chemical quality sampling stations ...... 86
11 Areas of water resources investigations 87
1Z Stream flow measuring stations ......... 88


Table
1 Mineral and rock production and value in
1959 in the proposed trans-Florida barge
canal area............................ 31
2 1959-60 geophysical crew weeks ........ 94
3 Mineral production in Florida 1958-59... 96
4 Marketable production of phosphate rock. 115
5 Phosphate rock sold or used by producers,
by uses ................................ 115
6 Sand and gravel sold or used by producers,
by counties ......... ... ................ 117
7 Sand and gravel sold or used by producers,
by uses................................. 117
8 Crushed limestone sold or usedby produc-
ers, by counties....................... 121
9 Crushed limestone sold or usedby produc-
ers, by uses .......................... 121
10 Value of mineral production in Florida,
by counties ............................ 126









FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


OF THE

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION

The Survey was created in 1907 and has had but three
State Geologists: Dr. Elias Sellards from 1907 to 1919;
Dr. Herman Gunter, 1919-1958, and Dr. Robert Vernon,
1958 to date. The department was an executive department
responsible to the Governor until 1933, when it was included
in the Florida Department of Conservation along with the
Salt Water Fish Commission, and the Department of Game
and Fresh Water Fish. In 1935, the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission was made a constitutional department and
the Salt Water Fish Commission (State Department of Con-
servation) and the Geological Survey operated as distinctive
departments, obtaining their funds separately from the
General Revenue by appropriation of the Legislature, admin-
istering their departments separately but being loosely held
together administratively. In 1959, the Florida Geological
Survey and the Department of Conservation were made
responsible to the State Board of Conservation and to the
Governor as Chairman of the Board.


Membership of the State Board of Conservation:

Start of report period -

LeRoy Collins, Governor
R. A. Gray, Secretary of State
Richard Ervin, Attorney General
Ray E. Green, Comptroller
J. Edwin Larson, Treasurer
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent of Public
Instruction



1 80199






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture
Ernest Mitts, Director, Department of
Conservation and Salt Water Fisheries
Robert O. Vernon, Director and State Geologist
of the Florida Geological Survey and
Administrator of the Oil and Gas Division
John Wakefield, Director, Department of
Water Resources

The only change in the State Board of Conservation and
the membership of departments under the Board was oc-
casioned by the death of Mr. Mayo and the appointment of
Mr. Lee Thompson as acting Commissioner in 1960. The
Department of Water Resources, with Mr. John Wakefield
as Director, was organized in 1957.

Legislative accomplishments:

During the 1959 Legislature, the Survey and the
Department of Water Resources jointly sponsored a bill to
include the Department of Water Resources under the Florida
Statutes, Section 373.021, the Survey to retain its data-
determining authority,but the Department of Water Resources
to join the county sheriffs in control of wildly flowing wells.

The Geological Survey was made a responsibility of the
State Board of Conservation to parallel the Department of
Conservation (Salt Water Fisheries) and the Department of
Water Resources by the 1959 Legislature.

Legislative authority:

The Florida Geological Survey's responsibilities,
duties and organization are set forth in the 1959 Florida
Statutes under Section 373. 0113, setting forth the general
duties; 373. 021/. 051, requiring the Survey to determine the
hydraulic facts of the State's water resources and authorizing
Survey personnel to assist the county sheriffs and the Depart-
ment of Water Resources to control free-flowing artesian
wells. Under Sections 377.01/.40 the State Board of Conser-
vation regulates exploration for oil and gas in the State and
the Board has directed that the State Geologist shall serve as





FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Administrator to the Oil and Gas Division of the Board, the
Survey retaining all records of oil and gas drilling activities.
The State Geologist also was directed by the Board to serve
on the Oil Compact Commission as needed.

General responsibilities:

Florida law provides that the Survey shall explore for
"minerals, water supply, and other natural resources of the
State, and shall prepare reports and maps covering "de-
scription of such surveys and explorations, occurrences and
locations of mineral and other deposits of value, surface and
subterranean water supply and power, and mineral waters,
and the best and most economical methods of development,
together with analysis of soils, minerals and mineral
waters.. .

The Florida Geological Survey is a data-collection
agency and works closely with the State Board of Health in
protecting our water resources, with the DevelopmentCom-
mission in developing new mineraland water resources and
in expanding present usages. It is the principal cooperator
with the Water Resources Branch of the U. S. Geological
Survey and, together, these departments develop water re-
source facts covering ground water, surface water and quality
of water. The Survey does not enter the water management
and control field, which is reserved unto the Department of
Water Resources.

The Survey maintains a comprehensive geologic li-
brary, a well-sample library containing at the moment rock
cuttings from 5, 560 wells, and records andspecimens of life
of the past geologic ages.

The functions of the Florida Geological Survey might
be summarized briefly as follows:

1) Study the geology and map the structure and
stratigraphy of various formations of the State.
Issue reports covering these studies.

2) Study and publish papers on the individual min-
eral resources of Florida, including oil, gas






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and water, and data-tabulation on the following:

a) Since 1929, the Survey has cooperated with
the Federal Geological Survey in water re-
source studies in which detailed studies of
surface, ground and quality ofwaters, to-
gether with geologic factors, are made and
published.

b) The Legislature of 1955 made the Survey an
advisory member of the Water Resources
Study Commission and it functioned inthat
capacityingathering data onthe water re-
sources for a report to the 1959 Legis-
lature.

c) Preparing an inventory of flowing wells of
Florida.

d) Administering the rules and regulations
pertaining to the exploration for oil and
gas, and tabulating data on exploration for
oil and gas in the State.

e) Tabulating mineral production statistics
in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of
Mine s.

3) Guide industrial and commercial development
of mineral resources sometimes in cooper-
ation with the Development Commission and
other agencies. Run evaluation tests on min-
eral resources.

4) Consult and advise private, State and Federal
agencies on problems of geology and hydrology.
In particular, an active cooperation exists with
the State Board of Health on public supply and
drainage wells, and drainage fields, and with
the Department of Water Resources on water
management and control.

5) Encourage and assist inthe preparation of topo-
graphic, planimetric and soilmaps of Florida.







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


6) Collect and display specimens of minerals and
other resources, including remains of animals
and plants, in the office of the Survey, as an
educational aid to Florida citizens.



APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES


The 1959-1960 biennium has reflected a slight growth
in personnel and in the budget. Both have assisted in the
contributions the Survey has been privileged to make to the
growthandwelfare of the economy of Florida. The increase
in the number of new industries established in Florida in
1959-1960 has been made in part and at times largely through
the activity of the Survey in supplying data on mineral and
water resources, foundation problems, and evaluations of
marketing conditions.


The 1959 Legislature recognized this contribution by
providing $882,182 for the 1959-1961 biennium. Trustfunds
in the amount of $29,600 were also made available, making
a total of $911, 782 available for this biennium. This was an
increase of 32 percent over the funds available for the 1957-
1959 biennium.

Appropriations

July 1, 1959 June 30, 1961
7-1-59 to 7-1-60 to
6-30-60 6-30-61 Total
Current:
1. Geological Survey:
(a) Salaries........................... $129,564 $129,564 $259,128
(b) Expenses......................... 67,631 67,643 135,274
(c) Operating capital outlay............ 12, 656 5,124 17,780
(d) U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative
Agreements .................... 135,000 135,000 270,000

2. Special:
(a) Feasibility studies of the Sanford-
Titusville Canal, the Southwest
Florida Water Conservation Dis-
trict, or its successor, the
Suwannee River and the Choctow-
hatchee River Valley Development
projects to be submitted to the 1961
legislature...................... 192,200 0 192,200
(b) Salary of one employee for adminis-
tration of studies and preparation
of legislative report ............. 3,900 3,900 7,800








6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Appropriation 1959-61 (continued)

3. Trust Funds:
(a) City of Pensacola .................. 2, 000
(b) Escambia County .................. 1,000
(c) Cities and counties of the Green
Swamp area ..................... 5,600
(d) National Science Foundation Grant
No. 9802 1,800
(e) National Science Foundation Grant
No. 14562 19,200

Total .................. $570,551 $341,231 $911,782


The 1957 Legislature appropriated $300,000 for an Office and Research Building -
Second Unit, but none of these funds were released for expenditure. It is hoped that the
1961 Legislature will reappropriate funds for this urgently needed building.


1959

Statement of Funds Available
Expenditures and Balances
January 1 to December 31

Salaries General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1. ............................ $ 1,288.85
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ................................. 26, 715. 75
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June ...................................... 24,060.00
General Revenue Release for July, August
and September .............................. 32,391.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December.............................. 32,391.00

Total available .............. ...... $116,846.60

Expenditures:
Salaries and wages .................. ........... 111,640.76
$ 5,205.84
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget
Commission ............................... 200.34
Balance December 31, 1959 .................... $ 5,005.50


Expenses General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1.............................. $ 5,656.68
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March................ ................. 43,029.75
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June ...................................... 41,030.00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September................................. 16,908.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December .............................. 16,000.00


Total available.....................


$122,624.43







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 7


1959 (continued)

Expenditures:
Day Labor................ ................. $ 462.00
Professional fees and consultant services........ 1,043.30
Communications and transportation of things ..... 3,067. 60
General printing and reproduction services ...... 11,221.76
Repairs and maintenance ....................... 4,983.06
Travel....................................... 5,724.88
Utilities...................................... 22,529. 37
Other contractural services .................... 64, 207.70
Heating supplies (steam from F. S. U. )........... 1,081.71
Scientific supplies.............................. 1,177.71
Maintenance materials and supplies ............. 1,405.43
Motor fuels and lubricants ..................... 1,392. 81
Office materials and supplies ................... 5,075.94
Other materials and supplies .................... 685.30
Insurance and surety bonds ........................ 1,029.71
Rentals of buildings and equipment ............... 6. 00
Other current charges and obligations ............ 260.00
Transferred to operating capital outlay ........... 5,000.00
Transferred to trust fund for U. S. Geological
Survey Cooperative ......................... 2,000.00

Total expenditures $112,354.28
$ 10,270.15
Less funds placed in reserve on July 1, 1959 ...... 3,000.85
$ 7,269.30

Operating Capital Outlay General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 $ 1,034.91
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March.................................. 980.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June..................................... 980.00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September.................................. 3, 164.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................. 3,164.00
Transfer from expense appropriation ........... 5,000. 00

Total available..................... $ 14, 322. 91

Expenditures:
Books. ........................................ 541.37
Scientific equipment .......................... 6,889.96
Motor vehicles passenger .................... 369.90
Office furniture and equipment ................. 2,049. 59
Other capital outlay.................. ......... 531.95
Total expenditures ................. $ 10, 382.77

Balance January 1, 1960 ....................... $ 3,940.14

Expenses U. S. Geological Survey Cooperative Agreements:
Funds available: (Separate appropriation made by 1959
Legislature)
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September.................................. $33,750.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................. 33,750.00


Total available. .....................


$ 67,500.00








8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1959 (continued)

Expenditures:
Contractural services ......................... $67,500.00

Total expenditures ................. $ 67,500.00

Balance December 31, 1959 .................... 0

Salaries Special-For Surveys: (1959 legislative
appropriation)
Funds available:
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September.................................. $ 325.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................. 975.00

Total available..................... $ 1,300.00

Expenditures:
Salary for the coordinator ........ ........... $ 1,300.00

Total expenditures ................. $ 1,300.00

Balance December 31, 1959 ................... 0


Expenses Special-For Surveys: (1959 legislative
appropriation)
Funds available:
General Revenue Release for July, August
and September. ............................. $ 48,050.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ................... ........... 48,050.00

Total available ...................... $ 96,100.00

Expenditures:
Contractural services. ......................... $ 42,250.00

Total expenditures ................... $ 42,250.00

Balance December 31, 1959 ..................... $ 53,850.00

Salaries Special-Enforcing Section 373. 031 Florida Statutes
Funds available:
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................. $ 5,385.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June......................................... 5,520.00

Total available ...................... $ 10,905.00

Expenditures:
Salaries and wages ............................ 10,905.00

Balance July 1, 1959 (This section terminated by 1959
Legislature) ................................... 0







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 9


1959 (continued)

Expenses Special-Enforcing Section 373. 031 Florida Statutes
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ............................ $ 466.41
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ................................... 3,062.50
General Revenue Release for April, May and June 3,062. 50

Total available ...................... $ 6,591.41

Expenditures:
Communication and transportation of things ....... $ 6.86
General printing and reproduction services........ 253.29
Repairs and maintenance ........................ 1,211.42
Travel .......................................... 1,749.00
Heating supplies (Steam from F. S. U. )............ 134.05
Scientific materials and supplies ................. 27.68
Maintenance materials and supplies .............. 746.98
Motor fuels and lubricants. ..................... 722.05
Office materials and supplies ................. .... 1,056. 54
Other materials and supplies..................... 130.91
Other current charges and obligations ............ 17.75

Total expenditures ................... 6,056.53
$ 534. 88
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget Commission 534.88

Balance July 1, 1959 (This section terminated by
1959 Legislature) ............ .... .......... 0


Operating Capital Outlay Special-Enforcing Section 373. 031 Florida Statutes
Funds available:
Balance January 1 $ 1,500.00

Total available......... .............. $ 1,500.00

Expenditures:
Motor vehicles passenger ..................... $ 1,500.00

Total expenditures ................ ... $ 1,500.00

Balance July 1, 1959 (This section terminated by
1959 Legislature) ............... ...... ..... 0

Capital Outlay Office and research building-first unit
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ............................. $ 6,955.39

Total available ....................... $ 6,955.39

Expenditures:
Buildings and fixed equipment .................... $ 1,592. 82

Total expenditures ................... 1,592.82


Balance December 31, 1959 ......................


$ 5,362.57







10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1959 (continued)


Trust Funds U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative
Funds available:
Balance January 1 .............................. $ 7,850.00
Receipts January through December .............. 5,400.00

Total available....................... $ 13,250.00

Expenditures:
Contractural services ........................... $ 10,750.00

Total expenditures ................... $ 10,750.00

Balance December 31, 1959 ...................... $ 2, 500.00

Trust Funds National Science Foundation Grant No. 9802
Funds available:
Trust Funds Release by Budget Commission ........ $ 1,800.00

Total available ...................... .$ 1,800.00

Expenditures:
Materials and supplies .......................... $ 336.00

Total expenditures ................... 336.00

Balance December 31, 1959 ...................... $ 1,464.00



1960

Statement of Funds Available
Expenditures and Balances
January 1 to December 31

Salaries General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1.............................. $ 5,005.50
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................. 27, 121. 00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 30,307.00
General Revenue Release for July, August, and
September ................................ 33, 362.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December................................ 33,275.00

Total available ...................... $129,070.50

Expenditures:
Salaries and wages ............................ 121,435.23
Total expenditures ................... $ 7,635.27
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget Commission 2, 341.84

Balance December 31, 1960 ..................... $ 5,293.43







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 11


1960 (continued)



Expenses General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ................................. $ 7,269.30
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................... 17,360.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 17, 363.00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September .................................. 18,820.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ................... ........... 15,000.00

Total available .................. ... $ 75,812.30

Expenditures:
Professional fees and consultant services......... $ 1,450.08
Communication and transportation of things ....... 3,450.18
General printing and reproduction services ....... 11,062. 73
Repairs and maintenance .................. ...... 8,258.39
Travel........................................... 8,159.24
Utilities ....................................... 2, 574.24
Other contractual services ..................... 7,121.43
Heating supplies (steam from F. S. U.)............. 1,215. 76
Scientific supplies............................. .. 414. 85
Maintenance materials and supplies ............... 2,445.61
Motor fuels and lubricants ...................... 2,442.99
Office materials and supplies. ................... 8,854.87
Other materials and supplies .................... 2,164.49
Insurance and surety bonds ...................... 1,564.84
Rentals of buildings and equipment ............... 203. 50
Other current charges and obligations ............ 1,191.29

Total expenditures................... $ 62,574.49
$ 13,237.81
Less funds placed in reserve on July 1, 1960 by
Budget Commission .......................... $ 7,112. 82

Balance December 31, 1960 .................... $ 6,124.99



Operating Capital Outlay General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ...... .... ................ $ 3,940.14
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ................................. 4,664.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 1,664. 00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September ................................... 5, 124.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 0
Transfer from Expenses appropriation 12,800.00
Insurance adjustment for burned automobile ....... 1,712. 98


Total available ......................


$ 29,905.12







12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960 (continued)

Expenditures:
Books......................................... $ 536.43
Buildings and fixed equipment ................... 652. 57
Scientific equipment............................ 19, 021.70
Motor vehicles passenger ..................... 5,567.60
Office furniture and equipment ................... 332. 82
Other capital outlay ........................... .. 225. 75

Total expenditures .................. $ 26, 336. 87
$ 3,568.25
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget Commission
on July 1, 1960 .............................. 2.07

Balance January 1, 1961 ........................ $ 3,566.18

Expenses U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Agreements
Funds available:
Balance January 1. ................. ........... 0
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................. 33,750.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 33, 750. 00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September ................. ................. 33,750.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December .................. ............ 33,750.00

Total available...................... $135,000.00

Expenditures:
Contractural services .......................... $135,000.00

Total expenditures ................... $135,000.00

Balance December 31, 1960 ..................... 0

Salaries Special-For Surveys
Funds available:
Balance January 1.............................. 0
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March.................................. $ 975.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 1,037.90
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September............................. ..... 975.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 975.00

Total available .................. ... $ 3,962.90
Expenditures:
Salary for the coordinator .......................... $ 3,962.90

Total expenditures ................... $ 3,962.90

Balance December 31, 1960 ........................ 0

Expenses Special-For Surveys
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ............................... $ 53,850.00
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................. 21,125.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June 975.00







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 13


1960 (continued)


General Revenue Release for July, August and
Septem ber ............. .................... 37,000.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December.............................. 37,000.00

Total available ................... ... $149,950.00

Expenditures:
Contractural services.................... ....... $123,875.00

Total expenditures ................... $123,875.00

Balance December 31, 1960 .................. $ 26,075.00

Trust Funds U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ............ ... .... ... ......... $ 2,500.00
Receipts January through December .............. 8,600.00

Total available .................. .. .. $ 11,100.00

Expenditures:
Contractural services............................ $ 9,600.00

Total expenditures ............... 9,600.00

Balance December 31, 1960 ..................... $ 1,500.00

Trust Funds National Science Foundation Grant No. 9802
Funds Available:
Balance January 1 .............................. $ 1,464.00

Total available ...................... $ 1,464.00

Expenditures:
General printing and reproduction services........ $ 1,020.00
Travel ...................................... ... 249.40
Scientific supplies .............................. 10.00

Total expenditures ................... 1,279.40

$ 184.60
Balance refunded to National Science Foundation... 184.60

Balance December 31, 1960 .................... 0
Trust Funds National Science Foundation Grant No. 14562:
Funds available:
Trust funds released by Budget Commission........ $ 10,000.00

Total available ................. .... $ 10,000.00

Expenditures:
Salaries ........................................ $ 222.50
Travel .......... ................ .............. 313.00
Office materials and supplies ... ......... ... ... 65.17
Other materials and supplies .................... 80. 00
Office equipment ......................... ...... 220. 54

Total expenditures ................... $ 901.21

Balance December 31, 1960 ..................... $ 9,098.79




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


OFFICE AND MUSEUM SPACE

In 1955 funds were provided to construct a building to
house the offices and laboratories of the Florida Geological
Survey. This was occupied in December 1957, and a recent
photograph is reproduced as figure 1.


Figure 1. Florida Geological Survey office and research
Building.

In 1957 the Legislature appropriated funds for construc-
tion of an educational and industrial display building. This
unit would have joined the Survey building with that housing
the Department of Geology of Florida State University. A
declining economy brought on by a severe and prolonged
freeze prevented the release of funds and this unit was not
constructed.

The Legislature directs that the Survey shall collect
minerals and rocks representative of those of the State,
particularly those capable of economic exploitation and to
display these, together with examples of former animal and
plant life. We have placed before the 1961 Legislature a






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


request for funds to build a suitable space to house and dis-
play these specimens. The Survey, over the last 50 years
has gathered one of the most outstanding collections in the
southeastern United States. These collections can not be
replaced and are priceless. Preliminary designs of the pro-
posed building, figures 2 and 3 show the utility and beauty of
the building. There is great need for this building and we
urge the Legislature to provide funds for its construction.


Figure 2. Planned geological center.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1'


-o
I-
4


iLU
411
I-u.
lo.


1a~ I






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


PERSONNEL

In 1955, the Florida Geological Survey employed 28
full-time employees and from 5 to 10 part-time employees.
The full-time employees included 12 scientists or technical
employees and 16 clerical, fiscal and administrative em-
ployees. Five years later, in 1960, the permanent employee
total has been increased to 29 through the addition of one
PBX operator.

Because of low salaries, on January 1, 1961, the Survey
had three vacancies, a Geologist I, an Administrative Assist-
ant III, and the Assistant Director, which has been vacant for
almost two years.

In addition to the need to fill vacant positions, the Survey
has a need for another custodial worker to assist in the care
of the Survey building which is too large for the care of one
janitor.

In 1959 a well exploration rig was obtained to assist in
the development of our mineral resources and to provide data
on the geology of Florida. One geologist has been assigned
the job of taking the cores by use of the core rig and has
been using part-time personnelto assisthim. The operation
requires at least two workers and part-time personnel are
not satisfactory, since the work requires considerable co-
ordination between workers. We are requesting one man to
serve as a well driller.

One new position, a Geologist II, is needed with ex-
perience in oil geology. He would work closely with the oil
prospecting companies operating in Florida andwould assist
in scouting the industry toprovide data onprospecting activ-
ities, leasing, and exploration. He would attend the plugging
operations to insure the proper plugging of all abandoned
wells. He could also work closely with the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund to prepare base maps and details
of oil and mineral occurrences and leases of State lands.
This is a position that the Survey has needed for several years
to assume responsibilities of added duties given to the depart-
ment under the oil and gas control statutes.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Geological Survey Personnel

Office Tallahassee

P. O. Box 631
Florida Geological Survey Office Building
Tennessee and Woodward Streets

January 1, 1959 to December 31, 1960


Full-time Employees

Vernon, Robert O.
Bishop, Ernest W.
Hendry, Charles W. ,Jr.
Lavender, James A.
Reves, William D.
Sproul, Charles R.
Woodard, Herbert J.
Yon, James W. Jr.
Olsen, Stanley J.
Puri, Harbans S.
Maxwell, Earl L.
Janson, Andrew R.
Whitehead, Harry
Still, Wright P.
Murphy, Simmie L.
Wildner, Gertrude P.
Wilson, Ruth D.
Westcott, Gerald P.
Brown, Helen J.
Harthern, Alvis T.
Humphrey, Mary E.
Novak, Mary C.
Sands, Evelee C.
Barnes, Evelyn L.
Corriveau, Mary L.
Franklin, Janice T.
Nichols, Barbara A.
Price, Ann E.
Barthlow, Hilda A.
Clark, Deborah F.
Shuler, Ruth A.
Miller, Alfred G.
Barnes, Moses L.
Snellings, Charlie
Houston, Clarence


Part-time Employees

Austin, Robert W.
Balanky, Eugene F.
Benda, William K.
Blow, Robert M.
Boring, Charles E., Jr.
Bruce, Ike
Brush, Robert M.


Resigned Dec. 15, 1960





Resigned June 30, 1959



Pe



Resigned July 31,1959 D

Resigned October 18, 1959
Entered October 12, 1959
Oct. 1, 1959 toAug. ZZ, 1960 A
Entered March 1, 1960
Resigned August 14, 1959
Sept. 1,1959 to Mar. 31, 1960

Entered February 1, 1960
Resigned Jan. 22, 1959
Resigned Jan. 31, 1959
Jan. 27, 1959 to Aug. 9, 1959
Entered Sept. 1, 1959
Entered Aug. 3, 1959
Entered June 1, 1959
Resigned May 31, 1959

Entered Sept. 28, 1959
Resigned Sept. 15, 1959


Sept. 19, 1958 to May 31,1959
Sept. 2, 1958 to Aug. 31, 1959
December 12, 1958 to Feb. 28, 1959
May 4, 1960 to Aug. 31, 1960
Entered May 24, 1960
July 2, 1959 to August 31, 1959


Director and State Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Vertebrate Paleontologist
Paleontologist
rsonnel Manager and Accountant
Illustrator
Draftsman
'uplicating Equipment Supervisor
Duplicating Equipment Operator
Librarian
Librarian
administrative Assistant (Trainee)
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Stenographer
Stenographer
Stenographer
Stenographer
Stenographer
Clerk-Typist
Clerk-Typist
Clerk-Typist
Clerk
Sample Washer and Janitor
Sample Washer
Janitor


Laboratory Aide
Librarian Assistant
Laboratory Aide
Sample Sorter
Sample Sorter
Day Laborer
Day Laborer







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Cantwell, Richard J.
Chin, Chih S.
Dee, Lawrence L., Jr.
Evans, Susan
Garman, Roy K.
Godbold, Phillip R.
Gutsch, Kenneth A.
Haslam, John H. Jr.
Houston, Allen
Lammers, George E.
Malloy, John
Miller, Gloria R.
Mould, Linda R.
Reynolds, Joshua P., Jr.
Rust, Sandra L.
Schneider, Travis M.
Schwenk, Charles S. ,Jr.
Sims, Obediah, Jr.
Stone, James A.
Strozier, Robert M.,Jr.
Thompson, Leigh A.
Umstead, Robert L.
Vanstrum, Vincent V.
Whitton, Elliott A.
Wilkinson, Katherine L.


May 1, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
June 2, 1958 to June 30, 1959
Feb. 6, 1959 to June 30, 1960
Mar. 9, 1960 to May 31, 1960
June I, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
Feb. 10, 1958 to Oct. 31, 1959
May 4, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
Dec. 12, 1958 to Feb. 29, 1960
Oct. 2, 1959 to Sept. 30, 1960
Dec. 20, 1957 to July 31, 1959
June 13, 1960
June 6, 1960 to Aug. 51, 1960
Entered Oct. 22, 1959
June 1, 1960 to Aug. 31, 1960
Entered Feb. 9, 1959
June 6, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
June 15, 1959 to Aug. 31,1959
July 20,1960 to July 31, 1960
June 1, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
June 16, 1958 to Aug. 31, 1959
Oct. 21, 1957 to Apr. 30, 1959
June 2, 1958 to June 30, 1959
Dec. 20, 1957 to Feb. 8, 1959
June 22, 1959 to Sept. 30, 1959
Mar. 10, 1960 to May 31, 1960



U. S. Geological Survey Personnel
Surface Water Branch
Florida District

District Office Ocala
P. O. Box 607
Building 211, Roosevelt Village
Phone MArion 2-6513


Paleontologist Aide
Sample Sorter
Laboratory Aide
Typist
Rodman
Sample Sorter
Sample Sorter
Sample Sorter
Janitor
Laboratory Aide
Laboratory Aide
Typist
Laboratory Aide
Rodman
Draftsman Aide
Typist
Sample Sorter
Janitor
Rodman
Sample Sorter
Typist
Sample Sorter
Laboratory Aide
Sample Sorter
Typist


Patterson, Archibald O.
Pride, Roland W.
Adamek, Paul R.
Anderson, Warren
Bridges, Wayne C.
Heath, Richard C.
Joslin, James L.
Kenner, William E.
Mann, James A.
Meredith, Edwin W.
Messmore, Alan L.
Musgrove, Rufus H.
Stone, Roy B. Jr.
Gardner, Milton S.
Robinson, William H.
Sheets, Robert W.
Woodham, William M.
Leake, Frances P.
MacLain, Helen J.
Speir, Florence D.


District Engineer
Assistant District Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
(on military furlough)Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Mathematician
Engineering Aid
Hydrologic Field Assistant
Engineering Aid(WAE)
(on military furlough) Engineering Aid
Clerk
Clerk
Clerk







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Cantwell, Richard J.
Chin, Chih S.
Dee, Lawrence L., Jr.
Evans, Susan
Garman, Roy K.
Godbold, Phillip R.
Gutsch, Kenneth A.
Haslam, John H. Jr.
Houston, Allen
Lammers, George E.
Malloy, John
Miller, Gloria R.
Mould, Linda R.
Reynolds, Joshua P., Jr.
Rust, Sandra L.
Schneider, Travis M.
Schwenk, Charles S. ,Jr.
Sims, Obediah, Jr.
Stone, James A.
Strozier, Robert M.,Jr.
Thompson, Leigh A.
Umstead, Robert L.
Vanstrum, Vincent V.
Whitton, Elliott A.
Wilkinson, Katherine L.


May 1, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
June 2, 1958 to June 30, 1959
Feb. 6, 1959 to June 30, 1960
Mar. 9, 1960 to May 31, 1960
June I, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
Feb. 10, 1958 to Oct. 31, 1959
May 4, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
Dec. 12, 1958 to Feb. 29, 1960
Oct. 2, 1959 to Sept. 30, 1960
Dec. 20, 1957 to July 31, 1959
June 13, 1960
June 6, 1960 to Aug. 51, 1960
Entered Oct. 22, 1959
June 1, 1960 to Aug. 31, 1960
Entered Feb. 9, 1959
June 6, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
June 15, 1959 to Aug. 31,1959
July 20,1960 to July 31, 1960
June 1, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960
June 16, 1958 to Aug. 31, 1959
Oct. 21, 1957 to Apr. 30, 1959
June 2, 1958 to June 30, 1959
Dec. 20, 1957 to Feb. 8, 1959
June 22, 1959 to Sept. 30, 1959
Mar. 10, 1960 to May 31, 1960



U. S. Geological Survey Personnel
Surface Water Branch
Florida District

District Office Ocala
P. O. Box 607
Building 211, Roosevelt Village
Phone MArion 2-6513


Paleontologist Aide
Sample Sorter
Laboratory Aide
Typist
Rodman
Sample Sorter
Sample Sorter
Sample Sorter
Janitor
Laboratory Aide
Laboratory Aide
Typist
Laboratory Aide
Rodman
Draftsman Aide
Typist
Sample Sorter
Janitor
Rodman
Sample Sorter
Typist
Sample Sorter
Laboratory Aide
Sample Sorter
Typist


Patterson, Archibald O.
Pride, Roland W.
Adamek, Paul R.
Anderson, Warren
Bridges, Wayne C.
Heath, Richard C.
Joslin, James L.
Kenner, William E.
Mann, James A.
Meredith, Edwin W.
Messmore, Alan L.
Musgrove, Rufus H.
Stone, Roy B. Jr.
Gardner, Milton S.
Robinson, William H.
Sheets, Robert W.
Woodham, William M.
Leake, Frances P.
MacLain, Helen J.
Speir, Florence D.


District Engineer
Assistant District Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
(on military furlough)Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Mathematician
Engineering Aid
Hydrologic Field Assistant
Engineering Aid(WAE)
(on military furlough) Engineering Aid
Clerk
Clerk
Clerk







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ocala Subdistrict Office


Charnley, Raymond S.
Black, James L.
Cash, Carl J., Jr.
Causseaux, Kenneth W.
Collins, Donald C.
Cunningham, Ray E.
Holly, Otis T.
Potter, Phillip W.


Engineering-Technician in Charge
Engineering Aid
Hydrologic Field Assistant (WAE)
Engineering Aid (WAE)
Engineering Aid
Engineering-Technician
Engineering Aid
(on military furlough) Engineering Aid


Miami Subdistrict Office
P.O. Box 33348, Miami 33
3316 Pan American Drive
Phone Highland 8-4564


Hartwell, James H.
Galliher, Claiborne F.
Higer, Aaron L.
Leach, Stanley D.
Schneider, James J.
Beaumont, Edmund L.
Bellman, Morris
Luethi, Doris B.


Engineer in Charge
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Engineering Aid
Engineering Aid
Clerk-Stenographer


Sebring Subdistrict Office
P.O. Box 553
Highlands County Court House
Phone EVergreen 6-5771


Murphy, Walter R., Jr.
Altvater, Allen C. Jr.
Bird, Robert A.
Hollingsworth, Violet C.
Llewellyn, Lee H.


Engineer in Charge
Engineering Aid
Engineering Aid
Clerk-Typist
Laborer (WAE)


Quality of Water Branch
Florida District

District Office Ocala
P.O. Box 607
Building 211, Roosevelt Village
Phone MArion 2-6513


Geurin, James W.
Joyner, Boyd F.
Cherry, Rodney N.
Grantham, Rodney G., Jr.
Menke, Clarence G.
Shattles, Donald E.
Cole, Catherine L.
Eff, Samuel
Gore, James B.
Hardee, Jack
Kirkland, Robert T., Jr.
Meyers, Donald F.
Shampine, William J.
Wesley, Merle S.
Privett, Alta S.
Hackworth, Garnet K.


District Chemist
Assistant District Chemist
Chemist
Chemist
Chemist
Geologist
Physical Science Aid
Physical Science Aid (WAE)
Physical Science Aid
Physical Science Aid
Physical Science Technician
Physical Science Aid
Hydrologic Field Assistant (WAE)
Clerk-Stenographer
Clerk-Typist (WAE)
Laboratory Aid (WAE)








FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT



Ground Water Branch
Florida District

Office of Research Engineer Tallahassee
P.O. Box 110
Florida Geological Survey Office Building
Tennessee and Woodward Streets
Phone 223-1693


Cooper, H.H., Jr.


Research Engineer


District Office Tallahassee
P.O. Box 110
Florida Geological Survey Office Building
Tennessee and Woodward Streets
Phone 223-1693


Rorabaugh, M.I.
Hoy, Nevin D.
Brown, Delbert W.
Healy, Henry G.
Hyde, L. Willis
Stewart, Herbert G.
Sutcliffe, Horace
Essig, Carl F.
Martin, J. B.
Teel, John R.
Clarke, Marilyn Y.
Finch, Lenora C.
Hall, Martha L.


District Engineer
Administrative Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
Engineering Aid
Engineering Aid
Scientific Illustrator
Clerk-Stenographer
Clerk-Typist
Clerk


Miami Subdistrict Office
P.O. Box 33348, Miami 33
3316 Pan American Drive
Phone Highland 8-4564


Klein, Howard
Kohout, Francis A.
Sherwood, Clarence B.
Voegtle, Henry J.
Hanan, Robert V.
Hull, John E.
Hermance, Ronald
Jackson, Kenneth L.
Pollard, Laura G.


Geologist in Charge
Geologist
Hydraulic Engineer
Engineering-Technician
Physical Science Technician
Physical Science Technician
Engineering Aid
Engineering Aid
Clerk


Gainesville Field Office
P.O. Box 325
Professional Building, Rooms 309-311
Phone FRanklin 6-2833


Cagle, Joseph W., Jr.
Clark, William E.
Foster, James B.
Mills, Luther R. E.


Geologist
Hydraulic Engineer
Geologist
Engineering Aid


Jacksonville Field Office
Prosser Building, Room 201
1453 Louisa Street
Phone EXbrook 8-3631


Leve, Gilbert W.


Geologist







22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Lakeland Field Office
P.O. Box 773
Arcade Building, Room 903
129 Kentucky Avenue
Phone MUtual 8-2390

Meyer, Frederick W. Geophysicist
Wetterhall, Walter S. Geologist

Naples Field Office
1039 6th Lane North
Phone Midway 2-5890

McCoy, Henry J. Geologist

Orlando Field Office
2817 Wessex Street
Phone GA 2-3717

Lichtler, William F. Geologist

Pensacola Field Office
Town and Country Plaza, Inc.
Phone HEmlock 3-3553

Barraclough, Jack T. Hydraulic Engineer
Marsh, Owen T. Geologist

Pompano Beach Field Office
532 N. W. 12th Terrace, Boca Raton
Phone 6906


Geologist


Tarver, George R.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


SURVEY ACTIVITIES

The Survey is the geologic and water-resource con-
sultant to the citizens and officials of Florida. Through
publications, talks, correspondence and personal contacts,
the results of research and data collected on the mineral,
water, and related economic resources have been made
available.

Throughout the past two years, officials from more
than 200 new industrial plants, involving investments esti-
mated to be in excess of $350 million, with a potential of
more than 7, 500 jobs, contacted the Survey for information
on foundation sites, water supply, water quality, and avail-
able mineral resources to be used in a proposed industrial
expansion.

We are especially pleased to have helped to locate or
to expand the activities of a number of companies engaged in
mining or in the extraction of metals or minerals. Detailed
assistance was givento companies engaged in manufacturing,
transportation, mining, and other activities as follows: light-
weight aggregate, beer, pipeline, zirconium sintering, citrus
concentrates, farming, concrete aggregate, roadbase course
materials, chemicals, air products, expansion of kaolin
mining, fullers earth, aggregate, sand, gravel, limestone,
building stone, clay for brick, clay for sewer pipe, dolomite
for calcining in separation of magnesium oxide, limestone
for road base, lime and cement, gypsum, aluminum- and
magnesium-oxide extractions, water and oil well drilling,
missiles and electronic components, nuclear development,
and sanitary engineering. Officials from numerous other
activities, citizens, cities and agencies have used data pub-
lished by the Survey, of which we have no record.

Specific information was made available for the con-
struction of rocket launching platforms at Tyndall Air Base
and Homestead; for the resolution of a dispute between the
Government and a contractor on the cost of constructing an
air force installation at Cross City; in the exploration and
drilling for gypsum in Florida; in completion of numerous






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


wells constructed for water supply and for oil explorations;
for foundations along the Houston Gas and Oil Company oil
line and the need for such gas; for municipal water supplies
for Vero Beach, Orlando, Miami, Sanford, and the power
plant at Tallahassee. The Humphreys Gold Corporation was
assisted in developing a water supply at Trail Ridge, as was
the Bomark Missile Base on Santa Rosa Island and the Sperry
Rand plant at Gainesville.

In 1958 the decision was made to more fully utilize the
data contained in the Survey's well sample library, which
on December 31, 1960, had rock cuttings and cores from
5, 560 wells. Data leading to areal reports covering the
casing interval for wells developing water from the artesian
aquifers, geological structures, stratigraphy and paleon-
tology, and economic resources are being prepared.

At that time, a need for certain types of publications
was expressed. These included: (1) a general but compre-
hensive guidebook to the principal exposures of Florida that
contained a summary of the geology, paleontology and strati-
graphy of Florida; (2) a popular, well illustrated pamphlet
on the mammals of Florida; (3) a general geologic pamphlet
prepared for school childrentobe usedwith a representative
collection of minerals from Florida; (4) a general specific
and comprehensive book on the geology of Florida. I am
pleased to report that the guidebook (Special Publication
No.5), the summary of mammals (Special Publication No. 6),
and the pamphlet for school children (in press) have been
prepared and a comprehensive discussion of the geology of
Florida has been started. The study onthe geology of Florida
has been divided into four parts, (l)landforms (under prep-
aration), (2) stratigraphy, (3) paleontology, and (4) economic
geology, and will be published in four parts.

The Geological Survey was a member of the Florida
Inter-Agency Conference, created by Governor Collins,
where work schedules and programs of the various State
agencies were coordinated. One of the first projects to be
coordinated through the Inter-Agency Conference was a study
of the development program of Washington County. Robert
Vernon and Charles W. Hendry, Jr. prepared the sections
on geology and ground water.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Conferences and seminars were held relating to the
following projects: bayfill and the establishment and main-
tenance of bulkhead lines; the age of the Caloosahatchee
marl; the identification of rock underlying differing soils;
economics of watershed planning, the age and distribution
of "Hawthorn" sediments; the age of the Acline shell marl
in pits near Punta Gorda; the Governor's conference onfresh-
water lakes; the Annual Statewide Industrial Conferences of
the Florida State Chamber of Commerce; and seminars at
the University of Florida on the Cross-Florida barge canal,
and on water resources.

Displays or exhibits were prepared for the Putnam
County agricultural fair; the Scout Jamboree display in
Colorado; Saint Francis College, Biddeford, Maine; the
museum of the city of Fayetteville, North Carolina; and
almost 1,000 sets of 18 minerals common to Florida were
mailed to schools and collectors.

Various members of the Survey participated in the
dedication of the Key Largo Reef Preserve, the Florida
State University Von De Graff Accelerators at Tallahassee;
the St. Johns River Junior College at Palatka.

The Survey was represented at the 1959 and 1960
annual meetings of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological
Societies, American Association of Petroleum Geologists,
American Association of State Geologists, Geological Society
of America (National and Southeastern Section), Society of
Vertebrate Paleontologists, Southeastern Geological Society,
Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, and
the Water Resources Committee of the Florida State Chamber
of Commerce in Orlando.

Several members attended the Tenth Annual Highway
Geology Symposium on "Geology as Applied to Highway
Engineering, which was held in Atlanta, Georgia, with
Georgia Institute of Technology as host. These symposia
are designed to build a higher degree of cooperation and
understanding between geologists and highway engineers and
to increase the accomplishment of both inthe field of highway
construction. The annual meetings are centered around an






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


exchange of ideas and a discussion of geologic problems with
which highway engineers and designers must contend.

The Geological Survey joined with the Geology De-
partment of Florida State University and the State Road
Department as hosts to the Eleventh Annual Highway Geology
Symposium held in Tallahassee on February 22, 1960.
There was a total registration of 113, with representatives
from 15 states, Washington D. C., and Puerto Rico. Repre-
sentatives attended from the Bureau of Public Roads, State
Road Departments of Florida, Virginia, Mississippi, and
geologists from the southeastern states. Eight papers were
presented. The proceedings were published by the Florida
Geological Survey, the cost being reimbursed from regis-
tration fees.

Throughout the reported period, Robert Vernon was a
member of the Stratigraphic Correlation Committee; the
Research Committee and subcommittee on Atomic Waste
Disposal formed in the American Association of Petroleum
Geologists. He was chairman of the Inter-Institutional Com-
mittee on Nuclear Research at Florida State University and
the University of Florida; chairman of the Joint Water
Resources Committee of the Florida Sewage and Industrial
Wastes Association and the Florida section of the American
Water Works Association, and a member of the Research
Committee and Tourist Promotion Committee of the Talla-
hassee Chamber of Commerce, of the Research Committee of
the Interstate Oil Compact Commission, and of the Water
Resources and Water Control Committee of the Florida State
Chamber of Commerce.

Cross-Florida Barge Canal

Supporters of the Cross-Florida barge canal made
appearances before the Bureau of the Budget in Washington,
D. C., on August 19, 1959, and November 9, 1960, to appeal
for funds to begin the construction of this most needed canal.
These supporters included Governor-elect Farris Bryant,
Secretary of State-elect Tom Adams, many state senators
and representatives, heads of state departments and distin-
guished citizens of the State. At these two meetings, the
Florida Geological Survey was represented by Robert Vernon,
State Geologist, who presented a statement setting forth the






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Florida Geological Survey's opinion that construction of the
Cross-Florida barge canalwould benefit all of Florida. The
canal is designed tofluctuate between annual lows and highs
by the construction of four locks and a dam. Large storage
areas are provided between locks and provisions have been
made to recover any water lost in lockages. Therefore, the
construction of the canal would not only benefit the State
through increased economic values, but also would provide
means for water control and management. Floods could be
ejected quickly to the sea, water could be retained during
droughts and the ground-water levels would not be materially
altered. A statement presented at the November 9, 1960,
hearing before the Bureau of the Budget in Washington,
D. C., is reproduced below, followed by a brief mineral
resource evaluation along the canal prepared by Mr. William
D. Reves, Economic Geologist.


Economic impact of the Cross-Florida barge canal upon
mineral production, land development, and recreation:

The canal cuts through extensive deposits of dolomite
and limestone along the area from the Gulf to the Oklawaha
River. These are rocks of high grade that will meet any
specifications for chemical and metallurgical grades, aver-
aging near 100 percent magnesium and calcium carbonates.
Agricultural dolomite is produced a few miles north of the
canal at Lebanon Station, Levy County, and south at Red
Level, Citrus County. Large reserves of this rock are
known to be present in Levy County, and along the Gulf
Coast in Dixie, Taylor, and Wakulla counties. Much of the
limestone, used as a road base course in State roads, and
minor amounts as soil applicators and as mortar and lime,
is minedafew miles north of the canalinthe areas of Ocala,
Marion County, and Williston, Levy County. More than 200
manufacturing processes include limestone or dolomite as a
necessary base material. Few of these are located in Florida.
We take pure limestone, that is relatively scarce in many
states, and place it at a dollar per ton in ribbons over the
ground in Florida when we could well be commanding five
to ten dollars per ton when used in lime, cement, whiting,
paint fillers, toothpaste, and hundreds of other uses.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The State's hard-rock phosphate resources are lo-
cated along the easternmost townships of Gilchrist, Levy,
Citrus, and Hernando counties, and the western townships
of Alachua and Marion counties. The canal crosses this
resource along the Citrus-Levy County boundary and the
difficulty of mining a resource that occurs as disconnected
deposits beneath a thick cover has reduced a once thriving
industry of many mines to one. Hard-rock phosphate is
consistently of higher grade than land pebble, and is indis-
pensable for some chemical and metallurgical purposes.
Cheap barge transportation would make these deposits more
competitive and would enlarge the mining schedules.

Perhaps the greatest need for mineral development in
Florida would be a structural clay deposit near the canal.
Clay pipe, tile, brick, and light-weight clay aggregate are
in great demand throughout Florida, but the nearest sources
for structural clays are in Alabama, Georgia, and Pensacola,
Florida. Expanded aggregate is now produced near Doctor's
Inlet, Florida, and other clay deposits are known along the
flood plain of the St. Johns River. The development of these
clays and new uses for kaolin, produced in Putnam and pres-
ent in Lake and adjacent counties, will be accelerated by
barge transportation and by the resulting enlarged marketing
area.

Relatively undeveloped areas where large acreages of
land are available at reasonable prices are present along
much of the canal (at the present time). These land values
will be greatly increased by improvements along the canal,
and by the availability of water for recreation, transportation,
and irrigation. The high-rolling sand hills of the interior of
Florida will overlook a scene of magnificent grandeur --
home sites that would be unexcelled.

The route traverses near the cities of Inglis, a port
of entry, Dunnellon, Ocala, Palatka, Green Cove Springs,
Orange Park, and Jacksonville, any one of which can be
expected to expand both industrially and residentially toward
the canal.

Industry seeking to relocate needs large tracts of land,
abundant water, cheap transportation, and the Florida re-
creational and climatic benefits to attract personnel. These






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


attractions added to the presence of nearby researchfacili-
ties and a sympathetic state and local administration will
promote the land development along the canal route.

Products produced along the canal can be shipped to
markets along the Atlantic, the Gulf, or into the Caribbean,
at reasonable water transportation rates.

Unexcelled recreational facilities are available through-
out the route. Inglis combines a limestone-walled clear-
water stream with salt water and freshwater fishing, hunting,
and boating. One of the best hunting preserves and largest
undeveloped tract of land extends both north and south of the
canal along the Gulf. These lands are rock paved high-level
swamps that can be bought and developed cheaply into excel-
lent industrial and residential sites.

The land near and including the Ocala National Forest
will also containlargetracts of sand-covered, well-drained,
rolling high land, that is possible of development. Excellent
industrial-park and land-development sites exist along the
St. Johns River, the higher side usually lying westerly of
the canal.


Mineral resources adjacent to the proposed
trans-Florida barge canal:

The proposed route of the trans-Florida barge canal
(fig. 4) passes adjacent to some of the more important min-
eral resource commodities of northern peninsular Florida.
These commodities include limestone, dolomite, hard rock
phosphate, soft rock phosphate, clay, sand, peat and dia-
tomaceous earth (table 1).

The counties lying immediately adjacent to the pro-
posed canal route, where these natural resources lie, are:
Levy, Citrus, Sumter, Lake, Marion, Alachua, Putnam,
Volusia, Flagler, St. Johns, Clay and Duval counties. The
mineral resource data tabulation which follows applies to
the above counties.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CR
BAR


ONE /
INTEGRATED
WATERWAY SYSTEM
for
FLORIDA j

ST. PETER
LEGEND
*SAS!DNTON
COMPLETED sA,
m m AUTHORIZED PROJECTS
momem POSSIBLE LINKS
******* OPEN BAY WATER ROUTES


Figure 4. Proposed route of trans-Florida barge canal.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Table 1. Mineral and Rock Production and Value in 1959
in the Proposed Trans-Florida Barge Canal Area



Mineral Resource Tons Value
Limestone 5,593,887 $ 5,673,755
Dolomite (1) (1)
Hard Rock Phosphate 78,000 666,000
Soft Rock Phosphate 45,584 (2) 373,150 (2)
Clay 493,018 563,878
Sand(Quartz and Heavy) 2,202,000 (3) 11,346,000 (3)
Peat Diatomaceous Earth (4) (4)
Petroleum (5) (5)

AREA TOTAL 8,412,489 $18,622,783

(1) Included in limestone tonnage so as not to disclose in-
dividual company data.
(2) Not all producers reported.
(3) Heavy mineral concentrate included under sand. The
tonnage is only that of titanium concentrates. The value
includes that of titanium concentrates, zircon, stauro-
lite and monazite.
(4) No production figures available.
(5) No production.



The great interest in the construction of the Cross-
Florida barge canal is reflected by the presentation of Mr.
Everett Winters, Executive Vice President of the Missis-
sippi Valley Association, before the Bureau of the Budget
on November 9, 1960, reproduced as follows:






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Before
Bureau of the Budget
Washington, D. C.
November 9, 1960

For the first time in the forty-two year history of the
Mississippi Valley Association, our organization with a
unanimous vote endorsed a project for water resources de-
velopment that does not lie within the Mississippi Valley.
The organization believes, however, that the Mississippi
Valley does have a very direct interest in the project, and
we urge the Bureau of the Budget to recommend the immediate
start of construction on this all-important project, the Cross -
Florida Barge Canal.

The industrial eastern part of the United States would
be starved for oil if a foreign enemy had submarine bases
located in or near Cuba and we were at war.

During World War II, 25% of all of the United States
merchant ship losses on all oceans occurred along the shores
of the State of Florida. In preventing tankers and cargo
vessels from moving from Gulf ports to the Atlantic Ocean,
German submarines sank 165 of these vessels, 77 being
tankers; 88 were drycargo ships. The combined gross ton-
nage sunk inthis area was 1,065,327. The replacement cost
(exclusive of cargoes) of these vessels is $964,029,000. How
many lives were lost is not known. These losses would not
have been sustained had there been a Cross-Florida Barge
Canal.

The distance between the State of Florida and the Island
of Cuba is only 90 miles. During World War II, 32% or
142,573,000 barrels annually, was moved by ocean tankers
from Gulf ports to the Atlantic seaboard. The remainder
went overland. In 1957 (the last year figures are available),
this total movement by tanker was 1, 125, 346,000 barrels,
which was 92% of the total.

If the German submarinefleet based manyhundreds of
miles away could inflict losses such as were inflicted, it is
a horrifying thought as to the damage that could be inflicted
by a fleet of submarines based less than 100 miles away.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Before Congress adjourned, the House of Represent-
atives passed an appropriation bill for civil functions that
contained no money for the start of the Cross-Florida Barge
Canal. The Senate in its bill provided $160,000 for advance
engineering and designto start the building of this $175,000,000
project.

The project has a benefit-cost ratio of 1.4 1, and
we believe that this is an ultra conservative estimate of the
benefits. The economic benefits compiled do not take into
consideration the defense benefits that rightly should be
credited to this project.

All of the overland means of transportation in existence
could not possibly handle the volume of petroleum needed on
the eastern seaboard in peacetime nor during war. The
Cross-Florida Barge Canal is the answer, as it would permit
the movement of this petroleum and other cargo on a relatively
protected waterway at a small fraction of the cost that this
cargo could be moved by any other means. The Cross-Florida
Barge Canal is todaythe missing link in our inlandwaterway
extending from Brownsville, Texas, to New Jersey.

Let's start building the canal at the earliest possible
time. It may be later than we think.

Mississippi Valley Association
(Signed) Everett L.Winters
Executive Vice President



Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr. has directed the section
on ground-water geology of the Survey and has also served
as Acting Director in the absence of the Director. The
ground-water geology section is composed of Mr. Hendry,
Mr. C. R. Sproul, Mr. James Lavender and, for the first
six months of 1959, Mr. Jack Woodward was in this section.

Since January 1,1959, the ground-water geology sec-
tion has completed the full-time program of inventorying all
wildly flowing wells inFlorida. A final report was compiled
and submitted to the 1959 Legislature. This inventory is






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


continuing and the section is assisting the Department of
Water Resources in preparing specifications for plugging
wells, and in studies of many lakes and other wells to provide
data used in the control and management of the State's water
resources.

Mr. Hendry and C. R. Sproul are actively engaged in
a study of the ground-water resources of LeonCounty. This
program was planned to span at least 4 to 5 years in order
that data on a complete cycle of precipitation extremes could
be collected and studied with the results related to water
availability in Leon County.

The Survey was fortunate in obtaining funds to purchase
a Longyear 24-exploration core rig. This core rig is designed
to take cores, drive samples and cuttings representative of
subsurface formations to depths of 500 feet. James Lavender
has been assigned full-time duty to the operation and main-
tenance of the rig. It is hopedthat through the use of this rig
data will be provided for the completion of geologic studies
and information developed on minerals capable of economic
exploitation. Programs have been completed in Gilchrist and
Taylor counties and one is underway in Leon County. Foun-
dation testing for Florida State University and Florida A.
and M. University was made for the Board of Control.

The section has cooperated with various departments
of the state, federal and municipal governments, and the
personnel joins others of the Survey in providing geological,
electrical, gamma-ray and other radioactive service logging
to the State.

Mr. E. W. Bishop. Geologist, in cooperation with
Mr. Herbert G. Stewart, Jr. of the U. S. Geological Survey,
has continued his studies of the geology of Polk County. He
has also prepared two short papers on the mineralogy of
phosphate minerals, gave two talks before resource-use
groups, and served on the Florida Use Education Committee
and the Rural Development Committee. A general geologic
paper entitled "Rocks and Minerals of Florida A Guide to
Identification, Occurrence, Production and Uses, was pre-
pared by Mr. Bishop and L. L. Dee, Jr. andwill be published
as Special Publication No. 8.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Mr. Stanley J. Olsen, Vertebrate Paleontologist, has
continued his reorganization of the Survey's vertebrate col-
lection, assisted in the preparation of preliminary designs
for a resource-education and museum building. He has
served on the Board of Directors of the American Geological
Institute representing the Society of Vertebrate Paleontol-
ogists. To assist in the tabulation of data in Mr. Olsen's
study of Bos and Bison he has been complimented by the
receipt of grants from the National Science Foundation and
the NationalAcademy of Science. Mr. Olsenhas undertaken:

(1) A cooperative study with Clayton Ray and James Gut on
some little known Pleistocene vertebrates from Reddick,
Arredondo and Williston, Florida, that bear on the
ecology of Pleistocene Florida. This study will be com-
pleted in 1961, and will be issued as Part 4 of Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication No. 2.

(2) A comparison of the Miocene vertebrate fauna (fromthe
locality of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company's
switchyard "B" in Tallahassee) with those from Thomas
Farm, Midway, Griscomb Plantation, Tallahassee
Water Works and Colclough Hill, Florida. Mr. Hendry
is also interested in this study as an aid to the inter-
pretation of the geology of Leon County.

(3) A part-time work on the manuscript of a paper dealing
with the identification of mammal remains from archae-
ological sites. Enthusiastic encouragement has been
received from all of the field archaeologists who have
been informed of this work. The published results should
take some of the burdenfrom paleontologists by enabling
the archaeologist to make initial identifications in the
fieldwiththe aid of the manual itself. (The study speci-
mens are on loan from Harvard University. )

(4) To continue the cataloging and storing of the last remain-
ing vertebrates which are in our collection but are not
systematized.

(5) A routine identification of small lots of vertebrate re-
mains which are sent intothe Survey for determination.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This phase has picked up considerably during the last
few months and amounts to several collections per week.
Whether this is due to the publication "Fossil Mammals
of Florida," or the increased interest inSCUBA diving,
or both, is hard to say. Answers to routine inquiries
relating to vertebrate fossils are prepared daily.

(6) The exchange and loan of specimens from Survey col-
lections (both actual material and casts) with those of
other institutions.

(7) To gather and sort data for the proposed Geological
Museum.

Dr. Harbans S. Puri, Paleontologist, continued his
studies of the ostracods and foraminifers of Florida. These
remains of small crab-like andunicellular animals are pre-
served in sediments forming in the State's fresh and salt
water, and because of their small size they are preserved
in sediments that were formed in the geologic past. The
description, identification and occurrences of these fossil
remains recovered from cuttings in wells assist in oil find-
ings, economic mineral exploitation and general geologic
planning. Dr. Puri was editor of the 9th Field Trip Guidebook
issued by the Southeastern Geological Society of Tallahassee
and is a participating faculty member at Florida State Univer-
sity, having taught a course in Ostracoda, directed several
studies used by students as partial fulfillment of a master's
degree and serving on several committees for examining
doctoral candidates.

He has undertaken a revision of G. W. Miller's mono-
graph of the "Ostracoda of the Gulf of Naples," which will be
financed through the National Science Foundation and has the
full cooperation of the Zoological Station at Naples, Italy.

Dr. Puri directed William K. Benda and V. V. Vanstrum
in studies relating to "Environments of the Boca Ceiga" (in
cooperation with the Department of Conservation), "Distri-
bution of Recent Ostracoda and Foraminifera Along Parts of
the Gulf Coast of Peninsula Florida, and "Zonation and
Paleoecology of the Caloosahatchee Formation Based on
Ostracoda."






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Mr. J. W. Yon, Jr. Geologist, has prepared and pub-
lished a study of the regional lithofacies of post-Eocene rock
with Mr. H. G. Goodell, of the Florida State University De-
partment of Geology.

Mr. Yon and Dr. Puri continued their study of the geol-
ogy of Gilchrist and Dixie counties, which will be published
in 1961. These geologists also have continued their study of
the foraminifers of the Avon Park limestone. Mr. Yon is
studying the geology and water resources of Jeffers on County
and with Dr. Puri has prepared a short geological study of
the Waccasassa Flats, Gilchrist County, for publication.
He has worked closely with Mr. Hendry in well-logging in-
ventory, and other service activities, and has served as
counselor on Geology Merit Badge of the Boy Scouts of Amer-
ica in Leon County District.

Mr. William D. Reves, Geologist, has completed data
on clay mineralogy, sedimentology and economic geology.
This effort has resulted in five publications: two research
publications regarding clays, two regarding Florida and
Alabama economic geology, and one regarding Florida eco-
nomic limestones. In addition to the above, Mr. Reves is
currently compiling new data on some clay resources of Pan-
handle Florida, which will be available in printed form during
1961. Also partially completed is some chemical and location
data concerning glass sand deposits in south-central penin-
sular Florida, which will also be in printed form in 1961.

Two speeches concerning the science of geology were
given by Mr. Reves in Sanford and Tallahassee, and six
national regional and state scientific and planning meetings
were also attended.

Innumerable visits were made to allparts of Florida by
Mr. Reves for the purpose of meeting with mineral resources
developers and producers,civic and governmental agencies.
Also, many conferences wereheld inthe office of the Florida
Geological Survey with mining, civic and governmental of-
ficials.

Mr. Harry Whitehead, Draftsman, has prepared many
detailed maps, charts and graphs, some of which were






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


completed in color and used in color slides. He has devel-
oped isometric and perspective projection of surface and
subsurface geologic data used as illustrations in publications
and for talks. Many of these were developed from rough
sketches or oral descriptions. He has assisted in the super-
vision of the publication department and has supervised the
activities of student-aides used in drafting.

Mr. Andrew R. Janson, Scientific Illustrator, continued
his excellent work of preparing the scientific illustrations for
the reports of staff members of the Geological Survey. He
also actively cooperated with the Physics Department of
Florida State University in their astronomy program and
with the Oceanographic Institute by designing charts to be
used for motion pictures for the NASA in Washington D. C.
Mr. Janson also. cooperated with the Florida State University
by acting as consultant for the Audio Visual and Education
Departments relating to cartographic presentations.

The tabulation of rainfall data for Florida has continued
and include many inaccessible stations reportedly the Florida
Board of Forestry. These data are available upon request.

The Geological Survey assisted the Geologic Division
of the U. S. Geological Survey in a study of Neogene mol-
lusks.

The Development Commission was furnished the loca-
tions of mines, production figures and general information
on mineral resources, and was assisted by the preparation
of many summaries of water, mineral resources and pro-
duction data for industrial prospects.

Widco electric logger:

During the biennium the Coastal Petroleum Company
began an evaluation of a part of its State leases. The program
combined an evaluation of shallow mineral possibilities with
a shallow core drill program. The Survey requested per-
missiontomake electrical logs on each core test, since these
were State leases, and the Company was kind enough to grant
this request. Because of the loose sand cored at shallow






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


depths, which required the use of casing, the company ob-
tained a gamma-ray probe for use in the prospect and this
was donated to the Survey upon completion of the project.

Both electric and gamma-ray logs were run as a part
of the cooperative program between the U. S. and Florida
Geological Surveys and for control of drainage and supply
wells by municipal, county, state and federal agencies in
Polk, Lake, Orange, Green Swamp, Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota,
Hillsborough, Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Alachua,
Glades, Hendry, Okeechobee and Suwannee counties.


WORK BY CONSULTANTS

Dr. Pierce Brodkorb

Throughout the biennial period the Florida Geological
Survey has maintained a cooperative agreement with Dr.
Pierce Brodkorb, Ornithologist with the Department of Biol-
ogy, University of Florida, and his students. Dr. Brodkorb
and his students have collected and classified, in part, excel-
lent specimens from several localities in central Florida.


Dr. W. A. White

Dr. W.A. White, Professor of Geology at the University
of North Carolina, joined Harbans Puri and Robert Vernon
in a study of the landforms of Florida. A complete classi-
fication of these landforms, their description and formative
causes, is being prepared for publication as a bulletin. This
will be the first of four parts of the Geology of Florida, the
other three covering stratigraphy, paleontology and economic
geology to follow.


Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan

The tabulation and study of archaeological data collected
at Hornsby and Darby springs was completed during the
biennium. The paleo-Indian artifacts correlate closely with






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


depths, which required the use of casing, the company ob-
tained a gamma-ray probe for use in the prospect and this
was donated to the Survey upon completion of the project.

Both electric and gamma-ray logs were run as a part
of the cooperative program between the U. S. and Florida
Geological Surveys and for control of drainage and supply
wells by municipal, county, state and federal agencies in
Polk, Lake, Orange, Green Swamp, Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota,
Hillsborough, Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Alachua,
Glades, Hendry, Okeechobee and Suwannee counties.


WORK BY CONSULTANTS

Dr. Pierce Brodkorb

Throughout the biennial period the Florida Geological
Survey has maintained a cooperative agreement with Dr.
Pierce Brodkorb, Ornithologist with the Department of Biol-
ogy, University of Florida, and his students. Dr. Brodkorb
and his students have collected and classified, in part, excel-
lent specimens from several localities in central Florida.


Dr. W. A. White

Dr. W.A. White, Professor of Geology at the University
of North Carolina, joined Harbans Puri and Robert Vernon
in a study of the landforms of Florida. A complete classi-
fication of these landforms, their description and formative
causes, is being prepared for publication as a bulletin. This
will be the first of four parts of the Geology of Florida, the
other three covering stratigraphy, paleontology and economic
geology to follow.


Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan

The tabulation and study of archaeological data collected
at Hornsby and Darby springs was completed during the
biennium. The paleo-Indian artifacts correlate closely with






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


depths, which required the use of casing, the company ob-
tained a gamma-ray probe for use in the prospect and this
was donated to the Survey upon completion of the project.

Both electric and gamma-ray logs were run as a part
of the cooperative program between the U. S. and Florida
Geological Surveys and for control of drainage and supply
wells by municipal, county, state and federal agencies in
Polk, Lake, Orange, Green Swamp, Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota,
Hillsborough, Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Alachua,
Glades, Hendry, Okeechobee and Suwannee counties.


WORK BY CONSULTANTS

Dr. Pierce Brodkorb

Throughout the biennial period the Florida Geological
Survey has maintained a cooperative agreement with Dr.
Pierce Brodkorb, Ornithologist with the Department of Biol-
ogy, University of Florida, and his students. Dr. Brodkorb
and his students have collected and classified, in part, excel-
lent specimens from several localities in central Florida.


Dr. W. A. White

Dr. W.A. White, Professor of Geology at the University
of North Carolina, joined Harbans Puri and Robert Vernon
in a study of the landforms of Florida. A complete classi-
fication of these landforms, their description and formative
causes, is being prepared for publication as a bulletin. This
will be the first of four parts of the Geology of Florida, the
other three covering stratigraphy, paleontology and economic
geology to follow.


Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan

The tabulation and study of archaeological data collected
at Hornsby and Darby springs was completed during the
biennium. The paleo-Indian artifacts correlate closely with






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


depths, which required the use of casing, the company ob-
tained a gamma-ray probe for use in the prospect and this
was donated to the Survey upon completion of the project.

Both electric and gamma-ray logs were run as a part
of the cooperative program between the U. S. and Florida
Geological Surveys and for control of drainage and supply
wells by municipal, county, state and federal agencies in
Polk, Lake, Orange, Green Swamp, Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota,
Hillsborough, Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Alachua,
Glades, Hendry, Okeechobee and Suwannee counties.


WORK BY CONSULTANTS

Dr. Pierce Brodkorb

Throughout the biennial period the Florida Geological
Survey has maintained a cooperative agreement with Dr.
Pierce Brodkorb, Ornithologist with the Department of Biol-
ogy, University of Florida, and his students. Dr. Brodkorb
and his students have collected and classified, in part, excel-
lent specimens from several localities in central Florida.


Dr. W. A. White

Dr. W.A. White, Professor of Geology at the University
of North Carolina, joined Harbans Puri and Robert Vernon
in a study of the landforms of Florida. A complete classi-
fication of these landforms, their description and formative
causes, is being prepared for publication as a bulletin. This
will be the first of four parts of the Geology of Florida, the
other three covering stratigraphy, paleontology and economic
geology to follow.


Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan

The tabulation and study of archaeological data collected
at Hornsby and Darby springs was completed during the
biennium. The paleo-Indian artifacts correlate closely with






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the Folsom culture and fluted arrowheads of western states,
dating about 10, 000 years B. C. This study is being pub-
lished as Special Publication No. 7.


Feasibility Studies Abbott, Merkt and Company

In 1959 the Florida Legislature asked the Florida
Geological Survey to assume the responsibility of contracting
for four economic and engineering studies of the feasibility
of improving or developing waterways along the Peace River,
Suwannee River, Choctawhatchee River, and the Sanford-
Titusville Canal. On June 29, 1959, the Abbott, Merkt and
Company, New York and Jacksonville, was employed to con-
duct these studies and to prepare reports of the studies during
the biennium of 1959-60. The Survey assisted in developing
the program and cooperated with the company through the
Survey's extensive library, knowledge of water and mineral
resources, and as liaison between the company, various
districts and associations promoting the development of the
rivers and with state and federal agencies.

To obtain Federal assistance in developing any water-
way, the U. S. Corps of Engineers requires a favorable
benefit-cost ratio of at least 1. 0. The studies were corre-
lated closely with the Corps offices at Jacksonville and Mobile.
Abbott, Merkt and Company has considered costs of each
project and the benefits that would accompany the development
of the waterway. The benefits were determined by projecting
rates, based on population growth, for barge transportation
of up to 200 commodities against rates charged by present
methods of transportation and computing the savings which
were added to defense benefits and to minor benefits from
recreational boating, fishing, wildlife, flood control and
irrigation, where these were applicable.

The completed studies covering the four waterways
are available for study in the offices of the Florida Geological
Survey. The cost and benefit evaluations found for each may
be summarized as follows:






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Sanford-Titusville Canal:

A total of 1980 individual commodities were priced for
barge and present methods of transportation, a large per-
centage being discarded due to unsuitabilityfrom the stand-
point of tonnage or economy. Defense benefits associated
with missile development have been included because of their
realistic character, and costs were reevaluated based on
current building methods and prices. The nondefense benefit-
cost ratio, based onthe study, is 6.6 with an average annual
benefit of $4,107,000 andannual costs of $621,850 basedupon
first cost of $11,927,000. With defense benefits of $981,000
included, the benefit-cost ratio would increase to 8.2. Thus
this project is feasible and should be built after the cross-
Florida canal has been completed, upon which much of the
justification of the Sanford-Titusville Canal is based.

Choctawhatchee River Basin:

The feasibility study by Abbott, Merkt and Company
paralleled studies being made by the Mobile District of the
Corps of Engineers and the U. S. Study Commission for
southeast river basins. It was apparent that the scope of
our work should be limited to specific intensified segments
of a more comprehensive study of the Corps of Engineers.
Following several conferences with Corps personnel it was
decided that to avoid duplication and waste, Abbott, Merkt
and Company would develop specific data on mineral re-
sources, forest resources and economic statistics and
potentials for that part of the river basin subject to improv-
ment and development. This report provides this data which
can be used by the Corps in their recommendation for
channel improvement and provides valuable basic data to
the communities and people living in the basin.

Timber is valued at about $63 million and the basin
could be made to produce, through reforestation, $114 million
after 15 years. Current production of minerals average $3
million annually and reserves could support a volume many
times larger.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Suwannee River:

The development of the Suwannee River is vigorously
supported by an active Suwannee River Authority. The feasi-
bility of developing the river was discussedin open meetings
of the Authority and it was agreed that the most pressing
need for waterway development was in the opening and main-
tenance of a channel into the river from the Gulf. Shoaling
of the channel prevented the safe access to the Gulf for rec-
reational and fishing craft. An existing Federal navigation
project was authorized by Congress in 1880 and 1890 to
provide a channel 150 feet wide and 5 feet deep through the
entrance to Branford, Florida, and a channel 60 feet wide
and 4feet deep upstreamto Ellaville. The latest maintenance
work bythe Corps of Engineers consisted of snagging between
the mouth and Oldtown in 1939.

The general improvement of the channel above the
mouth was considered as local and state responsibilities,
but in the economic justification of the resumption of channel
maintenance at the river entrance, Abbott, Merkt and Com-
pany determined that the estimated benefits will be at the
ratio of 2. 13 times the annual cost of $9, 570, covering an
initial maintenance cost of $82, 500.

Peace River:

The Peace River Valley Water Conservation and Drain-
age District has the responsibilities of developing the Peace
River valley. The Survey and Abbott, Merkt and Company
sought to make that part of the funds as signed to the feasibility
study of Peace River available to the District so they could
make the study, but District officials preferred to have an
independent survey made of the economic possibilities of
commercial transportation. Accordingly, the District chose
to determine the physical characteristics of the Valley and
the improvement contemplated, and Abbott, Merkt and Com-
pany chose to develop the economic aspects with emphasis
on the feasibility of commercial navigation. With respect
to the latter, although the Peace River at one time provided






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


considerable transportation, an examination of the suitability
of water shipment of 28 commodities by barge indicate a
negligible savings in terms of the construction required.
The District has estimated a 2-phase construction program
will require an investment of $42. 8 million with an annual
carrying charge of $2.14 million. The total benefits, with
commercial navigation benefits being excluded, amount to
$615,000 annually, representing a benefit-cost ratio of
0.287.

Accordingly, it is recommended that:

1. No further action be taken toward providing
commercial navigation facilities on Peace
River.

2. Snagging operations be resumed at an early
date.

3. The District continue to study the feasibility
of building steel sheet pile control structures.

4. The design of the proposed steel sheet pile
dam at Bartow be reviewed in detail.

Conclusions:

Both Abbott, Merkt and Company and Survey personnel
believe that the computed benefits are conservative, and sub-
ject to tremendous potential of presently intangible values.
The cost estimates are realistic and the four reports will be
of considerable aid to the Corps of Engineers, and to the
U. S. Study Commission in regards to the Suwannee and
Choctawhatchee River systems, in the preparation of more
comprehensive reports being prepared for each waterway.
The Survey is placing copies of each of the reports with the
Corps offices, the U. S. Study Commission, Suwannee River
Authority, Peace River Valley Water Conservation and
Drainage District, and the Choctawhatchee-Pea River Valley
Association, and urges the favorable consideration of results
and recommendations contained in the reports.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


STUDIES BY STATE AND FEDERAL GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY PERSONNEL AND BY CONSULTANTS FOR THE
SURVEY PUBLISHED BETWEEN JANUARY 1, 1959
AND DECEMBER 31, 1960

Benda, William K.
1960 Studies of the environments of the Boca Ceiga
Bay: Open file report in the office of the
Florida Geological Survey.

Bishop, E.W.
1960 The geochemistry of phosphorus: South-
eastern Geol. Soc. 9th Field Trip Guidebook,
p. 38-49.

1960 Structure and diadochic substitution in the
apatite group: Southeastern Geol. Soc. 9th
Field Trip Guidebook, p. 64-74.

1960 Geology and ground-water resources of Su-
wannee County, Florida: Mimeographed re-
port on file in the office of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, 6 p. 3 fig.

Cooper, H. H. Jr.
1959 A hypothesis concerning the dynamic balance
of fresh water and salt water in a coastal
aquifer: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 64,
no. 4.

Hendry, Charles W. Jr.
1959 (and Lavender, James A. ) Final report on an
inventory of flowing artesian wells in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 21, 30 p.,
9 fig. 3 tables.


Kohout, F. A.
1959


(and Mayer, F. W. ) Hydrologic features of
the Lake Istokpoga and Lake Placid areas,
Highlands County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Rept. Inv. 19, 73 p. 20 fig. 5 tables.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


1960 Cyclic flow of salt water in the Biscayne ac-
quifer of southeastern Florida: Jour. Geophys.
Research, v. 65, no. 7.

Lichtler, William F.
1960 Geology and ground-water resources of Martin
County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept.
Inv. 23, 149 p. 26 fig. 8 tables.

Marsh, O.T.
1960 A geologic-profile plotter: Econ. Geology,
v. 55, no. 1.

1960 A rapid and accurate contour interpolator:
Econ. Geology, v. 55, no. 7.

Olsen, Stanley J.
1959 Similarity in the skull of the Bison and Brah-
man: American Antiquity, v. 24, no. 3,
p. 321-322.

1959 The baculum of the Miocene carnivore Amphi-
cyon: Jour. Paleontology, v. 33, p. 449-450.

1959 (and Dunkle, D. H. ) Description of a Beryci-
form fish from the Oligocene of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 2, Paper 3,
p. 1-20.

1959 The middle ear of the Miocene mustelid
Leptarctus: Jour. Paleontology, v. 33, no. 3,
p. 451, 452.

1959 Fossil mammals of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Spec. Pub. 6, 74 p., 14 p. 13 fig.

1959 The archaeologist's problem of interpreting
nonartifactual material: Curator, v. 2, no. 4,
p. 335-338.

1959 The Wakulla Cave: In Captain Courteau's
Underwater Treasury, Harper and Brothers,
p. 369-373.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960 Age and faunal relationship of Tapiravus re-
mains from Florida: Jour. Paleontology,
v. 34, no. 1, p. 164, 167.

1960 Florida's Pleistocene vampire: Florida Wild-
life Magazine, v. 14, no. 2, p. 16-37.

1960 The fossil carnivore Amphicyon longiramus
from the Thomas Farm Miocene, Pt. II, Post-
cranial skeleton: Mus. Comp. ZoologyBull.,
v. 123, no. 1, p. 1-45.

1960 Additional remains of Florida Pleistocene
vampire Desmodus magnus: Jour. Man-
mology, v. 41, no. 4, p. 457-466.

1960 Postcranial skeletal characters of Bison and
Bos: Peabody Mus. Am. Ethnology, Harvard
Univ., v. 35, no. 4, p. 1-61, 24 fig.

Peek, Harry M.
1959 The artesian water of the Ruskin area of Hills-
borough County, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Rept. Inv. 21, 96 p., 47 fig. 1 pl.,
7 tables.

1959 Record of wells in the Ruskin area of Hills-
borough County, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Inf. Circ. 22, 85 p. 1 fig. 1 pl. ,2 tables.

Puri, Harbans S.
1959 (and Robert O. Vernon) Summary of the geol-
ogy of Florida and a guidebook to the classic
exposures: Florida Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 5,
254 p., 11 pl., 11 fig.

1959 (and Joseph E. Banks) Structural features
of the Sunniland Oil Field, Collier County,
Florida: Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. Trans.,
v. 9, p. 121-130, 21 fig.

1959 Ecology of Ostracoda: Mimeographed report
on file in the office of the Florida Geol. Survey,
16 p.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


1960 The H. S. Puri card catalog of Recent Ostra-
coda: J.D. McLean, Jr. Alexandria, Va.,
no. 1-4.

1960 Recent Ostracoda from the west coast of
Florida: Gulf Coast Assdoc. Geol. Soc. Trans.,
v. 10, p. 107-149, 6 pl. 46 text fig.

1960 (and Vernon, R. O. ) Notes on surficial geol-
ogy of central peninsular Florida: South-
eastern Geol. Soc. 9th Field Trip Guidebook,
p. 1-31, 3 fig., 1 pl.

Reves, William D.
1959 Clay dispersal study of a red siltstone: South-
eastern Geology, v. 1, no. 2, p. 77-82.

1960 An X-ray study of two Florida land pebble
phosphate samples, late Cenozoic stratigraphy
and sedimentation in central Florida: South-
eastern Geol. Soc. 9thField Trip Guidebook,
p. 50-63.

1960 Mineral resources of Choctawhatchee-Pea
River basin in Florida and Alabama: Mimeo-
graphed report on file in the office of the
Florida Geological Survey, 28 p.

1960 Mineral resources adjacent to the proposed
trans-Florida barge canal: Mimeographed
report onfile in the office of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, 31 p.

Rorabaugh, M.I.
1960 Problems of waste disposal and ground-water
quality: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour.,
v. 52, no. 8.

Shirley, Lawrence E.
1959 (and Vernon, Robert O.) The mineral industry
of Florida: U. S. Bureau of Mines Minerals
Yearbook, v. 3(1958), 17 p., 1 fig. ,9 tables.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960


(and Vernon, Robert O.) The mineral industry
of Florida: U. S. Bureau of Mines Minerals
Yearbook, v. 3 (1959), 29 p. 1 fig. ,9 tables.


Sherwood, C.B.
1959 Ground-water resources of the Oakland Park
area of eastern Broward County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 20, 40 p.,
23 fig. 2 tables.

Stewart, Herbert G. Jr.
1959 Interim report on the geology and ground-
water resources of northwestern Polk County,
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 23,
83 p., 19 fig., 3 pl. 9 tables.

Vanstrum, V. V.
1960 Zonation and Paleoecology of the Caloosa-
hatchee formation based onOstracoda: Mas-
ter's Thesis, Florida State Univ. 144 p.,
11 p. 5 fig., 1 table.

Vernon, Robert O.
1959 Thirteenth Biennial Report 1957-58: Florida
Geol. Survey, 84 p., 14 fig.

1959 (and Hendry, Charles W. Jr. ) Exploration
for oil and gas in Florida: 1958 Supplement
to Inf. Circ. 1 (revised), 15 p. 2 fig.

1959 Trans-Florida barge canal: Mimeographed
report on file in the office of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, 18 p.

1959 Economic impact on mineral production, land
development, and recreation: Mimeographed
report on file in the office of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, 3 p.

1959 Geology in the nuclear research program:
Leaflet published by the Florida Nuclear De-
velopment Commission, p. 5-11.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


1960 (and Hendry, Charles W. Jr. ) Exploration
for oil and gas in Florida: 1959 Supplement to
Inf. Circ. 1 (revised), 16 p. 2 fig.

1960 The distribution and geology of road base
course material in Florida: Proceedings
Eleventh Annual Symposium on Highway Engi-
neering Geology, pub. by Florida Geol. Sur-
vey, p. 1-8, Frontispiece.

1960 (and Hendry, Charles W. ,Jr. Sproul, C. R.,
Lavender, J. A., and Bishop, E. W.) Your
water resources: FloridaGeol. Survey Leaf-
let No. 1, 24 p.

1960 Report of Governor's committee formed for
study of the problem of retention of phosphate
slimes: Mimeographed report on open file
in the office of the Florida Geological Survey,
15 p.

Wyrick, Granville G.
1960 The ground-water resources of Volusia
County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept.
Inv. 22, 65 p. 30 fig. 3 tables.

Yon, J.W., Jr.
1960 (and H. G. Goodell) The regional litho-
stratigraphy of the post-Eocene rocks of
Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc. 9th Field
Trip Guidebook, p. 75-113.

In addition to the above, numerous publications issued
by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington 25, D.C. ,include
information on geology and water resources of Florida,
particularly water-supply papers giving information on water
levels and artesian pressure in observation wells, quality
of surface waters and stream measurements.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Estimation of Funds Needed for Publication
1961-63


Geology and Hydrology Estimated Date
of (Area Covered) Manuscript is Ready

Gilchrist-Dixie counties 1961
Florida landforms 1962
Caloosahatchee River 1961
Boca Ceiga Bay 1961
DuBar's Mollusca 1961
Florida fossils 1962
Avon Park fossils 1962
Jefferson County 1962
Eocene rocks of the northern
part of peninsular Florida 1962
South Florida glass sand 1961
West Florida clays 1961
Polk County geology 1962
Common rocks and minerals
in Florida 1961
Reddick, Arredonda, and
Williston, Florida 1961
Miocene fauna near
Tallahassee, Florida 1961
Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union counties Interim 1961
Collier County Interim 1961
Dade County 1962
Escambia and Santa Rosa
counties Interim 1961
Glades and Hendry counties 1962
Hillsborough County 1962
Polk County ground water 1961
St. Johns, Putnam and
Flagler counties 1961
Pompano Beach, Broward
County 1962
Charlotte and Lee counties 1962
Collier County 1962
Orange County Interim 1961
Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union counties 1962
Green Swamp in central
Florida Interim 1961
Biennial Report to the Legislature 1962


Type of Report

Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Special Paper
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin

Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin

Special Paper

Special Paper

Special Paper

IC1
IC
RI1

IC
RI & IC
RI
RI & IC

RI & IC

RI
RI
RI
IC

RI & IC

IC


Information Circular and Report of Investigations.

LIBRARY REPORT


Mrs. Ruth Wilson, the librarian, has been endeavoring
through gifts, exchanges and purchases, to obtain out-of-print
documents to add to the library holdings. The Smithsonian
Institution sent the Survey enough out-of-print Proceedings
to fill lacking numbers in 31 volumes. Duplicate copies of
their Annual Report contained in our files were sent to them
in exchange. The library of the Museum of Comparative
Zoology at Harvard gave the Survey 68 Bulletins and Bre-
voria. An additional gift of eight Memoir volumes included


Estimated
Cost

$ 2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
500
2,500
2,500
2,500

2,000
2,500
2,000
3,000

300

300

300

500
500
2,000

500
2,500
2,000
2,500

2,500

2,000
2,000
2,000
500

2,500

500
600







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Estimation of Funds Needed for Publication
1961-63


Geology and Hydrology Estimated Date
of (Area Covered) Manuscript is Ready

Gilchrist-Dixie counties 1961
Florida landforms 1962
Caloosahatchee River 1961
Boca Ceiga Bay 1961
DuBar's Mollusca 1961
Florida fossils 1962
Avon Park fossils 1962
Jefferson County 1962
Eocene rocks of the northern
part of peninsular Florida 1962
South Florida glass sand 1961
West Florida clays 1961
Polk County geology 1962
Common rocks and minerals
in Florida 1961
Reddick, Arredonda, and
Williston, Florida 1961
Miocene fauna near
Tallahassee, Florida 1961
Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union counties Interim 1961
Collier County Interim 1961
Dade County 1962
Escambia and Santa Rosa
counties Interim 1961
Glades and Hendry counties 1962
Hillsborough County 1962
Polk County ground water 1961
St. Johns, Putnam and
Flagler counties 1961
Pompano Beach, Broward
County 1962
Charlotte and Lee counties 1962
Collier County 1962
Orange County Interim 1961
Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union counties 1962
Green Swamp in central
Florida Interim 1961
Biennial Report to the Legislature 1962


Type of Report

Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Special Paper
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin

Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin
Bulletin

Special Paper

Special Paper

Special Paper

IC1
IC
RI1

IC
RI & IC
RI
RI & IC

RI & IC

RI
RI
RI
IC

RI & IC

IC


Information Circular and Report of Investigations.

LIBRARY REPORT


Mrs. Ruth Wilson, the librarian, has been endeavoring
through gifts, exchanges and purchases, to obtain out-of-print
documents to add to the library holdings. The Smithsonian
Institution sent the Survey enough out-of-print Proceedings
to fill lacking numbers in 31 volumes. Duplicate copies of
their Annual Report contained in our files were sent to them
in exchange. The library of the Museum of Comparative
Zoology at Harvard gave the Survey 68 Bulletins and Bre-
voria. An additional gift of eight Memoir volumes included


Estimated
Cost

$ 2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
500
2,500
2,500
2,500

2,000
2,500
2,000
3,000

300

300

300

500
500
2,000

500
2,500
2,000
2,500

2,500

2,000
2,000
2,000
500

2,500

500
600






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


the Agassiz Coral Reefs issued in 1903.

The largest single exchange was made with Tulane
University, which included 360 duplicate state and federal
publications which were exchanged for 126 volumes of
scientific publications.

The new universities and junior colleges in the State
have not been slighted in the exchange program. The Uni-
versity of South Florida has received a complete set of all
Survey periodicals, as well as 47 duplicate publications of
scientific journals and pertinent publications have also been
sent to all of the junior colleges.

Fifteen volumes of Floridiana have been given to the
Leon County Public Library, and back issues of many of our
nonscientific serials were presented to the library of Florida
State University.

The present collection of 30,000 volumes has been ob-
tained through exchange with other state surveys, the U. S.
Geological Survey, the U. S. National Museum and other
governmental agencies. We receive exchange publications
from 36 foreign countries in geology and allied sciences.
The Survey budget allows for the purchase of current scien-
tific journals and reference books.

The Survey has a complete file of all the topographic
maps issued by the U. S. Geological Survey on Florida.
These are sent, on standing order, as they are issued. The
Florida map collection also contains all coast and geodetic
survey maps including the "100 Series" issued before 1900.
In our map files are studies of all the Florida areas that
have been mapped.

The library is open to the public. While materials
may not be checked out, they may be examined at leisure in
comfortable surroundings.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Summary
(January 1959 through December 1960)

Number of volumes added (subscriptions,
exchanges, purchases) ................... 13,000
Gifts (number of volumes)
Tulane University........................ 126
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard.. 80
Chicago Museum of Natural History........ 25
University of Kansas ..................... 19
Smithsonian Institution .................... 15
Florida State University .................. 12
Dr. Herman Gunter ....................... 10
Leon County Public Library............... 5
Dr. James L. Calver. .................... 2
San Diego Museum of Natural History ...... 2
American Museum of Natural History ...... 1
Number of maps added or replaced
Standing order ..................... 864
Special order .......................1,522
Total ................................... 2,386
Material sent to bindery (volumes) .............. 1,060
Visitors other than Florida Geological Survey
personnel
U. S. Geological Survey .............. 137
Florida State University ............ 625
Other .............................. 334
Total visitors ............................ 1,086



TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

In Florida, topographic maps canbe obtained fromthe
following companies:

Fort Lauderdale:
Dolph Map Co., Inc. 430 North Federal Highway.
Fort Myers:
Gulf Maps, 16 Patio De Leon.
Fort Pierce:
Horton's, 122 North Second Street.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 53

Gainesville:
Campus Shop & BookStore, University of Florida.
Florida Book Store, Inc.,1638 West University Ave.
Jacksonville:
The H. & W. B. Drew Company.
The Nautical Supply Co., 15 North Newman Street.
Sanford Engineering Supply Co.,
128 Riverside Avenue.
Lakeland:
Edwards Surveying and Blueprinting,
1218 East Main Street, P.O. Box 230.
Miami:
Hopkins-Carter Hardware Co.,
135 South Miami Avenue.
Orlando:
Denmark Sporting Goods, Inc. ,
149 North Main Street.
George Stuart, Inc., 133 East Robinson Avenue,
P.O. Box 593.
Punta Gorda:
Van Dyke Blueprint Service, 124 Herald Court.
Sarasota:
Ellie's Book & Stationery, 1350 Main Street.
Stuart:
Valentine's Bookshop, 560 East Fourth Street.
Tallahassee:
Jon S. Beazley, Photogrammetric Engineers,
1903 North Monroe Street.
Tampa:
Poston Marine Hardware & Supply Co.,
1012 East Cass Street.
West Palm Beach:
Hopkins Marine Hardware Co. 207 Sixth Street.

Reference facilities are available in the following libraries
where maps published by the U. S. Geological Survey are
deposited:

Gainesville:
The University Libraries, University of Florida.
Lake Alfred:
Library, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of Florida.







54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee:
Research Library, Florida Development Com-
mission, East Wing, Carlton Building.
Florida Geological Survey.
Library, Florida State University.
Winter Park:
Mills Memorial Library, Rollins College.




Numerical Index to Topographic Maps


A numerical index to the names of quadrangles for
which topographic maps have been published appears in the
Eleventh Biennial Report. The following maps have been
published since the Thirteenth Biennial Report;.

Name Series Date Name Series Date

5. Crestview 15' 1951 60.
28. A Ellaville 7.5' 1959
C Gretna 7.5' 1959 B Ft. Union 7.5' 1959
29. C Falmouth 7.5' 1959
D Quincy 7.5' 1959 D Live Oak West 7.5' 1959
40. 68.
A St. Marys 7.5' 1919 A Laguna Beach 7. 5' 1945
C Italia 7.5' 1958 70.
41. B Tenmile Swamp 7.5' 1945
C Fernandina Beach 7.5' 1956 D Wetappo Creek 7.5' 1945
49. 71.
A Bruce 7.5' 1945 A Dead Lake 7.5' 1945
B Red Head 7.5' 1945 B Orange 7.5' 1945
C Seminole Hills 7. 5' 1945 C Wewahitchka 7.5' 1945
D West Bay 7.5' 1944 D Kennedy Creek 7.5' 1945
50. 72.
A Crystal Lake 7.5' 1945 A Wilma 7.5' 1946
B Bennett 7.5' 1945 B Queens Bay 7.5' 1946
C Southport 7.5' 1944 C Sumatra 7.5' 1946.
D Bayhead 7.5' 1945 D Owens Bridge 7.5' 1946
51. 73.
B Juniper Creek 7.5' 1947 A Smith Creek 7.5' 1945
C Youngstown 7.5' 1944 B Bradwell Bay 7.5' 1945
D Broad Branch 7.5' 1947 C Thousand Yard Bay 7.5' 1945
52. D Sanborn 7.5' 1945
A Clarksville 7.5'. 1945 88.
SB Blountstown 7.5' 1945 B Overstreet 7.5' 1943
C Frink 7.5' 1945 C St. Joseph Point 7.5' 1945
D Estiffanulga 7.5' 1945 D Port St. Joe 7.5' 1943
53. 89.
A Bristol 7.5' 1945 A White City 7.5' 1945
C Woods 7.5' 1945 C Lake Wimico 7.5' 1944
D Telogia 7.5' 1946 D Jackson River 7.5' 1945
59. : 90.
A Madison 7.5' 1958 A Ft. Gadsden 7.5' 1945
B Lee 7.5' 1958 B Tates Hell Swamp 7.5' 1945
C Madison SW 7.5' 1958 C Beverly 7.5' 1945
D Madison SE 7. 5' 1958 D Green Point 7.5' 1944






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


*11


3j,.


,,-. .- -
'ot, ,.r
.> ^


LEGEND
15'QUADRANGLES
7.S'QUADRANGLES
NOT COMPLETED


/ j. 9
2 -,


INDEX TO PUBLISHED.

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS
DECEMBER,1960


Figure 5. Index to published topographic mapping.

Figure 5. Index to published topographic mapping.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Name


Series Date


A
B
C
D
92.
A
B
105.
A
B
106.
B
D
107.
A
B
C
116.
A
118.
D
119.
A
125.
129.
A
B
C
D
139.
A
C
142.
D
152.
A
B
C
D


Name


D Titusville SW


Pickett Bay
McIntyre
Carrabelle
Dog Island

St. Teresa
Lighthouse Point

St. Joseph Spit
Cape San Bias

West Pass
Cape St. George

Apalachicola
Goose Island
New Inlet

Interlachen

Espanola

Mantanzas
Citra

Flagler Beach West
Flagler Beach East
Favoretta
Ormond Beach

Port Orange
New Smyrna Beach

Inverness

Wahoo
Bushnell
St. Catherine
Webster


A
C
D
162.
D
163.
A
C
164.
A
173.
A
177.
A
D
183.
C
188.
C
198.
A
D
209.
A
234.
A
B
D
243.
A
253.
B
C
D


County Index to Topographic Maps


County index to the names of topographic maps that

have been published or revised since the Thirteenth Biennial

Report. Asterisks (*) indicate areas which have not been

previously mapped.


Name

Alachua County
125. Citra

Bay County
49.
D West Bay
50.
C Southport
51.
C Youngstown
68.
A Laguna Beach


Series Date


15' 1944


Name

Brevard County
158.
A Wilson
C Orsino
D False Cape
177.
A Eau Gallie
D Melbourne
188.
C Sebastian


Wilson
Orsino
False Cape

Poyner

Lake Louise
Lake Louise SW

Lake Jessamine

Gum Lake

Eau Gallie
Melbourne

Lake Wales

Sebastian

Fellsmere 4 NW
Fellsmere 4 SE

Ft. Pierce

Ft. Myers SE
Ft. Myers NW
Ft. Myers SW

Ft. Myers Beach

Miles City
Deep Lake SW
Deep Lake


Series Date


7.5' 1953


7.5' 1952
7.5' 1951
7.5' 1951

7.5' 1959

7.5' 1959
7.5' 1959

7.5' 1953

7.5' 1959

7.5' 1951
7.5' 1951

7.5' 1952

7.5' 1951

7.5' 1953
7.5' 1953

7. 5' 1950

7.5' 1958
7.5' 1959
7.5' 1959

7.5' 1958

7.5' 1959
7.5' 1959
7.5' 1959


Series Date








FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Name
Calhoun County
51.
B Juniper Creek
D Broad Branch
52.
A Clarksville
C Frink
D Estiffanulga
70.
B Tenmile Swamp
71.
A Dead Lake

Citrus County
142.
D Inverness

Collier County
253.
B Miles City
C Deep Lake SW
D Deep Lake

Flagler County
129.
C Favoretta

Franklin County
71.
B Orange
90.
A Fort Gadsden
B Tates Hell Swamp
C Beverly
D Green Point
91.
A Pickett Bay
C Carrabelle
D Dog Island
106.
B West Pass
D Cape St. George
107.
A Apalachicola
B Goose Island
C New Inlet

Gadsden County
28.
C Gretna
29.
D Quincy

Gulf County
70.
D Wetappo Creek
71.
D Kennedy Creek
88.
B Overstreet
C St. Joseph Point
D Port St. Joe


Series Date


7.5' 1954




7.5' 1959*
7.5' 1959*
7.5' 1959*




7.5' 1956


7.5' 1959*

7.5' 1959*


Name


89.
A White City
C Lake Wimico
D Jackson River
105.
A St. Joseph Spit
B Cape San Bias

Lake County
163.
A Lake Louise

Lee County
234.
A Fort Myers SE
C Fort Myers NW
D Fort Myers SW
243.
A Fort Myers Beach

Liberty County
52.
B Blountstown
53.
A Bristol
C Woods
D Telogia
71.
C Wewahitchka
72.
A Wilma
B Queens Bay
C Sumatra
D Owens Bridge
73.
C Thousand Yard Bay

Madison County
59.
A Madison
B Lee
C Madison SW
D Madison SE
60.
C Falmouth

Nassau County
40.
A St. Marys
C Italia
41.
C Fernandina Beach

Osceola County
198.
A Fellsmere 4 NW
D Fellsmere 4 SE

Okaloosa County
5. Crestview


Series Date


7.5' 1959*


1958*
1959*
1959*

1958A




1945

1945
1945
1946

1945

1946
1946
1946
1946

1945




1958*
1958*
1958*
1958*

1959*


7.5' 1919
7.5' 1958*

7.5' 1956




7.5' 1953
7.5' 1953


15' 1951







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Name
Orange County
157.
D Titusville SW
163.
C Lake Louise SW
164.
A Lake Jessamine

Polk County
162.
D Poyner
173.
A Gum Lake
183.
C Lake Wales

Putnam County
116.
A Interlachen

St. Johns County
118.
D Espanola
119.
A Matanzas

St. Lucie County
209.
A Ft. Pierce

Sumter County
152.
A Wahoo
B Bushnell
C St. Catherine
D Webster


Series Date

Suwannee County
60.
7. 5' 1953 A Ellaville
B Ft. Union
7. 5' 1959* D Live Oak-West

7. 5' 1953 Volusia County
129.
A Flagler Beach West
B Flagler Beach East
7.5' 1959* D Ormond Beach
139.
7. 5' 1959* A Port Orange
C New Smyrna Beach
7.5' 1952 Wakulla County
73.
A Smith Creek
B Bradwell Bay
7.5' 1949 D Sanborn
91.
B McIntyre
92.
7. 5' 1957 A St. Teresa

7. 1956 B Lighthouse Point

Walton County
49.
A Bruce
7.5' 1950 C Seminole Hills


Washington County
49.
7.5' 1958* .
7.5 1958* B Red Head
7.5' 1958*
A Crystal Lake
7. 5' 1958* B Bennett
D Bayhead


COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES


Attorney General and Trustees of the

Internal Improvement Fund


The State Geologist was requested to prepare opinions
on the geologic history of areas at Lake Maitland, Black

Creek, Sanibel Island, Englewood area, Peace River, and
Lake Conway. In each of these areas the title to the State
land was questioned either because of accretion of adjacent

land upon State land, or through reliction.


7.5' 1959*
7.5' 1959*
7.5' 1959*


1956*
1956*
1956*

1936
1956


7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945

7 ~' 1945

7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945



7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Name
Orange County
157.
D Titusville SW
163.
C Lake Louise SW
164.
A Lake Jessamine

Polk County
162.
D Poyner
173.
A Gum Lake
183.
C Lake Wales

Putnam County
116.
A Interlachen

St. Johns County
118.
D Espanola
119.
A Matanzas

St. Lucie County
209.
A Ft. Pierce

Sumter County
152.
A Wahoo
B Bushnell
C St. Catherine
D Webster


Series Date

Suwannee County
60.
7. 5' 1953 A Ellaville
B Ft. Union
7. 5' 1959* D Live Oak-West

7. 5' 1953 Volusia County
129.
A Flagler Beach West
B Flagler Beach East
7.5' 1959* D Ormond Beach
139.
7. 5' 1959* A Port Orange
C New Smyrna Beach
7.5' 1952 Wakulla County
73.
A Smith Creek
B Bradwell Bay
7.5' 1949 D Sanborn
91.
B McIntyre
92.
7. 5' 1957 A St. Teresa

7. 1956 B Lighthouse Point

Walton County
49.
A Bruce
7.5' 1950 C Seminole Hills


Washington County
49.
7.5' 1958* .
7.5 1958* B Red Head
7.5' 1958*
A Crystal Lake
7. 5' 1958* B Bennett
D Bayhead


COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES


Attorney General and Trustees of the

Internal Improvement Fund


The State Geologist was requested to prepare opinions
on the geologic history of areas at Lake Maitland, Black

Creek, Sanibel Island, Englewood area, Peace River, and
Lake Conway. In each of these areas the title to the State
land was questioned either because of accretion of adjacent

land upon State land, or through reliction.


7.5' 1959*
7.5' 1959*
7.5' 1959*


1956*
1956*
1956*

1936
1956


7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945

7 ~' 1945

7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945



7.5' 1945
7.5' 1945






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Black Creek, Dade County:

Black Creek is near Perrine, Florida. A claim against
the Trustees made by a highland owner because of accretion
couldn't be substantiated. The entire coastal areawas found
tobe composed of hard, porous limestone of the Miami oolite
formation, formed millions of years ago. Biscayne Bay and
the adjacent coastline are adjusting to a rising sealeveland
the lower parts of this limestone shelf was being drowned
and covered by mangrove growth and peat. There was no
evidence of accretion by marine sediments, within the past
few thousand years.

Peace River, Charlotte County:

That part of Peace River from the coast to a point
several miles beyond Fort Ogden is tidal and has a floodplain
that narrows gradually to a width of about 1 mile south of
Fort Ogden. The river is adjusting to a slowly rising sea
level and is forced to meander repeatedly in its floodplain
to avoid and adjust to vegetative growths. These growths
capture sediment and become firm land.

An upland owner claimed that land sold bythe Trustees
to another owner had developed bythe slow addition of sedi-
ment to his land.

The geologic and landform data indicated that the Peace
River had meandered continuously between its valley walls
and deposited a well developed floodplain and that the land
in question did slowly develop adjacent to the land of the up-
land owner who raised the question of title, but that this
sedimentation occurred across the land in question in the
geologic past, before Florida acquired title to the land.

Lake Conway, Orange County:

Inlitigationbetween private owners over a small tract
of land sold to one owner by the Trustees and occupied by
the other, Lake Conway was determined to have oscillated
between low and high water separated by several feet, and to
have established a plainly marked ordinary high watermark
at an elevation of 90 feet. Because of the form of the lake
bottom and difference intree ages below and above the eleva-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


tion of 90 feet, it was determined that the water in the lake
had been artificially reduced by the use of drainage wells
in the lake basin and by the capture of water through other
drainage wells located high in the watershed that formerly
emptied into Lake Conway. The Trustees established a new
ordinary high water level at 86.4 feet in 1952 and a new
regimen of the lake has been established at this elevation.

Lake Maitland, Orange County:

Lake Maitland is a meandered lake in part, and geologic
and biologic data were compiled to determine that the present
level of the lake was held artificially below the ordinary high
water level of the lake. The court determined that the State
held title to the lake bottom (see Thirteenth Biennial Report).

Englewood Subdivision, Sarasota County:

An upland owner claimed land from the Trustees on
accretion by the adjacent inland waters, but the geologic and
landforms indicate that the "accretion" was largely vegetative
growth and the title was still in the State.

Sanibel Island:

At Sanibel Island, owners of a government lot claimed
title, by accretion, to the preserved meandered overflow land
and the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund wished to
establish whether the State had previously held title to the
overflow land. An investigation revealed that Sanibel Island
is the terminal island of a long spit and series of bars ex-
tending southerly along Florida's Gulf coast from a point
lying west of northern Pinellas County. The islands were
deposited by Gulf Stream currents impinging against the
western promontory of the peninsula and flowing generally
in a southerly direction. Sanibel Island is composed of quartz
sand grains and of shells and shell fragments that were swept
up off the ocean bottom and cast upon shoals and beaches of
the area.

The island is composed of a series of ridges that rise
a few feet above interridge swales. Both the ridges and
swales are composed of sandy, uncemented shell and shell






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


fragments, but the interridge areas are underlain by finer
plastic particles with an organic clay matrix.

The highest ridge runs downthe central part of Sanibel
Island and is a shell ridge on which the elevations range be-
tween 8 and 10feet. Landward toward the southeast, a series
of low-lying ridges and broad swales and basins are present.
Gulfward toward the northwest, three separate and distinct
ridge-swale areas are present. The present beach and most
recent deposition along the shoreline lies at elevations
generally a few inches to a foot above the present ordinary
high tide. The next ridge-swale area inland from the beach
lies at elevations of 2 to 4 feet and the area adjacent to the
Silver Bluff shell ridge lies 3 to 5 feet above sea level.

Since beach deposits are formed at or near high tide,
the presence of deposits formed into ridges and swales at
elevations ranging between 2 to 4, 3 to 5, and 8 to 10 feet,
and recognizable as distinct topographic features makes it
possible to approximate an age of formation of these sedi-
ments.

It has been well established by means of wave-cut
notches and marine deposits, that some years ago the ocean
and Gulf stood about 8 feet higher upon the land than it now
does. This elevation corresponds closely to the elevation
of the highest shell ridge on the island. This former stand
of the ocean has been dated at 5,000 to 8,000 years, and
therefore it would follow that the principal shell ridge of
Sanibel Island was formed about 5,000 to 8, 000 years ago.

The present shoreline can be easily identified on the
aerial photograph (fig. 6). A narrow band (the very white
area) adjacent to the shoreline is covered by trees that are
up to 25 years old and are for the most part 10 to 12 years
old. This band represents an active deposition along the
present shore resulting largely from the recent extreme
erosion of Captiva Island to the north. It therefore follows
that the area between the Silver Bluff shell ridge and the
present shoreline represents depositionbrokenby occasional
erosional periods that extended from 8,000 years to the
present time.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 6. Aerial photo of Sanibel Island showing the
present shoreline and associated features.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


From the aerialphotograph and from the field inspec-
tion, it is apparent that about 8,000 years ago the ocean
stood across Sanibel Island on the mainland to the east. The
area at Sanibel was a shoal and bars were deposited, eroded,
and other bars formed until the area became stable and a
high ridge of sandy shells was extended southwesterly across
the area, probably as a spit. The Gulf shoreline then stood
along the ridge and it was scoured by current that passed
along it. Shoreward of this barrier or spit, other currents,
much weaker, were forming ridge-bars and current passes.

Sea level declined graduallyto reach its present level,
although the decline was interrupted by still stands of the
water or by slight recovery. The ridge-swale deposition
represents slow accretion of sediment in each of the recog-
nized ridge-swale areas, the oldest ridge of each segregated
area being formed in the northwest sector and the youngest
in the southeast. The truncation of these ridge-swale areas
represent erosional intervals probably when the sea stood
still or recovered slightly.

There is no geologic evidence of the previous existence
of a bay, such as that recorded by the government surveyor,
in lot 5. In fact, all evidence indicates that it would have
been impossible to have had such a bay present in the area
as shown. It is the State Geologist's conclusion that the land
under contest is omitted land and is definitely not one of ac-
cretion within the time of legal record.


University of South Florida and the
Board of State Institutions

The Board of Commissioners of State Institutions
requested the State Geologist to study the foundation and
subsurface at the site of the University of South Florida.
Measurements of the bearing strengths of the foundations by
Board of Control engineers had indicated a need for consoli-
dation of surficial sands by vibropacking and of a need for
grouting of "cavities in loose sediments. Cap grouting had
been attempted at considerable cost to the State. In our
evaluation of the site, several core holes were placed on the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


campus under the direction of Survey personnel. The data
thus developed was combined with that developed bythe engi-
neers and architects of the Board of Control at the site.

The topography of the campus is gently rolling, the
highest elevation being slightly above 70 feet, and the lowest
slightly below 25 feet. The soil is exceedingly porous and
the site well drained. The ground surface is essentially
barren fine grained quartz sand, blown into windows with
a thin cover of grass, scrub oak and scrub live oak. The
south campus site is broken by numerous shallow sinkhole
basins in whichwater stands during wet weather. Permanent
lakes are present where a basin bottoms below 25 feet.

Two stratigraphic holes drilled on the campus pene-
trated 48 and 49 feet of quartz sand, fine to medium grained,
the upper 10 to 20 feet being loose anduncompacted, andthe
basal parts of these sands being very argillaceous, silty and
with a low permeability. Some of these sands were very
plastic and were identified in the field as sandy clays. Upon
careful laboratory separation these sediments proved to be
largely quartz sand, containing about 16 to 30 percent clay
and 6 to 18 percent silt. The clay mineral was identified by
D.T.A. (Differential Thermal Analysis) as a montmorillonoid,
but may be a 14 R (fourteen Angstrom) clay mineral approxi-
mating "diagenetic chlorite. Cavernous limestone, fairly
crystallineto chalky, moderately hard and fossiliferous, was
penetrated at depths of 48 and 49 feet (elevations of -5.01 and
-8.0 feet). Each boring terminated in the Tampa formation,
but hole 2 penetrated loose sand that was apparently filling a
cavity in the limestone at depths of 61 to 84 feet, the roof
of the cavity being supported by 13 feet of moderately hard
limestone. No cavities were noted in sediments overlying
the limestone.

From the descriptions of the rock samples and cores
prepared by Law Engineering Testing Company, the top of
the rock was contoured beneath each of the proposed buildings
and thetop of the rock, as expected, is irregular with relief
beneath the buildings of more than 18 feet at the site of the
library, 10 feet at the administration building, 27feet at the
proposed site of the science laboratory, 3 feet at the audi-
torium and 20 feet at the cafeteria. From other limited core






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


evidence based on general foundation testing of the campus
(13 holes drilled by Law-Barrow-Agee Laboratories, Inc. ,
under job T-355), it would appear that the highest rock in
the area would extend beneath the campus as a buried ridge
connecting the proposed administration and auditorium build-
ings. This area extending northwest-southeast appears to
be the most stable area of the campus and, if this proves to
be true during subsequent foundation investigations, would
offer excellent subsurface conditions for the larger buildings.


Ground Water Considerations

The U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the
Florida Geological Survey, has undertaken a study of the
ground water of Hillsborough County. The inventory of wells
of the South Florida University campus and vicinity indicates
that the artesian water reaches elevations of about 27feet in
wells that penetrate the limestone of the Tampa and older
sediments. The highest elevation of limestone recorded in
the foundation cores is 12 feet above sea level. The ordinary
ground-water level in the vicinity of the campus fluctuates
freely with rainfall and drought and maylie above this arte-
sian head at times and below during others. It must follow,
therefore, that the limestone must be saturated at all times.
However, heavy pumping by industrial development near the
campus, and redistribution of recharge at the campus, as
it is developed, could possibly change the pattern of recharge
in the vicinity of the campus and reduce the artesianhead by
heavy withdrawal. All campus wells should be made available
for continuous inventory of the water table and artesian head,
if possible.

If the limestone and plastic sediments that overlie it
are dewatered by heavy pumping, some subsidence will result
and some adjustment to cavity development can be expected,
particularly following heavy rains upon the dewatered rock.
An expensive system of sluicingfloodwaters off the campus
proposed for construction at the site would limit recharge
to the ground water and will not have helped in preventing a
further and more rapid solution of the limestone.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida Section,
American Water Works Association, and
Florida Sewage and Industrial Waste Association

The Survey has had a member on this committee both
years of the biennium and Robert Vernon was chairman in
1960. A summary of water resource data and problems is
prepared by the committee each year.


University of Florida

Members of the Survey have given talks to various
groups at the University of Florida, including the Geology
Club and the Civil Engineers.

An active cooperation exists with Dr. Pierce Brodkorb,
Mr. Clayton Ray, and other members of the Department of
Biology. Mr. Ray has prepared and the Survey has published
an excellent bibliography of vertebrate paleontology. Dr.
Brodkorb has collected a large number of Pleistocene verte-
brates from the following localities in Florida: Reddick Cave,
Marion County; Arredondo Sink, Alachua County; and Saber-
tooth Cave, Citrus County. These collections were made in
cooperation with and financed by the Survey. The material
is a part of the study collections of the Florida Geological
Survey.


Florida State Rural Development Committee

One or more members of the Survey has participated
in the study and development of rural counties needing eco-
nomic development. Suwannee and Washington counties were
the original counties granted aid through the committee. In
1960, Jefferson, Jackson and Lafayette counties were also
admitted and Holmes was proposed for investigation as a
potential. The committee, through organization of citizens
in each county, seeks to help the economic development
throughprofessional advices from state and federal agencies
working together.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida Section,
American Water Works Association, and
Florida Sewage and Industrial Waste Association

The Survey has had a member on this committee both
years of the biennium and Robert Vernon was chairman in
1960. A summary of water resource data and problems is
prepared by the committee each year.


University of Florida

Members of the Survey have given talks to various
groups at the University of Florida, including the Geology
Club and the Civil Engineers.

An active cooperation exists with Dr. Pierce Brodkorb,
Mr. Clayton Ray, and other members of the Department of
Biology. Mr. Ray has prepared and the Survey has published
an excellent bibliography of vertebrate paleontology. Dr.
Brodkorb has collected a large number of Pleistocene verte-
brates from the following localities in Florida: Reddick Cave,
Marion County; Arredondo Sink, Alachua County; and Saber-
tooth Cave, Citrus County. These collections were made in
cooperation with and financed by the Survey. The material
is a part of the study collections of the Florida Geological
Survey.


Florida State Rural Development Committee

One or more members of the Survey has participated
in the study and development of rural counties needing eco-
nomic development. Suwannee and Washington counties were
the original counties granted aid through the committee. In
1960, Jefferson, Jackson and Lafayette counties were also
admitted and Holmes was proposed for investigation as a
potential. The committee, through organization of citizens
in each county, seeks to help the economic development
throughprofessional advices from state and federal agencies
working together.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida Section,
American Water Works Association, and
Florida Sewage and Industrial Waste Association

The Survey has had a member on this committee both
years of the biennium and Robert Vernon was chairman in
1960. A summary of water resource data and problems is
prepared by the committee each year.


University of Florida

Members of the Survey have given talks to various
groups at the University of Florida, including the Geology
Club and the Civil Engineers.

An active cooperation exists with Dr. Pierce Brodkorb,
Mr. Clayton Ray, and other members of the Department of
Biology. Mr. Ray has prepared and the Survey has published
an excellent bibliography of vertebrate paleontology. Dr.
Brodkorb has collected a large number of Pleistocene verte-
brates from the following localities in Florida: Reddick Cave,
Marion County; Arredondo Sink, Alachua County; and Saber-
tooth Cave, Citrus County. These collections were made in
cooperation with and financed by the Survey. The material
is a part of the study collections of the Florida Geological
Survey.


Florida State Rural Development Committee

One or more members of the Survey has participated
in the study and development of rural counties needing eco-
nomic development. Suwannee and Washington counties were
the original counties granted aid through the committee. In
1960, Jefferson, Jackson and Lafayette counties were also
admitted and Holmes was proposed for investigation as a
potential. The committee, through organization of citizens
in each county, seeks to help the economic development
throughprofessional advices from state and federal agencies
working together.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


State Road Department

Numerous specimens of limestone from Jackson,
Holmes and Washington counties were collected and submitted
to the State Road Department to be evaluated for use as road
base course material. A report onthe localities and tests is
in preparation. Physical tests include the liquid limit, plastic
index, shrinkage limit and Los Angeles abrasion.
Governor's Office

At the request of Governor Collins, Robert Vernon
served with Mr. John Wakefield, Director of the Department
of Water Resources, and Mr. David B. Lee, Director of
Sanitary Engineering, on a committee to consider design
specifications for construction of phosphate-slime retention
dams. A report prepared by the committee is reproduced
below:
Report of Governor's Committee Formed for the
Study of the Problem of Retention of Phosphate-Slimes

Phosphate-slime is a waste product of phosphate
mining, made up of clay and colloidal-size phosphates,
silica and rare silicates. The percentage of bone phosphate
of lime contained in the slime is too small to make its
separation economically feasible under current demands
and prices of the rock. Because of its colloidal character-
istics, the clay remains in suspension for long periods of
time and the waste cannot be released into existing natural
waterways because of danger to aquatic life and sedimenta-
tion of the drainage channels. The permanent storage of
the slime is also desired by the phosphate companies as
reserves of possible value in the future. Dewatered, such
as those in the abandoned hard-rock phosphate disposal
areas, the slime deposits can be dried and used as a ferti-
lizer or soil conditioner and as a supplement for feed to
chickens and animals.

The common practice in the land-pebble phosphate
field of Hillsborough and Polk counties has been to dispose
of these slimes into abandoned pits or upon wasteland behind
retaining levees composed of any available, usable sediment.
Construction of the levees, as tofreeboard, type of materials
used for diking, and preparation of the land prior to fill,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


varied between the companies and sometimes within the
company.

Because of the variable construction methods, breaks
in the dikes have been fairly common, and where breaks
occurred upon sparsely settled land and no well developed
waterway was present, the damage was not great and little
public notice was taken, but in recent years a number of
breaks within the Peace River watershed had caused wide-
spread sedimentation of open water and property with re-
sultant damage to the fish and wildlife in the river. The
first public complaint was raised about 1946, and a series
of breaks in late 1959 prompted the Peace River Valley
District to send a questionnaire to each of the phosphate
companies inquiring about the causes of failures and re-
questing a definition of specifications and construction
methods. Following the tabulation of these data from the
phosphate companies, the District asked the Governor of
Florida to appoint a committee to study specifications for
the dams.

The State Board of Health and the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission have responsibilities in the fields
of public health and of fish and game propagation and pre-
servation, and release of the slime into Peace River raised
serious questions of contamination of a public waterway.
The Honorable LeRoy Collins, Governor, became interested
in the problem in 1959, and appointed David B. Lee, Director
of the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida State Board
of Health; John W. Wakefield, Director, Department of Water
Resources; and Robert O. Vernon, State Geologist and
Director of the Florida Geological Survey, to a committee
to study basic designs for pits to store the phosphate slime.
This committee met on May 6, 1960, with the managerial
and technical staffs of the various phosphate industries,
members and staff of the Peace River Valley Water Conser-
vation and Drainage District, and interested citizens.

The phosphate industry had likewise become concerned
by the failure of its slime-retaining levees and the various
companies had activated a committee to recommend a mini-
mum design to be used in the construction of slime settling






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


dams.

The committee consisted of the following:

D.H. Barnett
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company
Nichols, Florida

J. S. Gruel (Chairman)
The American Agricultural Chemical Company
Pierce, Florida

Robert E. Hutchinson
Armour and Company
Bartow, Florida

B.P. Jones
Davison Chemical Company
Bartow, Florida

H. M. Larsen
Swift and Company
Bartow, Florida

G.L. Lyle
American Cyanamid Company
Brewster, Florida

E.G. Padgett
Smith-Douglass Company
Plant City, Florida

M.T. Smith
International Minerals & Chemical Corporation
Bartow, Florida

The committee had met previously to the meeting
called by the Governor's Committee for May 6, 1960, and
had proposed minimum specifications for slime pits using
proved engineering practices, advice from the U. S. Army
Corps of Engineers and other consultants, and results of
many years of experience in the construction, maintenance






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and operation of settling areas to arrive at the basic mini-
mum design for slime pit construction reproduced below:

Construction of Dams in the Florida Pebble Phosphate Area
For Water Conservation and Clarification

Dams constructed on original ground:

1. Site preparation

a. Remove all trees, stumps, palmettos, and
other growth.
b. Remove all muck, slimes, mud, and other
materialthat is highly compressible and has
a tendency to flow under a heavy load.

2. Core ditching

a. Core ditching is very important and a well-
drained core ditch should be dug, along or
near the center line of the dam; the depth
and width depending upon soil conditions.
A minimum depth of three feet is recom-
mended. If in diggingthe core ditch, hard-
pan is encountered, it should be dug deep
enough to go through the hardpan.
b. In dams of over twenty-five feet in height,
it is recommended that two core ditches be
dug instead of one; these core ditches to be
spaced a minimum of fifteen feet on each
side of the center line of the dam.

3. Berms

Berms with a minimum width of twenty-five
feet should be left on each side of the dam.

4. Drainage

a. Keep the outside toe of the damwell-drained.
If necessary, dig a drainage ditch on the out-
side of the berm on the outside toe.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


5. Cross section design. (See figure 7.)

a. The minimum cross-section design, where
good material is available for construction,
is one with a hydraulic gradient of five to
one. Bothinside and outside slopes should
be no steeper than two to one and have a
minimum freeboard of five feet.
b. The top of the dam should be a minimum of
twenty feet wide.
c. The outside of the top should be higher than
the inside top to permit all top drainage to
the inside of the dam.

6. Materials of construction

a. Dams should be constructed of good clean
material, free of stumps, trees, palmettos
and any other vegetative material that could
decay and leave voids in the dam.
b. Materials such as muck, mud, slimes, or
any soupy material should not be used.
c. Large pieces of hardpan, iron rock, sand-
stone, bedrock, or other hard materials
should not be used.

7. Methods of construction

a. The use of draglines and drag scrapers is
extensive in the field and both methods have
proved satisfactory.
b. Draglines. Where there is plenty of good
dam building material within reach, drag-
lines canbe used to cast the dirt intoposi-
tion. The dam should then be dressed with
other equipment to obtainthe proper cross-
section. Whendams are constructed in this
manner, it is recommended that they be per -
mitted to stabilize one year before being
used.
c. Drag Scrapers. The use of drag scrapers
is a very satisfactory method for building a






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


dam. Suitable material can be hauled in and
laid down in layers. The movement of these
rubber-tired vehicles over the dam in the
placing of the material also packs down the
material. If additional packing is required,
a sheep's foot roller is recommended. Dams
constructed in this manner canbe used im-
mediately upon completion.

8. Spillway installations

a. The use of well-designed and constructed
spillways is common practice in this field.
However, there are several installation pre-
cautions that should be observed.
b. Where the spillway goes through the dam,
it is most important that seepage not be
permitted to go through the dam along the
spillway pipe. The use of pipe constructed
of suitable material and the proper packing
of an impervious material around the pipe
willprevent this seepage. As a safety pre-
caution, it is recommended that a collar or
shield of steel or concrete be fitted around
the pipe near the center line of the dam to
prevent seepage along the pipe.
c. All joints in pipes going through dams should
be made permanently leakproof.
d. A sufficient number of spillways should be
installed in an area to release water, if nec -
essary, in case of heavy rainfall. It is re-
commended that sufficient weir length be
provided to release six inches of rain in
twenty-four hours with a maximum flow
depth of sixinches, if settling area is being
operated at maximum design depth.
e. In situations, where streams cannot be di-
verted and flow into a settling area, addi-
tional spillways should be installed to re-
lease this additional flow.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


9. Maintenance recommendations

a. Plant and maintain a good growth of grass
or other suitable plants on all exposed por-
tions of the dam. This should be done as
soon as the dam is constructed. Grasses
such as Bermuda, Carpet, Centipede, Para
and any other varieties that do not grow very
high, and which form a good sod, are re-
commended. A good sod will prevent wind
and water erosion.
b. Anadequate inspection system should be set
up to not only inspect the top of the dam,
but also the outside toe.
c. Keep all washouts or gullies filled.
d. Do not permit water to collect or puddle on
the top or side of the dam.
e. Keeptop of dam well dressed and sloping to
the inside for good drainage.
f. Tailings must be disposed of use them to
systematically reenforce the inside slope of
dams.

10. Operating precautions

a. Clear water will seep through earthen dams.
In raising the water level in a settling area
with clear water, do so with precaution.
b. Do not raise or lower the water level too
fast in an area.
c. As an added precaution, if possible, it is
recommended that the water levels in set-
tling areas be kept as low as possible at the
beginning and during the early part of the
rainy and hurricane seasons.
d. In case of excessive seepage on outsidetoe
of dam, do not continue to raise the water
level. If at all possible, lower the level
until the dam can be reenforced or sealed
off.
e. The syphon can be used to good advantage
in the operation of a settling area. It can






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


be used to remove excessive water at a con-
venient location; to obtain water where there
is no spillway; and by using water in dead
pockets within an area, it can direct the
flow to bring slimes into these pockets and
obtain a more effective use of the area.

11. Building of dams in mined-out cuts

The practice of building dams in mined-out cuts
is becoming more and more necessary. With
certain precautions, these dams can be con-
structed safely and satisfactorily.

a. Always build these dams next to original
ground. It is not recommended that dams
constructed of spoil or overburden be built
through a mined-out area that, when com-
pleted will have water levels on each side
of the dam. If necessaryto construct a dam
across a mined area, it should be built by
pumping in tailings. If tailings are pumped
in, the slopes on each side will be approxi-
mately nine to one and this should give an
adequate cross section.
b. In the construction of such a dam, be cer-
tainthat the cut in which the dam is started
is well drained and that the damis not con-
structed on slimes or soft mud that could
be forced out of positionbythe weight of the
dam. Reenforce the inside of the dam by
placing the spoil or overburden from addi-
tional cuts in or next to the dam. When a
substantial base has been provided in the
cut, the portion of the dam above ground
level should then be constructed or finished
in accordance with specifications recom-
mended in paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
c. Pump in tailings to reenforce the inside of
these dams.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


12. Building of dams using pumped-in tailings

The use of tailings hydraulically placed for the
construction of dams to retain water and slimes
has proven quite successful in the mining in-
dustry and is an accepted procedure. Tailing
dams have proven safe and highly successful
for more than 20 years in the metal mining in-
dustry in the United States. They have been in
successful use for nearly 10 years in the Florida
phosphatefield. Certain precautions should be
observed in building dams by this method.
These precautions are as follows:

a. If the water within the settling area to be
enclosed with a tailings dam is above ground
level, then on the first pass care must be
exercised to avoid saturating the outer earth
dam. This can be protected against by lay-
ing a header line onthe earth dam and using
two or three inch diameter pipes of proper
length to place the tailing inside and along
the earth dam. Pumping location should be
changed at least every twelve hours and the
section of dam pumped on should be allowed
to drain for at least twelve hours before
pumping on this section again.
b. If tailings are discharged inside an existing
dam from twelve inch pipe or larger, the
point of discharge must be a minimum of
thirty feet from the inside crest of the ex-
isting dam. This should be accomplished
with an elbow turned to the inside, and a
suitable length of pipe following the elbow.
A splatter board should be used on the end
of the pipe.
c. The use of wood bents to hold pipe in place
for longer than thirty days should be avoided.
Iftreatedwoodis used, or if stronger joints
than nailed joints are used, this period may
be extended.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


d. The specifications recommended in para-
graphs 3, 4, 5 and 8 are to be used where
dams are constructed of pumped-in tailings.
In dams constructed of pumped-in tailings,
at least one slope will be much flatter than
the 2 to 1 slope recommended.

At the public hearing on May 6, 1960, in Winter Haven,
Florida, the personnel from the phosphate companies all
agreed that each company was now meetingthese minimum
specifications- in construction of slime-retaining pits.

Slime pits, abandoned during the last 10 years were
reported to be composed of about 50 percent solids at the
surface and 25percent solids, 2 to l5feet below the surface.
Levees around these pits are maintained by grassed slopes,
the pits are ditched and the rain and surface water removed.
Sometimes, after 20 to 30 years, the drained pits can be
planted to pines.

The reasons for failure of the dikes were believed to
result from low freeboard, faulty materials, possible sink-
holes, heavy floodwaters and poor maintenance. The mini-
mum specifications adopted bythe phosphate committee will
assist to prevent these failures with the exception of sinkhole
formation, which is probably only a very minor cause of
failure.

'The minimum specifications for slime pit construc-
tion have been discussed by the Governor's Committee,
Mr. Lamar Johnson, Consultant Engineer to the Peace River
ValleyDistrict, and with the personnel of the U.S. Geologi-
cal Survey. The summary of this discussion is that the
phosphate committee had done an excellent job and were to
be commended for their thoroughness in design, foresighted-
ness in meeting the problem, and in placing their minimum
specifications before the Governor's Committee.

Some suggestions were made by the Governor's Com-
mittee relative to specific items of the minimum specifica-
tions that, if adopted by the phosphate companies, would
help clarify details, definitions, and some constructional






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


procedures. These are summarized in the numerical order
itemized in the minimum specifications.

1. Some preparation of the original ground surface,
such as disking, to obtain bonding is worthy of
consideration. General site reconnaissance by
borings would help eliminate "sinkhole" fail-
ures.
2. "The width and depth of core ditching... depend-
ing upon soil conditions"would be strengthened
by a definition of engineering limits for various
soils that can be used in construction.
3. The width of the berm should be related to soil
type and ground-water conditions and engineer-
ing limits stated for the variables.
4. The hydraulic gradient of the cross section
(fig. 7) could be improved by constructing the
levees by piling wet sediment from the outside
and inside slopes, thus allowing the fine sedi-
ment to wash into the center of the fill such
as shown in figure 8a and b.
5. It is presumed that the hydraulic gradient of
5 to 1 is based on the normal creep ratio for
coarse sand, but in a dam of this type construc-
tion, the length along the hydraulic gradient and
the creep-ratio distance may approach each
other and sediment of finer grain-size, if placed
along the slopes of the levee with a core of
coarse sediments, may be a factor in frequent
failures of the levees.
6. "Material" in 6a should read "quartz sand and
locally associated sediments, free. .. Some
effort should be made to select fine-grained
sediment for use in the core of the dam and to
place this material so that natural sedimenta-
tion will result in the fines being concentrated
toward the center.
7. Some data are needed to establishthetime after
which abandoned slime-retaining areas are no
longer a danger. Such data should be incorpo-
rated in the minimum design specifications.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


8. Pensacola Bahia should be added to the list of
grasses to be used to stabilize levee slopes.

The phosphate companies are commended for their
courteous cooperation and for their recognition of the need
to meet the problems arising fromthe retention of phosphate
slime. The proposal of the recommended minimum design
standards and the stated acceptance of these -standards by
all of the operating phosphate companies will go far toward
insuring against failures of slime-retaining levees, and sub-
sequent pollution of the State's water resources. However,
the apparent weakness in guaranteeing that the State's water
and wildlife resources will not be damaged by inadvertent or
careless release of phosphate slimes lies in a lack of legal
control or supervision of the problem.

The members of the Governor's Committee feel that
much progress has been made in meeting the problem of
slime-disposal, but that one inherent weakness in control-
ling the problem is the absence of any method of enforcement.
Neither the State Board of Health, the Water Resources De-
partment, nor the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
are in a position to offer inspection service, and the Florida
Geological Survey has no enforcing section. The Committee,
therefore, favors leaving the determination of a satisfactory
design for retaining levees with the phosphate companies,
where it now rests, but would encourage conformity to an
approved design by penalizing failures through the automatic
assessment of costs to cover damages to any waterway.
Such costs could be based on the percentage of turbidity re-
sulting from the failure and the length of time such turbidity
persisted. Personnel of the State Board of Health and the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission are in the area and
could, with reasonable additional cost, undertake the sur-
veillance required. Any money recovered from the assess-
ment for costs of damages could be utilized in restocking the
areas damaged and inhelping to pay the cost of surveillance.


Rec ommendations

The Governor's Committee recommends the adoption
of the revised cross section (fig. 8a,b) into the minimum







FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 79


|AAV 9AW'rrff MWafn W s
Figure^,^ri--- 7.f>^ Riss to n of dam.


__W~l ^-Jff-' ---w *^ ^ -^ ^ ^




Figure 7. Recommended minimum cross section of dam.


MIN.
20'
TOP
s REEBOARDMIN.5'
SLOPE NOTGREATER TAN 2 I -- :. SLOPE OTGREATERTHAN 2:1
OUTSIDETOE : -INSIDETOE
BERM ,- :BERM,25MIN.
25 MIN. CORE-DITCH BORROW PIT
MIN. DEPTH, '
DRAINAGE DITCH
IMPROVED HYDRAULIC GRADIENT

B

Figure 8. Modified minimum cross section of dam.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


specifications for construction of phosphate-slime retention
dams by the phosphate companies and urges consideration
of the other suggestions listed above.

It also urges that the Attorney General of Florida be
requested to draft a bill that would penalize for failures of
slime-retaining dams, through an automatic assessment of
costs against the owner; such assessments to be used to
cover damages to waterways, fish and wildlife, in accord-
ance with the suggestions set forth herein.

(Signed) Robert O. Vernon, Director
Florida Geological Survey

David B. Lee, Director
Bureau of Sanitary Engineering
State Board of Health

John W. Wakefield, Director
Tallahassee, Florida Water Resources Department
September 23, 1960




Florida Resource Use Committee

In connection with the activities of this committee, of
which E. W. Bishop was a member, he and other members
of the Survey made a number of talks on the mineral re sources
of Florida. Messrs. Vernon and Bishop joined members
of the Department of Water Resources inpresenting the facts
on geologyandwater resources of Suwannee, Lake andHigh-
lands counties.


Florida State University

Several field trips were organized by the Survey per-
sonnel for the benefit of the students and faculty of Florida
State University, Department of Geology. Localities where
rock and shell deposits typical of the geology of the State






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


are exposed, were studied.

During both summers of the biennium, the Florida
State University Conservation Workshop included discussions
of the water resources of Florida. The discussion on ground
water was developed by Robert Vernon.

Messrs. Robert Vernon, Harbans Puri, Stanley Olsen
(all of the Florida Geological Survey), and M. I. Rorabaugh
of the U. S. Geological Survey, assisted in the development
of a program of studies leading to the granting of a Doctor
of Philosophy degree in geology. Each is a "participating
faculty" member and Mr. Olsen and Dr. Puri also participate
in the studies of the Department of Biology.

A course of study in ground-water hydrology was taught
by Mr. Rorabaugh, one in Ostracoda by Dr. Puri, and Mr.
Olsen and Dr. Vernon have directed individual studies.


Department of Water Resources

The Survey and Department of Water Resources per-
sonnel joined in developing methods for plugging and testing
wildlyflowing wells inCharlotte, Lee andSarasota counties.
These wells were producing artesian water, highly miner-
alized, at pressures high enoughtoflow at the ground surface.
Shallow casing allowed this water to move into shallow aq-
uifers, thus contaminating more potable, fresher water.
This was particularly true where these wells were closed
by valves.

Through the use of the Widco electric logger the Sur-
vey selected suitable impervious layers where cement plugs
could be placed to prevent the vertical flow of highly saline
waters. Cement plugs separated by clay was recommended
as a seal for the entire well. Some well drillers suggested
the use of finely ground limestone to fill the wells tothe base
of dense impervious layers where cement plugs could be
placed.

The Department of Water Resources sponsored the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


start of the Green Swamp inventory of water resources made
bythe U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey. On February 19, 1960, the Survey partici-
pated in a conference to review the progress of this work
and the results of aland use study to be madeby the Depart-
ment of Water Resources was also reviewed.

The two departments joined to present the water re-
source, geological and water control facts to conferences of
teachers in Lake, Suwannee and Dade counties.

The Survey prepared geologic and water-resource data
to be presented relative to water-control problems at:

1) Tavares relative to the creation of Little Ever-
glades Conservation District, Lake County;

2) Big Alligator Lake, Osceola County, where be-
cause of low water levels it was proposedto erect
a dam around sinks known to be present in the
basin to prevent further lowering, and the low
levels in the lake were found to result from low
rainfall;

3) Lake Mable, Polk County, where the average
high water level was found to be about 6 feet
above the level on January 15, 1959, a result of
low rainfall and use of water for irrigation;

4) Suwannee River, tothe feasibility of constructing
a sheet piling low-level overflow dam on the Su-
wannee River in the upper part of the watershed
to deepen the channel and make the river avail-
able for boating to near White Springs;

5) Lake Letta, Highlands County, and Lake Millsite,
Polk County, where the ordinary high water
levels were determined to assist in the resolu-
tion of land ownership disputes.






FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


State Board of Health

Radiological monitoring of the ground water of Florida:

The State Board of Health has established a net of wells
over the State to be sampled quarterly for the purpose of
determining changes in the radioactivity of the State's ground
water. The Survey assisted in selecting shallow and deep
wells evenly spaced over Florida that could be used for sam-
pling. Shallow wells terminated in sediments lying above
the Floridan artesian aquifer and deep wells terminated in
The artesian aquifer.

The Survey works closely with the Bureau of Sanitary
Engineering of the State Board of Health in providing details
on the subsurface formations, water and lake levels, and on
the porosity and permeability of the soils and rocks, particu-
larly as these relate to the functioning of drainage wells.
Permits for such wells are usually granted after submitting
the application to the Survey for review.

In areas where the water table is perched above the
artesian water level, drainage wells are possible. In such
areas, a well developed karst or sinkhole lake basins are
usually present and make the control and management of sur-
face waters difficult. Orange County is one of the areas
where poor surface drainage combined with the absence
of a county zoning control, and rapidly expanding housing
developments have resulted in strong pressures being placed
on the State Board of Health for the granting of an excessive
number of permits for drainage wells.

Because the ground water must be protected for a
water supply, great care has been exercised to insure the
safe disposal of surface waters in the ground. Where lake
levels are to be controlled, the elevation of the lake at high
water must be known, the location of all supply wells within
a wide radius and their depth must be known. An attempt
has been made in the Orlando and Orange County areas to
place alldrainage waters inthe contaminated upper aquifers
that are separated from a lower uncontaminated aquifer by
dense dolomite.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In an attempt to decrease the time required to obtain
a permit in the Orange County area, the Geological Survey
is preparing maps to show:

1. A maximum water level or piezometric surface
2. The top of the first porous limestone
3. The top of the hard dense dolomite that
separates the upper from the lower aquifer.

These maps can be used to predict whether the well will
function, how much casing is required and the depth to which
the well can penetrate.


U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

Current Program

The Florida Geological Survey and the Water Resources
Division of the U. S. Geological Survey have been cooperatively
engaged in investigations of Florida's water resources for a
number of years. This cooperation was continued during the
1959-60 biennium. These investigations arefor the purpose
of appraising the water resources of Florida, both as to
quantity and quality.

Basic data:

One part of making an appraisal of the water resources
of the State is the collection of basic data over a long period
of time. This part of the cooperative program consists of
the collection, interpretation, evaluation, and publication of
long-term records of lake and stream stages, stream and
spring discharge, ground-water levels, and quality of water,
on a statewide network of stations. The program with the
Florida Geological Survey is coordinated with programs of
other cooperating agencies to achieve the best coverage of
the State within the limits of available funds. Under the
data-collection part of the program the network of stations
has been extended to nearly every part of the State and as of
December 31, 1960 (fig.9-12) included: continuous records








FOURTEENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


MAP OF
FLORIDA
SHOWING
DISTRIBUTION OF OBSERVATION WELLS
IN THE STATE-WIDE NETWORK,
BY COUNTIES
EXPLANATION
1960 PROGRAM
2 Number of recording statons
2 Number of periodic stations

PROPOSED EXPANDED PROGRAM
3 Number of recording stations
S Number of periodic stations


Figure 9