Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Back Cover

Biennial report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000223/00008
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report of the Florida Geological Survey ( 8th-14th )
Physical Description: 11 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1951-1952
Copyright Date: 1970
Frequency: biennial
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Board of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1940)-14th (1959-1960).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ACB5800
oclc - 01956611
alephbibnum - 000376187
lccn - sn 87028635
System ID: UF00000223:00008
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    List of Illustrations
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Back Cover
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text

\'.\ 'I



MAY 2 0 1953



* -

State of Florida

Florida State Board of Conservation



of the


Covering Period
January 1, 1951 through December 31, 1952

Director and State Geologist

Tallahassee, Florida





Secretary of State


Superintendent of
Public Instruction

Attorney General


Commissioner of

Supervisor of Conservation



April 2, 1953

Herewith is the Tenth Biennial Report of the Florida Geological
Survey, a division of the Florida State Board of Conservation.
This report contains a brief review of the work of the Survey
during the two-year period 1951-1952, an outline of some of the
proposed investigations for the future, summaries of the mineral
production for 1950-1951, and the financial statement. By means
of this report we wish to outline to you, the State Board of Con-
servation, and the citizens of the State, the work and services of
the Florida Geological Survey and to express our appreciation
to the State officials, the mineral producers, and the citizens of
Florida, whose cooperation has made our job interesting to do
and beneficial to Florida.
Respectfully submitted,


Letter of Transmittal..--------- -------------............ 3
Introduction .........------------------------------------- 6
List of Florida Libraries .... ..------------------------------- 7-8
Florida Geological Survey Personnel -- ..........--------- 9-10
U. S. Geological Survey Personnel ------........--------- 11-12
Survey Quarters ---------------........------------ 12
Proposed Geology Center ---------------------- 14
Duties of the Florida Geological Survey- ----.............--- 16
Activities of the Survey ---------------------------- 18
Studies Published During the Biennium ----........... ----19-20
Manuscripts Prepared .....-----------------------.........- 21
Investigations in Progress ....................----------------------- 21-22
Plans for the Future .----------.....--..---- --------- 22
Associations and Conference Activity------------------- 23
Oil Exploration.-----......-----............----.....------------------- 23
Preservation of Rock Samples and Cores ------ ---------- 25
Water Well Contractors-----------.----- ------_ 26
Oil Well Operators -------------------..--------- 28
Cooperation with Other Agencies .....- ------------------ 29
U. S. Geological Survey ---- ..---...-------------.. 29
Ground Water Branch ...------------------- 29
Surface Water Branch.........-- .. -------------------.. 30
Quality of Water Branch .... ----------------- ---- 30
U. S. Bureau of Mines --------------------- --------------31
University of Florida ----------------------------------------- 31
Industrial and Experiment Station ----------..........---------------- 31
Biology Department ----------------- --------------------- 31
Florida State Board of Health.------------------ 32
Other Agencies---------------------------- 32
Florida Mineral Industries During 1950-51 --------------------------- 33
Phosphate Rock ------------------------------------------- 33
Limestone --.-.---.--.--------------------- -- 37
Clay -------------------------.-------- ----------- 40
Cement ............----------------...-----------------............ ...---------------- 42
Sand and Gravel ------------------------------- ------------- 42
Heavy Minerals ..------------------------------- 43
Petroleum ....... ..-----..............------..------------- 44
Peat .....-------------...............----------------- ----- 45
Ground Water -- ------------- -------..... .............---.. 45
Rock and Mineral Producers........-----------------------------------.... 47
Appropriations -------.- ..........-------. 51
Financial Statement --- --- -- ------------------ ....................................---------------------------------51
1951 ----------------- -------------.-----.............-...----....... 51
1952 ------- --------------------- ----.............................. .....................-------------_ ...------ 53



Aerial View, Bunnell Plant, Lehigh Portland Cement Company,
Flagler County, Florida...--......... ---.-.---.................---- ----Cover


Figure 1 Location of the Survey Quarters ...----.............--------------..--..... ... ... 13

2 Photograph of a Model of the Proposed Geology Center ..---- 15

3 The WIDCO Electric Logging Machine --------..-. ..-- 17

4 A Pumping Well in the Sunniland Oil Field----- 24

5 Value of Florida Mineral Products .....-------- ----- 34

6 Annual Production and Value of Phosphate ----............-.. 36

7 View of the Noralyn Phosphate Mine, Polk County ------ 38

8 Mining Phosphate at the Noralyn Mine ..........----------...... 39

9 Mining Fuller's Earth at the Corry Mine, Quincy, Gadsden
County .--- ---------- ---. --.-------- -------------- 41

Table 1 Summary of Mineral Production --- ....-- ------.........- 46


Tenth Biennial Report
of the
Florida Geological Survey


The Florida Geological Survey has been continuously active since
its establishment in 1907, but never in its history has it been more
active or in better shape for rendering service than during the
biennium being considered. Its services have been broadened and
improved and it has operated with greater efficiency and prompt-
ness. The information secured in numbers of specific instances
has been promptly released much to the satisfaction of the party
or community served.
Much of the time of the Director and his associates has been de-
voted to personal interviews in the office, to giving information
by letter and telephone, in conferences and in the performance
of field investigations. The public is availing itself of the oppor-
tunity of procuring data from the Survey regarding the mineral
and related resources of the State and as a consequence the work
of the Survey is becoming more widely known. Staff members
have attended public gatherings, conventions, resource study
groups, civic organizations, student advisory boards and have given
talks on the State's resources of minerals, ground water, geology
and on related subjects.
A steadily mounting number of mineral and rock materials has
been identified and water samples have been analyzed by Survey
personnel, and almost every large public school library in the State
has been furnished a set of characteristic minerals for the school's
use and display. A study set of seven books, issued by the Survey,
has also been supplied to these schools. The Survey geological li-
brary is believed to be the most complete and comprehensive of all
the specialized libraries in the Southeastern States. Many additions
have been made during the past two years to increase the total
books and pamphlets on file to more than 35,000 and the total
bibliography of papers represented will be several times this num-
ber. The library is available for reference work at the Survey
offices to all students of geology in the area and publications of
this Department have been placed in the following Florida libraries
to make them readily and permanently available to the reading



Babson Park-Webber College
Bartow-Bartow Public
Bay Pines-U. S. Veterans' Admin-
istration Center
Belle Glade-Everglades Experiment
Bradenton-Carnegie Public
Clearwater-Clearwater Public
Coral Gables-Coral Gables Public
University of Miami, General
Department of Geology
Marine Laboratory
Daytona Beach-Cornelia Young
Daytona Public
DeLand-Stetson University
DeLand Free Public
Eustis-Eustis Memorial
Fellsmere-Marion Fell
Fort Lauderdale-Fort Lauderdale
Fort Myers-Fort Myers Public
Gainesville-Gainesville Public
Florida Historical Society
University of Florida-
Department of Geology and
College of Engineering
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Department of Economics
Department of Mechanical
Department of Soils
General Extension Division
Florida State Museum
Florida Park Service
P. K. Yonge Laboratory School
P. K. Yonge Library of Florida
U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service
Jacksonville-Florida State Board of
Free Public
Jacksonville Junior College
U. S. Engineer Office

Lake Alfred-Citrus Experiment
Lakeland-Florida Southern College
Lakeland Public
Marianna-Florida Caverns State
Jackson County Public
Miami-Flagler Memorial
Miami Public
U. S. Geological Survey
Miami Beach-Miami Beach Public
Mount Dora-Mount Dora Public
Ocala-Ocala Public
U. S. Geological Survey
Orlando-Albertson Public
Palatka-Palatka Public
St. Augustine-St. Augustine Public
Saint Leo-Saint Leo Abbey
St. Petersburg-St. Petersburg Public
St. Petersburg Junior College
Sanford-Sanford Public
Tallahassee-Attorney General of
A. and M. College
Game and Fresh Water Fish
Florida State Library
Florida State University, General
Department of Geology
Water Surveys and Research
Division of the State Board of
U. S. Geological Survey
Tampa-Tampa Public
University of Tampa, General
Department of Biology
Department of Geology
Hillsborough Co. Historical
Museum I
West Palm Beach-West Palm Beach
Winter Haven-Winter Haven Public
Winter Park-Winter Park Public
Rollins College
Zellwood-Hampton Dubose Academy
Zephyrhills-Zephyrhills Public


Auburndale-Auburndale High
Baldwin-Baldwin High
Bay Harbor-Parker Junior High
Bonifay-Holmes County High
Brandon-Brandon Public
Brooker-Brooker Junior High
Carrabelle-Carrabelle High
Clearwater-St. Cecelia's School
Coral Gables-Ponce de Leon High
Cottage Hill-Cottage Hill High
Dade City-Pasco County High
DeLand-DeLand Senior High
Dunedin-Dunedin Junior High
Eau Gallie-Eau Gallie Public
Ft. Lauderdale-Ft. Lauderdale
Central High
Ft. Pierce-St. Lucie County High
Gainesville-Alachua County
Professional Library
Gainesville High
Gifford-Gifford High
Greensboro-Greensboro High
Greenville-Greenville High
Hastings-Hastings High
Jacksonville-Robert E. Lee High
Jacksonville Children's Museum
John Gorrie Junior High
Kirby-Smith Junior High
Landon Junior-Senior High
Matthews W. Gilbert High
Jay-Fidelis Junior High
Key West-Key West High
Kissimmee-Osceola High
Marianna-Marianna High
Mayo-Lafayette High
Lakeland-Institute for Vets. and
Adults of Polk County Public
Lakeland Senior High
Largo-Largo High

Leesburg-Leesburg Senior High
Macclenny-Macclenny-Glen High
Manatee-Manatee High
Miami Beach-Ida M. Fisher Junior
Nautilus School
Miami Beach High
Miami-Miami Edison Junior High
Robert E. Lee Junior High
Technical High
Shenandoah Junior High
Millville-Millville Grammar
Molino-Molino Junior High
Newberry-Newberry High
Orlando-Memorial High
Palatka-Putnam High
Panama City-Everitt Junior High
Jinks Junior High
Parker School
Pensacola-Brentwood School
Perry-Taylor County High
Plant City-Tomlin Junior High
Port St. Joe-Port St. Joe High
St. Cloud-St. Cloud High
St. Petersburg-South Side Junior
Sanford-Seminole High
Crooms Academy
Sarasota-Sarasota High
Seville-Seville High
Tallahassee-FSU Demonstration
Tampa-Booker T. Washington
Junior High
Memorial Junior High
West Palm Beach-Royal Palm
Palm Beach High
Winter Park-Winter Park High
Zephyrhills-Zephyrhills Public

The collections of shells, bones and other paleontological ma-
terials and mineral specimens have been steadily enlarged and
improved. Improved methods of storing these samples will make
them more readily available to students of Florida geology. Many
of the specimens have been displayed in the museum. More than
100 groups of school children, boy scouts, and girl scouts, were


given a guided lecture tour through the museum and an uncounted
but constant flow of individuals have visited the museum.
In the more technical and scientific fields, two projects were
completed in mineral utilization; fundamental geologic mapping
and mineral surveys were started and completed on five counties;
and 16 county resource papers on ground water, geology and
minerals were begun and seven were completed. Several cities
and counties were assisted in particularly vexing water problems,
and the well drillers throughout the State have been supplied
geologic descriptions of rock samples taken from wells that they
have drilled and supplied to the Survey for permanent filing and
continued study.
The well sample library now includes 2,899 wells and storage
space is rapidly being eliminated. More space must be found to
store these important records or some means of selecting the more
important cores and samples will have to be devised.


Herman Gunter
R. 0. Vernon
James L. Calver
Harold T. Chittum
Hans G. Naegeli
George E. Hadd, Jr.

Charles W. Hendry, Jr.
Herbert H. Winters

Louise Jordan

J. Clarence Simpson
Andrew J. Janson
Thomas K. Arnold

William E. Edwards

Robert E. Dickson

E. Corinne Little
Mary W. Blount

1, 1951 to December 31, 1952

(Resigned July 1, 1951
(Resigned January 31,
(February 9, 1951 to
December 9, 1951)

Director and State Geologist
Associate State Geologist
) Asst. Geologist
1951) Micro-Paleontologist

Asst. Geologist
Asst. Geologist

(Entered September 1,
1952) Vertebrate Paleontologist
(November 1, 1951 to
September 1, 1952 Paleontologist
(Deceased March 29, 1952)* Museum Curator
(Entered May 1, 1952) Museum Curator
(Temporary July 1, 1951 through
November 30, 1951) Field Assistant
(Temporary August 18, 1951 through
January 31, 1952) Field Assistant
(Temporary June 14, 1951 through
July 31, 1951) Field Assistant

* The death of J. Clarence Simpson, museum curator, archeologist, naturalist
and faithful Survey worker for almost 22 years, has saddened his host of
friends and left a vacancy on the staff that will be hard, if not impossible,
to fill. It is with regret that the Survey records his passing on the night
of March 29, 1952.


Mary Cathryn Novak
Henry C. Pitts

J. Wm. Cornelius

Lily Moore
Beatrice W. Shaw

Elene A. Pomeroy

Martha Ann Walker
John McBride

(Temporary, September 1, 1951 to
February 2, 1952) Asst. Bookkeeper
Conservation Dept.
(Entered July 1, 1952, Military
Leave December 31, 1952) Accountant
(Resigned, May 15, 1951) Librarian
(Temporary July 5, 1951 to
October 8, 1951) Librarian
(Temporary November 1, 1951 to
February 2, 1952) Librarian
(Entered October 1, 1952) Librarian

PART TIME WORKERS (A staff of nine is maintained)

Conyers, June
Cullison, James S., II

Dohm, Lars
Eaton, Bernard M.
Gardner, William E.
Godbold, Phillip R., Jr.

Gray, Richard C.
Holley, Henry S.

Howe, Bobby L.
Janson, Doryand P.
F. DeWitt Miller
Lester, Charles L.
Love, Donald W.

McCaskill, James N., Jr.

Padgett, Herbert R.

Peddie, Dorothy
Roehrig, Jo P.
Street, Vann E.
Whitehead, Don A.
Withers, Robert B.
Yon, James W., Jr.
Benedict, George E., Jr.

(Entered November 1, 1952) Secretary
(June 9, 1952 to
September 30, 1952) Asst. in Laboratory
(Entered November 1, 1952) Draftsman's Aide
(Resigned April 30, 1951) Asst. in Laboratory
(June 3, 1951 to September 1, 1951) Field Assistant
(July 1, 1951 to October 31,
1952) Asst. in Laboratory
(Resigned June 5, 1952) Micro-Paleontological Aide
(August 26, 1952 to
October 1, 1952) Draftsman's Aide
(Entered February 1, 1952) Asst. in Laboratory
(Entered June 19, 1952) Museum Assistant
(Military Leave August 9, 1952) Accountant
(Entered August 1, 1952) Asst. Accountant
(September 18, 1951 to
January 31, 1952) Asst. in Laboratory
(April 1, 1951 to
January 31, 1952) Asst. in Laboratory
(July 9, 1952 to
September 30, 1952) Draftsman's Aide
(June 23, 1952 to October 31, 1952) Secretary
(Entered October 27, 1952) Library Aide
(Entered October 1, 1952) Asst. in Laboratory
(Entered November 1, 1952) Asst. in Laboratory
(Resigned April 30, 1951) Asst. in Laboratory
(Entered June 16, 1952) Field Assistant
(Entered June 16, 1952) Contracted Field Surveyor

Moore, Wayne E. Geology of Jackson County
Puri, Harbans Special Studies of the
Eocene and Miocene
Oglesby,Woodson R., Jr. Geology of Gilchrist and
Dixie Counties

Special Research

Special Research

Special Research



Stationed in Florida, December 1952


District Office-Tallahassee
P. 0. Box 1233, New Dining Hall
Building, F.S.U. Campus,
Phone 3-1693

Hilton H. Cooper, Jr.
Ralph C. Heath
Harry M. Peek
Robert B. Anders
Eugene Derragon
Carl F. Essig, Jr.
Alberta Glover Williamson

Staff Engineer

District Office-Miami 33
P. 0. Box 348, Coconut Grove
Station, Dinner Key, South
Bayshore Drive. Phone 48-4564

Nevin D. Hoy
Howard Klein
Melvin C. Schroeder
Boris J. Bermes
Francis A. Kohout
Clarence B. Sherwood, Jr.
Kenneth L. Jackson
Ross A. Ellwood
Laura G. Pollard
Field Headquarters, Sebring
Ernest W. Bishop

District Engineer
Scientific Illustrator


District Office-Ocala
P. 0. Box 607, Building 211,
Camp Roosevelt
Phone MArion 2-6513

Archibald 0. Patterson
Roland W. Pride
Carl C. Yonker
Guy B. Harrell, Jr.
Richard C. Heath
William E. Kenner
William Richard Kidd, Jr.
James F. Bailey
R. Nigel Miller, Jr.

District Engineer

* A portion of the operating funds for the U.S.G.S. is provided by the Florida
Geological Survey.


Rufus H. Musgrove Engineer
Walter R. Murphy, Jr. Engineer
Milton S. Gardner Engineer-Aide
Ray E. Cunningham Engineer-Aide
Glenn R. Swope Engineer-Aide
Ernest K. Newbern Engineer-Aide
James R. Fort, Jr. Engineer-Aide
Florence D. Speir Clerk
Helen Jones McLain Clerk
Frances M. Baugh Clerk
Merle Spears Wesley Clerk-Typist
Area Office-Miami 33
P. 0. Box 348, 3316 Dinner Key Drive
Coconut Grove. Phone 48-4564
Donald L. Milliken Engineer-in-Charge
Albert G. Carter Engineer
Claiborne F. Galliher Engineer
Stanley D. Leach Engineer-Aide
Raymond S. Charnley Engineer-Aide
Joseph J. Gore, Jr. Engineer-Aide
Gladys W. Yetton Clerk-Stenographer
Area Office-Sebring
P. 0. Box 553, Highland
County Court House
Phone 5771
Robert L. Taylor Engineer-in-Charge
Robert C. Barrows Engineer
Warren Anderson Engineer
Robert A. Bird Engineer-Aide
Ruth Page Lansley Clerk-Typist

Area Office-Ocala
P. 0. Box 607, Building 211,
Camp Roosevelt
Phone MArion 2-6513
Eugene Brown Chemist-in-Charge
James W. Crooks Chemist

The offices of the Florida Geological Survey have been on the
campus of Florida State University since December, 1939, when
approximately 3,000 square feet were allocated for use by the
Survey through the courtesy of the State Board of Control. This
location has proved advantageous in a number of respects and
close cooperation is maintained between the State Survey, the








0 100 200 300 400
Scale in Fe*i

---Y _SPtIGWAY 90 ioiE7T !EPJ~ e 'IE 5




_ __ IT T

I [o~erriI~~]~LiI


0A. rauE

W ':C-LLL"," Av
0000,. i

*-ct~j~ Lj ___ z

Figure 1.


Geology Department of the University and the U. S. Geological
Survey, Ground Water Division. The location of these three de-
partments on the University campus is illustrated on figure 1.
With the constant expansion of the mineral industry in Florida
and the industrial growth of the State, the Survey is called upon
for more and more information on the mineral resource possi-
bilities that Florida offers. With urban and industrial growth in
the State, greater and greater volumes of both surface and ground
waters are utilized, and to give answers to these increasing needs
requires much study and at times detailed investigation. To meet
these demands the Survey has increased its staff as well as in-
creased the amount of cooperation with the U. S. Geological
Survey. With each expanded activity of the Survey, the need
for additional space was intensified and this need was met in part
by the allocation of additional space in University buildings by
the State Board of Control and by occupying approximately one-
third of the area in a Quonset Hut which was constructed on the
University campus by the Florida State Improvement Commission.
The Survey now occupies 10,455 square feet in four different
University buildings as follows:
Lower Old Dining Hall 5,000 square feet
Reynolds Hall basement 1,035 square feet
Dining Hall basement 2,500 square feet
(assigned to the U. S. Geological Survey for office
and storage)
Quonset Hut 1,920 square feet

Through informal conferences between the Board of Control,
the President of Florida State University, the Head of the Geology
Department, and staff members of the U. S. Geological Survey
and the State Geological Survey, plans were formulated in 1950
to house all three geological agencies in a unit on the campus of
the University to be known as the Geology Center (figure 2).
The portion of the plans that concerned the Florida Geological
Survey received the approval of the State Board of Conservation
and the Budget Commission and the 1951 Session of the Legisla-
ture approved of this building program by appropriating $350,000
for the Geology Department building. Funds for the State Geologi-
cal Survey buildings were to be obtained from income producing
certificates. Because in the opinion of the Attorney General, this
method of financing was not available to a State agency, it was .de-
cided to request the 1953 Session of the Legislature for a direct


i jd

gure 2. Photograph of a model of the proposed Geology Center. Funds for the construction of the University building
are available and those for the Museum and State buildings are being requested from the 1953 Legislature.


appropriation to complete the Geology Center. The State Board
of Conservation and the Budget Commission have approved of
this plan and building program request. If the Geology Center
plans are carried to successful termination, the Geological Survey
would be adequately and conveniently housed and close cooperation
between the Florida State University Department of Geology, the
State Geological Survey and the U. S. Geological Survey would con-
tinue to the mutual benefit of each organization.
As illustrated in the model of the Geology Center, figuree 2) the
offices of the Survey would be located in a prominent place on the
University campus at the corner of Woodward Avenue and Ten-
nessee Street. At this location not only would the offices of the
U. S. Geological Survey and the Florida Geological Survey be
readily accessible to visitors, but also the Museum Building would
be equally available to the public and students.
In its creative act, the Survey is charged with the responsibility
of maintaining a museum to exhibit the geology and mineral re-
sources of the State. In compliance with the laws, an exhibition
room has been maintained in which some specimens could be viewed
by the public. The construction of a Museum building in which
materials could adequately be displayed would be of inestimable
value for educational purposes. The average person could get a
rapid picture of the mineral resources and geology of the State
in a short time spent in the Geology Survey Museum.

Florida, rarely considered among the mining States, ranked
28th in 1949 in the Nation in total value of the mineral produc-
tion, and if the value of mineral fuels is disregarded the State
would rank 18th in the production of industrial minerals. The
mineral industry, ranking second in the productive industries of
the State, exceeded only by agriculture and citrus growing, is of
vital importance to the State and its welfare must be maintained
through the discovery of additional deposits of known mineral
wealth, new deposits of minerals not now being mined, and by the
development of new uses of all the State's minerals.
The State Legislature of 1907 established the present Survey
and it is the only State organization charged with the duty of
investigating and reporting on the geology and mineral resources,
the latter including ground water, oil and gas, and various metallic
and non-metallic minerals. The Survey has regulatory and law-
enforcement powers only through the Oil and Gas Division of





Figure 3. The WIDCO electric logging machine in operation at Orlando, Florida. Photograph courtesy of Clyde Free-
man, well contractor.

k A


the State Board of Conservation, the regulation being administered
by the Survey.
The primary function of the Geological Survey is to secure by
proved scientific and technological methods fundamental data on
the mineral and water resources of this State and to make this
information available to any interested person, companies, schools,
chambers of commerce or similar groups. This information may
be distributed by letter, phone, conferences, talks before groups,
by papers published in current journals, and through publications
issued by the Survey.

The field and laboratory work is done by both permanent and
temporary personnel, but much of the time of the permanent staff
is taken with correspondence, visitors, conferences, and visits with
interested groups. All of the time of the research and temporary
employees is devoted to field and laboratory work. Some of the
temporary workers are candidates for graduate degrees at large
Universities and the Survey obtains a good technical report at
lesser cost by providing a stipend for these workers to attend school
and giving them a per diem while in the field.
The Survey through its knowledge of the hydrology and geology
of the State and by use of specialized equipment such as the
WIDCO electric logging machine (figure 3), flow meters and soil
auger has contributed to the improvement of existing water
supplies and the development of new and improved supplies for
numerous cities, particularly Port St. Joe, Wildwood, Leesburg,
Orlando, Live Oak, Green Cove Springs, Gainesville, Graceville,
Bonifay, Chipley, Tallahassee, and Cocoa, and for Pinellas, Hills-
borough, and Manatee counties. This work was in addition to
the work on ground water reported as a cooperation with the
U. S. Geological Survey.
All projects conducted by the Survey are directed toward the
discovery of rocks, minerals, fuel, and water that will be useful
now or in the future in the industrial expansion and social growth
of the State. Regional studies provide data useful in all geologic
studies, in land evaluation, in land classification, and in the con-
servation of our resources. Local projects are more restricted
and provide greater details on this type of information.



Applin, Paul; Berdan, Jean; Bridge, Josiah; Jordan, Louise; Vernon, R. 0.;
Hoy, Nevin D.; and Schroeder, Melvin C. and others.
Mimeographed report prepared for the Forty-fourth Annual meeting
of the Association of American State Geologists, Tallahassee, Florida,
116 pp., 5 pls., 7 tables, 8 figs., April 1952.
A generalized but complete discussion of the geology of Florida, written
by members of the Federal and State Surveys.

Cooper, H. H. Jr., and Stringfield, V. T., Economic Aspects of Ground Water
in Florida, Mining Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 3-11, June 1951.
Mr. Cooper, Staff Engineer, and Mr. Stringfleld, Head of the Geologic
Section Ground Water Division, U. S. Geological Survey, estimated that 177
billion gallons of ground water is used annually for industrial, municipal,
domestic and irrigation supplies, a most valuable mineral resource. Although
abundant, there is a need for adequate investigations to provide information
required for wise and careful planning for its development and conservation.
Fischer, A. G. The Echinoid fauna of the Inglis member, Moodys Branch
formation, Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 34, Pt. 2, 56 pp., 7 pls., 3 tables, 18 figs.,
June 1951.
The Inglis member, basal upper Eocene, contains 16 specimens of Echinoids
including Cassidulus globosus n. sp.. and Periarchus lyelli floridanus n. sub. sp.
Greaves-Walker, A. F., Bugg, S. L., and Hagerman, R. S., The Development
of Lightweight Aggregate from Florida Clays, in cooperation with the
Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of
Florida, Engineering Progress, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 1951.
Some of the clay samples tested during this study were collected and
submitted by the Florida Geological Survey. Laboratory tests and a pilot
plant test of one clay indicate that most Florida clays can be bloated and
concrete aggregate meeting specifications can be produced. Sintering ma-
chines are favored over rotary kilns in the production of the aggregate.
Gunter, Herman, Exploration for Oil and Gas in Florida, Fla. Geol. Survey
Infor. Cir. No. 1 (Revised), 1950 Supp., 25 pp., 1 table, 2 figs., January
Summary of drilling and production of oil in Florida during 1950.
Gunter, Herman, Exploration for Oil and Gas in Florida, Fla. Geol. Survey
Infor. Cir. No. 1 (Revised), 1951 Supp., 11 pp., 1 table, 1 fig., January
Summary of drilling activity and the production of oil in Florida during
Heath, Ralph C., and Clark, William E., Potential Yield of Ground Water on
the Fair Point Peninsula, Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. of Investigations No. 7,
Pt. 1, 56 pp., 3 tables, 10 figs., June 1951.
The Fair Point Peninsula is underlain by two shallow aquifers, separated
by clay. The upper aquifer is the principal source for existing supplies and


is recommended for a public supply. Mr. Heath, geologist and Mr. Clark,
engineer, U. S. Geological Survey, Ground Water Branch, Tallahassee.
Howe, H. V., New Tertiary Ostracode Fauna from Levy County, Florida, Fla.
Geol. Survey Bull. 34, Pt. 1, 43 pp., 5 pls., June 1951.
Descriptions of seven new genera, thirty new species and one new variety
from a sample of carbonate clay taken from the Avon Park limestone, middle
Eocene, in the New Lebanon dolomite quarry, Levy County, Florida. Dr.
Howe, Director of the School of Geology, Louisiana State University, kindly
consented to make this study.

Hoy, Nevin D., and Schroeder, Melvin C., Tamiami formation near Miami,
-Florida, Journ. of Geology, vol. 60, no. 3, May 1952. (In cooperation
with the U. S. Geological Survey).
The large portion of what was referred to by previous workers as Tamiami
is thought by Hoy and Schroeder, geologists U. S. Geol. Survey, to be more
properly of the Fort Thompson formation and Pleistocene in age.

Jordan, Louise and Hendry, Charles W. Jr., Oil and Gas Test Wells in Florida
and adjacent counties of Alabama and Georgia, Dry Hole Map-41 by 60
Map includes all oil wells completed prior to September 1, 1952. The
operator, fee, elevation and total depth are given for each well. Blue and
black line prints of the map may be purchased through the Florida Geological
Survey for $2.50 per copy and reproducible paper prints can be bought for
$7.50 per copy.

Peek, Harry M., Cessation of Flow of Kissengen Spring, Fla. Geol. Survey
Rept. of Investigations No. 7, Pt. 3, 9 pp., 6 figs., June 1951.
The hydraulic development and conditions leading to the gradual reduction
of flow in Kissengen Spring, near Bartow, Polk County, are discussed. Mr.
Peek is a geologist with the Ground Water Division, U. S. Geological Survey,

Stringfield, V. T., and Cooper, H. H. Jr., Geologic and Hydrologic features of
an Artesian Submarine Spring East of Florida, Fla. Geol. Survey Rept.
of Investigations No. 7, Pt. 2, 16 pp., 6 figs., June 1951.
Two submarine springs, one off Crystal Beach, Pinellas County, and the
other off Crescent Beach, St. Johns County, are described, and the hydrologic
conditions required for their operation are discussed. Mr. Stringfield is Chief
Geologist of the Geology Section. Mr. Cooper is Staff Engineer, Ground Water
Branch, U. S. Geological Survey.

Vernon, R. 0., The Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida, Fla. Geol.
Survey Bull. 33, 256 pp., 2 pls., 20 tables, 40 figs., June 1951.
The report is a detailed study of the geology of Citrus and Levy counties, a
critical area in Florida geology, the oldest rock in the State cropping out in
the area along the crest of the Ocala uplift. The study is more comprehensive
than the title indicates and includes considerable discussion of the geology
and physiography of the State. Detailed sections and maps contribute to the
text discussion.


Bermes, Boris J., Geology and Ground Water Resources of Indian River
County, Florida.
Bishop, Ernest W., Geology and Ground Water Resources of Highlands
County, Florida.
Bullen, Ripley P., Eleven Archeological Sites in Hillsborough County, Florida.
Fischer, Alfred G., Petrology of Eocene limestones in and around the Citrus-
Levy County Area, Florida.
Greaves-Walker, A. F., and Welch, A. P., The Development of Mineral Wool
from Florida Minerals.
Heath, Ralph C., and Smith Peter C., Ground Water Resources of Pinellas
County, Florida.
Moore, Wayne, The Geology of Jackson County, Florida.
Neill, Robert M., and Schroeder, Melvin C., The Geology and Ground Water
Resources of Brevard County.
Odom, Howard T., Dissolved Phosphorous in Florida Waters.
Peek, Harry M., The Artesian Water of the Ruskin Area of Hillsborough
County, Florida-Interim Report.
Richards, Horace G., and Palmer, Katherine V. W., Eocene Mollusks from
Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida, with a note on a New Crab Claw by
Henry B. Roberts.
Schroeder, Melvin C., Milliken, Donald L., and Love, S. K., Water in Palm
Beach County, Florida.
U. S. Geological Survey-Annual Water Level Report-1950.
U. S. Geological Survey-Annual Water Level Report-1951.

DECEMBER 31, 1952
Studies of the geology and water resources of Lee, Charlotte, Hendry,
Martin, St. Lucie and Seminole counties and of the western Everglades are
being made by members of the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with
the Florida Geological Survey.
James L. Calver is continuing his study of the mineral resources, produc-
duction, and economic status of Florida mines and production.
Woodson R. Oglesby, Jr. has completed the field work on the geology of
Dixie and Gilchrist counties and is currently studying the field samples,
plotting maps, working wells and preparing the manuscript.
Robert 0. Vernon and Charles Hendry, Jr., have begun the study of the
geology of the Florida Panhandle, during which several intervals will be
isopached and several structural maps will be prepared.
Herman Gunter and Charles Hendry are tabulating oil well data and this
information will be used to bring the Survey dry-hole map up to date peri-
Harbans S. Puri has about completed his zonation of the Ocala group
in Florida and his "Contribution to the Study of the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle" and "Ostracode fauna of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle"
are almost in the form of manuscripts.


The reorganization of the micropaleontological library and slide file was
begun in 1952, and this work is being continued. The entire collection of
microfauna is being uniformly mounted and organized. New cards and
cross indexes are being made and the library will be made more accessible
and useful.
The geologic library is being completely inventoried and a specialized index
card system, recommended by the Florida State University Library School,
is being made.
Herbert Winters has begun the classification, reorganization and identi-
fication of all vertebrate remains on file in the Survey museum. This work
has been needed for many years and with its completion the museum will
be in a position to display a large and valuable collection of these fossils
adequately and more intelligently.
William Yon is continuing his study of the Hawthorn formation, particu-
larly of that portion exposed along U. S. Highway 90, between Chattahoochee
and the Suwannee River. Bore holes have been placed along the road at
regular intervals to supplement the data gotten from road exposures. With
the preparation of a geologic section and the projection of nearby deep water
wells some data will be available on the mass and volume of sediments rep-
resented by the Hawthorn in the area. The character of the sediments and
their relationships to each other and to the underlying beds also will be
The daily tabulation of data on surface and subsurface geology, mineral
deposits, ground water and surface water measurements together with con-
tacts with the public are continuing.

It is hoped that the Survey will be able to employ an invertebrate paleon-
tologist in June, 1953. The large collection of shells owned by the Survey
i_ inadequately classified and organized. The paleontologist will do this work
and it is felt that if some private collectors can be shown that the Survey
has adequate personnel and storage space to properly care for such shells,
many splendid collections will be given to the museum.
Should more oil be discovered in Florida or should exploration continue
to increase it will be imperative that the services of a petroleum engineer
be obtained to administer the Rules and Regulations of the State Board of
Conservation and insure that no damage to the State will result from improper
drilling and production practices.
It is planned to investigate the paleoecology of the sediments of the
southern Florida area. This study will contribute fundamental data on the
geologic history of the area, useful particularly in water development prac-


Members of the Florida Geological Survey are affiliated and
have attended conferences and meetings of most major State and
National geologic and related societies. These societies, confer-
ences, and committees include the Geological Society of America,
the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the Society of
Economic Paleontologists and Geologists, the American Association
of State Geologists of which the Director is President, the Amer-
ican Water Works Association, the American Institute of Mining
and Metallurgical Engineers, the Mineralogical Society of America,
the American Association for the Advancement of Science,
the Research and Coordinating Committee of the Oil Compact
Commission, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontologists, the South-
eastern Geological Society, the Florida Engineering Society, the
Florida Academy of Sciences, the Florida Council for Industry
and Commerce, the Director being a Consultant Member, the
Florida Mapping Council, the Florida Resource Use Education
Committee, Sigma Xi and Phi Beta Kappa.

Exploratory activities in Florida, during 1951, continued the
downward trend begun in 1950. Three tests were started and
drilled to completion, one well was deepened that was abandoned
in 1944, two were drilling on December 31, and of two that were
begun prior to 1951, one was active at 3,563 feet and operations
were suspended on the other. Of the completed wells, all were
dry and abandoned. Five permits were issued during the year.
Oil prospecting, during 1952, showed an encouraging increase
over the preceding year. Following the discovery of oil at Pollard,
Alabama, renewed leasing activity began in western Florida, from
Escambia County eastward to the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola
rivers. Refined methods in seismic exploration accelerated geo-
physical activity throughout the State. Ten wells were completed
in 1952, all of which were dry and abandoned, and three wells
begun before January 1, were not completed.
All of the wells drilled in Florida and adjacent counties of Ala-
bama and Georgia prior to September 1, 1952, have been plotted
on a dry hole map. This map can be purchased through the Survey.


Figure 4. A rework derrick and pumping well in the Humble Oil and Refining
Company's Sunniland Oil Field, Collier County.
-Photograph courtesy of the Florida News Bureau.

, ^ *"-


The Florida Geological Survey well sample library now includes
2,899 water and oil exploratory wells. Many of these wells are
over two miles deep and one reached a depth of 15,455 feet.
Samples of cores are taken at intervals as close as one foot and
the samples of the rock broken by a bit are taken at intervals of
about thirty feet in oil wells and at five to ten feet in water wells.
These samples are saved voluntarily by the water-well contractors
and oil-well contractors are required by law to supply the Survey
with a representative cut of all cores and cuttings, although in
many cases this would be done voluntarily. The Survey has col-
lected in this manner a vast amount of information from all parts
of the State. These samples give important leads to mineral
deposits. They are used to locate the best bed in an area from
which water can be produced, and similarly are used to locate
sources of contamination and other troubles that may develop in
a water supply well. The primary use, however, is in the develop-
ment of the knowledge of the geologic history and structure of
the State, particularly as these may relate to the discovery and
production of oil and other mineral wealth. The first stop for
any oil worker moving into the State is at the sample library,
where a considerable portion of his time is spent in working the
wells and plotting the information to obtain structural, isopachous
and facies maps.
The conclusion can not be avoided that geology and the State
have lost and will continue to lose much fundamental data when
samples from wells in the State are not preserved and forwarded
to the Survey for permanent housing. The samples the Survey
has now and those that it will obtain will be of value in oil ex-
ploration for many years to come, and will have an increasing
economic and scientific value the total amount of which can not
now be predicted. The starting point of any oil exploration is
samples from wells drilled thirty-five to forty years ago, samples
that were saved because of their fundamental scientific value,
certainly not because these dry holes offered any encouragement
of oil production at that time.
The preservation of such valuable samples requires a large
storage space and where this is lacking, the demands may become
so exacting that relief must be obtained. The most obvious relief
would be by discarding those samples that are no longer of value
for immediate studies. The loss by such action would be felt
throughout the coming years, and the loss to science and possibly

. 25


to industry would be disproportionably large. A proposed geology
building (fig. 2) will provide additional, badly needed space for
this well storage.
The survey is indebted to its many friends in the well-contracting
industry who have unselfishly given of their time and money in
providing such an excellent well-sample library. The following
water-well contractors and oil operators saved samples of rock
cuttings and cores for the Survey during the biennium:


Ace Well Drillers, Inc.
3400 S. Federal Highway
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Acme Drilling & Equipment
Rt. 3, Box 94
Lake City, Florida
Adams Drilling Company
Rt. 3, Box 259A
Sarasota, Florida
Mr. H. J. Adkison
Santa Rosa, Florida
Mr. G. M. Arie
Oviedo, Florida
B. & B. Well Drillers
1306-08 26th Avenue
Tampa, Florida
Mr. Chester M. Beeles
Arcadia, Florida
Ben Lovelace and Company
3904 E. Hillsborough Avenue
Tampa, Florida
Mr. John Bidwell
Sebring, Florida
Mr. J. J. Bottleman
Belleview, Florida
Mr. Earl E. Boyette
Ruskin, Florida
Mr. C. D. Cannon
Palmetto, Florida
Mr. E. J. Carlisle
Cottondale, Florida
Mr. J. P. Carroll
206 First Street
West Palm Beach, Florida
Central Florida Well Drillers
P. 0. Box 1903
Orlando, Florida
Mr. Kenneth L. Corbin
Invernzes, Florida

Mr. Curtis A. Dansby & Son
Auburndale, Florida
Mr. E. W. Dansby
Wauchula, Florida
Mr. L. H. Deason
DeLeon Springs, Florida
Mr. A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida
Duval Drilling Company
6505 Normandy Blvd.,
Jacksonville, Florida
Duval Engineering and Contracting
Jacksonville, Florida
Duval Lumber Company
Pensacola, Florida
Mr. B. V. Dye
Venice, Florida
Farm & Home Machinery Company
430 W. Robinson Avenue
Orlando, Florida
Florida Water Well & Supply Com-
Box 1017
Bartow, Florida
Mr. P. E. Fossler
904 NW 3rd Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Mr. F. F. French
Longwood, Florida
Gardenhire Brothers
Bartow, Florida
Gray Artesian Well Company
Pensacola, Florida
Mr. L. M. Gray
815 West Lafayette Street
Marianna, Florida
Mr. Merrel Gray
Uvalda, Georgia


Gray Well & Pump Company
904 Garfield Street
Jacksonville, Florida
Mr. Ernest Hamilton
Lake Monroe, Florida
Mr. J. J. Hare
Micanopy, Florida
Mr. M. G. Hodges
Sanford, Florida
Hurst Drilling & Equipment
1429 NW 7th Avenue
Miami, Florida
Mr. D. 0. Jackson
Rt. 1
Bradenton, Florida
Mr. E. W. Kelsey
Lake Placid, Florida
Kiser Drilling Company
401 NW 29th Street
Miami 37, Florida
Knight and King Drilling Company
Vero Beach, Florida
Mr. J. W. Kriska & Son
Seffner, Florida
Layne-Atlantic Company
Box 356
Albany, Georgia
Layne-Atlantic Company
P. 0. Box 2431
Orlando, Florida
Layne-Central Company
101 N. "0" Street
Pensacola, Florida
Mr. Buck McCormick
Ruskin, Florida
W. R. McGrew & Company
Thomasville, Georgia
Libby and Freeman Company
711 W. Church Street
Orlando, Florida
L. E. Lynn & Son
Auburn & Armenia Avenue
Tampa 4, Florida
Mr. A. H. Marquardt
Haines City, Florida
Mr. M. M. Martin
Okeechobee, Florida
May Artesian Well Drilling Company
4114 E. Broadway
Tampa, Florida

May Brothers Well Drilling Company
4200 E. Broadway
Tampa, Florida
Mr. Frank A. May
2717 32nd Street
Tampa, Florida
Mr. L. W. Mercer
7911 N. 40th Street
Tampa, Florida
Meridith Brothers
P. 0. Box 470
Orlando, Florida
Miller Drilling & Supply Company
Leesburg, Florida
Mr. Clinton Morrill
Ruskin, Florida
Mr. F. A. Nelson
Leesburg, Florida
H. W. Peerson Drilling Company
Birmingham, Alabama
Mr. R. C. Pemelman
Rt. 1
Bradenton, Florida
W. R. Perry Drilling Company
123 W. Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida
Pinellas Machine Company, Inc.
838 3rd Street South
St. Petersburg, Florida
Mr. 0. J. Pippin
Vero Beach, Florida
Mr. T. G. Redmond
2475 52nd Avenue North
St. Petersburg, Florida
Mr. A. D. Rosier
Sanford, Florida
Mr. Al Rudsit
P. 0. Box 41
Largo, Florida
Mr. Al Sandidge
Ruskin, Florida
Seabrook Hardware Company
Tallahassee, Florida
Mr. Francis Smith
P. 0. Box 141
Ocala, Florida
Mr. B. F. Stahly
6350 46th Avenue, North
St. Petersburg, Florida


Stevens Southern Company
2555 W. Beaver Street
Jacksonville, Florida
Mr. R. G. Thomas
5905 78th Avenue North
Pinellas Park, Florida
Tracy Plumbing Company
232 West Irvin
Orlando, Florida
Mr. H. J. Tucker
Ruskin, Florida
Mr. Kenneth Turley
P. O. Box 1151
Lake Alfred, Florida

Vickers Well Drilling Company
10836 NW 7th Avenue
Miami, Florida
Whatley Pump & Well Company
Rt. 1, Box 40
Bartow, Florida
Mr. Riley Willis
1011 E. Norfolk Street
Tampa, Florida
Mr. Waring Wyche
Madison, Florida
Zeto Well Drilling Company
2102 E. Caracas Street
Tampa, Florida


The California Company
Box 360
Natchez, Mississippi
Commonwealth Oil Company
615 SW 2nd Avenue
Miami, Florida
Gulf Refining Company
P. 0. Box 1731
Shreveport, Louisiana
Humble Oil & Refining Company
P. 0. Box 626
New Orleans, Louisiana
I. P. and Fred LaRue
503 Blount Building
Pensacola, Florida
Lyle Cashion Company
1043 Poplar Boulevard
Jackson, Mississippi

Morgan & Borden
Shreveport, Louisiana
R. E. Skinner
P. 0. Box 2939
Tampa, Florida
C. L. Smith
Grove Hill, Alabama
Sun Oil Company
P. 0. Box 186
Tallahassee, Florida
Sunnyland Contracting Company, Inc.
P. 0. Box 624
Rayne, Louisiana
A. R. Temple-A. W. Williams
Inspection Company
2302 W. Beach
Biloxi, Mississippi


The investigations of the ground-water resources of Florida
which are made cooperatively by the Florida Geological Survey
and the United States Geological Survey were continued during
the 1951-52 biennium. The most important phase of these investi-
gations is probably the program of systematic observations of
water levels in selected wells throughout Florida. These records
indicate the extent to which the ground-water resources are being
recharged by rainfall in areas known to be "recharge areas," and
also the extent to which they are depleted by heavy pumping, or
by drainage canals, as in southern Florida. In coastal areas,
where ground-water reservoirs are in danger of encroachment by
sea water, these records of water level changes are particularly
useful in determining potential sources of salt water contamination
to the underground reservoirs. In areas of existing salt-water
intrusion, water level measurements and chloride measurements
of the ground water can be used to estimate future extent of the
contaminated zone.
Records of the altitude and fluctuations of the water levels in
wells are obtained by making measurements at regular intervals,
or by installing automatic water-stage recorders which give a
continuous record of the changes in water level. At the end of
1950, a total of 775 wells were under regular observation. At the
end of 1952, the total was approximately 760. The number of
wells equipped with automatic water-stage recorders was increased
from 114 to 132. Periodic measurements were made on approxi-
mately 628 wells during 1952.
To determine the extent and rate of movement of salt-water
encroachment, which usually occurs quite slowly, water samples
are periodically collected and analyzed for salt content. In south-
ern Florida, where the problem of salt-water encroachment is
particularly critical, water samples have been regularly obtained
and analyzed for salt content since about 1939. During the past
biennium, over 4,000 such samples were collected and analyzed,
of which about 3,600 were in the critical southern Florida area.
Areal investigations of the geology and ground-water resources
of various parts of the State were continued during the past
biennium. These investigations are usually restricted to one or
two counties and require several years to complete. The results


of each investigation are published in reports of the Florida
Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey, and
in papers in technical journals. These reports provide informa-
tion that enables a more profitable utilization of the ground-water
Reports of investigations in Highlands County, Indian River
County, the Naples area and the Fair Point Peninsula of Santa
Rosa County were either published or transmitted to Washington
for review during the past biennium. An interim report on the
investigation now underway in Hillsborough County was published
by the Florida Geological Survey, early in 1953. A report on
the ground-water resources of Pinellas County has been revised
and readied for publication during the biennium. Two smaller
reports on special investigations were published by the Florida
Geological Survey during 1951. They dealt with an artesian spring
east of Florida and the cessation of flow of Kissengen Spring in
Polk County.
Investigations of the ground-water resources were continued
in Hillsborough, Manatee, Seminole, Lee, Charlotte, Glades and
Hendry counties, and studies of the geology of the Everglades is
approaching completion. Studies of the geology and ground water
in Martin and St. Lucie counties were begun.
The large part of the funds for cooperation with the Surface
Water Branch of the United States Geological Survey is provided
by other State Departments. The State Survey contributed to
the measurements of flows and levels of springs and to the collec-
tion of water samples in certain areas for analysis. This work
is being continued.
This branch of the United States Geological Survey analyzes
all water samples, submitted by the other branches of the Survey.
This analytical work has been hindered by delays brought about
by the location of the laboratory in Washington, D. C. The
analytical and consulting services of the Branch was less than
satisfactory. In order to ease the work load in Washington and
to provide prompt and better service in the State, it was decided
to locate a Quality of Water Laboratory in Florida. During 1952,
the laboratory was located in Ocala, Florida, adjacent to the
offices of the Surface Water Branch. Dr. Eugene Brown is the
chemist in charge and James W. Crooks is the assisting chemist.
An increased activity in water analyses and consultation is expected


in Florida for the next biennium. The Florida Survey provided
part of the funds for the erection of the laboratory and also sup-
ported a sample station on the Escambia River at Century.
For many years the Survey has cooperated with the United
States Bureau of Mines in the collection of mineral statistics and
has served as consultant on the development of Florida minerals.
This work is continuing and the Bureau has proposed a new con-
tract whereby the State receives the tabulation of resources directly
from the mineral producers before forwarding to the Bureau.
In the past, the Bureau has tabulated all figures, receiving the
reports directly from the producers, before forwarding them to
the State Survey. This has meant considerable delay in the
release of figures and the reporting of producers directly to the
State will help in releasing the figures more promptly.
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
During the biennium, several samples of Florida clays, dolomites,
limestones and phosphatic clays were collected by Survey personnel
and forwarded to the ceramic laboratory of the Engineering and
Industrial Experiment Station for testing. One program of de-
veloping a bloated aggregate from Florida clays was completed
and published as Station Bulletin 30. Another program of develop-
ing rock wools from Florida minerals was jointly financed by the
Station and Survey, and the report of this work is in manuscript
form. The Survey recommended the rocks to be tested and
collected the samples. The Station tested them and studied the
economics of the prospects. Mining difficulties and characteristics
of the deposits can be obtained from the Survey.
Biology Department
Howard T. Odom, Assistant Professor of Biology, University
of Florida, began making analyses of Florida surface water in
1952, a cooperative project financed by the State Survey. This
study was undertaken to determine the range and distribution of
phosphate dissolved in Florida waters, to estimate the resultant
productivity of these waters, to determine if phosphate fertiliza-
tions of Florida water can be beneficial to water life, and finally
to determine if the areal extent of phosphate rock deposits controls
the fertility of waters that pass across beds or the waters into
which such streams empty. The report has been submitted for
review and will be published soon.


The State Sanitary Code, adopted by the State Board of Health
in 1941, requires that samples of rock cuttings must be submitted
to the Florida Geological Survey from all public water supply
and drainage wells. The Survey has consulted with the Board
of Health on many municipal problems and in turn has benefitted
through the interest of Board Personnel in Survey work. All data
on public wells are permanently filed and are available in over-
coming future trouble in the well field. Electric logs have been
run in all of the municipal and county wells on which our assistance
was sought and these are invaluable in more fully understanding
the hydrology and geology of any area.
Interest in the work of numerous other State agencies has been
maintained, and this has resulted in increasing interest in the
Survey work. Cooperation with the State Chemist, Department
of Education, County Schools, State Road Department, Florida
Forest Service, the Park Service, the Advertising Commission,
the Improvement Commission, and the various soil services and
departments was continued during the biennium.


Statistics Collected in Cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Mines
The development of the mineral industry in Florida, its continued
growth and diversification are dependent upon the utilization of
materials ordinarily classified as nonmetallic minerals. The fore-
most mineral products of the State are phosphate, limestone, sand
and gravel, fuller's earth, kaolin, cement, heavy minerals including
ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite, petroleum, peat, and abundant
supplies of ground water. There has been a tremendous increase
in the production of minerals and rock materials in Florida and
during recent years the value at the mines and quarries for these
products increased approximately 450 per cent from 1940 to 1950
as illustrated in Figure 5. This rate of increase in value is more
than double that of the national average. The annual total value
of the State's mineral production as reported by the U. S. Bureau
of Mines is as follows:
Year Value
1940 $ 14,854,000
1941 19,269,000
1942 20,304,000
1943 ---------------- 25,070,000
1944 21,852,000
1945 24,995,000
1946 31,093,000
1947 45,992,000
1948 53,654,000
1949 54,998,000
1950 67,717,000
1951 -------(partially estimated) 77,660,000
This remarkable expansion was made possible through an increase
in the quantity and value of all mineral and rock products produced.
Of the mineral products mined in Florida, phosphate easily takes
first place both in value and in quantity. Production began in
1888, and since 1894 when it replaced South Carolina, Florida
has consistently produced more phosphate rock than any other
state. During the interval from 1888 to 1950 inclusive, 140,850,304
long tons of phosphate have been mined at a total recorded value
at the mines of $1,027,634,873. During 1950 and 1951, the pro-
duction record of the phosphate industry reached new highs, and
continued to overshadow the records of the other mineral indus-
tries in the State. The total quantity of land-pebble, hard-rock. and

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 I1



soft-rock or colloidal phosphate that was sold or used by producers
reached 8,085,870 long tons in 1950, and 8,496,831 long tons in
1951. The value at the mines as reported by the producing com-
panies for these quantities of raw phosphate rock amounted to
$45,377,842 in 1950, and $50,262,652 in 1951. The history of the
phosphate industry as measured in both quantity and value of
the annual production from the beginning of mining in 1888 to
1950 inclusive, is shown in Figure 6. The major portion of the
production comes from the land-pebble district in Polk and Hills-
borough counties, but small quantities of hard rock and colloidal
phosphate were produced in Citrus and Marion counties.
The most important development in the phosphate industry
during the period covered by this report, 1950 and 1951, was the
research that led to the commercial production of uranium phos-
phate rock. Records indicate that uranium has been known as
a very minor component of the extensive Florida phosphate de-
posits since 1924, but only recently have methods of recovery of
these small quantities of uranium, from approximately 3 to 6
ounces per ton, been developed and demonstrated to be commer-
cially feasible. The U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with
the Atomic Energy Commission, has been making detailed investi-
gations of the land-pebble phosphate deposits since 1947. These
studies have progressed to the extent that at least three of the
major mining companies have received Government approval to
build plants in Florida for the recovery of uranium as a by-product
in the process of manufacturing phosphate chemicals and concen-
trated commercial fertilizers. The International Minerals and
Chemical Corporation, Bartow; the Davison Chemical Corporation,
Bartow; the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, Nichols,
have each had uranium extraction plants underway for some time,
and it is anticipated that they will be in production in 1953.
While the factual details about the uranium content of the land-
pebble phosphate and the methods of recovery are restricted infor-
mation, it is certain that the large outlay these companies have
expended, coupled with the interest and encouragement from the
Government, will impress the observer that Florida's uranium
contribution to the atomic energy program will be substantial,
even though it can not be adequately evaluated.
Other by-products are also being recovered in the process of
mining phosphate. Flourine is obtained as a by-product in the
recovery of. uranium and this will pave the way for important
new sources of hydrofluoric acid and synthetic cryolite, a flouride
of sodium and aluminum. A plant to produce synthetic cryolite



1890 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950
tion of the Florida phosphate deposits began in 1888 when 3,000 long tons valued at $21,000 were
mined. In the 63 year period, 1888-1950 inclusive, approximately 135,000,000 long tons, valued at the
mines in excess of $480,000,000, were produced.


out of the flourine that is recovered in the processing of land pebble
phosphate is under construction by the Virginia-Carolina Chemical
Corporation, Nichols.
Limestone quarrying and the production of lime in Florida had
its inception at Ocala, when in 1884 the Ocala Lime Company
opened a quarry in the southwestern part of the present corporate
limits. From that beginning Ocala continued to be the center
of this industry until recent years. The industry now has its
greatest development in Dade and Hernando counties with Marion
and adjacent counties, however, still yielding important quantities.
Dolomite and dolomitic limestones are produced in Citrus, Levy,
Sarasota and Manatee counties. There are three lime producing
plants in the Ocala area, but only one has recently operated, and
Florida plants have never nearly supplied the State's demand.
In 1949 the City of Miami began the recovery of larger tonnages
of lime from their water softening plant and placed the excess
lime on the market.
Crushed limestone is used largely in the construction of Florida's
excellent system of improved highways. It is not only used as
road base material, but also as aggregate for concrete and lesser
amounts as a surfacing material. Dimension stone used in building
construction is produced especially from the Key Largo coralline
limestone on the Keys of southern Florida. In this connection
mention should again be made of coquina, the beautiful shell lime-
stone, typically exposed from near St. Augustine to below Cocoa,
which has played such a prominent part as a construction stone
since shortly after the discovery of America. For example, the
old Fort Marion at St. Augustine, and the many modern homes
and public buildings in that area. These uses together with con-
crete products, consume by far the greater proportion of limestone
produced in Florida. The cement manufacturing and the lime-
making industries likewise consume important quantities. Dolomite
and dolomitic limestones find their main use in agriculture, being
dried and finely crushed for direct application to soils. The pro-
duction of limestone in 1950 amounted to 5,313,400 short tons,
divided as to use as follows:
Concrete, road metal and screenings .4,484,490 Short tons
Road base material 458,870
Railroad ballast, fertilizer filler
agricultural lime 370,040
Total quarry value -- --- $ 6,885,394

* ~9-~i

1'.~q ~
2 f-

- a ~*-

figure '. View ot the INoralyn plant and phosphate mine of the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, lo-
cated near Bartow, Florida. Photograph court sy of the Florida News Bureau.

.~ .-~.



L4 j

Figure 8. Mining phosphate at the Noralyn mine, International Minerals and Chemical
Corporation, Bartow, Florida. Photograph courtesy of the Florida News

Common Clays and Clay Products: These clays are used in the
manufacture of structural products such as building-brick and
tile, and in the manufacture of cement. For some years the
Florida brick and tile industry has declined because of economic
factors, but changing conditions appear now to favor its reestab-
lishment. Studies are being made into the possibilities for use of
common Florida clays in the manufacture of light weight aggre-
gate by sintering or bloating processes. Also the manufacture of
rock wool may be economically feasible from argillaceous lime-
stones and perhaps other raw mineral products. Research along
these lines is in progress.
Kaolin: A very high grade plastic koalin has been produced in
Putnam County since 1895. The Florida kaolin is shipped to the
pottery centers of the North for use in the ceramic industry as
a standard ingredient in nearly every type of white ware and
porcelain. Early in 1952 the Florida Ceramic Tile Industries,
Incorporated, established a plant at Lakeland to produce tile, using
Florida kaolin. Perhaps from this beginning other plants will
be established to manufacture finished products from the high
grade kaolin. Kaolin is mined, washed and recovered from a
sandy clay matrix by two companies in Putnam County,-the
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company at Edgar since 1895, and the
United Clay Mines Corporation, at Crossley since 1924. Both
companies have their main offices in New Jersey.
Fuller's Earth: Another special purpose clay is fuller's earth
which was commercially produced in the United States first from
Florida. It was discovered at Quincy and the first operating
plant is still in production, although with changes in personnel
and modernization of facilities. Florida fuller's earth is princi-
pally used for filtering mineral oils, however, commercial use is
now made of the "fines" which formerly were discarded. This
new use is as a carrier of insecticides and fungicides. Other
important uses are for absorbing oils from floors as in garages
and around filling stations, as a rotary drilling mud, and in
vegetable oil clarification. For many years Florida held first
place in the production and value of fuller's earth, but for some
years Georgia has replaced Florida in the production of the
commodity. The Georgia-Florida district, according to available
statistics produced 62 per cent of the fuller's earth mined in the
United States during 1951.

z z
v, "s, 4-'

.i.6.. .
.- .- -. ,4N: .

Figure 9. Mining and loading fuller's earth at the Carry Mine of the Floridin Company, Quincy. Photograph courtesy
of the Florida News Bureau.


Portland cement has been produced in Florida for 25 years by
the Florida Portland Cement Division of the General Portland
Cement Company at Tampa. This plant began operation in 1927,
producing cement from limestone obtained north of Brooksville
and clay from a few miles distant in Citrus County. This Tampa
plant has recently been enlarged in an effort to more nearly meet
increasing demands.
Until 1951 the plant at Tampa was Florida's only cement mill.
However, during that year the Lehigh Portland Cement Company
began the construction of a plant at Flagler Beach along the east
coast. Production of cement from the Bunnell plant (see photo-
graph on cover), began during December 1952. Coquina
shell is quarried adjacent to the mill to supply the calcium car-
bonate content, and this is the first extensive use of coquina.
Another unique feature in the use of raw products is that in place
of the usual argillaceous material furnished in the form of clay,
the mineral staurolite supplies the alumina and a portion of the
iron necessary in the manufacturing process. The staurolite residue
is obtained from the E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company's heavy
minerals separation plant near Starke. This marks another "first"
for the Lehigh Portland Cement Company, for although small
quantities of staurolite have been used as an abrasive in sand
blasting, this use in cement making is the first important com-
mercial utilization of the mineral. The capacity of this plant when
in full production is 1,400,000 barrels annually, which will mean
a very substantial addition to the total mineral output of the State.
A first impression with many who visit Florida is that there
is nothing here but sand and sandspurs. Truly sand is almost
universally present and the prevailing surficial material. Deposits
of gravel are very scarce in the State and such as we have are
principally in the western Florida streams and rivers. The sand
and gravel industry, however, is important as shown by the re-
ported total of 2,794,000 short tons in 1950, with a value of more
than $2,800,000. Most of this production was utilized in the
building and paving industries, but minor quantities were used
as grinding and polishing sands, engine sands and minor amounts
in the manufacture of glass. It is hoped that investigations now
being planned will result in locating deposits of sands adapted to
glass making and thereby induce greater development of such an
industry in a State using large quantities of glass wares in the


preservation of farm and orchard products. Even though sands
are produced in almost every county of the State, the counties of
Dade, Escambia, Lake, Pinellas, Polk and Putnam report the
largest production, while gravel production comes mainly from
Gadsden and Escambia counties.
The discovery and production of ilmenite and rutile from beach
sands was by H. H. Buckman and G. A. Pritchard in 1916 at
Mineral City, about four miles south of Jacksonville Beach. The
urgency of war to supply titanium minerals for the manufacture
of titanium tetrachloride, a fuming liquid used in tracer bullets,
shells and gas attacks, was the principal reason for the search
which culminated successfully. Buckman and Pritchard examined
the coast from Charleston, S. C. to the Florida Keys and portions
of the Gulf Coast. A mill for the separation of the commercial
minerals ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite operated for a
number of years and suspended operations on the beach in 1929.
The mining of natural concentrations of heavy minerals was
resumed in 1940 with the establishment of a relatively small plant
near Melbourne. This mineral separation plant has operated more
or less continuously and selective mining of heavy mineral sands
found along the coastal beach from Cape Canaveral southward
to the vicinity of Eau Gallie Beach has supplied the ore. This
plant, established as the Riz Mineral Company, was sold in 1948,
and since that time has operated under the name of the Florida
Ore Processing Company, Inc. New methods for concentrating
the heavy minerals and for separating them were developed, thus
making it feasible to work much leaner deposits. Sands with
lesser mineral concentrations were brought into potential mining
possibilities and in 1942 a plant was established about seven
miles east of Jacksonville to process old dune or terrace sands
which has a heavy mineral content as low as 3 to 31/2 per cent.
From the success of this operation the Florida Geological Survey
suggested the prospecting of an area termed Trail Ridge, extending
south from between Macclenny and Baldwin to the vicinity of
the Everglades, popularly known as the Ridge Section or Scenic
Highlands of the State. This investigation was carried out in
cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Mines and resulted in the
establishment of a large mine and mineral separation plant by
the E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company east of Starke, which
began operation early in 1949. This has resulted in Florida now
being the leading producer of these strategic minerals.


Uses: In 1949 records show that 99 per cent of the ilmenite
consumed in the United States went into the making of titanium
dioxide paint pigments. With domestic production on the increase,
however, possibilities for expansion in requirements for the pro-
duction of metal are very promising. Rutile is used mainly in
coating welding-rods, as an alloy, in carbides and in ceramics.
Titanium enamels are said to be superior to zirconium enamels.
Technological developments in the production of titanium and its
uses have caused a decided increase of public interest, especially in
possible uses of titanium metal as a structural material and in air-
plane construction. Zircon finds its main use in the ceramic indus-
tries to produce enamels, glazes, as refractories, oxides and chemi-
cals, and in alloy production not only of steel, but also of magnesium,
copper, titanium and nickel. The addition of zirconium as an alloy
adds strength, toughness, corrosion resistance and creep resist-
ance at high temperatures. Lesser uses for the zirconium metal is
in vacuum tube parts, and the powdered metal for flashlight pow-
ders, flares, fireworks and detonators. Furthermore, ground zircon
is an acid-type refractory that can withstand extreme tempera-
tures. Monazite which makes up only a very small portion of the
heavy mineral concentrates found in Florida has important com-
mercial application. Misch metal, a mixture of rare-earth elements
with cerium predominating, is combined with iron to form the
"flints" used in cigarette lighters, miners lamps and the like. Alloys
of magnesium and aluminum with cerium are used in the construc-
tion of gas turbines, aircraft supercharger parts, jet planes and
similar equipment that requires high tensile strength at high
temperatures. Furthermore in the complex chemical structure of
monazite varying amounts of thorium, a fissionable material, are
found. The entire group of heavy minerals has been subjected
to intensive study by the Atomic Energy Commission.
Prospecting for oil in Florida began as early as 1901 and con-
tinued through the years with wavering interest until about 1940.
It was in 1939 that the deepest test up to that time was completed
at 10,006 feet near Pinecrest, Monroe County. Shortly after the
abandonment of this well the Humble Oil and Refining Company
drilled a well at Sunniland, Collier County, which was completed
at a depth of 11,626 feet. This discovery well was brought ir,
September 26, 1943, and produced 20,550 barrels of asphaltic base,
20.80 API gravity oil before being abandoned and converted to a
salt water disposal well on May 10, 1946. A small oil field has


been developed in the vicinity of Sunniland with 12 wells producing
from an horizon about 11,500 feet below the surface. During
1952 the Sunniland Field produced 591,855 barrels of oil and the
total cumulative production of the field to January 1, 1953 was
2,766,469 barrels.
The peat deposits of Florida amount to 14 per cent of the total
peat reserves of the United States and production data indicate
that over 23,000 short tons, valued at $151,000, and 25,700 short
tons, valued at $161,000 were produced in the State during the
years 1950 and 1951. These quantities represent respectively 17
per cent and 13 per cent of the total production of peat in the
United States for these years. Peat is produced principally for
horticultural purposes and all of Florida's production was used for
soil improvement.
Perhaps our most common and most valuable resource is water,
and much attention has been given this commodity. Ground
water is the principal source of supply for industrial, municipal,
agricultural, and domestic uses in Florida. The daily consumption
of ground water by these four major uses is estimated by the U. S.
Geological Survey to average about 500 million gallons. In certain
areas of Florid4 some critical problems have arisen which have
acted as danger signals and caused more care to be taken in
developing supplies and in their utilization. The daily draft of
500 million gallons from the ground water resources should not
be a cause for alarm in regard to the State as a whole when it
is realized that the ground waters are naturally discharging many
hundreds of million of gallons of water a day, much of which can
be salvaged and used whenever it is needed. The tremendous
discharges of Florida's large limestone springs forcibly demon-
strate the large capacity of the ground-water reservoirs. The
average flow of Silver Springs alone is equal to the estimated total
consumption of ground water in the State. It is quite conceivable
that the availability of the large water resources in Florida, in
contrast with the shortages of supply in many other parts of the
nation, may play a dominant role in the agricultural and industrial
growth of the State. Even though plentiful reserves of ground
water exist in the State as a whole, the increasing need for wise
development of future supplies should not be minimized. To pro-
tect these ground-water reserves from waste and contamination
will insure a continued growth of our state.


1948 1949 1950 1951
I Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

Clay, inc. Kaolin and Fullers
earth -----------.-(short tons) 95,516 $ 1,446,544 127,000 $ 1,955,000 133,000 $ 2,289,000
Clay, used for cement (short tons) 49,386 $ 37,040 80,078 40,039 84,000 63,000 70,000 70,000
Natural gas .....---- (M cubic feet) 27,000 1,000 40,000 2,000 8,000 35,000 1,000
Peat .........----------.... (short tons) 24,750 56,171 11,800 69,000 23,022 151,270 25,748 161,417
Petroleum (barrels) 291,221 441,720 486,021 596,043 *4
Land pebble -..----.. (long tons) 6,421,7251 37,070,381 6,715,097 37,339,985 7,933,009 44,430,646 8,329,033 49,185,072
Soft rock- -----(long tons) 69,335 293,927 77,088 344,787 81,542 408,595 92,183 495,243
Hard rock .------(long tons) 48,198 368,586 23,804 173,211 71,319 538,601 75,615 582,247
Total phosphate (long tons) 6,539,258 37,732,894 6,815,989 37,857,983 8,085,870 45,377,842 8,496,831 50,262,562
Sand and gravel ..........--(short tons) 2,312,131 2,432,575 2,243,898 1,879,733 i 2,793,865 2,806,43111 t3,500,0001 t3,525,000
Crushed limestone, 1 1
inc. dolomite .. (short tons) 4,154,920 5,115,974 4,215,090 4,748,25311 5,313,400 6,885,394 8,032,9661 9,419,682
Miscellaneous** .-..-.. -----..-- 8,605,39311 ... 8,994,3801 10,541,00011 ...... ---- 12,000,000

Total value eliminating II
duplication --- ---------- 1|--- $53,654,000 1$54,998,000 II $67,717,000 t$77,660,000

* Value included in Miscellaneous
** Includes value of:

Dimensional stone

Titanium concentrates:







1950 and 1951


Clay (Common)
Used by Producer:



Flint Rock
Fuller's Earth


Ilmenite and Rutile
(Titanium concentrate)



Florida Portland Cement Division,
General Portland Cement Company
Lehigh Portland Cement Company .--
(under construction, 1951)

Florida Portland Cement Division --
Taylor Brick and Tile Company --.
Johnson Pottery Company --....-----

Florida State Hospital -----------

----..... Tampa
Flagler Beach

----- Tampa
-- Pensacola
..-.....--- Jay


Florida Dolomite Company .---..-- Pembroke-Oneco
Golden Dolomite Company ..... Orlando
Manatee Dolomite Company ------ -------- Samoset
Southern Dolomite Company ...------- .... .. Palmetto
Dixie Lime Products Company --------.. Ocala

Coy Thomas Industries --.

The Floridin Company, Inc.


.---.- Quincy

Florida Ore Processing Company, Inc. --. Melbourne

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company --- Starke
Florida Ore Processing Company, Inc ... Melbourne
Rutile Mining Company of Florida -... Jacksonville

Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company .. Edgar
United Clay Mines, Inc. ---..........--- Hawthorn

City of Miami, Department of
Water and Sewers .-
Dixie Lime Products Company


---- Miami
-.-- Ocala

Belle Glade Rock Company .........-..... Miami
Camp Concrete Rock Company ---- ---- Ocala
Central Quarries, Inc. ---- --------- Leesburg
Connell and Shultz .............------ ...... Inverness
Coral Rock and Sand Company ------.- Miami
Crystal River Rock Company ------- Leesburg
Cummer Lime and Manufacturing
Company -----.---------- Ocala and Jacksonville
Dixie Lime Products Company ....---..........- Ocala







Ralph Fuzzard -. --------.--------
Hallandale Rock Corporation ....---- I
T. J. James Construction Co., Inc. --
Levy County Lime Rock Corporation
Maule Industries ------- -- .-
William P. McDonald Corporation ..
C. Meekins ----------------
Miami Crushed Stone Company ---...-
Murphy and Mills Corporation
Naranja Rock Company ------ Nar!
C. A. O'Neill ------------
Newberry Corporation ---.----....-
Ocala Lime Rock Corporation ---..-
Ocala Road Base Material Company -
Oolite Rock Company -...---.----
Pruitt and Boyd ..
Seminole Rock Products, Inc -.---
S. P. Snyder and Son, Inc. .. F
Suwannee Lime Products Company --
Tigertail Quarries, Inc. --------
Troup Quarries, Inc. ----------
United Limerock Company ---- ---
Williston Shell Rock Company

Broward County Highway
Department --.---- -------
Dade County Highway Department --.
Marion County Highway Department
Martin County Highway Department
City of Miami, Department of
Public Service .......------...- ...
Palm Beach County Highway
Department --- -.---.--..----- We
Volusia County Highway Department

Florida Ore Processing Company, Inc.
Rutile Mining Company of Florida --

-...--- Miami
port Lauderdale
----- Miami
-- .. Williston
Miami Beach
-- Brooksville
- Coral Gables
----- Miami
anja and Miami
--- Jacksonville
----... Ocala
--- Tampa
--....... Miami
Deerfield Beach
---...... Miami
'ort Lauderdale
.--- Branford
---- Dania

Ft. Lauderdale
..---.- Miami
---- Ocala
-..---. Stuart

.....-- .. Miami

*st Palm Beach
--... DeLand

-- Melbourne

Agricultural Organics Corporation Seffner
Alper and Greenberg, Inc. Miami
Daetwyler Peat Mine ------------ Orlando
Florahome Peat Humus Company -...---. Daytona Beach
Florida Nursery and Landscape Co. ---- Leesburg
Glen Saint Mary Nurseries
Company ---- -- ... .. ....... Glen St. Mary
Jack 0. Holmes, Inc. ------ ------. Tampa
Mulford-Hickerson Peat Humus
Corporation ..--........ ... ..-- .. .......... Apopka
Palatka Peat Co ......-----.... ... ...---.. Palatka
Greg Stone -..-.--- ....---- ...----...-.... Pensacola


Peat (Cont'd) Southern States Nurseries, Inc.
West Florida Humus Company -_-
Humble Oil and Refining Company
Phosphate Rock
Hard Rock:
Kibler-Camp Phosphate Enterprise
Soft Rock or Colloidal Clay:
Colloidal Phosphate Company ---
Howard Fertilizer Company ----
Kellogg Company ..----...--- ....-
Loncala Phosphate Company ..-..-
Seaboard Phosphate Company -
Soil Builders, Inc. ---- --
Superior Phosphate Company
Land Pebble:
American Agricultural Chemical
Corporation ..--......-......--
American Cyanamid Company ..-
Coronet Phosphate Company .....--

-- Macclenny
Panama City

----- Sunniland

------ Ocala

------- Tampa
.-.-.-...- Hernando
.--- High Springs

--.--....--. ..-- Pierce
--..--- Plant City

International Minerals and Chemical
Corporation .-------.. .. .. --- ..-- Bartow
Swift and Company .......... ...- Bartow
The Davison Chemical Corporation ....-...- Bartow
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation --..... Nichols

Sand and Gravel

All-Florida Sand Company
Unincorporated --.------...
Howard Backus ..-..-....-..-.......-..
Brancor, Inc. .... ......-- .... .......
Brewton Engineering Company .

Butler Sand Company .....------
Rufus Campbell .....- .. Floi
Central Sand Company ..-...-..-
Coleman-Maige ..........-------....
E. E. Collins Construction Company
Concrete Supply Company ........--
Cummer Lime and Manufacturing
Company ............---------
Davenport Sand Company, Inc.
Alfred Destin Corporation ..---...
Diamond-Interlachen Sand Company -
Diamond Sand Company ..--....---......
Florida Glass Manufacturing
Company .... ........ ..--.. --.. .......
Florida Gravel Company .....-- ...-
Florida Sand Company -..------....
Hauser Concrete Company .. ..------
Jacksonville Sand Company ----..-

- Interlachen
-..-.... Miami
-- Homestead
_ Panama City
and Tallahassee
St. Petersburg
naton, Alabama
....... Tavares
--.. Tallahassee
----- Miami
.... Pensacola

- Jacksonville
.-- Orlando
Miami Beach
-.. Jacksonville
- Lake Wales

.- Jacksonville
. St. Petersburg
-....-- DeLand


Keuka Sand Company ..----..---------....-------................ Keuka
Keystone Sand Company -----...----..------....--. Grandin
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company --.- Lake Wales
Lake Wales Independent Sand
Company, Inc. ---........---------..--...-........-------....---- Lake Wales
Lakeland Cement Company ..--..--..-...--------.... Lakeland
Largo Washed Sand Company ..-..--.....-..-- Largo
Mammoth Sand Company ..--...-----------....... Fort Meade
Maule Industries ..-......-...--...---...-..--....------..--Miami Beach
I. C. Mayfield .----.............--.-----------...--....----...-----......-- Havana
Middle Florida Sand Company .................. Tallahassee
Murphy and Mills Corporation ..-----..--..--.----.... Miami
Oak Ridge Sand Company -----.. --------- Mulberry
Osceola Clay and Topsoil Company -..---.- Pensacola
D. M. Papy Rock and Sand Company ....... Uleta
Seminole Rock Products, Inc. ....... Miami
Southeastern Rock Company ---------.........-......-- Homestead
Standard Sand and Silica Company ...-..... Davenport
Tampa Sand and Materials Company, Inc. ..--. Tampa
United Clay Mines Corporation --....------- Hawthorn
Ward Gravel Company ----...........--....-.. .. Bluff Springs
Humphreys Gold Corporation
(Starke plant) .--...........-----------.--..---...- Jacksonville
Humphreys Gold Corporation
(Starke plant) ..--.....--.............--.--....------------Jacksonville
Florida Ore Processing Company, Inc. .-- Melbourne
Rutile Mining Company of Florida ........ Jacksonville


July 1, 1951 June 30, 1953
The appropriation under which the Florida Survey is currently operating
for the biennium July 1, 1951, to June 30, 1953, follows:

Salaries -------
Expenses -------
Encumbrances ..-

TOTAL .........----

July 1, 1951 to
June 30, 1952
$-- 65,500.00
-- 72,000.00
----- 10,105.09

..-... $147,605.09

July 1, 1952 to
June 30, 1953
$ 65,500.00


Held over into the biennium July 1, 1951, to June 30, 1953 from the previ-
,us biennium was the sum of $10,105.09 to make payment on bills encumbered
n the previous biennium.
requested :
For the biennium beginning July 1, 1953, and ending June 30, 1955, the
following Budget has been requested:

Salaries ---------.....
Expenses ....- .---
Special -----------


July 1, 1953 to
June 30, 1954
$ 83,670.00


July 1, 1954 to
June 30, 1955
$ 83,670.00


This Special fund of $75,000.00 requested is to be used for the purpose
)f equipping the proposed new Geology Building.


January 1 to December 31

Funds Released:
Balance January 1, 1951 ----
General Revenue January 1, 1951.
General Revenue April 1, 1951 ..-
General Revenue July 1, 1951.
General Revenue October 1, 1951

---- $ 8,662.72
----- 14,737.50
.-. 14,737.50
-------- 16,375.00
------ 16,375.00

Total Funds Released for Salaries for Year ....
Balance January 1, 1951 ---------- ..$35,088.34
General Revenue January 1, 1951 ------- 16,200.00
General Revenue April 1, 1951 16,200.00
General Revenue July 1, 1951.. ------- -- 18,000.00
General Revenue October 1, 1951 ------- 18,000.00
Publications Sold-------------- 48.73

Total Funds Released for Expenses for Year --

Total Funds Released for Salaries
and Expenses for Year --------

$ 70,887.72




Salaries ---..........-...... ---------------------- $ 56,132.83
Professional Fees and Consulting Services ----$ 1,232.92
Repairs to Equipment...............------ .....------------..... ------. 543.28
Printing and Binding ---------------------. 11,454.07
Photographing and Blue Printing --- ---- 86.49
Heat, Gas, Light, Power, Water and Sewage -- 65.28
Postage --..................-- ---........---------- 252.00
Telephone, Telegraph, and Messenger Services- 223.64
Freight, Express and Cartage ...------------------ 351.55
Travel Employees --- .- ---- 4,582.80
Information and Credit Services __- 117.00
Other Contractural Services:
Field Surveyors, County Geologic Reports,
Laboratory Research, etc. --------- 2,905.50
U. S. G. S. Cooperative-Ground Water ..- 25,929.43
U. S. G. S. Cooperative-Surface Water.-- 2,843.31
U. S. G. S. Cooperative-Quality Water .. 500.00
Parts and Fittings ---__------ _- 429.79
Other Materials ..---....------..----- 1.30
Stationery and Office Supplies -------------- 3,296.33
Chemicals and Laboratory Supplies 989.65
Gasoline, Oil, and Lubricants....--------------- 1,563.17
Hand Tools and Minor Equipment ------ --- 153.74
Cleaning and Laundry Supplies ---------- 37.96
Other Supplies ------------ 306.22
Rental of Buildings, Offices, and Land. 4,250.00
Rental of Equipment --- -------- 29.80
Insurance-Buildings and Equipment ------------ 00.00
Insurance-Liability, Workmen's Compensation_ 648.50
Registrations, Dues, Fees, Commissions, etc.-- 18.25
Office Furniture and Equipment --------- 2,819.41
Engineering and Scientific Equipment -- 1,186.50
Automotive Equipment ----------------------- 5,367.90
Books __ --------------------- 627.11
Other Equipment ....--------- ........ ----....... 67.50

Total Expenses ------- 72,880.40

Total Disbursements.------------ .$129,013.23
Salary Fund June 30, 1951------ ..---- $12,578.84
Salary Fund December 31, 1951 -----..--- ------ 2,176.05

Total Salary Fund Balances -------- 14,754.89
Expense Fund, June 30, 1951 -------- -- 10,174.85
Expense Fund, December 31, 1951 ------------ 20,481.82

Total Expense Fund Balances....------- 30,656.67
Total Disbursements and Balances ...... $174,424.79


January 1 to December 31


Funds Released:
Balance January 1, 1952 ------- .--.. $ 2,176.05
General Revenue January 1, 1952 ...-- 16,375.00
General Revenue April 1, 1952 ------- 16,375.00
General Revenue July 1, 1952 ..-------..---------16,375.00
General Revenue October 1, 1952 -..---....------- 16,375.00

Total Funds Released for Salaries for Year-- $ 67,676.05
Balance January 1, 1952 -------------------$20,481.82
General Revenue January 1, 1952 .. .- 18,000.00
General Revenue April 1, 1952 18,000.00
General Revenue July 1, 1952 ---- ------ 18,000.00
General Revenue October 1, 1952 ------- 18,000.00
Publications Sold---------- 36.20

Total Funds Released for Expenses for Year- 92,518.02

Total Funds Released for Salaries
and Expenses for Year -------- $160,194.07
Salaries ..........-------------------- $ 59,932.83
Professional Fees and Consulting Services -----$ 196.98
Repairs to Equipment ......--------------- 1,794.49
Printing and Binding -------------------- 1,314.35
Photographing and Blue Printing -------- -- 705.45
Heat, Gas, Light, Power, Water, and Sewage-- 103.68
Postage .... ........------------ ----- ...... 532.76
Telephone, Telegraph, and Messenger Services- 384.04
Freight, Express and Cartage 221.03
Travel Employees ----------- -- 860.78
Travel Other than Employees 50.00
Information and Credit Services 118.15
Other Contractural Services:
Field Surveying, County Geologic Reports,
Laboratory Research, etc. ----------- 10,164.32
U. S. G. S. Cooperative-Ground Water--...-... 28,349.71
U. S. G. S. Cooperative-Surface Water--- 2,740.98
U. S. G. S. Cooperative-Quality Water-- 3,000.00
Parts and Fittings-------------- 593.80
Lumber and Wood Products ---------- 3.03
Other Building Materials ------------ 5.47
Stationery and Office Supplies .. -------- 1,498.36
Chemicals and Laboratory Supplies 1,809.91
Gasoline, Oil, and Lubricants ------- 1,895.08
Hand Tools and Minor Equipment .-- .------------ 30.40
Building and Mechanical Supplies ---------------- 3.15
Cleaning and Laundry Supplies... -------- 86.69
Other Supplies-------------- 301.63
Rental of Buildings, Offices and Land ---- 4,500.00
Insurance-Buildings and Equipment ------...... 509.59
Insurance-Liability, Workmen's Compensation_ 60.93
Registrations, Dues, Fees, Commissions, etc.-- 61.15


Office Furniture and Equipment ---------- 1,754.41
Heat, Light, Power and Mechanical Equipment- 9.78
Automotive Equipment----------- 1,495.00
Books ----------------------987.00
Other Equipment 26.21
Revolving Fund-Petty Cash .-- ------- 50.00

Total Expenses--------------- 66,218.31

Total Disbursements. ---------- $126,151.14
Salary Fund December 31, 1952----- 7,743.22
Expense Fund December 31, 1952 26,299.71

Total Disbursements and Balances ----- ... $160,194.07

The Lehigh Portland Cement Company's Bunnell Plant-
Florida Coquina and Staurolite combined to make cement.
Photograph courtesy of the Company.

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