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 History and general statement
 The work of the geological...
 Discovery of oil
 Well drilling, and production
 Bulletins issued
 Report in press
 Personnel
 Survey quarters and library
 Cooperation with other departments...
 Oil prospecting, well drilling,...
 Publications
 Museum
 Proposed legislation
 Appropriation requested
 Florida mineral industry during...
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Biennial report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000223/00004
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report of the Florida Geological Survey
Physical Description: 11 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1940-1961
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Board of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1940)-14th (1959-1960).
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000376187
oclc - 01956611
notis - ACB5800
lccn - sn 87028635
System ID: UF00000223:00004
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    History and general statement
        Page 5
    The work of the geological survey
        Page 6
    Discovery of oil
        Page 6
    Well drilling, and production
        Page 6
    Bulletins issued
        Page 7
    Report in press
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Personnel
        Page 10
    Survey quarters and library
        Page 11
    Cooperation with other departments and surveys
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16-17
    Oil prospecting, well drilling, and production
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Publications
        Page 21
    Museum
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Proposed legislation
        Page 24
    Appropriation requested
        Page 25
    Florida mineral industry during 1942 and 1943
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Financial statement: January 1 to December 31, 1943 and January 1 to December 31, 1944
        Page 28
        Page 29
Full Text






SIXTH BIENNIAL

REPORT



BIENNIUM ENDING
DECEMBER 31, 1944


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


HERMAN GUNTER, Director
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1945









Sixth Biennial Report of the Florida

Geological Survey



HISTORY AND GENERAL STATEMENT
The first geological survey was organized in 1887 but was short
lived, being discontinued that year. The present survey was estab-
lished by the General Assembly of 1907 with E. H. Sellards ap-
pointed as State Geologist in June of that year. It has had but
two directors; Dr. Sellards from 1907 to 1919, and Dr. Herman
Gunter since that period. From 1907 to 1933 it was a department
in itself but the 1933 Legislature created the State Board of Con-
servation and the Survey was placed in the newly organized Con-
servation Department, the State Geologist being appointed As-
sistant Supervisor of Conservation. On January 30, 1941, he was
appointed Director, Florida Geological Survey. The Conservation
Department as originally organized included the Shell Fish Com-
mission, the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, and the
Geological Survey. In the act creating the State Board of Conserva-
tion, funds for the maintenance of the Survey were allotted from
those collected by the Conservation Department, but in 1935 the
Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish was made a separate
function of the State Government and the maintenance of the Sur-
vey was placed again upon the General Revenue Fund as it had
been prior to the consolidation of the departments.
A department of conservation should be made up of divi-
sions, one for each natural resource group. Thus in Florida if in
fact a department of conservation should be created it might ap-
propriately include divisions of forestry, shell fish, fresh water
fish and game, live stock, the geological survey, and others. To
function effectively such a department should have its own source
of revenue with bureaus or divisions for the enforcement of its
laws, to promote education in conservation measures, and to carry
on research and collect statistics. As now constituted, the Florida
Department of Conservation is a misnomer, as its two departments,
the former Shell Fish Commission and the Geological Survey, func-
tion separately and obtain their funds from different sources.








While work has progressed satisfactorily under the present group-
ing there is no reason or advantage to either department in re-
maining together.

THE WORK OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

During this biennial period the Survey has been very active
and has worked to help win the war. The normal activities have been
considerably interrupted. With the beginning of the war the re-
quirements of the Nation were anticipated and the Survey outlined
the minerals and pertinent information that offered possibilities for
Florida to serve the war effort. A vast amount of information has
been furnished to individuals and groups who were interested in
establishing plants or developing mineral deposits in the State.
Many of Florida's minerals are of prime importance to vital war
activities. Phosphate in chemicals, explosives, and fertilizers; rutile
and ilmenite in the manufacture of flares and smoke screens; lime-
stone for concrete in military construction and for base courses in
airport runways and roads; sand and gravel for concrete and ful-
ler's earth as a filtering medium and more recently for light-weight
aggregate are but a few of the war uses of Florida mineral prod-
ucts. The Director was appointed Emergency Coordinator of Mines
for Florida, thus aiding the mines to obtain supplies and thereby
increasing the output.

DISCOVERY OF OIL

On September 26, 1943, the first producing oil well was
brought in at Sunniland station- in Collier County by the Humble
Oil and Refining Company. (See Florida Geological Survey Bul-
letin 26, pp. 162-163, 1944). This first evidence of petroleum in
Florida promoted a rapid increase in the exploration and drilling
for oil throughout the State and the Survey has been cooperating
in many ways with the numerous oil companies and individuals that
have established offices in Florida. A fuller idea of these activi-
ties is given under Oil Prospecting, Well Drilling, and Production.

WELL DRILLING, AND PRODUCTION
Many petroleum geologists are working in the Survey offices
and laboratory studying particularly the large collection of well
samples accumulated over the years. Assistance has also been ren-








While work has progressed satisfactorily under the present group-
ing there is no reason or advantage to either department in re-
maining together.

THE WORK OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

During this biennial period the Survey has been very active
and has worked to help win the war. The normal activities have been
considerably interrupted. With the beginning of the war the re-
quirements of the Nation were anticipated and the Survey outlined
the minerals and pertinent information that offered possibilities for
Florida to serve the war effort. A vast amount of information has
been furnished to individuals and groups who were interested in
establishing plants or developing mineral deposits in the State.
Many of Florida's minerals are of prime importance to vital war
activities. Phosphate in chemicals, explosives, and fertilizers; rutile
and ilmenite in the manufacture of flares and smoke screens; lime-
stone for concrete in military construction and for base courses in
airport runways and roads; sand and gravel for concrete and ful-
ler's earth as a filtering medium and more recently for light-weight
aggregate are but a few of the war uses of Florida mineral prod-
ucts. The Director was appointed Emergency Coordinator of Mines
for Florida, thus aiding the mines to obtain supplies and thereby
increasing the output.

DISCOVERY OF OIL

On September 26, 1943, the first producing oil well was
brought in at Sunniland station- in Collier County by the Humble
Oil and Refining Company. (See Florida Geological Survey Bul-
letin 26, pp. 162-163, 1944). This first evidence of petroleum in
Florida promoted a rapid increase in the exploration and drilling
for oil throughout the State and the Survey has been cooperating
in many ways with the numerous oil companies and individuals that
have established offices in Florida. A fuller idea of these activi-
ties is given under Oil Prospecting, Well Drilling, and Production.

WELL DRILLING, AND PRODUCTION
Many petroleum geologists are working in the Survey offices
and laboratory studying particularly the large collection of well
samples accumulated over the years. Assistance has also been ren-








While work has progressed satisfactorily under the present group-
ing there is no reason or advantage to either department in re-
maining together.

THE WORK OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

During this biennial period the Survey has been very active
and has worked to help win the war. The normal activities have been
considerably interrupted. With the beginning of the war the re-
quirements of the Nation were anticipated and the Survey outlined
the minerals and pertinent information that offered possibilities for
Florida to serve the war effort. A vast amount of information has
been furnished to individuals and groups who were interested in
establishing plants or developing mineral deposits in the State.
Many of Florida's minerals are of prime importance to vital war
activities. Phosphate in chemicals, explosives, and fertilizers; rutile
and ilmenite in the manufacture of flares and smoke screens; lime-
stone for concrete in military construction and for base courses in
airport runways and roads; sand and gravel for concrete and ful-
ler's earth as a filtering medium and more recently for light-weight
aggregate are but a few of the war uses of Florida mineral prod-
ucts. The Director was appointed Emergency Coordinator of Mines
for Florida, thus aiding the mines to obtain supplies and thereby
increasing the output.

DISCOVERY OF OIL

On September 26, 1943, the first producing oil well was
brought in at Sunniland station- in Collier County by the Humble
Oil and Refining Company. (See Florida Geological Survey Bul-
letin 26, pp. 162-163, 1944). This first evidence of petroleum in
Florida promoted a rapid increase in the exploration and drilling
for oil throughout the State and the Survey has been cooperating
in many ways with the numerous oil companies and individuals that
have established offices in Florida. A fuller idea of these activi-
ties is given under Oil Prospecting, Well Drilling, and Production.

WELL DRILLING, AND PRODUCTION
Many petroleum geologists are working in the Survey offices
and laboratory studying particularly the large collection of well
samples accumulated over the years. Assistance has also been ren-








dered these companies and individuals in their geophysical surveys,
land leasing, and management. More services will be rendered to
those persons interested in the development of oil in the State as
exploration and drilling increases.
The Survey is also lending technical aid in the formulation of
a proposed act designed to regulate and conserve the development
of the oil industry in Florida.
As a consequence of many petroleum geologists coming to
Florida and the neighboring states an organization of geologists,
the Southeastern Geological Society, has been formed and Dr. Her-
man Gunter, Director of the Survey, was elected its first presi-
dent.
Another increased activity, but not a new one, has been the
work done in connection with the conservation of water. The Sur-
'vey has helped to prepare an act to establish a Florida State Board
of Well Drillers designed to regulate in some measure water well
drilling and to conserve the fresh underground water supply. This
proposed measure may be incorporated in the recommendations of
the State Committee on Water Resources which is more fully men-
tioned under the caption Proposed Legislation.


BULLETINS ISSUED

The Survey has attempted to maintain its regular routine dur-
ing this biennium insofar as it did not interfere with its contribu-
tion to the war effort and has prepared and published five bulle-
tins as follows:
Bulletin No. 24. Florida Mineral Industry, with Summaries of Pro-
duction for 1940 and 1941, by Robert O. Vernon, 1943, 207 pp., 40 figs.,
25 tables.
This report has filled a long-felt need to acquaint the public
with the mineral resources of the State. It describes the mining
methods of each industry, the mineral resources of the State, and
attempts to show the economic trends. A general summary of min-
eral production since 1900 and specific production figures for 1940
and 1941 are included.
Bulletin No. 25. The Natural Features of Southern Florida, espe-
cially the Vegetation, and the Everglades, by John H. Davis, Jr., 1943, 311
pp., 66 figs., 5 map figs. 10 tables.
This description of Southern Florida gives not only many fea-
tures of the history, geology, topography, drainage, and soils, but
accurately maps and describes the vegetation and considers some









features of the wildlife. It shows particularly the interrelations of
these natural features of this relatively unusual and little known
section of Florida and considers certain aspects of the best land
use of many areas. For these reasons it has proven of use to many
laymen as well as professionals, particularly in its description of
the Everglades which have been so little explored or insufficiently
described.
Bulletin No. 26. Stratigraphio and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in
Florida-No. 3 City of Quincy Water Well; St. Mary's River Oil Corpora-
tion Hilliard Turpentine Company No. 1 Well, by W1. Storrs Cole, 1944.
168 pp., 29 pls., 6 figs.
This publication and Bulletin No. 28, together with formerly
published Bulletins Numbers 16, 19 and 20, form a valuable series
of paleontological well studies by W. Storrs Cole which are aiding
geologists in the mapping of the geological structure of the State.
They are particularly valuable to the petroleum geologist.

Bulletin No. 27. Late Cenozoic Geology of Southern Florida, with a
Discussion of the Ground Water, by Garald G. Parker and C. Wythe
Cooke, 1944, 119 pp., 26 pls., 4 figs.
This publication, prepared in cooperation with the United
States Geological Survey, Dade County, and the cities of Miami,
Miami Beach, and Coral Gables gives the results of a detailed in-
vestigation of the water resources and geology of Southern Flor-
ida.. It does much to unravel the complicated and difficult geology
of that area.
Bulletin No. 28. *Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in
Florida-No. 4, City of Tallahassee Water Well No. 6; Dale Mabry Field
Well "B"; Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 Well, by W. Storrs Cole, (In
page proof form, will be published early in 1945).


REPORT IN PRESS

A report, accompanied by a geologic map, entitled Geology of
Florida by Dr. C. Wythe Cooke of the United States Geological
Survey, is in press. This report will be much in demand since the
Twentieth Annual Report containing a paper on this subject by
the same author has long since been out of print. With increasing
interest in the geology of Florida it is anticipated that there will
be many calls for this bulletin. It should be ready for distribution
by early summer.








REPORTS IN PREPARATION
An investigation of the peat resources of the State to deter-
mine the quantity and quality of the peat in the large peat de-
posits, which are the third greatest in the United States, is in prog-
ress by John H. Davis, Jr., Research Assistant. Besides a survey
of the peat deposits this investigation will try to determine the
practicability of using non-agricultural peat for fuel and indus-
tries. When published the report will probably give new informa-
tion on the utilization of peat and perhaps aid in the promotion
of some peat using industries.
Progress is being made by David B. Ericson, Assistant
Geologist, on a report dealing with Structure and Stratig-
raphy of Florida. Mr. Ericson has devoted intensive study to the
samples and cores from many of the wells drilled in Florida and
will prepare a report accompanied by appropriate drawings and
maps. It is planned to have this ready for printing within the
next few months.
In addition to continuing the paleontologic studies of samples
from deep wells by W. Storrs Cole, it is planned also to renew paleon-
tologic studies of formations exposed at the surface. The forma-
tion now being studied is the Ocala and it is planned to make this
as complete as possible, getting samples from carefully measured
sections of quarries in both peninsular Florida and west Florida
and also from outcrops, pits, or exposures offering good collecting.
It is desired to make these bulletins valuable as reference material.
The Survey wishes to increase its service to the schools of the
State by supplying more mineral and fossil exhibits and other mate-
rials illustrating the natural resources and geology of Florida.
Lectures by the staff on some phases of our natural resources,
physiography and geology could be arranged with the schools to aid
particularly in the many new courses now introduced emphasizing
the natural resources.
During this war-time biennium the Survey has continued in
its purpose to bring about a closer cooperation between agricul-
ture, industry, and mining in Florida so as to promote the indus-
trial development of the State. Florida has always been primarily
a producer of the raw product, almost no attempt being made to
produce the finished material from the raw mineral. Instead, fin-
ished products are manufactured from Florida materials that have









been shipped out of the State and other states reap the harvest of
industrialization. The potential industrialization of Florida is great
and as the manufacturing phase is built new employment will be
opened, a firm economic foundation will be established, and the
minerals will leave the State as finished products instead of raw
materials.
Some of Florida's mineral products, such as phosphate and
limestone, have been extensively developed, but others are only par-
tially developed and undeveloped. Industry stands ready with cap-
ital and organization to develop any deposit or product that has
been proven to be commercial, but the data necessary for such de-
velopment can not ordinarily be accumulated by individuals or in-
dustrial groups. The cost involved would ordinarily far exceed the
future profit, because the data must be detailed and encompass
large areas. Industry can be encouraged, however, to prospect in-
dividual mineral deposits provided the Geological Survey first gath-
ers and makes available the general information, thus eliminating
doubtful areas and outlining good prospects. The cost to the State
is infinitely small when compared to the increased profits in new
industries and increased employment and revenue. The trend of
industrial development is upward in Florida and at the present
time there is a larger demand for the type of work being done by
the Geological Survey than ever before.


PERSONNEL

The members of the staff of the Survey for this biennial pe-
riod have been:
Herman Gunter, Director.
Robert O. Vernon, Assistant Geologist (Military leave May, 1943).
W. Storrs Cole, Research Assistant (Specialist, part time).
John H. Davis, Research Assistant.
David B. Ericson, Assistant Geologist (November 1943).
H. G. Naegeli, Assistant Geologist (September 1944).
J. R. Galbraith, Field-Museum Assistant (Resigned April 1944).
J. C. Simpson, Field Assistant (April 1944).
W. Dean Wilson, Draftsman, resigned January 1944-No replace-
ment).
Myrtle J. Lee, Secretary (Resigned July 1943).
Corinne Little, Secretary (August 1943).
Pearl Gatlin, Well Record Clerk.
Marward E. Rogers, File clerk, Stenographer.
Lily Moore, Librarian (July 1944).
C. Sidney Morse, Geologic Aide (Resigned January 1945).
Lessie Bell, Janitor (Resigned March 1944).








In addition to these, student helpers and others employed for
limited periods in order to take care of shifting personnel were
Christine Mozley, Shelly Clayton, Lola G. Miller, Mary Davis, Rob-
ert H. Hart, Jack Wells, Mrs. Eunice Stoutamire, and Green Bruce.
At no time during this biennial period have we had a full staff.

SURVEY QUARTERS

Since December, 1939, the Survey offices have been located on
the campus of the Florida State College for Women in what was
formerly the "Old Lower Dining Hall." These quarters contain
only 1800 square feet for offices and library, 1000 square feet for
laboratory and storage, and about 1900 square feet for exhibition,
and the Survey is therefore inadequately housed. Due to this fact
recommendations have been made to the Budget Commission for
new quarters to be carried out under the Building and Improvement
Program now being considered by the Commission, and later by the
Legislature.
The Survey has proposed a large building for its offices, li-
brary, and laboratories that will also be a beautiful and adequate-
ly appointed museum for the display of Florida's minerals, miner-
al industries, geology, and fossil history. The proposed museum
of four'large exhibit halls will cover 19,600 square feet, and the
offices, library and laboratories 11,400 square feet, at a cost of
approximately $250,000. Such a museum and office building could
be constructed so as to display the native stone, brick, concrete,
and other building materials occurring and made in Florida, and
so designed as to be one of the show buildings of the Capitol.
The Survey with its greatly expanding work needs the additional
office space and a fine museum for display and education, and it
would be an invaluable asset to the State as a whole.

LIBRARY

The library of the Survey is now one of the outstanding geo-
logical libraries in the southeastern United States. For years ma-
terial pertaining to geology has been added to the collection with
selection of the best and most authoritative works needed. The
library serves a two-fold purpose and two groups of people. The
main purpose is to stimulate and aid members of the staff in their
research, and then to make available the material to other geol-








ogists and related groups, provided the publications are consulted
in the Survey offices.
Altogether, the Library of the Survey has approximately 2,225
bound volumes, 1,215 unbound volumes, 15,000 pamphlets, 800 maps,
and 400 aerial photographs of most of the counties of Florida.
The Survey has recently added a librarian to its staff and the
work of classifying, cataloguing, and indexing all the library mate-
rial has proceeded to the point where the records are nearly com-
plete. There still remains the task of indexing some material, the
indexing of the Foraminifera collection, and the cataloguing of
the map collection.
It may be of interest to note that the Survey has files of lead-
ing geological journals, National and other State Geological publi-
cations, bulletins and reports from foreign countries. The Survey's
collection of illustrative material now contains a large number of
aerial photographs that will be of increasing usefulness in future
mapping of various natural features and resources.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS
AND SURVEYS

During this biennium the Geological Survey has cooperated
with the United States Geological Survey, the United States Bu-
reau of Mines, the United States Soil Conservation Service, the
National Resources Planning Board, the Florida State Planning
Board, the University of Florida, the Florida Forest and Park Serv-
ice, the State Board of Health, the State Road Department, and
the United States Army and Navy.
Most of this assistance has been in the nature of routine func-
tioning of the Survey, but direct cooperation has been given to the
United States Bureau of Mines in the collection of mineral statis-
tics for the State, to the United States Geological Survey in gath-
ering both ground water and surface water data, to the United
States Soil Conservation Service in its study of the Everglades and
to the Florida Forest and Park Service in numerous ways.
Mineral Production Statistics formerly were obtained sep-
arately by both the United States Bureau of Mines and by the Flor-
ida Geological Survey. Under the present cooperative plan the data
on mineral production is assembled by the Bureau of Mines and
this compiled information, together with the names of the pro-








ducers and their addresses, sent to the Geological Survey at a small
cost for clerical expenses. If need be the Geological Survey con-
tacts those producers who are delinquent in making a report for
the year, to encourage their cooperation, and keeps the list of active
producers up-to-date, adding new ones and deleting those out of
business.

These statistics are necessary to show the trends of the various
industries for future investment. Advantages of each industry can
thus be accentuated and the disadvantages lowered. Such statistics
are also of educational advantage in advertising Florida products
and acquainting the public with the Florida mineral industry.

Water Resources are probably the most important asset to the
State. Our large springs, clear-water streams and lakes annually
attract thousands of visitors to Florida for rest and recreation.
Wells drilled into the water beds of the State supply the large
part of the domestic, municipal and industrial water. The use of
water for irrigation in agriculture, especially for citrus groves and
truck farms, has steadily increased over the past years. This has
expanded the well systems of the State to such an extent that water
reserves are being depleted and impaired and the permanent water
head is being reduced. Some of the water is being wasted by un-
wise usage, permitting wells to flow needlessly, improper well in-
stallations allowing leakage into other formations, large industrial
withdrawals, and through contamination of ground water through
disposal of industrial wastes and sewage into drainage wells. These
practices have become so menacing that plans to adopt conserva-
tion measures through legislative action will without doubt be pro-
posed by the State Committee on Water Resources as mentioned
under Proposed Legislation.

Since 1930 the Geological Survey has carried on active co-
operation with the Water Resources Branch of the United States
Geological Survey. Water investigations are regularly a part of
the work of the Federal Survey and representatives under the su-
prevision of V. T. Stringfield, Senior Geologist, have been sta-
tioned in Florida to direct the survey. An office is provided for
the ground-water division in the Survey quarters at Tallahas-
see, with H. H. Cooper, Jr., Associate Engineer, in charge, and
Dr. A. G. Unklesbay, Assistant Geologist, and an office in Miami
with G. G. Parker, Associate Geologist, in charge.









The detailed investigations of water supplies of the Miami-
Dade County area, Orlando, St. Augustine, Fort Myers, Fernandina,
and other places, have yielded valuable data from which definite
recommendation as to the best methods of securing adequate water
supplies have been made.
As a result of this cooperative work various papers on the
ground water resources of local areas have been published during
the past biennium, as follows:
Cooper, H. H. Jr., and Warren, M. A., "Perennial Yield of Artesian
Water in the Coastal Area of Georgia and Northeastern Florida," 1945.
Economic Geology.
Unkelsbay, A. G., and Cooper, H. H., Jr., "Artificial Recharge of
Artesian Limestone at Orlando, Florida." To be published in Economic
Geology, 1945.
Parker G. G. Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K., Report of Investiga-
tions No. 4," Interim Report on the Investigations of Water Resources in
Southeastern Florida with Special Reference to the Miami Area in Dade
County," 1944, 39 pp., 9 pls.
Unkelsbay, A. G., Report of Investigations No. 5. "Ground-Water Con-
ditions in Orlando and Vicinity," 1944, 61 pp., 11 figs., 2 tables.
The surface water division is under the direction of G. E. Fer-
guson, District Engineer, Ocala, Florida. The State benefits greatly
by the valuable lake, springs and surface stream measurements and
every effort should be made to expand these programs. The meas-
urements made on water levels in springs, lakes, and surface
streams during this biennium will be published in future Water
Supply Papers of the United States Geological Survey. These data
are of inestimable value to engineers desiring to know the extent
of the drainage area and volume of water for which a dam or
culvert must be designed; to industrialists depending on an ade-
quate supply of water for their plants, and to the State in pro-
viding conservation methods in areas where the water .supply is
in danger of being depleted.
The State Geological Survey has been unable to cooperate with
the surface water division of the United States Geological Survey
as actively as it would like because of insufficient funds, but more
funds have been asked for and it is hoped that the cooperation can
be increased. In comparison with ground water, little industrial,
domestic, or municipal use has been made of lake and surface water
in Florida. Where industry and agricultural uses have created
heavy withdrawals from ground water it is possible that some of
this industrial supply could be obtained from streams and lakes.
Accurate measurements, covering long-time periods, are needed to








intelligently plan for the utilization of such supplies. Such data
would also be valuable in 'planning drainage projects, erosion con-
trol measures, bridges, culverts, and runways. Without such data,
irrigation and flood control projects cannot be undertaken with
assurance of success.

Topographic Mapping in Florida ranks at the bottom in the
number of quadrangles that have been mapped, as compared to
other states. The Geological Survey has had no funds for cooperat-
ing in this much needed topographic mapping. These maps are in-
valuable in working the geology of the State and are of special use
to engineers in determining drainage areas for highway flood con-
trol measures. They have, moreover, large cultural and educational
advantages as the geography and land surface are easily visualized.
They are especially needed in the schools of the State as a means of
instruction. Those now available are shown on figure 1.




" L A 0 A A


S Er 0 R a I A*


TOPOGRAPHIC QUADRANGLES


1 Dyas
2 Century'
3 Jay
4 Robertsdale
5 Muscogee
6 Milton *
7 Harold
8 Holt #(
9 Niceville
10 DeFuniak Springs
11 Foley
12 Fort Barrancas
13 Pensacola
14 Holley
15 Mary Esther
16 Villa Tasso
17 Point Washington
18 Seminole Hills
19 West Bay
20 South Port
21 Laguna Beach
22 Panama City Beach
23 Panama City
24 Beacon Beach
25 Long Beach
26 Crooked Island
27 Beacon Hill
28 Overstreet
29 Port St. Joe
30 St. Joseph Spit
31 Cape San Bias
32 West Pass
33 Apalachicola
34 Green Point
35 Carrabelle
36 Dog Island
37 Lake Talquin
38 Tallahassee
39 Arran
40 Folkston
41 Boulogne
42 Kingsland
43 Moniac
44 Hilliard
45 St. Mary
46 Fernandina
47 Macclenny
48 Cambon
49 Jacksonville
50 Mayport


PUBLISHED TO JANUARY 1945

By

United States Geological Survey
lorida Mapping Project and U.S. Geological Survey
orps of Engineers U.S Army


51 Lawtey
52 Middleburg
53 Orange Park
54 Palm Valley
S55 Starke
56 Ates Creek
57 St. Augustine
58 Arredondo
*59 Hawthorne
60 Interlachen
S61 Palatka
*62 Dinner Island
*63 Matanzas
64 Williston
65 Citra
*66 Ormond
67 Dunnellon
68 Ocala
*69 Daytona
*70 Port Orange
71 Tsala Apopka
72 Panasoffkee
#73 Tarpon Springs
74 Dunedin
[75 Safety Harbor
76 Gandy Bridge
77 Sand Key
#78 Bay Pines
79 St. Petersburg
80 Pass-A-Grille
81 Bay Keys
82 Snipe Keys
83 Cottrell Key
84 Key West
85 Boca Chica
#86 Saddle Bunch Keys


*- .* ? -. -
.".... .*' .
S .
F 1 0* o P B SCALE

FL PLANNING BOARD, TALLAHASSEE








OIL PROSPECTING, WELL DRILLING, AND PRODUCTION

On September 26, 1943, Florida's first oil well was brought
in. This was Humble Oil and Refining Company's Gulf Coast
Realties Corporation No. 1 at Sunniland in Collier County, with
production from thirteen feet of porous limestone at a depth
of 11,626 feet. The oil is a black asphaltic base petroleum of
about 25 gravity, too low in lighter fractions to be a source of
gasoline but suitable for use as fuel oil. Initial production was
a little over one hundred barrels a day with about the same amount
of salt water. Pressure within the formation was insufficient to
force the oil to the surface. Accordingly a pump, run by the small
amount of gas produced with the oil, was installed. As much of
the oil reached the surface as an emulsion it was necessary to
set up a treater which is also run by gas from the well. The
amount of gas left over from these two uses is too small to be of any
practical value.

















Figures 2-3. Oil well on pump and tank farm of eight 1000-barrel capactiy tanks,
Humble Oil and Refining Company's Gulf Coast Realties -Corporation No. 1 well,
Sunniland Collier County. (From Bulletin 26, page 163.)
The water produced with the oil is remarkable for its high
mineral content. The following analysis was made by the United
States Bureau of Mines:
Radical Parts per million
Calcium (Ca) 25,204
Magnesium (Mg) 3,110
Sodium (Na) 58,491
Bicarbonate (HCOs) 146
Sulfate (SO,) 275
Chloride (C1) 143,601
Total Solids 230,827
Specific gravity at 15.6" C. 1.162
18









Water gages made during March, 1944, show that over 400
barrels of water were being pumped every twenty-four hours. This
means that not less than 14 metric tons or 31,000 pounds of salts
were being brought to the surface every day. The possibility of
finding some use for this salt is worth considering.

To obtain some idea of the probable rate of decline the well
was pumped regularly for sixty days while the. Assistant Geologist
made daily checks of the oil gages, quantity of salt water produced
with the oil, and the pumping rate. During the first thirty days
the total production amounted to 2,025 barrels of oil. As 2,025 bar-
rels of oil is "such a quantity as may be commercially disposed of"
it was evident that the well met the requirement for the $50,000
award offered by the State to the operator who "first completes such
a producing well which produces petroleum oil and/or gas in com-
mercial quantities, that is in such quantities for a period of thirty
days after the completion of the well, that such explorer and oper-
ator may in any practical manner commercially dispose of such
petroleum." Upon receiving this award the Humble Company added
$10,000 to the amount and presented the sum to the State to be di-
vided equally between the University of Florida at Gainesville and
the Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee.
Cumulative production from the Sunniland well to the end of
1944 was 15,855 barrels. As oil wells go this is not a large produc-
tion, but it is significant in showing that petroleum does occur in
Florida in greater quantities than the mere traces that have been
previously reported. Undoubtedly it has been an important factor
in arousing the active interest in Florida now being shown by many
of the major oil companies.
Upon completion of the discovery well the Humble Company
moved the rig to a new location one mile to the west and began
drilling a second well on January 14, 1944. Between the depths of
11,636 feet and 11,639 feet porous limestone saturated with heavy
black oil was cored, but a drill stem test proved that commercial
production from this zone could not be expected. This well was
finally abandoned September 25, 1944, at a depth of 13,512 feet,
the deepest well ever drilled in Florida.
The rig was next moved to a point one mile north of the dis-
covery well and on October 31, 1944, another well was begun. By
the end of 1944 this had reached a depth of about 4,000 feet. Steam









power for this third well is being generated by burning oil from the
Sunniland well. (Drilling at 9,883 feet, March 27, 1945)
In the meantime on June 24, 1944, the Humble Company
spudded in their State No. 1 in Dade County about thirty-seven
miles west of Miami. By the end of the year it had reached a
depth of about 8,000 feet without having logged any shows. (Aban-
doned March 7, 1945 at 11,789 feet).
Other important tests in the State were Pure Oil Company's
C. C. Hopkins No. 1 in Gulf County which was abandoned at 8,708
feet; Miami Shipbuilding Corporation's Grossman No. 1 in Dade
County, shut down at 1,234 feet; and Everglades No. 1 of William
G. Blanchard and Associates also in Dade County which at the end
of the year was shut down at a depth of 10,284 feet.
In summary, during 1943 and 1944 eleven wells were completed
and one of these as a producer. By the end of 1944 there were nine
wells either drilling or temporarily shut down or located.
Other developments during the 1943 and 1944 period indicate
that within the next few years, barring unforeseen economic dif-
ficulties, Florida will be thoroughly tested by the major com-
panies. Leasing activity is an indication of this. By the end of
1944 it was estimated that fully five-sevenths of the land area of
Florida was under oil and gas exploration leases. Drilling and
exploration rights on all coastal waters from the Apalachicola
River to the Florida Keys have also been taken up by three dif-
ferent operators.
Another indication is the extensive geophysical exploration
carried on by various companies using the gravity meter, magnet-
ometer, and reflection and refraction seismograph. In many cases
geophysical surveys have been supplemented by core drilling which
is probably the most positive way of obtaining a picture of sub-
surface structure at relatively shallow depths.
To carry on these activities the participating companies have
opened offices in Florida, several of which are in Tallahassee.
During the past two years and particularly 1944 the collections
of well samples, logs, well records, and paleontological slides at the
Geological Survey have been in almost constant use by oil company
geologists and paleontologists. A room at the Survey has been set
aside for them. Here they can set up their microscopes and make
detailed studies of the well samples that the Survey has gradually
accumulated during the past thirty-eight years. The eminent Wis-








dom of collecting and carefully preserving all this material is now
clearly evident.
However, the Survey's collection of well samples is not a fin-
ished thing. More deep well samples were received by the Survey
during 1944 than in any previous year. The washing and reduc-
tion of these samples to a form suitable for study has been one of
the important tasks of the technical staff of the Survey. The prob-
lem of finding room for the new additions did not become acute in
1944 but with the increase in drilling activity towards the end of
the year it was evident that the shelves now reserved for well sam-
ples would soon be filled and that some provision for providing
more space should be considered without delay. The problem is not
one of mere storage. If piled together the boxes containing the
samples would not take up much room, but so arranged they would
be of little use. To serve their purpose they must be arranged in
such a way that any particular box can be easily found and con-
veniently taken from its place for study. In as much as these sam-
ples are of fundamental importance in the search for petroleum they
constitute a valuable asset to the State and their safe keeping and
availability to petroleum geologists are matters worthy of serious
consideration.
Although the most valuable suites of samples are from wells
drilled in search for oil, since in general such wells are fairly deep,
still much valuable information is often obtained from shallow
water wells. It is gratifying that during the past biennium
the Survey has received better than ever cooperation from the
State's water well drillers. As in the past the Survey will supply
cloth sacks for saving the samples and data sheets for well infor-
mation to anyone interested. Such samples should be mailed or sent
express collect to the Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Flor-
ida. A geological log of the well will be forwarded to the driller
and owner when requested.

PUBLICATIONS

The Florida Geological Survey has prepared and published de-
tailed geological and mineral resources papers to cover most, if not
all of, the State since the Survey's organization in 1907. Twenty-
four annual reports contained in twenty-one volumes, twenty-nine
bulletins, thirteen press bulletins, and five reports of investigations








have been published. These reports are made up of 127 papers that
were prepared by Survey staff members, some in cooperation with
Federal agencies, and are chiefly technical papers prepared for the
use of the geologist and professional groups interested in the min-
eral resources, geology, and structure of the State. Some have been
written in less technical, semi-popular language for the use of the
layman and for use in schools. It is hoped that more of this type of
publication can be issued, based on fundamental data but couched
in language that will have an easy style. There is a real need for
this type of report, as well as for the technical, which can be more
specific.
Papers prepared by staff members and published through es-
tablished journals and those prepared by members of the Federal
Survey and professional groups in Florida are too numerous to list.
The United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C., issues pe-
riodically a pamphlet, Publications of the Geological Survey, listing
federal publications, including those relating to Florida. That or-
ganization also publishes in bulletin form, Bibliography of North
American Geology, which contains references to all papers on Flor-
ida geology that were published. This bulletin may be obtained from
the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., for a nom-
inal sum. Papers on the mineral resources of Florida published by
the United States Bureau of Mines are contained in a List of Pub-
lications of the Bureau of Mines, a bulletin published by that Bu-
reau, Washington, D. C.
A complete list of reports prepared by the Florida Geological
Survey may be obtained by writing the Director, Tallahassee.


MUSEUM

The geological museum was designated the depository for the
geological and paleontological specimens collected in the State in
the Act creating the Survey in 1907. The Survey has consistently
endeavored to maintain a good collection of minerals and fossils and
to display these as advantageously as possible. Each specimen has
been catalogued, identified and restored where necessary and pos-
sible. Some of them are worthy for reference purposes only and
are stored, while others that are better preserved and significant
are displayed in cases. All of the material is readily accessible to
those interested; the museum for the layman and both museum and








stored samples for the scientist. A brief course of study of Florida
geology may be had by a visit to the museum.

For these geologic reasons micro-invertebrate fossils are im-
portant and the collections in the Survey contain better than 3,500
catalogued slides of foraminifera, and thousands of specimens of
the larger invertebrates. These are available to those interested in
identifying and comparing shells found in the different parts of the
State.
Much of the early geological work on the Tertiary formations
of the nation was done in Florida. The mollusks, clams and snails,
were used to identify these beds and to correlate with beds of other
states. Thus, since these fossils were described from Florida, the
Survey has in its collections many type specimens. This class of
animals is so important that possibly one-fourth of the papers on
the geology of Florida are written about it. The Survey is trying
to add to its collection of Recent shells. Some very beautiful speci-
mens occur in Florida and the state should have as complete a dis-
play of these as is possible. Additional room is needed for display
purposes so that appropriate cases can be installed. Through the
study of the living shells and their environment the scientist by
comparison can make deductions which enables him to visualize the
conditions under which a formation containing a series of such
shells were deposited.

In addition to invertebrate animals, the State is exceedingly
rich in remains of vertebrates. These fossils range from a fish
millions of years old that was found in the Ocala limestone at the
Florida Caverns State Park near Marianna, and loaned to the Sur-
vey, to Indian skeletons taken from various mounds built in Re-
cent years. Outstanding displays in the museum are: The mounted
skeleton of the American Mastodon, which evidently roamed Flor-
ida in great herds during the Pleistocene; the mounted leg of an
American Mammoth, a true elephant but larger than the living
species. The Mastodon and the Mammoth lived here contemporane-
ously as is shown by their remains having been found in the same
deposits. Another significant display is the skull, leg "bones, and
other portions of the skeleton of the small, three-toed horses, which
were no larger than a dog, and roamed Florida in large herds in
the geologic past. There are excellent specimens of other fossil
vertebrates and a few mounted specimens and skeletons of living









mammals of Florida. The Florida Indian remains and artifacts are
also well illustrated.

PROPOSED LEGISLATION

The Geological Survey in cooperation with various agencies is
continuing its efforts to secure water conservation legislation. Con-
servation does not mean restriction necessarily but instead intelli-
gent development. It is not aimed at curtailing the use of water by
any individual or group who use water judiciously and without
waste. Fresh water is the most important natural resource of the
State and its conservation and protection is needed from both the
economic and sanitary points of view. Certain portions of Florida
have already suffered from unwise development of their ground
water supplies resulting in the abandonment of wells in certain lo-
calities, the necessity of deepening or relocating wells in others, and
in the lowering of the water levels in large areas. Other sections
are confronted with serious problems brought about through the
use of wells for drainage and for the disposal of industrial and
sewage wastes. The contamination of our fresh water supplies with
salt water through too deep drilling and through improper con-
struction of wells is also an ever present perplexing problem in both
coastal and interior regions. It is for the purpose of protecting our
water supplies from further unwise development, waste and con-
tamination and to assist in' retarding or preventing further prog-
ress of such problems that Governor Spessard L. Holland collaborat-
ing with Governor-elect Millard Caldwell appointed in December
1944 a Committee on Water Resources. This Committee composed
of members from Pensacola to Miami will, through its several sched-
uled hearings, get an over-all State wide perspective of water sup-
ply conditions. To these meetings representatives of Federal and
State agencies as well as representatives of all other groups, munici-
palities, and individuals interested in any aspect of the problem,
have been invited. The Committee will make a report of its find-
ings and recommendations to Governor Caldwell by April 1, 1945.
With this report as a basis it is probable that legislation will be
presented to the 1945 Legislature having for its purpose the long
needed State-wide control and regulation of this important nat-
ural resource.
The discovery of oil in one of the deep test wells drilled in
southern Florida has also brought about the advisability of legis-









lation controlling and regulating the drilling for oil 4nd the de-
velopment of it in the State. Through the Attorney General's office,
cooperating with a committee appointed by the Governor and a
committee from the Florida Bar Association, legislation is being
prepared that will be presented to the 1945 Legislature. It is in-
deed wise to enact a law that has for its purpose the protection of
the State and its citizens from unwise development and also offers
to those engaging in the industry the protection that they are en-
titled to.
APPROPRIATION REQUESTED
The appropriation requested by the Geological Survey for the
Biennium July 1, 1945 to July 1, 1947, is shown in the following
table:
July 1, 1945 to July 1, 1946 to
June 30, 1946: June 30, 1947:
Salaries -- -- $43,580.00 Salaries ---- $43,580.00
Necessary and Necessary and
Regular Expenses 37,300.00 Regular Expenses 37,300.00

Total ----$80,880.00 Total -------~ $80,880.00
The Survey has experienced the most active Biennium since
its establishment. While this has been brought about by the in-
terest in the potential possibilities of Florida as an oil producing
State it is also a reflection of increased interest and development
of our mineral industries. The record total mineral production for
1943 indicates this without argument. This has all brought about
a very decided increase of demands on the Survey for information
and data that has accumulated through the years. The many oil
company representatives, geologists, land men and geophysical
crews, have made much use of the data available through the Sur-
vey. Furthermore the Survey has rendered directly and through
cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey, much help to the U. S.
Armed Forces camps in many parts of Florida, to different munici-
palities, corporations and individuals, expressing concern over the
adequacy of our water supplies and their proper development. In
every instance the Survey has rendered appreciated service. In order
that we may more adequately take care of the additional demands
for professional and technical help we have prepared the budget
above which is most conservative. With the additional funds re-
quested made available it is certain that more effective service can
and will be rendered.








FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY DURING 1942 AID 1943

Statistics Collected in Cooperation with the United States
Bureau of Mines.

Florida recorded its largest mineral output during 1943 with a
total value of $24,856,295. The previous yearly total most nearly
approaching this was 1920 with a record of $23,435,804, which is
$1,420,491 less than for 1943. This record total indicates the ac-
tivity Florida has displayed in the effort to supply needed min-
eral products brought about by the World War. Phosphate produc-
tion increased to $12,089,477 or $2,711,900 more than for the year
1942. Increases were likewise recorded in other products such as
limestone, sand, gravel, fuller's earth, cement and the mineral con-
centrates ilmenite, rutile and zircon.

The mineral industries of Florida are the fourth largest in-
dustry in the State being exceeded only by the Trades and Services
group which includes the Tourist or Recreational industry; Manu-
facturing; and Agricultural industry. In the United States Florida
stands first in the production of phosphate having held that posi-
tion since shortly after the discovery of phosphate in the State; it
is second in fuller's earth, an industry that has been most active
in current years; it leads in the production of sedimentary kaolin,
a type of white-firing clay used in the manufacture of high grade
white wares; it has tremendous quantities of very high grade lime-
stones extensively used as road material, in agriculture, chemical
industries and in the manufacture of lime and cement; building
stone from coquina, oolitic, coral and other limestones is produced
and used in construction in many parts of the State; large deposits
of peat and muck which find uses for the growing of crops, as a
fertilizer filler, for application to soils; sands for various construc-
tion and manufacturing purposes and mineral concentrates in sands,
ilmenite, rutile and zircon. Common brick, tile and pottery prod-
ucts are also among products of Florida during more normal times.
The mineral output and value for the years 1942 and 1943 is shown
in the table which follows:









SUMMARY OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1942 AND 1943


Phosphate (long tons)
Land Pebble Quantity
Land pebble ............................2,893,756
Hard rock .............................. 70,014
Soft or Phosphatic clay........ 48,470

Total value of phosphate

Limestone (short tons)
Road material, Concrete ....5,430,920
Railroad ballast Rip Rap,
other ....................................1,080,780
Agricultural, Miscellaneous
Stone .................................... 177,850

Total value of Lime-
stone ......-- ------ ........

Lime (Hydrated and Quick)
Agricultural and Building.. 4,782
Chemical ................................ 16,728

Total value of Lime.........
Fuller's earth, Kaolin, Clay
and Clay Products 1 .............. 53,458
Sand, Gravel and Cement 2
Diatomite, Peat, Rutile,
Ilmenite and Zircon ............ 3,651
Petroleum (First in
Florida) bbls ........ ............ ..--
Water, Shells, Concrete blocks,
Sandlime brick, statistics
not collected.


Value
$ 8,826,705
396,527
155,345

$ 9,378,577


$ 4,674,967

818,746

283,393


$ 5,777,106


$ 47,434
164,857

$ 212,291

717,749
3,975,566

98,102


$20,159,391
SNo return on brick and pottery products.
' Cement reported by barrels but figures not divulged.
* Peat, quantity and value, based partially on estimate.
SFigured at 80c per barrel.


Quantity
3,483,194
34,128
71,171


Value
$11,633,241
201,241
254,995

$12,089,477


6,453,000 $ 5,581,768

2,231,930 1,701,633

158,870 194,487


$ 7,477,888


1,315 $ 11,564
19,192 190,712

$ 202,276

58,533 $ 835,649
S4,074,480

28,538" 173,299

4,032.5 3,226


$24,856,295









STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

January 1, 1943, through December 31, 1943

RECEIPTS

Balance in Salary Account January 1, 1943 $11,420.00
General Revenue Fund July 1, 1943 ............ 26,740.00 $38.160.00
Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account January 1, 1943* :....................... 11,043.04
General Revenue Fund July 1, 1943 ............ 16,700.00
Interest Credited by the Comptroller .......... 46.89
Delinquent Bills Credited by the Comp-
troller ......................................-------. --- .. 3,616.70 36.098.64
Balance in Special Fund January 1, 1943 4,692.01 4,692.01 $74,258.64


DISBURSEMENTS*


Salaries, January 1 through December 31,
1943 ............-- .........-- ...--- ....................----
January-November*
Travel Expense ................................-........----
Car Trade-in .....................................-....--..
Car Operation ......................................--------
Supplies-Field, Museum, Office, Library
Utilities .............. ..... ............ ..
Postage, Telephone, Telegrams, Freight,
Express ............................................................
Subscriptions, Books, Dues, Maps ..............
Printing of, Publications .............................
Cooperative Program with U. S. Geol.
Survey
Ground-water ....................
Surface-water ....-------........................
Miscellaneous ...........-- .....--............ ..-------
Special Fund
Salaries ........... ....... ...... ..... ........ ...
Treasurer of the United States ...............
Travel, Hotels, Gas and Oil .-......................
Other Purchases ........................................--
Printing and Stationery ............................-...
Balance in Salary Account Absorbed by
General Revenue Fund, June 30, 1943....
Balanee in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account Absorbed by General Revenue
Fund, June 30, 1943 .......................
Balance in Special Fund Absorbed by Gen-
eral Revenue Fund, June 30, 1943 ........
Balance in Salary Account, December 31,
1943 ..............................................................


18,669.91


537.55
925.83
282.63
1,727.91
222.58

709.45
316.27
5,761.47


1,364.84
164.17
107.02

1,250.00
2,860.8$ S
397.80
22.83
160.52


12,119.72




4,692.00


2,340.26


6,761.70

.01 9,101.97

17,149.83


Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account December 31, 1943 ...-.........- 12,525.21 29,675.04 $74,258.64
*Biennial Report 1942 included coverage of bills payable December 31,
1943. Disbursements of Necessary and Regular Account cover bills pay-
able January 1 to December 1, 1943, in order to set our records in accord
with the Comptroller's records.









STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
January 1, 1944, through December 31, 1944
RECEIPTS

Balance in Salary Account January 1, 1944 $17,149.83
General Revenue Fund July 1, 1944 ........... 26,740.00 $43,889.83
Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account January 1, 1944 ............................ 12,525.21
General Revenue Fund July 1, 1944 ............ 16,700.00
Refund, State Warrant No. 68034 ................ 402.11 29,627.32 $73,517.15


DISBURSEMENTS
Salaries, January 1 through December 31,
1944 ..-...........---------------.---
Travel Expense ...................................... .... 2,
Car Operation ...................................................
Supplies-Field, Museum, Office, Library 2,
U utilities ............................................................
Postage, Telephone, Telegrams, Freight,
Express ................................... ................
Subscriptions, Books, Dues, etc ....................-
Printing of Publications .............................. 3,
Cooperative Program with U. S. Geol.
Survey
Ground-water ........................ 3,
Surface-water ............................ 1
Miscellaneous .-................... ----... ..-..----
Balance in Salary Account December 31,
1944 .........................--.. ..............-- .--- ...-- 20
Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account December 31, 1944 ........................ 14


353.20
812.06
938.60
260.77

494.08
347.65
004.77


,373.37
,908.96
92.11


23,331.65


15,585.57


,558.18

,041.75 34,599.93 $73,517.15


29