Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 History and general statement
 The work of the geological...
 Survey quarters and library
 Cooperation with other departments...
 Oil prospecting and well drill...
 Proposed legislation
 Appropriation requested
 Florida mineral industry, 1940...
 Financial statement: January 1...

Biennial report
http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/dl/UF00000223.jpg ( PALMM Version )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000223/00003
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report of the Florida Geological Survey
Physical Description: 11 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1940-1961
Frequency: biennial
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Board of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1940)-14th (1959-1960).
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000376187
oclc - 01956611
notis - ACB5800
lccn - sn 87028635
System ID: UF00000223:00003
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    History and general statement
        Page 3
    The work of the geological survey
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Survey quarters and library
        Page 9
    Cooperation with other departments and surveys
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Oil prospecting and well drilling
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Proposed legislation
        Page 26
    Appropriation requested
        Page 27
    Florida mineral industry, 1940 and 1941
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Financial statement: January 1 to December 31, 1941 and January 1 to December 31, 1942
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text



DECEMBER 31, 1942


S. E. RICE, Supervisor



7 I

Letter of Transmittal

Tallahassee, Florida
February 15, 1943
Mr. S. E. RICE, Supervisor,
State Board of Conservation,
Tallahassee, Florida
I take pleasure in transmitting herewith the Fifth Biennial Report
of the Florida Geological Survey. It is principally an administrative
report containing a brief resume of the activities of the Survey and an
outline of some of the scientific work completed and in progress. The
report contains a summary of Florida's mineral industry for the years
1940 and 1941. It is a satisfaction to note the decided increase in the
production total for 1941 as compared with 1940. The report further-
more contains a condensed financial statement from January I, 1941,
to December 31, 1942.
Please accept my appreciation of the cordial interest you have shown
in the work of the Geological Survey and the encouragement you have
so uniformly extended.
Respectfully submitted,

64763 /

Fifth Biennial Report of the Florida

Geological Survey

The first geological survey was organized in 1887 but was short
lived, being discontinued that year. The present survey was established
by the General Assembly of 1907 with E. H. Sellards appointed as State
Geologist in June of that year. It has had but two directors; Dr. Sel-
lards from 1907 to 1919, and Herman Gunter since that period. From
1907 to 1933 it was a department in itself but the 1933 Legislature
created the State Board of Conservation and the Survey was placed in
the newly organized Conservation Department, the State Geologist
being appointed Assistant Supervisor of Conservation. The Conser-
vation- Department as originally organized included the Shell Fish
Commission, the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, and the
Geological Survey. In the act creating the State Board of Conserva-
tion, funds for the maintenance of the Survey were allotted from those
collected by the Conservation Department, but in 1935 the Department
of Game and Fresh Water Fish was made a separate function of the
State Government and the maintenance of the Survey was placed again
upon the General Revenue Fund as it had been prior to the consolida-
tion of the departments.
A department of conservation should be made up of divisions, one
for each natural resource group. Thus in Florida if a department of
conservation should be created it might appropriately include divi-
sions of forestry, shell fish, fresh water fish and game, live stock, the
geological survey, and others. To function effectively such a depart-
ment should have its own source of revenue and bureaus for the en-
forcement of its laws, to promote education in conservation measures,
and to carry on research and collect statistics. As now constituted,
the Florida Department of Conservation is a misnomer, as its two
departments, the former Shell Fish Commission and the Geological
Survey, function separately and obtain their funds from different
sources. While work has progressed satisfactorily under the present
grouping there is no reason or advantage to either department in
remaining together.




During this biennial period the Survey has been very active and has
worked to help win the war. The normal activities have been consid-
erably interrupted. With the beginning of the war the requirements
of the Nation were anticipated and the Survey outlined the minerals
and pertinent information that offered the best possibilities for Florida
to serve the war effort. A vast amount of information has been furnished
to individuals and groups who were interested in establishing plants
or developing mineral deposits in the State. Many of Florida's minerals
are of prime importance to vital war activities. Phosphate in chem-
icals, explosives, and fertilizers; rutile and ilmenite in the manufacture
of flares and smoke screens; limestone for concrete in military construc-
tion and for base courses in airport runways and roads; sand and gravel
for concrete and fuller's earth as a filtering medium and more recently
for light-weight aggregate for use in concrete ships are but a few of
the war uses of Florida mineral products. Through Governor Spes-
sard L. Holland the Director has been appointed Emergency Coordi-
nator of Mines for Florida, thus aiding the mines to obtain supplies
and thereby increasing the output.
Early in 1942 a method of extracting magnesium metal from dolo-
mite was announced in technical journals, and with the hope that
dolomite of sufficient purity for this extraction could be found in
Florida the dolomitic limestones of the State were prospected. A
report covering the results of this work has been issued as Report of
Investigations No. 3. This prospect-survey, while revealing no de-
posits of high-grade dolomite, does indicate that Florida has deposits
of dolomitic limestone suitable for agricultural uses. It also shows
that rock wool and other products could be manufactured from this
dolomitic limestone and should result in new industries for the State.
The Survey was helpful, in cooperation with the United States
Geological Survey, in developing information that resulted in the
establishment of a concrete ship building plant at Tampa. This plant
needed a clay from which a light weight aggregate could be manu-
factured. The Survey was instrumental in locating deposits of clay
that proved highly suitable for this purpose and as a consequence a
plant has been established at Ellenton, Manatee County. This aggre-
gate is manufactured from fuller's earth and is from one-half to one-
fourth as light as gravel or limestone aggregate. Its use will be in the
construction of concrete ships and it should find a permanent and broad

use in light weight pre-fabricated concrete units after the war, which
would give the State a new permanent industry.
Many inquiries have come from the United States Army and the
United States Navy, especially for data on water supplies and for
physical characteristics of some locations. Water supplies for some
of the bases have been particularly problematical. We have been able
to recommend proper drilling locations and have acted as consultant
on drilling and water problems. The Survey in turn has profited by this,
for samples have been collected at frequent intervals from nearly all
of the wells drilled by the Army and Navy. All of these will be studied,
the wells logged and both samples and logs become a permanent rec-
ord in the Geological Survey files. The Survey stands ready to continue
this service and to offer geologic advice on engineering problems in
the construction of camps, roads, dams, airdromes, bombing targets,
and war and defense installations. In addition the Survey library con-
tains maps and geologic literature of the Nation and of Florida from
which the geological needs of the armed forces and of the civilian
can at least be partially met.
The Survey has attempted to maintain its regular routine during
this biennial insofar as it did not interfere with its contribution to
the war effort, and has prepared and published five bulletins contain-
ing six papers, as follows:
Bulletin 19. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida, by W. Storrs
Cole, 1941, 91 pp., 18 pls., 4 figures, i table.
This is a study of two deep wells drilled in Florida: United Brother-
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Power House Well No. z;
and Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. i. This
latter is the deepest well so far drilled in Florida: io,oo6 feet.
Bulletin 2.. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida, No. 2, by
W. Storrs Cole, 1942, 89 pp., 16 pls., 4 figures.
This bulletin is the third of a series of studies of deep wells in Florida,
the other studies being published as Bulletin 16 and Bulletin 19. Each
of the papers contains a description of the strata penetrated and de-
scriptions of new and distinct fossils. These bulletins are for the pro-
fessional and technical group, those interested in the sub-surface geol-
ogy of Florida as a source of oil and gas or those interest from and
academic view.
Bulletin 2.1. Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida, by Robert O.
Vernon, 1942, 16I pp., 2 maps in pocket, 2o figures, 8 tables.

This bulletin is a report on the geology of these two counties an
contains detailed geologic maps of each. Sections on the cultural his-
tory of the counties, the physiography, stratigraphy, and economic
possibilities of development of the rocks are included. This is the first
geological report by county and it is hoped that the series can be con-
tinued after the war.
Bulletin 22. Contributions to Florida Vertebrate Paleontology. A Fossil Squirrel-Fish
from the Upper Eocene of Florida, by G. Miles Conrad, pp. 4-25; and The Rostrum of
Felsinotherium Ossivalense, by Joseph T. Gregory, pp. 27-47, 1941, 47 PP., 5 pls.,
3 figures.
The first paper describes a new fossil fish from the Ocala limestone
at Florida Caverns State Park, two miles north of Marianna. The
second paper redescribes and carefully figures an extinct dugong found
in the Bone Valley gravel (land pebble phosphates) of Florida.
Bulletin 23. Florida Dunes and Scrub, Vegetation and Geology, by Herman Kurz,
1942, 154 pp., 25 pls., 24 figures, 3 tables.
This bulletin illustrates the close association of geology with
botany. In many cases the geology can be differentiated by means of
plant assemblages and the botanist can often forecast the vegetation
of an area by knowing the geology. An attempt is made to differentiate
the fossil dunes from the more active Recent dunes by use of plants.
The layman should find the paper interesting and helpful in identi-
fying dune vegetation.
A report on prospecting for dolomite in the State has been com-
pleted and published in memeograph form as Report of Investigations
No. 3. Deposits that are thought to be commercial have been outlined
and are shown on small prospect maps. Analyses made during the study
should be helpful to those interested in developing new products
from Florida dolomite or dolomitic limestone. Several potential uses
of the rock are reviewed and recommendations are made as to the best
methods of developing Florida dolomitic limestone. This prospect-
survey was under the direction of Robert H. Hopkins, Field Technician.
The manuscript for a mineral industries and resources bulletin, by
Robert O. Vernon, Assistant Geologist, is being edited for publication
as Bulletin 24. This report will fill a long-felt need to acquaint the public
with the mineral resources of the State, and will answer many requests
for information. It describes the mining methods of each industry, the
mineral resources of the State, and attempts to show the economic
trends. A general summary of mineral production since 900o and specific
production figures for 1940 and 1941 are included.

Field work has been completed in a survey of the natural features of
southern Florida, particularly the Everglades and Big Cypress re-
gions, by John H. Davis, Jr., Research Assistant. This comprehensive
report now being prepared will be issued as a bulletin of the Geological
Survey in the near future. The publication will describe not only many
features of the history, geology, topography, drainage, and soils, but
will accurately map and describe the vegetation and consider some
features of the wildlife. It will show particularly the interrelations of
these natural features of this relatively unusual and little known
section of Florida and consider certain aspects of the best land use of
many areas. For these reasons it should prove of use to many laymen
as well as professionals, particularly in its description of the Ever-
glades which have been so little explored or insufficiently described.
Progress has also been made on the continuing study of deep well
samples by W. Storrs Cole, Research Assistant. This will be the fourth
of such studies and will relate to the St. Mary's River Oil Corporation's
Hilliard Turpentine Company No. i Well about four miles northwest
of Hilliard, Nassau County. This well was drilled to a total depth of
4,823 feet and the samples revealed a most interesting section.
In the thirty-six years of existence the Florida Geological Survey
has produced a series of reports which have encouraged and promoted
the economic development of the State's mineral resources, contri-
buted greatly to the knowledge of the State and has stimulated the
recognition of the need of conserving our mineral resources. It has
served as custodian of geological records and data and has established
a museum to display the geological wealth of the State for the educa-
tional convenience of Florida citizens.
As an organization dispensing education, the Survey maintains study
sets of the various rocks of the State and of evidences of life taken from
these rocks, and displays the products developed from Florida deposits,
Citizens are becoming aware of the great mineral wealth of the State
and are seeking information about it and demanding conservation prac-
tices. This interest in rocks and minerals, and in the products devel-
oped from them, is made increasingly evident by the mounting numbers
of inquiries answered by the Survey each year. The schools of the
State are teaching Florida natural science and stressing the importance
of a knowledge of natural resources. Rock samples designated for
school study sets were mailed by the Survey during this biennial and
a special effort is made to encourage school groups to visit the geo-
logical museum, connected with the offices of the Survey.

The Survey wishes to increase its service to the schools of the State
by supplying more mineral and fossil exhibits and other materials
illustrating the natural resources and geology of Florida. Lectures by
the staff on some phases of our natural resources, physiography and
geology could be arranged with the schools to aid particularly in the
many new courses now introduced for the war effort.
During this war-time biennium the Survey has continued in its pur-
pose to bring about a closer cooperation between agriculture, industry,
and mining in Florida so as to promote the industrial development of
the State. Florida has always been primarily a producer of the raw
product, almost no attempt being made to produce the finished material
from the raw mineral. Instead, finished products are manufactured
from Florida materials that have been shipped out of the State and other
states reap the harvest of industrialization. The potential industrial-
ization of Florida is great and as the manufacturing phase is built
new employment will be opened, a firm economic foundation will be
established, and the minerals will leave the State as finished products
instead of raw materials.
Some of Florida's mineral products, such as phosphate and limestone,
have been extensively developed, but others are only partially devel-
oped and undeveloped. Industry stands ready with capital and organ-
ization to develop any deposit or product that has been proven to be
commercial, but the data necessary for such development can not
ordinarily be accumulated by individuals or industrial groups. The
cost involved would ordinarily far exceed the future profit, because
the data must be detailed and encompass large areas. Industry can be
encouraged, however, to prospect individual mineral deposits pro-
vided the Geological Survey first gathers and makes available the
general information, thus eliminating doubtful areas and outlining
good prospects. The cost to the State is infinitely small when compared
to the increased profits in new industries and increased employment
and revenue. The trend of industrial development is upward in Florida
and at the present time there is a larger demand for the type of work
being done by the Geological Survey than ever before.

The members of the Geological Survey for this biennial period have
SIDNEY A. STUBBS, Associate (to December 31, 194).

W. STORRS COLE, Research Assistant
JOHN H. DAVIS, JR., Research Assistant
JAMES R. GALBRAITH, JR., Field and Museum Assistant
W. DEAN WILSON, Draftsman
MYRTLE J. LEE, Secretary
PEARL GATLIN, File Clerk and Stenographer
EDDIE TAYLOR, JR., Janitor (to August 15, 1942)
In addition to these, Robert H. Hopkins, Field Technician, W. N.
Kestner, Chemist, Jack C. Russell, Laboratory Technician, have rendered
special assistance in the field and laboratory. The following drillers:
G. E. Gray, W. L. Wilds, and Hayward V. Atkinson, Jr., and drillers
helpers, John S. Gwynn, William L. Truett, Frank H. Butler, and
Walton B. Jones, were employed for limited periods on the special
dolomitic limestone investigation.

Since December, 1939, the Survey offices have been located on the
campus of the Florida State College for Women in the "Old Lower
Dining Hall." During 1940 and 1941 the demands made on the Survey
were greater and the personnel was increased. To provide room for
this expansion the State Board of Control generously granted addi-
tional space in December, 1941, so that the Survey now occupies all
of the "Old Lower Dining Hall." The quarters now occupied cover
approximately 4,700 square feet, of which approximately 1,8oo square
feet are used for office and library, I,ooo square feet for laboratory
and storage and 1,900 square feet for exhibition. The United States
Geological Survey, Ground Water Division, partially occupies one of
the offices and cooperation between the Federal and State Surveys is
greatly facilitated.
Appropriate signs and markers have been placed at strategic places
on the campus for convenience in locating the museum and offices of
the Survey.
The Geological Survey maintains one of the most complete geolo-
gical libraries in the southeast United States. Reference books are
essential to any scientific research, both in an exchange of ideas and

as a stimulant to thought. The Survey library is for the use of the
staff primarily but is made available to geologists.and related groups
for research purposes, if such research is carried on in the Survey
Efforts are made to obtain every article that in any way relates to
the geology and paleontology of the State, and in some cases the
papers of closely associated sciences are also collected. The library
now contains more than 7,000 books and pamphlets. These publica-
tions cover almost a complete file of the geological reports of the United
States Geological Survey, the United States Bureau of Mines, bulletins
and reports of other state geological surveys, and reports from many
foreign countries including Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina,
Chile, Columbia, Australia, New Zealand, and some European, African,
and Asiatic countries that publish articles on geology. There are also
nearly complete files on most of the leading geological journals and
copies of text books on the various sections of geology.
In addition to the various publications mentioned above, the Geo-
logical Survey has a large file of topographic, aerial, geodetic, geo-
logic, political, and cultural maps. Maps are absolutely essential for
any sort of geological investigation and are used frequently by mem-
bers of the geological survey, other State departments, oil geologists,
and individuals interested in the State.

During this biennium the Geological Survey has cooperated with
the United States Geological Survey, the United States Bureau of
Mines, the United States Soil Conservation Service, the National
Resources Planning Board, the Florida State Planning Board, the
University of Florida, the Florida Forest and Park Service, the State
Board of Health, the State Road Department, and the United States
Army and Navy.
Most of this assistance has been in the nature of routine functioning
of the Survey, but direct cooperation has been given to the United
States Bureau of Mines in the collection of mineral statistics for the
State, to the United States Geological Survey in gathering both ground
water and surface water data, to the United States Soil Conservation
Service in its study of the Everglades and to the Florida Forest and
Park Service in numerous ways.

Mineral Production Statistics formerly were obtained separately by
both the United States Bureau of Mines and by the Florida Geological
Survey. This was a duplication of effort and frequently the two rec-
ords did not agree. Under the present cooperative plan the Bureau of
Mines sends out data sheets to the mineral producers who make re-
turns on their production, number of employees, accidents for the
year, and various other data. The data on mineral production is as-
sembled by the Bureau of Mines and this compiled information, to-
gether with the names of the producers and their addresses, sent to
the Geological Survey at a small cost for clerical expenses. If need be
the Geological Survey contacts those producers who are delinquent in
making a report for the year, to encourage their cooperation, and keeps
the list of active producers up-to-date, adding new ones and deleting
those out of business.
Statistics are necessary to show the trends of the various industries
for future investment. Advantages of each industry can thus be accen-
tuated and the disadvantages lowered. Such statistics are also of edu-
cational advantage in advertising Florida products and acquainting
the public with the Florida mineral industry.
Water Resources are probably the most important asset to the State.
Our large springs, clear-water streams and lakes annually attract thous-
ands of visitors to Florida for rest and recreation. Wells drilled into
the water aquifers of the State supply the large part of the domestic,
municipal and industrial water. The use of water for irrigation in
agriculture, especially for citrus groves and truck farms, has steadily
increased over the past years. This has expanded the well systems of
the State to such an extent that water reserves are being depleted and
impaired and the permanent water head is being reduced. Some of the
water is being wasted by unwise usage, improper well installations
allowing leakage into other formations, large industrial withdrawals,
and through contamination of ground water through disposal of in-
dustrial wastes and sewage into drainage wells. These practices have
become so menacing that the Geological Survey, in cooperation with
the State Board of Health, are working on plans to adopt conservation
measures through legislative action.
Since 1930 the Geological Survey has carried on active cooperation
with the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological
Survey. Water investigations are regularly a part of the work of the
Federal Survey and representatives under the supervision of Mr. V. T.
Stringfield, Geologist, have been stationed in Florida to direct the

surveys. An office is provided for the ground water division in the State
Survey quarters at Tallahassee, with H. H. Cooper, Jr., Assistant
Engineer, in charge.
The surface water division is under the direction of G. E. Ferguson,
District Engineer, Ocala, Florida. The State benefits greatly by the
valuable well data and by surface stream measurements and every
effort should be made to expand these programs. The measurements
made on water levels in wells, lakes, and surface streams during this
biennium will be published in future Water Supply Papers of the United
States Geological Survey. These data are of inestimable value to en-
gineers desiring to know the amount of drainage area and volume of
water for which a dam or culvert must be designed and to industrialists
depending on an adequate supply of water for their plants, and to the
State in providing conservation methods in areas where the water
supply is in danger of being depleted.
As a result of this cooperative work a report, Artesian Water Supply
in the Florida Peninsula, by V. T. Stringfield, was published by United
States Geological Survey as Water Supply Paper 773-C, and a com-
panion report on the artesian water supply of western Florida is in
manuscript form. This paper, Artesian Water in Florida West of the
Suwannee River, is by V. T. Stringfield and F. C. Westendick, and will
be published by the Federal Survey. Various papers on the ground
water resources of local areas have been published by the State Survey
in past years and members of the Federal Survey prepared two) short
papers on the artesian water of Florida during the past biennium, as
Artesian Water in the Coastal Area of Georgia and Northeastern Florida, by V. T.
Stringfield, H. H. Cooper, Jr., and M. A. Warren, Economic Geology, Vol. 36,
pp. 698-711, 1941.
Ground Water Investigations in Florida, with Special Reference to Duval and Nassau
Counties, by H. H. Cooper, Jr., in manuscript form.
The detailed investigation of water supplies near Miami, Miami
Beach, Coral Gables, and adjacent areas is still in progress and new
and valuable data are accumulating from which definite recommenda-
tions can be made as to the best methods of securing an adequate
supply of water for all of Dade County and its large municipalities.
Progress summaries of this work by the United States Geological Sur-
vey are on file in the State Geological Survey offices and are available
to any interested group.

The State Geological Survey has been unable to cooperate with the
surface water division of the U. S. Geological Survey as actively as
it would like because of insufficient funds. In comparison with ground
water, little industrial, domestic, or municipal use has been made of
lake and surface water in Florida. Where industry and agricultural
uses have created heavy withdrawals from ground water it is possible
that some of this industrial supply could be obtained from streams and
lakes and water difficulties thus be avoided. Accurate measurements,
covering long-time periods, are needed to intelligently plan for the
utilization of such supplies. Such data would also be valuable in plan-
ning drainage projects, erosion control measures, bridges, culverts,
and runways. Without such data, irrigation and flood control projects
can not be undertaken with assurance of success.
Topographic Mapping in Florida ranks at the bottom in the number
of quadrangles that have been mapped, as compared to other states.
The Geological Survey has had no funds for cooperating in this much-
needed topographic mapping. These maps are invaluable in working
the geology of the State and are of special use to engineers in deter-
mining drainage areas for highway flood control measures. They have,
moreover, large cultural and educational advantages as the geography
and land surface are easily visualized. They are especially needed in
the schools of the State as a means of instruction.
Most of these maps in Florida were prepared independently by the
Federal Survey and are on a scale of one inch on the map equals one
mile on land. The maps show the different features of the land by the
use of various symbols and colors. Man-made objects such as mines,
houses, cities, towns, roads, political boundaries and railroads are
shown in black. Recent topographic maps show paved roads in red.
All streams and water bodies are printed in blue and forests, when
shown, are printed in green. The land forms are indicated by brown
contour lines that connect points of equal elevation above sea level.
In other words all points on a contour are the same elevation. The
intervals at which these contours are drawn depends upon the amount
of relief and in Florida is usually ten feet. The maps are rectangular
in shape and are bounded by meridians and parallels. Most of those
in Florida are approximately fifteen minutes square and cover approxi-
mately 237 square miles.


Florida has as yet not had a commercial oil or gas well but various
attempts at discovery have been made. Considerable impetus to the
drilling of test wells has recently been given by the discovery of a new
field near Jackson, Mississippi, and from encouragement by the Florida
Legislature passing an act making available a $50,000 bonus to be
paid for the first commercial well in Florida.
A number of the larger oil companies and various independents and
individuals have prospected most of the State in search for possible
oil and gas structures. Geophysical crews have been very active in
western Florida and in the middle and southern Peninsula. Leasing
has been quite active and there are many areas spotted with prospected
drilling blocks. The following major oil companies are reported to
hold leases and to be prospecting Florida lands: The California Com-
pany; The Gulf Refining Company; Humble Oil and Refining Company;
Magnolia Petroleum Company; The Pure Oil Company; Shell Oil
Company; Sinclair Oil Company; Sun Oil Company; and The Texas
During November, 1942, the following wells as tests for oil or gas
were being drilled in Florida:
Consumers Gas and Fuel Company, State No. I, 39 miles west of Miami, Dade County.
(Location only, drilling not begun.)
Brown and Ravlin Trustees, V. G. Philips No. i, near Wakulla Station, Wakulla
Florida Oil Development Company, Putnam Lumber Company No. i, 6 miles south-
cast of Cross City, Dixie County.
H. H. Givan, Marion Corporation No. i, near Portland, Walton County.
Sanford and Arrington, Walton Land and Timber Company No. i, about to miles
southeast of DeFuniak Springs, Walton County.
William G. Blanchard, et al., Everglades No. i, 44 miles west of Miami, Dade
The Sanford and Arrington, Walton Land and Timber Company
No. i, oil test in Walton County has created considerable interest
throughout Florida and other portions of the country. This well is lo-
cated in the S.E. of Section 17, Township i North, Range 18 West,
and was begun January 19, 1942. The well has a reported depth of 6,017
feet. Upon reaching this depth preparations were made for making a

SSentate Bill No. 148, Laws of Florida, Vol. i, Chapter 20667, 1941.

Schlumbreger survey of it and in such preparations the drill stem was
hung at a depth of approximately 3,000 feet. Every effort to loosen it
failed and as a last attempt the lubrication method was resorted to-12-o
barrels of fuel oil were put into the hole. Following this attempt to
loosen the drill, the press, on November 5, 1942., carried an item that
oil had been flowing from the well for the past ten days. A further
attempt to dislodge the drill was successful on November 16, 1942.,
when again the well was reported by the press to have "blown in."
A formal claim has been made for the bonus of $5o,ooo through A. G.
Campbell, Jr., Attorney for Fred L. Sanford and George Arrington.
The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund of the State of Florida
have filed this claim "pending submission by the Company of report
and proof that the DeFuniak well meets the specifications provided
in Chapter 2.0667, Acts of 1941, .
The well has been logged by the Schlumberger Well Surveying
Corporation. Casing has been placed and tests at depths of potential
oil horizons are reported in progress. The well was reported being
tested in February, 1943. Nothing conclusive can be stated as this
report goes to press.
The Geological Survey has samples from many of the tests drilled
in Florida and from many of the wells drilled for water. Some of these
samples, particularly those from the deeper wells, are made available
to the Survey to be held in confidence until the well is completed or
until such time as the contributors release the information. This the
Survey is glad to do. As a consequence a vast amount of information
in the form of well logs, samples, analyses, paleontologic slides and
records has been accumulated and is being constantly and regularly
added to. All of these data, except such as conditionally received, are
available for examination and study by interested parties. Numbers
of geologists and paleontologists of the major oil companies and inde-
pendents, have availed themselves of this opportunity of getting first
hand information as to the character, thickness and age of the forma-
tions underlying Florida.
The generous cooperation of the State's leading well drillers has
greatly assisted the Survey in its efforts to get cuttings from wells.
Most of the drillers collect samples from the wells they drill and ship
them to the Geological Survey together with data so that the files
of the Survey now contain records of more than 700 wells. The Survey
endeavors to study samples submitted by well drillers as soon as
possible and advise them on any geological problems and provide

them with a descriptive, geologic log for their use and help in future
drilling. From statements of many drillers the data thus furnished has
assisted them in many of their problems. The Geological Survey is
anxious to obtain cuttings, collected at intervals of ten feet or less,
from wells drilled anywhere in Florida and will supply cloth sacks
for saving the samples and data sheets for well information to anyone
interested. Such samples should be mailed or sent express collect to
The Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida. A geologic log
of the well will be forwarded to the driller and owner upon request.

The Florida Geological Survey has prepared and published detailed
geological and mineral resources papers to cover most, if not all of,
the State since the Survey's organization in 1907. Twenty-four annual
reports contained in twenty-one volumes, twenty-three bulletins,
thirteen press bulletins, and three reports of investigations have been
published. These reports are made up of 119 papers that were prepared
by survey staff members, some in cooperation with federal agencies,
and are chiefly technical papers prepared for the use of the geologist
and professional groups interested in the mineral resources, geology,
and structure of the State. Some have been written in less technical,
semi-popular language for the use of the layman and for use in schools.
It is hoped that more of this type of publication can be issued, based
on fundamental data but couched in language that will have an easy
style. There is a real need for this type of report, as well as for the
technical, which can be more specific.
Papers prepared by staff members and published through established
journals and those prepared by members of the Federal Survey and
professional groups in Florida are too numerous to list. The United
States Geological Survey, Washington, D.C., issues each year a pam-
phlet, Publications of the Geological Survey, listing federal publications,
including those relating to Florida. That organization also publishes
periodically a Bulletin, Bibliography of North American Geology, which
contains references to all papers on Florida geology that were published.
This Bulletin may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents,
Washington, D.C., for a nominal sum. Papers on the mineral resources
of Florida published by the United States Bureau of Mines are con-
tained in a List of Publications of the Bureau of Mines, a bulletin pub-
lished by that Bureau, Washington, D.C.

The following bibliography is a complete list of publications issued
by the Florida Geological Survey since its creation in 1907. Those
preceded by an asterisk are out of print but may be consulted in the
libraries of the Geological Survey at Tallahassee, the colleges of the
State, and the libraries of the larger cities in Florida. The Survey also
maintains an exchange list with many of the leading colleges and
institutions of the United States and the reports will be found on file
in those libraries. Exchange is maintained also with some foreign
In case of annual reports published prior to the consolidation of the
Geological Survey with the Conservation Department in 1933, sep-
arate papers are sometimes available, when the complete report is
out of print. These are preceded by a dagger sign.
Available publications of the Survey may be obtained by addressing
a request tb the Florida Geological Survey, P. O. Drawer 631, Talla-
hassee, Florida. One copy will be mailed free to residents of the State
but non-residents should send io cents in coin or stamps to partially
cover handling cost and postage charges on each copy.


*First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
This report contains: (i) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a chapter on mineral
industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brickmaking clays, fuller's earth,
peat, lime, cement, and road-making materials; (3) a bibliography of publications on
Florida geology, with a review of the more important papers published previous to the
organization of the present Geological Survey.

*Second Annual Report, 1909, 199 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida, with special
reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geologic map of Florida, prepared
in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the
fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden County, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere
in the State.
*Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 PP., 30 text figures.
This report'contains: (i) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate deposits;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water supply of eastern Florida;
(4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat deposits.
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) the soils and other surface residual materials of Florida,
their origin, character, and the formation from which derived; (2) the water supply
of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production of phosphate rock in Florida during
191o and 1911.

*Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two maps.
This report contains: (i) origin of the hard rock phosphate deposits of Florida: (2.) list
of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern and southern Florida;
(4) production of phosphate in Florida during z91i; (5) statistics on public roads in

*Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) mineral industries and resources of Florida; (2) some Florida
lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the Dunnellon Formation and the Alachua
Clays; (4) geography and vegetation of northern Florida.

*Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342. pp., 80 figures, four maps.
This report contains: (i) pebble phosphates of Florida; (2) natural resources of an
area in Central Florida; (3) soil survey of Bradford County; (4) soil survey of Pinellas

Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pIs., 14 text figures.
This report contains: (I) mineral industries; (2) human remains and associated fossils
from the Pleistocene of Florida.

*Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pp., 8 pls., 13 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (i) mineral industries; (z) additional studies in the Pleistocene
at Vero, Florida; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla rivers in Florida.

*Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls., 9 figures, two
This report contains: (i) geology between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee rivers;
(2.) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a new species and a note on the
associated fauna and flora; (3) geology between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola
rivers; (4) mineral statistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls near DeLand.

*Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.
This report contains: (i) literature relating to human remains and artifacts at Vero,
Florida; (.) fossil beetles from Vero; (3) elevations in Florida; (4) geologic section across
the Everglades of Florida; (5) the age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the
foraminifera of well borings; (6) review of the geology of Florida with special reference
to structural conditions.

*Thirteenth Annual Report, 192-1, 307 pp., 3 pls., 43 figures.
This report contains: ([) oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics of mineral produc-
tion, 1918; (3) foraminifera from the deep wells of Florida; (4) geography of central

*Fourteenth Annual Report, 192.2., 135 pp., Io figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) statistics on mineral production, g929 and x9,a0; (2.) on the
petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic map.

*Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924, 2.66 pp., 2 pis., 55 figures.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production,
192.1 and 192..; (2) ta contribution to the late Tertiary and Quarternary paleontology of
northeastern Florida; (3) a preliminary report on the clays of Florida.

*Sixteenth Annual Report, 192-5, 203 pp., 51 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production,
192-3; (2) a preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida.

*Seventeenth Annual Report, 1926, 275 pp., 5 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production,
192.4; (2) history of soil investigation in Florida and description of new soil map; (3) tgen-
eralized soil map of Florida in colors; (4) elevations in Florida; (5) review of the structure
and stratigraphy of Florida.

*Eighteenth Annual Report, 192.7, 2o6 pp., 58 figures.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production,
192.5; (i) natural resources of southern Florida.

Nineteenth Annual Report, 1928, 183 pp., 5 pis., 36 figures, 9 tables.
This report contains: (I) administrative report and statistics on mineral production,
92.6; (2.) sand and gravel deposits of Florida; (3) beach deposits of ilmenite, zircon,
and rutile in Florida; (4) tnew species of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala lime-
stone; (5) fnew species of Coskinolina and Dictyoconus(?) from Florida.

*Twentieth Annual Report, 192.9, 294 pp., 40 pls., 4 figures, i map.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics of mineral production in
Florida during 1927; (2.) geology of Florida with geologic map; (3) extinct land mam-
mals of Florida.

Twenty-first and Twenty-second Annual Report, 1931, 129 pp., 39 figures.
This report contains: (I) administrative report and statistics of mineral production,
192.8-192.9; (2) need for conservation and protection of our water supply; (3) tthe possi-
bility of petroleum in Florida; (4) beaches of Florida; (5) fa fossil palm nut of Attalca
from the upper Eocene of Florida.

*Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1933, 2-27 pp., II pis.,
23 figures, 3 tables.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production,
1930-1931; (72) t"orthern disjuncts in northern Florida and cypress domes; (3) notes on
the geology and the occurrence of some diatomaceous earth deposits of Florida and dia-
toms of the Florida peat deposits; (4) ground-water resources of Sarasota County, Florida,
and exploration of artesian wells in Sarasota County, Florida.


*Bulletin No. I. The Underground Water Supply of Central Florida, 1908, 03- pp., 6 pls.,
6 text figures.
This bulletin contains: (i) underground water, general discussion; (2.) the underground
water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring and artesian prospects; (3) effects
of underground solution, cavities, sinkholes, disappearing streams,'and solution basins;
(4) drainage of lakes, ponds, and swamp lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells;
(5) water analyses and tables giving general water resources, public water supplies, spring,
and well records.
*Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911, 31 pp., 4 pls.
This bulletin contains: (i) an account of the road building materials of Florida;
(2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads built by the counties of the
state to the close of 1910.
*Bulletin No. 3. Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida,
1930, 189 pp., 2. pls:
*Bulletin No. 4. The Foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida, 1930, 93 PP.,
12. pls.
*Bulletin No. 5. (1) A Fossil Teleost Fish of the Snapper Family (Lutianidae) from the
Lower Oligocene of Florida; (2) The Foraminifera of the Marianna Limestone of Florida,
1930, 67 pp., II ps., 2. figures.
*Bulletin No. 6. The Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera of Florida, 1931, 79 pp., 7 pls.,
3 figures, 2 tables.
*Bulletin No. 7. The Pensacola Terrace and Associated Beaches and Bars of Florida, 1931,
44 pp., 8 figures, I map.
*Bulletin No. 8. Miocene Pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida, i93-, 2-40 pp.,
34 pls., 3 figures.
*Bulletin No. 9. The Foraminifera of the Upper, Middle, and Part of the Lower Miocene of
Florida, 1932., 147 pp., 17 pls., 2. tables, i map.
*Bulletin No. o1. (i) Miocene Land Mammals from Florida; (2.) New Heteromyid Rodents
from the Miocene of Florida; (3) Aphelops from the Hawthorn Formation of Florida, 1932,
58 pp., 30 figures.
*Bulletin No. iI. Ground Water Investigations in Florida, 1933, 33 PP-
*Bulletin No. 12. New Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods from Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida,
' 1935, 50 PP., 5 pls.
Bulletin No. 13. Ostracods of the Arca Zone of the Choctawhatchee Miocene of Florida, 1935,
47 pp., 4 pls.
Bulletin No. 14. Additions to the Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida, 1936,
82. pp., 0o pis.

*Bulletin No. 15. Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee Limestones of Florida, 1937, 334 pp.,
2.1 pls.

*Bulletin No. 16. Stratigraphy and Micropaleontology of Two Deep Wells in Florida, 1938,
76 pp., i2 pls.
Bulletin No. 17. Scenery of Florida Interpreted by a Geologist, 1939, 12. pp., 58 figures.
Bulletin No. 18. Notes on the Upper Tertiary and Pleistocene Mollusks of Peninsular Florida,
1939, 76 pp., 4 pls., figures, 5 tables.
Bulletin No. 19. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida-United Brother-
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Power House Well No. 2; and Peninsular Oil and
Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. I, 1941, 91 pp., 18 pls., 4 figures, i table.
Bulletin No. 2.0. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida, No. 2-Suwannee
Petroleum Corporation's Sholtz No. i; and Florida Oil Discovery Company's Cedar Keys No. 2,
1942, 89 pp., 16 pls., 4 figures.
Bulletin No. 2.1. Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida, 1942, 161 pp., 2 maps
in pocket, 2. figures, 8 tables.
Bulletin No. 2... Contributions to Florida Vertebrate Paleontology. (i) A Fossil Squirrel-Fish
from the Upper Eocene of Florida, pp. 4-25; (2) The Rostrum of Felsinotherium Ossiva-
lense, pp. 27-47, 1941, 47 pp., 5 pls., 3 figures.
Bulletin No. 23. Florida Dunes and Scrub, Vegetation and Geology, 1942-, 154 pp., 25 pis.,
24 figures, 3 tables.


*Press Bulletin No. I. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.
*Press Bulletin No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1rz2, March 12., 1913
Press Bulletin No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the Atlanta Meet'
ing of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 31, 1913.
Press Bulletin No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
*Press Bulletin No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during r9J3, May 2.0, z914.
Press Bulletin No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Imbedded
in the Earth, January, 1915.
Press Bulletin No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
Press Bulletin No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1977, May 2, 1918.
*Press Bulletin No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May o1, 1918.
Press Bulletin No. io, Phosphate Industry of Florida during j918, June 5, 1919.
Press Bulletin No. in. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during igg1, October 6,
Press Bulletin No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1920, May 9, 1921.
*Press Bulletin No. 13. Ground-Water Resources of Florida, April 4, 1931.

Report of Investigations No. I. Mimeographed Report on Ground Water in Seminole County,
Florida, 1934, 14 pp.
Report of Investigations No. 2. Mimeographed Report on Ground Water in the Lake Okee-
chobee Area, Florida, 1933, 31 pp.
Report of Investigations No. 3. Mimeographed Report on the Dolomitic Limestones of
Florida, 1943, 105 pp.

(Limited Number Available)
Mansfield, Wendell C., and Ponton, Gerald M., "Faunal Zones in the Miocene Choc-
tawhatchee Formation of Florida," The Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 2., No. 4,
Boyd, Mark F., and Ponton, Gerald, "The Recent Distribution of Malaria in the
Southeastern United States, The American Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol 13, No. 2., 1933.
Cole, W. Storrs, and Ponton, G. M., "New Species of Fabularia, Asterocyclina, and Lepi-
docyclina from the Florida Eocene." American Midland Naturalist, Vol XV, No. 2, pp. 138-
147, 1934-
Gunter, Herman, "Florida's Disappearing Lakes." The Florida Conservator, December,
Stubbs, Sidney A., "A Study of the Artesian Water Supply of Seminole County,
Florida." Florida Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol. I', pp. 2.4-36, 1937.
Stubbs, Sidney A., "Studies of Foraminifera from Seven Stations in the Vicinity of
Biscayne Bay." Florida Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol 4, pp. 2.2.5-230, 1939.
Stubbs, Sidney A., "The Future of Florida Archeological Research." Florida Academy
of Science Proceedings, Vol. 4, pp. 2.66-2.70, 1939.
Stubbs, Sidney A., "Pliocene Mollusks from a Well at Sanford, Florida." Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 14, No. 5, September, 1940, pp. 510-514, 1940.
Vernon, Robert O., "Tributary Valley Lakes of Western Florida." Journal of Geomorph-
ology, Vol. 5, PP- 302-311, 1942.
Davis, John H., Jr., "The Ecology of the Vegetation and Topography of the Sand Keys
of Florida." Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. J24, pp. 113-195, 1942.

(Limited Number of Some Available)
Fowler, Earl D., and others, "Soil Survey of Polk County, Florida." United States
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, 1927.
Taylor, Arthur E., and others, "Soil Survey of Lake County, Florida." United States
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, 1928.

Gardner, Julia, "The Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida." U. S.
Geological Survey Prof. Paper s42-E, 1928.
Simpson, George Gaylord, "Tertiary Land Mammals of Florida." American Museum
of Natural History Bulletin, Vol. 59, Article 3, pp. 149-211, 1930.
Wetmore, Alexander, "The Avifauna of the Pleistocene of Florida." Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 85, 1931.
Simpson, George Gaylord, "Fossil Sirenia of Florida and the Evolution of the Si-
renia." American Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol. 59, Article 8, pp. 419-503, 1932-.
Cole, W. Storrs, "Oligocene Orbitoids from near Duncan Church, Washington County,
Florida." Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 8, No. i, pp. 2.-2.8, March, 1934.
Martens, James H. C., "Beach Sands between Charleston, South Carolina, and Miami,
Florida." Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 46, pp. 1563-1596, 1935.
Mansfield, G. R., "Geological Surveys in Florida, State and Federal." Florida Conser-
vator, March, 1935.
Stringfield, V. T., "The Piezometric Surface of Artesian Water in the Florida Penin-
sula." American Geophysical Union Transactions, Sixteenth Annual Meeting, 1935.
Black, A. P., and others, "Fluorine in Florida Waters." Florida Section of the Ameri-
can Water Works Association, Ninth Annual Convention Proceedings, 1935.
Mendenhall, Herbert Drummond, "What the Phosphate Industry Means to the
Florida Engineers." Read at Spring Meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers,
Jacksonville, Florida, April, 1938.
Richards, Horace G., "Marine Pleistocene of Florida." Bulletin of the Geological Society
of America, Vol. 49, pp. 12.67-12.96, 1938.
Campbell, Robert B., "Outline of the Geological History of Peninsular Florida."
Florida Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol. 4, 1939.
Davis, John H., Jr., "The Ecology and Geologic Role of Mangroves in Florida."
Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. JP7, pp. 303-412., 1940.
Manchester, James G., "Collecting Semi-Precious Stones in Florida." Rocks and Min-
erals, Vol. 16, No. 12, 1941.
Roundy, P. V., "Phosphate Investigation in Florida, 1934 and 1935." U. S. Geological
Survey Bulletin 9o6-F, 345 pp., 1941.
Stringfield, V. T., and others, "Artesian Water in the Coastal Area of Georgia and
Northeastern Florida." Economic Geology, Vol. 36, No. 7, 1941.
Cooke, C. Wythe, "Cenozoic Irregular Echinoids of Eastern United States." Journal
of Paleontology, Vol 16, No. i, 1941.
Mansfield, George R., "Phosphate Deposits of the World, with Special Reference to
Those of the United States." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol 34, pp. 9-12, 1942.
White, Theodore E., "The Lower Miocene Mammal Fauna of Florida." Museum of
Comparative Zoology Bulletin, Harvard College, Vol. 92, No. i, 1942.


The geological museum was designated the depository for the geo-
logical and paleontological specimens collected in the State in the Act
creating the Survey in 1907. The Survey has consistently endeavored
to maintain a good collection of minerals and fossils and to display
these as advantageously as possible. Each specimen has been cata-
logued, identified and restored where necessary and possible. Some of
them are worthy for reference purposes only and are stored, while others
that are better preserved and significant are displayed in cases. All of
the material is readily accessible to those interested; the museum for
the layman and both museum and stored samples for the scientist. A
brief course of study of Florida geology may be had by a visit to the
Study sets of each formation that is exposed in Florida, with ex-
amples of the animal and plant remains preserved in the rock, are dis-
played. Not all rocks contain fossils but many formations have these
remains of life, such as mollusks, foraminifers, or even large verte-
brate animals. By the means of these fossils the specific bed can be
identified and they become the tool of the geologist. Once a formation
is identified its extent can be mapped and if it contains valuable min-
eral products they can be prospected. The smaller fossils are invaluable
in well sample studies as they are not crushed by the drilling tools
and their presence definitely identify the bed penetrated. The geologist
is then able to compare the formations penetrated in several wells, even
at great distances, and knowing the elevations of these, he can deter-
mine whether the beds are horizontal or dipping and thus the under-
lying structures become known. Such structural data are important
to the oil and gas prospectors, and to the agriculturists and indus-
trialists who depend upon artesian water for their crops and factories.
Oil and gas are generally found in structural traps and the pressure
for artesian water flow is the weight of the water flowing down a
dipping pervious bed.
For these geologic reasons micro-invertebrate fossils are important
and the collections in the Survey contain better than 3,500 catalogued
slides of foraminifera, and thousands of specimens of the larger inver-
tebrates. These are available to those interested in identifying and
comparing shells found in the different parts of the State.
Much of the early geological work on the Tertiary formations of
the nation was done in Florida. The mollusks, clams and snails, were

used to identify these beds and to correlate with beds of other states.
Thus, since these fossils were described from Florida, the Survey has
in its collections many type specimens. This class of animals is so
important that possibly one-fourth of the papers on the geology of
Florida are written about it. The Survey is trying to add to its collec-
tion of Recent shells. Some very beautiful specimens occur in Florida
and the State should have as complete a display of these as is possible.
Additional room is needed for display purposes so that appropriate
cases can be installed. Through the study of the living shells and their
environment the scientist by comparison can make deductions which
enables him to visualize the conditions under which a formation con-
taining a series of such shells were deposited.
In addition to invertebrate animals, the State is exceedingly rich
in remains of vertebrates. These fossils range from a fish millions of
years old that was found in the Ocala limestone at the Florida Caverns
State Park near Marianna, and loaned to the Survey, to Indian skele-
tons taken from various mounds built in Recent years. Outstanding
displays in the museum are: The mounted skeleton of the American
Mastodon, which evidently roamed Florida in great herds during
the Pleistocene; the mounted leg of an American Mammoth, a true
elephant but larger than the living species. The Mastodon and the
Mammoth lived here contemporaneously as is shown by their re-
mains having been found in the same deposits. Another significant
display is the skull, leg bones, and other portions of the skeleton of
the small, three-toed horses, which were no larger than a dog, and
roamed Florida in large herds in the geologic past. There are excellent
specimens of other fossil vertebrates and a few mounted specimens and
skeletons of living mammals of Florida. The Florida Indian remains
and artifacts are also well illustrated.
The mineral collections displayed in the museum are practically
all Florida specimens, representative samples being selected, but a
collection of ore-bearing minerals of other states, donated by Mr.
J. Eugene Brown, of Jacksonville, is now on display in a separate case.
Another donation of outstanding merit is that of Mr. James G.
Manchester of a collection of fossil corals from the Ballast Point area
near Tampa, Hillsborough County. Mr. Manchester has been collect-
ing minerals as an avocation for a great many years and his interest in
the corals found at Ballast Point began many years ago when he ac-
quired a specimen bearing a label from there. During recent years he
and Mrs. Manchester, while sojourning during the winter months at

St. Petersburg, have been carefully increasing their number of speci-
mens and have by their patience and persistence accumulated an envi-
able number of outstanding specimens. Mr. Manchester has partially
described these in his paper, Collecting Semi-Precious Stones in Florida.
In his generosity Mr. Mansfield has deposited in the Geological Sur-
vey museum his prize specimens described in the paper cited. The
Survey wishes to make due acknowledgment.
The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, con-
tinued to collect fossils at the Thomas Farm locality in Gilchrist
County, during a portion of this biennium. The Geological Survey
shares in many of the finds through Dr. Thomas Barbour's generosity
in donating restored specimens and casts of types. The Survey is also
privileged to work at that locality at any time, this being a provision
in the deed stipulated by Dr. Barbour. This cooperation is much
The Geological Survey with the State Board of Health are continu-
ing efforts to secure satisfactory water conservation legislation. Con-
servation does not necessarily mean restriction but instead intelligent
development and is not aimed at curtailing the use of water by any
individual or group of individuals who use water judiciously and
without waste. Fresh water is the most important natural resource
of the State and its conservation is now needed from both the eco-
nomic and sanitary points of view. Certain portions of Florida have
already suffered from unwise development of their ground water
supplies resulting in the permanent lowering of the water levels and
the necessity of deepening or relocating water wells. Other sections
are confronted with serious problems brought about by the use of
drainage wells for the disposal of industrial and sewage wastes and
storm waters. The contamination of our fresh water supplies with
salt water is likewise an ever-present problem in both coastal and
interior sections. It is for the purpose of protecting our ground water
from further waste and contamination and to assist in retarding or
preventing further progress of such problems that the proposed legis-
lation, sponsored by the State Board of Health and the Geological
Survey, is designed.
As mentioned at the beginning of this report it is thought wise to
enact a law again creating the Geological Survey as a distinct depart-
ment. There is no apparent logical reason for only the former Shell

Fish Commission and the Geological Survey to compose the Con-
servation Department.

The appropriation requested for the Geological Survey for the bi-
ennium July I, 1943, to June 30, 1945, is less than that requested for
the Survey and approved by the Legislature of 1941. During the cur-
rent biennium the Survey has had at its disposal a Special Fund amount-
ing to $27,1oo. This was used in purchasing needed field equipment
including a small drilling machine, a truck for transporting it, and
for additional items, and the employing of personnel to direct and
carry on exploratory and research work, as well as cooperative investi-
gations with the United States Geological Survey. As related in a
previous portion of this report, active prospecting was suspended upon
completing the prospecting of the dolomitic limestones along the
western side of the Peninsula. The drafting of man power for the war
effort made it difficult to operate the program, finally making it im-
practical to obtain satisfactory help. It was planned to prospect other
mineral deposits and this will be done when conditions become more
normal. The field equipment, other than the truck, which has been
sold, is stored and will be available when circumstances permit. The
Special Fund is not being requested for this biennium, the Necessary
and Regular account carrying the cooperative work with the United
States Geological Survey and the other mineral and natural resources


July I, 1943, to June 30, 1944: July i, 1944, to June 30, 1945:

Salaries............... $ 26,740.00 Salaries ................. $ 2.6,740.oo
Necessary and Regular Necessary and Regular
Expenses............. 16,700.00 Expenses .............. 16,700.00

Total.......... $43,440.00 Total........... $43,440.00

Although Florida is not generally considered a mining state, it has
produced in excess of 461,000,000 dollars worth of mineral products
since 1900. The total value for mineral output during 1941 was
$21,112.,277, representing an increase of $4,980,584 over 1940, which
was $16,131,693. This increase is due to greater domestic demands,
largely from military uses. Nineteen mineral substances were pro-
duced in Florida in 1940 and 1941, including the various usages of
the different clays, and 44 counties out of 67 contributed to the totals.
The mineral resources of Florida are almost entirely non-metallics,
the one exception being the heavy minerals, rutile, ilmenite, and zir-
con, being recovered from beach sands along the East Coast by the
Riz Mineral Company. These sands have been worked irregularly
since 1916, and a substantial deposit has recently been prospected
inland in Duval County and in western Florida along the coast. Rutile,
ilmenite, and zircon have been classified as strategic or critical minerals
by the War Production Board and this has stimulated prospecting for
concentrations of these minerals in Florida sands. Phosphate has been
mined in Florida since 1888 and leads other products in the value of
output, being 48.0 per cent of the total production for 1940, and 48.5
per cent of the total production for 1941. The quantity of all phos-
phate increased from 2,678,784 long tons in 1939 to 2,847,481 long
tons in 1940, and 3,367,797 long tons in 1941. The value of this phos-
phate decreased from $7,893,457 in 1939 to $7,747,395 in 1940, and
increased to $10,239,778 in 1941. The 1941 production of phosphate
is exceeded by previous production in quantity only by the abnormal
post-war-boom tonnage of 1926, and in value only by the sales during
1920, 1921, and 1930.
Limestone ranks second in value of output, its sale realizing
$6,862,966 in 1941, as compared to $5,093,677 in 1940, the increase
being due almost entirely to the construction of military bases through-
out the State. Sand and gravel were likewise used more extensively
in 1941 than 1940, selling for $1,161,675 as compared to $743,928.
With clay, coquina, dolomitic limestone, diatomite, muck, peat,
sand, gravel, shells, and water all showing increases, the total pro-
duction for 1941 was $21,112,277, the second highest yearly output
in the history of the Florida mineral industry. This compares with the
2 This summary is taken from the manuscript of the mineral resource study which will
be published as Bulletin No. 24 of the Survey.

output of $23,435,804 in 1920, and $10,714,487 in 1926, both of which
were post-war-boom years.
The following table shows the quantity and value of minerals pro-
duced in Florida during 1940 and 1941, as compiled from the United
States Bureau of Mines mineral statistics and from a survey of the
Florida mineral industry by the Florida Geological Survey.


1940 1941

Amount Value Amount Value

Clay ................. ..........................
Brick and Tile ............... ............
Cement,2 Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, and Pottery1....
C oquinal .. ................... ..............
Dolomitic Limestone (Agricultural)................
j Flint Rock .....................................
S L im estone3' 4 ......... ............................
Diatomite, Muck', Peat ............................
Phosphate .................. .....................
Sand1 and Gravel ................................
Sh ells ............... ............................
W ater1 ................ ................... .....

37,683,157 units
117,508 short tons
19,888 cubic yards
68,777 short tons
80,814 short tons
3,726,218 short tons
34,621 cubic yards
2,847,481 long tons
1,040,365 short tons
230,050 cubic yards
1,729,942. gallons

$ 1,666,170

32.,027,668 units
111,579 short tons
27,073 cubic yards
86,453 short tons
48,600 short tons
5,266,148 short tons
56,156 cubic yards
3,367,797 long tons
1,613,346 short tons
308,217 cubic yards
1,814,498 gallons

Totals......... ................. ...... .............. ..... $ 16,131,693 1................ .....

$ 1,825,570

$ 21,112,277

1 Includes a few values which were estimated by the producer where no book records were kept.
2 Estimated from the number of barrels of cement.
3 Includes an estimate of the limestone used in cement, based on the number of barrels, and includes also the dolomitic limestone which
was sold as concrete aggregate and building stone.
4 Includes an estimate of the tonnage of art and dimensional stone, reported in cubic feet.



January i, 1941, through December 31, 1941


Unexpended Balance in Salary AccountJanuary 1, 1941..... $ 12,819.62
By Appropriation from General Revenue Fund July 1,1941-
Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941.................. 19,280.00 $ 32,099.62

Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account, January 1, 1941........................... $ 6,854.61
By Appropriation from General Revenue FundJuly 1,1941-
Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941................. 11,150.00 18,004.61

Special Fund. By Appropriation from General Revenue
Fund July 1, 1941-Chapter20980, General Laws of1941 $17,100.00 17,100.00 $67,204.23


Salaries............. ........... .... ......... ... $15,327.61
Traveling Expenses ..................... .............. 882.68
Printing................................. .............. 1,785.27
Field, Office, and Museum Supplies ....................... 4,214.82
Postage, Express, Freight, Telephone, and Telegrams ....... 572.83
Utilities................................. .............. 195.58
Workmen's Compensation Insurance ...................... 29.76
Operation and Upkeep of Cars ........................... 1,269.01
Cooperative Work with United States Geological Survey-
Ground-Water and Surface-Water Divisions ........... 544.94
Mineral and Natural Resources Investigations (Spl. Fund).. 9,196.14
Cooperative Work with United States Geological Survey-
Ground-Water and Surface-Water Divisions (Spl, Fund).. '441.67 $34,460.31

Unexpended Balance in Salary Account Absorbed by General
Revenue Fund June 30, 1941 ......................... $ 5,682.01
Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account Absorbed by General Revenue Fund June 30,
1941 .................. .. ............. .. .. ....... 926.07 $ 6,608.08

Urexpended Balance in Salary Account December 31, 1941.. $11,090.00
Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account December 31, 1941........................ 7,583.65
Unexpended Balance in Special Fund Account December 31,
1941 ....................... ................. 7,462.19 26,135.84 $67,204.23



January i, 1942, through December 31, 1942


Unexpended Balance in Salary AccountJanuary 1, 1942..... $11,090.00
By Appropriation from General Revenue Fund July 1,1942-
Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941................. 19,280.00

Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account January 1, 1942........................... $ 7,583.65
By Appropriation from General Revenue FundJuly 1, 1942-
Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941............... 11,150.00

Unexpended Balance in Special Fund Account January 1,1942 $ 7,462.19
By Appropriation from General Revenue Fund July 1, 1942-
Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941 ................. 10,100.00



17,562.19 $66,665.84


Salaries. ................................. ..... .........
Traveling Expenses .............. ......................
Printing ..............................................
Field, Office, and Museum Supplies ......................
Postage, Express, Freight, Telephone, and Telegrams.......
Workmen's Compensation Insurance .....................
Operation and Upkeep of Cars..........................
Mineral and Natural Resources Investigations.............
Cooperative Work with United States Geological Survey-
Ground-Water and Surface-Water Divisions..........

Unexpended Balance in Salary Account December 31, 1942..
Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account December 31, 1942.......................
Unexpended Balance in Special Fund Account December 31,
1942.............................. ................







$27,154.75 $66,665.84